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Sample records for correlation length measurements

  1. Bunch Length Measurements With Laser/SR Cross-Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Timothy; Daranciang, Dan; Lindenberg, Aaron; Corbett, Jeff; Fisher, Alan; Goodfellow, John; Huang, Xiaobiao; Mok, Walter; Safranek, James; Wen, Haidan; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    By operating SPEAR3 in low-{alpha} mode the storage ring can generate synchrotron radiation pulses of order 1ps. Applications include pump-probe x-ray science and the production of THz radiation in the CSR regime. Measurements of the bunch length are difficult, however, because the light intensity is low and streak cameras typically provide resolution of only a few ps. Tests are now underway to resolve the short bunch length using cross-correlation between a 60-fs Ti:Sapphire laser and the visible SR beam in a BBO crystal. In this paper we report on the experimental setup, preliminary measurements and prospects for further improvement.

  2. Measurement of the Correlation and Coherence Lengths in Boundary Layer Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Wall pressure data acquired during flight tests at several flight conditions are analyzed and the correlation and coherence lengths of the data reported. It is shown how the frequency bandwidth of the analysis biases the correlation length and how the convection of the flow acts to reduce the coherence length. Coherence lengths measured in the streamwise direction appear much longer than would be expected based on classical results for flow over a flat plat.

  3. Measurement of surface plasmon correlation length differences using Fibonacci deterministic hole arrays.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tho Duc; Nahata, Ajay; Vardeny, Z Valy

    2012-07-01

    Using terahertz (THz) transmission measurements through two-dimensional Fibonacci deterministic subwavelength hole arrays fabricated in metal foils, we find that the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) correlation lengths for aperiodic resonances are smaller than those associated with the underlying grid. The enhanced transmission spectra associated with these arrays contain two groups of Fano-type resonances: those related to the two-dimensional Fibonacci structure and those related to the underlying hole grid array upon which the aperiodic Fibonacci array is built. For both groups the destructive interference frequencies at which transmission minima occur closely match prominent reciprocal vectors in the hole array (HA) structure-factor in reciprocal space. However the Fibonacci-related transmission resonances are much weaker than both their calculated Fourier intensity in k space and the grid-related resonances. These differences may arise from the complex, multi-fractal dispersion relations and scattering from the underlying grid arrays. We also systematically studied and compared the transmission resonance strength of Fibonacci HA and periodic HA lattices as a function of the number of holes in the array structure. We found that the Fibonacci-related resonance strengths are an order of magnitude weaker than that of the periodic HA, consistent with the smaller SPP correlation length for the aperiodic structure. PMID:22772220

  4. Simultaneous measurement of length, concentration and brightness of single-walled carbon nanotubes with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pristinski, Denis; Khripin, Constantine; Tu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ming

    2011-03-01

    We report on the application of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to simultaneously measure the brightness, concentration, and length of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The technique relies on the intrinsic bandgap luminescence of (6,5) chirality semiconducting SWCNTs in the near infra-red (NIR) range and does not require sample labeling. The nanotubes used in this study have been dispersed in solution of single stranded DNA and length fractionated via size exclusion chromatography. The SWCNT length measured by FCS was in excellent agreement with more traditional techniques - polarized dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The apparent nanotube brightness is shown to grow linearly with the mean nanotube length, having a zero intensity cut-off at 110 nm, implying an exciton diffusion length of 55 nm for SWCNTs dispersed in sodium deoxycholate.

  5. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  6. Measurement of subpicosecond electron bunch lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Lihn, Hung-chi; Bocek, D.; Kung, P.; Settakorn, C.; Wiedemann, H.

    1995-11-01

    A new frequency-resolved bunch-length measuring system has been developed at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility suitable for subpicosecond electron bunches. This method utilizes a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches through optical auto-correlation. A simple and systematic way has also been developed to include interference effects caused by the beam splitter, so the electron bunch length can be easily obtained from the measurement. This autocorrelation method demonstrates subpicosecond resolving power that cannot be achieved by existing time-resolved methods.

  7. Telomere Length Correlations among Somatic Tissues in Adult Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Sophie; Criscuolo, François; Verinaud, Elodie; Zahn, Sandrine; Massemin, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres are repetitive non coding DNA sequences located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes, which maintain the integrity of the genome by hiding the chromosome ends from being recognised as double stranded breaks. Telomeres are emerging as biomarkers for ageing and survival, and are susceptible to reflect different individual life history trajectories. In particular, the telomere length with which one starts in life has been shown to be linked with individual life-long survival, suggesting that telomere dynamics can be a proxy for individual fitness and thereby be implicated in evolutionary trade-offs. As a consequence, an increasing number of studies were conducted on telomeres in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology, in which telomere length was almost exclusively measured from blood samples. However, not only do the number of repeats of the telomeric sequences vary among species, but also within species with great inter-individual telomere lengths variability with age, tissues, and chromosomes. This raises the issue of the exact biological meaning of telomere measurement in blood cells and stimulated the study of the correlation of telomere lengths among tissues over age. By measuring telomere length in adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in different somatic tissues displaying variable cell turnovers (bone marrow, brain, spleen, pectoral muscle, heart, liver and in red blood cells), we checked that the measure of telomere length in red blood cells is related to telomere lengths in the other tissues. Here we show significant relationships between the telomere lengths of red blood cells and several somatic tissues at adulthood. As red blood cells are easily accessible and suitable for the longitudinal monitoring of the individual rate of telomere loss, our study confirms that telomere length measured in red blood cells could serve as a surrogate for telomere length in the whole avian organism. PMID:24349076

  8. Is There a Correlation Between Footstep Length, Lower Extremities, and Stature?

    PubMed

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Sinha, Shreya; Krishan, Kewal

    2015-09-01

    A probable correlation between stature and footstep length is expected, and consequently, the stature may be estimated from footstep length. The present research was conducted to study the correlation of footstep length with length of the lower extremities and stature. The study participants (n=142) were asked to walk on a paper sheet with inked feet and footstep length was measured. Mean stature and lower limb length were significantly larger in males. Sex differences were not observed in the average footstep length. Average footstep length and lower limb length did not show a significant correlation among the participants. A statistically significant correlation was observed between average footstep length and stature only among females. Our observations suggest that the length of the lower limb may not be a major factor in determining the footstep length of a person and that the forensic utility of stature estimation from footstep length may be limited. PMID:26218919

  9. NMR Measures of Heterogeneity Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, Hans W.

    2002-03-01

    Advanced solid state NMR spectroscopy provides a wealth of information about structure and dynamics of complex systems. On a local scale, multidimensional solid state NMR has elucidated the geometry and the time scale of segmental motions at the glass transition. The higher order correlation functions which are provided by this technique led to the notion of dynamic heterogeneities, which have been characterized in detail with respect to their rate memory and length scale. In polymeric and low molar mass glass formers of different fragility, length scales in the range 2 to 4 nm are observed. In polymeric systems, incompatibility of backbone and side groups as in polyalkylmethacrylates leads to heteogeneities on the nm scale, which manifest themselves in unusual chain dynamics at the glass transition involving extended chain conformations. References: K. Schmidt-Rohr and H.W. Spiess, Multidimensional Solid-State NMR and Polymers,Academic Press, London (1994). U. Tracht, M. Wilhelm, A. Heuer, H. Feng, K. Schmidt-Rohr, H.W. Spiess, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2727 (1998). S.A. Reinsberg, X.H. Qiu, M. Wilhelm, M.D. Ediger, H.W. Spiess, J.Chem.Phys. 114, 7299 (2001). S.A. Reinsberg, A. Heuer, B. Doliwa, H. Zimmermann, H.W. Spiess, J. Non-Crystal. Solids, in press (2002)

  10. Sonographic Measurement of Fetal Ear Length in Turkish Women with a Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Mucize Eriç; Uzun, I??l; Karahasano?lu, Ay?e; Aygün, Mehmet; Ak?n, Hale; Yaz?c?o?lu, Fehmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal fetal ear length is a feature of chromosomal disorders. Fetal ear length measurement is a simple measurement that can be obtained during ultrasonographic examinations. Aims: To develop a nomogram for fetal ear length measurements in our population and investigate the correlation between fetal ear length, gestational age, and other standard fetal biometric measurements. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Ear lengths of the fetuses were measured in normal singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age and fetal ear length in millimetres was analysed by simple linear regression. In addition, the correlation of fetal ear length measurements with biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length were evaluated.Ear length measurements were obtained from fetuses in 389 normal singleton pregnancies ranging between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results: A nomogram was developed by linear regression analysis of the parameters ear length and gestational age. Fetal ear length (mm) = y = (1.348 X gestational age)?12.265), where gestational ages is in weeks. A high correlation was found between fetal ear length and gestational age, and a significant correlation was also found between fetal ear length and the biparietal diameter (r=0.962; p<0.001). Similar correlations were found between fetal ear length and head circumference, and fetal ear length and femur length. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a nomogram for fetal ear length. The study also demonstrates the relationship between ear length and other biometric measurements. PMID:25667783

  11. Sub-picosecond electron bunch length measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Settakorn, C.; Hernandez, M.; Wiedemann, H.

    1997-08-01

    A subpicosecond electron bunch length measuring system has been developed at the SUNSHINE facility. The method is based on an autocorrelation technique in the frequency domain utilizing the coherent radiation emitted from the electron bunch at wavelengths equal and longer than the bunch length. The radiation spectrum is the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and measuring this spectrum in a far-infrared Michelson interferometer allows the determination of the bunch length down to the femto-second regime. The experimental setup and measurement of subpicosecond electron pulses including possible improvements to maximize the bunch information available from an interferogram will be described.

  12. Drift wave transport scalings introduced by varying correlation length

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, J.; Holod, I.

    2005-01-01

    Scalings of the correlation length of drift wave turbulence with magnetic current q, shear, elongation, and temperature ratio have been introduced into a drift wave transport model. The correlation length is calculated from linear scaling of the fastest growing mode. Such a procedure is supported by previous turbulence simulations with absorbing boundaries for short and long wavelengths. The resulting q and s scalings are now in better agreement with experimental scalings. In particular, the simulation results for transport barrier shots improve.

  13. ULTRASHORT ELECTRON BUNCH LENGTH MEASUREMENTS AT DUVFEL.

    SciTech Connect

    GRAVES, W.S.; CARR, G.L.; DIMAURO, L.F.; DOYURAN, A.; HEESE, R.; JOHNSON, E.D.; NEUMAN, C.; RAKOWSKY, G.; ROSE, J.; RUDATI, J.; SHAFTAN, T.; SHEEHY, B.; SKARITKA, J.; YU, L.H.

    2001-06-18

    The DUVFEL electron linac is designed to produce sub-picosecond, high brightness electron bunches for driving a short wavelength FEL. Four experiments have been commissioned to address the challenge of accurately measuring bunch lengths on this timescale. In the frequency domain, a short 12 period undulator is used to produce both off-axis coherent emission and on-axis incoherent single-shot spectra. The total coherent infrared power scales inversely with bunch length and the spectral cutoff is an indication of bunch length. The density of power spikes in the single-shot visible spectrum may also be used to estimate bunch length. In the time domain, the linac accelerating sections and a bending magnet are used to implement the RF-zero phasing method, and a sub-picosecond streak camera is also installed. Beam measurements and comparisons of these methods are reported.

  14. Carbon Nanotubes: Measuring Dispersion and Length

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Bauer, Barry J.; Hobbie, Erik K.; Becker, Matthew L.; Hight-Walker, Angela; Simpson, Jeffrey R.; Chun, Jaehun; Obrzut, Jan; Bajpai, Vardhan; Phelan, Fred R.; Simien, Daneesh; Yeon Huh, Ji; Migler, Kalman B.

    2011-03-01

    Advanced technological uses of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) rely on the production of single length and chirality populations that are currently only available through liquid phase post processing. The foundation of all of these processing steps is the attainment of individualized nanotube dispersion in solution; an understanding of the collodial properties of the dispersed SWCNTs can then be used to designed appropriate conditions for separations. In many instances nanotube size, particularly length, is especially active in determining the achievable properties from a given population, and thus there is a critical need for measurement technologies for both length distribution and effective separation techniques. In this Progress Report, we document the current state of the art for measuring dispersion and length populations, including separations, and use examples to demonstrate the desirability of addressing these parameters.

  15. Measurement of subpicosecond electron bunch lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Lihn, H.

    1996-04-01

    A new frequency-resolved bunch-length measuring system has been developed at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility suitable for subpicosecond electron bunches. This method utilizes a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches through optical autocorrelation. A simple and systematic way has also been developed to include interference effects caused by the beam splitter, so the electron bunch length can be easily obtained from the measurement. This autocorrelation method demonstrates subpicosecond resolving power that cannot be achieved by existing time-resolved methods. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Measurement of subpicosecond electron pulse length

    SciTech Connect

    Lihn, H. |

    1997-01-01

    A new frequency-resolved bunch-length measuring system has been developed at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility to characterize subpicosecond electron pulses. Using a far-infrared Michelson interferometer, this method measures the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches through optical autocorrelation. The electron bunch length is obtained from the measurement with a simple and systematic analysis that includes interference effects caused by the beam splitter. This method demonstrates subpicosecond resolving power that cannot be achieved by existing time-resolved methods. The principle of this method and experimental results are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Measurement of subpicosecond electron pulse length

    SciTech Connect

    Lihn, Hung chi

    1996-04-01

    A new frequency-resolved bunch-length measuring system has been developed at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility to characterize subpicosecond electron pulses. Using a far-infrared Michelson interferometer, this method measures the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches through optical autocorrelation. The electron bunch length is obtained from the measurement with a simple and systematic analysis which includes interference effects caused by the beam splitter. This method demonstrates subpicosecond resolving power that cannot be achieved by existing time-resolved methods. The principle of this method and experimental results are discussed.

  18. Telomere length correlates with life span of dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Fick, Laura J; Fick, Gordon H; Li, Zichen; Cao, Eric; Bao, Bo; Heffelfinger, Doug; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A; Riabowol, Karl

    2012-12-27

    Telomeric DNA repeats are lost as normal somatic cells replicate. When telomeres reach a critically short length, a DNA damage signal is initiated, inducing cell senescence. Some studies have indicated that telomere length correlates with mortality, suggesting that telomere length contributes to human life span; however, other studies report no correlation, and thus the issue remains controversial. Domestic dogs show parallels in telomere biology to humans, with similar telomere length, telomere attrition, and absence of somatic cell telomerase activity. Using this model, we find that peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) telomere length is a strong predictor of average life span among 15 different breeds (p < 0.0001), consistent with telomeres playing a role in life span determination. Dogs lose telomeric DNA ~10-fold faster than humans, which is similar to the ratio of average life spans between these species. Breeds with shorter mean telomere lengths show an increased probability of death from cardiovascular disease, which was previously correlated with short telomere length in humans. PMID:23260664

  19. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  20. Measuring the orbit length of the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, C.; Kerns, Q.; Miller, H.

    1985-06-01

    The orbit length in the Tevatron was measured when coasting beam was first obtained. The method was time-of-flight, using a vernier phase comparison between beam pickup signals and a synthesizer sine wave. Some effort was spent making a stable phase detector so that it would not be a limiting factor. The results exhibited a repeatability of a few Hz at 53 MHz, corresponding to a mean radius measurement to 0.1 mm. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  1. How Cells Measure Length on Subcellular Scales.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Wallace F

    2015-12-01

    Cells are not just amorphous bags of enzymes, but precise and complex machines. With any machine, it is important that the parts be of the right size, yet our understanding of the mechanisms that control size of cellular structures remains at a rudimentary level in most cases. One problem with studying size control is that many cellular organelles have complex 3D structures that make their size hard to measure. Here we focus on linear structures within cells, for which the problem of size control reduces to the problem of length control. We compare and contrast potential mechanisms for length control to understand how cells solve simple geometry problems. PMID:26437596

  2. Robust measurement of telomere length in single cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Pan, Xinghua; Kalmbach, Keri; Seth-Smith, Michelle L; Ye, Xiaoying; Antumes, Danielle M F; Yin, Yu; Liu, Lin; Keefe, David L; Weissman, Sherman M

    2013-05-21

    Measurement of telomere length currently requires a large population of cells, which masks telomere length heterogeneity in single cells, or requires FISH in metaphase arrested cells, posing technical challenges. A practical method for measuring telomere length in single cells has been lacking. We established a simple and robust approach for single-cell telomere length measurement (SCT-pqPCR). We first optimized a multiplex preamplification specific for telomeres and reference genes from individual cells, such that the amplicon provides a consistent ratio (T/R) of telomeres (T) to the reference genes (R) by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The average T/R ratio of multiple single cells corresponded closely to that of a given cell population measured by regular qPCR, and correlated with those of telomere restriction fragments (TRF) and quantitative FISH measurements. Furthermore, SCT-pqPCR detected the telomere length for quiescent cells that are inaccessible by quantitative FISH. The reliability of SCT-pqPCR also was confirmed using sister cells from two cell embryos. Telomere length heterogeneity was identified by SCT-pqPCR among cells of various human and mouse cell types. We found that the T/R values of human fibroblasts at later passages and from old donors were lower and more heterogeneous than those of early passages and from young donors, that cancer cell lines show heterogeneous telomere lengths, that human oocytes and polar bodies have nearly identical telomere lengths, and that the telomere lengths progressively increase from the zygote, two-cell to four-cell embryo. This method will facilitate understanding of telomere heterogeneity and its role in tumorigenesis, aging, and associated diseases. PMID:23661059

  3. Material Effects and Detector Response Corrections for Bunch Length Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zacherl, W.; Blumenfeld, I.; Berry, M.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.; Kirby, N.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Zhou, M.; Katsouleas, T.C.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.

    2007-06-28

    A typical diagnostic used to determine the bunch length of ultra-short electron bunches is the auto-correlation of coherent transition radiation. This technique can produce artificially short bunch length results due to the attenuation of low frequency radiation if corrections for the material properties of the Michelson interferometer and detector response are not made. Measurements were taken using FTIR spectroscopy to determine the absorption spectrum of various materials and the response of a Molectron P1-45 pyroelectric detector. The material absorption data will be presented and limitations on the detector calibration discussed.

  4. Relating Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness Length to Interferometric SAR Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sassan; Rodriquez, Ernesto

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of estimating aerodynamic roughness parameter from interferometric SAR (INSAR) measurements. The relation between the interferometric correlation and the rms height of the surface is presented analytically. Model simulations performed over realistic canopy parameters obtained from field measurements in boreal forest environment demonstrate the capability of the INSAR measurements for estimating and mapping surface roughness lengths over forests and/or other vegetation types. The procedure for estimating this parameter over boreal forests using the INSAR data is discussed and the possibility of extending the methodology over tropical forests is examined.

  5. Automatic detection and measurement of femur length from fetal ultrasonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Prateep; Swamy, Gokul; Gupta, Madhumita; Patil, Uday; Krishnan, Kajoli Banerjee

    2010-03-01

    Femur bone length is used in the assessment of fetal development and in the prediction of gestational age (GA). In this paper, we present a completely automated two-step method for identifying fetal femur and measuring its length from 2D ultrasound images. The detection algorithm uses a normalized score premised on the distribution of anatomical shape, size and presentation of the femur bone in clinically acceptable scans. The measurement process utilizes a polynomial curve fitting technique to determine the end-points of the bone from a 1D profile that is most distal from the transducer surface. The method has been tested with manual measurements made on 90 third trimester femur images by two radiologists. The measurements made by the experts are strongly correlated (Pearson's coefficient = 0.95). Likewise, the algorithm estimate is strongly correlated with expert measurements (Pearson's coefficient = 0.92 and 0.94). Based on GA estimates and their bounds specified in Standard Obstetric Tables, the GA predictions from automated measurements are found to be within +/-2SD of GA estimates from both manual measurements in 89/90 cases and within +/-3SD in all 90 cases. The method presented in this paper can be adapted to perform automatic measurement of other fetal limbs.

  6. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Decker, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark; Iverson, Richard H.; Krejcik, Patrick; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, Dieter; Kirby, Neil; Clayton, Chris; Huang, Chengkun; Johnson, Devon K.; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Ken; Deng, Suzhi; Oz, Erdem; /Southern California U.

    2005-06-24

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10 kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28 GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts for a single shot CTR autocorrelator.

  7. Local-hybrid functional based on the correlation length

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Erin R.

    2014-09-28

    Local-hybrid functionals involve position-dependent mixing of Hartree-Fock and density-functional exchange, which should allow improved performance relative to conventional hybrids by reducing the inherent delocalization error and improving the long-range behaviour. Herein, the same-spin correlation length, obtained from the Fermi-hole radius, is used as the mixing parameter. The performance of the resulting local-hybrid functional is assessed for standard thermochemical and kinetics benchmarks. The local hybrid is shown to perform significantly better than the corresponding global hybrid in almost all cases.

  8. Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.

    1988-05-01

    Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. The results showed that, although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the 'capacitive' component had also decreased relative to the 'inductive'--to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded 'capacitor' cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  9. In-vitro correlation between tension and length change in an anterior cruciate ligament substitute.

    PubMed

    Good, L

    1995-06-01

    The length change and tension patterns from multiple insertion locations of an anterior cruciate ligament substitute were studied in 10 cadaver knees. Length change was measured with a spring-loaded isometer of low stiffness, and tension was measured with a piezoelectric load cell. In both instances a thin Kevlar test ligament was positioned in five different femoral and two different tibial ligament insertion locations, that were all located within the normal attachments of the anterior cruciate ligament. Differences were found regarding length changes and tension patterns from a simulated active extension between the central, posterior, and anterior femoral locations. All locations showed larger length change and tension values in extension than in flexion. The anterior femoral ligament insertion location showed length change and tension patterns with increasing values in flexion compared to the other femoral locations. The anterior tibial ligament insertion location showed smaller excursions of both length and tension, than did the central one, but the patterns of the curves were similar. A statistically significant correlation was found between length change and tension patterns throughout a 130-0 degrees range of motion. A statistically significant correlation was also found between the maximum length and tension values. No fixed relationship was found between the magnitude of the length and tension values, when different intervals of the range of motion were studied. RELEVANCE: The intraoperative employment of length change measurements of a test ligament in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction gives information on where high tension can be expected in the range of motion of the knee, and how this can differ depending on the angle of graft fixation. The information gained can also be used to improve drill channel location. However, no predictions on the magnitude of tension can be made, mainly due to large biological variability. PMID:11415553

  10. Mask roughness induced LER: geometric model at long correlation lengths

    SciTech Connect

    McClinton, Brittany M.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2011-02-11

    Collective understanding of how both the resist and line-edge roughness (LER) on the mask affect the final printed LER has made significant advances. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which mask surface roughness couples to image plane LER as a function of illumination conditions, NA, and defocus. Recently, progress has been made in formulating a simplified solution for mask roughness induced LER. Here, we investigate the LER behavior at long correlation lengths of surface roughness on the mask. We find that for correlation lengths greater than 3/NA in wafer dimensions and CDs greater than approximately 0.75/NA, the previously described simplified model, which remains based on physical optics, converges to a 'geometric regime' which is based on ray optics and is independent of partial coherence. In this 'geometric regime', the LER is proportional to the mask slope error as it propagates through focus, and provides a faster alternative to calculating LER in contrast to either full 2D aerial image simulation modeling or the newly proposed physical optics model. Data is presented for both an NA = 0.32 and an NA = 0.5 imaging system for CDs of 22-nm and 50-nm horizontal-line-dense structures.

  11. Length of adaptive walk on uncorrelated and correlated fitness landscapes.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman, Sarada; Jain, Kavita

    2014-09-01

    We consider the adaptation dynamics of an asexual population that walks uphill on a rugged fitness landscape which is endowed with a large number of local fitness peaks. We work in a parameter regime where only those mutants that are a single mutation away are accessible, as a result of which the population eventually gets trapped at a local fitness maximum and the adaptive walk terminates. We study how the number of adaptive steps taken by the population before reaching a local fitness peak depends on the initial fitness of the population, the extreme value distribution of the beneficial mutations, and correlations among the fitnesses. Assuming that the relative fitness difference between successive steps is small, we analytically calculate the average walk length for both uncorrelated and correlated fitnesses in all extreme value domains for a given initial fitness. We present numerical results for the model where the fitness differences can be large and find that the walk length behavior differs from that in the former model in the Fréchet domain of extreme value theory. We also discuss the relevance of our results to microbial experiments. PMID:25314469

  12. Direct measure of quantum correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chang-shui; Zhao, Haiqing

    2011-12-15

    The quantumness of the correlation known as quantum correlation is usually measured by quantum discord. So far various quantum discords can be roughly understood as indirect measure by some special discrepancy of two quantities. We present a direct measure of quantum correlation by revealing the difference between the structures of classically and quantum correlated states. Our measure explicitly includes the contributions of the inseparability and local nonorthogonality of the eigenvectors of a density matrix. Besides its relatively easy computability, our measure can provide a unified understanding of quantum correlation of all the present versions.

  13. Telomere length in blood and skeletal muscle in relation to measures of glycaemia and insulinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shafqat; Heraclides, Alexandros; Sun, Qi; Elgzyri, Targ; Rönn, Tina; Ling, Charlotte; Isomaa, Bo; Eriksson, Karl-Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Franks, Paul W.; Hansson, Ola

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aims Skeletal muscle is a major metabolic organ and plays important roles in glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and insulin action. Muscle telomere length reflects the myocyte's exposure to harmful environmental factors. Leukocyte telomere length is considered a marker of muscle telomere length and is used in epidemiologic studies to assess associations with ageing-related diseases where muscle physiology is important. However, the extent to which leucocyte telomere length and muscle telomere length are correlated is unknown, as are their relative correlations with glucose and insulin concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of these relationships. Methods Leucocyte telomere length and muscle telomere length were measured by quantitative real-time PCR in participants from the Malmö Exercise Intervention (MEI; n=27) and the PPP-Botnia studies (n=31). Participants in both studies were free from type 2 diabetes. We assessed the association between leucocyte telomere length, muscle telomere length and metabolic traits using Spearmen correlations and multivariate linear regression. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess agreement between leucocyte telomere length and muscle telomere length. Results In age-, study-, diabetes family history- and sex-adjusted models, leucocyte telomere length and muscle telomere length were positively correlated (r=0.39, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.59). Leucocyte telomere length was inversely associated with 2hr glucose concentrations (r= -0.58, 95% CI: -1.0, -0.16), but there was no correlation between muscle telomere length and 2 hr glucose concentrations (r=0.05, 95% CI: -0.35, 0.46) or between leucocyte telomere length or muscle telomere length with other metabolic traits. Conclusions In summary, the current study supports the use of leucocyte telomere length as a proxy for muscle telomere length in epidemiological studies of type 2 diabetes aetiology. PMID:22747879

  14. TDR Cable Length Measurement Model Based on Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jianhui; Yu, Yang; Chen, Liang

    Traveling wave propagation velocity is the key to the measuring accuracy of the time-domain reflectometry cable length measurement system. The accurate velocity value is difficult to be decided because it is vulnerable to many factors. The TDR cable length measurement model based on neural network is established in order to reduce the impact of velocity on the measuring accuracy of the TDR cable length measurement system. The model does not require a direct definition of velocity. Experimental results show that the model can reduce the velocity impact on measuring accuracy of the TDR cable length measurement system and improve the measuring accuracy of the system.

  15. Coding Ropes For Length And Speed Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, Charles C.; Tiesenhausen, Georg Von

    1988-01-01

    Ferromagnetic staples serve as markers. Like crude magnetic-tape-playback head, sensor detects ferromagnetic staples as rope is unwound or wound. Pulses from staples analyzed electronically; numbers of pulses and intervals between them interpreted in terms of velocity of rope and length payed out. Adaptable to laying submarine cables and contstruction of suspension bridges.

  16. Correlation Length of Energy-Containing Structures in the Base of the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramenko, V.; Zank, G. P.; Dosch, A. M.; Yurchyshyn, V.

    2013-12-01

    An essential parameter for models of coronal heating and fast solar wind acceleration that relay on the dissipation of MHD turbulence is the characteristic energy-containing length of the squared velocity and magnetic field fluctuations transverse to the mean magnetic field inside a coronal hole (CH) at the base of the corona. The characteristic length scale defines directly the heating rate. Rather surprisingly, almost nothing is known observationally about this critical parameter. Currently, only a very rough estimate of characteristic length was obtained based on the fact that the network spacing is about 30000 km. We attempted estimation of this parameter from observations of photospheric random motions and magnetic fields measured in the photosphere inside coronal holes. We found that the characteristic length scale in the photosphere is about 600-2000 km, which is much smaller than that adopted in previous models. Our results provide a critical input parameter for current models of coronal heating and should yield an improved understanding of fast solar wind acceleration. Fig. 1-- Plotted is the natural logarithm of the correlation function of the transverse velocity fluctuations u^2 versus the spatial lag r for the two CHs. The color code refers to the accumulation time intervals of 2 (blue), 5 (green), 10 (red), and 20 (black) minutes. The values of the Batchelor integral length ? the correlation length ? and the e-folding length L in km are shown. Fig. 2-- Plot of the natural logarithm of the correlation function of magnetic fluctuations b^2 versus the spatial lag r. The insert shows this plot with linear axes.

  17. Measurements of Newton's gravitational constant and the length of day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.; Trimble, V.; Feldman, M. R.

    2015-04-01

    About a dozen measurements of Newton's gravitational constant, G, since 1962 have yielded values that differ by far more than their reported random plus systematic errors. We find that these values for G are oscillatory in nature, with a period of P = 5.899 +/- 0.062 \\text{yr} , an amplitude of (1.619 +/- 0.103) × 10-14 \\text{m}3 \\text{kg}-1 \\text{s}-2 , and mean-value crossings in 1994 and 1997. However, we do not suggest that G is actually varying by this much, this quickly, but instead that something in the measurement process varies. Of other recently reported results, to the best of our knowledge, the only measurement with the same period and phase is the Length of Day (LOD —defined as a frequency measurement such that a positive increase in LOD values means slower Earth rotation rates and therefore longer days). The aforementioned period is also about half of a solar activity cycle, but the correlation is far less convincing. The 5.9 year periodic signal in LOD has previously been interpreted as due to fluid core motions and inner-core coupling. We report the G/LOD correlation, whose statistical significance is 0.99764 assuming no difference in phase, without claiming to have any satisfactory explanation for it. Least unlikely, perhaps, are currents in the Earth's fluid core that change both its moment of inertia (affecting LOD) and the circumstances in which the Earth-based experiments measure G. In this case, there might be correlations with terrestrial-magnetic-field measurements.

  18. Measurements of Newton's gravitational constant and the length of day

    E-print Network

    John D. Anderson; Gerald Schubert; Virginia Trimble; Michael R. Feldman

    2015-05-22

    About a dozen measurements of Newton's gravitational constant, G, since 1962 have yielded values that differ by far more than their reported random plus systematic errors. We find that these values for G are oscillatory in nature, with a period of P = 5.899 +/- 0.062 yr, an amplitude of (1.619 +/- 0.103) x 10^{-14} m^3 kg^{-1} s^{-2}, and mean-value crossings in 1994 and 1997. However, we do not suggest that G is actually varying by this much, this quickly, but instead that something in the measurement process varies. Of other recently reported results, to the best of our knowledge, the only measurement with the same period and phase is the Length of Day (LOD - defined as a frequency measurement such that a positive increase in LOD values means slower Earth rotation rates and therefore longer days). The aforementioned period is also about half of a solar activity cycle, but the correlation is far less convincing. The 5.9 year periodic signal in LOD has previously been interpreted as due to fluid core motions and inner-core coupling. We report the G/LOD correlation, whose statistical significance is 0.99764 assuming no difference in phase, without claiming to have any satisfactory explanation for it. Least unlikely, perhaps, are currents in the Earth's fluid core that change both its moment of inertia (affecting LOD) and the circumstances in which the Earth-based experiments measure G. In this case, there might be correlations with terrestrial magnetic field measurements.

  19. Is telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes correlated with cancer susceptibility or radiosensitivity?

    PubMed

    Barwell, J; Pangon, L; Georgiou, A; Docherty, Z; Kesterton, I; Ball, J; Camplejohn, R; Berg, J; Aviv, A; Gardner, J; Kato, B S; Carter, N; Paximadas, D; Spector, T D; Hodgson, S

    2007-12-17

    Mean terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths in white blood cells (WBCs) have been previously found to be associated with breast cancer. To assess whether this marker could be used as a test for breast cancer susceptibility in women, TRF length was measured in 72 treated female breast cancer patients and 1696 unaffected female controls between the ages of 45 and 77 from the Twin Research Unit at St Thomas' Hospital, as well as 140 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases and 108 mammographically screened unaffected controls from Guy's Hospital. Mean TRF was also tested for correlation with chromosome radiosensitivity and apoptotic response in the Guy's Hospital patients. After adjusting for age, smoking and body mass index, there was no significant difference in TRF lengths between the treated breast cancer patients and unaffected controls (P=0.71). A positive correlation between age-adjusted apoptotic response and mean TRF in newly diagnosed untreated breast cancer patients (P=0.008) was identified but no significant difference in TRF lengths between breast cancer patients and unaffected controls was detected (P=0.53). This suggests that TRF lengths in WBC, is not a marker of breast cancer susceptibility and does not vary significantly between affected women before and after treatment. PMID:18000505

  20. 50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and...SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. C Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER17AP13.000...

  1. 50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and...SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. C Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER17AP13.000...

  2. 50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and...SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. C Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER03JY96.000 Figure 1 of Appendix...

  3. 50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and...SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. C Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER03JY96.000 Figure 1 of Appendix...

  4. 50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. C Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER03JY96.000 Figure 1 of Appendix C to Part...

  5. 50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and...SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. C Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER03JY96.000 Figure 1 of Appendix...

  6. 50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., App. C Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER17AP13.000 ER17AP13.001...

  7. 50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER03JY96.000 Figure 1 of Appendix C to Part...

  8. 50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER03JY96.000 Figure 1 of Appendix C to Part...

  9. 50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., App. C Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER17AP13.000 ER17AP13.001...

  10. From Concrete to Abstract in the Measurement of Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephanou, Andreas; Fisher, William P., Jr.

    2013-09-01

    The concatenation of units of length is widely viewed as the paradigmatic expression of fundamental measurement. Survey, assessment, and test scores in educational and psychological measurement are often interpreted in ways that assume a concatenation of units to have been established, even though these assumptions are rarely stated or tested. A concatenation model for measurement is shown to be equivalent to a Rasch model: any two units of measurement placed end to end must together be of the same length as either one of them added to itself. This additive principle and a concatenation model of measurement together serve as a heuristic guide for organizing two experimental approaches to calibrating instruments for measuring length. The capacity to reproduce the unit of measurement from theory with no need for repeated empirical calibration experiments, as in the geometrical bisection of the line and the resultant halving of the length measure, is highlighted as essential to demonstrating a thorough understanding of the construct.

  11. How Salmonella Typhimurium measure the length of their Flagellar Filaments

    E-print Network

    Keener, James P.

    How Salmonella Typhimurium measure the length of their Flagellar Filaments J. P. Keener Department and length regulation of the fil- ament of the flagellar motor of Salmonella Typhimurium. Under of Salmonella Typhimurium is an example of an organelle that is built to exacting standards. Morphologically

  12. Correlation between length and tilt of lipid tails.

    PubMed

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I; Nagle, John F

    2015-10-21

    It is becoming recognized from simulations, and to a lesser extent from experiment, that the classical Helfrich-Canham membrane continuum mechanics model can be fruitfully enriched by the inclusion of molecular tilt, even in the fluid, chain disordered, biologically relevant phase of lipid bilayers. Enriched continuum theories then add a tilt modulus ?? to accompany the well recognized bending modulus ?. Different enrichment theories largely agree for many properties, but it has been noticed that there is considerable disagreement in one prediction; one theory postulates that the average length of the hydrocarbon chain tails increases strongly with increasing tilt and another predicts no increase. Our analysis of an all-atom simulation favors the latter theory, but it also shows that the overall tail length decreases slightly with increasing tilt. We show that this deviation from continuum theory can be reconciled by consideration of the average shape of the tails, which is a descriptor not obviously includable in continuum theory. PMID:26493917

  13. Correlation between length and tilt of lipid tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I.; Nagle, John F.

    2015-10-01

    It is becoming recognized from simulations, and to a lesser extent from experiment, that the classical Helfrich-Canham membrane continuum mechanics model can be fruitfully enriched by the inclusion of molecular tilt, even in the fluid, chain disordered, biologically relevant phase of lipid bilayers. Enriched continuum theories then add a tilt modulus ?? to accompany the well recognized bending modulus ?. Different enrichment theories largely agree for many properties, but it has been noticed that there is considerable disagreement in one prediction; one theory postulates that the average length of the hydrocarbon chain tails increases strongly with increasing tilt and another predicts no increase. Our analysis of an all-atom simulation favors the latter theory, but it also shows that the overall tail length decreases slightly with increasing tilt. We show that this deviation from continuum theory can be reconciled by consideration of the average shape of the tails, which is a descriptor not obviously includable in continuum theory.

  14. Far-from-equilibrium measurements of thermodynamic length

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Edward H.; Crooks, Gavin E.

    2008-11-05

    Thermodynamic length is a path function that generalizes the notion of length to the surface of thermodynamic states. Here, we show how to measure thermodynamic length in far-from-equilibrium experiments using the work fluctuation relations. For these microscopic systems, it proves necessary to define the thermodynamic length in terms of the Fisher information. Consequently, the thermodynamic length can be directly related to the magnitude of fluctuations about equilibrium. The work fluctuation relations link the work and the free energy change during an external perturbation on a system. We use this result to determine equilibrium averages at intermediate points of the protocol in which the system is out-of-equilibrium. This allows us to extend Bennett's method to determine the potential of mean force, as well as the thermodynamic length, in single molecule experiments.

  15. An anthropometric study to evaluate the correlation between the occlusal vertical dimension and length of the thumb

    PubMed Central

    Basnet, Bishal Babu; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar; Suwal, Pramita; Shrestha, Pragya; Baral, Dharanidhar

    2015-01-01

    Background Establishment of proper occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) is one of the important tasks for successful prosthodontic therapy. An ideal method for determining OVD in terms of cost, time, and instrument requirements has been sought in prosthodontics by various investigators. However, no such single method has been formulated. In the current anthropometric study, the relationship of the length of the thumb to the OVD was tested in two ethnic groups of Nepal, Aryans, and Mongoloids. The result of this study can be useful in determining proper OVD in edentulous patients. Aims and objectives The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the length of the thumb and OVD in Aryan and Mongoloid ethnic groups. The secondary aim was to compare the correlation between OVD and other anatomic measurements (eye–ear distance and pupil-to-rima oris distance) in these ethnicities. Materials and methods The OVD, thumb length, eye–ear distance and distance between pupil of eye and rima oris were measured in a total of 500 adult dentulous volunteers. The correlation between OVD and thumb length as well as other anatomic measurements was checked with Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship of OVD to the length of the thumb. Results The thumb length was significantly (P?0.05) correlated with strong and positive values (Pearson’s coefficient =0.874 in the whole population, 0.826 in Aryans, and 0.944 in Mongoloids). Regression analysis showed that thumb length was significantly related to OVD in both ethnic groups. Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, the result implies that thumb length can be used as an adjunct for establishing OVD in the edentulous patients. PMID:25678817

  16. Measuring the Length of a Captured Burmese Python

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Skip Snow (National Park Service) measures the length of a captured Burmese python (Python molurus) at the South Florida Research Center, Everglades National Park. Photo courtesy of Lori Oberhofer, NPS. ...

  17. Automated Defect and Correlation Length Analysis of Block Copolymer Thin Film Nanopatterns

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jeffrey N.; Harris, Kenneth D.; Buriak, Jillian M.

    2015-01-01

    Line patterns produced by lamellae- and cylinder-forming block copolymer (BCP) thin films are of widespread interest for their potential to enable nanoscale patterning over large areas. In order for such patterning methods to effectively integrate with current technologies, the resulting patterns need to have low defect densities, and be produced in a short timescale. To understand whether a given polymer or annealing method might potentially meet such challenges, it is necessary to examine the evolution of defects. Unfortunately, few tools are readily available to researchers, particularly those engaged in the synthesis and design of new polymeric systems with the potential for patterning, to measure defects in such line patterns. To this end, we present an image analysis tool, which we have developed and made available, to measure the characteristics of such patterns in an automated fashion. Additionally we apply the tool to six cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) polymers thermally annealed to explore the relationship between the size of each polymer and measured characteristics including line period, line-width, defect density, line-edge roughness (LER), line-width roughness (LWR), and correlation length. Finally, we explore the line-edge roughness, line-width roughness, defect density, and correlation length as a function of the image area sampled to determine each in a more rigorous fashion. PMID:26207990

  18. HOW TO MEASURE ARBITRARY DISTANCES USING A GIVEN STANDARD LENGTH

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    HOW TO MEASURE ARBITRARY DISTANCES USING A GIVEN STANDARD LENGTH (I.E., A STICK WITH TWO MARKS, we describe a feasible procedure that measures an arbitrary distance using a given standard unit unit, but in real life, we must also measure arbitrary distances that are not necessarily equal to one

  19. HOW TO MEASURE ARBITRARY DISTANCES USING A GIVEN STANDARD LENGTH

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    HOW TO MEASURE ARBITRARY DISTANCES USING A GIVEN STANDARD LENGTH (I.E., A STICK WITH TWO MARKS ). In this paper, we describe a feasible procedure that measures an arbitrary distance using a given standard unit unit, but in real life, we must also measure arbitrary distances that are not necessarily equal to one

  20. PBMC telomerase activity, but not leukocyte telomere length, correlates with hippocampal volume in major depression.

    PubMed

    Wolkowitz, Owen M; Mellon, Synthia H; Lindqvist, Daniel; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Lin, Jue; Reus, Victor I; Burke, Heather; Rosser, Rebecca; Mahan, Laura; Mackin, Scott; Yang, Tony; Weiner, Michael; Mueller, Susanne

    2015-04-30

    Accelerated cell aging, indexed in peripheral leukocytes by telomere shortness and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by telomerase activity, has been reported in several studies of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relevance of these peripheral measures for brain indices that are presumably more directly related to MDD pathophysiology is unknown. In this study, we explored the relationship between PBMC telomerase activity and leukocyte telomere length and magnetic resonance imaging-estimated hippocampal volume in un-medicated depressed individuals and healthy controls. We predicted that, to the extent peripheral and central telomerase activity are directly related, PBMC telomerase activity would be positively correlated with hippocampal volume, perhaps due to hippocampal telomerase-associated neurogenesis, neuroprotection or neurotrophic facilitation, and that this effect would be clearer in individuals with increased PBMC telomerase activity, as previously reported in un-medicated MDD. We did not have specific hypotheses regarding the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampal volume, due to conflicting reports in the published literature. We found, in 25 un-medicated MDD subjects, that PBMC telomerase activity was significantly positively correlated with hippocampal volume; this relationship was not observed in 18 healthy controls. Leukocyte telomere length was not significantly related to hippocampal volume in either group (19 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 healthy controls). Although the nature of the relationship between peripheral telomerase activity and telomere length and the hippocampus is unclear, these preliminary data are consistent with the possibility that PBMC telomerase activity indexes, and may provide a novel window into, hippocampal neuroprotection and/or neurogenesis in MDD. PMID:25773002

  1. In vivo myograph measurement of muscle contraction at optimal length

    PubMed Central

    Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Weilbach, Christian; Karst, Matthias; Pawlak, Matthias; Ahmed, Aminul; Piepenbrock, Siegfried; Winterhalter, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background Current devices for measuring muscle contraction in vivo have limited accuracy in establishing and re-establishing the optimum muscle length. They are variable in the reproducibility to determine the muscle contraction at this length, and often do not maintain precise conditions during the examination. Consequently, for clinical testing only semi-quantitative methods have been used. Methods We present a newly developed myograph, an accurate measuring device for muscle contraction, consisting of three elements. Firstly, an element for adjusting the axle of the device and the physiological axis of muscle contraction; secondly, an element to accurately position and reposition the extremity of the muscle; and thirdly, an element for the progressive pre-stretching and isometric locking of the target muscle. Thus it is possible to examine individual in vivo muscles in every pre-stretched, specified position, to maintain constant muscle-length conditions, and to accurately re-establish the conditions of the measurement process at later sessions. Results In a sequence of experiments the force of contraction of the muscle at differing stretching lengths were recorded and the forces determined. The optimum muscle length for maximal force of contraction was established. In a following sequence of experiments with smaller graduations around this optimal stretching length an increasingly accurate optimum muscle length for maximal force of contraction was determined. This optimum length was also accurately re-established at later sessions. Conclusion We have introduced a new technical solution for valid, reproducible in vivo force measurements on every possible point of the stretching curve. Thus it should be possible to study the muscle contraction in vivo to the same level of accuracy as is achieved in tests with in vitro organ preparations. PMID:17199890

  2. Similarity and Prioritization of Disease Proteins using Path Length Measure

    E-print Network

    Al-Mubaid, Hisham

    Similarity and Prioritization of Disease Proteins using Path Length Measure Anurag Nagar University for prioritization of disease proteins and for computing the similarity between diseases and proteins. Our measure is fairly effective in assessing the closeness of proteins and diseases in the disease protein ranking

  3. Telomere Length: A Review of Methods for Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Montpetit, Alison J.; Alhareeri, Areej A.; Montpetit, Marty; Starkweather, Angela R.; Elmore, Lynne W.; Filler, Kristin; Mohanraj, Lathika; Burton, Candace W.; Menzies, Victoria S.; Lyon, Debra E.; Collins, Judith B.; Teefey, Joseph M.; Jackson-Cook, Colleen K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The exciting discovery that telomere shortening is associated with many health conditions, and that telomere lengths can be altered in response to social and environmental exposures, has underscored the need for methods to accurately and consistently quantify telomere length. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary that compares and contrasts the current technologies used to assess telomere length. Discussion Multiple methods have been developed for the study of telomeres. These techniques include quantification of telomere length by terminal restriction fragmentation—which was one of the earliest tools used for length assessment—making it the gold standard in telomere biology. Quantitative-PCR provides the advantage of being able to use smaller amounts of DNA, thereby making it amenable to epidemiology studies involving large numbers of people. An alternative method uses fluorescent probes to quantify not only mean telomere lengths, but also chromosome-specific telomere lengths; however, the downside of this approach is that it can only be used on mitotically active cells. Additional methods that permit assessment of the length of a subset of chromosome-specific telomeres, or the subset of telomeres that demonstrate shortening, are also reviewed. Conclusion Given the increased utility for telomere assessments as a biomarker in physiological, psychological and biobehavioral research, it is important that investigators become familiar with the methodological nuances of the various procedures used for measuring telomere length. This will ensure that they are empowered to select an optimal assessment approach to meet the needs of their study designs. Gaining a better understanding of the benefits and drawbacks of various measurement techniques is important not only in individual studies, but also to further establish the science of telomere associations with biobehavioral phenomena. PMID:24977726

  4. Lack of correlation-length scaling for an array of boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perron, J. K.; Kimball, M. O.; Mooney, K. P.; Gasparini, F. M.

    2009-02-01

    Finite-size scaling theory predicts that uniformly small critical systems that have the same dimensionality and belong to the same universality class will scale as a function of the ratio of the spatial length L to the correlation length ?. This should occur for all temperatures within the critical region. Measurements of the heat capacity of liquid 4He confined to a two-dimensional (2D) planar geometry agree well with this prediction when the 4He is normal but disagree near the specific heat maximum where the confined 4He becomes superfluid. Data for 4He confined to 1D structures show a similar behavior (however the lack of data collapse is not as dramatic). Recent measurements of the heat capacity from two 0D confinements, which differ by a factor of two in size, fail to scale at any temperature within the critical region. This lack of scaling may be due to the interaction of neighboring boxes through the shallow channels used to fill them. This is quite surprising since the liquid in the channels is not superfluid at the temperatures of interest for the helium in the boxes. Furthermore, measurements of the superfluid density of the helium within the channels reveal a critical temperature that is higher than expected suggesting that the normal fluid is affected by the already superfluid regions at each end of these channels. Both of these anomalies might be explained by a proximity effect analogous to what is seen when normal metals are sandwiched between two superconductors.

  5. Measurement of Debye length in laser-produced plasma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehler, W.

    1973-01-01

    The Debye length of an expanded plasma created by placing an evacuated chamber with an entrance slit in the path of a freely expanding laser produced plasma was measured, using the slab geometry. An independent measurement of electron density together with the observed value for the Debye length also provided a means for evaluating the plasma electron temperature. This temperature has applications in ascertaining plasma conductivity and magnetic field necessary for confinement of the laser produced plasma. Also, the temperature obtained would be useful in analyzing electron-ion recombination rates in the expanded plasma and the dynamics of the cooling process of the plasma expansion.

  6. EBIC measurements of small diffusion length in semiconductor structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yakimov, E. B. Borisov, S. S.; Zaitsev, S. I.

    2007-04-15

    The problems arising under submicron diffusion-length measurements by EBIC are discussed. As an example, the results of diffusion-length measurements in GaN are presented. It is shown that fitting the collection efficiency dependence on beam energy is the most reliable method for this purpose. The depth-dose dependence for GaN is calculated by the Monte-Carlo method and its analytical approximation is presented. This expression was verified experimentally by simultaneous fitting of the collected current dependence on beam energy for a few applied bias values.

  7. Measurement of Trap Length for an Optical Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2009-01-01

    The trap length along the beam axis for an optical trap formed with an upright, oil-immersion microscope was measured. The goals for this effort were twofold. It was deemed useful to understand the depth to which an optical trap can reach for purposes of developing a tool to assist in the fabrication of miniature devices. Additionally, it was desired to know whether the measured trap length favored one or the other of two competing theories to model an optical trap. The approach was to trap a microsphere of known size and mass and raise it from its initial trap position. The microsphere was then dropped by blocking the laser beam for a pre-determined amount of time. Dropping the microsphere in a free-fall mode from various heights relative to the coverslip provides an estimate of how the trapping length changes with depth in water in a sample chamber on a microscope slide. While it was not possible to measure the trap length with sufficient precision to support any particular theory of optical trap formation, it was possible to find regions where the presence of physical boundaries influenced optical traps, and determine that the trap length, for the apparatus studied, is between 6 and 7 m. These results allow more precise control using optical micromanipulation to assemble miniature devices by providing information about the distance over which an optical trap is effective.

  8. [Bone-length measurement at low back and its application].

    PubMed

    Fang, Jin

    2015-06-01

    By reviewing some acupuncture literature regarding the settings of bone-length measurement at low back, it was found out that ancient and modern descriptions were not consistent. In China current acupuncture textbook, it was mostly described as "the horizontal distance between inner borders of two scapulas was 6 cun". However, after analysis, it was believed that this setting was not reasonable in the clinical application of acupuncture, and it was agreed with the opinion that "midpoint of inner borders of two scapulas when scapulas are in abduction position" should be taken as bone-length measurement of low back. Besides, a self-made bone-length scale was applied to locate acupoint at low back, which could provide references for its standardized application manipulation. PMID:26480557

  9. Correlation between 3h JNC and Hydrogen Bond Length in Proteins

    E-print Network

    Clore, G. Marius

    -backbone H bonds in proteins was also reported.14,15 Correlation of 13C and 15N chemical shifts through 3hCorrelation between 3h JNC and Hydrogen Bond Length in Proteins Gabriel Cornilescu, Benjamin E the Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and DigestiVe and Kidney Diseases, National

  10. Alignment techniques required by precise measurement of effective focal length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of false color imagery produced by instrumentation on earth resource mapping satellites are examined. The spatial fidelity of the imagery is dependent upon the geometric accuracy (GA) and the band-to-band registration (BBR) with which the telescope instrument is assembled. BBR and GA require knowledge of telescope effective focal length (EFL) to one part in 10,000 in order that the next generation of earth mappers be able to carry out their missions. The basis for this level of precision is briefly considered, and a description is given of the means by which such precise EFL measurements have been carried out. Attention is given to accuracy requirements, the technique used to measure effective focal length, possible sources of error in the EFL measurement, approaches for eliminating errors, and the results of the efforts to control measurement errors in EFL determinations.

  11. Probe Length Effects on Thermally-Biased TDR Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peschel, J. M.; Cahill, A. T.

    2007-05-01

    Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) is a well-established technique for continuous, in-situ measurement of volumetric water content in field soils. Recent studies have shown that errors in the measurement of the soil dielectric constant may occur due to thermal variations present in the soil medium. These temperature effects in turn influence the determination of volumetric water content and must first be corrected for. The effect of TDR probe length, at ambient temperature conditions only, has also been investigated with results indicating a pronounced shift in measured waveform activity. This work presents a laboratory investigation of the extent of TDR probe length influence within volumetric water content measurements using probes subjected to a wide range of moisture content and thermal-variation scenarios.

  12. Probe Length Effects on Thermally-Biased TDR Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peschel, J. M.; Cahill, A. T.

    2006-12-01

    Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) is a well-established technique for continuous, in-situ measurement of volumetric water content in field soils. Recent studies have shown that errors in the measurement of the soil dielectric constant may occur due to thermal variations present in the soil medium. These temperature effects in turn influence the determination of volumetric water content and must first be corrected for. The effect of TDR probe length, at ambient temperature conditions only, has also been investigated with results indicating a pronounced shift in measured waveform activity. This work presents a laboratory investigation of the extent of TDR probe length influence within volumetric water content measurements using probes subjected to a wide range of moisture content and thermal-variation scenarios.

  13. Length Scale Correlations of Cellular Microstructures in Directionally Solidified Binary System

    SciTech Connect

    Yunxue Shen

    2002-06-27

    In a cellular array, a range of primary spacing is found to be stable under given growth conditions. Since a strong coupling of solute field exists between the neighboring cells, primary spacing variation should also influence other microstructure features such as cell shape and cell length. The existence of multiple solutions is examined in this study both theoretically as well as experimentally. A theoretical model is developed that identifies and relates four important microstructural lengths, which are found to be primary spacing, tip radius, cell width and cell length. This general microstructural relationship is shown to be valid for different cells in an array as well as for other cellular patterns obtained under different growth conditions. The unique feature of the model is that the microstructure correlation does not depend on composition or growth conditions since these variables scale microstructural lengths to satisfy the relationship obtained in this study. Detailed directional solidification experimental studies have been carried out in the succinonitrile-salol system to characterize and measure these four length scales. Besides the validation of the model, experimental results showed additional scaling laws to be present. In the regime where only a cellular structure is formed, the shape of the cell, the cell tip radius and the length of the cell are all found to scale individually with the local primary spacing. The presence of multiple solutions of primary spacing is also shown to influence the cell-dendrite transition that is controlled not only by the processing variables (growth velocity, thermal gradient and composition) but also by the local cell spacing. The cell-dendrite transition was found not to be sharp, but occurred over a range of processing conditions. Two critical conditions have been identified such that only cells are present below lower critics condition, and only dendrites are formed above the upper critics condition. Between these two limits, both cells and dendrites have been found to coexist. In this mixed regime, a critical local spacing is found above which a cell is unstable and forms a dendrite. An analytical expression is developed that relates the critical spacing for the cell-dendrite transition with processing conditions.

  14. Length Scale Correlations of Cellular Microstructures in Directionally Solidified Binary System

    SciTech Connect

    Yunxue Shen

    2002-08-01

    In a cellular array, a range of primary spacing is found to be stable under given growth conditions. Since a strong coupling of solute field exists between the neighboring cells, primary spacing variation should also influence other microstructure features such as cell shape and cell length. The existence of multiple solutions is examined in this study both theoretically as well as experimentally. A theoretical model is developed that identifies and relates four important microstructural lengths, which are found to be primary spacing, tip radius, cell width and cell length. This general microstructural relationship is shown to be valid for different cells in an array as well as for other cellular patterns obtained under different growth conditions. The unique feature of the model is that the microstructure correlation does not depend on composition or growth conditions since these variables scale microstructural lengths to satisfy the relationship obtained in this study. Detailed directional solidification experimental studies have been carried out in the succinonitrile-salol system to characterize and measure these four length scales. Besides the validation of the model, experimental results showed additional scaling laws to be present. In the regime where only a cellular structure is formed, the shape of the cell, the cell tip radius and the length of the cell are all found to scale individually with the local primary spacing. The presence of multiple solutions of primary spacing is also shown to influence the cell-dendrite transition that is controlled not only by the processing variables (growth velocity, thermal gradient and composition) but also by the local cell spacing. The cell-dendrite transition was found not to be sharp, but occurred over a range of processing conditions. Two critical conditions have been identified such that only cells are present below lower critics condition, and only dendrites are formed above the upper critics condition. Between these two limits, both cells and dendrites have been found to coexist. In this mixed regime, a critical local spacing is found above which a cell is unstable and forms a dendrite. An analytical expression is developed that relates the critical spacing for the cell-dendrite transition with processing conditions.

  15. FEL GAIN LENGTH AND TAPER MEASUREMENTS AT LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, D.; Fawley, W. M.; Brachmann, A.; Decker, F.J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, P.; Huang, Z.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Nuhn, H.D.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; Xiang, D.; Yocky, G.; Fawley, W. M.

    2009-08-14

    We present experimental studies of the gain length and saturation power level from 1.5 nm to 1.5 Angstroms at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). By disrupting theFEL process with an orbit kick, we are able to measure the X-ray intensity as a function of undulator length. This kick method is cross-checked with the method of removing undulator sections. We also study the FEL-induced electron energy loss after saturation to determine the optimal taper of the undulator K values. The experimental results are compared to theory and simulations.

  16. FEL Gain Length and Taper Measurements at LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, Daniel; Brachmann, A.; Decker, F.J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, P.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Nuhn, H.D.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; Xiang, D.; Yocky, G.; ,

    2010-07-30

    We present experimental studies of the gain length and saturation power level from 1.5 nm to 1.5 {angstrom} at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). By disrupting the FEL process with an orbit kick, we are able to measure the X-ray intensity as a function of undulator length. This kick method is cross-checked with the method of removing undulator sections. We also study the FEL-induced electron energy loss after saturation to determine the optimal taper of the undulator K values. The experimental results are compared to theory and simulations.

