Measurement of surface roughness and correlation length using dichromatic speckle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deka, M.
1980-03-01
A computer simulation study of the dichromatic speckle was conducted and the surface roughness and correlation length of sample surfaces were measured using a stylus instrument and similar measurements with dichromatic speckle. The rms difference of the two speckle intensities was analyzed for spot sizes smaller than, comparable and larger than the correlation length of the surface. The rms roughness of the sample ground glasses was calculated from the data obtained from the stylus instrument. The correlation length was obtained from an online multichannel FFT processor connected to the stylus instrument. The correlation length was estimated from the correlation function. The rms difference between the speckle intensities of two different wavelengths were measured for various spot sizes. For each intensity 64 K data samples was collected and processed in a PDP 11/40 computer. These data were used to calculate the second moment of the monochromatic speckle, the cross correlation of these and the rms difference. The roughness and the correlation length of the surface were estimated from these results. The results obtained from the dichromatic speckle are in good agreement with the values obtained from the stylus instrument.
Bunch Length Measurements With Laser/SR Cross-Correlation
Miller, Timothy; Daranciang, Dan; Lindenberg, Aaron; Corbett, Jeff; Fisher, Alan; Goodfellow, John; Huang, Xiaobiao; Mok, Walter; Safranek, James; Wen, Haidan; /SLAC
2012-07-06
By operating SPEAR3 in low-{alpha} mode the storage ring can generate synchrotron radiation pulses of order 1ps. Applications include pump-probe x-ray science and the production of THz radiation in the CSR regime. Measurements of the bunch length are difficult, however, because the light intensity is low and streak cameras typically provide resolution of only a few ps. Tests are now underway to resolve the short bunch length using cross-correlation between a 60-fs Ti:Sapphire laser and the visible SR beam in a BBO crystal. In this paper we report on the experimental setup, preliminary measurements and prospects for further improvement.
Measurement of the Correlation and Coherence Lengths in Boundary Layer Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palumbo, Daniel L.
2011-01-01
Wall pressure data acquired during flight tests at several flight conditions are analyzed and the correlation and coherence lengths of the data reported. It is shown how the frequency bandwidth of the analysis biases the correlation length and how the convection of the flow acts to reduce the coherence length. Coherence lengths measured in the streamwise direction appear much longer than would be expected based on classical results for flow over a flat plat.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellini, Tommaso; Clark, Noel A.; Degiorgio, Vittorio; Mantegazza, Francesco; Natale, Giorgio
1998-03-01
We have studied a composite system formed by a nematic thermotropic liquid crystal in which small silica particles have been dispersed. The colloids are aggregated and exert a randomizing effect on the nematic structure. The distorted pattern of the optical axis gives rise to a strong optical turbidity τ. We have measured τ as a function of the silica concentration Φ and of the temperature T in both the isotropic and nematic phase. We have found that, at fixed T, τ has a maximum as a function of Φ, and that, upon changing Φ, the whole shape of τ(T) drastically transforms. We have devised a model to describe the scattering of light from a distorted uniaxial system. The model has been developed both in the Born approximation and in the anomalous diffraction approximation, the two regimes which cover the broad range of experimental conditions. The family of τ(T) curves experimentally obtained at different Φ's is remarkably well described by the theoretical model, using as the only fitting parameter the correlation length ζ. We have found that, upon decreasing Φ, the nematic correlation length diverges as a power law of Φ. We compare the exponent of the power law with the prediction of the Imry-Ma theory of phase behavior in disordered systems, and we discuss the connection between ζ and the fractal correlation length of the silica aggregates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jaewook; Ghim, Young-Chul; Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Lab Team
2014-10-01
A BES (beam emission spectroscopy) system and an MIR (Microwave Imaging Reflectometer) system installed in KSTAR measure 2D (radial and poloidal) density fluctuations at two different toroidal locations. This gives a possibility of measuring the parallel correlation length of ion-scale turbulence in KSTAR. Due to lack of measurement points in toroidal direction and shorter separation distance between the diagnostics compared to an expected parallel correlation length, it is necessary to confirm whether a conventional statistical method, i.e., using a cross-correlation function, is valid for measuring the parallel correlation length. For this reason, we generated synthetic 3D density fluctuation data following Gaussian random field in a toroidal coordinate system that mimic real density fluctuation data. We measure the correlation length of the synthetic data by fitting a Gaussian function to the cross-correlation function. We observe that there is disagreement between the measured and actual correlation lengths, and the degree of disagreement is a function of at least, correlation length, correlation time and advection velocity of synthetic data. We identify the cause of disagreement and propose an appropriate method to measure correct correlation length.
Combined measurements of modulus and length and their correlation for different amorphous alloys
Porscha, B.; Neuhaeuser, H.
1995-03-15
Combined measurements of length and modulus change on the same specimen of Ni{sub 78}Si{sub 8}B{sub 14}, Cu{sub 64}Ti{sub 36} and Co{sub 66}Fe{sub 4}(MoSiB){sub 30} are presented. These properties are sensitive to different aspects of structural changes during relaxation in the amorphous state. The change of length is mainly sensitive to the topological long range relaxation. The change of the eigenfrequency is mainly sensitive to atomic rearrangements changing the chemical short range order. The results of the correlation between the effect of relaxation of frequency versus that of length can be described as follows: the observed structural relaxation in the amorphous states of each material can be divided up into two regimes. The first regime (I) with a prevailing change of eigenfrequency is attributed to short range rearrangements of the chemically different atomic species in the material; the second regime (II) with a larger amount of length change is interpreted as a long range topological relaxation with enhanced loss of free volume. This interpretation is supported by a comparison of the diffusion coefficients at the characteristic transition temperature {Tc} between the regimes I and II. It shows that the average diffusion path lengths of the possible diffusors below the characteristic temperature are in the order of 2 to 5 next neighbor distances, i.e., diffusion is only possible in a short range changing the species of neighboring atoms. Above {Tc}, the average diffusion path lengths are in the order of 5 to 50 next neighbor distances suggesting long range relaxation rearrangements by a diffusion process preferentially connected with the annihilation of free volume.
Picosecond Bunch length and Energy-z correlation measurements at SLAC's A-Line and End Station A
Molloy, Stephen; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.C.; Iverson, R.H.; Ross, M.; McCormick, D.J.; Ross, Marc C.; Walston, S.; Blackmore, V.; /Oxford U.