  17. Minimal Length in quantum gravity and gravitational measurements

    E-print Network

    Ali, Ahmed Farag; Vagenas, Elias C

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a minimal length is a common prediction of various theories of quantum gravity. This minimal length leads to a modification of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to a Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). Various studies showed that a GUP modifies the Hawking radiation of black holes. In this paper, we propose a modification of the Schwarzschild metric based on the modified Hawking temperature derived from the GUP. Based on this modified metric, we calculate corrections to the deflection of light, time delay of light, perihelion precession, and gravitational redshift. We compare our results with gravitational measurements to set an upper bound on the GUP parameter.

  18. Minimal length in quantum gravity and gravitational measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag Ali, Ahmed; Khalil, Mohammed M.; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2015-10-01

    The existence of a minimal length is a common prediction of various theories of quantum gravity. This minimal length leads to a modification of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to a Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). Various studies showed that a GUP modifies the Hawking radiation of black holes. In this paper, we propose a modification of the Schwarzschild metric based on the modified Hawking temperature derived from the GUP. Based on this modified metric, we calculate corrections to the deflection of light, time delay of light, perihelion precession, and gravitational redshift. We compare our results with gravitational measurements to set an upper bound on the GUP parameter.

  19. Reducing trial length in force platform posturographic sleep deprivation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsman, P.; Hæggström, E.; Wallin, A.

    2007-09-01

    Sleepiness correlates with sleep-related accidents, but convenient tests for sleepiness monitoring are scarce. The posturographic test is a method to assess balance, and this paper describes one phase of the development of a posturographic sleepiness monitoring method. We investigated the relationship between trial length and accuracy of the posturographic time-awake (TA) estimate. Twenty-one healthy adults were kept awake for 32 h and their balance was recorded, 16 times with 30 s trials, as a function of TA. The balance was analysed with regards to fractal dimension, most common sway amplitude and time interval for open-loop stance control. While a 30 s trial allows estimating the TA of individual subjects with better than 5 h accuracy, repeating the analysis using shorter trial lengths showed that 18 s sufficed to achieve the targeted 5 h accuracy. Moreover, it was found that with increasing TA, the posturographic parameters estimated the subjects' TA more accurately.

  20. Effective crack lengths by compliance measurement for ARALL-2 laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Christopher D.; Wilson, Dale A.

    As a means of determining a stress intensity factor solution, the compliance properties of an ARALL-2 laminated-sheet composite were investigated. Fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) tests were conducted on middle crack tension (MT) specimens fabricated from a layup consisting of three sheets of 2024-T3 aluminum bonded together with unidirectional aramid fibers embedded in epoxy. Excellent fatigue crack growth properties are obtained by the presence of unbroken aramid fibers in the wake of the crack tip. These unbroken fibers act as a bridging mechanism to inhibit further crack growth. To quantify the effect of maximum fatigue load on compliance, a series of FCGR tests were performed. Effective crack lengths were determined to be at least 10 mm shorter than surface measured crack lengths for a 76-mm-wide specimen. The bridging zone was estimated to be at least 5 mm. Compliance and stress intensity factor as functions of effective crack length were determined.

  1. Effective crack lengths by compliance measurement for ARALL-2 laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Christopher D.; Wilson, Dale A.

    1991-01-01

    As a means of determining a stress intensity factor solution, the compliance properties of an ARALL-2 laminated-sheet composite were investigated. Fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) tests were conducted on middle crack tension (MT) specimens fabricated from a layup consisting of three sheets of 2024-T3 aluminum bonded together with unidirectional aramid fibers embedded in epoxy. Excellent fatigue crack growth properties are obtained by the presence of unbroken aramid fibers in the wake of the crack tip. These unbroken fibers act as a bridging mechanism to inhibit further crack growth. To quantify the effect of maximum fatigue load on compliance, a series of FCGR tests were performed. Effective crack lengths were determined to be at least 10 mm shorter than surface measured crack lengths for a 76-mm-wide specimen. The bridging zone was estimated to be at least 5 mm. Compliance and stress intensity factor as functions of effective crack length were determined.

  2. Electron Bunch Length Measurement for LCLS at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Zelazny, M.; Allison, S.; Chevtsov, Sergei; Emma, P.; Kotturi, K.d.; Loos, H.; Peng, S.; Rogind, D.; Straumann, T.; /SLAC

    2007-10-04

    At Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) a Bunch Length Measurement system has been developed to measure the length of the electron bunch for its new Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This destructive measurement uses a transverse-mounted RF deflector (TCAV) to vertically streak the electron beam and an image taken with an insertable screen and a camera. The device control software was implemented with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit. The analysis software was implemented in Matlab{trademark} using the EPICS/Channel Access Interface for Scilab{trademark} and Matlab{trademark} (labCA). This architecture allowed engineers and physicists to develop and integrate their control and analysis without duplication of effort.

  3. Equivalence and Accuracy of MOSFET Channel Length Measurement Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sanjay

    1989-02-01

    It is shown that the MOSFET channel length measurement techniques of Terada and Muta, Peng et al., Whitfield, Suciu and Johnston, and De La Moneda et al. are actually equivalent, i.e. merely different expressions of the same formula for channel length in terms of measured resistance, and that some of the transresistance methods of Jain, although not equivalent, are also related to the same formula. The accuracy of this formula is evaluated for the general case and related to the error components due to source and drain resistance asymmetry, short channel geometry effect, and variation of series resistance with bias. No independent error component due to field-induced mobility degradation is found. Finally the errors in the methods of Terada and Muta, Chen et al., Sheu et al., Wordeman et al. and Jain, are determined and compared. The gate transresistance technique is found to be the most accurate method.

  4. Interaural correlations in normal and traumatized cochleas: length and sensory cell loss

    SciTech Connect

    Bohne, B.A.; Bozzay, D.G.; Harding, G.W.

    1986-12-01

    Sizable intraspecies variations have been found in both the length of the organ of Corti (OC) and the amount of damage resulting from exposure to a particular ototraumatic agent. These variations have made it difficult to address certain research questions such as the susceptibility of the previously injured ear to further damage. If intra-animal correlation is high, the variability problem could be circumvented by using the two ears from a given animal for different aspects of the same study. Therefore, correlation coefficients were calculated for OC length and for percentage of missing inner (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) in a large sample of chinchillas which included controls and animals which had been exposed to noise or treated with ionizing radiation. The correlation coefficients were +0.96 for OC length, +0.93 for IHC loss, and +0.97 for OHC loss.

  5. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, F.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Filippetto, D.; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.

    2009-12-09

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  6. Absolute bunch length measurements by incoherent radiation fluctuation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Stupakov, Gennady; Zolotorev, Max; Filippetto, Daniele; Jagerhofer, Lukas

    2008-09-29

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  7. Determination of $??$ scattering lengths from measurement of $?^+?^-$ atom lifetime

    E-print Network

    B. Adeva; L. Afanasyev; M. Benayoun; A. Benelli; Z. Berka; V. Brekhovskikh; G. Caragheorgheopol; T. Cechak; M. Chiba; P. V. Chliapnikov; C. Ciocarlan; S. Constantinescu; S. Costantini; C. Curceanu; P. Doskarova; D. Dreossi; D. Drijard; A. Dudarev; M. Ferro-Luzzi; J. L. Fungueiriño Pazos; M. Gallas Torreira; J. Gerndt; P. Gianotti; D. Goldin; F. Gomez; A. Gorin; O. Gorchakov; C. Guaraldo; M. Gugiu; M. Hansroul; Z. Hons; R. Hosek; M. Iliescu; V. Karpukhin; J. Kluson; M. Kobayashi; P. Kokkas; V. Komarov; V. Kruglov; L. Kruglova; A. Kulikov; A. Kuptsov; K. I. Kuroda; A. Lamberto; A. Lanaro; V. Lapshin; R. Lednicky; P. Leruste; P. Levi Sandri; A. Lopez Aguera; V. Lucherini; T. Maki; I. Manuilov; J. Marin; J. L. Narjoux; L. Nemenov; M. Nikitin; T. Nunez Pardo; K. Okada; V. Olchevskii; A. Pazos; M. Pentia; A. Penzo; J. M. Perreau; M. Plo; T. Ponta; G. F. Rappazzo; A. Riazantsev; J. M. Rodriguez; A. Rodriguez Fernandez; A. Romero Vidal; V. M. Ronjin; V. Rykalin; J. Saborido; C. Santamarina; J. Schacher; C. Schuetz; A. Sidorov; J. Smolik; F. Takeutchi; A. Tarasov; L. Tauscher; M. J. Tobar; T. Trojek; S. Trusov; V. Utkin; O. Vázquez Doce; S. Vlachos; O. Voskresenskaya; T. Vrba; C. Willmott; V. Yazkov; Y. Yoshimura; M. Zhabitsky; P. Zrelov

    2011-10-03

    The DIRAC experiment at CERN has achieved a sizeable production of $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ atoms and has significantly improved the precision on its lifetime determination. From a sample of 21227 atomic pairs, a 4% measurement of the S-wave $\\pi\\pi$ scattering length difference $|a_0-a_2| = (.0.2533^{+0.0080}_{-0.0078}|_\\mathrm{stat}.{}^{+0.0078}_{-0.0073}|_\\mathrm{syst})M_{\\pi^+}^{-1}$ has been attained, providing an important test of Chiral Perturbation Theory.

  8. Dynamics and correlation length scales of a glass-forming liquid in quiescent and sheared conditions

    E-print Network

    Wen-Sheng Xu; Zhao-Yan Sun; Li-Jia An

    2012-05-10

    We numerically study dynamics and correlation length scales of a colloidal liquid in both quiescent and sheared conditions to further understand the origin of slow dynamics and dynamic heterogeneity in glass-forming systems. The simulation is performed in a weakly frustrated two-dimensional liquid, where locally preferred order is allowed to develop with increasing density. The four-point density correlations and bond-orientation correlations, which have been frequently used to capture dynamic and static length scales $\\xi$ in a quiescent condition, can be readily extended to a system under steady shear in this case. In the absence of shear, we confirmed the previous findings that the dynamic slowing down accompanies the development of dynamic heterogeneity. The dynamic and static length scales increase with $\\alpha$-relaxation time $\\tau_{\\alpha}$ as power-law $\\xi\\sim\\tau_{\\alpha}^{\\mu}$ with $\\mu>0$. In the presence of shear, both viscosity and $\\tau_{\\alpha}$ have power-law dependence on shear rate in the marked shear thinning regime. However, dependence of correlation lengths cannot be described by power laws in the same regime. Furthermore, the relation $\\xi\\sim\\tau_{\\alpha}^{\\mu}$ between length scales and dynamics holds for not too strong shear where thermal fluctuations and external forces are both important in determining the properties of dense liquids. Thus, our results demonstrate a link between slow dynamics and structure in glass-forming liquids even under nonequilibrium conditions.

  9. The formation of interstellar molecular lines in a turbulent velocity field with finite correlation length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, M. A.; Kegel, W. H.

    1987-04-01

    The authors investigate by means of numerical calculations the formation of interstellar molecular lines in a turbulent velocity field with finite correlation length. They have applied the theory developed by Gail et al. (1975, 1980) to the model of a homogeneous plane parallel slab. They have solved the full NLTE-problem, i.e. the generalized transfer equations simultaneously with the rate equations, the model molecule being a 6-level CO molecule. The results show that a finite correlation length affects strongly the line profiles, the line widths, and the intensity ratios, in particular the ratios of corresponding transitions in different isotopic species.

  10. Direct calculation of correlation length based on quasi-cumulant method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Noboru

    2014-03-01

    We formulate a method of directly obtaining a correlation length without full calculation of correlation functions, as a high-temperature series. The method is based on the quasi-cumulant method, which was formulated by the author in J. Stat. Phys. 111, 1049-1090 (2003) as a complementary method for the high-temperature series expansion originally for an SU(n) Heisenberg model, but is applicable to general spin models according to our recent reformulation. A correlation function divided by its lowest-order nonzero contribution has properties very similar to a generating function of some kind of moments, which we call quasi-moments. Their corresponding quasi-cumulants can be also derived, whose generating function is related to the correlation length. In addition, applications to other numerical methods such as the quantum Monte Carlo method are also discussed. JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25914008.

  11. An easy measure of quantum correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hui; Wu, Zhao-Qin; Hu, Li-Yun; Xu, Xue-Xiang; Huang, Jie-Hui

    2015-11-01

    To measure the quantum correlation of a bipartite state, a test matrix is constructed through the commutations among the blocks of its density matrix, which turns out to be a zero matrix for a classical state with zero quantum correlation, and a nonzero one for a quantum state with positive quantum correlation. The Frobenius norm of the test matrix is used to measure the quantum correlation, which satisfies the basic requirements for a good measure and coincides with Wootters concurrence for two-qubit pure states. Since no optimization is involved in the definition, this measure of quantum correlation is easy to compute and even can be calculated manually.

  12. More Voodoo correlations: when average-based measures inflate correlations.

    PubMed

    Brand, Andrew; Bradley, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    A Monte-Carlo simulation was conducted to assess the extent that a correlation estimate can be inflated when an average-based measure is used in a commonly employed correlational design. The results from the simulation reveal that the inflation of the correlation estimate can be substantial, up to 76%. Additionally, data was re-analyzed from two previously published studies to determine the extent that the correlation estimate was inflated due to the use of an averaged based measure. The re-analyses reveal that correlation estimates had been inflated by just over 50% in both studies. Although these findings are disconcerting, we are somewhat comforted by the fact that there is a simple and easy analysis that can be employed to prevent the inflation of the correlation estimate that we have simulated and observed. PMID:24837177

  13. Total diesel exhaust particulate length measurements using a modified household smoke alarm ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of various means to combat the negative health effects of ultrafine particles emitted by internal combustion engines, a reliable, low-cost instrument for dynamic measurements of the exhaust emissions of ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is needed. In this study, an ordinary ionization-type building smoke detector was modified to serve as a measuring ionization chamber and utilized for dynamic measurements of PM emissions from diesel engines. When used with diluted exhaust, the readings show an excellent correlation with total particulate length. The instrument worked well with raw and diluted exhaust and with varying emission levels and is well suitable for on-board use. PMID:21387930

  14. Local correlation measures in atomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Nicolais L.; Sagar, Robin P.; Esquivel, Rodolfo O.

    2005-02-01

    The phenomenon of electron correlation in atomic systems is examined and compared from the statistical, information theoretic, and energetic perspectives. Local correlation measures, based on the correlation coefficient, information entropies, and idempotency measure, are compared to the correlation energy density. Analysis of these local measures reveals that the chemically significant valence region is responsible for the behavior of their respective global measures in contrast to the correlation energy density which has large contributions to the correlation energy from both the core and valence regions. These results emphasize the difference in the mechanisms inherent in the different perspectives, the similarity between the statistical, information entropic, and idempotency views, and provides further evidence for the use of information theoretic based quantities in studies of electron correlation.

  15. Precise intensity correlation measurement for atomic resonance

    E-print Network

    Torii, Yoshio

    Precise intensity correlation measurement for atomic resonance fluorescence from optical molasses in an optical molasses. Using a single-mode fiber as a transverse mode filter, measurement with maximally high

  16. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Major Depression: Correlations with Chronicity, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress - Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Mellon, Synthia H.; Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Su, Yali; Reus, Victor I.; Rosser, Rebecca; Burke, Heather M.; Kupferman, Eve; Compagnone, Mariana; Nelson, J. Craig; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression is associated with an unusually high rate of aging-related illnesses and early mortality. One aspect of “accelerated aging” in depression may be shortened leukocyte telomeres. When telomeres critically shorten, as often occurs with repeated mitoses or in response to oxidation and inflammation, cells may die. Indeed, leukocyte telomere shortening predicts early mortality and medical illnesses in non-depressed populations. We sought to determine if leukocyte telomeres are shortened in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), whether this is a function of lifetime depression exposure and whether this is related to putative mediators, oxidation and inflammation. Methodology Leukocyte telomere length was compared between 18 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 controls and was correlated with lifetime depression chronicity and peripheral markers of oxidation (F2-isoprostane/Vitamin C ratio) and inflammation (IL-6). Analyses were controlled for age and sex. Principal Findings The depressed group, as a whole, did not differ from the controls in telomere length. However, telomere length was significantly inversely correlated with lifetime depression exposure, even after controlling for age (p<0.05). Average telomere length in the depressed subjects who were above the median of lifetime depression exposure (?9.2 years' cumulative duration) was 281 base pairs shorter than that in controls (p<0.05), corresponding to approximately seven years of “accelerated cell aging.” Telomere length was inversely correlated with oxidative stress in the depressed subjects (p<0.01) and in the controls (p<0.05) and with inflammation in the depressed subjects (p<0.05). Conclusions These preliminary data indicate that accelerated aging at the level of leukocyte telomeres is proportional to lifetime exposure to MDD. This might be related to cumulative exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation in MDD. This suggest that telomere shortening does not antedate depression and is not an intrinsic feature. Rather, telomere shortening may progress in proportion to lifetime depression exposure. PMID:21448457

  17. Analysis of the Fluorescence Correlation Function of Quantum Rods with Different Lengths.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeran; Kim, Sok Won

    2015-11-01

    We built a polarization fluorescence correlation spectroscopy system to analyze the variation of the correlation function in rotational diffusion based on the length of rod-like fluorescent particles. Because the rotational diffusion of particles in liquid depends on the relative polarization states of the laser source and particle fluorescence, we compared the amplitudes of the rotational diffusion using the autocorrelation function in different polarization states. For experiments that depend on the length of the fluorescent particles, we prepared three kinds of quantum rod samples with a width of 6.5?±?0.5 nm and lengths of 17?±?3, 40?±?3, and 46?±?3 nm. Through the experiment, we obtained the hydrodynamic radii of each particle using the rotational diffusion coefficient: 10.7?±?0.8, 13.4?±?0.7, and 14.1?±?0.4 nm with the length of the particles. All the obtained values for radii are 3 nm larger than the calculated equivalent radii of spheres with the same volume as the rod samples. Through a fraction analysis by polarization state, we confirmed that the ratio of rotational fraction for polarization increases with the aspect ratio of the actual particle. PMID:26399538

  18. First $?K$ atom lifetime and $?K$ scattering length measurements

    E-print Network

    B. Adeva; L. Afanasyev; Y. Allkofer; C. Amsler; A. Anania; S. Aogaki; A. Benelli; V. Brekhovskikh; T. Cechak; M. Chiba; P. Chliapnikov; C. Ciocarlan; S. Constantinescu; P. Doskarova; D. Drijard; A. Dudarev; M. Duma; D. Dumitriu; D. Fluerasu; A. Gorin; O. Gorchakov; K. Gritsay; C. Guaraldo; M. Gugiu; M. Hansroul; Z. Hons; S. Horikawa; Y. Iwashita; V. Karpukhin; J. Kluson; M. Kobayashi; V. Kruglov; L. Kruglova; A. Kulikov; E. Kulish; A. Kuptsov; A. Lamberto; A. Lanaro; R. Lednicky; C. Mariñas; J. Martincik; L. Nemenov; M. Nikitin; K. Okada; V. Olchevskii; M. Pentia; A. Penzo; M. Plo; T. Ponta; P. Prusa; G. Rappazzo; A. Romero Vidal; A. Ryazantsev; V. Rykalin; J. Schacher; A. Sidorov; J. Smolik; S. Sugimoto; F. Takeutchi; L. Tauscher; T. Trojek; S. Trusov; T. Urban; T. Vrba; V. Yazkov; Y. Yoshimura; M. Zhabitsky; P. Zrelov

    2014-03-04

    The results of a search for hydrogen-like atoms consisting of $\\pi^{\\mp}K^{\\pm}$ mesons are presented. Evidence for $\\pi K$ atom production by 24 GeV/c protons from CERN PS interacting with a nickel target has been seen in terms of characteristic $\\pi K$ pairs from their breakup in the same target ($178 \\pm 49$) and from Coulomb final state interaction ($653 \\pm 42$). Using these results the analysis yields a first value for the $\\pi K$ atom lifetime of $\\tau=(2.5_{-1.8}^{+3.0})$ fs and a first model-independent measurement of the S-wave isospin-odd $\\pi K$ scattering length $\\left|a_0^-\\right|=\\frac{1}{3}\\left|a_{1/2}-a_{3/2}\\right|= \\left(0.11_{-0.04}^{+0.09} \\right)M_{\\pi}^{-1}$ ($a_I$ for isospin $I$).

  19. Dyslipidemia and Chronic Inflammation Markers Are Correlated with Telomere Length Shortening in Cushing’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aulinas, Anna; Ramírez, María-José; Barahona, María-José; Valassi, Elena; Resmini, Eugenia; Mato, Eugènia; Santos, Alicia; Crespo, Iris; Bell, Olga; Surrallés, Jordi; Webb, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cushing’s syndrome (CS) increases cardiovascular risk (CVR) and adipocytokine imbalance, associated with an increased inflammatory state. Telomere length (TL) shortening is a novel CVR marker, associated with inflammation biomarkers. We hypothesized that inflammatory state and higher CVR in CS might be related to TL shortening, as observed in premature aging. Aim To evaluate relationships between TL, CVR and inflammation markers in CS. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 77 patients with CS (14 males, 59 pituitary-, 17 adrenal- and 1 ectopic-origin; 21 active disease) and 77 age-, gender-, smoking-matched controls were included. Total white blood cell TL was measured by TRF-Southern technique. Clinical data and blood samples were collected (lipids, adrenal function, glucose). Adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were available in a subgroup of patients (n=32). Correlations between TL and clinical features were examined and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate potential predictors of TL. Results Dyslipidemic CS had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic subjects (7328±1274 vs 7957±1137 bp, p<0.05). After adjustment for age and body mass index, cured and active CS dyslipidemic patients had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic CS (cured: 7187±1309 vs 7868±1104; active: 7203±1262 vs 8615±1056, respectively, p<0.05). Total cholesterol and triglycerides negatively correlated with TL (r-0.279 and -0.259, respectively, p<0.05), as well as CRP and IL6 (r-0.412 and -0.441, respectively, p<0.05). No difference in TL according the presence of other individual CVR factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity) were observed in CS or in the control group. Additional TL shortening was observed in dyslipidemic obese patients who were also hypertensive, compared to those with two or less CVR factors (6956±1280 vs 7860±1180, respectively, p<0.001). Age and dyslipidemia were independent negative predictors of TL. Conclusion TL is shortened in dyslipidemic CS patients, further worse if hypertension and/or obesity coexist and is negatively correlated with increased inflammation markers. Increased lipids and a “low” grade inflammation may contribute to TL shortening and consequently to premature ageing and increased morbidity in CS. PMID:25799396

  20. Audiogram, body mass, and basilar papilla length: correlations in birds and predictions for extinct archosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleich, Otto; Dooling, Robert J.; Manley, Geoffrey A.

    2005-12-01

    The inner ear in the group of archosaurs (birds, crocodilians, and extinct dinosaurs) shows a high degree of structural similarity, enabling predictions of their function in extinct species based on relationships among similar variables in living birds. Behavioral audiograms and morphological data on the length of the auditory sensory epithelium (the basilar papilla) are available for many avian species. By bringing different data sets together, we show that body mass and the size of the basilar papilla are significantly correlated, and the most sensitive frequency in a given species is inversely related to the body mass and the length of the basilar papilla. We also demonstrate that the frequency of best hearing is correlated with the high-frequency limit of hearing. Small species with a short basilar papilla hear higher frequencies compared with larger species with a longer basilar papilla. Based on the regression analysis of two significant correlations in living archosaurs (best audiogram frequency vs body mass and best audiogram frequency vs papillar length), we suggest that hearing in large dinosaurs was restricted to low frequencies with a high-frequency limit below 3 kHz.

  1. Variability of interconnected wind plants: correlation length and its dependence on variability time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. But how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer ‘how far is far enough,’ we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25-2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high-pass filter time constants shorter than about ? = 38 h, all datasets exhibit a correlation length ? that falls at least as fast as {{? }-1} . Since the inter-site separation needed for statistical independence falls for shorter time scales, higher-rate fluctuations can be effectively smoothed by aggregating wind plants over areas smaller than otherwise estimated.

  2. Measurement of the Length of an Optical Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Glenn has been involved in developing optical trapping and optical micromanipulation techniques in order to develop a tool that can be used to probe, characterize, and assemble nano and microscale materials to create microscale sensors for harsh flight environments. In order to be able to assemble a sensor or probe candidate sensor material, it is useful to know how far an optical trap can reach; that is, the distance beyond/below the stable trapping point through which an object will be drawn into the optical trap. Typically, to measure the distance over which an optical trap would influence matter in a horizontal (perpendicular to beam propagation) direction, it was common to hold an object in one optical trap, place a second optical trap a known distance away, turn off the first optical trap, and note if the object was moved into the second trap when it was turned on. The disadvantage of this technique is that it only gives information of trap influence distance in horizontal (x y) directions. No information about the distance of the influence of the trap is gained in the direction of propagation of the beam (the z direction). A method was developed to use a time-of-flight technique to determine the length along the propagation direction of an optical trap beam over which an object may be drawn into the optical trap. Test objects (polystyrene microspheres) were held in an optical trap in a water-filled sample chamber and raised to a pre-determined position near the top of the sample chamber. Next, the test objects were released by blocking the optical trap beam. The test objects were allowed to fall through the water for predetermined periods of time, at the end of which the trapping beam was unblocked. It was noted whether or not the test object returned to the optical trap or continued to fall. This determination of the length of an optical trap's influence by this manner assumes that the test object falls through the water in the sample chamber at terminal velocity for the duration of its fall, so that the distance of trap influence can be computed simply by: d = VTt, where d is the trap length (or distance of trap reach), VT is the terminal velocity of the test object, and t is the time interval over which the object is allowed to fall.

  3. Infinite Correlation in Measured Quantum Processes

    E-print Network

    Karoline Wiesner; James P. Crutchfield

    2006-11-14

    We show that quantum dynamical systems can exhibit infinite correlations in their behavior when repeatedly measured. We model quantum processes using quantum finite-state generators and take the stochastic language they generate as a representation of their behavior. We analyze two spin-1 quantum systems that differ only in how they are observed. The corresponding language generated has short-range correlation in one case and infinite correlation in the other.

  4. Norm-based measurement of quantum correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yuchun; Guo Guangcan

    2011-06-15

    In this paper we derived a necessary and sufficient condition for classical correlated states and proposed a norm-based measurement Q of quantum correlation. Using the max norm of operators, we gave the expression of the quantum correlation measurement Q and investigated the dynamics of Q in Markovian and non-Markovian cases, respectively. Q decays exponentially and vanishes only asymptotically in the Markovian case and causes periodical death and rebirth in the non-Markovian case. In the pure state, the quantum correlation Q is always larger than the entanglement, which was different from other known measurements. In addition, we showed that locally broadcastable and broadcastable are equivalent and reproved the density of quantum correlated states.

  5. On the measurability of quantum correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio; Azevedo, Sérgio; Rosas, Alexandre

    2015-05-01

    The concept of correlation function is widely used in classical statistical mechanics to characterize how two or more variables depend on each other. In quantum mechanics, on the other hand, there are observables that cannot be measured at the same time; the so-called incompatible observables. This prospect imposes a limitation on the definition of a quantum analog for the correlation function in terms of a sequence of measurements. Here, based on the notion of sequential weak measurements, we circumvent this limitation by introducing a framework to measure general quantum correlation functions, in principle, independently of the state of the system and the operators involved. To illustrate, we propose an experimental configuration to obtain explicitly the quantum correlation function between two Pauli operators, in which the input state is an arbitrary mixed qubit state encoded on the polarization of photons.

  6. Correlation lengths and topological entanglement entropies of unitary and nonunitary fractional quantum Hall wave functions.

    PubMed

    Estienne, B; Regnault, N; Bernevig, B A

    2015-05-01

    Using the newly developed matrix product state formalism for non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states, we address the question of whether a FQH trial wave function written as a correlation function in a nonunitary conformal field theory (CFT) can describe the bulk of a gapped FQH phase. We show that the nonunitary Gaffnian state exhibits clear signatures of a pathological behavior. As a benchmark we compute the correlation length of a Moore-Read state and find it to be finite in the thermodynamic limit. By contrast, the Gaffnian state has an infinite correlation length in (at least) the non-Abelian sector, and is therefore gapless. We also compute the topological entanglement entropy of several non-Abelian states with and without quasiholes. For the first time in the FQH effect the results are in excellent agreement in all topological sectors with the CFT prediction for unitary states. For the nonunitary Gaffnian state in finite size systems, the topological entanglement entropy seems to behave like that of the composite fermion Jain state at equal filling. PMID:26001015

  7. Correlation Lengths and Topological Entanglement Entropies of Unitary and Nonunitary Fractional Quantum Hall Wave Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estienne, B.; Regnault, N.; Bernevig, B. A.

    2015-05-01

    Using the newly developed matrix product state formalism for non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states, we address the question of whether a FQH trial wave function written as a correlation function in a nonunitary conformal field theory (CFT) can describe the bulk of a gapped FQH phase. We show that the nonunitary Gaffnian state exhibits clear signatures of a pathological behavior. As a benchmark we compute the correlation length of a Moore-Read state and find it to be finite in the thermodynamic limit. By contrast, the Gaffnian state has an infinite correlation length in (at least) the non-Abelian sector, and is therefore gapless. We also compute the topological entanglement entropy of several non-Abelian states with and without quasiholes. For the first time in the FQH effect the results are in excellent agreement in all topological sectors with the CFT prediction for unitary states. For the nonunitary Gaffnian state in finite size systems, the topological entanglement entropy seems to behave like that of the composite fermion Jain state at equal filling.

  8. Quantum correlation cost of the weak measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Shao-xiong; Yu, Chang-shui

    2014-12-15

    Quantum correlation cost (QCC) characterizing how much quantum correlation is used in a weak-measurement process is presented based on the trace norm. It is shown that the QCC is related to the trace-norm-based quantum discord (TQD) by only a factor that is determined by the strength of the weak measurement, so it only catches partial quantumness of a quantum system compared with the TQD. We also find that the residual quantumness can be ‘extracted’ not only by the further von Neumann measurement, but also by a sequence of infinitesimal weak measurements. As an example, we demonstrate our outcomes by the Bell-diagonal state.

  9. Effects of HBT correlations on flow measurements

    E-print Network

    Mai Dinh; Nicolas Borghini; Jean-Yves Ollitrault

    2000-01-21

    The methods currently used to measure collective flow in nucleus--nucleus collisions assume that the only azimuthal correlations between particles are those arising from their correlation with the reaction plane. However, quantum HBT correlations also produce short range azimuthal correlations between identical particles. This creates apparent azimuthal anisotropies of a few percent when pions are used to estimate the direction of the reaction plane. These should not be misinterpreted as originating from collective flow. In particular, we show that the peculiar behaviour of the directed and elliptic flow of pions observed by NA49 at low p_T can be entirely understood in terms of HBT correlations. Such correlations also produce apparent higher Fourier harmonics (of order n larger than 3) of the azimuthal distribution, with magnitudes of the order of 1%, which should be looked for in the data.

  10. Measuring and modeling correlations in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2015-09-01

    The interactions among the elementary components of many complex systems can be qualitatively different. Such systems are therefore naturally described in terms of multiplex or multilayer networks, i.e., networks where each layer stands for a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes. There is today a growing interest in understanding when and why a description in terms of a multiplex network is necessary and more informative than a single-layer projection. Here we contribute to this debate by presenting a comprehensive study of correlations in multiplex networks. Correlations in node properties, especially degree-degree correlations, have been thoroughly studied in single-layer networks. Here we extend this idea to investigate and characterize correlations between the different layers of a multiplex network. Such correlations are intrinsically multiplex, and we first study them empirically by constructing and analyzing several multiplex networks from the real world. In particular, we introduce various measures to characterize correlations in the activity of the nodes and in their degree at the different layers and between activities and degrees. We show that real-world networks exhibit indeed nontrivial multiplex correlations. For instance, we find cases where two layers of the same multiplex network are positively correlated in terms of node degrees, while other two layers are negatively correlated. We then focus on constructing synthetic multiplex networks, proposing a series of models to reproduce the correlations observed empirically and/or to assess their relevance.

  11. Topological phases and topological entropy of two-dimensional systems with finite correlation length

    SciTech Connect

    Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Fradkin, Eduardo; Raman, Kumar S.

    2007-12-01

    We elucidate the topological features of the entanglement entropy of a region in two-dimensional quantum systems in a topological phase with a finite correlation length {xi}. First, we suggest that simpler reduced quantities, related to the von Neumann entropy, could be defined to compute the topological entropy. We use our methods to compute the entanglement entropy for the ground-state wave function of a quantum eight-vertex model in its topological phase and show that a finite correlation length adds corrections of the same order as the topological entropy which come from sharp features of the boundary of the region under study. We also calculate the topological entropy for the ground state of the quantum dimer model on a triangular lattice by using a mapping to a loop model. The topological entropy of the state is determined by loop configurations with a nontrivial winding number around the region under study. Finally, we consider extensions of the Kitaev wave function, which incorporate the effects of electric and magnetic charge fluctuations, and use it to investigate the stability of the topological phase by calculating the topological entropy.

  12. Single-shot electron bunch length measurements using a spatial electro-optical autocorrelation interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Suetterlin, Daniel; Erni, Daniel; Schlott, Volker; Sigg, Hans; Jaeckel, Heinz; Murk, Axel

    2010-10-15

    A spatial, electro-optical autocorrelation (EOA) interferometer using the vertically polarized lobes of coherent transition radiation (CTR) has been developed as a single-shot electron bunch length monitor at an optical beam port downstream the 100 MeV preinjector LINAC of the Swiss Light Source. This EOA monitor combines the advantages of step-scan interferometers (high temporal resolution) [D. Mihalcea et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 082801 (2006) and T. Takahashi and K. Takami, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 363 (2008)] and terahertz-gating technologies [U. Schmidhammer et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 95 (2009) and B. Steffen et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009)] (fast response), providing the possibility to tune the accelerator with an online bunch length diagnostics. While a proof of principle of the spatial interferometer was achieved by step-scan measurements with far-infrared detectors, the single-shot capability of the monitor has been demonstrated by electro-optical correlation of the spatial CTR interference pattern with fairly long (500 ps) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulses in a ZnTe crystal. In single-shot operation, variations of the bunch length between 1.5 and 4 ps due to different phase settings of the LINAC bunching cavities have been measured with subpicosecond time resolution.

  13. Single-shot electron bunch length measurements using a spatial electro-optical autocorrelation interferometer.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Daniel; Erni, Daniel; Schlott, Volker; Sigg, Hans; Jäckel, Heinz; Murk, Axel

    2010-10-01

    A spatial, electro-optical autocorrelation (EOA) interferometer using the vertically polarized lobes of coherent transition radiation (CTR) has been developed as a single-shot electron bunch length monitor at an optical beam port downstream the 100 MeV preinjector LINAC of the Swiss Light Source. This EOA monitor combines the advantages of step-scan interferometers (high temporal resolution) [D. Mihalcea et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 082801 (2006) and T. Takahashi and K. Takami, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 363 (2008)] and terahertz-gating technologies [U. Schmidhammer et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 95 (2009) and B. Steffen et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009)] (fast response), providing the possibility to tune the accelerator with an online bunch length diagnostics. While a proof of principle of the spatial interferometer was achieved by step-scan measurements with far-infrared detectors, the single-shot capability of the monitor has been demonstrated by electro-optical correlation of the spatial CTR interference pattern with fairly long (500 ps) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulses in a ZnTe crystal. In single-shot operation, variations of the bunch length between 1.5 and 4 ps due to different phase settings of the LINAC bunching cavities have been measured with subpicosecond time resolution. PMID:21034105

  14. A Comparison of the Use of Radar Images and Neutron Probe Data to Determine the Horizontal Correlation Length of Water Content

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Rosemary J.; Irving, James D.; Tercier, Paulette; Freeman, Eugene J.; Murray, Christopher J.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2007-11-08

    Surface-based ground-penetrating radar data were collected at the Hanford Site in Washington, U.S.A. to assess the use of radar reflection images as a means of quantifying the spatial variability of subsurface water content. Available at the selected test site were two sets of water content data derived from neutron probe measurements that had been made to a depth of ~18 m in 32 wells. The comparison of probe-derived water content data, synthetic radar data, and the acquired radar data indicated a good correspondence between the changes in probe-derived water content and the location of reflections in the radar data. Geostatistical analysis was conducted on the two sets of probe-derived water content values and the amplitudes of the reflections in the radar reflection image to determine the horizontal correlation length of water content. The experimental semivariograms for the water content data were fit with a single exponential model with a correlation length of 10 m. The semivariogram for the radar data was fit with a nested structure containing a dominant long-range structure with a correlation length of 14 m, and a smaller-scale structure with a correlation length of 0.3 m. Quantifying the scale triplet – the spacing, extent, and support – for the two forms of measurement provided a framework for comparing and assessing the derived correlation structures.

  15. Measurement of exciton correlations using electrostatic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remeika, M.; Leonard, J. R.; Dorow, C. J.; Fogler, M. M.; Butov, L. V.; Hanson, M.; Gossard, A. C.

    2015-09-01

    We present a method for determining correlations in a gas of indirect excitons in a semiconductor quantum well structure. The method involves subjecting the excitons to a periodic electrostatic potential that causes modulations of the exciton density and photoluminescence (PL). Experimentally measured amplitudes of energy and intensity modulations of exciton PL serve as an input to a theoretical estimate of the exciton correlation parameter and temperature. We also present a proof-of-principle demonstration of the method for determining the correlation parameter and discuss how its accuracy can be improved.

  16. Understanding the amplitudes of noise correlation measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, Victor C.

    2011-01-01

    Cross correlation of ambient seismic noise is known to result in time series from which station-station travel-time measurements can be made. Part of the reason that these cross-correlation travel-time measurements are reliable is that there exists a theoretical framework that quantifies how these travel times depend on the features of the ambient noise. However, corresponding theoretical results do not currently exist to describe how the amplitudes of the cross correlation depend on such features. For example, currently it is not possible to take a given distribution of noise sources and calculate the cross correlation amplitudes one would expect from such a distribution. Here, we provide a ray-theoretical framework for calculating cross correlations. This framework differs from previous work in that it explicitly accounts for attenuation as well as the spatial distribution of sources and therefore can address the issue of quantifying amplitudes in noise correlation measurements. After introducing the general framework, we apply it to two specific problems. First, we show that we can quantify the amplitudes of coherency measurements, and find that the decay of coherency with station-station spacing depends crucially on the distribution of noise sources. We suggest that researchers interested in performing attenuation measurements from noise coherency should first determine how the dominant sources of noise are distributed. Second, we show that we can quantify the signal-to-noise ratio of noise correlations more precisely than previous work, and that these signal-to-noise ratios can be estimated for given situations prior to the deployment of seismometers. It is expected that there are applications of the theoretical framework beyond the two specific cases considered, but these applications await future work.

  17. Correlation of interannual length-of-day variation with El Nino/Southern Oscillation, 1972-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. Fong

    1988-01-01

    Correlation between interannual length-of-day (LOD) changes and an index representation of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) for the period of 1972-1986 was examined in two ways: as the cross-correlation function in the time domain and as the complex coherence spectrum in the frequency domain. The ENSO representation was derived from barometric measurements from the Tahiti and Darwin, Australia, meteorological stations, as the difference of the sea-level pressure between the two locations. The cross correlation between this ENSO representation and LOD variation on the interannual time scale was found to have a maximum value of 0.68 and the LOD phase lag of 2 months, indicating that most of the interannual LOD variation is caused by ENSO, and that the transfer of ENSO's axial angular momentum to the solid earth lags behind the Tahiti-Darwin pressure variation by about 2 months. The corresponding coherence spectrum showed minimum correlation around biennial periods, indicating an influence of the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation on LOD variations.

  18. New Method for Automatic Body Length Measurement of the Collembolan, Folsomia candida Willem 1902 (Insecta: Collembola)

    PubMed Central

    Bánszegi, Oxána; Kosztolányi, András; Bakonyi, Gábor; Szabó, Borbála; Dombos, Miklós

    2014-01-01

    The collembolan, Folsomia candida, is widely used in soil ecotoxicology. In recent years, growth rate of collembolans has become as frequently used endpoint as reproduction rate in ecotoxicological studies. However, measuring collembolan body sizes to estimate growth rate is a complicated and time-consuming task. Here we present a new image analysis method, which facilitates and accelerates the body length measurement of the collembolan Folsomia candida. The new software package, called CollScope, consists of three elements: 1) an imaging device; 2) photographing software; 3) an ImageJ macro for image processing, measurement and data analysis. We give a complete description of the operation of the software, the image analyzing process and describe its accuracy and reliability. The software with a detailed usage manual is attached as Supplementary Material. We report a case study to demonstrate that the automated measurement of collembolan body sizes is highly correlated with the traditional manual measurements (estimated measuring accuracy 0.05 mm). Furthermore, we performed a dose-response ecotoxicity test using cadmium-sulfate by using CollScope as well as classical methods for size measurement. Size data measured by CollScope or manually did not differ significantly. Furthermore the new software package decreased time consumption of the measurements to 42% when tested on 35 animals. Consequently, methodological investigations performed in this study should be regarded as a recommendation for any other routine dose-response study where body growth is an endpoint. PMID:24901322

  19. Ex vivo radiographic tooth length measurements with the reference sphere method (RSM).

    PubMed

    Roeder, Felix; Brüllmann, Dan; d'Hoedt, Bernd; Schulze, Ralf

    2010-12-01

    A reference-based radiographic "reference sphere method" (RSM) for accurate length measurements in (dental) projection radiographs for the assessment of tooth length in dry human mandible sections is evaluated. RSM determines the depth coordinates of reference spheres placed in the object plane from the elliptical distortion of their shadows. Two segments (one canine and one molar) of dry human mandibles were exposed 95 times at different angulations (0-40°) on a dental charge-coupled device receptor. Three steel spheres (diameters d (1)?=?2.00 mm, d (2)?=?3.00 mm) were attached roughly coplanar with the tooth's main axis. Radiographs were assessed once by visual inspection plus manual landmark identification with a mouse-driven cursor. The results were compared to the true tooth length assessed after extraction and to a conventional method (C), i.e., the rule of proportion based on magnification of the sphere shadows. Mean relative length error was 2.28% (d (1)) and 0.46% (d (2)) for RSM and -13.58% (d (1)) and -9.90% (d (2)) for C. For both methods, length errors were significantly (p correlated with the inclination relative to the receptor. RSM allows for complete a posteriori determination of the imaging geometry under the assumption of a known source-to-receptor distance. One specific application is foreshortening correction of objects coplanar with the reference spheres. Remaining errors are mainly due to incorrect landmark definition. In our setup, these were exaggerated by the visual/manual image-evaluation process. Automated image analysis has been shown for similar tasks to minimize these errors considerably. PMID:19830462

  20. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  1. Is severity of family burden a correlate of length of stay?

    PubMed

    He, Hongbo; Ning, Yuping; Rosenheck, Robert; Sun, Bin; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Yanling

    2015-11-30

    It has been difficult to identify relevant correlates of inpatient psychiatric length of stay (LOS), but few have examined family burden as a potential factor. The present study investigated the association of several dimensions of family burden with LOS net of other factors. Dimensions of burden experienced by primary caregivers were evaluated in a sample of 602 psychiatric inpatients in a large hospital in Guangzhou, China within 1 week of admission. Factor analysis reduced the burden data to five factors. Bivariate association and multiple linear regression analyzes were used to investigate burden and other factors associated with LOS (average LOS=58.8 days, SD=44.3). Multiple regression analysis showed that in addition to having health insurance coverage, being diagnosed with schizophrenia, being unmarried, and not being employed; being perceived by family members as showing more violent behavior and causing higher levels of caregiver distress were independently associated with longer LOS. PMID:26321126

  2. Noise probes of underlying static correlation lengths in the superconducting peak effect

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, M.W.; Merithew, R.D.; Weissman, M.B.; Higgins, M.J.; Bhattacharya, S.

    1998-01-01

    The sensitivity of low-frequency noise to ac magnetic-field perturbations is explored in the plastic flow regime near the {open_quotes}peak effect{close_quotes} in the clean type-II superconductor NbSe{sub 2}. Very small ac magnetic fields (on the order of 1 Oe in a dc field of about 20000 Oe) substantially reduce the low-frequency spectral density by inducing rapid switching among metastable configurations present in the pinned state. This sensitivity to ac fields shrinks rapidly as H increases in the peak-effect regime, indicating reduced static correlation lengths as the peak is approached. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Measures and models for angular correlation and angular-linear correlation. [correlation of random variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.; Wehrly, T.

    1976-01-01

    Population models for dependence between two angular measurements and for dependence between an angular and a linear observation are proposed. The method of canonical correlations first leads to new population and sample measures of dependence in this latter situation. An example relating wind direction to the level of a pollutant is given. Next, applied to pairs of angular measurements, the method yields previously proposed sample measures in some special cases and a new sample measure in general.

  4. Questioning the relationship between the ?4 susceptibility and the dynamical correlation length in a glass former.

    PubMed

    Colin, Rémy; Alsayed, Ahmed M; Gay, Cyprien; Abou, Bérengère

    2015-11-17

    Clusters of fast and slow correlated particles, identified as dynamical heterogeneities (DHs), constitute a central aspect of glassy dynamics. A key factor of the glass transition scenario is a significant increase of the cluster size ?4 as the transition is approached. In need of easy-to-compute tools to measure ?4, the dynamical susceptibility ?4 was introduced recently, and used in various experimental studies to probe DHs. Here, we investigate DHs in dense microgel suspensions using image correlation analysis, and compute both ?4 and the four-point correlation function G4. The spatial decrease of G4 provides a direct access to ?4, which is found to grow significantly with increasing volume fraction. However, this increase is not captured by ?4. We show that the assumptions that validate the connection between ?4 and ?4 are not fulfilled in our experiments. PMID:26412312

  5. [Voice classification in professional singers: the influence of vocal fold length, vocal tract length and body measurements].

    PubMed

    Mürbe, D; Roers, F; Sundberg, J

    2011-06-01

    Professional voice performance is strongly affected by the functional adjustments of the structures involved in voice production. Generally, these functional skills are required by means of intensive training. On the other hand, the individual morphology of the larynx and vocal tract limits this functional variability. Thus, to neglect morphological conditions might result in voice problems. The present paper summarizes investigations on the influence of morphological measurements on the voice classification of professional singers. Vocal fold length, vocal tract length and body height have been found to differ systematically between sopranos, mezzosopranos, altos, tenors, baritones and basses. Although the knowledge of morphological measures does not permit a definite assignment or prediction of the individual voice classification, the data are valuable for counseling by voice teachers and phoniatricians. This might contribute to the prevention of voice disorders. PMID:21547585

  6. Evolution equation for geometric quantum correlation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Liang; Fan, Heng

    2015-05-01

    A simple relation is established for the evolution equation of quantum-information-processing protocols such as quantum teleportation, remote state preparation, Bell-inequality violation, and particularly the dynamics of geometric quantum correlation measures. This relation shows that when the system traverses the local quantum channel, various figures of merit of the quantum correlations for different protocols demonstrate a factorization decay behavior for dynamics. We identified the family of quantum states for different kinds of quantum channels under the action of which the relation holds. This relation simplifies the assessment of many quantum tasks.

  7. Measurement and analysis of sarcomere length in rat cardiomyocytes in situ and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Camelliti, P.; Bollensdorff, C.; Stuckey, D. J.; Picton, G.; Burton, R. A. B.; Clarke, K.; Kohl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Sarcomere length (SL) is an important determinant and indicator of cardiac mechanical function; however, techniques for measuring SL in living, intact tissue are limited. Here, we present a technique that uses two-photon microscopy to directly image striations of living cells in cardioplegic conditions, both in situ (Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and ventricular tissue slices, stained with the fluorescent marker di-4-ANEPPS) and in vitro (acutely isolated rat ventricular myocytes). Software was developed to extract SL from two-photon fluorescence image sets while accounting for measurement errors associated with motion artifact in raster-scanned images and uncertainty of the cell angle relative to the imaging plane. Monte-Carlo simulations were used to guide analysis of SL measurements by determining error bounds as a function of measurement path length. The mode of the distribution of SL measurements in resting Langendorff-perfused heart is 1.95 ?m (n = 167 measurements from N = 11 hearts) after correction for tissue orientation, which was significantly greater than that in isolated cells (1.71 ?m, n = 346, N = 9 isolations) or ventricular slice preparations (1.79 ?m, n = 79, N = 3 hearts) under our experimental conditions. Furthermore, we find that edema in arrested Langendorff-perfused heart is associated with a mean SL increase; this occurs as a function of time ex vivo and correlates with tissue volume changes determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Our results highlight that the proposed method can be used to monitor SL in living cells and that different experimental models from the same species may display significantly different SL values under otherwise comparable conditions, which has implications for experiment design, as well as comparison and interpretation of data. PMID:20228259

  8. Neutrino mass measurement from correlation dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuelei

    2015-08-01

    The large scale structure measurement can be used as a precision probe for neutrinos. It is well known that the power spectrum is suppressed at relatively small scales by the free-streaming of neutrinos, and this is used to measure the neutrino mass. However, this method is prone to scale-dependent galaxy bias, which can lead to significant system error in the measurement. We proposed a new method to measure the neutrino mass which is free of this problem. Due to their smaller masses, the neutrinos can develop large relative velocities with respect to the dark matter, the neutrino distribution can then affect the structure formation process. Although the effect is very small, it may generate significant dipole in the galaxy cross-correlation function or the galaxy lensing. The neutrino mass may by determined by such observations. We present the feasibility for such measurement.

  9. FIBER LENGTH DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENT FOR LONG GLASS AND CARBON FIBER REINFORCED INJECTION MOLDED THERMOPLASTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Frame, Barbara J; Nguyen, Ba N.; TuckerIII, Charles L.; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio

    2007-01-01

    Procedures for fiber length distribution (FLD) measurement of long fiber reinforced injection molded thermoplastics were refined for glass and carbon fibers. Techniques for sample selection, fiber separation, digitization and length measurement for both fiber types are described in detail. Quantitative FLD results are provided for glass and carbon reinforced polypropylene samples molded with a nominal original fiber length of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) using equipment optimized for molding short fiber reinforced thermoplastics.

  10. Constraining the Correlation Distance in Quantum Measurements

    E-print Network

    Jean Schneider

    2010-01-13

    Standard Quantum Physics states that the outcome of measurements for some distant entangled subsystems are instantaneously statistically correlated, whatever their mutual distance. This correlation presents itself as if there were a correlation at a distance with infinite speed. It is expressed by the Bell Theorem. It has been experimentally verified over distances up to 18 km with a time resolution of a few picosecond, which can be translated into an apparent effective correlation speed larger than 10^7 c. The purpose of the present White Paper is to discuss the scientific interest and the feasibility to extend the correlation distance up to the Earth-Moon distance, i.e. 2 10^4 times larger than in present experiments. We are thus led to propose to install on the Moon a polarimter and a high performance photon detector with a high temporal resolution. Such an exploratory experiment would provide new tests of Quantum Physics and could perhaps discriminate between standard Quantum Physics and for instance the Bohmian theory.

  11. Questioning the relationship between the $?$4 susceptibility and the dynamical correlation length in a glass former

    E-print Network

    Rémy Colin; Ahmed Alsayed; Cyprien Gay; Bérengère Abou

    2015-09-10

    Clusters of fast and slow correlated particles, identified as dynamical heterogeneities (DHs), con-stitute a central aspect of glassy dynamics. A key ingredient of the glass transition scenario is asignificant increase of the cluster size $\\xi$4 as the transition is approached. In need of easy-to-computetools to measure $\\xi$4 , the dynamical susceptibility $\\chi$4 was introduced recently, and used in various ex-perimental works to probe DHs. Here, we investigate DHs in dense microgel suspensions using imagecorrelation analysis, and compute both $\\chi$4 and the four-point correlation function G4 . The spatialdecrease of G4 provides a direct access to $\\xi$4 , which is found to grow significantly with increasingvolume fraction. However, this increase is not captured by $\\chi$4 . We show that the assumptions thatvalidate the connection between $\\chi$4 and $\\xi$4 are not fulfilled in our experiments.

  12. Large-aperture laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement and its system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiqian; Li, Zhigang; Qiu, Lirong; Ren, Huan; Shao, Rongjun

    2015-06-29

    A new laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement (LDCFM) method is proposed with the capability to self-calibrate the reference lens (RL) focal length and the axial space between the test lens and RL. Using the property that the focus of laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement system (LDCFS) precisely corresponds to the null point of the differential confocal axial intensity curve, the proposed LDCFM measures the RL focal length f(R)' by precisely identifying the positions of the focus and last surface of RL, measures the axial space d(0) between RL and test ultra-long focal length lens (UFL) by identifying the last surface of RL and the vertex of UFL last surface, and measures the variation l in focus position of LDCFS with and without test UFL, and then calculates the UFL focal length f(T)' by the above measured f(R)', d(0) and l. In addition, a LDCFS based on the proposed method is developed for a large aperture lens. The experimental results indicate that the relative uncertainty is less than 0.01% for the test UFL, which has an aperture of 610 mm and focal length of 31,000 mm. LDCFM provides a novel approach for the high-precision focal-length measurement of large-aperture UFL. PMID:26191747

  13. Correlation between CAG Repeat Length and Clinical Features in Machado-Joseph Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Patrícia; Gaspar, Claudia; DeStefano, Anita L.; Silveira, Isabel; Coutinho, Paula; Radvany, João; Dawson, David M.; Sudarsky, Lewis; Guimarães, João; Loureiro, Jose E. L.; Nezarati, Marjan M.; Corwin, Lee I.; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Rooke, Karen; Rosenberg, Roger; MacLeod, Patrick; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Sequeiros, Jorge; Rouleau, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is associated with the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in a novel gene on 14q32.1. We confirmed the presence of this expansion in 156 MJD patients from 33 families of different geographic origins: 15 Portuguese Azorean, 2 Brazilian, and 16 North American of Portuguese Azorean descent. Normal chromosomes contain between 12 and 37 CAG repeats in the MJD gene, whereas MJD gene carriers have alleles within the expanded range of 62–84 CAG units. The distribution of expanded alleles and the gap between normal and expanded allele sizes is either inconsistent with a premutation hypothesis or most (if not all) of the alleles we studied descend from a common ancestor. There is a strong correlation between the expanded repeat size and the age at onset of the disease as well as the clinical presentation. There is mild instability of the CAG tract length with transmission of the expanded alleles; both increase and decrease in size between parents and progeny occur, with larger variations in male than in female transmissions. Together, these effects can partly explain the variability of age at onset and of phenotypic features in MJD; however, other modifying factors must exist. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:7611296

  14. Low-temperature spectrum of correlation lengths of the XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime

    E-print Network

    Maxime Dugave; Frank Göhmann; Karol K. Kozlowski; Junji Suzuki

    2015-06-16

    We consider the spectrum of correlation lengths of the spin-$\\frac{1}{2}$ XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime. These are given as ratios of eigenvalues of the quantum transfer matrix of the model. The eigenvalues are determined by integrals over certain auxiliary functions and by their zeros. The auxiliary functions satisfy nonlinear integral equations. We analyse these nonlinear integral equations in the low-temperature limit. In this limit we can determine the auxiliary functions and the expressions for the eigenvalues as functions of a finite number of parameters which satisfy finite sets of algebraic equations, the so-called higher-level Bethe Ansatz equations. The behaviour of these equations, if we send the temperature $T$ to zero, is different for zero and non-zero magnetic field $h$. If $h$ is zero the situation is much like in the case of the usual transfer matrix. Non-trivial higher-level Bethe Ansatz equations remain which determine certain complex excitation parameters as functions of hole parameters which are free on a line segment in the complex plane. If $h$ is non-zero, on the other hand, a remarkable restructuring occurs, and all parameters which enter the description of the quantum transfer matrix eigenvalues can be interpreted entirely in terms of particles and holes which are freely located on two curves when $T$ goes to zero.

  15. Low-temperature spectrum of correlation lengths of the XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime

    E-print Network

    Dugave, Maxime; Kozlowski, Karol K; Suzuki, Junji

    2015-01-01

    We consider the spectrum of correlation lengths of the spin-$\\frac{1}{2}$ XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime. These are given as ratios of eigenvalues of the quantum transfer matrix of the model. The eigenvalues are determined by integrals over certain auxiliary functions and by their zeros. The auxiliary functions satisfy nonlinear integral equations. We analyse these nonlinear integral equations in the low-temperature limit. In this limit we can determine the auxiliary functions and the expressions for the eigenvalues as functions of a finite number of parameters which satisfy finite sets of algebraic equations, the so-called higher-level Bethe Ansatz equations. The behaviour of these equations, if we send the temperature $T$ to zero, is different for zero and non-zero magnetic field $h$. If $h$ is zero the situation is much like in the case of the usual transfer matrix. Non-trivial higher-level Bethe Ansatz equations remain which determine certain complex excitation parameters as functions o...

  16. Establishment of a method to measure length of the ulnar nerve and standardize F-wave values in clinically normal beagles.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Shun; Shimizu, Miki; Marui, Yuumi; Kishimoto, Miori; Okuno, Seiichi

    2014-12-01

    We designed a new method of measuring the length of the ulnar nerve and determining standard values for F-wave parameters of the ulnar nerve in clinically normal beagles. Nerve length must be precisely measured to determine F-wave latency and conduction velocity. The length of the forelimb has served as the length of the ulnar nerve for F-wave assessments, but report indicates that F-wave latency is proportional to the length of the pathway traveled by nerve impulses. Therefore, we measured the surface distance from a stimulus point to the spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra (nerve length 1) and the anterior horn of the scapula (nerve length 2) as landmarks through the olecranon and the shoulder blade acromion. The correlation coefficients between the shortest F-wave latency and the length of nerves 1, 2 or the forelimb were 0.61, 0.7 and 0.58. Nerve length 2 generated the highest value. Furthermore, the anterior horn of the scapula was easily palpated in any dog regardless of well-fed body. We concluded that nerve length 2 was optimal for measuring the length of the ulnar nerve. PMID:25649942

  17. Establishment of a Method to Measure Length of the Ulnar Nerve and Standardize F-wave Values in Clinically Normal Beagles

    PubMed Central

    HIRASAWA, Shun; SHIMIZU, Miki; MARUI, Yuumi; KISHIMOTO, Miori; OKUNO, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    We designed a new method of measuring the length of the ulnar nerve and determining standard values for F-wave parameters of the ulnar nerve in clinically normal beagles. Nerve length must be precisely measured to determine F-wave latency and conduction velocity. The length of the forelimb has served as the length of the ulnar nerve for F-wave assessments, but report indicates that F-wave latency is proportional to the length of the pathway traveled by nerve impulses. Therefore, we measured the surface distance from a stimulus point to the spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra (nerve length 1) and the anterior horn of the scapula (nerve length 2) as landmarks through the olecranon and the shoulder blade acromion. The correlation coefficients between the shortest F-wave latency and the length of nerves 1, 2 or the forelimb were 0.61, 0.7 and 0.58. Nerve length 2 generated the highest value. Furthermore, the anterior horn of the scapula was easily palpated in any dog regardless of well-fed body. We concluded that nerve length 2 was optimal for measuring the length of the ulnar nerve. PMID:25649942

  18. The Length Measurement in the Turkish Mathematics Curriculum: Its Potential to Contribute to Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan-Sisman, Gulcin; Aksu, Meral

    2012-01-01

    "Knowing and doing measurement" is a fundamental competency in real life since measuring attributes of objects in appropriate units and using measuring tools assist students to quantify and understand the world. For this reason, the study of measurement has a special place in every mathematics curriculum. Among the domains of measurement, length

  19. Focal length measurement based on the wavefront difference method by a Fizeau interferometer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongming; Gao, Zhishan; Dou, Jiantai; Wang, Xinxing

    2014-09-01

    A method for measuring the focal length of the lens by a Fizeau interferometer is proposed. Based on the Gaussian imaging equation and the longitudinal displacements of the object point and image point, a precise formula for focal length calculation is deduced. The longitudinal displacement of the object points is determined by the wavefront difference method with a subnanometer resolution. An experimental system for focal length measurements is set up to verify the principle. The sources of uncertainty in measurement are discussed. Both the positive and negative lens experimental results indicate that the measurement accuracy is less than 0.16% under normal experimental environment. PMID:25321352

  20. Different behaviour-body length correlations in two populations of juvenile three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Winter, Gunnar De; Martins, Henrique Ramalho; Trovo, Rafael Arnoni; Chapman, Ben B

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural variation among individuals has received a lot of attention by behavioural ecologists in the past few years. Its causes and consequences are becoming vast areas of research. The origin and maintenance of individual variation in behaviour within and among populations is affected by many facets of the biotic and abiotic environment. Here, two populations of lab-reared juvenile three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are tested for three behaviours (boldness, exploration, and sociability). Given the identical rearing conditions, the only difference between these populations is the parental habitat. In both populations, correlations between behaviour and body length are found. Interestingly, these differ between the populations. In one population body length was negatively correlated with exploratory behaviour, while in the other one body length correlated negatively with sociability. Considering the identical environment these juvenile fish were exposed to, these findings suggest a potential (epi)genetic foundation for these correlations and shows that, in three-spined sticklebacks, the proximate basis for correlations between body length and behaviour appears quite malleable. PMID:26581320

  1. Cosmological Measurements with General Relativistic Galaxy Correlations

    E-print Network

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Bertacca, Daniele; Doré, Olivier; Durrer, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological dependence and the constraining power of large-scale galaxy correlations, including all redshift-distortions, wide-angle, lensing and gravitational potential effects on linear scales. We analyze the cosmological information present in the lensing convergence and in the gravitational potential terms describing the so-called "relativistic effects," and we find that, while smaller than the information contained in intrinsic galaxy clustering, it is not negligible. We investigate how neglecting them does bias cosmological measurements performed by future spectroscopic and photometric large-scale surveys such as SKA and Euclid. We perform a Fisher analysis using the CLASS code, modified to include scale-dependent galaxy bias and redshift-dependent magnification and evolution bias. Our results show that neglecting relativistic terms introduces an error in the forecasted precision in measuring cosmological parameters of the order of a few tens of percent, in particular when measuring ...

  2. Properties of acoustical speckle in the presence of phase aberration. Part II: Correlation lengths.

    PubMed

    Smith, S W; Trahey, G E; Hubbard, S M; Wagner, R F

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, analysis of the second order statistics of ultrasound speckle has led to accurate prediction and measurements of the average speckle size in the transducer focal zone. In this paper, that work has been extended to the average speckle size as determined by the normalized autocovariance in the presence of transducer phase aberrations. In general, a phase aberration causes a narrowing of the main lobe of the normalized autocovariance in the lateral direction. However, the lateral speckle autocovariance also showed significant side lobes in the presence of phase aberrations, indicating that individual speckles in a region of interest are not independent but are correlated so that less information is present for the task of signal detection when a transducer phase aberration exists. The same evidence of correlated speckle was found in the near field of a transducer in the region of fine speckle texture. This explanation satisfies the quandary of poor detectability in the near field region where the speckle is fine but the lateral resolution is quite degraded. The axial speckle in the presence of phase aberrations showed a small increase in main lobe widths and no evidence of side lobes. Beginning in 1978, the analysis of the second order statistics of speckle images for the purpose of spatial compounding led to accurate measurement and prediction of the cross-correlation curve as a function of transducer aperture translation for purposes of spatial compounding. In this paper, that work has been extended to the presence of transducer phase aberrations. The existence of transducer phase aberrations causes significant increases in the rate of decorrelation of speckle interference patterns as a transducer is translated. This indicates that spatial compounding will result in quite significant improvements in area-wise SNR and low contrast lesion detection for the case of severe random aberrators or focal point errors. PMID:3291367

  3. Cosmological Measurements with General Relativistic Galaxy Correlations

    E-print Network

    Alvise Raccanelli; Francesco Montanari; Daniele Bertacca; Olivier Doré; Ruth Durrer

    2015-05-22

    We investigate the cosmological dependence and the constraining power of large-scale galaxy correlations, including all redshift-distortions, wide-angle, lensing and gravitational potential effects on linear scales. We analyze the cosmological information present in the lensing convergence and in the gravitational potential terms describing the so-called "relativistic effects," and we find that, while smaller than the information contained in intrinsic galaxy clustering, it is not negligible. We investigate how neglecting them does bias cosmological measurements performed by future spectroscopic and photometric large-scale surveys such as SKA and Euclid. We perform a Fisher analysis using the CLASS code, modified to include scale-dependent galaxy bias and redshift-dependent magnification and evolution bias. Our results show that neglecting relativistic terms introduces an error in the forecasted precision in measuring cosmological parameters of the order of a few tens of percent, in particular when measuring the matter content of the Universe and primordial non-Gaussianity parameters. Therefore, we argue that radial correlations and integrated relativistic terms need to be taken into account when forecasting the constraining power of future large-scale number counts of galaxy surveys.

  4. Eddy correlation measurements of submarine groundwater discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crusius, J.; Berg, P.; Koopmans, D.J.; Erban, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new, non-invasive means of quantifying groundwater discharge into marine waters using an eddy correlation approach. The method takes advantage of the fact that, in virtually all aquatic environments, the dominant mode of vertical transport near the sediment-water interface is turbulent mixing. The technique thus relies on measuring simultaneously the fluctuating vertical velocity using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and the fluctuating salinity and/or temperature using rapid-response conductivity and/or temperature sensors. The measurements are typically done at a height of 5-15??cm above the sediment surface, at a frequency of 16 to 64??Hz, and for a period of 15 to 60??min. If the groundwater salinity and/or temperature differ from that of the water column, the groundwater specific discharge (cm d- 1) can be quantified from either a heat or salt balance. Groundwater discharge was estimated with this new approach in Salt Pond, a small estuary on Cape Cod (MA, USA). Estimates agreed well with previous estimates of discharge measured using seepage meters and 222Rn as a tracer. The eddy correlation technique has several desirable characteristics: 1) discharge is quantified under in-situ hydrodynamic conditions; 2) salinity and temperature can serve as two semi-independent tracers of discharge; 3) discharge can be quantified at high temporal resolution, and 4) long-term records of discharge may be possible, due to the low power requirements of the instrumentation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Subpicometer Length Measurement Using Semiconductor Laser Tracking Frequency Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thapa, Rajesh; Phillips, James D.; Rocco, Emanuele; Reasenburg, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated heretofore unattained distance precision of 0:14pm (2pm) incremental and 14nm (2.9 micrometers) absolute in a resonant (nonresonant) interferometer at an averaging time of 1 s, using inexpensive telecommunications diode lasers. We have controlled the main source of error, that due to spurious reflection and the resulting amplitude modulation. In the resonant interferometer, absolute distance precision is well under lambda/6. Therefore, after an interruption, an absolute distance measurement can be used to return to the same interferometer order.

  6. Bunch Length and Impedance Measurements at SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, W.J.; Cheng, W.X.; Fisher, A.S.; Huang, X.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    Streak camera measurements were made at SPEAR3 to characterize longitudinal coupling impedance. For the nominal optics, data was taken at three rf voltages and a single-bunch current range of 0-20mA. Both bunchcentroid phase shift and bunch lengthening were recorded to extract values for resistive and reactive impedance. An (R+L) and a Q=1 model were then back-substituted into the Haissinski equation and compared with raw profile data. In the short bunch (low-{alpha}) mode, distribution 'bursting' was observed.

  7. Diffusion length measurements using the scanning electron microscope. [in semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.

    1975-01-01

    A measurement technique employing the scanning electron microscope is described in which values of the true bulk diffusion length are obtained. It is shown that surface recombination effects can be eliminated through the application of highly doped surface field layers. The influence of high injection level effects and low-high junction current generation on the resulting measurement was investigated. Close agreement is found between the diffusion lengths measured by this method and those obtained using a penetrating radiation technique.

  8. A tool for measuring the bending length in thin wires.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, M; Cagnoli, G; Cesarini, E; Losurdo, G; Martelli, F; Piergiovanni, F; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A

    2013-03-01

    Great effort is currently being put into the development and construction of the second generation, advanced gravitational wave detectors, Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO. The development of new low thermal noise suspensions of mirrors, based on the experience gained in the previous experiments, is part of this task. Quasi-monolithic suspensions with fused silica wires avoid the problem of rubbing friction introduced by steel cradle arrangements by directly welding the wires to silica blocks bonded to the mirror. Moreover, the mechanical loss level introduced by silica (?fs ? 10(-7) in thin fused silica wires) is by far less than the one associated with steel. The low frequency dynamical behaviour of the suspension can be computed and optimized, provided that the wire bending shape under pendulum motion is known. Due to the production process, fused silica wires are thicker near the two ends (necks), so that analytical bending computations are very complicated. We developed a tool to directly measure the low frequency bending parameters of fused silica wires, and we tested it on the wires produced for the Virgo+ monolithic suspensions. The working principle and a set of test measurements are presented and explained. PMID:23556827

  9. A tool for measuring the bending length in thin wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzini, M.; Cagnoli, G.; Cesarini, E.; Losurdo, G.; Martelli, F.; Piergiovanni, F.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.

    2013-03-01

    Great effort is currently being put into the development and construction of the second generation, advanced gravitational wave detectors, Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO. The development of new low thermal noise suspensions of mirrors, based on the experience gained in the previous experiments, is part of this task. Quasi-monolithic suspensions with fused silica wires avoid the problem of rubbing friction introduced by steel cradle arrangements by directly welding the wires to silica blocks bonded to the mirror. Moreover, the mechanical loss level introduced by silica (?fs ˜ 10-7 in thin fused silica wires) is by far less than the one associated with steel. The low frequency dynamical behaviour of the suspension can be computed and optimized, provided that the wire bending shape under pendulum motion is known. Due to the production process, fused silica wires are thicker near the two ends (necks), so that analytical bending computations are very complicated. We developed a tool to directly measure the low frequency bending parameters of fused silica wires, and we tested it on the wires produced for the Virgo+ monolithic suspensions. The working principle and a set of test measurements are presented and explained.

  10. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

    PubMed

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion; Smith, Joseph D; Pagano, Ian S; Ako, Simon; Fogako, Josephine; Leke, Rose G F; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4)SCN) was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+)) and those without (PM(-)) at delivery. Results showed that PM(-) women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047) and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009) than PM(+) women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI) and those with ? 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9) and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0) reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria. PMID:22761948

  11. Measurement of the digit lengths and the anogenital distance in mice.

    PubMed

    Manno, Francis Anthony Michael

    2008-01-28

    In humans, research has demonstrated the ratio of the 2nd to 4th digit lengths (2D:4D) are: (i) sexually dimorphic with males having a lower ratio than females, the latter having near equidistant lengths [J. Manning, D. Scutt, J. Wilson, & D. Lewis-Jones, (1998). The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen. Hum Reprod. 13(11):3000-3004], and are theorized to be (ii) determined in utero during gestational development [J. Manning, & P. Bundred, (2000). The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition? Med Hypotheses. 54(5):855-857], and (iii) correlated with prenatal androgen levels [J. Manning, & P. Bundred, (2000). The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition? Med Hypotheses. 54(5):855-857; J. Manning, R. Trivers, D. Singh, & R. Thornhill, (1999). The mystery of female beauty. Nature. 399:214-215; T. Williams, M. Pepitone, S. Christensen, B. Cooke, A. Huberman, N. Breedlove, et al., (2000). Finger-length ratios and sexual orientation: measuring people's finger patterns may reveal some surprising information. Nature. 404:455-456]. These phenotypes correspond to the hormonal effects of testosterone (i.e. androgens) in utero in both sexes. In mice, testosterone in utero is associated in males and females with the anogenital distance (AGD), a phenotype where AGD is greater in males and females contiguous with two males (2M) have a masculinized AGD phenotype whereas those juxtaposed to fewer males, one or zero (1M or 0M), have a more feminine phenotype, i.e. shorter AGD [F. vom Saal, & F. Bronson, (1980). Sexual characteristics of adult female mice are correlated with their blood testosterone levels during prenatal development. Science. 208:597-599; R. Gandelman, F. vom Saal, & J. Reinisch, (1977). Contiguity to male foetuses affects morphology and behaviour of female mice. Nature. 266:722-724; A. Hotchkiss, & J. Vandenbergh, (2005). The anogenital distance index of mice (Mus musculus domesticus): an analysis. Contem Top Lab Anim Sci. 44(4):46-48; C. Kinsley, J. Miele, C. Wagner, L. Ghiraldi, J. Broida, B. Svare, (1986). Prior intrauterine position influences body weight in male and female mice. Horm Behav. 20:201-211; S. Graham, R. Gandelman, (1986). The expression of ano-genital distance data in the mouse. Physiol Behav. 36(1):103-104; B. Ryan, & J. Vandenbergh, (2002). Intrauterine position effects. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 26(6):665-678; J. Vandenbergh, & C. Huggett, (1995). The anogenital distance index, a predictor of the intrauterine position effects on reproduction in female house mice. Lab Anim Sci. 45(5):567-573]. Furthermore, in humans AGD is sexually dimorphic with neonate males having a greater distance than females [E. Salazar-Martinez, P. Romano-Riquer, E. Yanez-Marquez, M. Longnecker, M. Hernandez-Avila, (2004). Anogenital distance in human male and female newborns: a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source. 2004:3:(8) (doi:10.1186/1476-069X-3-8) [12

  12. Experience of the fibrotest for measuring cotton fiber length and strength properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fibrotest is a device developed by Textechno for measuring cotton fiber length and strength properties. The Fibrotest provides abundant information, including more than 20 length and strength parameters in absolute and relative modes, and displays fibrogram, load-elongation curve, and fiber bea...

  13. Cesium oscillator strengths measured with a multiple-path-length absorption cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Absorption-oscillator-strength measurements for the principal series in cesium were measured using a multiple-path-length cell. The optical arrangement included a movable transverse path for checking the uniformity of the alkali density along the length of the cell and which also allowed strength measurements to be made simultaneously on both strong and weak lines. The strengths measured on the first 10 doublets indicate an increasing trend in the doublet ratio. The individual line strengths are in close agreement with the high resolution measurements of Pichler (1974) and with the calculations of Norcross (1973).

  14. A comparison of two methods for measuring vessel length in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ruihua; Geng, Jing; Cai, Jing; Tyree, Melvin T

    2015-12-01

    Vessel lengths are important to plant hydraulic studies, but are not often reported because of the time required to obtain measurements. This paper compares the fast dynamic method (air injection method) with the slower but traditional static method (rubber injection method). Our hypothesis was that the dynamic method should yield a larger mean vessel length than the static method. Vessel length was measured by both methods in current year stems of Acer, Populus, Vitis and Quercus representing short- to long-vessel species. The hypothesis was verified. The reason for the consistently larger values of vessel length is because the dynamic method measures air flow rates in cut open vessels. The Hagen-Poiseuille law predicts that the air flow rate should depend on the product of number of cut open vessels times the fourth power of vessel diameter. An argument is advanced that the dynamic method is more appropriate because it measures the length of the vessels that contribute most to hydraulic flow. If all vessels had the same vessel length distribution regardless of diameter, then both methods should yield the same average length. This supports the hypothesis that large-diameter vessels might be longer than short-diameter vessels in most species. PMID:26084355

  15. Polarization gating enables sarcomere length measurements by laser diffraction in fibrotic muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Kevin W.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Lieber, Richard L.

    2014-11-01

    Sarcomere length is a key parameter commonly measured in muscle physiology since it dictates striated muscle active force. Laser diffraction (LD)-based measurements of sarcomere length are time-efficient and sample a greater number of sarcomeres compared with traditional microscopy-based techniques. However, a limitation to LD techniques is that signal quality is severely degraded by scattering events as photons propagate through tissue. Consequently, sarcomere length measurements are unattainable when the number of scattering events is sufficiently large in muscle tissue with a high scattering probability. This occurs in fibrotic skeletal muscle seen in muscular dystrophies and secondary to tissue trauma, thus eliminating the use of LD to study these skeletal muscle ailments. Here, we utilize polarization gating to extract diffracted signals that are buried in noise created by scattering. Importantly, we demonstrate that polarization-gated laser diffraction (PGLD) enables sarcomere length measurements in muscles from chronically immobilized mice hind limbs; these muscles have a substantial increase of intramuscular connective tissue that scatter light and disable sarcomere length measurements by traditional LD. Further, we compare PGLD sarcomere lengths to those measured by bright field (BF) and confocal microscopy as positive controls and reveal a significant bias of BF but not of confocal microscopy.

  16. Polarization gating enables sarcomere length measurements by laser diffraction in fibrotic muscle

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kevin W.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Lieber, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Sarcomere length is a key parameter commonly measured in muscle physiology since it dictates striated muscle active force. Laser diffraction (LD)–based measurements of sarcomere length are time-efficient and sample a greater number of sarcomeres compared with traditional microscopy–based techniques. However, a limitation to LD techniques is that signal quality is severely degraded by scattering events as photons propagate through tissue. Consequently, sarcomere length measurements are unattainable when the number of scattering events is sufficiently large in muscle tissue with a high scattering probability. This occurs in fibrotic skeletal muscle seen in muscular dystrophies and secondary to tissue trauma, thus eliminating the use of LD to study these skeletal muscle ailments. Here, we utilize polarization gating to extract diffracted signals that are buried in noise created by scattering. Importantly, we demonstrate that polarization-gated laser diffraction (PGLD) enables sarcomere length measurements in muscles from chronically immobilized mice hind limbs; these muscles have a substantial increase of intramuscular connective tissue that scatter light and disable sarcomere length measurements by traditional LD. Further, we compare PGLD sarcomere lengths to those measured by bright field (BF) and confocal microscopy as positive controls and reveal a significant bias of BF but not of confocal microscopy. PMID:25422904

  17. A novel algorithm for computer-assisted measurement of cervical length from transvaginal ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Fraser, Robert F; Chen, Chang Wen

    2004-09-01

    The cervical length measured by transvaginal ultrasound is a proven clinical tool for predicting premature birth. The standard manual measurement of the cervix is limited by variability in the technique. In this research, we develop the first computer algorithm that is able to identify the anatomic landmarks of the cervix on a transvaginal ultrasound image and determine the standard cervical length. The system is composed of four stages: The first stage is adaptive speckle suppression using variable length sticks algorithm. The second stage is the location of the internal cervical opening or "os" using a region-based segmentation. The third stage is delineation of the cervical canal. The fourth stage uses gray level summation patterns and prior knowledge to first localize the tissue boundary of the external cervix, and then use a template to determine the specific location of the external os. The cervical length is determined and calculated to image scale. To validate the proposed algorithm, 101 cervical ultrasound images were selected from a series of 37 examinations performed on 17 patients over an eight-month period. Repeated measurements of cervical length using the computer-assisted method were compared with those carried out by two experienced sonographers. The median intraobserver variability for the 101 images using the computer-assisted method was significantly smaller than that of the manual method by either sonographer. In a pairwise comparison, the mean cervical length for the computer method matches with the mean manual cervical length. PMID:15484439

  18. The importance of parameter variances, correlations lengths, and cross-correlations in reactive transport models: key considerations for assessing the need for microscale information

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, Paul W

    2010-12-08

    A process-oriented modeling approach is implemented to examine the importance of parameter variances, correlation lengths, and especially cross-correlations in contaminant transport predictions over large scales. It is shown that the most important consideration is the correlation between flow rates and retardation processes (e.g., sorption, matrix diffusion) in the system. lf flow rates are negatively correlated with retardation factors in systems containing multiple flow pathways, then characterizing these negative correlation(s) may have more impact on reactive transport modeling than microscale information. Such negative correlations are expected in porous-media systems where permeability is negatively correlated with clay content and rock alteration (which are usually associated with increased sorption). Likewise, negative correlations are expected in fractured rocks where permeability is positively correlated with fracture apertures, which in turn are negatively correlated with sorption and matrix diffusion. Parameter variances and correlation lengths are also shown to have important effects on reactive transport predictions, but they are less important than parameter cross-correlations. Microscale information pertaining to contaminant transport has become more readily available as characterization methods and spectroscopic instrumentation have achieved lower detection limits, greater resolution, and better precision. Obtaining detailed mechanistic insights into contaminant-rock-water interactions is becoming a routine practice in characterizing reactive transport processes in groundwater systems (almost necessary for high-profile publications). Unfortunately, a quantitative link between microscale information and flow and transport parameter distributions or cross-correlations has not yet been established. One reason for this is that quantitative microscale information is difficult to obtain in complex, heterogeneous systems. So simple systems that lack the complexity and heterogeneity of real aquifer materials are often studied. Another is that instrumentation used to obtain microscale information often probes only one variable or family of variables at a time, so linkages to other variables must be inferred by indirect means from other lines of evidence. Despite these limitations, microscale information can be useful in the development and validation of reactive transport models. For example, knowledge of mineral phases that have strong affinities for contaminants can help in the development of cross-correlations between flow and sorption parameters via characterization of permeability and mineral distributions in aquifers. Likewise, microscale information on pore structures in low-permeability zones and contaminant penetration distances into these zones from higher-permeability zones (e.g., fractures) can provide valuable constraints on the representation of diffusive mass transfer processes between flowing porosity and secondary porosity. The prioritization of obtaining microscale information in any groundwater system can be informed by modeling exercises such as those conducted for this study.

  19. Length Dependent Thermal Conductivity Measurements Yield Phonon Mean Free Path Spectra in Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977

  20. Length dependent thermal conductivity measurements yield phonon mean free path spectra in nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J

    2015-01-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977

  1. Correlations of telomere length, P53 mutation, and chromosomal translocation in soft tissue sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunxia; Li, Bingcheng; Li, Li; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Yunzhao; Cui, Xiaobin; Hu, Jianming; Jiang, Jingfang; Qi, Yan; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors that can be divided into specific reciprocal translocation associated in STSs (SRTSs) and nonspecific reciprocal translocation associated in STSs (NRTSs). Telomeres play a key role in maintaining chromosomal stability; pathological telomere elongation is found in a number of cancers. In this study, we aimed to assess telomere lengths in the two types of sarcomas. Twenty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tissues, namely, 10 sarcomas with characteristic translocations and 10 without characteristic translocations, were included in this study. Expression levels of special fusion gene transcripts were detected in these tumors by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Telomere lengths were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results showed that in 10 of the 10 cases of SRTSs, telomere lengths were similar to or reduced compared with the surrounding normal cells. Telomere lengths were elongated in eight of 10 cases of NRTSs, but reduced in two cases. The difference in telomere length was statistically significant in the two types of sarcomas (P = 0.001). Upon combining the P53 mutation status, we found that the telomere length was short in eight cases, and only one case demonstrated p53 mutation. However, the telomere length was long in eight cases, and p53 mutation was observed in five cases. These data suggested that p53 mutation was accompanied with long telomeres, and telomeres possibly play an important role in NRTSs. Therefore, telomere-targeting therapy may lead to novel therapeutic strategies to improve treatment of NRTS patients. PMID:26191279

  2. Tyre contact length on dry and wet road surfaces measured by three-axial accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matilainen, Mika; Tuononen, Ari

    2015-02-01

    We determined the tyre contact length on dry and wet roads by measuring the accelerations of the inner liner with a three-axial accelerometer. The influence of the tyre pressure, driving velocity, and tread depth on the contact length was studied in both types of road surface conditions. On dry asphalt the contact length was almost constant, regardless of the driving velocity. On wet asphalt the presence of water could be detected even at low driving velocities (e.g. 20 km/h for a worn tyre) as the contact length began to decrease from that found in the dry asphalt situation. In addition to improving the performance of active safety systems and driver warning systems, the contact length information could be beneficial for classifying and studying the aquaplaning behaviour of tyres.

  3. Large-aperture ultra-long focal length measurement and its system by laser confocal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhigang; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Guo, Yongkui; Yuan, Quan

    2015-09-01

    A new laser confocal ultralong focal length measurement method (LCFM) is proposed with the capability to self-calibrate the reference lens (RL) focal length and the axial space between the test lens and the RL. Using the property that the focus of a laser confocal ultralong focal length measurement system (LCFS) precisely corresponds to the peak point of the confocal axial intensity curve, the proposed LCFM measures the RL focal length f\\text{R}\\prime by precisely identifying the positions of the focus and the last surface of the RL, measures the axial space d0 between the RL and the test ultra-long focal-length lens (UFL) by identifying the last surface of the RL and the vertex of the UFL last surface, measures the variation l in focus position of the LCFS with and without the test UFL, and then calculates the UFL focal length f\\text{T}\\prime using the above-measured f\\text{R}\\prime , d0, and l. Furthermore, the LCFM uses conic fitting, which obviously enhances the measurement accuracy by reducing the influences of random disturbances. In addition, an LCFS based on the proposed method is developed for large aperture lens. The experimental results indicate that the relative uncertainty is less than 0.015% for the test UFL, which has an aperture of 610?mm and a focal length of 31?000?mm. Compared with existing methods, the LCFM utilizes a concise structure and has good stability, making it especially suitable for practical engineering applications.

  4. Measurement of long focal lengths with a double-grating interferometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; He, Yong; Li, Jianxin; Lu, Heng

    2013-09-20

    A method for measuring long focal lengths using a double-grating interferometer is proposed. The intensity distribution of a double-grating interferometer illuminated by a spherical beam is derived with diffraction theory. A tiny rotation angle is set between the two gratings, and a high-contrast interference pattern is produced by the adjacent diffracted orders. The angular change in the fringes after insertion of a test lens is a measure of the focal length. The uncertainty due to aberration of the collimated beam was analyzed by measuring a series of lenses. The relative deviations are less than 0.1%. PMID:24085168

  5. Acoustic method for measuring the sound speed of gases over small path lengths

    E-print Network

    in automotive applications, such as measuring the ex- haust gas recirculation EGR in combustion engines hydrogen in air with a response time on the order of 1­2 s. An acoustic phase shift method is a very to accurately measure the temperature of air with a path length of 50­100 mm. The advantage of the phase shift

  6. Can we measure structures to a precision better than the Planck length?

    E-print Network

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2012-05-16

    It was recently claimed that the Planck length is not a limit to the precision by which we can measure distances, but that instead it is merely the Planck volume that limits the precision by which we can measure volumes. Here, we investigate this claim and show that the argument does not support the conclusion.

  7. Utilization of coincidence criteria in absolute length measurements by optical interferometry in vacuum and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schödel, R.

    2015-08-01

    Traceability of length measurements to the international system of units (SI) can be realized by using optical interferometry making use of well-known frequencies of monochromatic light sources mentioned in the Mise en Pratique for the realization of the metre. At some national metrology institutes, such as Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany, the absolute length of prismatic bodies (e.g. gauge blocks) is realized by so-called gauge-block interference comparators. At PTB, a number of such imaging phase-stepping interference comparators exist, including specialized vacuum interference comparators, each equipped with three highly stabilized laser light sources. The length of a material measure is expressed as a multiple of each wavelength. The large number of integer interference orders can be extracted by the method of exact fractions in which the coincidence of the lengths resulting from the different wavelengths is utilized as a criterion. The unambiguous extraction of the integer interference orders is an essential prerequisite for correct length measurements. This paper critically discusses coincidence criteria and their validity for three modes of absolute length measurements: 1) measurements under vacuum in which the wavelengths can be identified with the vacuum wavelengths, 2) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained from environmental parameters using an empirical equation, and 3) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained interferometrically by utilizing a vacuum cell placed along the measurement pathway. For case 3), which corresponds to PTB’s Kösters-Comparator for long gauge blocks, the unambiguous determination of integer interference orders related to the air refractive index could be improved by about a factor of ten when an ‘overall dispersion value,’ suggested in this paper, is used as coincidence criterion.

  8. Optical length change measurement via RF frequency shift analysis of incoherent light source based optoelectronic oscillator.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xihua; Li, Ming; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Yan, Lianshan; Shao, Liyang

    2014-05-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) frequency shift of incoherent light source based optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) is employed to measure the optical length change. In the proposed OEO using an incoherent light source, the optical length under test is inserted in the optoelectronic hybrid loop. The frequency shift of RF oscillation modes at the output of the OEO reflects the optical length change, with the change being measured via frequency shift analysis. Two OEO configurations are theoretically designed and experimentally performed, while an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source serves as the incoherent light source. A linear relationship between the frequency shift and the optical length change has been confirmed for measurement, and a reconfigurable measurement sensitivity is available by selecting different oscillation modes. Moreover, the use of ASE greatly reduces the complexity and the cost for stabilization control on light source, while the derived results are consistent with that obtained in a laser source based OEO both in the measured optical length changes and the phase noise performance. A sensitivity of -28 KHz/cm, -480 KHz/cm or higher, and a resolution of nano-meter scale are obtained, which can be used to monitor the displacement, the changes in refractive index, temperature. PMID:24921811

  9. Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated photons: new arrangements

    E-print Network

    Migdall, Alan

    metrologia Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated photons: new arrangements radiance using correlated photons are presented. The method has the remarkable feature that it allows be measured using correlated photons [1-4]. That work outlined some of the useful features of the method. One

  10. Analysis of Soybean Microtubule Persistence Length; New Evidence on the Correlation between Structural Composition and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra; Winton, Carly; Barrientos, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies on microtubules composed of different ? tubulin isotypes indicate their different functionality in terms of their dynamical behavior or the mechanism of their interaction with chemotherapeutic drugs. Along these lines, the result of our recent study measuring the rigidity of neural and non-neural samples of microtubules with different ? tubulin isotype compositions suggests that the distinguished mechanical properties of microtubules, such as rigidity, may also be associated with the different distribution of their ? tubulin isotypes. In our current study, we have reported the persistence length of a single soybean microtubule. This plant microtubule has a structural composition different from that of mammalian microtubules. Under the same experimental methods of measurement, the soybean microtubules showed a different persistence length as compared to the value of the persistence length that we estimated in the study of both single Bovine Brain and MCF7 microtubules.

  11. A Hall effect transducer for measuring length changes in mammalian diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Peterson, C V; Otis, A B

    1983-08-01

    When a conductor through which a current is flowing is brought into a magnetic field, the isopotential lines are distorted (E. H. Hall, 1879). When a constant current is made to flow through a Hall generator, the measured voltage perpendicular to the current flow can be made to vary by altering the distance between a permanent magnet and a Hall generator. A length transducer useful for measuring length changes in the diaphragm of a dog is made by connecting a commercially available Hall generator to a Plexiglas plate (5 X 10 X 3 mm, 0.5 g), and suturing the plate to the surface of the muscle. A permanent magnet (20 X 10 X 4 mm, 1.5 g) is attached to the diaphragm at a distance of 2 or 3 cm along the expected direction of length change. Fine wires from the terminals of the Hall generator are connected to an external constant-current source and to solid-state circuitry which provides amplification, linearization, and temperature compensation of the output signal. Model experiments indicate that the length measurements may be accurate within 5% if the distance between the magnet and Hall generator is greater than 5 mm. With this type of transducer measurements of segmental length changes in the diaphragm of an anesthetized dog have been successfully recorded. PMID:6618957

  12. The correlation length and lateral compressibility of phospholipid bilayers in the presence of thermodynamic density fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckermann, M. J.; Pink, D.

    1980-09-01

    Pink's ten state statistical model for the gel-fluid (main) phase transitions of phospholipid bilayers is used in conjunction with linear response theory to obtain expressions for the coherence length, ? and the lateral compressibility ?L for wet lipid bilayers in the presence of thermodynamic density fluctuations near the temperature Tf of the main phase transition. The advantage of this method is that the parameters of Pink's model are known for several lipid systems from previous fitting to experimental data. ? and ?L can therefore be calculated numerically and the relative importance of the static and fluctuation contributions to ?L can be examined. One conclusion of the article is that the coherence length and Tf is short and therefore that the contribution of thermodynamic density fluctuations to ?L is about 13%. This implies that the free energy barrier EB experienced by an ion as it penetrates the bilayer has a dominant contribution from the static lateral compressibility, provided that the interaction between the ion and the polar heads of the lipid molecules is a ?-force. However, it is further shown that the static and the density fluctuation effects contribute almost equally to EB at Tf when the range ?o of interaction between the ion and the polar heads is greater than half a molecule diameter. This remains true in the limit ?o?? as the coherence length ? is quite short at any temperature.

  13. PEGylated cyclodextrins as novel siRNA nanosystems: correlations between polyethylene glycol length and nanoparticle stability.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Bruno M D C; Ogier, Julien R; Quinlan, Aoife; Darcy, Raphael; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F; O'Driscoll, Caitriona M

    2014-10-01

    Silencing disease-related genes in the central nervous system (CNS) using short interfering RNA (siRNA) holds great promise for treating neurological disorders. Yet, delivery of RNAi therapeutics to the brain poses major challenges to non-viral systems, especially when considering systemic administration. Cationic nanoparticles have been widely investigated for siRNA delivery, but the tendency of these to aggregate in physiological environments limits their intravenous application. Thus, strategies to increase the stability of nanoparticles have been developed. Here, we investigated the ability of modified cationic amphiphilic or PEGylated amphiphilic cyclodextrins (CD) to formulate stable CD.siRNA nanoparticles. To this end, we describe a simple method for post-modification of pre-formed cationic CD.siRNA nanoparticles at their surface using PEGylated CDs of different PEG lengths. PEGylated CD.siRNA nanoparticles presented reduced surface charges and increased stability in physiological salt conditions. Stability of PEGylated CD.siRNA nanoparticles in vitro increased with both PEG length and PEG density at the surface. Furthermore, in a comparative pharmacokinetic study, increased systemic exposure and reduced clearance were achieved with CD-formulations when compared to naked siRNAs. However, no significant differences were observed among non-PEGylated and PEGylated CD.siRNAs suggesting that longer PEG lengths might be required for improving stability in vivo. PMID:24992319

  14. Bunch Length Measurements at the JLab FEL Using Coherent Transition and Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Evtushenko; James Coleman; Kevin Jordan; J. Michael Klopf; George Neil; Gwyn Williams

    2006-05-01

    The JLab FEL is routinely operated with sub-picosecond bunches. The short bunch length is important for high gain of the FEL. Coherent transition radiation has been used for the bunch length measurements for many years [1]. This diagnostic can be used only in the pulsed beam mode. It is our goal to run the FEL with CW beam and a 74.85 MHz micropulse repetition rate, which, with the 135 pC nominal bunch charge corresponds to the beam average current of 10 mA. Hence it is very desirable to have the possibility of making bunch length measurements when running CW beam with any micropulse frequency. We use a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interferometer, which is essentially a Michelson interferometer, to measure the spectrum of the coherent synchrotron radiation generated in the last dipole of the magnetic bunch compressor upstream of the FEL wiggler. This noninvasive diagnostic provides bunch length measurements for CW beam operation at any micropulse frequency. We also compare the measurements made with the help of the FTIR interferometer with data obtained using the Martin-Puplett interferometer [1]. Results of the two diagnostics agree within 15 %. Here we present a description of the experimental setup, data evaluation procedure and results of the beam measurements.

  15. Bunch Length Measurements at the JLab FEL Using Coherent Transition and Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Evtushenko, P.; Coleman, J.; Jordan, K.; Klopf, J. Michael; Neil, G.; Williams, G. P.

    2006-11-20

    The JLab FEL is routinely operated with sub-picosecond bunches. The short bunch length is important for high gain of the FEL. Coherent transition radiation has been used for the bunch length measurements for many years. This diagnostic can be used only in the pulsed beam mode. It is our goal to run the FEL with CW beam and a 74.85 MHz micropulse repetition rate, which, with the 135 pC nominal bunch charge corresponds to the beam average current of 10 mA, Hence it is very desirable to have the possibility of making bunch length measurements when running CW beam with any micropulse frequency. We use a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interferometer, which is essentially a Michelson interferometer, to measure the spectrum of the coherent synchrotron radiation generated in the last dipole of the magnetic bunch compressor upstream of the FEL wiggler. This noninvasive diagnostic provides bunch length measurements for CW beam operation at any micropulse frequency. We also compare the measurements made with the help of the FTIR interferometer with data obtained using the Martin-Puplett interferometer. Results of the two diagnostics agree within 15 %. Here we present a description of the experimental setup, data evaluation procedure and results of the beam measurements.

  16. Evaluating measures of nonclassical correlation in a multipartite quantum system

    E-print Network

    SaiToh, Akira; Nakahara, Mikio

    2008-01-01

    We introduce and compare several measures of nonclassical correlation defined on the basis of a widely-recognized paradigm claiming that a multipartite system represented by a density matrix having no product eigenbasis possesses nonclassical correlation.

  17. CORRELATION COEFFICIENT Correlation coefficient is a measure of association

    E-print Network

    Chung, Moo K.

    Study and Data The following 25 paired measurements can be found at http://lib.stat.cmu.edu/DASL/Datafiles/Smoking For a total of 25 occupational groups, the first variable is the smoking index (average 100), and the second of the smoking index versus the lung rP = n i=1 (Xi - ¯X)(Yi - ¯Y) n i=1 (Xi - ¯X)2 n i=1 (Yi - ¯Y)2

  18. An Imaging System for Automated Characteristic Length Measurement of Debrisat Fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moraguez, Mathew; Patankar, Kunal; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, Marlon; Cowardin, Heather; Opiela, John; Krisko, Paula H.

    2015-01-01

    The debris fragments generated by DebriSat's hypervelocity impact test are currently being processed and characterized through an effort of NASA and USAF. The debris characteristics will be used to update satellite breakup models. In particular, the physical dimensions of the debris fragments must be measured to provide characteristic lengths for use in these models. Calipers and commercial 3D scanners were considered as measurement options, but an automated imaging system was ultimately developed to measure debris fragments. By automating the entire process, the measurement results are made repeatable and the human factor associated with calipers and 3D scanning is eliminated. Unlike using calipers to measure, the imaging system obtains non-contact measurements to avoid damaging delicate fragments. Furthermore, this fully automated measurement system minimizes fragment handling, which reduces the potential for fragment damage during the characterization process. In addition, the imaging system reduces the time required to determine the characteristic length of the debris fragment. In this way, the imaging system can measure the tens of thousands of DebriSat fragments at a rate of about six minutes per fragment, compared to hours per fragment in NASA's current 3D scanning measurement approach. The imaging system utilizes a space carving algorithm to generate a 3D point cloud of the article being measured and a custom developed algorithm then extracts the characteristic length from the point cloud. This paper describes the measurement process, results, challenges, and future work of the imaging system used for automated characteristic length measurement of DebriSat fragments.

  19. Longitudinal-to-Transverse Mapping for Femtosecond Electron Bunch Length Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A longitudinal-to-transverse mapping technique is proposed to measure the length and temporal profile of ultrashort electron bunches. In this scheme a special chicane and a radio-frequency deflecting cavity are used to transform the beam's longitudinal distribution into angular distribution which is further converted to transverse distribution after a parallel-to-point imaging beam line. With this technique, the temporal profile of the electron beam is exactly mapped to the transverse profile. This makes it possible to measure ultrashort electron bunch length with a resolution well beyond 1 femtosecond.

  20. Interpretation of scanning electron microscope measurements of minority carrier diffusion lengths in semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flat, A.; Milnes, A. G.

    1978-01-01

    In scanning electron microscope (SEM) injection measurements of minority carrier diffusion lengths some uncertainties of interpretation exist when the response current is nonlinear with distance. This is significant in epitaxial layers where the layer thickness is not large in relation to the diffusion length, and where there are large surface recombination velocities on the incident and contact surfaces. An image method of analysis is presented for such specimens. A method of using the results to correct the observed response in a simple convenient way is presented. The technique is illustrated with reference to measurements in epitaxial layers of GaAs. Average beam penetration depth may also be estimated from the curve shape.

  1. Single-beam diode-laser technique for optical path-length measurements.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, C B; Warren, R E; Riris, H

    1996-08-01

    A simple single-beam technique employing radio-frequency modulation of a tunable diode laser with homodyne demodulation is demonstrated as a means of measuring optical path lengths. This technique offers a straightforward method for determining path lengths traversed through optical multipass cells or performing optical range-finding over short (i.e., tens of meters) standoff distances. The radio-frequency phase-sensitive nature of the technique permits narrow-band detection and high signal-to-noise ratios, even when range-finding measurements are made with range resolutions of «1 m. This compares favorably with traditional short-pulse, wide-bandwidth optical range finders. PMID:21102846

  2. Focal length measurement of a varifocal liquid lens with capacitance detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Kentaro; Binh-Khiem, Nguyen; Takei, Yusuke; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on a detailed deformation model of varifocal liquid lenses fabricated by Parylene-on-liquid-deposition (POLD), which can be applied to measure and adjust the focal length of such lenses without using extra sensors or sensing mechanisms. The lens was fabricated by encapsulating a liquid between a transparent electrode and a polymer film that was covered with a metal electrode. When voltage is applied to the two electrodes, the lens deforms due to the electrostatic force, and its focal length and the capacitance between the two electrodes change simultaneously. This characteristic enables the focal length of the lens to be adjusted and detected by measuring the capacitance change. The focal length of the fabricated varifocal liquid lens changed from 153.6 to 82.6 mm by applying 150-V. The focal length change of the liquid lens was calculated from the change in its capacitance. Finally, to confirm the efficiency of this varifocal liquid lens, we fabricated a confocal distance sensor using the lens for laser scanning and demonstrated that this system can be used to measure distances of 94-140 mm with an average error of 0.83 mm and a standard deviation of 0.77 mm.

  3. Assessment of Correlation between Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length and Infertility in Infertile Men Living in Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Saeid Reza; Galehdari, Hamid; Rasekh, Abdorrahman; Mombeini, Hayat; Konar, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background The androgen receptor (AR) gene contains a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat that encodes a polyglutamine tract in its N-terminal transactivation domain (N- TAD). We aimed to find a correlation between the length of this polymorphic tract and azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods In this case-control study during two years till 2010, we searched for microdeletions in the Y chromosome in 84 infertile male patients with normal karyotype who lived in Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran. All cases (n=12) of azoospermia or oligozoospermia resulting from Y chromosome microdele- tions were excluded from our study. The number of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene was determined in 72 patients with azoospermia or oligozoospermia and in 72 fertile controls, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results Microdeletions were detected in 14.3% (n=12) patients suffering severe oligozoospermia. The mean CAG repeat length was 18.99 ± 0.35 (range, 11-26) and 19.96 ± 0.54 (range, 12-25) in infertile males and controls, respectively. Also in the infertile group, the most common allele was 19 (26.38%), while in controls, it was 25 (22.22%). Conclusion Y chromosome microdeletions could be one of the main reasons of male infertility living in Khuzestan Province, while there was no correlation between CAG length in AR gene with azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran. PMID:26246877

  4. Lifetime and diffusion length measurements on silicon material and solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Othmer, S.; Chen, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental methods were evaluated for the determination of lifetime and diffusion length in silicon intentionally doped with potentially lifetime-degrading impurities found in metallurgical grade silicon, impurities which may be residual in low-cost silicon intended for use in terrestrial flat-plate arrays. Lifetime measurements were made using a steady-state photoconductivity method. Diffusion length determinations were made using short-circuit current measurements under penetrating illumination. Mutual consistency among all experimental methods was verified, but steady-state photoconductivity was found preferable to photoconductivity decay at short lifetimes and in the presence of traps. The effects of a number of impurities on lifetime in bulk material, and on diffusion length in cells fabricated from this material, were determined. Results are compared with those obtained using different techniques. General agreement was found in terms of the hierarchy of impurities which degrade the lifetime.

  5. Full Length Article Nearest neighbor imputation using spatialtemporal correlations in wireless

    E-print Network

    Parker, Lynne E.

    , a microwave, walls, or human blockage). For highly dense WSNs used primarily for data collection, this may. First, since most sensor nodes in the network are battery-powered, it is too expensive to have the nodes correlated sensor values can significantly improve the network's performance. However, our studies show

  6. Correlating DSC and X-Ray Measurements Of Crystallinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1991-01-01

    Experiment demonstrated approximate linear correlation between degree of crystallinity of multiphase polymer (as calculated from x-ray diffraction measurements) and heat of fusion of polymer (as calculated from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements). Correlation basis of simple new technique for estimating degree of crystallinity of specimens of polymer from DSC measurements alone.

  7. Morphological features and length measurements of fetal lateral ventricles at 16-25 weeks of gestation by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Taketani, Kaori; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    Normal growth of the lateral ventricles (LVs) was characterized three-dimensionally using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 16 human fetuses at 16-25 weeks of gestation. The LV was differentiated into four primary regions, the anterior horn, central parts, posterior horn, and inferior horn, at 16 weeks of gestation. The LV changed shape mainly by elongation and narrowing, which corresponded to the external and internal growth of the surrounding cerebrum. Six length parameters measured in the LV correlated with biparietal diameter by simple regression analysis (R(2) range, 0.56-0.93), which may be valuable for establishing a standardized prenatal protocol to assess fetal well-being and development across intrauterine periods. No correlation was found between biparietal diameter and LV volume (R(2) = 0.13). PMID:25059317

  8. Methods and apparatus for measuring a length of cable suspending a well logging tool in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Broding, R.A.

    1986-07-01

    A system is described for measuring depth from the mouth of a borehole to a well logging tool connected to one end of an electrically conductive cable suspended in the borehole comprising: means for applying an initial electrical time pulse signal to one end of the cable, whereby the initial electrical time pulse signal propagates the length of the cable to one end of the cable to the well logging tool connected to the other end of the cable; means for detecting at the mouth of the borehole, which is intermediate both ends of the cable, the passage of the initial electrical time pulse signal along the length of the cable; means for detecting at the mouth of the borehole a subsequent electrical time pulse propagating along the length of the cable reflected from the other end of the cable; means for determining a time interval between the detection of the initial electrical time pulse signal at the mouth of the borehole and the detection of the subsequent electrical time pulse signal at the mouth of the borehole; and means for correlating the time interval with the depth to which the well logging tool is suspended in the borehole as measured from the mouth of the borehole.

  9. ESTIMATION OF SOYBEAN ROOT LENGTH DENSITY DISTRIBUTION WITH DIRECT AND SENSOR BASED MEASUREMENTS OF CLAYPAN MORPHOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrologic and morphological properties of claypan landscapes cause variability in soybean root and shoot biomass. This study was conducted to develop predictive models of soybean root length density distribution (RLDd) using direct measurements and sensor based estimators of claypan morphology. A c...

  10. Measurement of growing dynamical length scales and prediction of the jamming

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Measurement of growing dynamical length scales and prediction of the jamming transition packings under slow shear near the onset of jamming has bolstered speculation that the two transitions of both density and effective temperature. On approach to jamming, the dynamics becomes progressively

  11. Attenuation length measurements of liquid scintillator with LabVIEW and reliability evaluation of the device

    E-print Network

    Gao, L; Ding, YY; Zhou, L; Wen, LJ; Xie, YG; Wang, ZG; Cai, X; Sun, XL; Fang, J; Xue, Z; Zhang, AW; LÜ, QW; Sun, LJ; Ge, YS; Liu, YB; Niu, SL; Hu, T; Cao, J; LÜ, JG

    2013-01-01

    The attenuation length measuring device was constructed by using oscilloscope and LabVIEW for signal acquisition and processing. The performance of the device has been tested with a variety of ways, the test results show that the set-up has a good stability and high precision (sigma/mean reached 0.4 percent). Besides, the accuracy of the measurement system will decrease by about 17 percent if a filter is used. The attenuation length of gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator (Gd-LS) was measured as 15.10 plus or minus 0.35 m where Gd-LS was heavily used in Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment. In addition, one method based on the Beer-Lambert law was proposed to investigate the reliability of the measurement device, the R-square reached 0.9995. Moreover, three purification methods for Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) production were compared in the experiment.

  12. Assessing Structural Correlations and Heterogeneity Length Scales in Functional Porous Polymers from Physical Reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Müllner, Tibor; Zankel, Armin; Lv, Yongqin; Svec, Frantisek; Höltzel, Alexandra; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    A general, model-free, quantitative approach to the key morphological properties of a porous polymer monolith is presented. After 3D reconstruction, image-based analysis delivers detailed spatial and spatially correlated information on the structural heterogeneities in the void space and the polymer skeleton. Identified heterogeneities, which limit the monolith's performance in targeted applications, are traced back to the preparation process. PMID:26314251

  13. Does the orbit-averaged theory require a scale separation between periodic orbit size and perturbation correlation length?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenlu; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 ; Lin, Zhihong; Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871

    2013-10-15

    Using the canonical perturbation theory, we show that the orbit-averaged theory only requires a time-scale separation between equilibrium and perturbed motions and verifies the widely accepted notion that orbit averaging effects greatly reduce the microturbulent transport of energetic particles in a tokamak. Therefore, a recent claim [Hauff and Jenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 075004 (2009); Jenko et al., ibid. 107, 239502 (2011)] stating that the orbit-averaged theory requires a scale separation between equilibrium orbit size and perturbation correlation length is erroneous.

  14. Correlation of hole mobility, exciton diffusion length, and solar cell characteristics in phthalocyanine/fullerene organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terao, Yuhki; Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Chihaya

    2007-03-01

    The authors investigated heterojunction organic solar cells composed of different metal phthalocyanines (MPcs, M =Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and H2)/fullerene (C60) and compared the solar cell characteristics with the field-effect hole mobilities (?h) and exciton diffusion length (Lex) of the different MPcs. They observed that the short circuit current (JSC) is linearly dependent on the ?h of the MPcs, except for ZnPc. They also estimated the Lex of the MPcs by creating a line of best fit using the action spectra of the external quantum efficiency in the solar cells and found that JSC is closely correlated with the Lex of the MPcs.

  15. Absolute detector quantum-efficiency measurements using correlated photons

    E-print Network

    Migdall, Alan

    metrologia Absolute detector quantum-efficiency measurements using correlated photons A. L. Migdall correlated photons for radiometric purposes has been set up at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). We use pairs of correlated photons to produce spatial maps of the absolute efficiency

  16. Calculation of turbulent shear stress, heat flux, mass flux, and mixing length from mean flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. L.; Crouse, R. F.; Borek, G. T.

    1992-05-01

    A numerical technique to calculate the turbulent mass flux, shear stress, heat flux, and mixing length directly from measurable mean flow quantities is presented. The development of this technique was motivated by the desire to make aero-optical calculations based directly on experimentally obtained mean flow data. The technique is based upon the direct integration of the Navier-Stokes equations of compressible turbulent flow. The results of the integrations are the shear stress, heat flux, mass flux and mixing length distributions (i.e., all data that are necessary for application of the Aero-Optical Quality Code (AOQ).

  17. Measurement of coherence length and incoherent source size of hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II.

    PubMed

    Park, So Yeong; Hong, Chung Ki; Lim, Jun

    2014-04-01

    We measured the spatial coherence length and incoherent source size of a hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II, the stored electron energy of which has been increased from 2.5 GeV to 3 GeV. The coherence length was determined by single-slit measurement of the visibility of the Fresnel diffraction pattern. The correlated incoherent source size was cross-checked for three different optics: the single slit, beryllium parabolic compound refractive lenses, and the Fresnel zone plate. We concluded that the undulator beamline has an effective incoherent source size (FWHM) of 540 ?m (horizontal) × 50 ?m (vertical). PMID:24784668

  18. Measurement of coherence length and incoherent source size of hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II

    SciTech Connect

    Park, So Yeong; Hong, Chung Ki; Lim, Jun

    2014-04-15

    We measured the spatial coherence length and incoherent source size of a hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II, the stored electron energy of which has been increased from 2.5 GeV to 3 GeV. The coherence length was determined by single-slit measurement of the visibility of the Fresnel diffraction pattern. The correlated incoherent source size was cross-checked for three different optics: the single slit, beryllium parabolic compound refractive lenses, and the Fresnel zone plate. We concluded that the undulator beamline has an effective incoherent source size (FWHM) of 540 ?m (horizontal) × 50 ?m (vertical)

  19. Infrared Spectroscope for Electron Bunch-length Measurement: Heat Sensor Parameters Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Domgmo-Momo, Gilles; /Towson U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is used for many experiments. Taking advantage of the free electron laser (FEL) process, scientists of various fields perform experiments of all kind. Some for example study protein folding; other experiments are more interested in the way electrons interact with the molecules before they are destroyed. These experiments among many others have very little information about the electrons x-ray produced by the FEL, except that the FEL is using bunches less than 10 femtoseconds long. To be able to interpret the data collected from those experiments, more accurate information is needed about the electron's bunch-length. Existing bunch length measurement techniques are not suitable for the measurement of such small time scales. Hence the need to design a device that will provide more precise information about the electron bunch length. This paper investigates the use of a pyreoelectric heat sensor that has a sensitivity of about 1.34 micro amps per watt for the single cell detector. Such sensitivity, added to the fact that the detector is an array sensor, makes the detector studied the primary candidate to be integrated to an infrared spectrometer designed to better measure the LCLS electron bunch length.

  20. Precision neutron interferometric measurement of the n-{sup 3}He coherent neutron scattering length

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, P.R.; Jacobson, D.L.; Arif, M.; Schoen, K.; Black, T.C.; Snow, W.M.

    2004-07-01

    A measurement of the n-{sup 3}He coherent scattering length using neutron interferometry is reported. The result, b{sub c}=(5.8572{+-}0.0072) fm, improves the measured precision of any single measurement of b{sub c} by a factor of eight; the previous world average, b{sub c}=(5.74{+-}0.04) fm, now becomes b{sub c}=(5.853{+-}0.007) fm. Measurements of the n-p, n-d, and n-{sup 3}He coherent scattering lengths have now been performed using the same technique, thus allowing one to extract the scattering length ratios: parameters that minimize systematic errors. We obtain values of b{sub n{sup 3}}{sub He}/b{sub np}=(-1.5668{+-}0.0021) and b{sub nd}/b{sub np}=(-1.7828{+-}0.0014). Using the new world average value of b{sub c} and recent high-precision spin-dependent scattering length data also determined by neutron optical techniques, we extract new values for the bound singlet and triple scattering lengths of b{sub 0}=(9.949{+-}0.027) fm and b{sub 1}=(4.488{+-}0.017) fm for the n-{sup 3}He system. The free nuclear singlet and triplet scattering lengths are a{sub 0}=(7.456{+-}0.020) fm and a{sub 1}=(3.363{+-}0.013) fm. The coherent scattering cross section is {sigma}{sub c}=(4.305{+-}0.007) b and the total scattering cross section is {sigma}{sub s}=(5.837{+-}0.014) b. Comparisons of a{sub 0} and a{sub 1} to the only existing high-precision theoretical predictions for the n-{sup 3}He system, calculated using a resonating group technique with nucleon-nucleon potentials incorporating three-nucleon forces, have been performed. Neutron scattering length measurements in few-body systems are now sensitive enough to probe small effects not yet adequately treated in present theoretical models.