2007-06-27
We report on measurements of picosecond bunch lengths and the energy-z correlation of the bunch with a high energy electron test beam to the A-line and End Station A (ESA) facilities at SLAC. The bunch length and the energy-z correlation of the bunch are measured at the end of the linac using a synchrotron light monitor diagnostic at a high dispersion point in the A-line and a transverse RF deflecting cavity at the end of the linac. Measurements of the bunch length in ESA were made using high frequency diodes (up to 100 GHz) and pyroelectric detectors at a ceramic gap in the beamline. Modeling of the beam's longitudinal phase space through the linac and A-line to ESA is done using the 2-dimensional tracking program LiTrack, and LiTrack simulation results are compared with data. High frequency diode and pyroelectric detectors are planned to be used as part of a bunch length feedback system for the LCLS FEL at SLAC. The LCLS also plans precise bunch length and energy-z correlation measurements using transverse RF deflecting cavities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenstadt, E. W.; Hoppe, M. M.; Russell, C. T.
1982-01-01
Wide separations up to more than 1 earth radius between ISEE 1 and 2 during the second half of 1978 have been used to measure the correlation length of magnetic pulsations in quasiparallel shocks. When the two spacecraft were less than a few hundred km apart, magnetic oscillations measured by magnetometers on both spacecraft exhibited virtually identical waveforms, but at distances of several thousand km, the two time series of field variation showed no detailed similarily at all. The correlation coefficients of the pulsations dropped from close to 1.0 for spacecraft separations of less than 100 km to 0.2 for separations of greater than 800 km. A correlation length of several hundred km may be related to the gyroradius of return protons with energy typical of the peaks of diffuse and beam ion distributions.
Measuring Thermodynamic Length
Crooks, Gavin E
2007-09-07
Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schepanski, Kerstin; Klüser, Lars; Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina
2015-12-01
Fields of dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) from numerical models and satellite observations are widely used data sets for evaluating the actual distribution of atmospheric dust aerosol. In this study we investigate the use of estimates of spatial and temporal correlation lengths (CLs) calculated from simulations using the regional model system COSMO-MUSCAT (COSMO: Consortium for Small-scale Modelling; MUSCAT: MUltiScale Chemistry Aerosol Transport Model) to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric aerosol distribution, here mineral dust, and to provide an estimate on the temporal model output interval required in order to represent the local evolution of atmospheric dustiness. The CLs indicate the scales of variability for dust and thus provide an estimate for the stationarity of dust conditions in space and time. Additionally, CLs can be an estimate for the required resolution in time and space of observational systems to observe changes in atmospheric dust conditions that would be relevant for dust forecasts. Here, two years of dust simulations using COSMO-MUSCAT are analyzed. CLs for the individual years 2007 and 2008 are compared to the entire two-year period illustrating the impact of the length of time series on statistical analysis. The two years are chosen as they are contrasting with regard to mineral dust loads and thus provide additional information on the representativeness of the statistical analysis. Results from the COSMO-MUSCAT CL analysis are compared against CL estimates from satellite observations, here dust AOD inferred from IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), which provides bi-daily information of atmospheric dust loading over desert land and ocean. Although CLs estimated from the satellite observations are at a generally lower level of values, the results demonstrate the applicability of daily observations for assessing the atmospheric dust distribution. Main outcomes of this study illustrate the
[Sonographic leg length measurement].
Holst, A; Thomas, W
1989-03-01
After brief presentation of the clinical and radiological methods to measure the leg length and the leg length difference the authors outline the new diagnostic method for measuring the leg length and the leg length difference by means of real time sonography. Postmortem tests and clinical examples show that ultrasound is ideal to determine exactly the length of femur and tibia. The joint gaps on the hip, knee and upper ankle joint can be demonstrated by means of a 5 MHz linear scanner. A 1 mm strong metal bar on the skin and under the scanner is placed at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the body so that the bar can be seen in the centre. A measuring device gives the distances of the joint gaps in cm so that the difference correspond to the real length of femur and tibia. This standardised measuring is done by a particularly developed bearing and measuring device. The results of the sonographical measurements on 20 corpses and checking after consecutive dissections showed in 75% of cases a 100% sonographic measuring accuracy of the total leg length. The separately considered results for femur (85%) and tibia (90) were even better. The maximum sonographic measuring fault was 1.0 cm for the femur (in one case) and 0.5 cm for the tibia, respectively. All sonographic measurements were performed with the Sonoline SL-1 of the Siemens Company (Erlangen, W-Germany). Thus, sonographical measuring of the leg length offers a reliable, non-invasive method that can be repeated as often as necessary and is simply executed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2652268
Softness Correlations Across Length Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivancic, Robert; Shavit, Amit; Rieser, Jennifer; Schoenholz, Samuel; Cubuk, Ekin; Durian, Douglas; Liu, Andrea; Riggleman, Robert
In disordered systems, it is believed that mechanical failure begins with localized particle rearrangements. Recently, a machine learning method has been introduced to identify how likely a particle is to rearrange given its local structural environment, quantified by softness. We calculate the softness of particles in simulations of atomic Lennard-Jones mixtures, molecular Lennard-Jones oligomers, colloidal systems and granular systems. In each case, we find that the length scale characterizing spatial correlations of softness is approximately a particle diameter. These results provide a rationale for why localized rearrangements--whose size is presumably set by the scale of softness correlations--might occur in disordered systems across many length scales. Supported by DOE DE-FG02-05ER46199.
Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.
2010-01-01
Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.
Correlation between the forearm plus little finger length and the femoral length.
Naik, Monappa A; Sujir, Premjit; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Goyal, Tarun; Rao, Sharath K
2013-08-01
PURPOSE. To assess the correlation between the forearm plus little finger length and the femoral length in 100 volunteers. METHODS. The forearm plus little finger length and the ipsilateral femoral length of 68 male and 32 female volunteers aged 19 to 55 (mean, 35.8) years were measured using a measuring tape. The forearm plus litter finger length was measured from the tip of the olecranon to the tip of the little finger, whereas the femoral length was measured from the tip of the greater trochanter to the level of proximal pole of the patella over the outer aspect of thigh. Two observers made the measurements on 2 separate occasions. Intra- and inter-observer variations were calculated. A value of 0.75 or greater indicated excellent agreement. RESULTS. The mean forearm plus little finger length and femoral length were 39.87 (SD, 2.73) and 39.85 (SD, 2.44) cm, respectively. The mean difference between these 2 measurements was 0.028 (95% CI, -0.109 to 0.165) cm. The correlation between these 2 measurements was 0.861 (p<0.001). Patient age, sex, and body mass index did not affect this correlation. The intra- and inter-observer reliability was excellent. CONCLUSION. The forearm plus little finger length correlated with the femoral length. This method is simple, radiation-free, and can be applied in day-today practice. PMID:24014776
Correlation length for interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisk, L. A.; Sari, J. W.