  1. Intermediate length scale organisation in tin borophosphate glasses: new insights from high field correlation NMR.

    PubMed

    Tricot, G; Saitoh, A; Takebe, H

    2015-11-28

    The structure of tin borophosphate glasses, considered for the development of low temperature sealing glasses or anode materials for Li-batteries, has been analysed at the intermediate length scale by a combination of high field standard and advanced 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The nature and extent of B/P mixing were analysed using the (11)B((31)P) dipolar heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence NMR sequence and the data interpretation allowed (i) detecting the presence and analysing the nature of the B-O-P linkages, (ii) re-interpreting the 1D (31)P spectra and (iii) extracting the proportion of P connected to borate species. Interaction between the different borate species was analysed using the (11)B double quantum-simple quantum experiment to (i) investigate the presence and nature of the B-O-B linkage, (ii) assign the different borate species observed all along the composition line and (iii) monitor the borate network formation. In addition, (119)Sn static NMR was used to investigate the evolution of the chemical environment of the tin polyhedra. Altogether, the set of data allowed determining the structural units constituting the glass network and quantifying the extent of B/P mixing. The structural data were then used to explain the non-linear and unusual evolution of the glass transition temperature. PMID:26186677

  2. Measure of nonclassical correlation in coherence-vector representation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Tao; Cui, Jingxin; Long, Gui Lu

    2011-12-15

    We consider the coherence-vector representation of a bipartite state and obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for a zero-discord state. Based on this, a measure of quantum, classical, and total amount of correlations in bipartite states is proposed in this representation. Analytical expressions for this measure are available for any bipartite states. Our measure of nonclassical correlation coincides with the geometric measure of quantum discord for some particular states.

  3. Do male secondary sexual characters correlate with testis size and sperm length in the small hairy maggot blowfly?

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie D; Wallman, James F; Byrne, Phillip G

    2015-12-01

    The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis proposes that secondary sexual characters (SSCs) advertise a male's fertility to prospective mates. However, findings from empirical studies attempting to test this hypothesis are often ambivalent or even contradictory, and few studies have simultaneously evaluated how both morphological and behavioural SSCs relate to ejaculate characteristics. Males of the small hairy maggot blowfly, Chrysomya varipes, possess conspicuous foreleg ornaments and display highly stereotyped courtship behaviour. These traits are favoured by females during pre-copulatory mate choice, but it remains unknown whether they correlate with post-copulatory traits expected to influence male fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate whether male courtship and ornamentation correlate with testis size and sperm length in C. varipes. We found that males investing more in courtship had bigger testes, and males with more extensive foreleg ornamentation released sperm with longer tails. Based on the assumption that larger testes enable males to produce more sperm, and that sperm with longer tails have greater propulsive force, our findings suggest that more vigorous and more ornamented males may be more fertile. These findings lend support to the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis. However, a complete test of this hypothesis will require evaluating whether testis size and sperm length influence male fertilisation ability, as well as female fecundity and/or fertility. PMID:26297128

  4. Internalized Heterosexism: Measurement, Psychosocial Correlates, and Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Meyer, Jill

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an integrated critical review of the literature on internalized heterosexism/internalized homophobia (IH), its measurement, and its psychosocial correlates. It describes the psychometric properties of six published measures used to operationalize the construct of IH. It also critically reviews empirical studies on correlates

  5. Roughness Length as a Measure of the Effects of a Vegetative Windbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, W.; Maurer, K.; Bohrer, G.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetative windbreaks are often used as barriers to block the dispersion of particulate matter, particularly around agricultural facilities. Windbreaks and narrow forest strips alter the wind pattern and affect dispersion of particles and aerosols that are carried across. Our observations during two field campaigns, conducted near animal feeding lots where large flumes of dust are advected across edge-of-field windbreaks, suggest that sensible heat flux greatly affects the interaction between the flow and the windbreak. We used measurements at multiple heights upwind and downwind of the windbreak to calculate the background roughness length and the effective roughness length of the windbreak. While the flow is not fully adjusted at the wake of the windbreak, we use measurements at different times of the day as a sensitivity analysis to the strength of the buoyancy term within the theoretical surface similarity equation that includes the effects of the wind break. Clearly, calculated roughness length downwind of the windbreak is much greater than upwind of the windbreak, but as SHF increases, the difference in roughness length across the windbreak decreases indicating a decrease in the overall effect of the windbreak on flow. Our findings indicate that as SHF increases, windbreaks may not be able to play much of a role in affecting the dispersion of particulate matter, as the overall effects of windbreaks diminish.

  6. Correlation length of the two-dimensional Ising spin glass with bimodal interactions 

    E-print Network

    Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Lee, LW.

    2005-01-01

    least squares fit of a second order polynomial. The measured dose distribution agrees well with results from the Monte Carlo simulation. The dose was 130.8 Gy at 6 mm from the seed center with initial activity of 5.95 mCi. AAPM TG-43/60 parameters were...

  7. Correlation of early postoperative blood glucose levels with postoperative complications, hospital costs, and length of hospital stay in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-ying; Lin, Ming-zhu; Wen, Jun-ping; Li, Xue-jun; Shi, Xiu-lin; Zhang, Hui-jie; Chen, Ning; Li, Xiao-ying; Yang, Shu-yu; Chen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Early postoperative hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients is an important risk factor affecting postoperative complications and mortality. This study aimed at investigating the effects of early postoperative hyperglycemia on postoperative complications, hospital costs, and length of hospital stay in non-diabetic patients with gastrointestinal malignancies; data of 1,015 non-diabetic patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, who underwent surgical intervention between January 2010 and January 2012, were retrospectively evaluated. Records on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), liver function, and kidney function were collected before and one day after surgery. Correlation of early postoperative FPG levels with postoperative complications, hospital costs, and length of hospital stay was further assessed in non-diabetic patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. One day after surgery, FPG results were significantly increased compared to preoperative values. FPG levels greater than or equal to 9.13 mmol/L (or 164.34 mg/dL) were associated with significant increases in the incidence of postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and hospital costs. An association is shown between FPG and postoperative hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal malignancies. Significant increases in postoperative complications among these patients suggest that measurement of early postoperative FPG levels is critical to identify patients with postoperative hyperglycemia. PMID:24853883

  8. Beat-length measurement in directional couplers by thermo-optic modulation.

    PubMed

    Gnewuch, H; Román, J E; Hempstead, M; Wilkinson, J S; Ulrich, R

    1996-08-01

    In integrated-optical directional couplers formed by two parallel waveguides we measure the difference Deltabeta = beta(even) - ss(odd) between the propagation constants of the supermodes. We couple them locally by heating a fine spot on one of the guides. When the spot is scanned along the coupler, the output power from one of the guides is found to vary periodically. The period of variation is the modal beat length Lambda = 2pi/Deltabeta. We demonstrate this technique with directional couplers fabricated by K-ion exchange in glass. Beat lengths in the range 0.6 -2.2 mm are measured with an accuracy of +/-0.3%. PMID:19876295

  9. Study on the impact of fiber length on the correlation of separation and orientation in flow molded glass fiber-reinforced plastic composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2014-10-01

    During the compression molding of fiber-reinforced plastic composites, there are two issues: one is separation of fiber and matrix because of the different flow state and fiber orientation. Due to separation and orientation, moldings become nonhomogeneous, and show anisotropy. Therefore, separation and orientation should be closely corresponded to molding condition and fiber structure. If fiber shows strong agglomeration, it increases the separation, but fiber orientation will be limited. That is, separation and orientation of fiber is closely related, and the relationship should be clearly defined. In this study, fiber content and length is varied for stacked laminates, and primary sheet is fabricated with thermal compression press. Primary sheet is heated and molded with 30-ton hydraulic press. Nonhomogeneity, one of indicators for separation, is measured from one-dimensional rectangular plate after compression. Orientation function is calculated using X-ray image on moldings and image scanner for processing imagery data. From the correlation between the separation and the orientation of fiber and matrix, the correlation coefficient is defined, and the impact of fiber length on the coefficient is evaluated. PMID:25942851

  10. Measurement of the KL nuclear interaction length in the NaI(Tl) calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achasov, M. N.; Beloborodov, K. I.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Vasiljev, A. V.; Golubev, V. B.; Dimova, T. V.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Korol, A. A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Pakhtusova, E. V.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Silagadze, Z. K.; Usov, Yu. V.

    2015-09-01

    In the study of the reaction e+e-? KSKL at the VEPP-2M e+e- collider with the SND detector the nuclear interaction length of KL meson in NaI(Tl) has been measured. Its value is found to be 30-50 cm in the KL momentum range 0.11-0.48 GeV/c. The results are compared with the values used in the simulation programs GEANT4 and UNIMOD.

  11. Measurement of the temperature dependence of pulse lengths in an n-type germanium detector

    E-print Network

    I. Abt; A. Caldwell; J. Liu; B. Majorovits; O. Volynets

    2011-12-21

    The temperature dependence of the pulse length was measured for an 18-fold segmented n-type germanium detector in the temperature range of 77-120 K. The interactions of 122 keV photons originating from a Europium-152 source were selected and pulses as observed on the core and segment electrodes were studied. In both cases, the temperature dependence can be well described by a Boltzmann-like ansatz.

  12. Fissile mass-multiplication factor correlation for Pu measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T.; De Ridder, P.; Verrecchia, G.P.D.; Chare, P.; Vocino, V.

    1993-06-01

    An empirical correlation between the fissile mass and the leakage multiplication factor, as determined by High Level Neutron Coincidence (HLNC) counting, was developed based on available measurement data. This correlation has been used successfully for the simulation of HLNC counting. With the singles count rate (totals), the correlation can be used to obtain a quick estimate of the plutonium mass of the sample in less time than required to measure the real coincidence count rate. The correlation can also be used to evaluate samples contaminated with ({alpha},n) sources such as fluorine.

  13. Isotopic fractionation in proteins as a measure of hydrogen bond length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Ross H.; Athokpam, Bijyalaxmi; Ramesh, Sai G.

    2015-07-01

    If a deuterated molecule containing strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds is placed in a hydrogenated solvent, it may preferentially exchange deuterium for hydrogen. This preference is due to the difference between the vibrational zero-point energy for hydrogen and deuterium. It is found that the associated fractionation factor ? is correlated with the strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds. This correlation has been used to determine the length of the H-bonds (donor-acceptor separation) in a diverse range of enzymes and has been argued to support the existence of short low-barrier H-bonds. Starting with a potential energy surface based on a simple diabatic state model for H-bonds, we calculate ? as a function of the proton donor-acceptor distance R. For numerical results, we use a parameterization of the model for symmetric O-H⋯O bonds [R. H. McKenzie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 535, 196 (2012)]. We consider the relative contributions of the O-H stretch vibration, O-H bend vibrations (both in plane and out of plane), tunneling splitting effects at finite temperature, and the secondary geometric isotope effect. We compare our total ? as a function of R with NMR experimental results for enzymes, and in particular with an earlier model parametrization ?(R), used previously to determine bond lengths.

  14. Visual Decisions in the Presence of Measurement and Stimulus Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Manisha; Carroll, Samuel; Ma, Wei Ji; Josi?, Krešimir

    2015-01-01

    Humans and other animals base their decisions on noisy sensory input. Much work has been devoted to understanding the computations that underlie such decisions. The problem has been studied in a variety of tasks and with stimuli of differing complexity. However, how the statistical structure of stimuli, along with perceptual measurement noise, affects perceptual judgments is not well understood. Here we examine how correlations between the components of a stimulus—stimulus correlations—together with correlations in sensory noise, affect decision making. As an example, we consider the task of detecting the presence of a single or multiple targets among distractors. We assume that both the distractors and the observer’s measurements of the stimuli are correlated. The computations of an optimal observer in this task are nontrivial yet can be analyzed and understood intuitively. We find that when distractors are strongly correlated, measurement correlations can have a strong impact on performance. When distractor correlations are weak, measurement correlations have little impact unless the number of stimuli is large. Correlations in neural responses to structured stimuli can therefore have a strong impact on perceptual judgments. PMID:26378875

  15. Measurements of Correlation-Enhanced Collision Rates

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    measurements of collision rate in laser-cooled magnesium ion plasmas with density n 107cm-3 and temperature 2.5×10-6 low temperature), the collision rate quantitatively with standard collisional theory in the high temperature plasma regime; and agree quantitatively

  16. Edge Length and Surface Area of a Blank: Experimental Assessment of Measures, Size Predictions and Utility

    PubMed Central

    Dogandži?, Tamara; Braun, David R.; McPherron, Shannon P.

    2015-01-01

    Blank size and form represent one of the main sources of variation in lithic assemblages. They reflect economic properties of blanks and factors such as efficiency and use life. These properties require reliable measures of size, namely edge length and surface area. These measures, however, are not easily captured with calipers. Most attempts to quantify these features employ estimates; however, the efficacy of these estimations for measuring critical features such as blank surface area and edge length has never been properly evaluated. In addition, these parameters are even more difficult to acquire for retouched implements as their original size and hence indication of their previous utility have been lost. It has been suggested, in controlled experimental conditions, that two platform variables, platform thickness and exterior platform angle, are crucial in determining blank size and shape meaning that knappers can control the interaction between size and efficiency by selecting specific core angles and controlling where fracture is initiated. The robustness of these models has rarely been tested and confirmed in context other than controlled experiments. In this paper, we evaluate which currently employed caliper measurement methods result in the highest accuracy of size estimations of blanks, and we evaluate how platform variables can be used to indirectly infer aspects of size on retouched artifacts. Furthermore, we investigate measures of different platform management strategies that control the shape and size of artifacts. To investigate these questions, we created an experimental lithic assemblage, we digitized images to calculate 2D surface area and edge length, which are used as a point of comparison for the caliper measurements and additional analyses. The analysis of aspects of size determinations and the utility of blanks contributes to our understanding of the technological strategies of prehistoric knappers and what economic decisions they made during process of blank production. PMID:26332773

  17. In situ growth rate measurements and length control during chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Geohegan, David B; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; Jesse, Stephen; Eres, Gyula; Howe, Jane Y

    2003-01-01

    Time-resolved reflectivity is employed as an in situ diagnostic in thermal chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned arrays of multiwall carbon nanotubes (VAA-MWNT). Fabry-Perot interference fringes and attenuation of a reflected HeNe laser beam are used to measure the length of VAA-MWNT throughout the first 3-8 {mu}m of growth yielding in situ measurements of growth rates and kinetics and the capability to observe the onset and termination of growth. VAA-MWNT growth is characterized between 565 and 750 {sup o}C on Si substrates with evaporated Al/Fe/Mo multilayer catalysts and acetylene feedstock. Nanotube lengths were controlled by rapid evacuation of the chamber at predetermined reflectivities, and it was demonstrated that growth can be restarted at later times. The extinction coefficients of the VAA-MWNT were studied and correlated with nanotube wall structure. Growth rates for VAA-MWNT are found to vary depending on the catalyst preparation, temperature, and time. Both the highest growth rates (0.3 {mu}m/s) and the tallest VAA-MWNT (0.75 mm long) were achieved at 730 {sup o}C.

  18. Photon path length distributions for cloudy atmospheres from GOSAT satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremmling, Beke; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The presence of clouds in the atmosphere has significant influence on the photon paths of the scattered sunlight. Besides reflections of radiation at the cloud top, additional scattering events inside the cloud may occur and thus lengthening or shortening of the photon path in the atmosphere. Clouds consisting of multiple layers or patches may lead to a "ping pong" behaviour of the photons due to reflections at the individual surfaces. The objective of our study is the retrieval of photon path length distributions for various atmospheric cloud situations which will lead to a better understanding of the influence of clouds on the atmospheric radiative transport. Following principles from ground based photon path length retrieval (Funk et al., 2003), our research uses the combination of space based measurements of the oxygen A-band and radiative transfer simulations. The experimental spectra originate from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), more precisely the Fourier Transform Spectrometer TANSO-FTS. Its high spectral resolution allows to almost completely resolve the individual absorption lines which is a prerequisite to our study. The Monte Carlo radiative transfer model McArtim (Deutschmann et al., 2011) is used to model the measured spectra. This model allows user-defined input for the altitude dependent cross sections and furthermore the incorporation of three dimensional cloud shapes and properties. From the simulation output and the sun-satellite geometry, photon path length distributions can be obtained. Distributions of photon path lengths are presented for a selection of GOSAT observations of entirely cloud covered atmospheres with similar measurement geometries.

  19. Ultrasound Measurement of Cervical Length as Predictor of Threatened Preterm Birth: a Predictive Model

    PubMed Central

    El-Ardat, Mohammad Abou; Gavrankapetanovic, Fatima; Abou El-Ardat, Khalil A.; Dekovic, Sanjin; Murtezic, Senad; Mehmedbasic, Eldar; Hiros, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The incidence of preterm delivery has been increasing even in developed countries and remains a serious problem for fetuses and neonates. Although many predictors for preterm delivery have been proposed, complete prediction and prevention have not yet been established. Aims: To examine the potential association between sonographic measurement of cervical length and threatened preterm birth (TPTB) in pregnant woman at 24-36 weeks of gestation. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study included a total of 360 pregnant woman at 24-36 weeks of gestation categorized in two groups: TPTB group (n=160) and non TPTB group (n=200). The study was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Clinical Center University of Sarajevo (KCUS). Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients were obtained from medical records and physical examination by gynecologist. Transvaginal sonography was carried out by GE Voluson 730. Results: There was a significant association between TPTB and sonographic measurement of cervical length <25 mm (P<0.001). The logistic regression model was statistically significant, x2(7) = 281.530, P<0. 001. The model explained 72.6% of the variance in TPTB and correctly classified 88.1% of cases. Sensitivity was 83.8%, specificity was 91.5%, positive predictive value was 88.7% and negative predictive value was 87.6%. Out of the 7 predictor variables only 5 were statistically significant: cervical length, cervical consistency, rupture of membranes, uterine contractions and amine odor test. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest association between sonographic measurement of cervical length and TPTB. PMID:25568578

  20. Asymmetry questionnaire outcomes correlate with several hemisphericity measures.

    PubMed

    Morton, Bruce E

    2003-04-01

    The asymmetry questionnaire segregated subjects (n=143) into two groups. These were significantly correlated with similar groups separated, not only by three new biophysical hemisphericity protocols (Dichotic Deafness Test, Phased Mirror Tracing, Best Hand Test), but also by two preference-type measures (polarity questionnaire, preference questionnaire). Each of the 15 asymmetry questionnaire statements was significantly correlated with the outcomes of these five laterality measures. This is the third questionnaire whose outcomes correlate with those of the new biophysical measures of hemisphericity. PMID:12727192

  1. Method of glass melter electrode length measurement using time domain reflectometry (TDR)

    SciTech Connect

    Tarpley, James M.; Zamecnik, John R.

    2000-02-28

    The present invention overcomes the drawbacks inherent in the prior art and solves the problems inherent in conventional Joule-heated vitrification melters, where the melter preferably comprises a vessel having a refractory liner and an opening for receiving material which is converted into molten vitreous material in the vessel. The vessel has an outlet port for removing molten vitreous material from the vessel. A plurality of electrodes is disposed in the vessel and electrical energy is passed between electrode pairs through feed material and molten vitreous material in the vessel. Typically, the electrodes erode and wear in time, and this invention seeks to monitor and evaluate the length and condition of the electrodes. The present invention uses time domain reflectometry (TDR) methods to accurately measure the length of an electrode that is subject to wear and electrolytic decomposition due to the extreme conditions in which the electrode is required to operate. Specifically, TDR would be used to measure the length and effects of erosion of molybdenum electrodes used in Joule-heated vitrification melter. Of course, the inventive concept should not be limited to this preferred environment.

  2. Entanglement as measure of electronelectron correlation in quantum chemistry calculations

    E-print Network

    Kais, Sabre

    Entanglement as measure of electron­electron correlation in quantum chemistry calculations ZhenÕ to a correlation of quantum nature. He stated that for an entangled state Ôthe best possible knowledge of the whole] there has been a quest for generating entanglement between quantum particles [10,17]. Investigation

  3. Enhancing robustness of multiparty quantum correlations using weak measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Uttam; Mishra, Utkarsh; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar

    2014-11-15

    Multipartite quantum correlations are important resources for the development of quantum information and computation protocols. However, the resourcefulness of multipartite quantum correlations in practical settings is limited by its fragility under decoherence due to environmental interactions. Though there exist protocols to protect bipartite entanglement under decoherence, the implementation of such protocols for multipartite quantum correlations has not been sufficiently explored. Here, we study the effect of local amplitude damping channel on the generalized Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state, and use a protocol of optimal reversal quantum weak measurement to protect the multipartite quantum correlations. We observe that the weak measurement reversal protocol enhances the robustness of multipartite quantum correlations. Further it increases the critical damping value that corresponds to entanglement sudden death. To emphasize the efficacy of the technique in protection of multipartite quantum correlation, we investigate two proximately related quantum communication tasks, namely, quantum teleportation in a one sender, many receivers setting and multiparty quantum information splitting, through a local amplitude damping channel. We observe an increase in the average fidelity of both the quantum communication tasks under the weak measurement reversal protocol. The method may prove beneficial, for combating external interactions, in other quantum information tasks using multipartite resources. - Highlights: • Extension of weak measurement reversal scheme to protect multiparty quantum correlations. • Protection of multiparty quantum correlation under local amplitude damping noise. • Enhanced fidelity of quantum teleportation in one sender and many receivers setting. • Enhanced fidelity of quantum information splitting protocol.

  4. Atomic force microscopy of reovirus dsRNA: a routine technique for length measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Lyubchenko, Y L; Jacobs, B L; Lindsay, S M

    1992-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image reovirus double stranded RNA (dsRNA) deposited from diluted buffer solution onto a chemically treated mica surface. This procedure allows AFM images of dsRNA molecules to be obtained with a quality close to that obtained with conventional electron microscopy. The length of the molecules were measured directly on a computer display using the digitally acquired images. The lengths of the molecules varied between 0.2 and 1.8 microns. Statistical analysis showed a multimodal distribution with clear maxima at 0.4, 0.65 and 1.05 microns. These data are in a good agreement with those obtained by electron microscopy and gel electrophoresis. Images PMID:1508683

  5. Digit length ratio (2D/4D): comparing measurements from X-rays and photographs in field voles (Microtus agrestis)

    E-print Network

    Helle, Samuli

    METHODS Digit length ratio (2D/4D): comparing measurements from X-rays and photographs in field-Verlag 2009 Abstract The ratio of second-to-fourth digit length (2D/4D) has been suggested to be a useful-rays, due to their greater accuracy, should be preferred over photographs for measuring digit ratios

  6. Assessing Long-Term Wind Conditions by Combining Different Measure-Correlate-Predict Algorithms: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Messac, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-08-01

    This paper significantly advances the hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology, enabling it to account for variations of both wind speed and direction. The advanced hybrid MCP method uses the recorded data of multiple reference stations to estimate the long-term wind condition at a target wind plant site. The results show that the accuracy of the hybrid MCP method is highly sensitive to the combination of the individual MCP algorithms and reference stations. It was also found that the best combination of MCP algorithms varies based on the length of the correlation period.

  7. The quantumness of correlations revealed in local measurements exceeds entanglement

    E-print Network

    Marco Piani; Gerardo Adesso

    2012-01-16

    We analyze a family of measures of general quantum correlations for composite systems, defined in terms of the bipartite entanglement necessarily created between systems and apparatuses during local measurements. For every entanglement monotone $E$, this operational correspondence provides a different measure $Q_E$ of quantum correlations. Examples of such measures are the relative entropy of quantumness, the quantum deficit, and the negativity of quantumness. In general, we prove that any so defined quantum correlation measure is always greater than (or equal to) the corresponding entanglement between the subsystems, $Q_E \\ge E$, for arbitrary states of composite quantum systems. We analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the flow of correlations in iterated measurements, showing that general quantum correlations and entanglement can never decrease along von Neumann chains, and that genuine multipartite entanglement in the initial state of the observed system always gives rise to genuine multipartite entanglement among all subsystems and all measurement apparatuses at any level in the chain. Our results provide a comprehensive framework to understand and quantify general quantum correlations in multipartite states.

  8. Correlations between nano-scale chemical-and polar-order in relaxor ferroelectrics and the length scale for polar nano-regions

    E-print Network

    Burton, Benjamin P.

    Correlations between nano-scale chemical- and polar-order in relaxor ferroelectrics and the length scale for polar nano-regions B.P. Burton and Eric Cockayne1 and U. V. Waghmare2 1 Ceramics Division3, were used to determine the nature of correlations between short- range chemical- and polar nano

  9. Correlation of Chromosomal Instability, Telomere Length and Telomere Maintenance in Microsatellite Stable Rectal Cancer: A Molecular Subclass of Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Lisa A.; Johnson, Ruth A.; Viker, Kimberly B.; Hafner, Kari A.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Litzelman, Kristin; Seo, Songwon; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Rider, David N.; Vanderboom, Russell J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Skinner, Halcyon G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN) and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS) and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+). However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-). MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition. Experimental Design MSS rectal cancers from patients ?50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher) or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]). Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH. Results Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN-) and chromosomally instable (CIN+) by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6) had fewer copy number changes (<17% of their clones with DNA copy number changes) than CIN+ tumors (65%; n=13) which had high levels of copy number changes in 20% to 49% of clones. Telomere lengths were longer in CIN- compared to CIN+ tumors (p=0.0066) and in those in which telomerase was not activated (p=0.004). Tumors exhibiting activation of telomerase had shorter tumor telomeres (p=0.0040); and tended to be CIN+ (p=0.0949). Conclusions MSS rectal cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase. PMID:24278232

  10. Information Measures for Long-Range Correlated Sequences: the Case of the 24 Human Chromosome Sequences

    E-print Network

    Carbone, A

    2013-01-01

    The Shannon (block) entropy of the clusters generated by intersecting a long-range correlated sequence with its moving average is studied. The entropy is given by two terms, respectively increasing logarithmically and linearly (besides a constant term), corresponding to clusters with power-law or exponentially distributed lengths. Then, the entropy measure is implemented on the 24 human chromosome sequences. Interestingly, it is found that, for the power-law correlated clusters, the nucleotide composition is, on the average, equal to the nucleotide composition of the whole sequence, while, for the exponentially correlated clusters, it fluctuates around the average value. Even more interestingly, it is found that the variance of the fluctuations is a characteristic property of each chromosome. How these fluctuations correlate to biological properties such as segmental duplications, gene density of each chromosome is finally discussed.

  11. Atmospheric correlation time measurements using coherent CO2 lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancellet, G. M.; Menzies, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    A pulsed TEA-CO2 lidar with coherent detection was used to measure the correlation time of backscatter from an ensemble of atmospheric aerosol particles which are illuminated by the pulsed radiation. The correlation time of the backscatter return signal is important in studies of atmospheric turbulence and its effects on optical propagation and backscatter. If the temporal coherence of the pulse is large enough, then the temporal coherence of the return signal is dominated by the turbulence and shear for a variety of interesting atmospheric conditions. Various techniques for correlation time measurement are discussed and evaluated.

  12. Identification of source of oscillations in apparent sarcomere length measured by laser diffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, K; Huxley, A F

    1995-01-01

    The most widely used technique for dynamic estimates of sarcomere length in muscle is laser light diffraction. We have identified conditions under which artifactual oscillations can arise in apparent sarcomere length measured by this technique and report methods to reduce the effect. Altringham et al. (1984) first reported that the diffraction angle can exhibit one cycle of oscillation for each sarcomere length displacement of the illuminated portion of the fiber. We find that the amplitude of similar oscillations is strongly dependent on the intensity of light scattered from objects near the fiber and on the spacing between fiber and scatterer. The oscillations can be eliminated by minimizing scattered light and positioning the fiber a few millimeters from sources of scattering. A theoretical description shows that oscillations of this kind are expected from interference of scattered and diffracted light. Interference fringes were observed along the meridian of the pattern, and these moved during translation of either a fiber or a grating. The movement of fringes across the diffraction order shifts the centroid back and forth and, when associated with steady shortening, can give rise to "steps" and "pauses" in apparent striation spacing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:7647247

  13. Computable Measure of Total Quantum Correlation of Multipartite Systems

    E-print Network

    Javad Behdani; Seyed Javad Akhtarshenas; Mohsen Sarbishaei

    2015-09-29

    Quantum discord as a measure of the quantum correlations cannot be easily computed for most of density operators. In this paper, we present a measure of the total quantum correlations that is operationally simple and can be computed effectively for an arbitrary mixed state of a multipartite system. The measure is based on the coherence vector of the party whose quantumness is investigated as well as the correlation matrix of this part with the remainder of the system. Being able to detect the quantumness of multipartite systems, such as detecting the quantum critical points in spin chains, alongside with the computability characteristic of the measure, make it a useful indicator to be exploited in the cases which are out of the scope of the other known measures.

  14. Diffusion length measurement using the scanning electron microscope. [for silicon solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.

    1975-01-01

    The present work describes a measuring technique employing the scanning electron microscope in which values of the true bulk diffusion length are obtained. It is shown that surface recombination effects can be eliminated through application of highly doped surface field layers. The effects of high injection level and low-high junction current generation are investigated. Results obtained with this technique are compared to those obtained by a penetrating radiation (X-ray) method, and a close agreement is found. The SEM technique is limited to cells that contain a back surface field layer.

  15. Measurement of diffusion length, lifetime, and surface recombination velocity in thin semiconductor layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, F. N.; Neugroschel, A.

    1984-04-01

    A small-signal admittance method is developed for the determination of two important parameters affecting the performance of several semiconductor devices with thin layers such as integrated-injection-logic and MOS transistors, OCHI-HLE, BSF and TJ solar cells. These parameters, the minority-carrier diffusion length (or the minority-carrier lifetime) and the surface recombination velocity, are found using a combination of low-frequency and high-frequency admittance measurements. The theoretical base of the method and experimental results showing its application and usefulness are presented.

  16. Inlet Turbulence and Length Scale Measurements in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurman, Douglas; Flegel, Ashlie; Giel, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Constant temperature hotwire anemometry data were acquired to determine the inlet turbulence conditions of a transonic turbine blade linear cascade. Flow conditions and angles were investigated that corresponded to the take-off and cruise conditions of the Variable Speed Power Turbine (VSPT) project and to an Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) scaled rotor blade tip section. Mean and turbulent flowfield measurements including intensity, length scale, turbulence decay, and power spectra were determined for high and low turbulence intensity flows at various Reynolds numbers and spanwise locations. The experimental data will be useful for establishing the inlet boundary conditions needed to validate turbulence models in CFD codes.

  17. Scaling form of viscosity at all length-scales in poly(ethylene glycol) solutions studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Holyst, Robert; Bielejewska, Anna; Szyma?ski, Jedrzej; Wilk, Agnieszka; Patkowski, Adam; Gapi?ski, Jacek; Zywoci?ski, Andrzej; Kalwarczyk, Tomasz; Kalwarczyk, Ewelina; Tabaka, Marcin; Ziebacz, Natalia; Wieczorek, Stefan A

    2009-10-28

    We measured the viscosity of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 6000, 12,000, 20,000) in water using capillary electrophoresis and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with nanoscopic probes of different diameters (from 1.7 to 114 nm). For a probe of diameter smaller than the radius of gyration of PEG (e.g. rhodamine B or lyzozyme) the measured nanoviscosity was orders of magnitude smaller than the macroviscosity. For sizes equal to (or larger than) the polymer radius of gyration, macroscopic value of viscosity was measured. A mathematical relation for macro and nanoviscosity was found as a function of PEG radius of gyration, R(g), correlation length in semi-dilute solution, xi, and probe size, R. For R < R(g), the nanoviscosity (normalized by water viscosity) is given by exp(b(R/xi)a), and for R > R(g), both nano and macroviscosity follow the same curve, exp(b(R/xi)a), where a and b are two constants close to unity. This mathematical relation was shown to equally well describe rhodamine (of size 1.7 nm) in PEG 20,000 and the macroviscosity of PEG 8,000,000, whose radius of gyration exceeds 200 nm. Additionally, for the smallest probes (rhodamine B and lysozyme) we have verified, using capillary electrophoresis and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, that the Stokes-Einstein (SE) relation holds, providing that we use a size-dependent viscosity in the formula. The SE relation is correct even in PEG solutions of very high viscosity (three orders of magnitude larger than that of water). PMID:19812821

  18. The Measurement and Correlates of Career Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harren, Vincent A.; Kass, Richard A.

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding career decision making (CDM); introduces an instrument, Assessment of Career Decision Making (ACDM) to measure CDM with college students; and presents correlational data on sex role and cognitive style factors hypothesized to influence CDM. The ACDM, designed to measure the Tiedeman and…

  19. Do severity measures explain differences in length of hospital stay? The case of hip fracture.

    PubMed Central

    Shwartz, M; Iezzoni, L I; Ash, A S; Mackiernan, Y D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether judgments about hospital length of stay (LOS) vary depending on the measure used to adjust for severity differences. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data on admissions to 80 hospitals nationwide in the 1992 MedisGroups Comparative Database. STUDY DESIGN: For each of 14 severity measures, LOS was regressed on patient age/sex, DRG, and severity score. Regressions were performed on trimmed and untrimmed data. R-squared was used to evaluate model performance. For each severity measure for each hospital, we calculated the expected LOS and the z-score, a measure of the deviation of observed from expected LOS. We ranked hospitals by z-scores. DATA EXTRACTION: All patients admitted for initial surgical repair of a hip fracture, defined by DRG, diagnosis, and procedure codes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 5,664 patients had a mean (s.d.) LOS of 11.9 (8.9) days. Cross-validated R-squared values from the multivariable regressions (trimmed data) ranged from 0.041 (Comorbidity Index) to 0.165 (APR-DRGs). Using untrimmed data, observed average LOS for hospitals ranged from 7.6 to 23.9 days. The 14 severity measures showed excellent agreement in ranking hospitals based on z-scores. No severity measure explained the differences between hospitals with the shortest and longest LOS. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals differed widely in their mean LOS for hip fracture patients, and severity adjustment did little to explain these differences. PMID:8885854

  20. Statistical Measures of Planck Scale Signal Correlations in Interferometers

    E-print Network

    Hogan, Craig J

    2015-01-01

    A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parametrized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. Simple projections of sensitivity for specific experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will directly yield constraints on a universal time derivative of the correlation function, and thereby confirm or rule out ...

  1. A new correlation-based measure of spike timing reliability.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, S; Fellous, J M; Whitmer, D; Tiesinga, P; Sejnowski, T J

    2003-06-01

    We introduce a new correlation-based measure of spike timing reliability. Unlike other measures, it does not require the definition of a posteriori "events". It relies on only one parameter, which relates to the timescale of spike timing precision. We test the measure on surrogate data sets with varying amounts of spike time jitter, and missing or additional spikes, and compare it with a widely used histogram-based measure. The measure is efficient and faithful in characterizing spike timing reliability and produces smaller errors in the reliability estimate than the histogram-based measure based on the same number of trials. PMID:20740049

  2. Measurement of intact-core length of atomizing liquid jets by image deconvolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Roger; Burch, Robert; Kuo, Kenneth; Cheung, Fan-Bill

    1993-01-01

    The investigation of liquid jet breakup and spray development is critical to the understanding of combustion phenomena in liquid propellant rocket engines. Much work has been done to characterize low-speed liquid jet breakup and dilute sprays, but atomizing jets and dense sprays have yielded few quantitative measurements due to their high liquid load fractions and hence their optical opacity. Focus was on a characteristic of the primary breakup process of round liquid jets, namely the length of the intact-liquid core. The specific application considered is that of shear-coaxial-type rocket engine injectors in which liquid oxygen is injected through the center post while high velocity gaseous hydrogen is injected through a concentric annulus, providing a shear force to the liquid jet surface. Real-time x ray radiography, capable of imaging through the dense two-phase region surrounding the liquid core, is used to make the measurements. The intact-liquid-core length data were obtained and interpreted using two conceptually different methods to illustrate the effects of chamber pressure, gas-to-liquid momentum ratio, and cavitation.

  3. The surprising negative correlation of gene length and optimal codon use - disentangling translational selection from GC-biased gene conversion in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Surprisingly, in several multi-cellular eukaryotes optimal codon use correlates negatively with gene length. This contrasts with the expectation under selection for translational accuracy. While suggested explanations focus on variation in strength and efficiency of translational selection, it has rarely been noticed that the negative correlation is reported only in organisms whose optimal codons are biased towards codons that end with G or C (-GC). This raises the question whether forces that affect base composition - such as GC-biased gene conversion - contribute to the negative correlation between optimal codon use and gene length. Results Yeast is a good organism to study this as equal numbers of optimal codons end in -GC and -AT and one may hence compare frequencies of optimal GC- with optimal AT-ending codons to disentangle the forces. Results of this study demonstrate in yeast frequencies of GC-ending (optimal AND non-optimal) codons decrease with gene length and increase with recombination. A decrease of GC-ending codons along genes contributes to the negative correlation with gene length. Correlations with recombination and gene expression differentiate between GC-ending and optimal codons, and also substitution patterns support effects of GC-biased gene conversion. Conclusion While the general effect of GC-biased gene conversion is well known, the negative correlation of optimal codon use with gene length has not been considered in this context before. Initiation of gene conversion events in promoter regions and the presence of a gene conversion gradient most likely explain the observed decrease of GC-ending codons with gene length and gene position. PMID:21481245

  4. Amplified fragment length polymorphism of Streptococcus suis strains correlates with their profile of virulence-associated genes and clinical background.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Thomas; Baums, Christoph G; Strommenger, Birgit; Beyerbach, Martin; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) typing was applied to 116 Streptococcus suis isolates with different clinical backgrounds (invasive/pneumonia/carrier/human) and with known profiles of virulence-associated genes (cps1, -2, -7 and -9, as well as mrp, epf and sly). A dendrogram was generated that allowed identification of two clusters (A and C) with different subclusters (A1, A2, C1 and C2) and two heterogeneous groups of strains (B and D). For comparison, three strains from each AFLP subcluster and group were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. The closest relationship and lowest diversity were found for patterns clustering within AFLP subcluster A1, which corresponded with sequence type (ST) complex 1. Strains within subcluster A1 were mainly invasive cps1 and mrp+ epf+ (or epf*) sly+ cps2+ strains of porcine or human origin. A new finding of this study was the clustering of invasive mrp* cps9 isolates within subcluster A2. MLST analysis suggested that A2 correlates with a single ST complex (ST87). In contrast to A1 and A2, subclusters C1 and C2 contained mainly pneumonia isolates of genotype cps7 or cps2 and epf- sly-. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that AFLP allows identification of clusters of S. suis strains with clinical relevance. PMID:17172524

  5. Direct measurement of correlation functions in a lattice Lorentz gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Frenkel, D.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations of a two-dimensional ballistic Lorentz gas on a lattice are reported. A moment-propagation technique allows direct measurements of the velocity correlation function and its moments with low relative errors for all times. The predicted 1/t-sq algebraic tails in the velocity correlation function are observed at all studied scatterer densities, unlike what has been reported for continuous systems. In the square lattice a fast oscillation is observed, consistent with the existence of staggered density modes. For the second-rank tensor correlation function, an extremely slow approach to the expected 1/t exp 3 tail is found.

  6. Analyzing complex networks through correlations in centrality measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan Ronqui, José Ricardo; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-05-01

    Many real world systems can be expressed as complex networks of interconnected nodes. It is frequently important to be able to quantify the relative importance of the various nodes in the network, a task accomplished by defining some centrality measures, with different centrality definitions stressing different aspects of the network. It is interesting to know to what extent these different centrality definitions are related for different networks. In this work, we study the correlation between pairs of a set of centrality measures for different real world networks and two network models. We show that the centralities are in general correlated, but with stronger correlations for network models than for real networks. We also show that the strength of the correlation of each pair of centralities varies from network to network. Taking this fact into account, we propose the use of a centrality correlation profile, consisting of the values of the correlation coefficients between all pairs of centralities of interest, as a way to characterize networks. Using the yeast protein interaction network as an example we show also that the centrality correlation profile can be used to assess the adequacy of a network model as a representation of a given real network.

  7. Full Wave Simulation of Reflectometer Correlation Measurements in the Core of Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeo, E. J.; Nazikian, R.

    2000-10-01

    A fundamental issue in reflectometry is whether the measured correlation length is the same as that of the turbulent density fluctuations.(B. I. Cohen, etal.), Phys. of Plasmas, 6, 1732 (1999); M. Gilmore, etal., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, 42, L1 (2000). Consideration of wave propagation in fusion plasmas would suggest that the two should not coincide except under special conditions. On the other hand, extensive measurements in laboratory plasmas and in the edge of tokamak plasmas have shown that the reflectometer correlation length agrees with probe measurements and with 1-D full wave analysis. We investigate via 2-D full-wave simulations whether this equivalence can generally be extrapolated to conditions typical of core fusion plasmas, especially those where where an internal transport barrier is established. In order to perform the correlation analysis on realistic sized plasmas the code uses a line-jacobi algorithm which allows the Courant condition to be exceeded,(H. X. Vu, J. Comp. Phys., 144, 257 (1998).) and has been implemented on a parallel computer at PPPL.

  8. Tests for time-invariant correlation of longitudinally measured biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Braun, Thomas M

    2015-12-20

    Our work is motivated by a study that longitudinally measured serum biomarkers and levels of bacterial pathogens in the oral cavity with the intent of testing if the correlation between each biomarker and each pathogen is homogeneous over time. To address this question, we propose a model for the joint distribution of the serial biomarker measures and the serial pathogen measures and use the variance of this distribution to derive the asymptotic distribution of the sample correlation coefficient of a biomarker and a pathogen at each time point. We use both a Wald test based upon Fisher's Z-transformation and an F-test with an estimated degrees of freedom in order to produce a test with valid size. We examine the performance of both tests via Monte Carlo simulation in a variety of settings defined by the number of subjects, the number of time points, and the range of the true correlation coefficients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26172451

  9. Feasibility study for transuranic nuclide measurement on long-length contaminated equipment using neutron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.; Peurrung, A.J.; Arthur, R.J.

    1995-10-01

    The feasibility of measuring the transuranic (TRU) nuclide content of equipment removed from Hanford`s high-level radioactive-waste tanks has been established for components heavier than about 30 kg/m (20 lbs/ft). This conclusion has been reached based on experience with the TRU assay of waste burial boxes, planned improvements to the assay equipment design and assay methodology, and experimental investigation of neutron detector performance in high gamma-ray fields. The experiments indicate that the neutron detectors presently used with Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s box scanner perform correctly in gamma-ray exposure rates of at least 3 R/h. The design of equipment proposed for measuring TRU content incorporates multiple, BF{sub 3}-gas-filled neutron counters in a configuration that is approximately 0.5 m wide and 2 m long, with polyethylene to moderate high-energy neutrons down to thermal energy. Specially developed electrical systems are used to eliminate response to gamma-rays. Performance of the assay would require 10 to 14 hours of time during which close-range access is provided to the waste and its burial container. A standard neutron source, will be placed within the burial container (before inserting components) to allow calibration of the detector. Final calculation of the TRU contamination will utilize plausible conservative assumptions concerning the spatial, isotopic, and elemental distributions of any TRU present. For long-length equipment, the detector array collects data at various positions along the length of the equipment. Separate monitoring of the cosmic-ray-induced neutron background during the assay period will provide confidence that observed changes in counts at the equipment are not related to changing background. Background measurements using the burial container and equipment {open_quotes}skid{close_quotes} will allow compensation for neutrons that are created by cosmic-ray spallation within the burial container.

  10. Axial Length Measurement Failure Rates with the IOLMaster and Lenstar LS 900 in Eyes with Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Pesudovs, Konrad; Yang, Xin; Bao, Fangjun; Yu, Ayong; Lin, Shishi; Feng, Yifan; Huang, Jinhai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate axial length (AL) measurement failure rate with the IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss AG, Germany) and Lenstar LS 900 (Haag-Streit AG, Switzerland) in eyes with cataract. Methods Two hundred and ninety-six eyes of 170 patients with cataract were enrolled. Cataract type and severity were graded using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) and AL measurements were attempted with IOLMaster (version 5.4) and Lenstar LS 900 (version 1.1). Chi-squared analysis was used to assess if the difference in AL measurement acquisition rate was statistically significant between the two devices. The association of the different cataract types and severity with the AL measurement acquisition rate was evaluated with logistic regression analysis. Results AL measurements were obtained in 184 eyes (62.16%) using the IOLMaster and 191 eyes (64.53%) using the Lenstar, which corresponds to a failure rate of 37.84% and 35.47% respectively. Chi-square analysis indicated no significant difference between the Lenstar and IOLMaster for AL measurement failure rate (x2 = 0.356, P = 0.550). Logistic regression analysis indicated no association between acquisition rates and cortical or nuclear cataracts with either device. There was a statistically significant association between acquisition rates and increasing severity of posterior subcapsular cataracts with the IOLMaster (? = -1.491, P<0.001) and Lenstar LS 900 (? = -1.507, P<0.001). Conclusion The IOLMaster and Lenstar LS 900 have similar AL measurement failure rates (35–38%) for Chinese public hospital cataract patients. Increasing severity of posterior subcapsular cataracts was problematic for both devices. PMID:26061554

  11. Telomere length in cardiovascular disease: new challenges in measuring this marker of cardiovascular aging.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jedrzej; Spyridopoulos, Ioakim

    2011-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is an age-related systemic disease characterized by systemic oxidative stress and low grade chronic inflammation. Various types of leukocytes play an important role within this process. Telomeres, the ends of chromosomes, shorten during each and every cell division and have therefore been regarded as a cellular clock. Telomere dysfunction has been implicated in aging and senescence, and shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been demonstrated to predict cardiovascular disease and mortality. However, although LTL can predict cardiovascular events in population studies, a number of factors have prevented its broad use as a surrogate end point, such as serum levels of LDL cholesterol. In this article we will provide an overview of telomere biology and telomere dynamics of different leukocyte populations, and we will also discuss pitfalls in the methodology of LTL quantification, in context with landmark studies, which measured LTL in cardiovascular disease. Finally, we will attempt to critically assess and explain the shortcomings of LTL as a biomarker and identify further research avenues that require further investigation before telomere length can be implemented as an individual biomarker for cardiovascular aging. From this it becomes evident that LTL can be susceptible to methodological errors affecting longitudinal reproducibility. LTL is generally confounded at least by genetic factors, population variation and leukocyte composition. PMID:22050065

  12. Two Point Space-Time Correlation of Density Fluctuations Measured in High Velocity Free Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta

    2006-01-01

    Two-point space-time correlations of air density fluctuations in unheated, fully-expanded free jets at Mach numbers M(sub j) = 0.95, 1.4, and 1.8 were measured using a Rayleigh scattering based diagnostic technique. The molecular scattered light from two small probe volumes of 1.03 mm length was measured for a completely non-intrusive means of determining the turbulent density fluctuations. The time series of density fluctuations were analyzed to estimate the integral length scale L in a moving frame of reference and the convective Mach number M(sub c) at different narrow Strouhal frequency (St) bands. It was observed that M(sub c) and the normalized moving frame length scale L*St/D, where D is the jet diameter, increased with Strouhal frequency before leveling off at the highest resolved frequency. Significant differences were observed between data obtained from the lip shear layer and the centerline of the jet. The wave number frequency transform of the correlation data demonstrated progressive increase in the radiative part of turbulence fluctuations with increasing jet Mach number.

  13. Accuracy of axial length measurements from immersion B-scan ultrasonography in highly myopic eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing-Hua; Chen, Bing; Peng, Guang-Hua; Li, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Yi-Fei

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the accuracy of axial length (AL) measurements obtained from immersion B-scan ultrasonography (immersion B-scan) for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation in patients with high myopia and cataracts. METHODS Immersion B-scan, contact A-scan ultrasonography (contact A-scan), and the IOLMaster were used to preoperatively measure the AL in 102 eyes from 102 patients who underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the AL: one containing patients with 22 mm?AL<26 mm(group A) and the other containing patients with AL?26 mm (group B). The mean error (ME) was calculated from the difference between the AL measurement methods predicted refractive error and the actual postoperative refractive error. RESULTS In group A, ALs measured by immersion B-scan (23.48±1.15) didn't differ significantly from those measured by the IOLMaster (23.52±1.17) or from those by contact A-scan (23.38±1.20). In the same group, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean error (ME) of immersion B-scan (-0.090±0.397 D) didn't differ significantly from those of IOLMaster (-0.095±0.411 D) and contact A-scan (-0.099±0.425 D). In group B, ALs measured by immersion B-scan (27.97±2.21 mm) didn't differ significantly from those of the IOLMaster (27.86±2.18 mm), but longer than those measured by Contact A-scan (27.75±2.23 mm, P=0.009). In the same group, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean error (ME) of immersion B-scan (-0.635±0.157 D) didn't differ significantly from those of the IOLMaster (-0.679±0.359 D), but differed significantly from those of contact A-scan (-0.953±1.713 D, P=0.028). CONCLUSION Immersion B-scan exhibits measurement accuracy comparable to that of the IOLMaster, and is thus a good alternative in measuring AL in eyes with high myopia when the IOLMaster can't be used, and it is more accurate than the contact A-scan. PMID:24967188

  14. PROTOTYPE CORRELATION MASK FLAME PHOTOMETRIC DETECTOR FOR MEASURING SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype flame photometric detector system (FPD) to measure gaseous sulfur compounds was fabricated using a previously developed correlation mask optical system and a new flame housing. Also, a new burner for the FPD system was optimized to view the excited molecular sulfur em...

  15. CORRELATION OF EGG PHYSICAL QUALITY MEASUREMENTS AND FUNCTIONAL DETERMINATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both physical and functional determinations have served as a means for determining shell egg quality. A study was conducted to determine if correlations exist between these types of egg quality measurements. Shell eggs were collected weekly after processing from a U.S. inline processing facility f...

  16. Static Laboratory Earthquake Measurements with the Digital Image Correlation Method

    E-print Network

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    of earthquake mechan- ics. Currently, aerial and satellite images taken pre- and post- earthquake canStatic Laboratory Earthquake Measurements with the Digital Image Correlation Method V. Rubino & N on the Earth's surface following an earthquake is of paramount importance to enhance our understanding

  17. Magnetic correlation length for undoped and lightly doped La[sub 2]CuO[sub 4[minus][ital y

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.P.; Singh, M. )

    1995-03-01

    We have used a self-consistent Green's function theory based on the quasi-two-dimensional Heisenberg model to explain the magnetic correlation length for both undoped and lightly doped samples of La[sub 2]CuO[sub 4[minus][ital y

  18. VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF NORMAL AND INFARCTED MYOCARDIUM MEASURED BY A MULTIFREQUENCY SHEAR WAVE METHOD: COMPARISON WITH PRESSURE-SEGMENT LENGTH METHOD

    PubMed Central

    Pislaru, Cristina; Urban, Matthew W.; Pislaru, Sorin V.; Kinnick, Randall R.; Greenleaf, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Our aims were (i) to compare in vivo measurements of myocardial elasticity by shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) with those by the conventional pressure-segment length method, and (ii) to quantify changes in myocardial viscoelasticity during systole and diastole after reperfused acute myocardial infarction. The shear elastic modulus (?1) and viscous coefficient (?2) of left ventricular myocardium were measured by SDUV in 10 pigs. Young’s elastic modulus was independently measured by the pressure-segment length method. Measurements made with the SDUV and pressure-segment length methods were strongly correlated. At reperfusion, ?1 and ?2 in end-diastole were increased. Less consistent changes were found during systole. In all animals, ?1 increased linearly with left ventricular pressure developed during systole. Preliminary results suggest that m1 is preload dependent. This is the first study to validate in vivo measurements of myocardial elasticity by a shear wave method. In this animal model, the alterations in myocardial viscoelasticity after a myocardial infarction were most consistently detected during diastole. PMID:24814645

  19. Measurements and parameterizations of small aerosol deposition velocities to grassland, arable crops, and forest: Influence of surface roughness length on deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. W.; Nemitz, E.; Dorsey, J. R.; Fowler, D.; Sutton, M. A.; Flynn, M.; Duyzer, J.

    2002-06-01

    New micrometeorological measurements of small (0.1-0.2 ?m diameter) aerosol particle fluxes using the eddy correlation technique are presented for moorland and also for grassland vegetation, the latter measurements being made both before and after cutting of the grassland to observe the resultant change in particle deposition velocity. These data are considered together with previously reported and reanalyzed micrometeorological measurements, again using the eddy correlation technique, for a number of different surface types, including arable crops and forest. Differences in observed surface deposition velocities, vds, due to the different surface roughnesses are highlighted. It was found that the various data sets showed a wholly consistent behavior when ensemble averages over the typical range of atmospheric stability ranges are considered in order to reduce the scatter inherent in these types of measurements. A working parameterization of surface deposition velocity in terms of the surface's roughness length, zo, is presented. This is then extended for different atmospheric stabilities, using the parameterization suggested by Lamaud et al. [1994c], to yield vds/u* = k1 + k2 (-300 z/L)2/3, where k1 = k1 = 0.001222 log(zo) + 0.003906, k2 = 0.0009, where z is the measurement height, L is the Obukhov stability length, and u* is the local friction speed. The new data are finally compared to current analytical model descriptions of the deposition process, highlighting deficiencies in our understanding of the surface collection efficiency even for these small particles.

  20. Comparative Study of Bunch Length And Arrival Time Measurements at FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Schlarb, H.; Azima, A.; Dusterer, S.; Huning, M.; Knabbe, E.A.; Roehrs, M.; Rybnikov, V.; Schmidt, B.; Steffen, B.; Ross, M.C.; Schmueser, P.; Winter, A.; /Hamburg U.

    2007-04-16

    Diagnostic devices to precisely measure the longitudinal electron beam profile and the bunch arrival time require elaborate new instrumentation techniques. At FLASH, two entirely different methods are used. The bunch profile can be determined with high precision by a transverse deflecting RF structure, but the method is disruptive and does not allow to monitor multiple bunches in a macro-pulse train. It is therefore complemented by two non-disruptive electrooptical devices, called EO and TEO. The EO setup uses a dedicated diagnostic laser synchronized to the machine RF. The longitudinal electron beam profile is encoded in the intensity profile of a chirped laser pulse and analyzed by looking at the spectral composition of the pulse. The second setup, TEO, utilizes the TiSa-based laser system used for pump-probe experiments. Here, the temporal electron shape is encoded into the spatial dimension of the laser pulse by an intersection angle between the laser and the electron beam at the EO-crystal. In this paper, we present a comparative study of bunch length and arrival time measurements performed simultaneously with all three experimental techniques.

  1. Avian hind-limb digit length ratios measured from radiographs are sexually dimorphic

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Barbara; Rubolini, Diego; Romano, Maria; di Giancamillo, Mauro; Saino, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in digit length ratios is well established in humans, and has been reported in other vertebrate species as well, including birds. The sign of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios may, however, vary both within and between vertebrate classes. It has been hypothesized that sex differences in digit ratios arise via differential prenatal exposure of the two sexes to steroids, which may affect the expression of the Hox genes controlling the osteometric development of digits and appendices. Among birds, the evidence for sex dimorphism in hind-limb digit ratios is conflicting, though all previous studies were based on measurements of undissected digits, implying that results could be confounded by sex-related variation in soft tissues. Here we report that digit ratios derived from radiographs of both feet of a large passerine bird, the hooded crow (Corvus corone), are sexually dimorphic, males showing larger 2D : 3D (effect size, r = 0.33) and 2D : 4D than females (effect size, r = 0.28). We also observed a good agreement (r = 0.45) between radiographic estimates of digit ratios and digit ratios calculated based on undissected digit measurements (thus including soft tissues). Importantly, we found that the patterns of sex and side differences were largely coherent between the two methods. Therefore, our findings show for the first time in avian species that sex differences in digit ratios have an osteometric basis, a fundamental prerequisite for a role of Hox genes in originating such dimorphism. PMID:18691377

  2. Correlation of Spatially Filtered Dynamic Speckles in Distance Measurement Application

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, Dmitry V.; Nippolainen, Ervin; Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Miridonov, Serguei V.

    2008-04-15

    In this paper statistical properties of spatially filtered dynamic speckles are considered. This phenomenon was not sufficiently studied yet while spatial filtering is an important instrument for speckles velocity measurements. In case of spatial filtering speckle velocity information is derived from the modulation frequency of filtered light power which is measured by photodetector. Typical photodetector output is represented by a narrow-band random noise signal which includes non-informative intervals. Therefore more or less precious frequency measurement requires averaging. In its turn averaging implies uncorrelated samples. However, conducting research we found that correlation is typical property not only of dynamic speckle patterns but also of spatially filtered speckles. Using spatial filtering the correlation is observed as a response of measurements provided to the same part of the object surface or in case of simultaneously using several adjacent photodetectors. Found correlations can not be explained using just properties of unfiltered dynamic speckles. As we demonstrate the subject of this paper is important not only from pure theoretical point but also from the point of applied speckle metrology. E.g. using single spatial filter and an array of photodetector can greatly improve accuracy of speckle velocity measurements.

  3. Absolute Measurement Of Laminar Shear Rate Using Photon Correlation Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Elliot Jenner; Brian D'Urso

    2015-05-11

    An absolute measurement of the components of the shear rate tensor $\\mathcal{S}$ in a fluid can be found by measuring the photon correlation function of light scattered from particles in the fluid. Previous methods of measuring $\\mathcal{S}$ involve reading the velocity at various points and extrapolating the shear, which can be time consuming and is limited in its ability to examine small spatial scale or short time events. Previous work in Photon Correlation Spectroscopy has involved only approximate solutions, requiring free parameters to be scaled by a known case, or different cases, such as 2-D flows, but here we present a treatment that provides quantitative results directly and without calibration for full 3-D flow. We demonstrate this treatment experimentally with a cone and plate rheometer.

  4. Soft defect printability: correlation to optical flux-area measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Darren; Fiekowsky, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Soft defects on photomasks have, historically, been difficult to measure, and predict how the measured size of a soft defect will correlate to what prints, if at all. Over the past few years KLA-Tencor STARlight surface inspection has become the inspection of choice for soft defects. Though the capture rate of this tool is exceptional, the defect sizing capability has lacked in accuracy. Customer specifications have traditionally been built around defect size and transmission. If a given defect cannot be accurately sized then it cannot be accurately dispositioned. In this study we are attempting to show a correlation between the AVI defect measurement tool sizing and what actually prints on the wafer. We will show defect sizing both from the KLA-Tencor STARlight and pattern tools, the AVI tool, AIMS and VSS printability data.