1973-01-01
It is argued that it is necessary to consider two correlation lengths for interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations. For particles with gyroradii large enough to encounter and be scattered by large-scale tangential discontinuities in the field (particles with energies of above several GeV/nucleon) the appropriate correlation length is simply the mean spatial separation between the discontinuities. Particles with gyroradii much less than this mean separation appear to be unaffected by the discontinuities and respond only to smaller-scale field fluctuations. With this system of two correlation lengths the cosmic ray diffusion tensor may be altered from what was predicted by, for example, Jokipii and Coleman, and the objections raised recently by Klimas and Sandri to the diffusion analysis of Jokipii may apply only at relatively low energies (about 50 MeV/nucleon).
Overview of bunch length measurements.
Lumpkin, A. H.
1999-02-19
An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed.
Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length
Zinov’ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.
2015-01-15
A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.
Precise Measurement of Effective Focal Length
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wise, T. D.; Young, J. B.
1983-01-01
Computerized instrument measures effective focal lengths to 0.01 percent accuracy. Laser interferometers measure mirror angle and stage coordinate y in instrument for accurate measurment of focal properties of optical systems. Operates under computer control to measure effective focal length, focal surface shape, modulation transfer function, and astigmatism.
Clinical evaluation of five electronic root canal length measuring instruments.
Fouad, A F; Krell, K V; McKendry, D J; Koorbusch, G F; Olson, R A
1990-09-01
A previous in vitro study has shown high accuracy, but no clinically significant differences in a group of five electronic root canal length measuring instruments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance of the same group of instruments under clinical conditions and to correlate their accuracy to radiographic estimates of canal length. Five electronic root canal length measuring instruments were used to measure the working length to the "apex" in 20 single-rooted teeth scheduled for extraction. After extraction, the actual canal length was measured visually to a point just within the apical foramen. This length was compared with instrument length as determined electronically. The accuracy of the instruments in determining canal measurement within +/- 0.5 mm from the apical foramen varied from 55 to 75%. The differences between the instruments were not statistically significant. On average, all of the instruments except for the Endocater gave canal length measurements that were beyond the apical foramen. The variability of the measurements, which was comparable to that of estimates of canal length from preoperative radiographs, indicated that radiographic verification of the working length is still desirable. PMID:2098464
Acyl Chain Length of Phosphatidylserine Is Correlated with Plant Lifespan
Tian, Xuejun; Li, Weiqi
2014-01-01
Plant lifespan is affected by factors with genetic and environmental bases. The laws governing these two factors and how they affect plant lifespan are unclear. Here we show that the acyl chain length (ACL) of phosphatidylserine (PS) is correlated with plant lifespan. Among the detected eight head-group classes of membrane lipids with lipidomics based on triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry, the ACL of PS showed high diversity, in contrast to the ACLs of the other seven classes, which were highly conserved over all stages of development in all plant species and organs and under all conditions that we studied. Further investigation found that acyl chains of PS lengthened during development, senescence, and under environmental stresses and that increasing length was accelerated by promoted- senescence. The acyl chains of PS were limited to a certain carbon number and ceased to increase in length when plants were close to death. These findings suggest that the ACL of PS can count plant lifespan and could be a molecular scale ruler for measuring plant development and senescence. PMID:25058060
Drift wave transport scalings introduced by varying correlation length
Weiland, J.; Holod, I.
2005-01-01
Scalings of the correlation length of drift wave turbulence with magnetic current q, shear, elongation, and temperature ratio have been introduced into a drift wave transport model. The correlation length is calculated from linear scaling of the fastest growing mode. Such a procedure is supported by previous turbulence simulations with absorbing boundaries for short and long wavelengths. The resulting q and s scalings are now in better agreement with experimental scalings. In particular, the simulation results for transport barrier shots improve.
Carbon Nanotubes: Measuring Dispersion and Length
Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Bauer, Barry J.; Hobbie, Erik K.; Becker, Matthew L.; Hight-Walker, Angela; Simpson, Jeffrey R.; Chun, Jaehun; Obrzut, Jan; Bajpai, Vardhan; Phelan, Fred R.; Simien, Daneesh; Yeon Huh, Ji; Migler, Kalman B.
2011-03-01
Advanced technological uses of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) rely on the production of single length and chirality populations that are currently only available through liquid phase post processing. The foundation of all of these processing steps is the attainment of individualized nanotube dispersion in solution; an understanding of the collodial properties of the dispersed SWCNTs can then be used to designed appropriate conditions for separations. In many instances nanotube size, particularly length, is especially active in determining the achievable properties from a given population, and thus there is a critical need for measurement technologies for both length distribution and effective separation techniques. In this Progress Report, we document the current state of the art for measuring dispersion and length populations, including separations, and use examples to demonstrate the desirability of addressing these parameters.
Bunch length measurements using synchrotron ligth monitor
Ahmad, Mahmoud; Tiefenback, Michael G.
2015-09-01
The bunch length is measured at CEBAF using an invasive technique. The technique depends on applying an energy chirp for the electron bunch and imaging it through a dispersive region. The measurements are taken through Arc1 and Arc2 at CEBAF. The fundamental equations, procedure and the latest results are given.
Telomere length correlates with life span of dog breeds.
Fick, Laura J; Fick, Gordon H; Li, Zichen; Cao, Eric; Bao, Bo; Heffelfinger, Doug; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A; Riabowol, Karl
2012-12-27
Telomeric DNA repeats are lost as normal somatic cells replicate. When telomeres reach a critically short length, a DNA damage signal is initiated, inducing cell senescence. Some studies have indicated that telomere length correlates with mortality, suggesting that telomere length contributes to human life span; however, other studies report no correlation, and thus the issue remains controversial. Domestic dogs show parallels in telomere biology to humans, with similar telomere length, telomere attrition, and absence of somatic cell telomerase activity. Using this model, we find that peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) telomere length is a strong predictor of average life span among 15 different breeds (p < 0.0001), consistent with telomeres playing a role in life span determination. Dogs lose telomeric DNA ~10-fold faster than humans, which is similar to the ratio of average life spans between these species. Breeds with shorter mean telomere lengths show an increased probability of death from cardiovascular disease, which was previously correlated with short telomere length in humans. PMID:23260664
Distance and Cable Length Measurement System
Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay
2009-01-01
A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169
Length and Dimensional Measurements at NIST
Swyt, Dennis A.
2001-01-01
This paper discusses the past, present, and future of length and dimensional measurements at NIST. It covers the evolution of the SI unit of length through its three definitions and the evolution of NBS-NIST dimensional measurement from early linescales and gage blocks to a future of atom-based dimensional standards. Current capabilities include dimensional measurements over a range of fourteen orders of magnitude. Uncertainties of measurements on different types of material artifacts range down to 7×10−8 m at 1 m and 8 picometers (pm) at 300 pm. Current work deals with a broad range of areas of dimensional metrology. These include: large-scale coordinate systems; complex form; microform; surface finish; two-dimensional grids; optical, scanning-electron, atomic-force, and scanning-tunneling microscopies; atomic-scale displacement; and atom-based artifacts.
How Cells Measure Length on Subcellular Scales.
Marshall, Wallace F
2015-12-01
Cells are not just amorphous bags of enzymes, but precise and complex machines. With any machine, it is important that the parts be of the right size, yet our understanding of the mechanisms that control size of cellular structures remains at a rudimentary level in most cases. One problem with studying size control is that many cellular organelles have complex 3D structures that make their size hard to measure. Here we focus on linear structures within cells, for which the problem of size control reduces to the problem of length control. We compare and contrast potential mechanisms for length control to understand how cells solve simple geometry problems. PMID:26437596
Determining Correlation and Coherence Lengths in Turbulent Boundary Layer Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palumbo, Dan
2012-01-01
Wall pressure data acquired during flight tests at several flight conditions are analysed and the correlation and coherence lengths of the data reported. It is found that the correlation and coherence lengths are influenced by the origin of the structure producing the pressure and the frequency bandwidth over which the analyses are performed. It is shown how the frequency bandwidth biases the correlation length and how the convection of the pressure field might reduce the coherence measured between sensors. A convected form of the cross correlation and cross spectrum is introduced to compensate for the effects of convection. Coherence lengths measured in the streamwise direction appear much longer than expected. Coherent structures detected using the convected cross correlation do not exhibit an exponential coherent power decay.
The correlation length for interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisk, L. A.; Sari, J. W.
1972-01-01
It is argued that it is appropriate to consider two correlation lengths for interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations. For particles with gyro-radii large enough to encounter and be scattered by large-scale tangential discontinuities in the field (particles with energies greater than or approximately equal to several GeV/nucleon) the appropriate correlation length is simply the mean spatial separation between the discontinuities, L approximately 2 x 10 to the 11th power. Particles with gyro-radii much less than this mean separation (energies less than or approximately equal to 100 MeV/nucleon) appear to be unaffected by the discontinuities and respond only to smaller-scale field fluctuations. For these particles the correlation length is shown to be L approximately 10 to the 10th power cm. With this system of two correlation lengths the cosmic-ray diffusion tensor may be altered from what was predicted by, for example, Jokipii and Coleman, and the objections raised recently by Klimas and Sandri to the diffusion analysis of Jokipii may apply only at relatively low energies (approximately 50 MeV/nucleon).
Measuring scattering lengths of gaseous samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, M. G.; Black, T. C.; Haun, R.; Pushin, D. A.; Shahi, C. B.; Weitfeldt, F. E.
2016-03-01
Neutron interferometry represents one of the most precise techniques for measuring the coherent scattering lengths (bc) of particular nuclear isotopes. Currently bc for helium-4 is known only to 1% relative uncertainty; a factor of ten higher than precision measurements of other light isotopes. Scattering lengths are measured using a neutron interferometer and by comparing the phase shift a neutron acquires as it passes through a gaseous sample relative to that of a neutron passing through vacuum. The density of the gas is determined by continuous monitoring of the sample's temperature and pressure. Challenges for these types of experiments include achieving the necessary long-term phase stability and accurate determination of the phase shift caused by the aluminum cell used to hold the gas; a phase shift many times greater than that of the sample. The present status on the effort to measure the n-4He scattering length at the NIST center for Neutron Research will be given. Financial support provided by the NSERC `Create' and `Discovery' programs, CERC, NIST and NSF Grant PHY-1205342.
Ultrasound velocities for axial eye length measurement.
Hoffer, K J
1994-09-01
Since 1974, I have used individual sound velocities for each eye condition encountered for axial length measurement. The calculation results in 1,555 M/sec for the average phakic eye. A slower speed of 1,549 M/sec was found for an extremely long (30 mm) eye and a higher speed of 1,561 M/sec was noted for an extremely short (20 mm) eye. This inversely proportional velocity change can best be adjusted for by measuring the phakic eye at 1,532 M/sec and correcting the result by dividing the square of the measured axial length (AL1,532)2 by the difference of the measured axial length (AL1,532) minus 0.35 mm. A velocity of 1,534 M/sec was found for all aphakic eyes regardless of their length, and correction is clinically significant. The velocity of an eye containing a poly(methyl methacrylate) intraocular lens is not different from an average phakic eye but it does magnify the effect of axial length change. I recommend measuring the pseudophakic eye at 1,532 M/sec and adding to the result (AL1,532), + 0.04 + 44% of the IOL thickness. The speed for an eye with a silicone IOL was found to be 1,476 M/sec (or AL1,532 + 0.04 - 56% of IOL thickness) and for glass, 1,549 M/sec (or AL1,532 + 0.04 + 75% of IOL thickness). A speed of 1,139 M/sec was found for a phakic eye with silicone oil filling most of the vitreous cavity and 1,052 M/sec for an aphakic eye filled with oil. For varying volumes of oil, each eye should be calculated individually. The speed was 534 M/sec for phakic eyes filled with gas. Eyes containing a silicone IOL or oil or gas will create clinically significant errors (3 to 10 diopters) if the sound velocity is not corrected. PMID:7996413
Slip length measurement of gas flow.
Maali, Abdelhamid; Colin, Stéphane; Bhushan, Bharat
2016-09-16
In this paper, we present a review of the most important techniques used to measure the slip length of gas flow on isothermal surfaces. First, we present the famous Millikan experiment and then the rotating cylinder and spinning rotor gauge methods. Then, we describe the gas flow rate experiment, which is the most widely used technique to probe a confined gas and measure the slip. Finally, we present a promising technique using an atomic force microscope introduced recently to study the behavior of nanoscale confined gas. PMID:27505860
Slip length measurement of gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maali, Abdelhamid; Colin, Stéphane; Bhushan, Bharat
2016-09-01
In this paper, we present a review of the most important techniques used to measure the slip length of gas flow on isothermal surfaces. First, we present the famous Millikan experiment and then the rotating cylinder and spinning rotor gauge methods. Then, we describe the gas flow rate experiment, which is the most widely used technique to probe a confined gas and measure the slip. Finally, we present a promising technique using an atomic force microscope introduced recently to study the behavior of nanoscale confined gas.
Torque correlation length and stochastic twist dynamics of DNA.