  5. Correlation techniques and measurements of wave-height statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthart, H.; Taylor, W. C.; Graf, K. A.; Douglas, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    Statistical measurements of wave height fluctuations have been made in a wind wave tank. The power spectral density function of temporal wave height fluctuations evidenced second-harmonic components and an f to the minus 5th power law decay beyond the second harmonic. The observations of second harmonic effects agreed very well with a theoretical prediction. From the wave statistics, surface drift currents were inferred and compared to experimental measurements with satisfactory agreement. Measurements were made of the two dimensional correlation coefficient at 15 deg increments in angle with respect to the wind vector. An estimate of the two-dimensional spatial power spectral density function was also made.

  6. GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR SIX MEASURES OF LENGTH OF PRODUCTIVE LIFE AND THREE MEASURES OF LIFETIME PRODUCTION BY SIX YEARS AFTER FIRST CALVING FOR HEREFORD COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters for length of productive life given the opportunity (LPL|O), measured as days between first calving and disposal conditioned on one of six opportunity groups, (e.g., L2 is length of productive life in days given the opportunity to live 2 yr after first calving), and lifetime produ...

  7. Bunch length measurement at Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ying-Chao; Hua, Jian-Fei; Yan, Li-Xin; Du, Qiang; Huang, Wen-Hui; Tang, Chuan-Xiang

    2011-05-01

    The length of electron beam from a photocathode RF gun is determined by a spectrometer, according to the relative energy spread induced by the bunch length during the acceleration in a linac. For a photocathode RF gun, different laser injected phase and beam charge are studied. The compression is changed for the different laser phases, as from 10° to 30°, and the bunch length is lengthened due to the strong longitudinal space charge force, caused by the increased charge.

  8. Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.

    1999-03-30

    A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches. 8 figs.

  9. Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent smith-purcell radiation

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches.

  10. Correlated response in growth and body measurements accompanying selection for milk yield in Jerseys.

    PubMed

    Bonczek, R R; Richardson, D O; Moore, E D; Miller, R H; Owen, J R; Dowlen, H H; Bell, B R

    1992-01-01

    Growth and body measurements from a long-term selection project were analyzed to determine correlated responses to single-trait selection for milk yield. Data were from 1056 daughters (765 selection, 291 control) of 37 bulls (17 selection, 20 control) of 37 bulls (17 selection, 20 control) and included BW and measures of heart girth, chest depth, wither height, and length from withers to pins and from withers to hooks taken at 6 mo, 15 mo, first calving, end of first lactation, and maturity. Other data were birth weight, change in measurements and weights from first calving to end of first lactation, monthly rate of gain from 1 to 13 mo of age, and age reaching breeding weight (250 kg). Principal component scores were calculated from standardized measurements at each age. The first three principal components has meaning (size, length vs. girth, and height vs. girth). All analyses used linear mixed models with fixed effects of genetic group, generation within group, year-season of birth or calving, parity of dam, and birth status (multiple or single birth). Sires were assumed to be random and nested within genetic group. Mean squares for sires was used to test for group differences. Generation did not differ in any analysis and was removed from all models. Selection cows were heavier, larger in some measurements, and had greater overall size at 6 mo of age. Selection cows had greater monthly rate of gain and attained breeding weight at an earlier age. Genetic groups did not differ for any other measurement or weight. Control cows gained more weight and increased more in some measurements between first calving and end of first lactation. Selection for milk yield did not result in an undesirable correlated response in an growth or body measurement. PMID:1541738

  11. Neural measures of a Japanese consonant length discrimination by Japanese and American English listeners: Effects of attention.

    PubMed

    Hisagi, Miwako; Shafer, Valerie L; Strange, Winifred; Sussman, Elyse S

    2015-11-11

    This study examined automaticity of discrimination of a Japanese length contrast for consonants (mi?i vs. mi??i) in native (Japanese) and non-native (American-English) listeners using behavioral measures and the event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN). Attention to the auditory input was manipulated either away from the auditory input via a visual oddball task (Visual Attend), or to the input by asking the listeners to count auditory deviants (Auditory Attend). Results showed a larger MMN when attention was focused on the consonant contrast than away from it for both groups. The MMN was larger for consonant duration increments than decrements. No difference in MMN between the language groups was observed, but the Japanese listeners did show better behavioral discrimination than the American English listeners. In addition, behavioral responses showed a weak, but significant correlation with MMN amplitude. These findings suggest that both acoustic-phonetic properties and phonological experience affects automaticity of speech processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:26119918

  12. Close correlation between restriction fragment length polymorphism of the L-MYC gene and metastasis of human lung cancer to the lymph nodes and other organs

    SciTech Connect

    Kawashima, Kazuko; Shikama, Hiroshi; Imoto, Kazuhiko; Izawa, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Susumu ); Naruke, Tsuguo; Okabayashi, Kenzo )

    1988-04-01

    Restriction length fragment polymorphism of the L-MYC gene was examined in DNAs from lung cancer tissues and normal tissues of 51 Japanese patients with lung cancer. In individual patients, no difference was seen between the restriction length fragments of the two alleles of L-MYC (6-kilobase (kb)) and 10-kb fragments in EcoRI digests in lung cancer tissues and normal tissues. But a striking correlation was found between the restriction length fragment polymorphism pattern of L-MYC and the extent of metastasis, particularly to the lymph nodes at the time of surgery: Patients with only the L band (10 kb) had few lymph node metastatic lesions, whereas patients with either the S band (6 kb) or the S and L bands almost always had lymph node metastatic lesion. A similar correlation was found between the presence of the S band and metastases to other organs. This correlation was particularly marked in cases of adenocarcinoma. These results indicate a clear genetic influence on metastases and a consequent poor prognosis for certain patients of lung cancer; L-MYC restriction length fragment polymorphism is thus shown to be a useful marker for predicting the metastatic potential of human lung cancer.

  13. Correlation of telomere length shortening with TP53 somatic mutations, polymorphisms and allelic loss in breast tumors and esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiao-Dan; Yang, Yue; Song, Xin; Zhao, Xue-Ke; Wang, Li-Dong; He, Jun-Dong; Kong, Qing-Peng; Tang, Nelson Leung Sang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Genomic instability caused by telomere erosion is an important mechanism of tumorigenesis. p53 plays a key role in cellular senescence and/or apoptosis associated with telomere erosion which positions p53 as a guard against tumorigenesis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential interactions between p53 functional mutations, polymorphisms, allelic loss and telomere erosion in 126 breast tumor patients and 68 esophageal cancer patients. Telomere length (TL) was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Somatic mutations, polymorphisms and allelic loss in the TP53 gene were detected by direct sequencing of both tumor and normal tissue samples. Our results showed that telomeres were significantly shorter in tumors with somatic p53 mutations compared with tumors with wild-type p53 in both breast tumors (P=0.007) and esophageal cancer (P=0.001). Telomeres of patients with minor genotype CC of rs12951053 and GG of rs1042522 were significantly shorter compared to patients with other genotypes of this single nucleotide polymorphism in esophageal cancer tissue. Furthermore, TP53 allelic loss was detected and significantly associated with somatic mutations in both types of tumor tissues. These findings suggest that somatic p53 mutations, rs12951053 genotype CC and rs1042522 genotype GG contribute to erosion of telomeres, and TP53 allelic loss may be one of the representations of chromosomal instability caused by telomere erosion combined with somatic p53 mutations. These results support that the TP53 gene has a strong interaction with TL erosion in tumorigenesis. PMID:23124483

  14. Measurement and correlation of jet fuel viscosities at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schruben, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and procedures were developed to measure jet fuel viscosity for eight current and future jet fuels at temperatures from ambient to near -60 C by shear viscometry. Viscosity data showed good reproducibility even at temperatures a few degrees below the measured freezing point. The viscosity-temperature relationship could be correlated by two linear segments when plotted as a standard log-log type representation (ASTM D 341). At high temperatures, the viscosity-temperature slope is low. At low temperatures, where wax precipitation is significant, the slope is higher. The breakpoint between temperature regions is the filter flow temperature, a fuel characteristic approximated by the freezing point. A generalization of the representation for the eight experimental fuels provided a predictive correlation for low-temperature viscosity, considered sufficiently accurate for many design or performance calculations.

  15. Reliability and accuracy of an automated tracking algorithm to measure controlled passive and active muscle fascicle length changes from ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Jarred G; Barrett, Rod S; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2013-01-01

    Manual tracking of muscle fascicle length changes from ultrasound images is a subjective and time-consuming process. The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability and accuracy of an automated algorithm for tracking fascicle length changes in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle during passive length changes and active contractions (isometric, concentric and eccentric) performed on a dynamometer. The freely available, automated tracking algorithm was based on the Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm with an affine optic flow extension, which accounts for image translation, dilation, rotation and shear between consecutive frames of an image sequence. Automated tracking was performed by three experienced assessors, and within- and between-examiner repeatability was computed using the coefficient of multiple determination (CMD). Fascicle tracking data were also compared with manual digitisation of the same image sequences, and the level of agreement between the two methods was calculated using the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC). The CMDs across all test conditions ranged from 0.50 to 0.93 and were all above 0.98 when recomputed after the systematic error due to the estimate of the initial fascicle length on the first ultrasound frame was removed from the individual fascicle length waveforms. The automated and manual tracking approaches produced similar fascicle length waveforms, with an overall CMC of 0.88, which improved to 0.94 when the initial length offset was removed. Overall results indicate that the automated fascicle tracking algorithm was a repeatable, accurate and time-efficient method for estimating fascicle length changes of the MG muscle in controlled passive and active conditions. PMID:22235878

  16. A quantitative measure of phase correlations in density fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.; Melott, Adrian L.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative measure of the phase correlations in a density field is presented based on the location of the maxima of the Fourier components of that field. It is found that this measue can easily detect non-Gaussian behavior either in artificially constructed density fields or those that become non-Gaussian from gravitational clustering of Gaussian initial conditions. It is found that different initial power spectra produce somewhat distinguishable signals, and the signals are robust against sparse sampling.

  17. Auto-elimination of fiber optical path-length drift in a frequency scanning interferometer for absolute distance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Long; Liu, Zhigang; Zhang, Weibo

    2015-09-01

    Because of its compact size and portability, optical fiber has been wildly used as optical paths in frequency-scanning interferometers for high-precision absolute distance measurements. However, since the fiber is sensitive to ambient temperature, its length and refractive index change with temperature, resulting in an optical path length drift that influences the repeatability of measurements. To improve the thermal stability of the measurement system, a novel frequency-scanning interferometer composed of two Michelson-type interferometers sharing a common fiber optical path is proposed. One interferometer defined as origin interferometer is used to monitor the drift of the measurement origin due to the optical path length drift of the optical fiber under on-site environment. The other interferometer defined as measurement interferometer is used to measure the distance to the target. Because the optical path length drift of the fiber appears in both interferometers, its influence can be eliminated by subtracting the optical path difference of the origin interferometer from the optical path difference of the measurement interferometer. A prototype interferometer was developed in our research, and experimental results demonstrate its robustness and stability. Under on-site environment, an accuracy about 4 ?m was achieved for a distance of about 1 m.

  18. [Investigation of the columnar carbon-scatterer length for X-ray spectral measurement on 320-slice computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Kasai, Yohei; Nishihara, Sadamitsu; Yuasa, Masao; Kanoshige, Toshiya; Matsuura, Takaaki

    2015-05-01

    A short length scatterer is adopted to measure the X-ray spectrum of computed tomography (CT) equipment with a wide irradiation field in the body axis direction. The purpose of this study is to compare X-ray spectra measured using different length scatterers and determine the most appropriate length for the scatterer. 320-slice CT equipment (Aquilion ONE) was used in this study. Circular carbonrods (3 cm diameter) with five different lengths (1-16 cm) were used as scatterers. The effect of the beam hardening phenomenon from different length carbon rods was evaluated according to the effective energy. The measurement accuracy for photon information was also evaluated based on the photon count corresponding to the characteristic X-ray. As a result, the beam hardening effect was scarcely observed when the 1 cm long scatterer was used, and the number of the photons measured for the characteristic X-ray was the most. Therefore, it was concluded that the 1 cm long circular carbon rod scatterer was the most suitable. PMID:25994395

  19. Length distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous suspension measured by electrospray differential mobility analysis.

    PubMed

    Pease, Leonard F; Tsai, De-Hao; Fagan, Jeffery A; Bauer, Barry J; Zangmeister, Rebecca A; Tarlov, Michael J; Zachariah, Michael R

    2009-12-01

    The first characterization of the length distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) dispersed in a liquid by electrospray differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA) is presented. Although an understanding of geometric properties of SWCNTs, including length, diameter, aspect ratio, and chirality, is essential for commercial applications, rapid characterization of nanotube length distributions remains challenging. Here the use of ES-DMA to obtain length distributions of DNA-wrapped SWCNTs dispersed in aqueous solutions is demonstrated. Lengths measured by ES-DMA compare favorably with those obtained from multiangle light scattering, dynamic light scattering, field flow fractionation with UV/vis detection, and atomic force microscopy, validating ES-DMA as a technique to measure SWCNTs of <250 nm in length. The nanotubes are previously purified and dispersed by wrapping with oligomeric DNA in aqueous solution and centrifuging to remove bundles and amorphous carbon. These dispersions are particularly attractive due to their amenability to bulk processing, ease of storage, high concentration, compatibility with biological and high-throughput manufacturing environments, and for their potential applications ranging from electronics and hydrogen-storage vessels to anticancer agents. PMID:19810013

  20. Low temperature diffusion length of excitons in gallium nitride measured by cathodoluminescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ino, Naoyuki; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2008-12-01

    Monochromatic cathodoluminescence (CL) images of threading dislocations in GaN epitaxial layers were observed using a transmission electron microscopy combined with CL system. The carrier diffusion lengths were derived from the free exciton emission intensity profile of the dislocation contrast in the CL images. The carrier diffusion lengths in Si-doped and Mg-doped GaN were nearly the same and shorter than that in undoped GaN in the temperature range from 20 to 140 K, respectively. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the diffusion length shows that the acoustic phonon scattering mainly affects the exciton diffusion process at low temperatures from 40 to 120 K.

  1. Correlated speckle noise in white-light interferometry: theoretical analysis of measurement uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Hering, Marco; Koerner, Klaus; Jaehne, Bernd

    2009-01-20

    The partial coherent illumination of the specimen, which is required for white-light interferometric measurements of optically rough surfaces, directly leads to speckle. The electric field of such speckle patterns strongly fluctuates in amplitude and phase. This spatially correlated noise influences the accuracy of the measuring device. Although a variety of noise sources in white-light interferometry has been studied in recent years, they do not account for spatial correlation and, hence, they cannot be applied to speckle noise. Thus, we derive a new model enabling quantitative predictions for measurement uncertainty caused by speckle. The model reveals that the accuracy can be attributed mainly to the degree of spatial correlation, i.e., the average size of a speckle, and to the coherence length of the light source. The same parameters define the signal-to-noise ratio in the spectral domain. The model helps to design filter functions that are perfectly adapted to the noise characteristics of the respective device, thus improving the accuracy of postprocessing algorithms for envelope detection. The derived expressions are also compared to numerical simulations and experimental data of two different types of interferometers. These results are a first validation of the theoretical considerations of this article.

  2. The role of multiparticle correlations and Cooper pairing in the formation of molecules in an ultracold gas of Fermi atoms with a negative scattering length

    SciTech Connect

    Babichenko, V. S. Kagan, Yu.

    2012-11-15

    The influence of multiparticle correlation effects and Cooper pairing in an ultracold Fermi gas with a negative scattering length on the formation rate of molecules is investigated. Cooper pairing is shown to cause the formation rate of molecules to increase, as distinct from the influence of Bose-Einstein condensation in a Bose gas on this rate. This trend is retained in the entire range of temperatures below the critical one.

  3. Detecting correlated errors in state-preparation-and-measurement tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher; van Enk, S. J.

    2015-10-01

    Whereas in standard quantum-state tomography one estimates an unknown state by performing various measurements with known devices, and whereas in detector tomography one estimates the positive-operator-valued-measurement elements of a measurement device by subjecting to it various known states, we consider here the case of SPAM (state preparation and measurement) tomography where neither the states nor the measurement device are assumed known. For d -dimensional systems measured by d -outcome detectors, we find there are at most d2(d2-1 ) "gauge" parameters that can never be determined by any such experiment, irrespective of the number of unknown states and unknown devices. For the case d =2 we find gauge-invariant quantities that can be accessed directly experimentally and that can be used to detect and describe SPAM errors. In particular, we identify conditions whose violations detect the presence of correlations between SPAM errors. From the perspective of SPAM tomography, standard quantum-state tomography and detector tomography are protocols that fix the gauge parameters through the assumption that some set of fiducial measurements is known or that some set of fiducial states is known, respectively.

  4. Correlation between shape resonance energies and C-C bond length in carbon-containing molecules: Elastic electron scattering and carbon K-shell excitation by photons

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Mineo |

    1994-06-01

    We document the correlation of shape resonance energies resulting from (i) elastic electron scattering and (ii) carbon K-shell excitation with ic bond order (C-C bond length) for C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, C{sub 4}H{sub 10}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 6}. A relationship between K-shell {sigma} resonances and bond length was experimentally pointed out previously. These correlations are qualitatively interpreted to indicate that as molecular size increases (or as bond length increases), the configuration space available for valence electrons increases, reducing energy levels rather uniformly and mowing these correlations to emerge. The similarity of shape resonances in electron scattering and photoexcitation occurs because major events in the resonances take place slightly outside the molecular field and receive little influence from the inner structure of the molecule.

  5. Offset balancing in pseudo-correlation radiometers for CMB measurements

    E-print Network

    Aniello Mennella; Marco Bersanelli; Michael Seiffert; Danielle Kettle; Neil Roddis; Althea Wilkinson; Peter Meinhold

    2003-08-25

    Radiometeric CMB measurements need to be highly stable and this stability is best obtained with differential receivers. The residual 1/f noise in the differential output is strongly dependent on the radiometer input offset which can be cancelled using various balancing strategies. In this paper we discuss a software method implemented in the Planck-LFI pseudo-correlation receivers which uses a tunable "gain modulation factor, r, in the sky-load difference. Numerical simulations and experimental data show how proper tuning of the parameter r ensures a very stable differential output with knee frequencies of the order of few mHz. Various approaches to calculate r using the radiometer total power data are discussed with some examples relevant to Planck-LFI. Although the paper focuses on pseudo-correlation receivers and the examples are relative to Planck-LFI, the proposed method and its analysis is general and can be applied to a large class of differential radiometric receivers.

  6. Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new measure for capital market efficiency. The measure takes into consideration the correlation structure of the returns (long-term and short-term memory) and local herding behavior (fractal dimension). The efficiency measure is taken as a distance from an ideal efficient market situation. The proposed methodology is applied to a portfolio of 41 stock indices. We find that the Japanese NIKKEI is the most efficient market. From a geographical point of view, the more efficient markets are dominated by the European stock indices and the less efficient markets cover mainly Latin America, Asia and Oceania. The inefficiency is mainly driven by a local herding, i.e. a low fractal dimension.

  7. Neural Correlates of Temporal Auditory Processing in Developmental Dyslexia during German Vowel Length Discrimination: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbrink, Claudia; Groth, Katarina; Lachmann, Thomas; Riecker, Axel

    2012-01-01

    This fMRI study investigated phonological vs. auditory temporal processing in developmental dyslexia by means of a German vowel length discrimination paradigm (Groth, Lachmann, Riecker, Muthmann, & Steinbrink, 2011). Behavioral and fMRI data were collected from dyslexics and controls while performing same-different judgments of vowel duration in…

  8. Measurements of Siple transmitter signals on the DE 1 satellite - Wave normal direction and antenna effective length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonwalker, V. S.; Inan, U. S.

    1986-01-01

    A new experimental technique is developed to simultaneously measure the wave propagation direction and the effective length of a small (L value much smaller than wavelength) electric dipole antenna on a spin-stabilized satellite in the magnetosphere. The technique relies on the near simultaneous measurement of single components of the electric and magnetic fields of a coherent VLF signal injected into the medium from a ground-based source. The spin fading characteristics of the signal received by the electric dipole and the magnetic loop antenna permit the measurement of the wave normal direction assuming whistler-mode propagation. In-situ and remote measurements of the local cold plasma density are used to determine the refractive index. The wave electric field is then inferred from the wave magnetic field as measured on the loop antenna, the refractive index and the direction of propagation. Comparing this electric field with the measured voltage across the dipole antenna leads to the determination of the effective length of the receiving electric dipole. The technique is applied to data from the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite observations of whistler mode signals injected into the magnetosphere from the Siple, Antarctica, VLF transmitter. In one case, with the measured background cold plasma density being 15 el/cu cm, the effective length of the 200 m-long electric dipole antenna is found to be 222 + or - 56 m, i.e., about twice the conventional value.

  9. Tight Bell inequality for d-outcome measurements correlations

    E-print Network

    Masanes, L

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we prove that the inequality introduced by Collins, Gisin, Linden, Massar and Popescu is tight, or in other words, it is a facet of the convex polytope generated by all local-realistic joint probabilities of d outcomes. This means that this inequality is optimal. We also show that, for correlation functions generalized to deal with three-outcome measurements, the satisfyability of this inequality is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a local-realistic model accounting for them.

  10. Tunable non-local entanglement of electrons probed by noise cross-correlation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jian

    2010-03-01

    Nonlocal entanglement is crucial for quantum information processes. While nonlocal entanglement has been realized for photons, it is much more difficult to demonstrate for electrons. One approach that has been proposed is to use hybrid superconducting/normal-metal devices. When the distance between two normal-metal electrodes connected to a superconductor is comparable to the superconducting coherence length, theory predicts that two electrons in the normal-metal electrodes with opposite spin are entangled by Cooper pairs, leading to non-local entanglement of electrons. Such entanglement can be understood by a non-local process called crossed Andreev reflection (CAR), in which a Cooper pair splits into two coherent electrons with one in each normal-metal electrode, generating instantaneous current of the same sign, and inducing a positive current correlation. Experimentally, CAR is indicated by a negative non-local resistance. However, another non-local process, elastic cotunneling (EC), in which one electron tunnels through the superconductor from one normal-metal electrode to the other, contributes to a positive non-local resistance that cancels the contribution due to CAR, preventing us from measuring and control of the CAR component. Fortunately, EC leads to a negative current correlation with bias dependence different from that of CAR. Thus, noise correlation measurement is expected to be able to distinguish these two non-local processes. By cross-correlation measurements as well as measurements of the local and nonlocal resistance, we present here experimental evidence showing that by independently controlling the energy of electrons at the superconductor/normal-metal interfaces, nonlocal Andreev reflection, the signature of spin-entanglement, can be maximized, qualitatively in agreement with theoretical predication.

  11. Attenuation length measurements of a liquid scintillator with LabVIEW and reliability evaluation of the device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Long; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Ding, Ya-Yun; Zhou, Li; Wen, Liang-Jian; Xie, Yu-Guang; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Cai, Xiao; Sun, Xi-Lei; Fang, Jian; Xue, Zhen; Zhang, Ai-Wu; Lü, Qi-Wen; Sun, Li-Jun; Ge, Yong-Shuai; Liu, Ying-Biao; Niu, Shun-Li; Hu, Tao; Cao, Jun; Lü, Jun-Guang

    2013-07-01

    An attenuation length measurement device was constructed using an oscilloscope and LabVIEW for signal acquisition and processing. The performance of the device has been tested in a variety of ways. The test results show that the set-up has a good stability and high precision (sigma/mean reached 0.4 percent). Besides, the accuracy of the measurement system will decrease by about 17 percent if a filter is used. The attenuation length of a gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator (Gd-LS) was measured as 15.10±0.35 m where Gd-LS was heavily used in the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment. In addition, one method based on the Beer-Lambert law was proposed to investigate the reliability of the measurement device, the R-square reached 0.9995. Moreover, three purification methods for Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) production were compared in the experiment.

  12. Reproducibility of coronary optical coherence tomography for lumen and length measurements in humans (The CLI-VAR [Centro per la Lotta contro l'Infarto-VARiability] study).

    PubMed

    Fedele, Silvio; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Kwiatkowski, Piotr; Di Vito, Luca; Occhipinti, Michele; Cremonesi, Alberto; Albertucci, Mario; Materia, Laura; Paoletti, Giulia; Prati, Francesco

    2012-10-15

    Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is becoming a useful diagnostic tool for coronary imaging for quantitative coronary analysis. Second-generation FD-OCT produces detailed coronary lumen images. However, the reproducibility of coronary measurements using FD-OCT in humans has not been thoroughly explored. Our goal was to determine the intraobserver, interobserver, and interpullback reproducibility of the in vivo FD-OCT measurements of the lumen area and/or lesion length. Twenty-five patients undergoing coronary angioplasty were included. In all subjects, FD-OCT pullbacks (20 mm/s) were acquired twice from the same coronary segment different from the target lesion, at an interval of 5 minutes, with no other intervention. A total of 9,396 cross-sectional lumen area frames and the relative coronary lesion length of each pullback were analyzed off-line with dedicated software by 2 independent expert readers (A and B). We compared the lumen area and length measurements as follows: pullback 1, read by reader A twice at an interval of 7 days (intraobserver analysis); pullback 1, independently read by readers A and B (interobserver comparison); and pullback 1 versus pullback 2, read by reader A (interpullback comparison). The per-segment and per-frame analyses showed very high and significant correlation coefficients for the interobserver, intraobserver, and interpullback comparisons for the lumen area and lesion length (R ?0.95 and p <0.001 in all cases). Accordingly, the Bland-Altman estimates of bias showed nonsignificant differences in the interobserver, intraobserver, and interpullback comparisons at all levels, with average biases never >0.150 mm(2) for the lumen area or 0.200 mm for the lesion length. In conclusion, coronary imaging using FD-OCT showed excellent reproducibility, with low intraobserver, interobserver, and interpullback variability for both lumen area and lesion length measurements in humans. Thus, FD-OCT can be proposed for precise analysis in the catheterization laboratory to guide decision making and in clinical trials focusing on imaging end points. PMID:22748353

  13. Direct measurement of plasmon propagation lengths on lithographically defined metallic waveguides on GaAs

    E-print Network

    Bracher, G; Jakubeit, C; Kaniber, M; Finley, J J

    2011-01-01

    We present optical investigations of rectangular surface plasmon polariton waveguides lithographically defined on GaAs substrates. The plasmon propagation length is directly determined using a confocal microscope, with independent polarization control in both excitation and detection channels. Surface plasmon polaritons are launched along the waveguide using a lithographically defined defect at one end. At the remote end of the waveguide they scatter into the far-field, where they are imaged using a CCD camera. By monitoring the length dependence of the intensity of scattered light from the waveguide end, we directly extract the propagation length, obtaining values ranging from LSPP = 10-40 {\\mu}m depending on the waveguide width (w=2-5 {\\mu}m) and excitation wavelength (760-920 nm). Results are in good accord with theoretical expectations demonstrating the high quality of the lithographically defined structures. The results obtained are of strong relevance for the development of future semiconductor based in...

  14. The Effect of Error Correlation on Interfactor Correlation in Psychometric Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westfall, Peter H.; Henning, Kevin S. S.; Howell, Roy D.

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how interfactor correlation is affected by error correlations. Theoretical and practical justifications for error correlations are given, and a new equivalence class of models is presented to explain the relationship between interfactor correlation and error correlations. The class allows simple, parsimonious modeling of error…

  15. Strongly correlated two-dimensional plasma explored from entropy measurements.

    PubMed

    Kuntsevich, A Y; Tupikov, Y V; Pudalov, V M; Burmistrov, I S

    2015-01-01

    Charged plasma and Fermi liquid are two distinct states of electronic matter intrinsic to dilute two-dimensional electron systems at elevated and low temperatures, respectively. Probing their thermodynamics represents challenge because of lack of an adequate technique. Here, we report a thermodynamic method to measure the entropy per electron in gated structures. Our technique appears to be three orders of magnitude superior in sensitivity to a.c. calorimetry, allowing entropy measurements with only 10(8) electrons. This enables us to investigate the correlated plasma regime, previously inaccessible experimentally in two-dimensional electron systems in semiconductors. In experiments with clean two-dimensional electron system in silicon-based structures, we traced entropy evolution from the plasma to Fermi liquid regime by varying electron density. We reveal that the correlated plasma regime can be mapped onto the ordinary non-degenerate Fermi gas with an interaction-enhanced temperature-dependent effective mass. Our method opens up new horizons in studies of low-dimensional electron systems. PMID:26099565

  16. Photoluminescence-based measurements of the energy gap and diffusion length of Zn3P2

    E-print Network

    Kimball, Gregory

    into polycrystalline boules that were 1 cm in diameter and 4 cm in length, with grain sizes of 1­5 mm2 and hole:v Br2 in CH3OH, rinsed in CH3OH, dried under a stream of N2, and used promptly thereafter

  17. Direct measurements of exciton diffusion length limitations on organic solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Kozub, Derek R; Vakhshouri, Kiarash; Kesava, Sameer Vajjala; Wang, Cheng; Hexemer, Alexander; Gomez, Enrique D

    2012-06-14

    Through a combination of X-ray scattering and energy-filtered electron microscopy, we have quantitatively examined the relationship between the mesostructure of the photoactive layer and device performance in PBTTT/PC(71)BM solar cells. We can predict device performance from X-ray structural data through a simple morphological model which includes the exciton diffusion length. PMID:22572808

  18. Enhancement of elastic and inelastic scattering lengths in quasi-free-standing graphene measured with contactless microwave spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabi?ska, Aneta; Kami?ska, Maria; Wo?o?, Agnieszka; Strupinski, W?odek; Wysmo?ek, Andrzej; Bardyszewski, Witold; Bo?ek, Rafa?; Baranowski, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, contactless microwave spectroscopy measurements of weak localization in as-grown and hydrogen intercalated quasi-free-standing graphene (QFSG) grown on SiC are presented. Delamination from the substrate is observed by the change from substrate dominated to grain boundaries dominated intervalley elastic scattering in QFSG comparing to epitaxial graphene. In the case of as-grown graphene, the finite coherence length at 0 K caused by an additional inelastic scattering is observed. This additional scattering mechanism vanishes for hydrogen intercalated QFSG, and the significant enhancement of coherence length comparing to as-grown QFSG and epitaxial graphene is observed. The coherence length is comparable to that observed in free-standing graphene. The conditions under which the quantum corrections produce weak localization or weak antilocalization behavior in conductivity are also discussed.

  19. Traveling length and minimal traveling time for flow through percolation networks with long-range spatial correlations

    E-print Network

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    displacement by the convective movement of tracer particles driven by a pressure difference between two fixed sites ``wells'' separated by Euclidean distance r. For strongly correlated pore networks at criticality. For economic purposes, it is important to predict when the injected fluid will break through. When modeling

  20. Measurements of 3D slip velocities and plasma column lengths of a gliding arc discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Moseev, Dmitry; Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Alpers, Andreas E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Gritzmann, Peter; Schwenk, Martin

    2015-01-26

    A non-thermal gliding arc discharge was generated at atmospheric pressure in an air flow. The dynamics of the plasma column and tracer particles were recorded using two synchronized high-speed cameras. Whereas the data analysis for such systems has previously been performed in 2D (analyzing the single camera image), we provide here a 3D data analysis that includes 3D reconstructions of the plasma column and 3D particle tracking velocimetry based on discrete tomography methods. The 3D analysis, in particular, the determination of the 3D slip velocity between the plasma column and the gas flow, gives more realistic insight into the convection cooling process. Additionally, with the determination of the 3D slip velocity and the 3D length of the plasma column, we give more accurate estimates for the drag force, the electric field strength, the power per unit length, and the radius of the conducting zone of the plasma column.

  1. Automated Assay of Telomere Length Measurement and Informatics for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lapham, Kyle; Kvale, Mark N; Lin, Jue; Connell, Sheryl; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Fang, Lynn; Hesselson, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya; McGuire, William B; Miles, Sunita; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil; Schaefer, Catherine; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2015-08-01

    The Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health (RPGEH) Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort includes DNA specimens extracted from saliva samples of 110,266 individuals. Because of its relationship to aging, telomere length measurement was considered an important biomarker to develop on these subjects. To assay relative telomere length (TL) on this large cohort over a short time period, we created a novel high throughput robotic system for TL analysis and informatics. Samples were run in triplicate, along with control samples, in a randomized design. As part of quality control, we determined the within-sample variability and employed thresholds for the elimination of outlying measurements. Of 106,902 samples assayed, 105,539 (98.7%) passed all quality control (QC) measures. As expected, TL in general showed a decline with age and a sex difference. While telomeres showed a negative correlation with age up to 75 years, in those older than 75 years, age positively correlated with longer telomeres, indicative of an association of longer telomeres with more years of survival in those older than 75. Furthermore, while females in general had longer telomeres than males, this difference was significant only for those older than age 50. An additional novel finding was that the variance of TL between individuals increased with age. This study establishes reliable assay and analysis methodologies for measurement of TL in large, population-based human studies. The GERA cohort represents the largest currently available such resource, linked to comprehensive electronic health and genotype data for analysis. PMID:26092717

  2. Dynamics of lithium ions in borotellurite mixed former glasses: Correlation between the characteristic length scales of mobile ions and glass network structural units

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2014-10-28

    We have studied the mixed network former effect on the dynamics of lithium ions in borotellurite glasses in wide composition and temperature ranges. The length scales of ion dynamics, such as characteristic mean square displacement and spatial extent of sub-diffusive motion of lithium ions have been determined from the ac conductivity and dielectric spectra, respectively, in the framework of linear response theory. The relative concentrations of different network structural units have been determined from the deconvolution of the FTIR spectra. A direct correlation between the ion dynamics and the characteristic length scales and the relative concentration of BO{sub 4} units has been established for different compositions of the borotellurite glasses.

  3. ABSOLUTE BUNCH LENGTH MEASUREMENTS AT THE ALS BY INCOHERENTSYNCHROTRON RADIATION FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Zolotorev, Max S.; Filippetto, Daniele; Stupakov, Gennady V.

    2007-06-22

    By analysing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations ofthe radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of thespectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatialdistribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of theLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and tested asimple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolutemeasurement of the bunch length. A description of the method and theexperimental results are presented.

  4. Water Velocity Measurement on an Extended-Length Submerged Bar Screen at John Day Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Escher, Charles

    2001-04-02

    This report describes a study of water velocity around an extended-length submerged bar screen (ESBS) at John Day Dam. The study was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers by AScI Corporation and MEVATEC Corporation in March of 2000. This report was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. ESBS are being studied as one method for diverting juvenile migrating fish from the dam's turbine intakes into the gate well and through the juvenile fish bypass channels.

  5. TERC and TERT gene mutations in patients with bone marrow failure and the significance of telomere length measurements

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hong-Yan; Pumbo, Elena; Ivanovich, Jennifer; An, Ping; Maziarz, Richard T.; Reiss, Ulrike M.; Chirnomas, Deborah; Shimamura, Akiko; Vlachos, Adrianna; Lipton, Jeffrey M.; Goyal, Rakesh K.; Goldman, Frederick; Wilson, David B.; Mason, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited form of bone marrow failure (BMF) caused by mutations in telomere maintaining genes including TERC and TERT. Here we studied the prevalence of TERC and TERT gene mutations and of telomere shortening in an unselected population of patients with BMF at our medical center and in a selected group of patients referred from outside institutions. Less than 5% of patients with BMF had pathogenic mutations in TERC or TERT. In patients with BMF, pathogenic TERC or TERT gene mutations were invariably associated with marked telomere shortening (? 1st percentile) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In asymptomatic family members, however, telomere length was not a reliable predictor for the presence or absence of a TERC or TERT gene mutation. Telomere shortening was not pathognomonic of DC, as approximately 30% of patients with BMF due to other causes had PBMC telomere lengths at the 1st percentile or lower. We conclude that in the setting of BMF, measurement of telomere length is a sensitive but nonspecific screening method for DC. In the absence of BMF, telomere length measurements should be interpreted with caution. PMID:18931339

  6. LIGHT SOURCE: RF deflecting cavity for bunch length measurement in Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jia-Ru; Chen, Huai-Bi; Tang, Chuan-Xiang; Huang, Wen-Hui; Du, Ying-Chao; Zheng, Shu-Xin; Ren, Li

    2009-06-01

    An RF deflecting cavity used for bunch length measurement has been designed and fabricated at Tsinghua University for the Thomson Scattering X-Ray Source. The cavity is a 2856 MHz, ?-mode, 3-cell standing-wave cavity, to diagnose the 3.5 MeV beam produced by photocathode electron gun. With a larger power source, the same cavity will again be used to measure the accelerated beam with energy of 50 MeV before colliding with the laser pulse. The RF design using MAFIA for both the cavity shape and the power coupler is reviewed, followed by presenting the fabrication procedure and bench measurement results of two cavities.

  7. The importance of the nucleon-nucleon correlations for the eta alpha S-wave scattering length, and the pi-eta mixing angle in the low-energy eta alpha scattering length model

    E-print Network

    S. Ceci; D. Hrupec; A. Svarc

    2001-04-12

    Using the new set of dd --> eta alpha near threshold experimental data, the estimate of the importance of the nucleon-nucleon correlations for the eta alpha S-wave scattering length in the multiple scattering theory is obtained using the low-energy scattering length model. The contribution turns out to be much bigger then previously believed. The pi-eta mixing angle is extracted using the experimental data on the dd --> eta alpha and dd --> pi alpha processes. The model is dominated by the subthreshold extrapolation recipe for the eta alpha scattering amplitudes. When the recipe is chosen the model is completely insensitive to the eta alpha parameters for the subthreshold value of the eta cm momentum of p_{eta}^2 = -(0.46)^2 fm^{-2}. Provided that the subthreshold extrapolation recipe is correct, a good estimate of the pi-eta mixing angle is obtained, if the experimental cross sections for the dd --> pi alpha reaction at the corresponding deuteron input energy are taken from the literature.

  8. An evaluation of deep-sea benthic megafauna length measurements obtained with laser and stereo camera methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Katherine M.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Huffard, Christine L.; Caress, David W.; Henthorn, Richard G.; Hobson, Brett W.; McGill, Paul; Smith, Kenneth L.

    2015-02-01

    The 25 year time-series collected at Station M, ~4000 m on the Monterey Deep-sea Fan, has substantially improved understanding of the role of the deep-ocean benthic environment in the global carbon cycle. However, the role of deep-ocean benthic megafauna in carbon bioturbation, remineralization and sequestration is relatively unknown. It is important to gather both accurate and precise measurements of megafaunal community abundance, size distribution and biomass to further define their role in deep-sea carbon cycling and possible sequestration. This study describes initial results from a stereo camera system attached to a remotely operated vehicle and analyzed using the EventMeasure photogrammetric measurement software to estimate the density, length and biomass of 10 species of mobile epibenthic megafauna. Stereo length estimates were compared to those from a single video camera system equipped with sizing lasers and analyzed using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's Video Annotation and Reference System. Both camera systems and software were capable of high measurement accuracy and precision (<±1 mm measurement error and precision). However, the oblique angle of the single video camera caused the spatial scale of the image perspective to change with distance from the camera, resulting in error when measurements were not parallel or vertical to two horizontal-oriented scaling lasers. Analysis showed that the stereo system recorded longer lengths and higher biomass estimates than the single video camera system for the majority of the 10 megafauna species studied. The stereo image analysis process took substantially longer than the video analysis and the value of the EventMeasure software tool would be improved with developments in analysis automation. The stereo system is less influenced by object orientation and height, and is potentially a useful tool to be mounted on an autonomous underwater vehicle and for measuring deep-sea pelagic animals where the use of lasers is not feasible.

  9. Single Turnover Measurements of Nanoparticle Catalysis Analyzed with Dwell Time Correlation Functions and Constrained Mean Dwell

    E-print Network

    Chen, Peng

    Single Turnover Measurements of Nanoparticle Catalysis Analyzed with Dwell Time Correlation ABSTRACT: Single turnover measurements of a fluorogenic reaction at the surface of a nanoparticle provide time correlation functions, whose decay with turnover index quantifies dynamical disorder

  10. Correlation between seismic events and anomalous `VLF day-length' for west-east and east-west propagation paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sasmal, Sudipta

    We present results of year-long analysis of VLF signals, both for VTX-Malda (`west-east' propagation path) and VTX-Pune (`east-west' propagation path). We analyzed whole year data of 2008 and 2009 for VTX-Malda and VTX-Pune propagation path, respectively. In both the cases we found that `VLF day-length' (defined as time difference between sunset terminator time and sunrise terminator time) became anomalously high 1-2 days before an earthquake. Besides this year-long study we have also done some case by case analysis. On 9th January, 2009 an earthquake of magnitude 5.5 occurred at Carlsberg Ridge (latitude 10.3(°) N, longitude 57.1(°) E). In a separate incident, on 3rd November, 2009, another earthquake of magnitude 5.4 occurred at Andaman Islands (latitude 14.1(°) N, longitude 93.1(°) E). We analyze VLF signals for VTX-Pune (`east-west’ propagation path) propagation path around these two earthquake days and found that for both of these cases, the `VLF-day-length' became anomalously high two days before the event. This agrees well with statistical analysis based on year-long data for VTX-Pune path. Furthermore, during time period of June, 2010, two major earthquakes of low-depth ( 10Km) and high magnitude (M>5) occurred near NWC-Salt Lake (east-west propagation path) propagation paths. First one occurred on 13th June, 2010 at Nicobar Islands, India (latitude 7.8(°) N, longitude 92.0(°) E). Its magnitude was 5.1 (in Richter scale). The second one of magnitude 6.0 (in Richter Scale) occurred on 19th June, 2010 at Andaman Islands, India (latitude 13.4(°) N, longitude 93.0(°) E). For both of these two earthquakes, we found that VLF-day-length, became anomalously high one day before earthquakes. We claim that these were pre-cursors of the earthquakes which occurred in Andaman and Nicober Islands.

  11. Measuring the first two statistics moments using the Correlator resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez, A.; Herrera, D.; Sepulveda, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    The ALMA telescope is composed of 66 high precision antennas, each antenna having 8 high bandwidth digitizers (4Gsamples/Second). It is a critical task to determine the well functioning of those digitizers prior to starting a round of observations. Since observation time is a valuable resource, it is germane that a tool be developed which can provide a quick and reliable answer regarding the digitizer status. Currently the digitizer output statistics are measured by using comparators and counters. This method introduced uncertainties due to the low amount of integration, in addition to going through all the possible states for all available digitizer time which all resulted in the antennas taking a considerable amount of time. In order to avoid the aforementioned described problems, a new method based on correlator resources is hereby presented.

  12. Heme Carbonyls: Environmental Effects on ?C–O and Fe–C/C–O Bond Length Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Silvernail, Nathan J.; Roth, Arne; Noll, Bruce C.; Scheidt, W. Robert; Schulz, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of four low-spin (carbonyl)iron(II) tetraphenylporphyrinates, [Fe(TPP)(CO)(L)], where L = 1-methylimidazole, 2-methylimidazole, 1,2-dimethylimidazole (unsolvated) and 1,2-dimethylimidazole (toluene solvate) are reported. The complexes show nearly the same value of ?C–O in toluene solution (1969–72 cm?1) but a large range of CO stretching frequencies in the solid-state (1926–1968 cm?1). The large solid-state variation results from CO interactions in the solid-state as shown by an examination of the crystal structures of the four complexes. The high precision of the four structures obtained allows us to make a number of structural and spectroscopic correlations that describe the Fe–C–O and NIm–Fe–CO units. The values of ?C–O and the Fe–C and C–O bond distances are strongly correlated and provide a structural as well as a spectroscopic correlation of the ? back-bonding model. The interactions of CO described are closely related to the large range of CO stretching frequencies observed in heme proteins and specific interactions observed in carbonylmyoglobin (MbCO). PMID:16218637

  13. Measurements of the Conduction-Zone Length and Mass Ablation Rate in Cryogenic Direct-Drive Implosions on OMEGA.

    PubMed

    Michel, D T; Davis, A K; Goncharov, V N; Sangster, T C; Hu, S X; Igumenshchev, I V; Meyerhofer, D D; Seka, W; Froula, D H

    2015-04-17

    Measurements of the conduction-zone length (110±20???m at t=2.8??ns), the averaged mass ablation rate of the deuterated plastic (7.95±0.3???g/ns), shell trajectory, and laser absorption are made in direct-drive cryogenic implosions and are used to quantify the electron thermal transport through the conduction zone. Hydrodynamic simulations that use nonlocal thermal transport and cross-beam energy transfer models reproduce these experimental observables. Hydrodynamic simulations that use a time-dependent flux-limited model reproduce the measured shell trajectory and the laser absorption but underestimate the mass ablation rate by ?10% and the length of the conduction zone by nearly a factor of 2. PMID:25933317

  14. openBEB: open biological experiment browser for correlative measurements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background New experimental methods must be developed to study interaction networks in systems biology. To reduce biological noise, individual subjects, such as single cells, should be analyzed using high throughput approaches. The measurement of several correlative physical properties would further improve data consistency. Accordingly, a considerable quantity of data must be acquired, correlated, catalogued and stored in a database for subsequent analysis. Results We have developed openBEB (open Biological Experiment Browser), a software framework for data acquisition, coordination, annotation and synchronization with database solutions such as openBIS. OpenBEB consists of two main parts: A core program and a plug-in manager. Whereas the data-type independent core of openBEB maintains a local container of raw-data and metadata and provides annotation and data management tools, all data-specific tasks are performed by plug-ins. The open architecture of openBEB enables the fast integration of plug-ins, e.g., for data acquisition or visualization. A macro-interpreter allows the automation and coordination of the different modules. An update and deployment mechanism keeps the core program, the plug-ins and the metadata definition files in sync with a central repository. Conclusions The versatility, the simple deployment and update mechanism, and the scalability in terms of module integration offered by openBEB make this software interesting for a large scientific community. OpenBEB targets three types of researcher, ideally working closely together: (i) Engineers and scientists developing new methods and instruments, e.g., for systems-biology, (ii) scientists performing biological experiments, (iii) theoreticians and mathematicians analyzing data. The design of openBEB enables the rapid development of plug-ins, which will inherently benefit from the “house keeping” abilities of the core program. We report the use of openBEB to combine live cell microscopy, microfluidic control and visual proteomics. In this example, measurements from diverse complementary techniques are combined and correlated. PMID:24666611

  15. Mechanical measurements of heterogeneity and length scale effects in PEG-based hydrogels

    E-print Network

    Bush, Brian G.; Shapiro, Jenna M.; DelRio, Frank W.; Cook, Robert F.; Oyen, Michelle L.

    2015-08-10

    subjected to an applied load; conformational changes along the polymer backbone are viscoelastic in nature while migration of the incorporated fluid throughout the porous network is considered to be poroelastic deformation8. As potential bioengineering... modified Flory-Rehner analytical model assuming isotropic swelling18, 33 , (4) where l is the length of the carbon-carbon bond (0.146 nm), Cn is the Flory characteristic ratio, typically around 3.8 to 4.0 for PEG18, 32 and here taken as 4...

  16. Measurement of laminar burning speeds and Markstein lengths using a novel methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Tahtouh, Toni; Halter, Fabien; Mounaim-Rousselle, Christine

    2009-09-15

    Three different methodologies used for the extraction of laminar information are compared and discussed. Starting from an asymptotic analysis assuming a linear relation between the propagation speed and the stretch acting on the flame front, temporal radius evolutions of spherically expanding laminar flames are postprocessed to obtain laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths. The first methodology fits the temporal radius evolution with a polynomial function, while the new methodology proposed uses the exact solution of the linear relation linking the flame speed and the stretch as a fit. The last methodology consists in an analytical resolution of the problem. To test the different methodologies, experiments were carried out in a stainless steel combustion chamber with methane/air mixtures at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The equivalence ratio was varied from 0.55 to 1.3. The classical shadowgraph technique was used to detect the reaction zone. The new methodology has proven to be the most robust and provides the most accurate results, while the polynomial methodology induces some errors due to the differentiation process. As original radii are used in the analytical methodology, it is more affected by the experimental radius determination. Finally, laminar burning velocity and Markstein length values determined with the new methodology are compared with results reported in the literature. (author)

  17. A volumetric approach to path-length measurements is essential when treating radiotherapy with modulated beams

    SciTech Connect

    Forde, Elizabeth; Booth, Jeremy; Leech, Michelle

    2014-07-01

    The established dosimetric benefits of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy have lead to their increased use in prostate radiotherapy. Complimenting these techniques, volumetric image guidance has supported increased positional accuracy. In addition, 3-dimensional image guidance has also allowed for assessment of potential dosimetric variation that can be attributed to a deformation of either internal or external structures, such as rectal distension or body contour. Compounding these issues is the variation of tissue density through which the new field position passes and also the variation of dose across a modulated beam. Despite the growing level of interest in this area, there are only a limited number of articles that examine the effect of a variation in beam path length, particularly across a modulated field. IMRT and volumetric-modulated radiation therapy (VMAT) fields are dynamic in nature, and the dose gradient within these fields is variable. Assessment of variation of path length away from the beam's central axis and across the entire field is vital where there is considerable variation of dose within the field, such as IMRT and VMAT. In these cases, reliance on the traditional central axis to focus skin distances is no longer appropriate. This article discusses these more subtle challenges that may have a significant clinical effect if left unrecognized and undervalued.

  18. Correlated Protein Motion Measurements of Dihydrofolate Reductase Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengyang; Niessen, Katherine; Pace, James; Cody, Vivian; Markelz, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    We report the first direct measurements of the long range structural vibrational modes in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). DHFR is a universal housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of 7,8-dihydrofolate to 5,6,7,8-tetra-hydrofolate, with the aid of coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). This crucial enzymatic role as the target for anti-cancer [methotrexate (MTX)], and other clinically useful drugs, has made DHFR a long-standing target of enzymological studies. The terahertz (THz) frequency range (5-100 cm-1), corresponds to global correlated protein motions. In our lab we have developed Crystal Anisotropy Terahertz Microscopy (CATM), which directly measures these large scale intra-molecular protein vibrations, by removing the relaxational background of the solvent and residue side chain librational motions. We demonstrate narrowband features in the anisotropic absorbance for mouse DHFR with the ligand binding of NADPH and MTX single crystals as well as Escherichia coli DHFR with the ligand binding of NADPH and MTX single crystals. This work is supported by NSF grant MRI2 grant DBI2959989.

  19. Measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length and edge surface-recombination velocity in InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Hakimzadeh, Roshanak

    1993-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure the electron (minority carrier) diffusion length (L(sub n)) and the edge surface-recombination velocity (V(sub s)) in zinc-doped Czochralski-grown InP wafers. Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) profiles were obtained in specimens containing a Schottky barrier perpendicular to the scanned (edge) surface. An independent technique was used to measure V(sub s), and these values were used in a theoretical expression for normalized EBIC. A fit of the experimental data with this expression enabled us to determine L(sub n).

  20. Expression of human protection of telomere 1 correlates with telomere length and radiosensitivity in the human laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cell line

    PubMed Central

    LEI, HAN; FENG, DALI; ZHOU, FUXIANG; XU, HUI; TANG, TIAN; YU, HAIJUN; XIE, CONGHUA; ZHOU, YUNFENG

    2015-01-01

    The close association between telomere length and radiosensitivity has been established by several studies. There is also a hypothesis that telomere length may be regulated by human protection of telomere 1 (hPOT1) in human carcinoma cells. In the present study, the hPOT1 level between the radioresistant Hep-2R cells and the wild-type were compared, and the results showed that the hPOT1 gene was upregulated in the radioresistant Hep-2R cell lines compared with the wild-type. This suggested that the expression level of hPOT1 correlates with radiosensitivity. Additionally, an hPOT1-directed short hairpin (sh)RNA plasmid was constructed and transferred into the Hep-2R cells, which lead to telomere shortening, an increase in apoptosis and markedly decreased growth of the RNAi-Hep-2R cell line. These results demonstrate that hPOT1-directed shRNAs are associated with telomere length and radiosensitivity, and maybe a potent sensitizer for laryngeal cancer radiotherapy.

  1. Calculation of Evolutionary Correlation between Individual Genes and Full-Length Genome: A Method Useful for Choosing Phylogenetic Markers for Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Luo, Xuenong; Wei, Wei; Zheng, Yadong; Dou, Yongxi; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-01-01

    Individual genes or regions are still commonly used to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among viral isolates. The genomic regions that can faithfully provide assessments consistent with those predicted with full-length genome sequences would be preferable to serve as good candidates of the phylogenetic markers for molecular epidemiological studies of many viruses. Here we employed a statistical method to evaluate the evolutionary relationships between individual viral genes and full-length genomes without tree construction as a way to determine which gene can match the genome well in phylogenetic analyses. This method was performed by calculation of linear correlations between the genetic distance matrices of aligned individual gene sequences and aligned genome sequences. We applied this method to the phylogenetic analyses of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), measles virus (MV), hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Phylogenetic trees were constructed for comparisons and the possible factors affecting the method accuracy were also discussed in the calculations. The results revealed that this method could produce results consistent with those of previous studies about the proper consensus sequences that could be successfully used as phylogenetic markers. And our results also suggested that these evolutionary correlations could provide useful information for identifying genes that could be used effectively to infer the genetic relationships. PMID:24312527

  2. Correlation lengths, porosity and water adsorption in TiO? thin films prepared by glancing angle deposition.

    PubMed

    González-García, Lola; Parra-Barranco, Julián; Sánchez-Valencia, Juan R; Barranco, Angel; Borrás, Ana; González-Elipe, Agustín R; García-Gutiérrez, Mari-Cruz; Hernández, Jaime J; Rueda, Daniel R; Ezquerra, Tiberio A

    2012-05-25

    This paper reports a thorough microstructural characterization of glancing angle deposited (GLAD) TiO(2) thin films. Atomic force microscopy (afm), grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and water adsorption isotherms have been used to determine the evolution of porosity and the existence of some correlation distances between the nanocolumns constituting the basic elements of the film's nanostructure. It is found that the deposition angle and, to a lesser extent, the film thickness are the most important parameters controlling properties of the thin film. The importance of porosity and some critical dimensions encountered in the investigated GLAD thin films is highlighted in relation to the analysis of their optical properties when utilized as antireflective coatings or as hosts and templates for the development of new composite materials. PMID:22543422

  3. Characterizing acid diffusion lengths in chemically amplified resists from measurements of deprotection kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Abhijit A.; Pandey, Yogendra Narayan; Doxastakis, Manolis; Stein, Gila E.

    2014-10-01

    The acid-catalyzed deprotection of glassy poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-tertbutyl acrylate) films was studied with infrared absorbance spectroscopy and stochastic simulations. Experimental data were interpreted with a simple description of subdiffusive acid transport coupled to second-order acid loss. This model predicts key attributes of observed deprotection rates, such as fast reaction at short times, slow reaction at long times, and a nonlinear dependence on acid loading. Fickian diffusion is approached by increasing the postexposure bake temperature or adding plasticizing agents to the polymer resin. These findings demonstrate that acid mobility and overall deprotection kinetics are coupled to glassy matrix dynamics. To complement the analysis of bulk kinetics, acid diffusion lengths were calculated from the anomalous transport model and compared with nanopattern line widths. The consistent scaling between experiments and simulations suggests that the anomalous diffusion model could be further developed into a predictive lithography tool.

  4. Effect of data length and bin numbers on distribution entropy (DistEn) measurement in analyzing healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Udhayakumar, Radhagayathri K; Karmakar, Chandan; Peng Li; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2015-08-01

    Complexity analysis of a given time series is executed using various measures of irregularity, the most commonly used being Approximate entropy (ApEn), Sample entropy (SampEn) and Fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn). However, the dependence of these measures on the critical parameter of tolerance `r' leads to precarious results, owing to random selections of r. Attempts to eliminate the use of r in entropy calculations introduced a new measure of entropy namely distribution entropy (DistEn) based on the empirical probability distribution function (ePDF). DistEn completely avoids the use of a variance dependent parameter like r and replaces it by a parameter M, which corresponds to the number of bins used in the histogram to calculate it. When tested for synthetic data, M has been observed to produce a minimal effect on DistEn as compared to the effect of r on other entropy measures. Also, DistEn is said to be relatively stable with data length (N) variations, as far as synthetic data is concerned. However, these claims have not been analyzed for physiological data. Our study evaluates the effect of data length N and bin number M on the performance of DistEn using both synthetic and physiologic time series data. Synthetic logistic data of `Periodic' and `Chaotic' levels of complexity and 40 RR interval time series belonging to two groups of healthy aging population (young and elderly) have been used for the analysis. The stability and consistency of DistEn as a complexity measure as well as a classifier have been studied. Experiments prove that the parameters N and M are more influential in deciding the efficacy of DistEn performance in the case of physiologic data than synthetic data. Therefore, a generalized random selection of M for a given data length N may not always be an appropriate combination to yield good performance of DistEn for physiologic data. PMID:26738118

  5. Maize Varieties Released in Different Eras Have Similar Root Length Density Distributions in the Soil, Which Are Negatively Correlated with Local Concentrations of Soil Mineral Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Peng; Li, Sa; White, Philip J.; Li, Chunjian

    2015-01-01

    Larger, and deeper, root systems of new maize varieties, compared to older varieties, are thought to have enabled improved acquisition of soil resources and, consequently, greater grain yields. To compare the spatial distributions of the root systems of new and old maize varieties and their relationships with spatial variations in soil concentrations of available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), two years of field experiments were performed using six Chinese maize varieties released in different eras. Vertical distributions of roots, and available N, P and K in the 0–60 cm soil profile were determined in excavated soil monoliths at silking and maturity. The results demonstrated that new maize varieties had larger root dry weight, higher grain yield and greater nutrient accumulation than older varieties. All varieties had similar total root length and vertical root distribution at silking, but newer varieties maintained greater total root length and had more roots in the 30–60 cm soil layers at maturity. The spatial variation of soil mineral N (Nmin) in each soil horizon was larger than that of Olsen-P and ammonium-acetate-extractable K, and was inversely correlated with root length density (RLD), especially in the 0–20 cm soil layer. It was concluded that greater acquisition of mineral nutrients and higher yields of newer varieties were associated with greater total root length at maturity. The negative relationship between RLD and soil Nmin at harvest for all varieties suggests the importance of the spatial distribution of the root system for N uptake by maize. PMID:25799291

  6. The spin Hall angle and spin diffusion length of Pd measured by spin pumping and microwave photoresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, X. D.; Feng, Z.; Miao, B. F.; Sun, L.; You, B.; Wu, D.; Du, J.; Zhang, W.; Ding, H. F.