Banigan, Edward J; Marko, John F
2014-06-01
We introduce a short correlation length for torque in twisting-stiff biomolecules, which is necessary for the physical property that torque fluctuations be finite in amplitude. We develop a nonequilibrium theory of dynamics of DNA twisting which predicts two crossover time scales for temporal torque correlations in single-molecule experiments. Bending fluctuations can be included, and at linear order we find that they do not affect the twist dynamics. However, twist fluctuations affect bending, and we predict the spatial inhomogeneity of twist, torque, and buckling arising in nonequilibrium "rotor-bead" experiments. PMID:25019813
Correlative Measurements Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parsons, C. L.
1988-01-01
The GSFC Correlative Measurements Program at the Wallops Flight Facility was represented on the Satellite/Satellite Intercomparisons Working Group. The Correlative Measurements Program uses the Rocket Ozonesonde (ROCOZ-A) and the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) balloon borne ozonesonde to measure the vertical profile of ozone amount in the atmosphere. The balloon work is described in a separate report. The ROCOZ-A instrument was used for many years to provide in situ truth data for various satellite ozone measuring systems, such as SBUV on Nimbus-7, SAGE-II, SBUV-II on the NOAA series of polar orbiting satellites, SME, LIMS, etc. The particular data sets of interest to the Ozone Trends Panel Working Group were collected at Natal, Brazil. The major results produced for and used by the Ozone Trends Panel are shown. The ROCOZ-A average ozone density profile is plotted versus altitude on the left. ECC ozonesondes were used for the portion of the profile below 20 km, the lower limit for ROCOZ-A. The difference between SAGE-II and ROCOZ-A average density profiles is shown.
Cross correlation and length scales in turbulent flows near surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, J. C. R.; Moin, P.; Lee, M.; Moser, R. D.; Spalart, P.; Mansour, N. N.; Kaimal, J. C.; Gaynor, E.
1989-01-01
Two kinds of length scales are used in turbulent flows; 'functional length scales' such as mixing length, dissipation length L(sub epsilon), etc., and 'flow-field length scales' derived from cross correlations of velocity, pressure, etc. in the flow. Some connection between these scales are derived here. We first consider the cross correlation R(sub vv)(y,y(sub 1)) of the normal components u at two heights y, y(sub 1) above a rigid surface, normalized by the velocity y(sub 1) (greater than y). For shear-free boundary layers it is found theoretically, and in field and numerical experiments that R(sub vv) approximately equals y/y(sub 1). For shear layers it is also found that R(sub vv) approximately equals f(y/y(sub 1)) less than or equal to y,y(sub 1). This function f differs slightly between low Reynolds number numerical simulations and field experiments. The lateral structure defined by R(sub vv)(y,r(sub 3); y(sub 1),0) is also self similar and shows that the eddies centered at about y(sub 1) appear to have constant lateral width a(sub 3) above and below y(sub 1), where a(sub 3, sup +) approximately equals 7+1/(1.4dU(sup +)/dy(sup +)), when normalized on u(sub *) and v, where U is the mean velocity. Results for L(sub epsilon, sup -1) from direct numerical simulation are found to compare well with the formula L(sub epsilon, sup -1) = A(sub B)/y + A(sub S)dU/dy/v, for unidirectional and reversing turbulent boundary layers and channel flow, except near where dU/dy approximately equals 0. The conclusion is that the large-scale eddy structure and length scales in these flows are determined by a combination of shear and blocking, and that the vertical component of turbulence has a self-similar structure in both kinds of boundary layer.
Standardisation of crown-rump length measurement.
Ioannou, C; Sarris, I; Hoch, L; Salomon, L J; Papageorghiou, A T
2013-09-01
Correct estimation of gestational age is essential for any study of ultrasound biometry and for everyday clinical practice. However, inconsistency in pregnancy dating may occur through differences in measurement methods or errors during measurement. In the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, pregnancies are dated by the last menstrual period, provided that it is certain and associated with a regular menstrual cycle, and the gestational age by dates concurs with a first-trimester ultrasound crown-rump length (CRL) estimation. Hence, there was a need to standardise CRL measurement methodology across the study sites in this international, multicentre project to avoid systematic differences in dating. To achieve uniformity we undertook the following steps: the ultrasound technique was standardised by disseminating an illustrated, operating manual describing CRL plane landmarks and calliper application, and posters describing the correct acquisition technique were disseminated for quick reference. To ensure that all ultrasonographers understood the methodology, they forwarded a log-book to the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Ultrasound Coordinating Unit, containing the answers to a written test on the manual material and five images of a correctly acquired CRL. Interpretation of CRL was also standardised by ensuring that the same CRL regression formula was used across all study sites. These methods should minimise potential systematic errors in dating associated with pooling data from different health institutions, and represent a model for standardising CRL measurement in future studies. PMID:23678951
Local-hybrid functional based on the correlation length
Johnson, Erin R.
2014-09-28
Local-hybrid functionals involve position-dependent mixing of Hartree-Fock and density-functional exchange, which should allow improved performance relative to conventional hybrids by reducing the inherent delocalization error and improving the long-range behaviour. Herein, the same-spin correlation length, obtained from the Fermi-hole radius, is used as the mixing parameter. The performance of the resulting local-hybrid functional is assessed for standard thermochemical and kinetics benchmarks. The local hybrid is shown to perform significantly better than the corresponding global hybrid in almost all cases.
Teitelbaum, Ezra N; Vaziri, Khashayar; Zettervall, Sara; Amdur, Richard L; Orkin, Bruce A
2013-10-01
Few studies have measured small bowel length (SBL) in live humans and many textbooks base their "normal" SBL values on cadaver data. Here, we present a series of intraoperative SBL measurements and analyze predictors of increased length. SBL from ligament of Treitz to ileocecal valve was measured in patients undergoing laparotomy for colorectal resection. Patients with Crohn's disease and those who had undergone prior bowel resections were excluded. In the 240 patients studied, mean SBL was 506 ± 105 (285-845) cm. Height was positively associated with increased SBL (P < 0.001) and men had longer SBL than women (533 vs. 482 cm, P < 0.001). A multivariate linear regression model using patient sex, age, height and weight was significant (P = 0.001) and the predictors explained 8% of the variance in SBL. In this model, only height was independently predictive of increased SBL (P = 0.03). Correlation results differed between sexes. In men, height correlated with increased SBL (r = 0.20; P = 0.03), whereas in women it did not. In men, age had a positive correlation with SBL at a trend level (r = 0.17; P = 0.08), whereas in women age had a negative correlation with SBL (r = -0.18; P = 0.04). The mean SBL was 506 cm in live patients, as compared with the 600-700 cm range derived from prior cadaver studies. Male sex and height had positive correlations with SBL. SBL may decrease with age in women but not in men. PMID:23519889
Relating Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness Length to Interferometric SAR Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saatchi, Sassan; Rodriquez, Ernesto
1998-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of estimating aerodynamic roughness parameter from interferometric SAR (INSAR) measurements. The relation between the interferometric correlation and the rms height of the surface is presented analytically. Model simulations performed over realistic canopy parameters obtained from field measurements in boreal forest environment demonstrate the capability of the INSAR measurements for estimating and mapping surface roughness lengths over forests and/or other vegetation types. The procedure for estimating this parameter over boreal forests using the INSAR data is discussed and the possibility of extending the methodology over tropical forests is examined.
Mask roughness induced LER: geometric model at long correlation lengths
McClinton, Brittany M.; Naulleau, Patrick P.
2011-02-11
Collective understanding of how both the resist and line-edge roughness (LER) on the mask affect the final printed LER has made significant advances. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which mask surface roughness couples to image plane LER as a function of illumination conditions, NA, and defocus. Recently, progress has been made in formulating a simplified solution for mask roughness induced LER. Here, we investigate the LER behavior at long correlation lengths of surface roughness on the mask. We find that for correlation lengths greater than 3/NA in wafer dimensions and CDs greater than approximately 0.75/NA, the previously described simplified model, which remains based on physical optics, converges to a 'geometric regime' which is based on ray optics and is independent of partial coherence. In this 'geometric regime', the LER is proportional to the mask slope error as it propagates through focus, and provides a faster alternative to calculating LER in contrast to either full 2D aerial image simulation modeling or the newly proposed physical optics model. Data is presented for both an NA = 0.32 and an NA = 0.5 imaging system for CDs of 22-nm and 50-nm horizontal-line-dense structures.
Automatic detection and measurement of femur length from fetal ultrasonography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Prateep; Swamy, Gokul; Gupta, Madhumita; Patil, Uday; Krishnan, Kajoli Banerjee
2010-03-01
Femur bone length is used in the assessment of fetal development and in the prediction of gestational age (GA). In this paper, we present a completely automated two-step method for identifying fetal femur and measuring its length from 2D ultrasound images. The detection algorithm uses a normalized score premised on the distribution of anatomical shape, size and presentation of the femur bone in clinically acceptable scans. The measurement process utilizes a polynomial curve fitting technique to determine the end-points of the bone from a 1D profile that is most distal from the transducer surface. The method has been tested with manual measurements made on 90 third trimester femur images by two radiologists. The measurements made by the experts are strongly correlated (Pearson's coefficient = 0.95). Likewise, the algorithm estimate is strongly correlated with expert measurements (Pearson's coefficient = 0.92 and 0.94). Based on GA estimates and their bounds specified in Standard Obstetric Tables, the GA predictions from automated measurements are found to be within +/-2SD of GA estimates from both manual measurements in 89/90 cases and within +/-3SD in all 90 cases. The method presented in this paper can be adapted to perform automatic measurement of other fetal limbs.
Toure, Ally Mounirou; Goïta, Kalifa; Royer, Alain; Mätzler, Christian; Schneebeli, Martin
2008-12-20
The study is based on experimental work conducted in alpine snow. We made microwave radiometric and near-infrared reflectance measurements of snow slabs under different experimental conditions. We used an empirical relation to link near-infrared reflectance of snow to the specific surface area (SSA), and converted the SSA into the correlation length. From the measurements of snow radiances at 21 and 35 GHz, we derived the microwave scattering coefficient by inverting two coupled radiative transfer models (the sandwich and six-flux model). The correlation lengths found are in the same range as those determined in the literature using cold laboratory work. The technique shows great potential in the determination of the snow correlation length under field conditions. PMID:19104524
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samanifar, S.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Alikhani, M.
2015-03-01
FeCoNi nanowire arrays (175 nm in diameter and lengths ranging from 5 to 40 μm) were fabricated into nanopores of hard-anodized aluminum oxide templates using pulsed ac electrodeposition technique. Increasing the length had no considerable effect on the composition and crystalline characteristics of Fe47Co38Ni15 nanowires (NWs). By eliminating the dendrites formed at the bottom of the pores, we report a careful investigation on the effect of magnetostatic interactions on magnetic properties and the effect of nanowire length on reversal modes. Hysteresis loop measurements indicated that increasing the length decreases coercivity and squareness values. On the other hand, first-order reversal curve measurements show a linear correlation between the magnetostatic interactions and length of NWs. Comparing reversal modes of the NWs both experimentally and theoretically using angular dependence of coercivity, we find that when L≤22 μm, a vortex domain wall mode is only occurred. When L>22 μm, a non-monotonic behavior indicates a transition from the vortex to transverse domain wall propagation. As a result, a critical length was found above which the transition between the reversal modes is occurred due the enhanced interactions. The transition angle also shifts toward a lower angle as the length increases. Moreover, with increasing length from 22 to 31 μm, the single domain structure of NWs changes to a pseudo single domain state. A multidomain-like behavior is also found for the longest NWs length.
Evaluation of the normal fetal kidney length and its correlation with gestational age.
Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaie-Delui, Hossein
2013-01-01
A true estimation of gestational age (GA) plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL) and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive equation to estimate GA on the KL and fetobiometry parameters. A significant correlation was found between GA and KL (r=0.83, P<0.002). The best GA predictor was obtained by combining head circumference, fetal biparietal diameter, femur length and KL with a standard error (SE) about 14.2 days. Our findings showed that KL measurements combination with other fetal biometric parameters could predict age of pregnancy with a better precision. PMID:23737313
50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to... Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER03JY96.000 Figure 1 of Appendix C to Part 622—Carapace Length ER25JA99.001 Figure 2 of Appendix C to Part 622—Illustration of Length Measurements...
Direct measure of quantum correlation
Yu, Chang-shui; Zhao, Haiqing
2011-12-15
The quantumness of the correlation known as quantum correlation is usually measured by quantum discord. So far various quantum discords can be roughly understood as indirect measure by some special discrepancy of two quantities. We present a direct measure of quantum correlation by revealing the difference between the structures of classically and quantum correlated states. Our measure explicitly includes the contributions of the inseparability and local nonorthogonality of the eigenvectors of a density matrix. Besides its relatively easy computability, our measure can provide a unified understanding of quantum correlation of all the present versions.
Basnet, K S; Dhungel, S; Panta, P P
2012-03-01
Stature of a person is one of the most important and useful anthropometric parameter for establishing identification of unknown living or a dead person. A descriptive cross sectional study was done on 165 Nepalese adult Musahar females of Aurahi Village of Mahottari district, Nepal to predict the stature from their hand length. Measurement of stature and the length of both right and left hands taken with a standard standing height measuring instrument and a slide caliper respectively showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation between the stature and hand lengths. The multiplication factor which was obtained by dividing the height of the subject by the respective hand lengths was found appropriate parameter to calculate the stature of a questioned person. The importance of the hand length alone will be of a great value for anthropologists and forensic experts. As an alternative method, the coefficient of regression and intercept which were obtained from the measured height and hand length were also proved to be equally valuable to estimate the height of a questioned person. PMID:23441496
[Measuring leg length and leg length difference with the method of real time sonography].