    2014-05-07

    We present the experimental study of the spin Hall angle (SHA) and spin diffusion length of Pd with the spin pumping and microwave photoresistance effects. The Py/Pd bilayer stripes are excited with an out-of-plane microwave magnetic field. The pure spin current is thus pumped and transforms into charge current via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in Pd layer, yielding an ISHE voltage. The ISHE voltage can be distinguished from the unwanted signal caused by the anisotropic magnetoresistance according to their different symmetries. Together with Pd thickness dependent measurements of in and out-of-plane precessing angles and effective spin mixing conductance, the SHA and spin-diffusion length of Pd are quantified as 0.0056?±?0.0007 and 7.3?±?0.7?nm, respectively.

  7. Q-FISH measurement of hepatocyte telomere lengths in donor liver and graft after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: donor age affects telomere length sustainability.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Youichi; Ishikawa, Naoshi; Aida, Junko; Sanada, Yukihiro; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Nakamura, Ken-ichi; Poon, Steven S S; Matsumoto, Koshi; Mizuta, Koichi; Uchida, Eiji; Tajiri, Takashi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Takubo, Kaiyo

    2014-01-01

    Along with the increasing need for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), the issue of organ shortage has become a serious problem. Therefore, the use of organs from elderly donors has been increasing. While the short-term results of LDLT have greatly improved, problems affecting the long-term outcome of transplant patients remain unsolved. Furthermore, since contradictory data have been reported with regard to the relationship between donor age and LT/LDLT outcome, the question of whether the use of elderly donors influences the long-term outcome of a graft after LT/LDLT remains unsettled. To address whether hepatocyte telomere length reflects the outcome of LDLT, we analyzed the telomere lengths of hepatocytes in informative biopsy samples from 12 paired donors and recipients (grafts) of pediatric LDLT more than 5 years after adult-to-child LDLT because of primary biliary atresia, using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH). The telomere lengths in the paired samples showed a robust relationship between the donor and grafted hepatocytes (r?=?0.765, p?=?0.0038), demonstrating the feasibility of our Q-FISH method for cell-specific evaluation. While 8 pairs showed no significant difference between the telomere lengths for the donor and the recipient, the other 4 pairs showed significantly shorter telomeres in the recipient than in the donor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the donors in the latter group were older than those in the former (p?=?0.001). Despite the small number of subjects, this pilot study indicates that donor age is a crucial factor affecting telomere length sustainability in hepatocytes after pediatric LDLT, and that the telomeres in grafted livers may be elongated somewhat longer when the grafts are immunologically well controlled. PMID:24727734

  8. Measurement of amyloid fibril mass-per-length by tilted-beam transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Thurber, Kent R.; Shewmaker, Frank; Wickner, Reed B.; Tycko, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that accurate values of mass-per-length (MPL), which serve as strong constraints on molecular structure, can be determined for amyloid fibrils by quantification of intensities in dark-field electron microscope images obtained in the tilted-beam mode of a transmission electron microscope. MPL values for fibrils formed by residues 218–289 of the HET-s fungal prion protein, for 2-fold- and 3-fold-symmetric fibrils formed by the 40-residue ?-amyloid peptide, and for fibrils formed by the yeast prion protein Sup35NM are in good agreement with previous results from scanning transmission electron microscopy. Results for fibrils formed by the yeast prion protein Rnq1, for which the MPL value has not been previously reported, support an in-register parallel ?-sheet structure, with one Rnq1 molecule per 0.47-nm ?-sheet repeat spacing. Since tilted-beam dark-field images can be obtained on many transmission electron microscopes, this work should facilitate MPL determination by a large number of research groups engaged in studies of amyloid fibrils and similar supramolecular assemblies. PMID:19706519

  9. Length scales in alloy dissolution and measurement of absolute interfacial free energy.

    PubMed

    Rugolo, J; Erlebacher, J; Sieradzki, K

    2006-12-01

    De-alloying is the selective dissolution of one or more of the elemental components of an alloy. In binary alloys that exhibit complete solid solubility, de-alloying of the less noble component results in the formation of nanoporous metals, a materials class that has attracted attention for applications such as catalysis, sensing and actuation. In addition, the occurrence of de-alloying in metallic alloy systems under stress is known to result in stress-corrosion cracking, a key failure mechanism in fossil fuel and nuclear plants, ageing aircraft, and also an important concern in the design of nuclear-waste storage containers. Central to the design of corrosion-resistant alloys is the identification of a composition-dependent electrochemical critical potential, Vcrit, above which the current rises dramatically with potential, signalling the onset of bulk de-alloying. Below Vcrit, the surface is passivated by the accumulation of up to several monolayers of the more noble component. The current understanding of the processes that control Vcrit is incomplete. Here, we report on de-alloying results of Ag/Au superlattices that clarify the role of pre-existing length scales in alloy dissolution. Our data motivated us to re-analyse existing data on critical potentials of Ag-Au alloys and develop a simple unifying picture that accounts for the compositional dependence of solid-solution alloy critical potentials. PMID:17099702

  10. Final report on supplementary comparison COOMET.L-S10: Comparison of length standards for measuring gear parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, V.

    2012-01-01

    The COOMET Project No 507/BY/10, 'Supplementary comparison of length standards for measuring gear parameters', KCDB Reference COOMET.L-S10, was organized by the COOMET Technical Committee TC 1.5 'Length and Angle'. This comparison started in September 2010 and finished in September 2011. It was piloted by the Belarusian State Institute of Metrology, BelGIM, Minsk, the Republic of Belarus, with VNIIMS (Moscow, Russia) as the other participant. The transfer standard was a gear involute master provided by BelGIM. This standard has two base circle radii of 150 mm and 60 mm, and corresponding profiles on the left and on the right. The involute profile was measured from root towards tip of the tooth. The scanning was performed in automatic mode along the mid-section of the base cylinder over the complete estimation range, with a scanning speed of 2 mm s-1. The software program GEAR PRO involute was used to determine three parameters: the total profile deviation, the profile form deviation and the profile slope deviation. Each participant performed ten measurements for each of two involute profiles with basic circle radius of 150 mm and 60 mm, respectively. The measurement result for each parameter was calculated as a mean value from the ten measurements. The comparison results demonstrate that the measured values are consistent with the stated uncertainties and that the measurement standards under comparison are equivalent. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  11. Inter-ELM power decay length for JET and ASDEX upgrade: measurement and comparison with heuristic drift-based model.

    PubMed

    Eich, T; Sieglin, B; Scarabosio, A; Fundamenski, W; Goldston, R J; Herrmann, A

    2011-11-18

    Experimental measurements of the SOL power decay length (?(q)) estimated from analysis of fully attached divertor heat load profiles from two tokamaks, JET and ASDEX Upgrade, are presented. Data was measured by means of infrared thermography. An empirical scaling reveals parametric dependency ?(q) in mm = 0.73B(T)(-0.78)q(cyl)(1.2)P(SOL)(0.1)R(geo)(0), where B(T)(T) describes the toroidal magnetic field, q(cyl) the cylindrical safety factor, P(SOL)(MW) the power crossing the separatrix and R(geo)(m) the major radius of the device. A comparison of these measurements to a heuristic particle drift-based model shows satisfactory agreement in both absolute magnitude and scaling. Extrapolation to ITER gives ?(q) ? 1 mm. PMID:22181888

  12. Neutron interferometric measurement of the scattering length difference between the triplet and singlet states of n-$^3$He

    E-print Network

    M. G. Huber; M. Arif; W. C. Chen; T. R. Gentile; D. S. Hussey; T. C. Black; D. A. Pushin; C. B. Shahi; F. E. Wietfeldt; L. Yang

    2014-09-30

    We report a determination of the n-$^3$He scattering length difference $\\Delta b^{\\prime} = b_{1}^{\\prime}-b_{0}^{\\prime} = $ ($-5.411$ $\\pm$ $0.031$ (statistical) $\\pm$ $0.039$ (systematic)) fm between the triplet and singlet states using a neutron interferometer. This revises our previous result $\\Delta b^{\\prime} = $ (-5.610 $\\pm$ $0.027$ (statistical) $\\pm$ $0.032$ (systematic) fm obtained using the same technique in 2008. This revision is due to a re-analysis of the 2008 experiment that includes a more robust treatment of the phase shift caused by magnetic field gradients near the $^3$He cell. Furthermore, we more than doubled our original data set from 2008 by acquiring six months of additional data in 2013. Both the new data set and a re-analysis of the older data are in good agreement. Scattering lengths of low Z isotopes are valued for use in few-body nuclear effective field theories, provide important tests of modern nuclear potential models and in the case of $^3$He aid in the interpretation of neutron scattering from quantum liquids. The difference $\\Delta b^{\\prime}$ was determined by measuring the relative phase shift between two incident neutron polarizations caused by the spin-dependent interaction with a polarized $^3$He target. The target $^3$He gas was sealed inside a small, flat windowed glass cell that was placed in one beam path of the interferometer. The relaxation of $^3$He polarization was monitored continuously with neutron transmission measurements. The neutron polarization and spin flipper efficiency were determined separately using $^3$He analyzers and two different polarimetry analysis methods. A summary of the measured scattering lengths for n-$^3$He with a comparison to nucleon interaction models is given.

  13. PRIOR GENETIC CORRELATIONS AND NON-MEASURED TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current international genetic evaluations are based on how related country populations are genetically (across-country genetic correlations). Those correlations may be influenced strongly by prior expectations that were not based on sound scientific principles. Objective methods to predict prior cor...

  14. SINGLE SHOT ELECTRON-BEAM BUNCH LENGTH MEASUREMENTS , G.M.H. Knippels

    E-print Network

    Strathclyde, University of

    -picosecond domain. The electro-optic de- tection method makes use of the fact that the local elec- tric field- lar to its direction of motion. This electric field induces birefringence in an electro-optic crystal electro-optic detection of their transverse electric field. The electron bunch shape is measured inside

  15. Optical-absorptioncoefficient measurements in solids and liquids using correlation photoacoustic spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Optical-absorptioncoefficient measurements in solids and liquids using correlation photoacoustic spectroscopy JAMEST. DODGSON,ANDREASMANDELIS,AND CLAUDIOANDREETTA Photoacoustic and Photothermal Sciences-correlation photoacoustic spectroscopy (CPAS), has been investigated. Powders of holmium oxide and aqueous solutions

  16. An Evolutionarily Conserved Family of Virion Tail Needles Related to Bacteriophage P22 gp26: Correlation between Structural Stability and Length of the -Helical Trimeric Coiled Coil

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, A.; Walker-Kopp, N; Casjens, S; Cingolani, G

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriophages of the Podoviridae family use short noncontractile tails to inject their genetic material into Gram-negative bacteria. In phage P22, the tail contains a thin needle, encoded by the phage gene 26, which is essential both for stabilization and for ejection of the packaged viral genome. Bioinformatic analysis of the N-terminal domain of gp26 (residues 1-60) led us to identify a family of genes encoding putative homologues of the tail needle gp26. To validate this idea experimentally and to explore their diversity, we cloned the gp26-like gene from phages HK620, Sf6 and HS1, and characterized these gene products in solution. All gp26-like factors contain an elongated {alpha}-helical coiled-coil core consisting of repeating, adjacent trimerization heptads and form trimeric fibers with length ranging between about 240 to 300 {angstrom}. gp26 tail needles display a high level of structural stability in solution, with Tm (temperature of melting) between 85 and 95 C. To determine how the structural stability of these phage fibers correlates with the length of the {alpha}-helical core, we investigated the effect of insertions and deletions in the helical core. In the P22 tail needle, we identified an 85-residue-long helical domain, termed MiCRU (minimal coiled-coil repeat unit), that can be inserted in-frame inside the gp26 helical core, preserving the straight morphology of the fiber. Likewise, we were able to remove three quarters of the helical core of the HS1 tail needle, minimally decreasing the stability of the fiber. We conclude that in the gp26 family of tail needles, structural stability increases nonlinearly with the length of the {alpha}-helical core. Thus, the overall stability of these bacteriophage fibers is not solely dependent on the number of trimerization repeats in the {alpha}-helical core.

  17. Measuring spin correlations in optical lattices using superlattice potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, K. G. L.; Andersen, B. M.; Soerensen, A. S.; Bruun, G. M.; Syljuaasen, O. F.

    2011-10-15

    We suggest two experimental methods for probing both short- and long-range spin correlations of atoms in optical lattices using superlattice potentials. The first method involves an adiabatic doubling of the periodicity of the underlying lattice to probe neighboring singlet (triplet) correlations for fermions (bosons) by the occupation of the resulting vibrational ground state. The second method utilizes a time-dependent superlattice potential to generate spin-dependent transport by any number of prescribed lattice sites, and probes correlations by the resulting number of doubly occupied sites. For experimentally relevant parameters, we demonstrate how both methods yield large signatures of antiferromagnetic correlations of strongly repulsive fermionic atoms in a single shot of the experiment. Lastly, we show how this method may also be applied to probe d-wave pairing, a possible ground-state candidate for the doped repulsive Hubbard model.

  18. Measurements of Dihadron Correlations Relative to the Event Plane in Au+Au Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV

    E-print Network

    H. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; A. V. Alakhverdyants; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; B. D. Anderson; C. D. Anson; D. Arkhipkin; G. S. Averichev; J. Balewski; D. R. Beavis; N. K. Behera; R. Bellwied; M. J. Betancourt; R. R. Betts; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; B. Biritz; L. C. Bland; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; E. Braidot; A. V. Brandin; A. Bridgeman; S. G. Brovko; E. Bruna; S. Bueltmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; X. Z. Cai; H. Caines; M. Calderón de la Barca Sánchez; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; Z. Chajecki; P. Chaloupka; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; J. Y. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; K. E. Choi; W. Christie; P. Chung; M. J. M. Codrington; R. Corliss; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; S. Dash; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; A. A. Derevschikov; R. Derradi de Souza; L. Didenko; P. Djawotho; S. M. Dogra; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; M. Elnimr; J. Engelage; G. Eppley; M. Estienne; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; R. Fatemi; J. Fedorisin; R. G. Fersch; P. Filip; E. Finch; V. Fine; Y. Fisyak; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; A. Geromitsos; F. Geurts; P. Ghosh; Y. N. Gorbunov; A. Gordon; O. Grebenyuk; D. Grosnick; S. M. Guertin; A. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; O. Hajkova; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; J. W. Harris; J. P. Hays-Wehle; M. Heinz; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; E. Hjort; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; T. J. Humanic; L. Huo; G. Igo; P. Jacobs; W. W. Jacobs; C. Jena; F. Jin; J. Joseph; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; K. Kang; J. Kapitan; K. Kauder; H. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; D. Kettler; D. P. Kikola; J. Kiryluk; A. Kisiel; V. Kizka; A. G. Knospe; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; L. Koroleva; W. Korsch; L. Kotchenda; V. Kouchpil; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; M. Krus; L. Kumar; P. Kurnadi; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; S. LaPointe; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; W. Leight; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; L. Li; N. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; H. Liu; J. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; R. S. Longacre; W. A. Love; Y. Lu; E. V. Lukashov; X. Luo; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; O. I. Mall; L. K. Mangotra; R. Manweiler; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; Yu. A. Matulenko; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; A. Meschanin; R. Milner; N. G. Minaev; S. Mioduszewski; A. Mischke; M. K. Mitrovski; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; B. Morozov; D. A. Morozov; M. G. Munhoz; M. Naglis; B. K. Nandi; T. K. Nayak; P. K. Netrakanti; L. V. Nogach; S. B. Nurushev; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; Oh; Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; D. Olson; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; H. Pei; T. Peitzmann; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; S. C. Phatak; P. Pile; M. Planinic; M. A. Ploskon; J. Pluta; D. Plyku; N. Poljak; A. M. Poskanzer; B. V. K. S. Potukuchi; C. B. Powell; D. Prindle; C. Pruneau; N. K. Pruthi; P. R. Pujahari; J. Putschke; H. Qiu; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; R. Redwine; R. Reed; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; A. Rose; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; N. R. Sahoo; S. Sakai; I. Sakrejda; T. Sakuma; S. Salur; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; T. R. Schuster; J. Seele; J. Seger; I. Selyuzhenkov; P. Seyboth; E. Shahaliev; M. Shao; M. Sharma; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; F. Simon; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; N. Smirnov; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; D. Staszak; S. G. Steadman; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; A. A. P. Suaide; M. C. Suarez; N. L. Subba; M. Sumbera; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; A. Szanto de Toledo; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; L. H. Tarini; T. Tarnowsky; D. Thein; J. H. Thomas; J. Tian; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; V. N. Tram; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; Tribedy; O. D. Tsai; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; J. A. Vanfossen, Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; A. N. Vasiliev; F. Videbæk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; M. Wada; M. Walker; F. Wang; G. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; C. Whitten Jr.; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; W. Witzke; Y. F. Wu; Xiao; W. Xie; H. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; W. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; L. Xue; Y. Yang; P. Yepes; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; M. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zhan; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; W. M. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; W. Zhou; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; R. Zoulkarneev; Y. Zoulkarneeva

    2013-05-16

    Dihadron azimuthal correlations containing a high transverse momentum ($\\pt$) trigger particle are sensitive to the properties of the nuclear medium created at RHIC through the strong interactions occurring between the traversing parton and the medium, i.e. jet-quenching. Previous measurements revealed a strong modification to dihadron azimuthal correlations in Au+Au collisions with respect to \\pp\\ and \\dAu\\ collisions. The modification increases with the collision centrality, suggesting a path-length dependence to the jet-quenching effect. This paper reports STAR measurements of dihadron azimuthal correlations in mid-central (20-60\\%) Au+Au collisions at $\\snn=200$~GeV as a function of the trigger particle's azimuthal angle relative to the event plane, $\\phis=|\\phit-\\psiEP|$. The azimuthal correlation is studied as a function of both the trigger and associated particle $\\pt$. The subtractions of the combinatorial background and anisotropic flow, assuming Zero Yield At Minimum (\\zyam), are described. The away-side correlation is strongly modified, and the modification varies with $\\phis$, which is expected to be related to the path-length that the away-side parton traverses. The pseudo-rapidity ($\\deta$) dependence of the near-side correlation, sensitive to long range $\\deta$ correlations (the ridge), is also investigated. The ridge and jet-like components of the near-side correlation are studied as a function of $\\phis$. The ridge appears to drop with increasing $\\phis$ while the jet-like component remains approximately constant. ...

  19. Measurements of large scale-length plasmas produced from gas-filled targets

    SciTech Connect

    Back, C.A.; Berger, R.L.; Estabrook, K.

    1995-06-30

    Apart from their intrinsic interest, plasma physics processes are important because they affect the coupling of the laser energy into laser-irradiated targets. Recently, new gas-filled targets have been developed to create large mm-size plasmas for the study of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). We present x-ray images and x-ray spectra to characterize these targets, which show that the plasmas are homogeneous, have electron densities of {approximately}10{sup 21} cm{sup {minus}3}, and attain electron temperatures of {approximately}3 keV. We also present SBS measurements to demonstrate how systematic studies of physical phenomena can be performed using these targets.

  20. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 658 - Devices That Are Excluded From Measurement of the Length or Width of a Commercial Motor Vehicle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Measurement of the Length or Width of a Commercial Motor Vehicle D Appendix D to Part 658 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION...DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH, WIDTH AND WEIGHT LIMITATIONS Pt. 658, App. D Appendix D to Part 658—Devices That Are Excluded...

  1. Particle image velocimetry correlation signal-to-noise ratio metrics and measurement uncertainty quantification

    E-print Network

    Xue, Zhenyu; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2014-01-01

    In particle image velocimetry (PIV) the measurement signal is contained in the recorded intensity of the particle image pattern superimposed on a variety of noise sources. The signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) strength governs the resulting PIV cross correlation and ultimately the accuracy and uncertainty of the resulting PIV measurement. Hence we posit that correlation SNR metrics calculated from the correlation plane can be used to quantify the quality of the correlation and the resulting uncertainty of an individual measurement. In this paper we present a framework for evaluating the correlation SNR using a set of different metrics, which in turn are used to develop models for uncertainty estimation. The SNR metrics and corresponding models presented herein are expanded to be applicable to both standard and filtered correlations. In addition, the notion of a valid measurement is redefined with respect to the correlation peak width in order to be consistent with uncertainty quantification principles and distinct ...

  2. Mechanical measurements of heterogeneity and length scale effects in PEG-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bush, Brian G; Shapiro, Jenna M; DelRio, Frank W; Cook, Robert F; Oyen, Michelle L

    2015-09-28

    Colloidal-probe spherical indentation load-relaxation experiments with a probe radius of 3 ?m are conducted on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel materials to quantify their steady-state mechanical properties and time-dependent transport properties via a single experiment. PEG-based hydrogels are shown to be heterogeneous in both morphology and mechanical stiffness at this scale; a linear-harmonic interpolation of hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin and Boussinesq flat-punch indentation models was used to describe the steady-state response of the hydrogels and determine upper and lower bounds for indentation moduli. Analysis of the transient load-relaxation response during displacement-controlled hold periods provides a means of extracting two time constants ?1 and ?2, where ?1 and ?2 are assigned to the viscoelastic and poroelastic properties, respectively. Large ?2 values at small indentation depths provide evidence of a non-equilibrium state characterized by a phenomenon that restricts poroelastic fluid flow through the material; for larger indentations, the variability in ?2 values decreases and pore sizes estimated from ?2via indentation approach those measured via macroscopic swelling experiments. The contact probe methodology developed here provides a means of assessing hydrogel heterogeneity, including time-dependent mechanical and transport properties, and has potential implications in hydrogel biomedical and engineering applications. PMID:26255839

  3. Measures of Galaxy Environment: Rank-ordered Mark Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skibba, Ramin A.; Sheth, R.; Croton, D.; Muldrew, S.; Abbas, U.; Pearce, F.; Shattow, G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze environmental correlations using mark clustering statistics with the mock galaxy catalog constructed by Muldrew et al. (Paper I). We find that mark correlation functions are able to detect even a small dependence of galaxy properties on the environment, quantified by the overdensity 1+?, while such a small dependence would be difficult to detect by traditional methods. We then show that rank ordering the marks and using the rank as a weight is a simple way of comparing the correlation signals for different marks. With this we quantify how fixed-aperture overdensities are sensitive to large-scale halo environments, nearest-neighbor overdensities are sensitive to small-scale environments within haloes, and color is a better tracer of overdensity than is luminosity.

  4. Measures of galaxy environment - II. Rank-ordered mark correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skibba, Ramin A.; Sheth, Ravi K.; Croton, Darren J.; Muldrew, Stuart I.; Abbas, Ummi; Pearce, Frazer R.; Shattow, Genevieve M.

    2013-02-01

    We analyse environmental correlations using mark clustering statistics with the mock galaxy catalogue constructed by Muldrew et al. (Paper I). We find that mark correlation functions are able to detect even a small dependence of galaxy properties on the environment, quantified by the overdensity 1 + ?, while such a small dependence would be difficult to detect by traditional methods. We then show that rank ordering the marks and using the rank as a weight is a simple way of comparing the correlation signals for different marks. With this we quantify to what extent fixed-aperture overdensities are sensitive to large-scale halo environments, nearest-neighbour overdensities are sensitive to small-scale environments within haloes and colour is a better tracer of overdensity than luminosity.

  5. Joint radius-length distribution as a measure of anisotropic pore eccentricity: An experimental and analytical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamini, Dan; Basser, Peter J.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we present an experimental design and analytical framework to measure the nonparametric joint radius-length (R-L) distribution of an ensemble of parallel, finite cylindrical pores, and more generally, the eccentricity distribution of anisotropic pores. Employing a novel 3D double pulsed-field gradient acquisition scheme, we first obtain both the marginal radius and length distributions of a population of cylindrical pores and then use these to constrain and stabilize the estimate of the joint radius-length distribution. Using the marginal distributions as constraints allows the joint R-L distribution to be reconstructed from an underdetermined system (i.e., more variables than equations), which requires a relatively small and feasible number of MR acquisitions. Three simulated representative joint R-L distribution phantoms corrupted by different noise levels were reconstructed to demonstrate the process, using this new framework. As expected, the broader the peaks in the joint distribution, the less stable and more sensitive to noise the estimation of the marginal distributions. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of the joint distribution is remarkably robust to increases in noise level; we attribute this characteristic to the use of the marginal distributions as constraints. Axons are known to exhibit local compartment eccentricity variations upon injury; the extent of the variations depends on the severity of the injury. Nonparametric estimation of the eccentricity distribution of injured axonal tissue is of particular interest since generally one cannot assume a parametric distribution a priori. Reconstructing the eccentricity distribution may provide vital information about changes resulting from injury or that occurred during development.

  6. Measuring primordial anisotropic correlators with CMB spectral distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino

    2015-10-01

    We show that inflationary models with broken rotational invariance generate testable off-diagonal signatures in the correlation between the ? -type distortion and temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background. More precisely, scenarios with a quadrupolar bispectrum asymmetry, usually generated by fluctuations of primordial vector fields, produce a nonvanishing ? -T correlation when |?1-?2|=2 . Since spectral distortions are sensitive to primordial fluctuations up to very small scales, a cosmic variance limited spectral distortion experiment can detect such effects with a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  7. Benefits of Time Correlation Measurements for Passive Screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murer, David; Blackie, Douglas; Peerani, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    The “FLASH Portals Project” is a collaboration between Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd (CH), the Atomic Weapons Establishment (UK), and the Joint Research Centre (European Commission), supported by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). The program's goal was to develop and demonstrate a technology to detect shielded special nuclear materials (SNM) more efficiently and less ambiguously by exploiting time correlation. This study presents experimental results of a two-sided portal monitor equipped with in total 16 4He fast neutron detectors as well as four polyvinyltoluene (PVT) plastic scintillators. All detectors have been synchronized to nanosecond precision, thereby allowing the resolution of time correlations from timescales of tens of microseconds (such as (n, ?) reactions) down to prompt fission correlations directly. Our results demonstrate that such correlations can be detected in a typical radiation portal monitor (RPM) geometry and within operationally acceptable time scales, and that exploiting these signatures significantly improves the performance of the RPM compared to neutron counting. Furthermore, the results show that some time structure remains even in the presence of heavy shielding, thus significantly improving the sensitivity of the detection system to shielded SNM.

  8. Characterization of measurement uncertainties using the correlations between local outcomes obtained from maximally entangled pairs

    E-print Network

    Shota Kino; Taiki Nii; Holger F. Hofmann

    2015-10-02

    Joint measurements of non-commuting observables are characterized by unavoidable measurement uncertainties that can be described in terms of the error statistics for input states with well-defined values for the target observables. However, a complete characterization of measurement errors must include the correlations between the errors of the two observables. Here, we show that these correlations appear in the experimentally observable measurement statistics obtained by performing the joint measurement on maximally entangled pairs. For two-level systems, the results indicate that quantum theory requires imaginary correlations between the measurement errors of X and Y since these correlations are represented by the operator product XY=iZ in the measurement operators. Our analysis thus reveals a directly observable consequence of non-commutativity in the statistics of quantum measurements.

  9. Characterization of measurement uncertainties using the correlations between local outcomes obtained from maximally entangled pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kino, Shota; Nii, Taiki; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2015-10-01

    Joint measurements of noncommuting observables are characterized by unavoidable measurement uncertainties that can be described in terms of the error statistics for input states with well-defined values for the target observables. However, a complete characterization of measurement errors must include the correlations between the errors of the two observables. Here, we show that these correlations appear in the experimentally observable measurement statistics obtained by performing the joint measurement on maximally entangled pairs. For two-level systems, the results indicate that quantum theory requires imaginary correlations between the measurement errors of X ? and Y ? since these correlations are represented by the operator product X ?Y ?=i Z ? in the measurement operators. Our analysis thus reveals a directly observable consequence of noncommutativity in the statistics of quantum measurements.

  10. Safety, Feasibility, and Reliability of the Maximal Step Length, Gait Speed, and Chair Test Measured by Seniors Themselves: The Senior Step Study.

    PubMed

    Bongers, Kim T; Schoon, Yvonne; Graauwmans, Maartje J; Hoogsteen-Ossewaarde, Marlies E; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-07-01

    Self-management of mobility and fall risk might be possible if older adults could use a simple and safe self-test to measure their own mobility, balance, and fall risk at home. The aim of this study was to determine the safety, feasibility, and intraindividual reliability of the maximal step length (MSL), gait speed (GS), and chair test (CT) as potential self-tests for assessing mobility and fall risk. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults performed MSL, GS, and CT at home once a week during a four-week period, wherein the feasibility, test-retest reliability, coefficients of variation, and linear mixed models with random effects of these three self-tests were determined. Forty-nine subjects (mean age 76.1 years [SD: 4.0], 19 females [42%]) completed the study without adverse effects. Compared with the other self-tests, MSL gave the most often (77.6%) valid measurement results and had the best intraclass correlation coefficients (0.95 [95% confidence interval: 0.91-0.97]). MSL and GS gave no significant training effect, whereas CT did show a significant training effect (p < .01). Community-dwelling older adults can perform MSL safely, correctly, and reliably, and GS safely and reliably. Further research is needed to study the responsiveness and beneficial effects of these self-tests on self-management of mobility and fall risk. PMID:25342646

  11. Effect of Crystal Defects on Minority Carrier Diffusion Length in 6H SiC Measured Using the Electron Beam Induced Current Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1997-01-01

    We report values of minority carrier diffusion length in n-type 6H SiC measured using a planar Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) method. Values of hole diffusion length in defect free regions of n-type 6H SiC, with a doping concentration of 1.7El7 1/cu cm, ranged from 1.46 microns to 0.68 microns. We next introduce a novel variation of the planar method used above. This 'planar mapping' technique measured diffusion length along a linescan creating a map of diffusion length versus position. This map is then overlaid onto the EBIC image of the corresponding linescan, allowing direct visualization of the effect of defects on minority carrier diffusion length. Measurements of the above n-type 6H SiC resulted in values of hole diffusion length ranging from 1.2 micron in defect free regions to below 0.1 gm at the center of large defects. In addition, measurements on p-type 6H SiC resulted in electron diffusion lengths ranging from 1.42 micron to 0.8 micron.

  12. Estimating age from recapture data: Integrating incremental growth measures with ancillary data to infer age-at-length

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Link, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the age of individuals in wild populations can be of fundamental importance for answering ecological questions, modeling population demographics, and managing exploited or threatened species. Significant effort has been devoted to determining age through the use of growth annuli, secondary physical characteristics related to age, and growth models. Many species, however, either do not exhibit physical characteristics useful for independent age validation or are too rare to justify sacrificing a large number of individuals to establish the relationship between size and age. Length-at-age models are well represented in the fisheries and other wildlife management literature. Many of these models overlook variation in growth rates of individuals and consider growth parameters as population parameters. More recent models have taken advantage of hierarchical structuring of parameters and Bayesian inference methods to allow for variation among individuals as functions of environmental covariates or individual-specific random effects. Here, we describe hierarchical models in which growth curves vary as individual-specific stochastic processes, and we show how these models can be fit using capture–recapture data for animals of unknown age along with data for animals of known age. We combine these independent data sources in a Bayesian analysis, distinguishing natural variation (among and within individuals) from measurement error. We illustrate using data for African dwarf crocodiles, comparing von Bertalanffy and logistic growth models. The analysis provides the means of predicting crocodile age, given a single measurement of head length. The von Bertalanffy was much better supported than the logistic growth model and predicted that dwarf crocodiles grow from 19.4 cm total length at birth to 32.9 cm in the first year and 45.3 cm by the end of their second year. Based on the minimum size of females observed with hatchlings, reproductive maturity was estimated to be at nine years. These size benchmarks are believed to represent thresholds for important demographic parameters; improved estimates of age, therefore, will increase the precision of population projection models. The modeling approach that we present can be applied to other species and offers significant advantages when multiple sources of data are available and traditional aging techniques are not practical.

  13. Estimating age from recapture data: Integrating incremental growth measures with ancillary data to infer age-at-length

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, M.J.; Link, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the age of individuals in wild populations can be of fundamental importance for answering ecological questions, modeling population demographics, and managing exploited or threatened species. Significant effort has been devoted to determining age through the use of growth annuli, secondary physical characteristics related to age, and growth models. Many species, however, either do not exhibit physical characteristics useful for independent age validation or are too rare to justify sacrificing a large number of individuals to establish the relationship between size and age. Length-at-age models are well represented in the fisheries and other wildlife management literature. Many of these models overlook variation in growth rates of individuals and consider growth parameters as population parameters. More recent models have taken advantage of hierarchical structuring of parameters and Bayesian inference methods to allow for variation among individuals as functions of environmental covariates or individual-specific random effects. Here, we describe hierarchical models in which growth curves vary as individual-specific stochastic processes, and we show how these models can be fit using capture-recapture data for animals of unknown age along with data for animals of known age. We combine these independent data sources in a Bayesian analysis, distinguishing natural variation (among and within individuals) from measurement error. We illustrate using data for African dwarf crocodiles, comparing von Bertalanffy and logistic growth models. The analysis provides the means of predicting crocodile age, given a single measurement of head length. The von Bertalanffy was much better supported than the logistic growth model and predicted that dwarf crocodiles grow from 19.4 cm total length at birth to 32.9 cm in the first year and 45.3 cm by the end of their second year. Based on the minimum size of females observed with hatchlings, reproductive maturity was estimated to be at nine years. These size benchmarks are believed to represent thresholds for important demographic parameters; improved estimates of age, therefore, will increase the precision of population projection models. The modeling approach that we present can be applied to other species and offers significant advantages when multiple sources of data are available and traditional aging techniques are not practical. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Estimating age from recapture data: integrating incremental growth measures with ancillary data to infer age-at-length.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Mitchell J; Link, William A

    2011-10-01

    Estimating the age of individuals in wild populations can be of fundamental importance for answering ecological questions, modeling population demographics, and managing exploited or threatened species. Significant effort has been devoted to determining age through the use of growth annuli, secondary physical characteristics related to age, and growth models. Many species, however, either do not exhibit physical characteristics useful for independent age validation or are too rare to justify sacrificing a large number of individuals to establish the relationship between size and age. Length-at-age models are well represented in the fisheries and other wildlife management literature. Many of these models overlook variation in growth rates of individuals and consider growth parameters as population parameters. More recent models have taken advantage of hierarchical structuring of parameters and Bayesian inference methods to allow for variation among individuals as functions of environmental covariates or individual-specific random effects. Here, we describe hierarchical models in which growth curves vary as individual-specific stochastic processes, and we show how these models can be fit using capture-recapture data for animals of unknown age along with data for animals of known age. We combine these independent data sources in a Bayesian analysis, distinguishing natural variation (among and within individuals) from measurement error. We illustrate using data for African dwarf crocodiles, comparing von Bertalanffy and logistic growth models. The analysis provides the means of predicting crocodile age, given a single measurement of head length. The von Bertalanffy was much better supported than the logistic growth model and predicted that dwarf crocodiles grow from 19.4 cm total length at birth to 32.9 cm in the first year and 45.3 cm by the end of their second year. Based on the minimum size of females observed with hatchlings, reproductive maturity was estimated to be at nine years. These size benchmarks are believed to represent thresholds for important demographic parameters; improved estimates of age, therefore, will increase the precision of population projection models. The modeling approach that we present can be applied to other species and offers significant advantages when multiple sources of data are available and traditional aging techniques are not practical. PMID:22073638

  15. Reduction of Gun Erosion and Correlation of Gun Erosion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, Dave; Wercinski, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Gun barrel erosion is serious problem with two-stage light gas guns. Excessive barrel erosion can lead to poor or failed launches and frequent barrel changes, with the corresponding down time. Also, excessive barrel erosion can limit the maximum velocity obtainable by loading down the hydrogen working gas with eroded barrel material. Guided by a CFD code, the operating conditions of the Ames 0.5-inch gun were modified to reduce barrel erosion. The changes implemented included: (1) reduction in the piston mass, powder mass and hydrogen fill pressure; and (2) reduction in pump tube volume, while maintaining hydrogen mass. The latter change was found, in particular, to greatly reduce barrel erosion. For muzzle velocity ranges of 6.1 - 6.9 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 10. Even for the higher muzzle velocity range of 7.0 - 8.2 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 4. Gun erosion data from the Ames 0.5-inch, 1.0-inch, and 1.5-inch guns operated over a wide variety of launch conditions was examined and it was found that this data could be correlated using four different parameters: normalized powder charge energy, normalized hydrogen energy density, normalized pump tube volume and barrel diameter. The development of the correlation and the steps used to collapse the experimental data are presented. Over a certain parameter range in the correlation developed, the barrel erosion per shot is found to increase very rapidly. The correlation should prove useful in the selection of gun operating conditions and the design of new guns. Representative shapes of eroded gun barrels are also presented.

  16. Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis and its Applications to Nonlinear Measures of Association and Test of

    E-print Network

    Huang, Su-Yun

    Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis and its Applications to Nonlinear Measures of Association University draft, May 25, 2006 Abstract Measures of association between two sets of random variables have long been of interest to statisticians. The classical canonical correlation analysis can characterize

  17. Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis and its Applications to Nonlinear Measures of Association and Test of

    E-print Network

    Huang, Su-Yun

    Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis and its Applications to Nonlinear Measures of Association. The classical canonical correlation analysis can characterize, but also be limited to, linear association Measures of association between two sets of random variables have long been of interest to statisticians

  18. Optical Design of a Broadband Infrared Spectrometer for Bunch Length Measurement at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kiel; /SLAC

    2012-09-07

    The electron pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory occur on the order of tens of femtoseconds and cannot be directly measured by conventional means. The length of the pulses can instead be reconstructed by measuring the spectrum of optical transition radiation emitted by the electrons as they move toward a conducting foil. Because the emitted radiation occurs in the mid-infrared from 0.6 to 30 microns a novel optical layout is required. Using a helium-neon laser with wavelength 633 nm, a series of gold-coated off-axis parabolic mirrors were positioned to direct a beam through a zinc selenide prism and to a focus at a CCD camera for imaging. Constructing this layout revealed a number of novel techniques for reducing the aberrations introduced into the system by the off-axis parabolic mirrors. The beam had a recorded radius of less than a millimeter at its final focus on the CCD imager. This preliminary setup serves as a model for the spectrometer that will ultimately measure the LCLS electron pulse duration.

  19. Quantitative measurement of intracellular transport of nanocarriers by spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, S.; Pozzi, D.; Candeloro De Sanctis, S.; Digman, M. A.; Gratton, E.; Caracciolo, G.

    2013-03-01

    Spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) is a powerful technique for assessing the nature of particle motion in complex systems although it has been rarely used to investigate the intracellular dynamics of nanocarriers so far. Here we introduce a method for characterizing the mode of motion of nanocarriers and for quantifying their transport parameters on different length scales from single-cell to subcellular level. Using this strategy we were able to study the mechanisms responsible for the intracellular transport of DOTAP-DOPC/DNA (DOTAP: 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane; DOPC: dioleoylphosphocholine) and DC-Chol-DOPE/DNA (DC-Chol: 3?-[N-(N,N-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol; DOPE: dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine) lipoplexes in CHO-K1 (CHO: Chinese hamster ovary) live cells. Measurement of both diffusion coefficients and velocity vectors (magnitude and direction) averaged over regions of the cell revealed the presence of distinct modes of motion. Lipoplexes diffused slowly on the cell surface (diffusion coefficient: D ? 0.003 ?m2 s-1). In the cytosol, the lipoplexes’ motion was characterized by active transport with average velocity v ? 0.03 ?m2 s-1 and random motion. The method permitted us to generate an intracellular transport map showing several regions of concerted motion of lipoplexes.

  20. Plan View and Profile Relations: Measuring Correlation Between Channel Profile and Network Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelef, E.; Hilley, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    In this research, we explore the relationships between channel network attributes and the corresponding channel profile geometries using high-resolution digital topography and model-generated synthetic topographies. This combined analysis addresses one of the long-standing questions in geomorphology relating to the mechanistic significance of various plan-view channel network geometry measures. Statistically based numerical studies suggest that Hortonian measures of channel network architecture (e.g. bifurcation ratio, area ratio, and length ratio) describe virtually all possible network geometries, and so are not diagnostic when evaluating the origins of the geometry of a particular network. We further explore this hypothesis by examining the correlation between Hack exponent, the channel profile characteristics, and process changes (i.e debris flow vs. fluvial flows) within the landscape. Analysis of high resolution DEMs as well as modeled landscapes, suggests that the Hack exponent is likewise insensitive to changes in the channel profile concavity. In contrast, we find that changes in the concavity of channel profiles apparently impacts the spatial distribution of plan-view junction angles of joining stream segments throughout a catchment. In the context of previous work, this angle might be expected to be a function of the ratio between the slopes of the adjoined channels. Channel concavity determines downstream change in this ratio for channel segments throughout the basin, and so such a metric might be used to explicitly link profile channel geometries to plan-view network geometries. Because profile geometries may change with different advective mass transport processes, such a metric may provide a link between the processes that transport material across a landscape, the profile geometry of channels through which these flows traverse, and the overall drainage network geometry. Additional numerical and field data based analysis are required to further explore the sensitivity of the junction angle, as well as other measures, to process changes along the channel network.

  1. Rapid, Accurate, and Non-Invasive Measurement of Zebrafish Axial Length and Other Eye Dimensions Using SD-OCT Allows Longitudinal Analysis of Myopia and Emmetropization

    PubMed Central

    Collery, Ross F.; Veth, Kerry N.; Dubis, Adam M.; Carroll, Joseph; Link, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Refractive errors in vision can be caused by aberrant axial length of the eye, irregular corneal shape, or lens abnormalities. Causes of eye length overgrowth include multiple genetic loci, and visual parameters. We evaluate zebrafish as a potential animal model for studies of the genetic, cellular, and signaling basis of emmetropization and myopia. Axial length and other eye dimensions of zebrafish were measured using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We used ocular lens and body metrics to normalize and compare eye size and relative refractive error (difference between observed retinal radial length and controls) in wild-type and lrp2 zebrafish. Zebrafish were dark-reared to assess effects of visual deprivation on eye size. Two relative measurements, ocular axial length to body length and axial length to lens diameter, were found to accurately normalize comparisons of eye sizes between different sized fish (R2?=?0.9548, R2?=?0.9921). Ray-traced focal lengths of wild-type zebrafish lenses were equal to their retinal radii, while lrp2 eyes had longer retinal radii than focal lengths. Both genetic mutation (lrp2) and environmental manipulation (dark-rearing) caused elongated eye axes. lrp2 mutants had relative refractive errors of ?0.327 compared to wild-types, and dark-reared wild-type fish had relative refractive errors of ?0.132 compared to light-reared siblings. Therefore, zebrafish eye anatomy (axial length, lens radius, retinal radius) can be rapidly and accurately measured by SD-OCT, facilitating longitudinal studies of regulated eye growth and emmetropization. Specifically, genes homologous to human myopia candidates may be modified, inactivated or overexpressed in zebrafish, and myopia-sensitizing conditions used to probe gene-environment interactions. Our studies provide foundation for such investigations into genetic contributions that control eye size and impact refractive errors. PMID:25334040

  2. vol. 154, no. 4 the american naturalist october 1999 Patterns of Food Chain Length in Lakes: A Stable

    E-print Network

    Rasmussen, Joseph

    vol. 154, no. 4 the american naturalist october 1999 Patterns of Food Chain Length in Lakes to quantify trophic relationships and food chain length (measured as a continuous variable) in 14 Ontario was correlated with food chain length and explained 40% of the among-lake variation. Food chain length was most

  3. Neutron and gamma-ray cross-correlation measurements of plutonium oxide powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, S. D.; Flaska, M.; Pozzi, S. A.; Peerani, P.

    2009-06-01

    For the first time, measurements of the time-dependent cross-correlation distributions of plutonium oxide have been made separately for neutrons and gamma rays. Six EJ-309 liquid scintillation detectors with a digital, offline pulse shape discrimination and pulse timing method were used to measure five different samples of varying mass and burnup. The number of (neutron, neutron) correlations were selectively analyzed versus plutonium mass and a clear, increasing trend was observed. Additionally, the measurement scenarios were modeled using the MCNP-PoliMi code and good agreement was observed between the measured and simulated cross-correlation functions.

  4. White-light interferometers with polarizing optics for length measurements with an applicable zero-point detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, V.; Emam, S.; Manske, E.

    2015-08-01

    For absolute length and form measurements at a large working distance (>150?mm) two special interferometers, a tandem interferometer and a Michelson interferometer with achromatic polarizing optics are constructed. In our experiments, both consist of a combination of one low-coherence interferometer and one laser interferometer. For the low-coherence interferometer part, a simple white-light source with less than 100?µW optical power output is chosen. It bases upon a low-cost fiber-coupled near-infrared LED with a large spectral width (FWHM?>?68?nm at 825?nm). The use of achromatic polarizing optics such as broadband polarizing beamsplitters and achromatic quarter-wave plates in the low-coherence interferometer parts increases the contrast level of the white-light signal fringe pattern to nearly 100%. Furthermore, the fringe pattern in a polarized interferometer has no subsignatures and is unique. Hence, different algorithms are tested for signal processing and automated zero-point detection of the white-light signature. The software for an automated measurement is tested in a standard room without thermal control and without damped oscillation. Therefore, in experiments with the tandem interferometer, it was possible to measure the zero-point position of a white-light signature with a peak-to-peak difference of 154?nm under uncontrolled environmental conditions without thermal stabilization. The white-light Michelson interferometer with polarizing achromatic optics allows zero-point detections with a standard deviation (mean value) of less than 15?nm. The drift is proved through measurement results.

  5. Noninvasive Online Measurement of Genome Lengths of Mammalian Tissues in Bulk by 14 MeV Neutron Atometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglich, Bogdan; Radovic, Anna; Druey, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Genome length, L=, no. of DNA nucleotide base pairs in cell of bovine (b) and porcine (p) tissues, closest to human genome, were hitherto measured by genomic sequencing Lb=3, Lp=2.7 Giga base pairs [1,2] (Gbp) errors not given. - We report measurements of Lb/Lp and Lb, Lp without sequencing by atometry [3,4]. No. of O and C atoms, N, in nucleotide molecules, was obtained from prompt ? rate, G, emitted in inel. scatt. 14 MeV neutrons, with nuclei of C, O, in nucleotide molecule. Since G prop. N, Lb/Lp=Gb/Gp. p and b meat was irradiated for 30'. From msd G we obtained Lb /Lp=1.28±0.02 16% greater than [1,2]. We got absolute Lb=1.65/f, Lp=1.28/f Gbp, 0.3

  6. On using the levelling of the free surface of a Newtonian fluid to measure viscosity and Navier slip length

    PubMed Central

    Gilormini, P.; Teyssèdre, H.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the relaxation time involved in the levelling of a free surface of a Newtonian fluid laid on a substrate can give access to material parameters. It is shown here how most favourable pattern geometries of the free surface and film thicknesses can be defined for the measures of viscosity and Navier slip length at the fluid–solid interface, respectively. Moreover, we put special emphasis on the conditions required to avoid shear thinning by controlling the maximum shear rate. For initially sinusoidal patterns with infinitesimal amplitudes, an analytical solution including slip at the fluid–solid interface is used, and numerical simulations based on the natural element method allow one to discuss the effect of finite amplitudes. This leads to the definition of a relevance domain for the analytical solution that avoids the need for numerical simulations in practical applications. It is also shown how these results can be applied to crenelated profiles, where Fourier series expansion can be used, but with caution. PMID:24353474

  7. On using the levelling of the free surface of a Newtonian fluid to measure viscosity and Navier slip length.

    PubMed

    Gilormini, P; Teyssèdre, H

    2013-12-01

    Measuring the relaxation time involved in the levelling of a free surface of a Newtonian fluid laid on a substrate can give access to material parameters. It is shown here how most favourable pattern geometries of the free surface and film thicknesses can be defined for the measures of viscosity and Navier slip length at the fluid-solid interface, respectively. Moreover, we put special emphasis on the conditions required to avoid shear thinning by controlling the maximum shear rate. For initially sinusoidal patterns with infinitesimal amplitudes, an analytical solution including slip at the fluid-solid interface is used, and numerical simulations based on the natural element method allow one to discuss the effect of finite amplitudes. This leads to the definition of a relevance domain for the analytical solution that avoids the need for numerical simulations in practical applications. It is also shown how these results can be applied to crenelated profiles, where Fourier series expansion can be used, but with caution. PMID:24353474

  8. Expression of telomeres in astrocytoma WHO grade 2 to 4: TERRA level correlates with telomere length, telomerase activity, and advanced clinical grade.

    PubMed

    Sampl, Sandra; Pramhas, Sibylle; Stern, Christian; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine; Holzmann, Klaus

    2012-02-01

    Cancer cells bypass replicative senescence, the major barrier to tumor progression, by using telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs). Correlation between ALT and patient survival was demonstrated for high-grade astrocytomas. Transcription from subtelomeres produces telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a natural inhibitor of telomerase activity (TA). This led us to evaluate correlations of TERRA and TMM with tumor grade and outcome in astrocytoma patients. SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for quantitation of total and chromosome 2p and 18p specific TERRA levels were developed. Tumor samples from 46 patients with astrocytoma grade 2 to 4, tissue controls, and cell lines were assessed. TMMs were evaluated by measuring TA and by detecting long telomeres due to ALT. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grade 4, total TERRA levels were similar to cell lines but 14-, 31-, and 313-fold lower compared with grade 3, grade 2, and nonmalignant tissue, respectively. Total TERRA levels differed from chromosomal levels. Low 2p TERRA levels correlated with dense promoter methylation of subtelomeric CpG islands, indicating that TERRA expression in gliomas may be chromosome specific and epigenetically regulated. Total TERRA levels correlated with diagnosis, with low or absent TA and the presence of ALT, and were tentatively associated with favorable patient prognosis in our cohort (P = .06). TA and short telomeres identified a subset of GBM with a median survival of only 14.8 months. TERRA and TA may be prognostic in astrocytic tumors. PMID:22348177

  9. Expression of Telomeres in Astrocytoma WHO Grade 2 to 4: TERRA Level Correlates with Telomere Length, Telomerase Activity, and Advanced Clinical Grade12

    PubMed Central

    Sampl, Sandra; Pramhas, Sibylle; Stern, Christian; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine; Holzmann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells bypass replicative senescence, the major barrier to tumor progression, by using telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs). Correlation between ALT and patient survival was demonstrated for high-grade astrocytomas. Transcription from subtelomeres produces telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a natural inhibitor of telomerase activity (TA). This led us to evaluate correlations of TERRA and TMM with tumor grade and outcome in astrocytoma patients. SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for quantitation of total and chromosome 2p and 18p specific TERRA levels were developed. Tumor samples from 46 patients with astrocytoma grade 2 to 4, tissue controls, and cell lines were assessed. TMMs were evaluated by measuring TA and by detecting long telomeres due to ALT. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grade 4, total TERRA levels were similar to cell lines but 14-, 31-, and 313-fold lower compared with grade 3, grade 2, and nonmalignant tissue, respectively. Total TERRA levels differed from chromosomal levels. Low 2p TERRA levels correlated with dense promoter methylation of subtelomeric CpG islands, indicating that TERRA expression in gliomas may be chromosome specific and epigenetically regulated. Total TERRA levels correlated with diagnosis, with low or absent TA and the presence of ALT, and were tentatively associated with favorable patient prognosis in our cohort (P = .06). TA and short telomeres identified a subset of GBM with a median survival of only 14.8 months. TERRA and TA may be prognostic in astrocytic tumors. PMID:22348177

  10. Defect printability measurement on the KLA-351: correlation to defect sizing using the AVI metrology system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiekowsky, Peter; Selassie, Daniel

    1999-12-01

    The search for the 'holy grail' of a fast, reliable, inexpensive predictor of defect printability has reached a new level. Taking images from several inspection tools (KLA-351, KLA-353, and KLA Starlight) during defect review, the AVI Photomask Metrology System provides measurement repeatability better than 5 nm, and significantly better correlation to printability than Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) measurements. SEM measurements of printed defects are compared to various measurements of the defects on the mask. Analysis shows, as expected, that optical area measurements provide the best correlation to printability. Further, images from existing inspection tools are shown to be sufficient to produce these measurements using AVI's new 'Flux-area' technique.

  11. Photon-correlation measurements of atomic-cloud temperature using an optical nanofiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, J. A.; Solano, P.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.

    2015-07-01

    We develop a temperature measurement of an atomic cloud based on the temporal correlations of fluorescence photons evanescently coupled into an optical nanofiber. We measure the temporal width of the intensity-intensity correlation function due to atomic transit time and use it to determine the most probable atomic velocity, hence the temperature. This technique agrees well with standard time-of-flight temperature measurements. We confirm our results with trajectory simulations.

  12. Photon-correlation measurements of atomic-cloud temperature using an optical nanofiber

    E-print Network

    Grover, J A; Orozco, L A; Rolston, S L

    2015-01-01

    We develop a temperature measurement of an atomic cloud based on the temporal correlations of fluorescence photons evanescently coupled into an optical nanofiber. We measure the temporal width of the intensity-intensity correlation function due to atomic transit time and use it to determine the most probable atomic velocity, hence the temperature. This technique agrees well with standard time-of-flight temperature measurements. We confirm our results with trajectory simulations.

  13. Generic measure for the quantum correlation of the two-qubit systems: the average of the spin-correlation elements

    E-print Network

    Faisal A. A. El-Orany

    2012-04-02

    Based on the Pauli spin operators we develop the notion of the spin-correlation matrix for the two-qubit system. If this matrix is non-zero, the measure of the correlation between the qubits is the average of the non-zero elements. Trivially, for zero matrix the bipartite is uncorrelated. This criterion turns out to be a necessary and sufficient condition for the full correlation, where it includes information on both entanglement and correlation other than entanglement. Moreover, we discuss to what extent this criterion can give information on the entanglement of the system. The criterion is generic in the sense that it can be applied to mixed and pure systems. Also, it can be easily extended to treat the correlation of multipartite systems. We compare the results obtained from this criterion to those from concurrence for various examples and we gain agreement regarding entanglement. We believe that this criterion may have a wide range of potential applications in quantum information theory.

  14. Measurement of N-Type 6H SiC Minority-Carrier Diffusion Lengths by Electron Bombardment of Schottky Barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, S. M.; Tabib-Azar, M.; Balley, S.; Rybickid, G.; Neudeck, P.; Raffaelle, R.

    2004-01-01

    Minority-Carrier diffusion lengths of n-type 6H-SiC were measured using the electron-beam induced current (EBIC) technique. Experimental values of primary beam current, EBIC, and beam voltage were obtained for a variety of SIC samples. This data was used to calculate experimental diode efficiency vs. beam voltage curves. These curves were fit to theoretically calculated efficiency curves, and the diffusion length and metal layer thickness were extracted. The hole diffusion length in n-6H SiC ranged from 0.93 +/- 0.15 microns.

  15. A Binomial Test of Group Differences with Correlated Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Levin, Joel R.; Ferron, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous arguments for why educational researchers should not provide effect-size estimates in the face of statistically nonsignificant outcomes (Robinson & Levin, 1997), Onwuegbuzie and Levin (2005) proposed a 3-step statistical approach for assessing group differences when multiple outcome measures are individually analyzed within…

  16. Dimension of quantum phase space measured by photon correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuchs, Gerd; Glauber, Roy J.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2015-06-01

    We show that the different values 1, 2 and 3 of the normalized second-order correlation function {g}(2)(0) corresponding to a coherent state, a thermal state and a highly squeezed vacuum originate from the different dimensionality of these states in phase space. In particular, we derive an exact expression for {g}(2)(0) in terms of the ratio of the moments of the classical energy evaluated with the Wigner function of the quantum state of interest and corrections proportional to the reciprocal of powers of the average number of photons. In this way we establish a direct link between {g}(2)(0) and the shape of the state in phase space. Moreover, we illuminate this connection by demonstrating that in the semi-classical limit the familiar photon statistics of a thermal state arise from an area in phase space weighted by a two-dimensional Gaussian, whereas those of a highly squeezed state are governed by a line-integral of a one-dimensional Gaussian. We dedicate this article to Margarita and Vladimir Man’ko on the occasion of their birthdays. The topic of our contribution is deeply rooted in and motivated by their love for non-classical light, quantum mechanical phase space distribution functions and orthogonal polynomials. Indeed, through their articles, talks and most importantly by many stimulating discussions and intensive collaborations with us they have contributed much to our understanding of physics. Happy birthday to you both!

  17. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4) Consistency of the voice-How low is the variability in the energy patterns of the voice.