Holst, A; Thomas, W
1988-06-01
A brief presentation of the clinical and radiological methods to measure the leg length and the leg length difference is followed by an outline of the new diagnostic method for measuring the leg length and the leg length difference by means of real-time sonography. Tests conducted on corpses, as well as clinical examples, show that sonography is an ideal method for determining the exact lengths of the femur and tibia. The joint gaps on the hip joint, knee joint and upper ankle joint can be visualised by means of a 5 MHz linear scanner. A 1 mm strong metal bar on the skin and under the scanner are positioned at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of the body so that the bar can be seen in the centre of each joint gap by means of real-time sonography. A measuring device gives the distances of the joint gaps in cm so that the differences correspond to the real length of femur and tibia. This standardised measuring procedure is done by a specially developed bearing and measuring device. The results of the sonographical measurings on 20 corpses and checking after consecutive dissections showed in 75% of the cases a 100% sonographic measuring accuracy of the total leg length. The separately considered results for femur (85%) and tibia (90%) were even better. The maximum sonographic measuring fault was 1.0 cm for the femur (in one case) and 0.5 cm for the tibia, respectively. Thus, sonographic measuring of the leg length offers a reliable, non-invasive and easily performed new method that can be repeated any number of times. It is ideal for the development control of therapeutically influenced as well as spontaneous transformations of leg length differences. PMID:3071879
Accurate Fiber Length Measurement Using Time-of-Flight Technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terra, Osama; Hussein, Hatem
2016-06-01
Fiber artifacts of very well-measured length are required for the calibration of optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR). In this paper accurate length measurement of different fiber lengths using the time-of-flight technique is performed. A setup is proposed to measure accurately lengths from 1 to 40 km at 1,550 and 1,310 nm using high-speed electro-optic modulator and photodetector. This setup offers traceability to the SI unit of time, the second (and hence to meter by definition), by locking the time interval counter to the Global Positioning System (GPS)-disciplined quartz oscillator. Additionally, the length of a recirculating loop artifact is measured and compared with the measurement made for the same fiber by the National Physical Laboratory of United Kingdom (NPL). Finally, a method is proposed to relatively correct the fiber refractive index to allow accurate fiber length measurement.
Measurements of Newton's gravitational constant and the length of day
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.; Trimble, V.; Feldman, M. R.
2015-04-01
About a dozen measurements of Newton's gravitational constant, G, since 1962 have yielded values that differ by far more than their reported random plus systematic errors. We find that these values for G are oscillatory in nature, with a period of P = 5.899 +/- 0.062 \\text{yr} , an amplitude of (1.619 +/- 0.103) × 10-14 \\text{m}3 \\text{kg}-1 \\text{s}-2 , and mean-value crossings in 1994 and 1997. However, we do not suggest that G is actually varying by this much, this quickly, but instead that something in the measurement process varies. Of other recently reported results, to the best of our knowledge, the only measurement with the same period and phase is the Length of Day (LOD —defined as a frequency measurement such that a positive increase in LOD values means slower Earth rotation rates and therefore longer days). The aforementioned period is also about half of a solar activity cycle, but the correlation is far less convincing. The 5.9 year periodic signal in LOD has previously been interpreted as due to fluid core motions and inner-core coupling. We report the G/LOD correlation, whose statistical significance is 0.99764 assuming no difference in phase, without claiming to have any satisfactory explanation for it. Least unlikely, perhaps, are currents in the Earth's fluid core that change both its moment of inertia (affecting LOD) and the circumstances in which the Earth-based experiments measure G. In this case, there might be correlations with terrestrial-magnetic-field measurements.
50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER03JY96.000 Figure 1 of Appendix C to Part...
50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER03JY96.000 Figure 1 of Appendix C to Part...
50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., App. C Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER17AP13.000 ER17AP13.001...
50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., App. C Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER17AP13.000 ER17AP13.001...
From Concrete to Abstract in the Measurement of Length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephanou, Andreas; Fisher, William P., Jr.
2013-09-01
The concatenation of units of length is widely viewed as the paradigmatic expression of fundamental measurement. Survey, assessment, and test scores in educational and psychological measurement are often interpreted in ways that assume a concatenation of units to have been established, even though these assumptions are rarely stated or tested. A concatenation model for measurement is shown to be equivalent to a Rasch model: any two units of measurement placed end to end must together be of the same length as either one of them added to itself. This additive principle and a concatenation model of measurement together serve as a heuristic guide for organizing two experimental approaches to calibrating instruments for measuring length. The capacity to reproduce the unit of measurement from theory with no need for repeated empirical calibration experiments, as in the geometrical bisection of the line and the resultant halving of the length measure, is highlighted as essential to demonstrating a thorough understanding of the construct.
New transducers for measuring muscle length in unrestrained animals.
Weytjens, J L; Viberg, D A; Caputi, A A; Kallesøe, K; Hoffer, J A
1992-12-01
Muscle length in unrestrained, chronically implanted animals is conventionally measured with gauges consisting of a compliant silicone rubber tube filled with either hypertonic saline or mercury, the measurement principle being a continuous change in the electrical resistance of the fluid column inside the tubing with stretch. These gauges have two major disadvantages: (1) changes in resistance that are not related to changes in length, such as those produced by changes in temperature or osmotic dilution of the hypertonic saline, cause the measurements to drift, and (2) there is no direct and accurate way to calibrate the measurements. In this communication two new types of muscle length gauge are described that eliminate both problems. Both types make use of the principle of sonomicrometry, i.e., the measurement of distances with pulsed ultrasound. Both types have been successfully used to measure the length of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in chronically implanted cats during treadmill locomotion. PMID:1294854
Statistical length measurement method by direct imaging of carbon nanotubes.
Bengio, E Amram; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E; Behabtu, Natnael; Kleinerman, Olga; Kesselman, Ellina; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Pasquali, Matteo
2014-05-14
The influence of carbon nanotube (CNT) length on their macroscopic properties requires an accurate methodology for CNT length measurement. So far, existing techniques are limited to short (less than a few micrometers) CNTs and sample preparation methods that bias the measured values. Here, we show that the average length of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be measured by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) of CNTs in chlorosulfonic acid. The method consists of dissolving at low concentration CNTs in chlorosulfonic acid (a true solvent), imaging the individual CNTs by cryo-TEM, and processing and analyzing the images to determine CNT length. By measuring the total CNT contour length and number of CNT ends in each image, and by applying statistical analysis, we extend the method to cases where each CNT is long enough to span many cryo-TEM images, making the direct length measurement of an entire CNT impractical. Hence, this new technique can be used effectively to estimate samples in a wide range of CNT lengths, although we find that cryo-TEM imaging may bias the measurement towards longer CNTs, which are easier to detect. Our statistical method is also applied to AFM images of CNTs to show that, by using only a few AFM images, it yields estimates that are consistent with literature techniques, based on individually measuring a higher number of CNTs. PMID:24773046
Dhasmana, Renu; Nagpal, R.C.