  18. Measurement of fast parton interactions with hot dense nuclear matter via two-particle correlations at PHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCumber, Michael Patrick

    Deconfinement of color charge in nuclear matter at high energy density is a topic of considerable theoretical interest and experimental effort. Predicted in QCD, a new phase of deconfined matter, the quark gluon plasma, is thought to describe a transitional period of the early universe following the Big Bang. The extremely high energy density medium created in relativistic collisions of large nuclei at RHIC afford an opportunity to study the properties of quark gluon plasma in a laboratory setting. Fast partons (quarks and gluons) transiting the produced medium have been observed to experience a large energy loss. Correlations between pairs of final state particles at high transverse momenta (pT ? 4 GeV/c) map the hadron jets resulting from these partons and show that partons crossing the medium are nearly fully absorbed. The mechanism of energy loss on length scales comparable to the nucleus is not fully understood, so more differential measurements are needed to constrain theoretical models. Quenching as a function of the path length through the medium adds a new dimension of experimental discrimination on energy loss and initial state geometry. The resulting away-side suppression patterns indicate that surviving fast partons cross the nuclear overlap region with little energy loss. The transiting partons deposit energy locally in the medium. The resulting medium excitations may lead to measurable signals related to the medium properties. Pair correlations at low pT ( ? 4 GeV/c) can reflect the medium response. Comparison of correlations in heavy ion collisions with baseline measurements in proton-proton collisions show modifications to the correlation shape and yields. Two new structures are found, both extended in rapidity, one centered at small azimuthal opening angle Delta? (known as the "ridge") and the other occurring at Delta? = pi +/- 1.1 rad ("shoulder"). Comparisons between the two raise the possibility that both phenomena may result from the same mechanism. The medium response correlations are consistent with collective excitation theory, but pose challenges to Cherenkov gluon radiation and deflected jet models.

  19. Measurement of the Vaporization Enthalpy of Complex Mixtures by Correlation-Gas Chromatography. The

    E-print Network

    Chickos, James S.

    Measurement of the Vaporization Enthalpy of Complex Mixtures by Correlation-Gas Chromatography April 21, 2005. Revised Manuscript Received June 2, 2005 The use of correlation-gas chromatography using gas chromatography. Some variance in composition with the literature values has been observed

  20. Correlation Attenuation Due to Measurement Error: A New Approach Using the Bootstrap Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Veprinsky, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Issues with correlation attenuation due to measurement error are well documented. More than a century ago, Spearman proposed a correction for attenuation. However, this correction has seen very little use since it can potentially inflate the true correlation beyond one. In addition, very little confidence interval (CI) research has been done for…

  1. Correlation between an in vitro and an in vivo measure of dioxin sensitivity in birds

    E-print Network

    Correlation between an in vitro and an in vivo measure of dioxin sensitivity in birds Jessica A to dioxin-like compounds in birds; induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-de- ethylase (EROD) activity in cultured,3,7,8-tetrachlo- rodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and 6 polychlorinated biphe- nyls (PCBs) were strongly correlated

  2. Electric field gradient in bixbyite rare-earth oxides R2O3 (R=Tl, Eu, Lu, Tm) measured by perturbed angular correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonari, A. W.; Mestnik-Filho, J.; Attili, R. N.; Moralles, M.; Saxena, R. N.

    1999-09-01

    The electric field gradient (EFG) at 111Cd nuclei dilutely substituting the cation site in bixbyite rare-earth oxides Tl2O3, Eu2O3, Lu2O3 and Tm2O3 has been measured using perturbed angular correlation technique. The 111In(EC) 111Cd probe nuclei were introduced into the samples by thermal diffusion. The experimental EFG values are compared with those calculated using the point charge model (PCM). The results are discussed in terms of a correlation between the electric field gradient and cation oxygen bond length in metal oxides.

  3. Understanding the amplitudes of noise correlation measurements Victor C. Tsai1

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Victor C.

    of ambient seismic noise is known to result in time series from which stationstation traveltime measurements [2004] first showed that tra- veltime measurements obtained through cross correlation of ambient seismic noise resemble those from more traditional sourcestation measurements. Since then, the field of ambient

  4. New method of estimating wavelength-dependent optical path length ratios for oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin measurement using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Umeyama, Shinji; Yamada, Toru

    2009-01-01

    In near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin are calculated using an attenuation change of the measurement light and by solving a linear equation based on the modified Lambert-Beer law. While solving this equation, we need to know the wavelength-dependent mean optical path lengths of the measurement lights. However, it is very difficult to know these values by a continuous-wave-type (CW-type) system. We propose a new method of estimating wavelength-dependent optical path length ratios of the measurement lights based on the data obtained by a triple wavelength CW-type NIRS instrument. The proposed method does not give a path length itself, but it gives a path length ratio. Thus, it is possible to obtain the accurate hemoglobin concentration changes without cross talk, although the method cannot contribute to the quantification of the absolute magnitude of hemoglobin changes. The method is based on the principle that two possible estimations of hemoglobin concentration changes calculated using a triple-wavelength measurement system should be identical. The method was applied to the experimental data of human subjects' foreheads. The estimated path length ratios were very similar to literature values obtained by using picosecond laser pulses and a streak camera detector [M. Essenpreis et al., Appl. Opt. 32(4), 418-425 (1993)]. PMID:19895139

  5. New method of estimating wavelength-dependent optical path length ratios for oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin measurement using near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeyama, Shinji; Yamada, Toru

    2009-09-01

    In near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin are calculated using an attenuation change of the measurement light and by solving a linear equation based on the modified Lambert-Beer law. While solving this equation, we need to know the wavelength-dependent mean optical path lengths of the measurement lights. However, it is very difficult to know these values by a continuous-wave-type (CW-type) system. We propose a new method of estimating wavelength-dependent optical path length ratios of the measurement lights based on the data obtained by a triple wavelength CW-type NIRS instrument. The proposed method does not give a path length itself, but it gives a path length ratio. Thus, it is possible to obtain the accurate hemoglobin concentration changes without cross talk, although the method cannot contribute to the quantification of the absolute magnitude of hemoglobin changes. The method is based on the principle that two possible estimations of hemoglobin concentration changes calculated using a triple-wavelength measurement system should be identical. The method was applied to the experimental data of human subjects' foreheads. The estimated path length ratios were very similar to literature values obtained by using picosecond laser pulses and a streak camera detector [M. Essenpreis et al., Appl. Opt. 32(4), 418-425 (1993)].

  6. Measurement of dynamic critical exponents in strongly correlated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Woo; Lee, Yong Chul; Park, Tae Young

    2010-03-01

    We propose a method of obtaining dynamic critical exponents by measuring the gap between the ground-state energy and the first-excited state energy. The finite-size scaling of the gap produces the dynamic critical exponent directly. For one-dimensional hardcore boson Hubbard model at half-filling, we applied our method to obtain z=0.975 ±0.002. For one-dimensional spinless fermion model, we obtained z=0.95 ±0.02. The ground-state energy is obtained by modified Lanczos method and the excited spectrum is obtained by Grosso's method. We expect our method can be very useful in obtaining dynamic critical exponent without using two-parameter finite-size scaling of order parameters such as superfluid density. Application to other models is also presented.

  7. Surface roughness measurement on a wing aircraft by speckle correlation.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Félix; Barrientos, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of the damage of aeronautical materials is important because it may change the microscopic surface structure profiles. The modification of geometrical surface properties can cause small instabilities and then a displacement of the boundary layer. One of the irregularities we can often find is surface roughness. Due to an increase of roughness and other effects, there may be extra momentum losses in the boundary layer and a modification in the parasite drag. In this paper we present a speckle method for measuring the surface roughness on an actual unmanned aircraft wing. The results show an inhomogeneous roughness distribution on the wing, as expected according to the anisotropic influence of the winds over the entire wing geometry. A calculation of the uncertainty of the technique is given. PMID:24013488

  8. Field methods to measure surface displacement and strain with the Video Image Correlation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Horton, Charles M.; Mcneill, Stephen R.; Lansing, Matthew D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop methods and application procedures to measure displacement and strain fields during the structural testing of aerospace components using paint speckle in conjunction with the Video Image Correlation (VIC) system.

  9. The application of vision measurement in aerodynamic testing combined with speckle correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ding; Zhang, Jin-guo; Zhang, Ye-hua; Wang, Wei; Ma, Hong-qiang; Zhang, Shang-bin; Feng, Jia-bo

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a combination of visual measurement technique of speckle correlation method in aerodynamic test application. Modal analysis of aerodynamic testing and deformation measurement is often very important but very difficult to achieve, fortunately, the development of modern optical measurement techniques made it possible. First, we conduct the modal analysis on an airfoil model and its deformation analysis under certain conditions. Then, the above technique was used to verify it. The results of the aerodynamic test and finite element analysis agree well, The novel of the new method is combining the speckle correlation and the model deformation in the aerodynamic testing. This method using the speckle correlation to process the data, combining sub-pixel correlation can make the results achieve very high precision and realized the real planar measuring. This non-contact full-field optical metrology shows a lot of abstracting potentials in aerodynamic test applications.

  10. Variation and pearson correlation coefficients of warner-bratzler shear force measurements within broiler breast fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of texture properties related to tenderness at different locations within deboned broiler breast fillets have been used to validate techniques for texture analysis and establish correlations between different texture evaluation methods. However, it has been demonstrated that meat text...

  11. Identification of Noise Sources in High Speed Jets via Correlation Measurements: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James (Technical Monitor); Panda, Jayanta

    2005-01-01

    Significant advancement has been made in the last few years to identify noise sources in high speed jets via direct correlation measurements. In this technique turbulent fluctuations in the flow are correlated with far field acoustics signatures. In the 1970 s there was a surge of work using mostly intrusive probes, and a few using Laser Doppler Velocimetry, to measure turbulent fluctuations. The later experiments established "shear noise" as the primary source for the shallow angle noise. Various interpretations and criticisms from this time are described in the review. Recent progress in the molecular Rayleigh scattering based technique has provided a completely non-intrusive means of measuring density and velocity fluctuations. This has brought a renewed interest on correlation measurements. We have performed five different sets of experiments in single stream jets of different Mach number, temperature ratio and nozzle configurations. The present paper tries to summarize the correlation data from these works.

  12. 3D topography measurements on correlation cells—a new approach to forensic ballistics identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, John; Chu, Wei; Tong, Mingsi; Soons, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Based on three-dimensional (3D) topography measurements on correlation cells, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed the ‘NIST Ballistics Identification System (NBIS)’ aimed at accurate ballistics identifications and fast ballistics evidence searches. The 3D topographies are divided into arrays of correlation cells to identify ‘valid correlation areas’ and eliminate ‘invalid correlation areas’ from the matching and identification procedure. A ‘congruent matching cells’ (CMC)’ method using three types of identification parameters of the paired correlation cells (cross correlation function maximum CCFmax, spatial registration position in x-y and registration angle ?) is used for high accuracy ballistics identifications. ‘Synchronous processing’ is proposed for correlating multiple cell pairs at the same time to increase the correlation speed. The proposed NBIS can be used for correlations of both geometrical topographies and optical intensity images. All the correlation parameters and algorithms are in the public domain and subject to open tests. An error rate reporting procedure has been developed that can greatly add to the scientific support for the firearm and toolmark identification specialty, and give confidence to the trier of fact in court proceedings. The NBIS is engineered to employ transparent identification parameters and criteria, statistical models and correlation algorithms. In this way, interoperability between different ballistics identification systems can be more easily achieved. This interoperability will make the NBIS suitable for ballistics identifications and evidence searches with large national databases, such as the National Integrated Ballistic Information Network in the United States.

  13. Measurement of two-dimensional fluid flow by digital correlation of scattered light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthys, Donald R.; Gilbert, John A.; Wang, Jidong

    1992-01-01

    Digital correlation is a pattern matching procedure. This procedure has recently been used in two-dimensional fluid flow measurements. Two images of a seeded fluid are taken and the intensity distribution of a small window in the first image is matched in the second image using a statistical correlation method. A series of structure functions have been implemented to improve the accuracy and reliability of the correlation method and new algorithms have been developed to reduce the time required for the correlation computations.

  14. Use of Electron Correlation to Make Attosecond Measurements without Attosecond Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnova, Olga; Ivanov, Misha

    2005-06-03

    We describe how correlations between electrons can be used to trace the dynamics of correlated two-electron ionization with attosecond precision, without using attosecond pulses. The approach is illustrated using the example of Auger or Coster-Kronig decay triggered by photoionization with an extreme ultraviolet pulse. It requires correlated measurements of angle-resolved energy spectra of both the photo- and Auger electrons in the presence of a laser pulse. To reconstruct the dynamics, we use not only classical time and energy correlation, but also entanglement between the two electrons.

  15. Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengh are both good predictors of post-inflatable prosthesis penile length

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, EC; Maganty, A; Ramasamy, R; Eid, JF

    2015-01-01

    Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of refractory erectile dysfunction; however, current literature to aid surgeons on how best to counsel patients on their postoperative inflated penile length is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative parameters that could better predict postoperative penile length following insertion of an IPP. Twenty men were enrolled in a prospective study examining penile lengths before and after IPP surgery. Patients with Peyronie’s disease were excluded from this analysis. Baseline preoperative characteristics, including body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores and/or prior radical prostatectomy were recorded. All patients underwent implantation with a three-piece inflatable Coloplast penile prosthesis. We compared stretched penile length to pharmacologically induced erect lengths. Postoperatively, we measured inflated penile lengths at 6 weeks and assessed patients’ perception of penile size at 12 weeks. The median (± interquartile range) stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length was 15 (± 3) and 14.25 (± 2) cm, respectively (P = 0.5). Median post-prosthesis penile length (13.5 ± 2.13 cm) was smaller than preoperative pharmacologically induced length (P = 0.02) and preoperative stretched penile length (P = 0.01). The majority of patients (70%) had a decrease in penile length (median loss 0.5 ± 1.5 cm); however, this loss was perceptible by 43% of men. Stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length were equally good predictors of postoperative inflated length (Spearman’s correlation 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengths are equal predictors of post-prosthesis penile length. The majority of men will experience some decrease in penile length following prosthesis implantation; however <50% report a subjective loss of penile length. PMID:24430278

  16. Anthropometric measurements of the arm span and their correlation with the stature of bangladeshi adult muslim females.

    PubMed

    Laila, S Z; Begum, J A; Ferdousi, R; Parveen, S; Husain, M S; Holy, S Z; Islam, M S

    2010-10-01

    Anthropometry is the science that deals with the measurement of size, weight and proportion of the human body. Stature is natural heights of a person in an upright position. This can be estimated from arm span length. In the last 50 years of the 20th century various mass disasters such as different powerful storm, flood, plane crash, train accident was increased. Very recently in Chittagong and southern Bangladesh many people were killed through land slides and Seder. As so many disasters were occurring it is possible to identify a missing person if a part of his or her body is available. The arm span lengths can be used as a basis for estimating age-related loss in stature and as an alternative measure to stature. The study was done for the estimation of stature from the arm span on one hundred and fifty Bangladeshi adult Muslim females. Subject was collected from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka and some urban region of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The present study showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation between the stature and the arm span. PMID:20956900

  17. Quantum Fisher information as the measure of Gaussian quantum correlation: Role in quantum metrology

    E-print Network

    Manabendra N. Bera

    2014-06-19

    We have introduced a measure of Gaussian quantum correlations based on quantum Fisher information. For bipartite Gaussian states the minimum quantum Fisher information due to local unitary evolution on one of the parties reliably quantifies quantum correlation. In quantum metrology the proposed measure becomes the tool to investigate the role of quantum orrelation in setting metrological precision. In particular, a deeper insights can be gained on how quantum correlations are instrumental to enhance metrological precision. Our analysis demonstrates that not only entanglement but also quantum correlation plays an important role to enhance metrological precision. Clearly unraveling the underlaying mechanism we show that quantum correlations, even in the absence of entanglement, can be exploited as the resource to beat standard quantum limit and attain Heisenberg limit in quantum metrology.

  18. Particle image velocimetry correlation signal-to-noise ratio metrics and measurement uncertainty quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhenyu; Charonko, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2014-11-01

    In particle image velocimetry (PIV) the measurement signal is contained in the recorded intensity of the particle image pattern superimposed on a variety of noise sources. The signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) strength governs the resulting PIV cross correlation and ultimately the accuracy and uncertainty of the resulting PIV measurement. Hence we posit that correlation SNR metrics calculated from the correlation plane can be used to quantify the quality of the correlation and the resulting uncertainty of an individual measurement. In this paper we extend the original work by Charonko and Vlachos and present a framework for evaluating the correlation SNR using a set of different metrics, which in turn are used to develop models for uncertainty estimation. Several corrections have been applied in this work. The SNR metrics and corresponding models presented herein are expanded to be applicable to both standard and filtered correlations by applying a subtraction of the minimum correlation value to remove the effect of the background image noise. In addition, the notion of a ‘valid’ measurement is redefined with respect to the correlation peak width in order to be consistent with uncertainty quantification principles and distinct from an ‘outlier’ measurement. Finally the type and significance of the error distribution function is investigated. These advancements lead to more robust and reliable uncertainty estimation models compared with the original work by Charonko and Vlachos. The models are tested against both synthetic benchmark data as well as experimental measurements. In this work, {{U}68.5} uncertainties are estimated at the 68.5% confidence level while {{U}95} uncertainties are estimated at 95% confidence level. For all cases the resulting calculated coverage factors approximate the expected theoretical confidence intervals, thus demonstrating the applicability of these new models for estimation of uncertainty for individual PIV measurements.

  19. Measures of sexual partnerships: lengths, gaps, overlaps and sexually transmitted infection Betsy Foxman, PhD1

    E-print Network

    Newman, Mark

    , particularly those with the potential to mix with infected individuals. Key Words: sex behavior, concurrency, greater numbers of sex partners and higher rates of partnership change imply shorter gap lengths

  20. Information and treatment of unknown correlations in the combination of measurements using the BLUE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valassi, Andrea; Chierici, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    We discuss the effect of large positive correlations in the combinations of several measurements of a single physical quantity using the Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE) method. We suggest a new approach for comparing the relative weights of the different measurements in their contributions to the combined knowledge about the unknown parameter, using the well-established concept of Fisher information. We argue, in particular, that one contribution to information comes from the collective interplay of the measurements through their correlations and that this contribution cannot be attributed to any of the individual measurements alone. We show that negative coefficients in the BLUE weighted average invariably indicate the presence of a regime of high correlations, where the effect of further increasing some of these correlations is that of reducing the error on the combined estimate. In these regimes, we stress that assuming fully correlated systematic uncertainties is not a truly conservative choice, and that the correlations provided as input to BLUE combinations need to be assessed with extreme care instead. In situations where the precise evaluation of these correlations is impractical, or even impossible, we provide tools to help experimental physicists perform more conservative combinations.

  1. Comparison of spring measures of length, weight, and condition factor for predicting metamorphosis in two populations of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henson, M.P.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Adams, J.V.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to predict when sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) will metamorphose from the larval phase to the parasitic phase is essential to the operation of the sea lamprey control program. During the spring of 1994, two populations of sea lamprey larvae from two rivers were captured, measured, weighed, implanted with coded wire tags, and returned to the same sites in the streams from which they were taken. Sea lampreys were recovered in the fall, after metamorphosis would have occurred, and checked for the presence of a tag. When the spring data were compared to the fall data it was found that the minimum requirements (length ??? 120 mm, weight ??? 3 g, and condition factor ??? 1.50) suggested for metamorphosis did define a pool of larvae capable of metamorphosing. However, logistic regressions that relate the probability of metamorphosis to size are necessary to predict metamorphosis in a population. The data indicated, based on cross-validation, that weight measurements alone predicted metamorphosis with greater precision than length or condition factor in both the Marengo and Amnicon rivers. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion, weight alone was a better predictor in the Amnicon River, but length and condition factor combined predicted metamorphosis better in the Marengo River. There would be no additional cost if weight alone were used instead of length. However, if length and weight were measured the gain in predictive power would not be enough to justify the additional cost.

  2. Comparison of spring measures of length, weight, and condition factor for predicting metamorphosis in two populations of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henson, Mary P.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Adams, Jean V.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to predict when sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) will metamorphose from the larval phase to the parasitic phase is essential to the operation of the sea lamprey control program. During the spring of 1994, two populations of sea lamprey larvae from two rivers were captured, measured, weighed, implanted with coded wire tags, and returned to the same sites in the streams from which they were taken. Sea lampreys were recovered in the fall, after metamorphosis would have occurred, and checked for the presence of a tag. When the spring data were compared to the fall data it was found that the minimum requirements (length a?Y 120 mm, weight a?Y 3 g, and condition factor a?Y 1.50) suggested for metamorphosis did define a pool of larvae capable of metamorphosing. However, logistic regressions that relate the probability of metamorphosis to size are necessary to predict metamorphosis in a population. The data indicated, based on cross-validation, that weight measurements alone predicted metamorphosis with greater precision than length or condition factor in both the Marengo and Amnicon rivers. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion, weight alone was a better predictor in the Amnicon River, but length and condition factor combined predicted metamorphosis better in the Marengo River. There would be no additional cost if weight alone were used instead of length. However, if length and weight were measured the gain in predictive power would not be enough to justify the additional cost.

  3. Measurement of Interfacial Area per Volume on Spatially Correlated and Uncorrelated Micro-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, J.; Giordano, N.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2002-12-01

    Recent theoretical developments suggest that interfacial area per volume (IAV) plays an important role in scaling theories for the flow of multiple fluid phases in a porous medium. Many investigations have shown that the values of capillary pressure (Pcap) and saturation (S) do not uniquely specify the state of the system. A single value of relative volume saturation can correspond to infinitely different distributions of two phases within the volume. IAV provides a natural yard-stick for defining the role of scale in multiphase fluid properties. The dimensional units of interfacial area per volume is a spatial frequency (inverse length) that breaks scale invariance. In this study, we investigate whether or not IAV provides a state-function-like description of the flow properties, and if so, what does this function look like. Measurements of interfacial area per volume as a function of capillary pressure and saturation were made on micro-models of pore structures. Photo-projection lithography was used to make transparent micro-models that were 600 x 600 microns with an aperture of 1.08 microns. Two phase flow measurements were performed on the micro-models using nitrogen gas and decane for a series of drainage and imbibition cycles. The initially decane-saturated micro-models were invaded with nitrogen by the application of pressure in increments. At each pressure increment, the system was allowed to equilibrate, and the saturation and distribution of each phase was digitally imaged and analyzed. We observed that the Pcap - S - IAV surface appears to be a smooth, single valued surface. Several measurements were made for the same, or nearly the same, values of Pcap and S, and it was observed that the geometrical arrangement of the two phases was visually quite different. However, the value of the IAV in such cases was the same, to within a typical 5% experimental error in analyzing the digital photo-micrographs. We also observed that the magnitude of IAV was significantly different between the two types of models. Correlated micro-models exhibited values of IAV that were smaller by about a factor of 2, than that found for the uncorrelated micro-model. Acknowledgments: DOE-FE contract DE-AC26-99BC15207. LJPN wishes to acknowledge Purdue University Faculty Scholar.

  4. Historical Differences in School Term Length and Measured Blood Pressure: Contributions to Persistent Racial Disparities among US-Born Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sze Yan; Manly, Jennifer J.; Capistrant, Benjamin D.; Glymour, M. Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Legally mandated segregation policies dictated significant differences in the educational experiences of black and white Americans through the first half of the 20th century, with markedly lower quality in schools attended by black children. We determined whether school term length, a common marker of school quality, was associated with blood pressure and hypertension among a cohort of older Americans who attended school during the de jure segregation era. Methods National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I and II data were linked to state level historical information on school term length. We used race and gender-stratified linear regression models adjusted for age, state and year of birth to estimate effects of term length on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and hypertension for US-born adults. We also tested whether correcting years of schooling for term length differences attenuated estimated racial disparities. Results Among black women, 10% longer school term was associated with lower SBP, DBP and hypertension prevalence (2.1 mmHg, 1.0 mmHg, and 5.0 percentage points respectively). Associations for whites and for black men were not statistically significant. Adjustment for education incorporating corrections for differences in school term length slightly attenuated estimated racial disparities. Conclusions Longer school term length predicted better BP outcomes among black women, but not black men or whites. PMID:26076495

  5. Experimental evaluation of non-classical correlations between measurement outcomes and target observable in a quantum measurement

    E-print Network

    Masataka Iinuma; Yutaro Suzuki; Taiki Nii; Ryuji Kinoshita; Holger F. Hofmann

    2015-10-15

    In general, it is difficult to evaluate measurement errors when the initial and final conditions of the measurement make it impossible to identify the correct value of the target observable. Ozawa proposed a solution based on the operator algebra of observables which has recently been used in experiments investigating the error-disturbance trade-off of quantum measurements. Importantly, this solution makes surprisingly detailed statements about the relations between measurement outcomes and the unknown target observable. In the present paper, we investigate this relation by performing a sequence of two measurements on the polarization of a photon, so that the first measurement commutes with the target observable and the second measurement is sensitive to a complementary observable. While the initial measurement can be evaluated using classical statistics, the second measurement introduces the effects of quantum correlations between the non-commuting physical properties. By varying the resolution of the initial measurement, we can change the relative contribution of the non-classical correlations and identify their role in the evaluation of the quantum measurement. It is shown that the most striking deviation from classical expectations is obtained at the transition between weak and strong measurements, where the competition between different statistical effects results in measurement values well outside the range of possible eigenvalues.

  6. Using RFID and accelerometer-embedded tracers to measure probabilities of bed load transport, step lengths, and rest times in a mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinde, Lindsay; Johnson, Joel P. L.

    2015-09-01

    We present new measurements of bed load tracer transport in a mountain stream over several snowmelt seasons. Cumulative displacements were measured using passive tracers, which consisted of gravel and cobbles embedded with radio frequency identification tags. The timing of bed load motion during 11 transporting events was quantified with active tracers, i.e., accelerometer-embedded cobbles. Probabilities of cobble transport increased with discharge above a threshold, and exhibited slight to moderate hysteresis during snowmelt hydrographs. Dividing cumulative displacements by the number of movements recorded by each active tracer constrained average step lengths. Average step lengths increased with discharge, and distributions of average step lengths and cumulative displacements were thin tailed. Distributions of rest times followed heavy-tailed power law scaling. Rest time scaling varied somewhat with discharge and with the degree to which tracers were incorporated into the streambed. The combination of thin-tailed displacement distributions and heavy-tailed rest time distributions predict superdiffusive dispersion.

  7. Leg Length Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Colin R.

    1983-01-01

    Leg length inequality, a common abnormality, can cause musculoskeletal pain, scoliosis, and osteoarthritis of the hip. Seven percent of the asymptomatic population has a leg length inequality greater than 12 mm; the incidence is considerably higher (13%-22%) in individuals complaining of low back pain. Correction can usually be accomplished by shoe modification, and can result in dramatic relief of pain. Leg length inequality of more than half an inch is considered clinically significant. Leg length measurement should be routine in all patients complaining of low back pain, hip pain, and atypical flank and lower quadrant pain. Correction might prove very cost-effective. PMID:21283327

  8. Correlation of gestational age by sonographic measurement of fetal parameters in women in eastern Nepal with existing standard normograms.

    PubMed

    Karki, Dan Bahadur; Sharma, Umesh; Rauniyar, Raj Kumar

    2006-09-01

    This is the prospective study carried out to correlate gestational age by sonographic measurements of fetal parameters by normograms of Frank P Hadlock with the gestational age by Last Menstrual Period (LMP) (considered our standard) in various trimesters of normal pregnant women of eastern Nepal. Seventy normal pregnant women with regular menstrual cycles of eastern Nepal were evaluated in this study. Gestational age was calculated by Rempen (in case of Mean Sac Diameter) and Hadlock (in case of Biparietal Diameter, Head circumference, Femoral Length and Abdominal circumference) normograms. Calculations of gestational age was also done by LMP at the same time. Correlation of gestational age by Rempen and Hadlock with average of different fetal parameters in different trimesters was done with gestational age by LMP applying paired t test. On applying paired t test between gestational age by Mean Sac Diameter and Crown-Rump Length in the first trimesters, mean difference was only -3.58 days (significance < 0.01). It showed statistically significant difference though difference is little. Paired t test application in second trimester showed significant difference (-5.06 days) with gestational age by LMP at < 001 significance level. In 3rd trimesters, paired t test showed significant difference with gestational age by LMP with mean of difference -7.86 days. Significant difference between average gestational age by Hadlock and gestational age by LMP in 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy indicates that we should stantardise our measurements of different fetal parameters for estimation of gestational age. PMID:17203824

  9. Educational attainment but not measures of current socioeconomic circumstances are associated with leukocyte telomere length in healthy older men and women.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Hamer, Mark; Butcher, Lee; Lin, Jue; Brydon, Lena; Kivimäki, Mika; Marmot, Michael; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Erusalimsky, Jorge D

    2011-10-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) may be associated with accelerated biological aging, but findings relating SES with telomere length have been inconsistent. We tested the hypotheses that shorter telomere length and telomerase activity would be related more robustly to education, an early life indicator of socioeconomic position, than to current indicators of socioeconomic circumstances. Healthy men and women aged 53-76 years from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort provided blood samples from which telomere length was assessed in 448 and telomerase activity in 416. Educational attainment was classified into four levels, while household income and grade of employment were measured as indicators of current socioeconomic circumstances. Age, gender, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, body mass index and physical activity were included as covariates. We found that lower educational attainment was associated with shorter telomere length after controlling statistically for biological and behavioral covariates. Neither household income nor employment grade was related to telomere length. The association between telomere length and education remained significant after adjusting for current socioeconomic circumstances. In men, highest levels of telomerase activity were found in the lowest education group. We conclude that low SES defined in terms of education but not current socioeconomic circumstances is associated with shortened telomeres. Low educational attainment may be an indicator of long-term SES trajectories, and be associated with accumulated allostatic load resulting in telomere shortening. Education may also promote problem-solving skills leading to reduced biological stress responsivity, with favorable consequences for biological aging. PMID:21536122

  10. Correlations between alterations in length-dependent Ca2+ activation of cardiac myofilaments and the end-systolic pressure-volume relation.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Grzegorz; Peña, James R; Urboniene, Dalia; Geenen, David L; Solaro, R John; Wolska, Beata M

    2007-01-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that alterations in length dependent activation (LDA) of cardiac myofilaments represent an important regulatory mechanism affecting the Frank-Starling mechanism as determined by the slope (E(es)) of the relation between left ventricular (LV) volume and end-systolic pressure. We employed a transgenic (TG) mouse model in which the cardiac isoform of TnI (cTnI) has been completely replaced with slow skeletal TnI (ssTnI), the embryonic/neonatal isoform in the heart. Compared to non-transgenic (NTG) controls, myofilaments from TG-ssTnI hearts demonstrate an increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity and a substantially blunted LDA that is unaffected by PKA-dependent phosphorylation. We measured in situ LV pressure and volume relations during basal conditions and isoproterenol (ISO) stimulation. In the basal state in TG-ssTnI hearts there was significant increase in end-systolic pressure and slight decrease in heart rate. ISO stimulation resulted in a significant increase in heart rate, ejection fraction, maximum dP/dt, preload-recruitable stroke work, maximum dP/dt versus end diastolic volume and cardiac output in both groups. During basal conditions there was no difference in the E(es) relation between NTG and TG-ssTnI groups. However, during ISO stimulation the E(es) relation was significantly different between NTG and TG-ssTnI groups. Our study provides the first direct evidence that enhancement in differences in LDA between cardiac myofilaments from NTG and TG-ssTnI hearts induced by post-translational modifications of sarcomeric proteins are reflected in the in situ beating heart by a different change in E(es). Thus, changes in LDA should be considered in interpreting results from in situ experiments on inotropic effects associated with physiological and patho-physiological states of the heart. PMID:18365757

  11. Cross-correlation measurements with the EJ-299-33 plastic scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Mark M.; Whaley, Jeff; Dolan, Jennifer L.; Polack, John K.; Flaska, Marek; Clarke, Shaun D.; Tomanin, Alice; Peerani, Paolo; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2015-06-01

    New organic-plastic scintillation compositions have demonstrated pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) of neutrons and gamma rays. We present cross-correlation measurements of 252Cf and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) with the EJ-299-33 plastic scintillator. For comparison, equivalent measurements were performed with an EJ-309 liquid scintillator. Offline, digital PSD was applied to each detector. These measurements show that EJ-299-33 sacrifices a factor of 5 in neutron-neutron efficiency relative to EJ-309, but could still utilize the difference in neutron-neutron efficiency and neutron single-to-double ratio to distinguish 252Cf from MOX. These measurements were modeled with MCNPX-PoliMi, and MPPost was used to convert the detailed collision history into simulated cross-correlation distributions. MCNPX-PoliMi predicted the measured 252Cf cross-correlation distribution for EJ-309 to within 10%. Greater photon uncertainty in the MOX sample led to larger discrepancy in the simulated MOX cross-correlation distribution. The modeled EJ-299-33 plastic also gives reasonable agreement with measured cross-correlation distributions, although the MCNPX-PoliMi model appears to under-predict the neutron detection efficiency.

  12. Correlation of seismotectonic variables and GPS strain measurements in western Turkey

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Thomas H.

    Correlation of seismotectonic variables and GPS strain measurements in western Turkey Ali Osman O Mediterranean and western Turkey area. This analysis was conducted in three tectonic subdivisions corresponding measurements in western Turkey, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11306, doi:10.1029/2004JB003101. 1. Introduction [2

  13. Correlation Between Opacity and Surface Water Vapor Pressure Measurements at Rio Frio

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    Correlation Between Opacity and Surface Water Vapor Pressure Measurements at Rio Frio M.A. Holdaway 1, 1996 Abstract We use the surface water vapor pressure measured by weather stations at 4060 m opacity. The surface water vapor pressure is inverted some 20% of the time at night and some 35

  14. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a New Instrument for Measuring Sleep Length and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Nyberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to develop a new instrument for measuring length of sleep as well as television and computer habits in school-age children. A questionnaire was constructed for use when children visit the school health care unit. Three aspects of the validity of the questionnaire were examined: its face validity, content validity, and construct…

  15. Precise intensity correlation measurement for atomic resonance fluorescence from optical molasses.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kazuyuki; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Hisatoshi; Torii, Yoshio; Kuga, Takahiro

    2010-03-29

    We measured the intensity correlation of true thermal light scattered from cold atoms in an optical molasses. Using a single-mode fiber as a transverse mode filter, measurement with maximally high spatial coherence was realized, allowing us to observe ideal photon bunching with unprecedented precision. The measured intensity correlation functions showed a definite bimodal structure with fast damped oscillation from the maximum value of 2.02(3) and slow monotonic decay toward unity. The oscillation can be understood as an interference between elastic and inelastic scattering fields in resonance fluorescence. PMID:20389684

  16. A New Basis for Interpretation of the Planck Length

    E-print Network

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2006-10-17

    A critical length has recently been identified that appears to provide a fundamental limit distinguishing quantum behavior from classical behavior. Because of the unique association between critical length and mass, it appears that we can correlate the mass of an object with the size over which its quantum behavior is manifested. When the expression for the critical length is set equal to the Planck length, we find an associated mass value that in magnitude corresponds to an approximation of the mass of the visible universe. This would appear to suggest that the quantum behavior associated with the universe as a whole would be manifested at distances comparable to or smaller than the Planck length. Accordingly, it would appear that all position measurements would be subject to uncertainties at the limit of the Planck length, so that the Planck length sets a fundamental limit on position determination.

  17. Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source) Booster Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.; Marks, S.; Gee, B.; Wong, W.; Meneghetti, J.

    1989-03-01

    A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs.

  18. Transmission Efficiency Measurements and Correlations with Physical Characteristics of the Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, J. J.; Mitchell, A. M.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    Data from helicopter transmission efficiency tests were compared to physical properties of the eleven lubricants used in those tests. The tests were conducted with the OH-58 helicopter main rotor transmission. Efficiencies ranged from 98.3 to 98.8 percent. The data was examined for correlation of physical properties with efficiency. There was a reasonable correlation of efficiency with absolute viscosity if the viscosity was first corrected for temperature and pressure in the lubricated contact. Between lubricants, efficiency did not correlate well with viscosity at atmospheric pressure. Between lubricants, efficiency did not correlate well with calculated lubricant film forming capacity. Bench type sliding friction and wear measurements could not be correlated to transmission efficiency and component wear.

  19. Submaximal delayed-onset muscle soreness: correlations between MR imaging findings and clinical measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, G. F.; Haller, R. G.; Wyrick, P. S.; Parkey, R. W.; Fleckenstein, J. L.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess correlations between muscle edema on magnetic resonance (MR) images and clinical indexes of muscle injury in delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) produced by submaximal exercise protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen subjects performed 36 elbow flexions ("biceps curls") at one of two submaximal workloads that emphasized eccentric contractions. Changes in MR imaging findings, plasma levels of creatine kinase, and pain scores were correlated. RESULTS: Both exercise protocols produced DOMS in all subjects. The best correlation was between change in creatine kinase level and volume of muscle edema on MR images, regardless of the workload. Correlations tended to be better with the easier exercise protocol. CONCLUSION: Whereas many previous studies of DOMS focused on intense exercise protocols to ensure positive results, the present investigation showed that submaximal workloads are adequate to produce DOMS and that correlations between conventionally measured indexes of injury may be enhanced at lighter exercise intensities.

  20. Detecting initial system-environment correlations: Performance of various distance measures for quantum states

    E-print Network

    S. Wissmann; B. Leggio; H. -P. Breuer

    2013-06-13

    We study the time evolution of four distance measures in the presence of initial systemenvironment correlations. It is well-known that the trace distance between two quantum states of an open system may increase due to initial correlations which leads to a breakdown of the contractivity of the reduced dynamics. Here we compare and analyze, for two different models, the time evolution of the trace distance, the Bures metric, the Hellinger distance and the Jensen-Shannon divergence regarding an increase above their initial values, witnessing initial correlations. This work generalizes, deepens and corrects the study performed by Dajka et al. [Phys. Rev. A 84 032120 (2011)] and thereby reveals generic features of the considered distance measures with respect to the capability of detecting initial system-environment correlations.

  1. A correlation force spectrometer for single molecule measurements under tensile load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radiom, Milad; Honig, Christopher D. F.; Walz, John Y.; Paul, Mark R.; Ducker, William A.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamical-mechanical properties of a small region of fluid can be measured using two closely spaced thermally stimulated micrometer-scale cantilevers. We call this technique correlation force spectroscopy (CFS). We describe an instrument that is designed for characterizing the extensional properties of polymer molecules that straddle the gap between the two cantilevers and use it to measure the stiffness and damping (molecular friction) of a dextran molecule. The device is based on a commercial atomic force microscope, into which we have incorporated a second antiparallel cantilever. The deflection of each cantilever is measured in the frequency range dc-1 MHz and is used to generate the cross-correlation at equilibrium. The main advantage of cross-correlation measurements is the reduction in thermal noise, which sets a fundamental noise limit to force resolution. We show that the thermal noise in our cross-correlation measurements is less than one third of the value for single-cantilever force microscopy. The dynamics of the cantilever pair is modeled using the deterministic motion of a harmonic oscillator initially displaced from equilibrium, which yields the equilibrium auto and cross-correlations in cantilever displacement via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Fitted parameters from the model (stiffness and damping) are used to characterize the fluid at equilibrium, including any straddling molecules.

  2. The auto-correlation function of the extragalactic background light. I. Measuring gravitational shear.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Waerbeke, L.; Mellier, Y.; Schneider, P.; Fort, B.; Mathez, G.

    1997-01-01

    A new method for measuring the shear induced by gravitational light deflection is proposed. It is based on analyzing the anisotropy induced in the auto-correlation function of the extragalactic background light which is produced by very faint distant galaxies. The auto-correlation function can be measured `locally', and its anisotropy is caused by the tidal gravitational field of the deflecting mass distribution in the foreground of these faint background galaxies. Since the method does not require individual galaxy detection, it can be used to measure the shear of extremely faint galaxies which are not detectable individually, but are present in the noise. The shear estimated from the auto-correlation function of the image provides an independent measurement which can be compared to the shear obtained from the distortion of individual galaxy images. Combining these two independent estimates clearly increases the sensitivity of shear measurements. In addition, our new method may allow to determine the local magnification caused by the deflector if the auto-correlation function is caused by a large number density of faint galaxies; in this case, the intrinsic auto-correlation function may provide a `standard source' with respect to which shear and magnification can be obtained. Applications to real and synthetic data are shown and the feasibility of our new method is demonstrated. In particular, we present the shear maps obtained with our new method for the double QSO 2345+007 and the cluster Cl0024+16 and compare them to published shear maps.

  3. Spatial Correlation of Solar-Wind Turbulence from Two-Point Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Milano, L. J.; Dasso, S.; Weygand, J. M.; Smith, C. W.; Kivelson, M. G.

    2005-01-01

    Interplanetary turbulence, the best studied case of low frequency plasma turbulence, is the only directly quantified instance of astrophysical turbulence. Here, magnetic field correlation analysis, using for the first time only proper two-point, single time measurements, provides a key step in unraveling the space-time structure of interplanetary turbulence. Simultaneous magnetic field data from the Wind, ACE, and Cluster spacecraft are analyzed to determine the correlation (outer) scale, and the Taylor microscale near Earth's orbit.

  4. Correlation of combustor acoustic power levels inferred from internal fluctuating pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.

    1978-01-01

    Combustion chamber acoustic power levels inferred from internal fluctuating pressure measurements are correlated with operating conditions and chamber geometries over a wide range. The variables include considerations of chamber design (can, annular, and reverse-flow annular) and size, number of fuel nozzles, burner staging and fuel split, airflow and heat release rates, and chamber inlet pressure and temperature levels. The correlated data include those obtained with combustion component development rigs as well as engines.

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 50, NO. 3, JUNE 2001 697 Robust Sensing of Arc Length

    E-print Network

    Zhang, YuMing

    dedicate equipment needs an even higher quality GTAW process. In GTAW, the welding current determines heat of weld quality. Application of Hall sensor and IGBT component has significantly increased the constancy process, precision sensing and control of arc length are the bottlenecks in achieving quality welds

  6. Measuring sperm whales from their clicks: Stability of interpulse intervals and validation that they indicate whale length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhinelander, Marcus Q.; Dawson, Stephen M.

    2004-04-01

    Multiple pulses can often be distinguished in the clicks of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Norris and Harvey [in Animal Orientation and Navigation, NASA SP-262 (1972), pp. 397-417] proposed that this results from reflections within the head, and thus that interpulse interval (IPI) is an indicator of head length, and by extrapolation, total length. For this idea to hold, IPIs must be stable within individuals, but differ systematically among individuals of different size. IPI stability was examined in photographically identified individuals recorded repeatedly over different dives, days, and years. IPI variation among dives in a single day and days in a single year was statistically significant, although small in magnitude (it would change total length estimates by <3%). As expected, IPIs varied significantly among individuals. Most individuals showed significant increases in IPIs over several years, suggesting growth. Mean total lengths calculated from published IPI regressions were 13.1 to 16.1 m, longer than photogrammetric estimates of the same whales (12.3 to 15.3 m). These discrepancies probably arise from the paucity of large (12-16 m) whales in data used in published regressions. A new regression is offered for this size range.

  7. The use of multiple EBIC curves and low voltage electron microscopy in the measurement of small diffusion lengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    Accurate evaluations of diffusion lengths for heavily to moderately doped III-V semiconductors and/or radiation damaged solar cells have been made possible by using experimental and numerical techniques. The techniques employed were electron beam induced current and low voltage electron microscopy.

  8. The effect of high column density systems on the measurement of the Lyman-? forest correlation function

    SciTech Connect

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi E-mail: miralda@icc.ub.edu

    2012-07-01

    We present a study of the effect of High Column Density (HCD) systems on the Ly? forest correlation function on large scales. We study the effect both numerically, by inserting HCD systems on mock spectra for a specific model, and analytically, in the context of two-point correlations and linear theory. We show that the presence of HCDs substantially contributes to the noise of the correlation function measurement, and systematically alters the measured redshift-space correlation function of the Ly? forest, increasing the value of the density bias factor and decreasing the redshift distortion parameter ?{sub ?} of the Ly? forest. We provide simple formulae for corrections on these derived parameters, as a function of the mean effective optical depth and bias factor of the host halos of the HCDs, and discuss the conditions under which these expressions should be valid. In practice, precise corrections to the measured parameters of the Ly? forest correlation for the HCD effects are more complex than the simple analytical approximations we present, owing to non-linear effects of the damped wings of the HCD systems and the presence of three-point terms. However, we conclude that an accurate correction for these HCD effects can be obtained numerically and calibrated with observations of the HCD-Ly? cross-correlation. We also discuss an analogous formalism to treat and correct for the contaminating effect of metal lines overlapping the Ly? forest spectra.

  9. Telomere Length Is Not Related to Established Cardiovascular Risk Factors but Does Correlate with Red and White Blood Cell Counts in a German Blood Donor Population

    PubMed Central

    Kelsch, Reinhard; Jäger, Kathrin; Brüggmann, Nina; van der Harst, Pim; Walter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging and has been associated with the presence of various coronary risk factors in patients. Much less is known about the relationships between TL and classic coronary risk factors in other populations. We measured TL in peripheral blood leukocytes of 343 middle-aged blood donors (mean age 40.2 ± 12.4 years; 201 men, 142 women) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Median TL was 0.86 (range: 0.48–1.85) relative TL units. In linear regression analyses with natural log-transformed T to S ratio as the dependent variable, there was a significant association with age (per year: beta = -0.007, p<0.001) and sex (males vs. females: beta = 0.075, p = 0.007) with longer telomeres in men. After adjusting for these two variables, we observed no association of TL with classic coronary risk factors including cholesterol (p = 0.36), triglyceride (p = 0.09), HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.26), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.36), smoking (p = 0.97), and personal (p = 0.46) or family history (p = 0.63) of cardiovascular disease. However, we did find a significant positive association with white (p = 0.011) and red blood cell count (p = 0.031), hemoglobin (p = 0.014) and hematocrit (p = 0.013); we also found a borderline positive association with thrombocytes (p = 0.074). Positive associations remained significant for hemoglobin (p = 0.017), hematocrit (p = 0.023), and leukocytes (p = 0.009) in a subgroup with no reported vascular disease; associations were of borderline significance for erythrocytes (p = 0.053) and thrombocytes (p = 0.088) in this subgroup. The data do not support the concept that classic coronary risk factors contribute to telomere attrition in a blood donor population. However, telomere attrition may be a marker for reduced proliferation reserve in hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:26445269

  10. Lack of measurement independence can simulate quantum correlations even when signaling can not

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Manik

    2013-09-01

    In the Bell scenario, any nonlocal correlation shared between two spatially separated parties can be modeled deterministically either by allowing communications between the two parties or by restricting their free will in choosing the measurement settings. Recently, the Bell scenario has been generalized into a “semiquantum” scenario where external quantum inputs are provided to the parties. We show that in the semiquantum scenario, entangled states produce correlations whose deterministic explanation is possible only if measurement independence is reduced. Thus in simulating quantum correlation the semiquantum scenario reveals a qualitative distinction between signaling and measurement dependence which is absent in the Bell scenario. We further show that such distinction is not observed in the “steering-game” scenario, a special case of the semiquantum scenario.

  11. Sub-cycle measurement of intensity correlations in the Terahertz range

    E-print Network

    Benea-Chelmus, Ileana-Cristina; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    The Terahertz frequency range bears intriguing opportunities, beyond very advanced applications in spectroscopy and matter control. Peculiar quantum phenomena are predicted to lead to light emission by non-trivial mechanisms. Typically, such emission mechanisms are unraveled by temporal correlation measurements of photon arrival times, as demonstrated in their pioneering work by Hanbury Brown and Twiss. So far, the Terahertz range misses an experimental implementation of such technique with very good temporal properties and high sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a room-temperature scheme to measure photon correlations at THz frequencies based on electro-optic sampling. The temporal resolution of 146 fs is faster than one cycle of oscillation and the sensitivity is so far limited to ~1500 photons. With this technique, we measure the photon statistics of a THz quantum cascade laser. The proposed measurement scheme allows, in principle, the measurement of ultrahigh bandwidth photons and paves the way toward...

  12. Sub-cycle measurement of intensity correlations in the Terahertz range

    E-print Network

    Ileana-Cristina Benea-Chelmus; Curdin Maissen; Giacomo Scalari; Mattias Beck; Jérôme Faist

    2015-12-16

    The Terahertz frequency range bears intriguing opportunities, beyond very advanced applications in spectroscopy and matter control. Peculiar quantum phenomena are predicted to lead to light emission by non-trivial mechanisms. Typically, such emission mechanisms are unraveled by temporal correlation measurements of photon arrival times, as demonstrated in their pioneering work by Hanbury Brown and Twiss. So far, the Terahertz range misses an experimental implementation of such technique with very good temporal properties and high sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a room-temperature scheme to measure photon correlations at THz frequencies based on electro-optic sampling. The temporal resolution of 146 fs is faster than one cycle of oscillation and the sensitivity is so far limited to ~1500 photons. With this technique, we measure the photon statistics of a THz quantum cascade laser. The proposed measurement scheme allows, in principle, the measurement of ultrahigh bandwidth photons and paves the way towards THz quantum optics.

  13. Experimental study on flow rate measurement by using cross-correlation of temperature fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X.; Dai, Z.; Weng, Y.; Xu, J.

    1996-12-31

    Flow rate measurement is one of the most important aspects of flow parameter measurements in power, petroleum and chemical industries. The applicability of cross-correlation method based on fluid temperature fluctuations to flow rate measurement under steady flow condition is investigated with experiments by using an on-line, digital instrument developed by the authors. The thermocouple transducer design, the signal data pre-processing system and the correlator design with chip microprocessor 8031 are described. The experimental results show that the intrinsic temperature fluctuations existing naturally in flowing fluid are adequate to be detected. The method is proved to be a reliable and accurate one of flow rate measurement in turbulent flow. In laminar flow, the measurement is not so satisfactory.

  14. Mitigating systematic errors in angular correlation function measurements from wide field surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, C. B.; Hildebrandt, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present an investigation into the effects of survey systematics such as varying depth, point spread function size, and extinction on the galaxy selection and correlation in photometric, multi-epoch, wide area surveys. We take the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) as an example. Variations in galaxy selection due to systematics are found to cause density fluctuations of up to 10 per cent for some small fraction of the area for most galaxy redshift slices and as much as 50 per cent for some extreme cases of faint high-redshift samples. This results in correlations of galaxies against survey systematics of order ˜1 per cent when averaged over the survey area. We present an empirical method for mitigating these systematic correlations from measurements of angular correlation functions using weighted random points. These weighted random catalogues are estimated from the observed galaxy overdensities by mapping these to survey parameters. We are able to model and mitigate the effect of systematic correlations allowing for non-linear dependences of density on systematics. Applied to CFHTLenS, we find that the method reduces spurious correlations in the data by a factor of 2 for most galaxy samples and as much as an order of magnitude in others. Such a treatment is particularly important for an unbiased estimation of very small correlation signals, as e.g. from weak gravitational lensing magnification bias. We impose a criterion for using a galaxy sample in a magnification measurement of the majority of the systematic correlations show improvement and are less than 10 per cent of the expected magnification signal when combined in the galaxy cross-correlation. After correction the galaxy samples in CFHTLenS satisfy this criterion for zphot < 0.9 and will be used in a future analysis of magnification.

  15. Cross-Correlation Measurements and the Double-Difference Earthquake Location Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, D.; Waldhauser, F.; Kim, W.; Richards, P.

    2001-12-01

    Substantial advances in improving earthquake locations have recently come about by application of the double-difference technique. By forming arrival time differences, much of the errors due to unknown velocity structure can be canceled out, without the use of station corrections. If the waveforms are similar, cross-correlation measurements can be used to reduce an independent source of error due to pick uncertainty. Inverting correlation data in its native format, directly, has many advantages eliminating the need for clustering and retaining data redundancy. Cross-correlation has long been used to determine relative arrival times with sub-sample precision. Here, we extend correlation measurements to less similar waveforms and introduce a general quantitative means to asses when correlation data provide improvement over bulletin phase pick data. Tests for an example streak of 243 earthquakes on the Calaveras fault demonstrate that relative arrival times with normalized cross-correlation coefficients as low as ~ 70%, interevent separation distances as large as 2 km, and magnitudes up to 3.5, as recorded on the Calnet network, are more precise than relative arrival times determined from bulletin phase data. Also discussed are improvements made to the correlation technique itself. We find that time domain cross-correlation is substantially more robust and recovers more observations than the cross-spectral approach. The general utility of cross-correlation depends solely on whether the waveforms are similar or not. Our technique has been applied on a local scale for the Calaveras Fault and San Andreas Fault at Parkfield, in CA, and on a regional to global scale for the Lop Nor nuclear explosions in China. Current work is investigating how the method applies to different tectonic regimes in northern CA and for teleseisms.

  16. Displacement measurement with nanoscale resolution using a coded micro-mark and digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Ma, Chengfu; Chen, Yuhang

    2014-12-01

    A method for simple and reliable displacement measurement with nanoscale resolution is proposed. The measurement is realized by combining a common optical microscopy imaging of a specially coded nonperiodic microstructure, namely two-dimensional zero-reference mark (2-D ZRM), and subsequent correlation analysis of the obtained image sequence. The autocorrelation peak contrast of the ZRM code is maximized with well-developed artificial intelligence algorithms, which enables robust and accurate displacement determination. To improve the resolution, subpixel image correlation analysis is employed. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate the quasi-static and dynamic displacement characterization ability of a micro 2-D ZRM.

  17. Direct measurements of magnetic interaction-induced cross-correlations of two microparticles in Brownian motion

    PubMed Central

    Romodina, Maria N.; Khokhlova, Maria D.; Lyubin, Evgeny V.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of magnetic interactions on the Brownian motion of two magnetic microparticles is investigated. The cross-correlations of the thermal fluctuations of the two magnetic microbeads are directly measured using double-trap optical tweezers. It is experimentally demonstrated that the cross-correlation function is governed by the gradient of the magnetic force between the microparticles. The magnetic forces are measured with femtonewton precision, and the magnetic dipole moments of individual microparticles are determined within an accuracy on the order of fA-m2. PMID:26035153

  18. Correlation reflectometry at TEXTOR.

    PubMed

    Krämer-Flecken, A; Soldatov, S; Vowinkel, B; Müller, P

    2010-11-01

    In high temperature fusion plasmas the transport of energy and particles is commonly believed to be driven by turbulence. Turbulence quantities as correlation length and decorrelation time are important for the confinement properties of a plasma. Besides other diagnostics, correlation reflectometry has proven to be a suitable tool for the measurement of turbulence properties. At the medium sized Toroidal EXperiment for Technical Oriented Research (TEXTOR) the existing correlation reflectometry has been recently upgraded. A new reflectometer based on a microwave synthesizer has been developed and installed for the investigation of turbulence properties in a fusion plasma. Together with the existing reflectometer the measurement of radial correlation length and decorrelation time becomes available. Both reflectometers are computer controlled and allow to program individual frequency sequences and the duration of each frequency step. With the existing poloidal antenna array at ?=0° and on top of the vacuum vessel, the system allows the measurement of radial correlation and poloidal correlations at the same time. First experiments have been performed and the results on the radial correlation length of density fluctuations in a fusion plasma are presented. PMID:21133466

  19. Determination of Extrapolation Distance With Pressure Signatures Measured at Two to Twenty Span Lengths From Two Low-Boom Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.; Kuhn, Neil S.

    2006-01-01

    A study was performed to determine a limiting separation distance for the extrapolation of pressure signatures from cruise altitude to the ground. The study was performed at two wind-tunnel facilities with two research low-boom wind-tunnel models designed to generate ground pressure signatures with "flattop" shapes. Data acquired at the first wind-tunnel facility showed that pressure signatures had not achieved the desired low-boom features for extrapolation purposes at separation distances of 2 to 5 span lengths. However, data acquired at the second wind-tunnel facility at separation distances of 5 to 20 span lengths indicated the "limiting extrapolation distance" had been achieved so pressure signatures could be extrapolated with existing codes to obtain credible predictions of ground overpressures.

  20. Measurement of the Vaporization Enthalpy of Complex Mixtures by Correlation-Gas Chromatography. The Vaporization Enthalpy of

    E-print Network

    Chickos, James S.

    Measurement of the Vaporization Enthalpy of Complex Mixtures by Correlation-Gas Chromatography of correlation-gas chromatography to measure the vaporization enthalpy {l g Hm(298.15 K)} of complex mixtures obtained for the mixture. Correlation-gas chromatography is applicable in obtaining the vaporization

  1. Bi-photon spectral correlation measurements from a silicon nanowire in the quantum and classical regimes

    PubMed Central

    Jizan, Iman; Helt, L. G.; Xiong, Chunle; Collins, Matthew J.; Choi, Duk-Yong; Joon Chae, Chang; Liscidini, Marco; Steel, M. J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Clark, Alex S.

    2015-01-01

    The growing requirement for photon pairs with specific spectral correlations in quantum optics experiments has created a demand for fast, high resolution and accurate source characterisation. A promising tool for such characterisation uses classical stimulated processes, in which an additional seed laser stimulates photon generation yielding much higher count rates, as recently demonstrated for a ?(2) integrated source in A. Eckstein et al. Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L76 (2014). In this work we extend these results to ?(3) integrated sources, directly measuring for the first time the relation between spectral correlation measurements via stimulated and spontaneous four wave mixing in an integrated optical waveguide, a silicon nanowire. We directly confirm the speed-up due to higher count rates and demonstrate that this allows additional resolution to be gained when compared to traditional coincidence measurements without any increase in measurement time. As the pump pulse duration can influence the degree of spectral correlation, all of our measurements are taken for two different pump pulse widths. This allows us to confirm that the classical stimulated process correctly captures the degree of spectral correlation regardless of pump pulse duration, and cements its place as an essential characterisation method for the development of future quantum integrated devices. PMID:26218609

  2. Bi-photon spectral correlation measurements from a silicon nanowire in the quantum and classical regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jizan, Iman; Helt, L. G.; Xiong, Chunle; Collins, Matthew J.; Choi, Duk-Yong; Joon Chae, Chang; Liscidini, Marco; Steel, M. J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Clark, Alex S.

    2015-07-01

    The growing requirement for photon pairs with specific spectral correlations in quantum optics experiments has created a demand for fast, high resolution and accurate source characterisation. A promising tool for such characterisation uses classical stimulated processes, in which an additional seed laser stimulates photon generation yielding much higher count rates, as recently demonstrated for a ?(2) integrated source in A. Eckstein et al. Laser Photon. Rev. 8, L76 (2014). In this work we extend these results to ?(3) integrated sources, directly measuring for the first time the relation between spectral correlation measurements via stimulated and spontaneous four wave mixing in an integrated optical waveguide, a silicon nanowire. We directly confirm the speed-up due to higher count rates and demonstrate that this allows additional resolution to be gained when compared to traditional coincidence measurements without any increase in measurement time. As the pump pulse duration can influence the degree of spectral correlation, all of our measurements are taken for two different pump pulse widths. This allows us to confirm that the classical stimulated process correctly captures the degree of spectral correlation regardless of pump pulse duration, and cements its place as an essential characterisation method for the development of future quantum integrated devices.

  3. Correlation between near infrared spectroscopy and electrical techniques in measuring skin moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, M.; Sabbri, A. R. M.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.; Omar, A. F.

    2014-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique serves as an important tool for the measurement of moisture content of skin owing to the advantages it has over the other techniques. The purpose of the study is to develop a correlation between NIR spectrometer with electrical conventional techniques for skin moisture measurement. A non-invasive measurement of moisture content of skin was performed on different part of human face and hand under control environment (temperature 21 ± 1 °C, relative humidity 45 ± 5 %). Ten healthy volunteers age between 21-25 (male and female) participated in this study. The moisture content of skin was measured using DermaLab® USB Moisture Module, Scalar Moisture Checker and NIR spectroscopy (NIRQuest). Higher correlation was observed between NIRQuest and Dermalab moisture probe with a coefficient of determination (R2) above 70 % for all the subjects. However, the value of R2 between NIRQuest and Moisture Checker was observed to be lower with the R2 values ranges from 51.6 to 94.4 %. The correlation of NIR spectroscopy technique successfully developed for measuring moisture content of the skin. The analysis of this correlation can help to establish novel instruments based on an optical system in clinical used especially in the dermatology field.

  4. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, James E.; Lim, Allen C.; Ignatz, Ryan I.; Edwards, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Drag area (Ad) is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km) time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP) and indirectly (Est AP). Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$\\end{document}V?O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT), and economy. \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$\\end{document}V?O2 peak (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$\\end{document}lmin?1) and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively) but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = ? 0.42 and ?0.45). The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05) when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001) than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = ? 0.92). AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = ? 0.75) or Est AP (r = ? 0.71). In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance. PMID:26290797

  5. Correlates of Consistent Condom Use among Female Entertainment Workers in Shanghai, China: A Repeated Measures Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiushi; Xia, Guomei

    2013-01-01

    Female entertainment workers (FEWs) in China are at increased risk of HIV and other STIs, but correlates of their risky sexual behavior remain poorly understood. Using data from a series of four surveys, this paper employs repeated measures analysis to identify individual and social correlates of consistent condom use among FEWs in Shanghai. Results reveal that both individual cognitive and social influence factors are statistically significant in their bivariate relationships to consistent condom use with a stable or non-stable partner; only prevention motivation and perceived self-efficacy in condom use remain significant in the multiple regressions. When individual and social correlates are examined together, only peer support for condom use remains a significant and independent correlate of consistent condom use in sex with a non-stable partner. Behavioral intervention is urgently needed and should take a multi-level approach, emphasizing individual prevention motivation and behavioral skills training and promoting peer/social support. PMID:23970771

  6. Sequence-structure correlations in silk: Poly-Ala repeat of N. clavipes MaSp1 is naturally optimized at a critical length scale.

    PubMed

    Bratzel, Graham; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-03-01

    Spider silk is a self-assembling biopolymer that outperforms many known materials in terms of its mechanical performance despite being constructed from simple and inferior building blocks. While experimental studies have shown that the molecular structure of silk has a direct influence on the stiffness, toughness, and failure strength of silk, few molecular-level analyses of the nanostructure of silk assemblies in particular under variations of genetic sequences have been reported. Here we report atomistic-level structures of the MaSp1 protein from the Nephila Clavipes spider dragline silk sequence, obtained using an in silico approach based on replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) and explicit water molecular dynamics. We apply this method to study the effects of a systematic variation of the poly-alanine repeat lengths, a parameter controlled by the genetic makeup of silk, on the resulting molecular structure of silk at the nanoscale. Confirming earlier experimental and computational work, a structural analysis reveals that poly-alanine regions in silk predominantly form distinct and orderly ?-sheet crystal domains while disorderly regions are formed by glycine-rich repeats that consist of 3(10)-helix type structures and ?-turns. Our predictions are directly validated against experimental data based on dihedral angle pair calculations presented in Ramachandran plots combined with an analysis of the secondary structure content. The key result of our study is our finding of a strong dependence of the resulting silk nanostructure depending on the poly-alanine length. We observe that the wildtype poly-alanine repeat length of six residues defines a critical minimum length that consistently results in clearly defined ?-sheet nanocrystals. For poly-alanine lengths below six, the ?-sheet nanocrystals are not well-defined or not visible at all, while for poly-alanine lengths at and above six, the characteristic nanocomposite structure of silk emerges with no significant improvement of the quality of the ?-sheet nanocrystal geometry. We present a simple biophysical model that explains these computational observations based on the mechanistic insight gained from the molecular simulations. Our findings set the stage for understanding how variations in the spidroin sequence can be used to engineer the structure and thereby functional properties of this biological superfiber, and present a design strategy for the genetic optimization of spidroins for enhanced mechanical properties. The approach used here may also find application in the design of other self-assembled molecular structures and fibers and in particular biologically inspired or completely synthetic systems. PMID:22340682

  7. STAR's measurement of correlations and fluctuations between photons and charged particles at forward rapidities at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogra, S. M.; STAR Collaboration

    2008-10-01

    The dynamical fluctuations measured between the multiplicities of the photons and the charged particles at forward pseudorapidities (-3.7 <= ? <= -2.5) for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at \\sqrt {s_NN} = 200\\,GeV are presented. Correlation between photons and charged particle multiplicities provides a signal of the formation of disoriented chiral condensate (DCC). Photons and charged particles are measured with the photon multiplicity detector and the forward time projection chamber, respectively, at the STAR experiment. Two different quantities are used to study the fluctuations: one (?dynamics) measures the deviation from the Poissonian behavior of the correlated particle production and the other measures the width of the distribution of N?/Ncharge. Finite fluctuations with little pT dependence for different systems have been observed suggesting no significant presence of DCC within the given sensitivity.

  8. Reliability measurement of joint seismic inversion based on seismic-to-well correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Nan; Fu, Li-Yun

    2013-03-01

    Applications of seismic inversions strongly depend on inversion methods, data quality, and reservoir complexity. An advanced inversion scheme to integrate seismic data, well data, and geological knowledge is employed by combining statistical Caianiello convolutional networks with a hierarchical seismic convolutional model for impedance estimation and with nonlinear petrophysical models for porosity and clay-content inversions. The method used to measure the reliability of seismic inversions for different geological complexities is important for reservoir characterisation. The widely used cross-validation may not be the best for the evaluation of the reliability of seismic inversions because of different geological conditions away from wells. As a supplementary means and also to understand failed cross-validations, we propose a systematic methodology to measure the reliability of seismic inversions through prior seismic-to-well correlation analyses for the fidelity of seismic data. The resulting correlation coefficients at the main frequencies of seismic data may express what degree the seismic data reflect the subsurface reliably in both amplitude and phase. First, the low-cut filtered borehole impedance logs are correlated with the seismic relative impedance traces computed by trace integration of seismic traces at wells. The resulting correlation coefficients within the seismic frequency band could be an index with which to evaluate the reliability of seismic inversions for impedance estimation. Second, the correlation between borehole impedance and porosity/clay-content is analysed by measuring the overall trend across the cloud of data points in the logging-databased cross-plot. The resulting correlation coefficients could be used to evaluate the reliability of mapping seismic impedance to porosity/clay content. Case studies from several oilfields across China show that the prior seismic-to-well correlation analyses are an excellent way to test the reliability of seismic inversions before the implementation of inversions.

  9. Measurement of the light-field amplitude-correlation function through joint photon-count distributions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furcinitti, P.; Kuppenheimer, J. D.; Narducci, L. M.; Tuft , R. A.

    1972-01-01

    When an amplitude-stabilized He-Ne laser beam is scattered by a rotating ground glass with small surface inhomogeneities, the probability density of the instantaneous scattered-wave amplitude is Gaussian. In this paper, we suggest the use of the joint photon-count probability distribution to measure the absolute value of the electric-field amplitude-correlation function for random Gaussian light fields, and report the results of an experiment in which the Gaussian field is produced by scattering a light beam through a rotating ground glass. This procedure offers an alternative to other conventional methods, such as self-beating spectroscopy and irradiance-correlation techniques. The correlation time of the scattered-field amplitude in the present experiment has been measured with an accuracy of approximately 0.8%.

  10. Experimental measurement of n-time correlation functions in a trapped ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuaining; Shen, Yangchao; Zhang, Jin-Ning; Yung, Man-Hong; Pedernales, J. S.; Lamata, Lucas; Casanova, J.; Solano, Enrique; Kim, Kihwan

    2015-05-01

    We implement an algorithm to measure n-time correlation functions of the motional degree of freedom of a trapped 171Yb+ ion by following the proposal in Ref.. The algorithm requires a system undergoing a time evolution and an ancillary qubit on which we perform conditional gates. We measure bosonic field correlations such as g(1) and g(2) functions. For the case of an electromagnetic field, g(1) and g(2) are well known in quantum optics as electric field and intensity correlation functions, respectively. This scheme can be extended to a system including also spins and used to characterize relevant physical magnitudes, such as linear response functions. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grants No. 2011CBA00300 (No. 2011CBA00301), the National Natural Science Foundation of China 11374178.

  11. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for non-invasive, micro-vascular cerebral blood flow measurement

    PubMed Central

    Durduran, Turgut; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) uses the temporal fluctuations of near-infrared (NIR) light to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) non-invasively. Here, we provide a brief history of DCS applications in brain with an emphasis on the underlying physical ideas, common instrumentation and validation. Then we describe recent clinical research that employs DCS-measured CBF as a biomarker of patient well-being, and as an indicator of hemodynamic and metabolic response to functional stimuli. PMID:23770408

  12. NA49 Results on Single Particle and Correlation Measurements in Central PB+PB Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.

    1998-12-01

    Single-particle spectra and two-particle correlation functions measured by the NA49 collaboration in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon are presented. These measurements are used to study the kinetic and chemical freeze-out conditions in heavy ion collisions. We conclude that large baryon stopping, high baryon density and strong transverse radial flow are achieved in central Pb+Pb collisions at the SPS.

  13. Sound Source Identification Through Flow Density Measurement and Correlation With Far Field Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, J.; Seasholtz, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Sound sources in the plumes of unheated round jets, in the Mach number range 0.6 to 1.8, were investigated experimentally using "casuality" approach, where air density fluctuations in the plumes were correlated with the far field noise. The air density was measured using a newly developed Molecular Rayleigh scattering based technique, which did not require any seeding. The reference at the end provides a detailed description of the measurement technique.

  14. Measuring the growth of matter fluctuations with third-order galaxy correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, K.; Bel, J.; Gaztañaga, E.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Castander, F. J.

    2015-02-01

    Measurements of the linear growth factor D at different redshifts z are key to distinguish among cosmological models. One can estimate the derivative dD(z)/dln (1 + z) from redshift space measurements of the 3D anisotropic galaxy two-point correlation ?(z), but the degeneracy of its transverse (or projected) component with galaxy bias b, i.e. ??(z) ? D2(z)b2(z), introduces large errors in the growth measurement. Here, we present a comparison between two methods which breaks this degeneracy by combining second- and third-order statistics. One uses the shape of the reduced three-point correlation and the other a combination of third-order one- and two-point cumulants. These methods use the fact that, for Gaussian initial conditions and scales larger than 20 h-1 Mpc, the reduced third-order matter correlations are independent of redshift (and therefore of the growth factor), while the third-order galaxy correlations depend on b. We use matter and halo catalogues from the MICE-GC simulation to test how well we can recover b(z) and therefore D(z) with these methods in 3D real space. We also present a new approach, which enables us to measure D directly from the redshift evolution of the second- and third-order galaxy correlations without the need of modelling matter correlations. For haloes with masses lower than 1014 h-1 M?, we find 10 per cent deviations between the different estimates of D, which are comparable to current observational errors. At higher masses, we find larger differences that can probably be attributed to the breakdown of the bias model and non-Poissonian shot noise.

  15. High speed deformation measurement of electronic packages by the digital image correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangang; Qin, Fei; An, Tong; Jin, Ling

    2008-11-01

    4-point dynamic bending tests of board level electronics packages were carried out in order to investigate the reliability of solder joints. A high speed camera and the digital image correlation method were used to measure the deflection of the PCB board. A finite element model to simulate the test was built up and was validated by the test data.

  16. CORONAL VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS WITH ULYSSES: MULTI-LINK CORRELATION STUDIES DURING TWO SUPERIOR

    E-print Network

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    CORONAL VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS WITH ULYSSES: MULTI-LINK CORRELATION STUDIES DURING TWO SUPERIOR and the Earth. The Ulysses Solar Corona Experiment was performed at the spacecraft's two solar conjunctions. The Ulysses spacecraft, the first to leave the ecliptic plane and orbit the Sun in a polar orbit, underwent

  17. Production and Separation of T = 1/2 Nuclides for {beta}--{nu} angular correlation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, P.; Bajeat, O.; Saint Laurent, M. G.; Thomas, J. C.; Traykov, E.; Lienard, E.; Ban, G.; Durand, D.; Flechard, X.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Stora, T.; Collaboration: GANISOL Group

    2011-11-30

    The SPIRAL facility at GANIL, which uses the so-called ISOL method to produce radioactive ion beams, is being upgraded to extend its production capabilities to the metallic beams of neutron deficient isotopes. We discuss here the potentialities offered by this upgrade for the measurement of the {beta}--{nu} angular correlation in the {beta}--decay of mirror nuclides.

  18. Are Measured School Effects Just Sorting? Causality and Correlation in the National Education Longitudinal Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David I.; Painter, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Youth who share a school and neighborhood often show similar levels of academic achievement, but some studies find all or most of this correlation is due to sorting (not causation). We analyze the National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS) in three ways to decompose sorting versus causality: We first control for much richer measures of family…

  19. STUDY ON INFRARED GAS-FILTER CORRELATION SPECTROMETER FOR MEASURING LOW-CONCENTRATION METHANOL GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A gas-filter correlation spectrometer that employed a wide spectral band of infrared radiation and gas-filter cell has been built and successfully tested to measure methanol concentrations up to 113 ppm. The instrument demonstrates a detection limit of approximately 1.0 ppm. The ...

  20. Poultry water holding capacity measurements using infrared spectroscopies correlated to traditional methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water holding capacity (WHC) in chicken meat is directly correlated with the quality of the meat. Lower water holding capacity is linked with decreased sensory qualities and therefore lower consumer satisfaction. Additionally, measurement of WHC is subject to wide variations which can depend on many...

  1. Gradient echo MRI correlates with clinical measures and allows visualization of veins within MS lesions

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Lancia, Samantha; Cross, Anne H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional MRI methods do not quantify the severity of MS white matter lesions or measure pathology within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). Objective Gradient Echo Plural Contrast Imaging (GEPCI), a fast MRI technique producing inherently co-registered images for qualitative and quantitative assessment of MS, was used to 1) correlate with disability; 2) distinguish clinical MS subtypes; 3) determine prevalence of veins co-localized within lesions in WM. Methods Thirty subjects representing RRMS, SPMS and PPMS subtypes were scanned with clinical and GEPCI protocols. Standard measures of physical disability and cognition were correlated with MR metrics. Lesions with central veins were counted for RRMS subjects. Results Tissue damage load (TDL-GEPCI) and lesion load (LL-GEPCI) derived with GEPCI correlated better with MS functional composite (MSFC) measures and most other neurologic measures than lesion load derived with FLAIR (LL-FLAIR). GEPCI correctly classified clinical subtypes in 70% subjects. A central vein could be identified in 76% of WM lesions in RRMS subjects on GEPCI T2*-SWI images. Conclusion GEPCI lesion metrics correlated better with neurologic disability than lesion load derived using FLAIR imaging, and showed promise in classifying clinical subtypes of MS. These improvements are likely attributable to the ability of GEPCI to quantify tissue damage. PMID:23836876

  2. Correlation of the level of full-length CFTR transcript with pulmonary phenotype in patients carrying R117H and 1342-1,-2delAG mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamosh, A.; Cutting, G.R.; Oates, R.; Amos, J.

    1994-09-01

    The R117H mutation occurs on two chromosome backgrounds, one associated with a 7 thymidine tract (7T-R11H) in the splice-acceptor site of intron 8, the other with a 5 thymidine tract (5T-R117H). We examined exon 9 splicing efficiency in 5 patients of genotype R117H/{delta}F508 and one carrying 1342-1,-2delAG{delta}F508, an obligate exon 9 slice site mutation. Four patients carried R117H on a 7T background -- three adult men with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens and one adolescent female with pancreatitis and borderline sweat chloride concentration. The patient with R117H on a 5T background had pancreatic sufficient CF (PS-CF). The 1342-1,-2delAG patient has classic pancreatic insufficient CF (PI-CF). cDNA was synthesized from total RNA extracted from nasal epithlial cells and analyzed for CFTR splicing by 35 cycle PCR using primers in exon 7 and 11. The quantity of full length transcript derived from the R117H or {delta}F508 alleles was assessed by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization. While 91.4% of transcript from the 5T-R117H allele was full-length, only 42.2% of CFTR transcript from the 5T-R117H allele was full length. Since CBAVD patients have no lung disease and PS-CF patients do, this indicates that the threshold of developing CF lung disease is crossed when the amount of CFTR transcript bearing R117H is reduced by half. Interestingly, 17.1% of transcript derived from the 1342-1,-2delAG allele (or 8.6% of total CFTR transcript) was normal and full length. This suggests that up to 9% of full length wild-type CFTR transcript may be inadequate to escape the lung disease of CF and that a 9 thymidine tract followed by AAC (the result of the AG deletion) can be used as a splice donor with 2-9% efficiency.

  3. Vertebrae length and ultra-structure measurements of collagen fibrils and mineral content in the vertebrae of lordotic gilthead seabreams (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Berillis, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Boursiaki, Vaia; Karapanagiotidis, Ioannis T; Mente, Eleni

    2015-08-01

    Skeletal deformities of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) are a major factor affecting the production cost, the external morphology and survival and growth of the fish. Adult individuals of S. aurata were collected from a commercial fish farm in Greece and were divided into two groups: one with the presence of lordosis, a skeletal deformity, and one without any skeletal deformity. Fishes were X-rayed, and cervical, abdominal and caudal vertebrae lengths were measured. Vertebrae were taken from the site of the vertebral column where lordosis occurred. One part was decalcified and prepared for collagen examination with transmission electron microscopy, and the rest were incinerated, and the Ca and P contents were measured. The stoichiometries of the samples were obtained by EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy). The same procedure was followed for fish without skeletal deformities (vertebrae were taken from the middle region of the vertebral column). The decalcified vertebrae parts were examined with TEM, collagen micrographs were taken and the fibrils' periods and diameters were measured. There were no significant differences for both Ca and P or the collagen fibrils' periods between the two fish groups. The mean lengths of the cervical, abdominal and caudal vertebrae where lordosis occurred were similar to the lengths of the respective regions of the individuals without the skeletal deformity. The TEM examination showed a significantly smaller mean vertebrae collagen fibril diameter from the fishes with lordosis compared with those from the controls, revealing the significance of collagen to bone structure. PMID:26000955

  4. Length, protein protein interactions, and complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Taison; Frenkel, Daan; Gupta, Vishal; Deem, Michael W.

    2005-05-01

    The evolutionary reason for the increase in gene length from archaea to prokaryotes to eukaryotes observed in large-scale genome sequencing efforts has been unclear. We propose here that the increasing complexity of protein-protein interactions has driven the selection of longer proteins, as they are more able to distinguish among a larger number of distinct interactions due to their greater average surface area. Annotated protein sequences available from the SWISS-PROT database were analyzed for 13 eukaryotes, eight bacteria, and two archaea species. The number of subcellular locations to which each protein is associated is used as a measure of the number of interactions to which a protein participates. Two databases of yeast protein-protein interactions were used as another measure of the number of interactions to which each S. cerevisiae protein participates. Protein length is shown to correlate with both number of subcellular locations to which a protein is associated and number of interactions as measured by yeast two-hybrid experiments. Protein length is also shown to correlate with the probability that the protein is encoded by an essential gene. Interestingly, average protein length and number of subcellular locations are not significantly different between all human proteins and protein targets of known, marketed drugs. Increased protein length appears to be a significant mechanism by which the increasing complexity of protein-protein interaction networks is accommodated within the natural evolution of species. Consideration of protein length may be a valuable tool in drug design, one that predicts different strategies for inhibiting interactions in aberrant and normal pathways.

  5. Geometric measures of quantum correlations: characterization, quantification, and comparison by distances and operations

    E-print Network

    Wojciech Roga; Dominique Spehner; Fabrizio Illuminati

    2015-10-23

    We investigate and compare three distinguished geometric measures of bipartite quantum correlations that have been recently introduced in the literature: the geometric discord, the measurement-induced geometric discord, and the discord of response, each one defined according to three contractive distances on the set of quantum states, namely the trace, Bures, and Hellinger distances. We establish a set of exact functional relations and inequalities between the different measures. In many cases, we determine which bounds are tight. In particular, we show that the geometric discord and the discord of response based on the Hellinger distance are easy to compute analytically for all quantum states whenever the reference subsystem is a qubit. These two measures thus provide the first instance of discords that are simultaneously fully computable, reliable (since they satisfy all the basic Axioms that must be obeyed by a proper measure of quantum correlations), and operationally viable (in terms of state distinguishability). We apply the general mathematical structure to determine the closest classical-quantum state of a given state and the maximally quantum-correlated states at fixed global state purity according to the different distances, as well as a necessary condition for a channel to be quantumness breaking.

  6. Tensor Correlations Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    E-print Network

    H. Baghdasaryan; L. B. Weinstein; J. M. Laget; K. P. Adhikari; M. Aghasyan; M. Amarian; M. Anghinolfi; H. Avakian; J. Ball; M. Battaglieri; I. Bedlinskiy; B. L. Berman; A. S. Biselli; C. Bookwalter; W. J. Briscoe; W. K. Brooks; S. Bültmann; V. D. Burkert; D. S. Carman; V. Crede; A. D'Angelo; A. Daniel; N. Dashyan; R. DeVita; E. DeSanctis; A. Deur; B. Dey; R. Dickson; C. Djalali; G. E. Dodge; D. Doughty; R. Dupre; H. Egiyan; A. El Alaoui; L. El Fassi; P. Eugenio; S. Fegan; M. Y. Gabrielyan; G. P. Gilfoyle; K. L. Giovanetti; W. Gohn; R. W. Gothe; K. A. Griffioen; M. Guidal; L. Guo; V. Gyurjyan; H. Hakobyan; C. Hanretty; C. E. Hyde; K. Hicks; M. Holtrop; Y. Ilieva; D. G. Ireland; K. Joo; D. Keller; M. Khandaker; P. Khetarpal; A. Kim; W. Kim; A. Klein; F. J. Klein; P. Konczykowski; V. Kubarovsky; S. E. Kuhn; S. V. Kuleshov; V. Kuznetsov; N. D. Kvaltine; K. Livingston; H. Y. Lu; I. J. D. MacGregor; N. Markov; M. Mayer; J. McAndrew; B. McKinnon; C. A. Meyer; K. Mikhailov; V. Mokeev; B. Moreno; K. Moriya; B. Morrison; H. Moutarde; E. Munevar; P. Nadel-Turonski; C. Nepali; S. Niccolai; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; M. Osipenko; A. I. Ostrovidov; R. Paremuzyan; K. Park; S. Park; E. Pasyuk; S. Anefalos Pereira; S. Pisano; O. Pogorelko; S. Pozdniakov; J. W. Price; S. Procureur; D. Protopopescu; G. Ricco; M. Ripani; G. Rosner; P. Rossi; F. Sabatié; C. Salgado; R. A. Schumacher; H. Seraydaryan; G. D. Smith; D. I. Sober; D. Sokhan; S. S. Stepanyan; S. Stepanyan; P. Stoler; S. Strauch; M. Taiuti; W. Tang; C. E. Taylor; D. J. Tedeschi; M. Ungaro; M. F. Vineyard; E. Voutier; D. P. Watts; D. P. Weygand; M. H. Wood; B. Zhao; Z. W. Zhao

    2010-08-18

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at an incident energy of 4.7 GeV over a wide kinematic range. We identified spectator correlated pp and pn nucleon pairs using kinematic cuts and measured their relative and total momentum distributions. This is the first measurement of the ratio of pp to pn pairs as a function of pair total momentum, $p_{tot}$. For pair relative momenta between 0.3 and 0.5 GeV/c, the ratio is very small at low $p_{tot}$ and rises to approximately 0.5 at large $p_{tot}$. This shows the dominance of tensor over central correlations at this relative momentum.

  7. Contrast Responsivity in MT+ Correlates with Phonological Awareness and Reading Measures in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shachar, Michal; Dougherty, Robert F.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2007-01-01

    There are several independent sets of findings concerning the neural basis of reading. One set demonstrates a powerful relationship between phonological processing and reading skills. Another set reveals a relationship between visual responses in the motion pathways and reading skills. It is widely assumed that these two findings are unrelated. We tested the hypothesis that phonological awareness is related to motion responsivity in children’s MT+. We measured BOLD signals to drifting gratings as a function of contrast. Subjects were 35 children ages 7–12y with a wide range of reading skills. Contrast responsivity in MT+, but not V1, was correlated with phonological awareness and to a lesser extent with two other measures of reading. No correlation was found between MT+ signals and rapid naming, age or general IQ measures. These results establish an important link between visual and phonological processing in children and suggest that MT+ responsivity is a marker for healthy reading development. PMID:17689981

  8. Tensor Correlations Measured in {sup 3}He(e,e{sup '}pp)n

    SciTech Connect

    Baghdasaryan, H.; Weinstein, L. B.; Adhikari, K. P.; Amarian, M.; Bennett, R. P.; Bueltmann, S.; Dodge, G. E.; Hyde, C. E.; Klein, A.; Kuhn, S. E.; Mayer, M.; Nepali, C.; Seraydaryan, H.; Laget, J. M.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Deur, A.; Gyurjyan, V.; Kubarovsky, V.; Nadel-Turonski, P.

    2010-11-26

    We have measured the {sup 3}He(e,e{sup '}pp)n reaction at an incident energy of 4.7 GeV over a wide kinematic range. We identified spectator correlated pp and pn nucleon pairs by using kinematic cuts and measured their relative and total momentum distributions. This is the first measurement of the ratio of pp to pn pairs as a function of pair total momentum p{sub tot}. For pair relative momenta between 0.3 and 0.5 GeV/c, the ratio is very small at low p{sub tot} and rises to approximately 0.5 at large p{sub tot}. This shows the dominance of tensor over central correlations at this relative momentum.

  9. Tensor Correlations Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    SciTech Connect

    Baghdasaryan, H; Weinstein, L B; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, K P; Amarian, M; Anghinolfi, M; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Bookwalter, C; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Boltmann, S; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Crede, V; D' Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; DeVita, R; DeSanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Eugenio, P; Fegan, S; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Gohn, W; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hyde, C E; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Konczykowski, P; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I.J.D.; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McAndrew, J; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nepali, C; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Anefalos Pereira, S; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seraydaryan, H; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, C E; Tedeschi, D J; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zhao, B

    2010-11-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e?pp)n reaction at an incident energy of 4.7 GeV over a wide kinematic range. We identified spectator correlated pp and pn nucleon pairs by using kinematic cuts and measured their relative and total momentum distributions. This is the first measurement of the ratio of pp to pn pairs as a function of pair total momentum ptot. For pair relative momenta between 0.3 and 0.5??GeV/c, the ratio is very small at low ptot and rises to approximately 0.5 at large ptot. This shows the dominance of tensor over central correlations at this relative momentum.

  10. Generating mock data sets for large-scale Lyman-? forest correlation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; McDonald, Patrick; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi E-mail: pvmcdonald@lbl.gov

    2012-01-01

    Massive spectroscopic surveys of high-redshift quasars yield large numbers of correlated Ly? absorption spectra that can be used to measure large-scale structure. Simulations of these surveys are required to accurately interpret the measurements of correlations and correct for systematic errors. An efficient method to generate mock realizations of Ly? forest surveys is presented which generates a field over the lines of sight to the survey sources only, instead of having to generate it over the entire three-dimensional volume of the survey. The method can be calibrated to reproduce the power spectrum and one-point distribution function of the transmitted flux fraction, as well as the redshift evolution of these quantities, and is easily used for modeling any survey systematic effects. We present an example of how these mock surveys are applied to predict the measurement errors in a survey with similar parameters as the BOSS quasar survey in SDSS-III.

  11. Spectral Correlation Measurements at the Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference Dip

    E-print Network

    Thomas Gerrits; Francesco Marsili; Varun Verma; Lynden Shalm; Matthew Shaw; Richard Mirin; Sae Woo Nam

    2014-09-04

    We present an efficient tool capable of measuring the spectral correlations between photons emerging from a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. We show that for our spectrally factorizable spontaneous downconversion source the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibility decreases as the photons frequency spread is increased to a maximum of 165 nm. Unfiltered, we obtained a visibility of $92.0 \\pm 0.2 \\%$. The maximum visibility was $97 \\pm 0.2 \\%$ after applying filtering. We show that the tool can be useful for the study of spectral correlations that impair high-visibility and high-fidelity multi-source interference applications.

  12. Shannon-information entropy sum as a correlation measure in atomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Nicolais L.; Sagar, Robin P.; Esquivel, Rodolfo O.

    2003-01-01

    The interpretation of the entropy sum as a correlation measure is demonstrated for isoelectronic series via an analytical expression that models the asymptotic behavior of the electronic charge density in position space and the cusp behavior in momentum space. We also develop an expression for the entropy sum in neutral atoms with an explicit dependence on the ionization energy and the atomic number. The results obtained from these relations are in qualitative agreement with the behavior observed from ab initio calculations. A connection between the entropy sum and the correlation energy is obtained for the weakly inhomogeneous electron gas and demonstrated via calculations for the helium isoelectronic series.

  13. Millimeter-wave passive components of correlation radiometers for polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peverini, Oscar A.; Tascone, Riccardo; Virone, Giuseppe; Baralis, Massimo; Olivieri, Augusto; Orta, Renato

    2004-10-01

    In this paper the millimeter-wave passive components developed for the Ka-band Bar-SPOrt (Balloon-borne Radiometer for Sky Polarization Observatory) correlation radiometer are described. Comparison between numerical and experimental results are reported for all the building blocks of the radiometer: marker injector, polarizer, ortho-mode transducer, filtering sections and correlation unit. Due to the very low level of the polarized sky emission to be measured, all the components were designed and manufactured in order to achieve a very high level of sensitivity.

  14. Speckle correlation method used to measure object's in-plane velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Petr; Horvath, Pavel; Hrabovsky, Miroslav

    2007-06-20

    We present a measurement of an object's in-plane velocity in onedirection by the use of the speckle correlation method. Numerical correlationsof speckle patterns recorded periodically during motion of the object underinvestigation give information used to evaluate the object's in-plane velocity.The proposed optical setup uses a detection plane in the image field and enablesone to detect the object's velocity within the interval(10-150) {mu}m ? s-1.Simulation analysis shows a way of controlling the measuring range. Thepresented theory, simulation analysis, and setup are verified through anexperiment of measurement of the velocity profile of an object.

  15. Correlations Among Ice Measurements, Impingement Rates Icing Conditions, and Drag Coefficients for Unswept NACA 65A004 Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Vernon H.

    1958-01-01

    An empirical relation has been obtained by which the change in drag coefficient caused by ice formations on an unswept NACA 65AO04 airfoil section can be determined from the following icing and operating conditions: icing time, airspeed, air total temperature, liquid-water content, cloud droplet impingement efficiencies, airfoil chord length, and angles of attack. The correlation was obtained by use of measured ice heights and ice angles. These measurements were obtained from a variety of ice formations, which were carefully photographed, cross-sectioned, and weighed. Ice weights increased at a constant rate with icing time in a rime icing condition and at progressively increasing rates in glaze icing conditions. Initial rates of ice collection agreed reasonably well with values predicted from droplet impingement data. Experimental droplet impingement rates obtained on this airfoil section agreed with previous theoretical calculations for angles of attack of 40 or less. Disagreement at higher angles of attack was attributed to flow separation from the upper surface of the experimental airfoil model.

  16. Correlation of the Coronal Mass Ejection Productivity of Solar Active Regions with Measures of their Global Nonpotentiality from Vector Magnetograms: Baseline Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal images show qualitatively that the fastest coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are magnetic explosions from sunspot active regions where the magnetic field is globally strongly sheared and twisted from its minimum-energy potential configuration. We present measurements from active region vector magnetograms that start to quantify the dependence of an active region's CME productivity on the global nonpotentiality of its magnetic field. From each of 17 magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions, we measured the size of the active region (the magnetic flux content, phi) and three separate measures of the global nonpotentiality (L(sub SS), the length of strong-shear, strong-field main neutral line: I(sub N), the net electric current connecting one polarity to the other; and alpha = (mu)I(sub N)/phi), a flux normalized measure of the field twist). From these measurements and the observed CME productivity of the active regions, we find that: (1) All three measures of global nonpotentiality are statistically correlated with the active region flux content and with each other; (2) All three measures of global nonpotentiality are significantly correlated with CME productivity. The flux content correlates with CME productivity, but at a lower statistically significant confidence level (less than 95%); (3) The net current is less closely correlated with CME productivity than alpha and the correlation of CME productivity with flux content is even weaker. If these differences in correlation strength, and a significant correlation of alpha with flux content, persist to larger active regions, this would imply that the size of active regions does not affect CME productivity except through global nonpotentiality; and (4) For each of the four global magnetic quantities, the correlation with CME productivity is stronger for a two-day time window for the CME production than for windows half as wide or twice as wide. This plausibly is a result of the most counterproductive active regions producing less than one CME per day, and from the active region's evolution often significantly changing the global nonpotentiality over the course of several days. These results establish that measures of active region global nonpotentiality from vector magnetograms (such as L(sub SS), I(sub N), and alpha) should be useful for prediction a active region CMEs.

  17. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass in p anti-p Collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV using the Decay Length Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2006-12-01

    We report the first measurement of the top quark mass using the decay length technique in p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. This technique uses the measured flight distance of the b hadron to infer the mass of the top quark in lepton plus jets events with missing transverse energy. It relies solely on tracking and avoids the jet energy scale uncertainty that is common to all other methods used so far. We apply our novel method to a 695 pb{sup -1} data sample recorded by the CDF II detector at Fermilab and extract a measurement of m{sub t} = 180.7{sub -13.4}{sup +15.5}(stat.) {+-} 8.6 (syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}. While the uncertainty of this result is larger than that of other measurements, the dominant uncertainties in the decay length technique are uncorrelated with those in other methods. This result can help reduce the overall uncertainty when combined with other existing measurements of the top quark mass.

  18. Correlation of elastohydrodynamic film thickness measurements for fluorocarbon type 2 ester, and polyphenyl ether lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    A minimum films thickness correlation applicable to heavily loaded elastohydrodynamic (EHD) contacts was formulated from experimental data obtained by an X-ray transmission technique. The correlation, based on data generated with fluorocarbon, type II ester, and polyphenyl ether lubricants, extends a previous analysis developed from data for a synthetic paraffinic oil. The resulting correlation represents the data of the four lubricants reasonably well over a large range of operating conditions. Contained within the derived relation is a factor to account for the high-load dependence displayed by the measurements beyond that which is provided for by the theory. Thermal corrections applied to a commonly used film thickness formula showed little improvement to the general disagreement that exists between theory and test. Choice of contact geometry and material are judged to have a relatively mild influence on the form of the semiempirical model.

  19. Measurement of Compound Nucleus Space-Time Extent with Two-Neutron Correlation Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colonna, N.; Bowman, D. R.; Celano, L.; D'erasmo, G.; Fiore, E. M.; Fiore, L.; Pantaleo, A.; Paticchio, V.; Tagliente, G.; Pratt, S.

    1995-12-01

    Two-neutron relative-momentum correlation functions have been measured in the 130 MeV 18O+26Mg reaction. Differences in the longitudinal and transverse correlation functions, observed for the first time for neutrons, allow an independent determination of the spatial extent and the time scale for decay of the 44Ca compound nucleus. A comparison with theoretical calculations indicates a radius of 4.4+/-0.3 fm and an average neutron emission time scale of 1100+/-100 fm/c for 44Ca at 100 MeV excitation energy. Correlation functions selected by cuts on the total momentum of the neutron pair give a quantitative characterization of the cooling of a compound nucleus.

  20. Tracking Contributions to Human Body Burden of Environmental Chemicals by Correlating Environmental Measurements with Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E.; Sohn, Michael D.; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2014-01-01

    The work addresses current knowledge gaps regarding causes for correlations between environmental and biomarker measurements and explores the underappreciated role of variability in disaggregating exposure attributes that contribute to biomarker levels. Our simulation-based study considers variability in environmental and food measurements, the relative contribution of various exposure sources (indoors and food), and the biological half-life of a compound, on the resulting correlations between biomarker and environmental measurements. For two hypothetical compounds whose half-lives are on the order of days for one and years for the other, we generate synthetic daily environmental concentrations and food exposures with different day-to-day and population variability as well as different amounts of home- and food-based exposure. Assuming that the total intake results only from home-based exposure and food ingestion, we estimate time-dependent biomarker concentrations using a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Box plots of modeled R2 values indicate that although the R2 correlation between wipe and biological (e.g., serum) measurements is within the same range for the two compounds, the relative contribution of the home exposure to the total exposure could differ by up to 20%, thus providing the relative indication of their contribution to body burden. The novel method introduced in this paper provides insights for evaluating scenarios or experiments where sample, exposure, and compound variability must be weighed in order to interpret associations between exposure data. PMID:24681626

  1. Environmental stresses disrupt telomere length homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Romano, Gal Hagit; Harari, Yaniv; Yehuda, Tal; Podhorzer, Ariel; Rubinstein, Linda; Shamir, Ron; Gottlieb, Assaf; Silberberg, Yael; Pe'er, Dana; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan, Roded; Kupiec, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres protect the chromosome ends from degradation and play crucial roles in cellular aging and disease. Recent studies have additionally found a correlation between psychological stress, telomere length, and health outcome in humans. However, studies have not yet explored the causal relationship between stress and telomere length, or the molecular mechanisms underlying that relationship. Using yeast as a model organism, we show that stresses may have very different outcomes: alcohol and acetic acid elongate telomeres, whereas caffeine and high temperatures shorten telomeres. Additional treatments, such as oxidative stress, show no effect. By combining genome-wide expression measurements with a systematic genetic screen, we identify the Rap1/Rif1 pathway as the central mediator of the telomeric response to environmental signals. These results demonstrate that telomere length can be manipulated, and that a carefully regulated homeostasis may become markedly deregulated in opposing directions in response to different environmental cues. PMID:24039592

  2. Environmental Stresses Disrupt Telomere Length Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yehuda, Tal; Podhorzer, Ariel; Rubinstein, Linda; Shamir, Ron; Gottlieb, Assaf; Silberberg, Yael; Pe'er, Dana; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan, Roded; Kupiec, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres protect the chromosome ends from degradation and play crucial roles in cellular aging and disease. Recent studies have additionally found a correlation between psychological stress, telomere length, and health outcome in humans. However, studies have not yet explored the causal relationship between stress and telomere length, or the molecular mechanisms underlying that relationship. Using yeast as a model organism, we show that stresses may have very different outcomes: alcohol and acetic acid elongate telomeres, whereas caffeine and high temperatures shorten telomeres. Additional treatments, such as oxidative stress, show no effect. By combining genome-wide expression measurements with a systematic genetic screen, we identify the Rap1/Rif1 pathway as the central mediator of the telomeric response to environmental signals. These results demonstrate that telomere length can be manipulated, and that a carefully regulated homeostasis may become markedly deregulated in opposing directions in response to different environmental cues. PMID:24039592

  3. A Search for Correlations Between Four Different Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement Systems Atop Rattlesnake Mountain, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milbrath, Brian

    2004-05-01

    Accurate atmospheric aerosol transport measurements are important to international nuclear test monitoring, emergency response, health and ecosystem toxicology, and climate change. An International Monitoring System (IMS) is being established which will include a suite of aerosol radionuclide sensors. To explore the possibility of using the IMS sites to improve the understanding of global atmospheric aerosol transport, four state-of-the-art aerosol measurement systems were placed atop Rattlesnake Mountain at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer measures radionuclide concentration via gamma-ray spectroscopy. The Cascade Impactor Beam Analyzer Technique measures 30 elements in three aerosol sizes using PNNLâ's Ion Beams Materials Analysis Laboratory. The Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance provides time-averaged aerosol mass concentrations for a range of sizes. The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer measures the solar irradiance to derive an aerosol optical depth. Results and correlations from the four different detectors will be presented.

  4. Measuring distance ratios with CMB-galaxy lensing cross-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sudeep; Spergel, David N.

    2009-02-01

    We propose a method for cosmographic measurements by combining gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with cosmic shear surveys. We cross-correlate the galaxy counts in the lens plane with two different source planes: the CMB at z˜1100 and galaxies at an intermediate redshift. The ratio of the galaxy count/CMB lensing cross-correlation to the galaxy count/galaxy lensing cross-correlation is shown to be a purely geometric quantity, depending only on the distribution function of the source galaxies. By combining Planck, the Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, the ratio can be measured to ˜4% accuracy, whereas a future polarization-based experiment like CMBPOL can make a more precise (˜1%) measurement. For cosmological models where the curvature and the equation of state parameter are allowed to vary, the direction of degeneracy defined by the measurement of this ratio is different from that traced out by baryon acoustic oscillation measurements. Combining this method with the stacked cluster mass reconstruction cosmography technique as proposed by Hu, Holz, and Vale (2007), the uncertainty in the ratio can be further reduced, improving the constraints on cosmological parameters. We also study the implications of the lensing-ratio measurement for early dark energy models, in the context of the parametrization proposed by Doran and Robbers (2006). For models which are degenerate with respect to the CMB, we find both baryon acoustic oscillation and lensing-ratio measurements to be insensitive to the early component of the dark energy density.

  5. Development of backsheet tests and measurements to improve correlation of accelerated exposures to fielded modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felder, Thomas C.; Gambogi, William J.; Kopchick, James G.; Amspacher, Lucas; Peacock, R. Scott; Foltz, Benjamin; Stika, Katherine M.; Bradley, Alexander Z.; Hamzavy, Babak; Yu, Bao-Ling; Garreau-iles, Lucie; Fu, Oakland; Hu, Hongjie; Trout, T. John

    2015-09-01

    Matching accelerated test results to field observations is an important objective in the photovoltaic industry. We continue to develop test methods to strengthen correlations. We have previously reported good correlation of FTIR spectra between accelerated tests and field measurements. The availability of portable FTIR spectrometers has made measurement in the field convenient and reliable. Recently, nano-indentation has shown promise to correlate changes in backsheet mechanical properties. A precisely shaped stylus is pressed into a sample, load vs displacement recorded and mechanical properties of interest calculated in a nondestructive test. This test can be done on full size modules, allowing area variations in mechanical properties to be recorded. Finally, we will discuss optical profilometry. In this technique a white light interferogram of a surface is Fourier transformed to produce a three-dimensional image. Height differences from 1 nm to 5 mm can be detected over an area of a few cm. This technique can be used on minimodules, and is useful to determine crack and defect dimensions. Results will be presented correlating accelerated tests with fielded modules covering spectroscopic, mechanical, and morphological changes.

  6. DOPING AND BOND LENGTH CONTRIBUTIONS TO Mn K-EDGE SHIFT IN La1-xSrxMnO3 AND THEIR CORRELATION WITH ELECTRICAL TRANSPORT BEHAVIOUR.

    SciTech Connect

    PANDEY,S.K.; KHALID,S.; BINDU, R.; KUMAR, A.; PIMPALE, A.V.

    2006-12-04

    The experimental Mn K-edge x-ray absorption spectra of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, x = 0 - 0.7 are compared with the band structure calculations using spin polarized density functional theory. It is explicitly shown that there is a correspondence between the inflection point on the absorption edge and the center of gravity of the unoccupied Mn 4p-band. This correspondence has been used to separate the doping and size contributions to edge shift due to variation in number of electrons in valence band and Mn-O bond lengths, respectively when Sr is doped into LaMnO{sub 3}. Such separation is helpful to find the localization behavior of charge carriers and to understand the observed transport properties and type of charge carrier participating in the conduction process in these compounds.

  7. Measuring Head Kinematics in Football: Correlation Between the Head Impact Telemetry System and Hybrid III Headform

    PubMed Central

    Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Greenwald, Richard M.; Chu, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, advances in technology have enabled researchers to evaluate concussion biomechanics through measurement of head impacts sustained during play using two primary methods: (1) laboratory reconstruction of open-field head contact, and (2) instrumented helmets. The purpose of this study was to correlate measures of head kinematics recorded by the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System (Simbex, NH) with those obtained from a Hybrid III (HIII) anthropometric headform under conditions that mimicked impacts occurring in the NFL. Linear regression analysis was performed to correlate peak linear acceleration, peak rotational acceleration, Gadd Severity Index (GSI), and Head Injury Criterion (HIC15) obtained from the instrumented helmet and HIII. The average absolute location error between instrumented helmet impact location and the direction of HIII head linear acceleration were also calculated. The HIT System overestimated Hybrid III peak linear acceleration by 0.9% and underestimated peak rotational acceleration by 6.1% for impact sites and velocities previously identified by the NFL as occurring during play. Acceleration measures for all impacts were correlated; however, linear was higher (r2 = 0.903) than rotational (r2 = 0.528) primarily due to lower HIT System rotational acceleration estimates at the frontal facemask test site. Severity measures GSI and HIC were also found to be correlated, albeit less than peak linear acceleration, with the overall difference between the two systems being less than 6.1% for either measure. Mean absolute impact location difference between systems was 31.2 ± 46.3° (approximately 0.038 ± 0.050 m), which was less than the diameter of the impactor surface in the test. In instances of severe helmet deflection (2.54–7.62 cm off the head), the instrumented helmet accurately measured impact location but overpre-dicted all severity metrics recorded by the HIII. Results from this study indicate that measurements from the two methods of study are correlated and provide a link that can be used to better interpret findings from future study using either technology. PMID:21994068

  8. Correlation between two-point discrimination with other measures of sensory loss in diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Periyasamy, R.; Manivannan, M.; Narayanamurthy, V. B.

    2008-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most important factors for foot ulceration in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Among different sensibility measures of neuropathy, two-point discrimination (TPD) has been suggested as a reliable method; however, the correlation of TPD with other well-known measures is not known. We measured the loss of protective sensation using Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments (SWMF), hardness of the foot sole using shore meter (sh), power ratio (PR) using pedopowergraph and TPD using esthesiometer in foot areas of both left and right legs in 14 DM subjects. We have found no correlation either between TPD and shore values (sh) or between TPD and PR. The SWMF (10 g) is found not to provide any additional value in measuring loss of sensation in comparison to TPD. The TPD appears to be measuring different property of the foot compared to other measures. The mechanism of this independence is not well understood and more investigation is required to understand the mechanism. PMID:19902038

  9. In-vessel fluid flow measurements using thermocouples cross-correlation.

    SciTech Connect

    NguyenLe, Q.

    1998-05-08

    Fluid flow rate in high temperature and pressure vessels can be difficult to measure due to the associated harsh environment, inaccessible locations and pressure boundary integrity concerns. However, by using quick response miniature thermocouples to measure the naturally occurring temperature variations within the flow, the fluid velocity can be inferred from the transit time analysis. This flow measurement technique has other advantages such as the flow profile is not significantly disturbed, no additional flow restrictions introduced and the system fiction factor is not increased. Furthermore, since the measured flow rate is generally unaffected by the global system dynamics, such as heat increases or losses, as well as changes in the flow regimes, the location of the thermocouple pairs is extremely flexible. Due to the mentioned advantages, the thermocouple cross-correlation flow measurement method has been developed for use at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA). Currently, thermocouple cross-correlation technique is used to measure the Reactor Pressure Vessel downcomer fluid velocity and the suppression pool in-vessel natural circulation velocity.

  10. Cross-correlation measurement of quantum shot noise using homemade transimpedance amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Hashisaka, Masayuki Ota, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Fujisawa, Toshimasa; Muraki, Koji

    2014-05-15

    We report a cross-correlation measurement system, based on a new approach, which can be used to measure shot noise in a mesoscopic conductor at milliKelvin temperatures. In contrast to other measurement systems in which high-speed low-noise voltage amplifiers are commonly used, our system employs homemade transimpedance amplifiers (TAs). The low input impedance of the TAs significantly reduces the crosstalk caused by unavoidable parasitic capacitance between wires. The TAs are designed to have a flat gain over a frequency band from 2 kHz to 1 MHz. Low-noise performance is attained by installing the TAs at a 4 K stage of a dilution refrigerator. Our system thus fulfills the technical requirements for cross-correlation measurements: low noise floor, high frequency band, and negligible crosstalk between two signal lines. Using our system, shot noise generated at a quantum point contact embedded in a quantum Hall system is measured. The good agreement between the obtained shot-noise data and theoretical predictions demonstrates the accuracy of the measurements.

  11. Cross-correlation measurement of quantum shot noise using homemade transimpedance amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashisaka, Masayuki; Ota, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Fujisawa, Toshimasa; Muraki, Koji

    2014-05-01

    We report a cross-correlation measurement system, based on a new approach, which can be used to measure shot noise in a mesoscopic conductor at milliKelvin temperatures. In contrast to other measurement systems in which high-speed low-noise voltage amplifiers are commonly used, our system employs homemade transimpedance amplifiers (TAs). The low input impedance of the TAs significantly reduces the crosstalk caused by unavoidable parasitic capacitance between wires. The TAs are designed to have a flat gain over a frequency band from 2 kHz to 1 MHz. Low-noise performance is attained by installing the TAs at a 4 K stage of a dilution refrigerator. Our system thus fulfills the technical requirements for cross-correlation measurements: low noise floor, high frequency band, and negligible crosstalk between two signal lines. Using our system, shot noise generated at a quantum point contact embedded in a quantum Hall system is measured. The good agreement between the obtained shot-noise data and theoretical predictions demonstrates the accuracy of the measurements.

  12. Measuring the entanglement of analogue Hawking radiation by the density-density correlation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauer, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    We theoretically study the entanglement of Hawking radiation pairs emitted by an analogue black hole. We find that this entanglement can be measured by the experimentally accessible density-density correlation function, vastly simplifying the measurement. We find that while the Hawking radiation exiting the black hole might be Planck-distributed, the correlations between the Hawking radiation and the partner particles has a distribution which is weaker but broader than Planckian. Thus, the high-energy tail of the distribution of Hawking radiation should be entangled, whereas the low-energy part should not be. This confirms previous studies. The full Peres-Horodecki criterion is considered, as well as a simpler criterion in the stationary, homogeneous case. Our method applies to systems which are sufficiently cold that the thermal phonons can be neglected.

  13. Direct Measurement of Shear-Induced Cross-Correlations of Brownian Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziehl, A.; Bammert, J.; Holzer, L.; Wagner, C.; Zimmermann, W.

    2009-12-01

    Shear-induced cross-correlations of particle fluctuations perpendicular and along streamlines are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Direct measurements of the Brownian motion of micron-sized beads, held by optical tweezers in a shear-flow cell, show a strong time asymmetry in the cross-correlation, which is caused by the non-normal amplification of fluctuations. Complementary measurements on the single particle probability distribution substantiate this behavior and both results are consistent with a Langevin model. In addition, a shear-induced anticorrelation between orthogonal random displacements of two trapped and hydrodynamically interacting particles is detected, having one or two extrema in time, depending on the positions of the particles.

  14. Measuring the entanglement of analogue Hawking radiation by the density-density correlation function

    E-print Network

    Jeff Steinhauer

    2015-05-20

    We theoretically study the entanglement of Hawking radiation pairs emitted by an analogue black hole. We find that this entanglement can be measured by the experimentally accessible density-density correlation function, vastly simplifying the measurement. We find that while the Hawking radiation exiting the black hole might be Planck-distributed, the correlations between the Hawking radiation and the partner particles has a distribution which is weaker but broader than Planckian. Thus, the high energy tail of the distribution of Hawking radiation should be entangled, whereas the low energy part should not be. This confirms a previous numerical study. The full Peres-Horodecki criterion is considered, as well as a simpler criterion in the stationary, homogeneous case. Our method applies to systems which are sufficiently cold that the thermal phonons can be neglected.

  15. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of cerebral blood flow: future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Erin M.; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Grant, P. Ellen; Yodh, Arjun G.; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is an emerging optical modality used to measure cortical cerebral blood flow. This outlook presents a brief overview of the technology, summarizing the advantages and limitations of the method, and describing its recent applications to animal, adult, and infant cohorts. At last, the paper highlights future applications where DCS may play a pivotal role individualizing patient management and enhancing our understanding of neurovascular coupling, activation, and brain development. PMID:25593978

  16. Correlation of predicted and measured thermal stresses on a truss-type aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. M.; Schuster, L. S.; Carter, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    A test structure representing a portion of a hypersonic vehicle was instrumented with strain gages and thermocouples. This test structure was then subjected to laboratory heating representative of supersonic and hypersonic flight conditions. A finite element computer model of this structure was developed using several types of elements with the NASA structural analysis (NASTRAN) computer program. Temperature inputs from the test were used to generate predicted model thermal stresses and these were correlated with the test measurements.

  17. Bose-Einstein correlation to measure the size of event of different types

    E-print Network

    V. A. Schegelsky; M. G. Ryskin

    2015-06-11

    Bose-Einstein correlations of identical hadrons produced in high- energy pp collisions at the LHC is a good instrument to probe the size of the domain which emits these hadrons in different classes of events. This provides an additional information on the dynamics of multiparticle production. In particular this way we may measure the radius of the colour tube/string which create the secondary pions.

  18. Atmospheric correlation-time measurements and effects on coherent Doppler lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancellet, Gerard M.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The time for which the backscatter from an ensemble of atmospheric aerosol particles remains coherent was studied by using a pulsed TEA CO2 lidar with coherent detection. Experimental results are compared with predictions by using model pulse shapes appropriate for TEA CO2 laser transmitters. The correlation time of the backscatter return signal is important in studies of atmospheric turbulence and its effects on optical propagation and backscatter. Techniques for its measurement are discussed and evaluated.

  19. Identification of scalp EEG circadian variation using a novel correlation sum measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahidi Zandi, Ali; Boudreau, Philippe; Boivin, Diane B.; Dumont, Guy A.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. In this paper, we propose a novel method to determine the circadian variation of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in both individual and group levels using a correlation sum measure, quantifying self-similarity of the EEG relative energy across waking epochs. Approach. We analysed EEG recordings from central-parietal and occipito-parietal montages in nine healthy subjects undergoing a 72 h ultradian sleep-wake cycle protocol. Each waking epoch (˜1 s) of every nap opportunity was decomposed using the wavelet packet transform, and the relative energy for that epoch was calculated in the desired frequency band using the corresponding wavelet coefficients. Then, the resulting set of energy values was resampled randomly to generate different subsets with equal number of elements. The correlation sum of each subset was then calculated over a range of distance thresholds, and the average over all subsets was computed. This average value was finally scaled for each nap opportunity and considered as a new circadian measure. Main results. According to the evaluation results, a clear circadian rhythm was identified in some EEG frequency ranges, particularly in 4-8 Hz and 10-12 Hz. The correlation sum measure not only was able to disclose the circadian rhythm on the group data but also revealed significant circadian variations in most individual cases, as opposed to previous studies only reporting the circadian rhythms on a population of subjects. Compared to a naive measure based on the EEG absolute energy in the frequency band of interest, the proposed measure showed a clear superiority using both individual and group data. Results also suggested that the acrophase (i.e., the peak) of the circadian rhythm in 10-12 Hz occurs close to the core body temperature minimum. Significance. These results confirm the potential usefulness of the proposed EEG-based measure as a non-invasive circadian marker.

  20. Correlation of measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter using ultrasound with magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shirodkar, Chetan G.; Munta, Kartik; Rao, S. Manimala; Mahesh, M. Uma

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Analysis to correlate the measurements of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) obtained by using ultrasound to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in order to establish the accuracy of ocular sonography as a noninvasive modality for detecting raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Materials and Methods: A prospective, observational study was performed in 100 cases of adult meningoencephalitis patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit in whom MRI was performed for neurodiagnosis. ONSD was measured in such patients, 3 mm behind the globe in each eye. A mean binocular ONSD >4.6 mm in female and 4.8 mm in male was taken as cut-off values for diagnosing raised ICP. This was compared with ONSD measured on T2-weighted MRI image measured 3 mm behind the globe. The reading obtained from both the methods were compared with Bland–Altman analysis for correlation and the findings were tabulated. Results: The mean ONSD values measured with ultrasonography (USG) and MRI for female were 5.48 ± 0.43 mm and 5.68 ± 0.44 mm and for male were 5.40 ± 0.37 mm and 5.56 ± 0.38 mm, respectively. The mean age of the female and male was 53.90 ± 17.84 and 56.06 ± 15.67 years, respectively. On comparing ultrasound with MRI-derived ONSD values, we found acceptable agreement between both methods for measurements at a depth of 3 mm (r = 0.02, P < 0.001). Conclusion: In our study, we have found a good correlation between ocular USG and MRI of ONSD. The study has shown agreement with the fact that ocular sonography can be used as a noninvasive tool for detecting raised ICP with accuracy. PMID:26321806