2016-01-01
Introduction The assessment of the peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (RNFL) thickness has been an important tool for evaluating and diagnosing glaucoma and its progression. Literature suggests that myopic eyes are at an increased risk for developing glaucoma. This study gives an insight into the relationship of RNFL thickness to the axial length in normal population. Aim To correlate the RNFL thickness and the axial length in normal individuals with Fourier domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Materials and Methods In the current study, 298 eyes of 149 normal individuals (10 years or older) with or without refractive error were recruited. The RNFL thickness was measured using Optovue (RTVue) three-dimensional Fourier domain OCT. Results We observed an inverse relationship between average RNFL thickness and increasing axial length(p=0.003). Maximum RNFL thickness was seen in the Infero-Temporal (IT) quadrant and minimum in the Supero-Nasal (SN) quadrant. RNFL thickness did not show any tendency to decline with age using the Pearsons correlation (r=0.07). Females had an increased RNFL thickness in the Supero-Temporal (ST) and Infero-Nasal (IN) quadrant (p-value 0.046 and 0.02) in comparison to males. There was a statistically significant thinning in Ganglion Cell Complex (GCC) with increasing axial length (p-value 0.000) Conclusion The current study suggests that the average RNFL thickness does not decrease with age. The RNFL and GCC thickness shows an inverse correlation with axial length of the eyeball hence observations have to be carefully interpreted in myopic eyes. Clinicians need to keep the anatomical variations in RNFL for better patient management. PMID:27190850
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carpentier, S. F. A.; Roy-Chowdhury, K.; Hurich, C. A.
2011-07-01
A novel statistical technique has been applied to the AG-48 seismic line from the LITHOPROBE dataset, passing through the Abitibi-Grenville Province, Canada. The method maps lateral stochastic parameters, representing von Karman heterogeneity distributions in the crust, estimated from migrated deep reflection data. Together with these parameters, viz. lateral correlation length and power-law exponent, we also compute their associated maximum-likelihood uncertainties. Combining normalised measurements of lateral correlation and their uncertainties, objective profiles of crustal fabric can be made. These profiles indicate significant spatial variations in macro-scale petrofabric. Correlation length, which carries useful information about structural scale lengths of heterogeneous bodies, is an especially robust parameter with moderate associated uncertainties. Although the general outline of the profiles conforms to the earlier tectonic interpretations (based on line-drawings), new features are visible too. The macro-scale petrofabric is seen to vary significantly within the tectonic terrains identified earlier — in depth as well as laterally. A consequence of this additional delineation is that we can explain an existing part of the AG-48 line equally well in terms of collisional deformation and in terms of the effects of a major shear zone projected onto a parallel segment of the line.
Correlation between length and tilt of lipid tails
Kopelevich, Dmitry I.; Nagle, John F.
2015-10-21
It is becoming recognized from simulations, and to a lesser extent from experiment, that the classical Helfrich-Canham membrane continuum mechanics model can be fruitfully enriched by the inclusion of molecular tilt, even in the fluid, chain disordered, biologically relevant phase of lipid bilayers. Enriched continuum theories then add a tilt modulus κ{sub θ} to accompany the well recognized bending modulus κ. Different enrichment theories largely agree for many properties, but it has been noticed that there is considerable disagreement in one prediction; one theory postulates that the average length of the hydrocarbon chain tails increases strongly with increasing tilt and another predicts no increase. Our analysis of an all-atom simulation favors the latter theory, but it also shows that the overall tail length decreases slightly with increasing tilt. We show that this deviation from continuum theory can be reconciled by consideration of the average shape of the tails, which is a descriptor not obviously includable in continuum theory.
Far-from-equilibrium measurements of thermodynamic length
Feng, Edward H.; Crooks, Gavin E.
2008-11-05
Thermodynamic length is a path function that generalizes the notion of length to the surface of thermodynamic states. Here, we show how to measure thermodynamic length in far-from-equilibrium experiments using the work fluctuation relations. For these microscopic systems, it proves necessary to define the thermodynamic length in terms of the Fisher information. Consequently, the thermodynamic length can be directly related to the magnitude of fluctuations about equilibrium. The work fluctuation relations link the work and the free energy change during an external perturbation on a system. We use this result to determine equilibrium averages at intermediate points of the protocol in which the system is out-of-equilibrium. This allows us to extend Bennett's method to determine the potential of mean force, as well as the thermodynamic length, in single molecule experiments.
Time correlators from deferred measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oehri, D.; Lebedev, A. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.
2016-01-01
Repeated measurements that typically occur in two-time or multitime correlators rely on von Neumann's projection postulate, telling how to restart the system after an intermediate measurement. We invoke the principle of deferred measurement to describe an alternative procedure in which coevolving quantum memories extract system information through entanglement, combined with a final readout of the memories described by Born's rule. Our approach to repeated quantum measurements respects the unitary evolution of quantum mechanics during intermediate times, unifies the treatment of strong and weak measurements, and reproduces the projected and (anti)symmetrized correlators in the two limits. As an illustration, we apply our formalism to the calculation of the electron charge correlator in a mesoscopic physics setting, where single electron pulses assume the role of flying memory qubits. We propose an experimental setup that reduces the measurement of the time correlator to the measurement of currents and noise, exploiting the (pulsed) injection of electrons to cope with the challenge of performing short-time measurements.
Length measurements of mid-latitude scintillation irregularities
Macdougall, J.W. )
1992-04-01
The lengths of irregularities which produce 150-MHz amplitude scintillations have been measured at 43 deg N, 81 deg W (geographic) using arrays of receivers with large spacings. The average length (major axis radius) of the irregularities was 6.1 km. This is much shorter than expected and implies that the measurements are of 'young' irregularities, less than 1 minute old. These irregularities appear to be a large, 25-50-percent perturbation of the background density. 8 refs.
Squassina, Alessio; Pisanu, Claudia; Congiu, Donatella; Caria, Paola; Frau, Daniela; Niola, Paola; Melis, Carla; Baggiani, Gioia; Lopez, Juan Pablo; Cruceanu, Cristiana; Turecki, Gustavo; Severino, Giovanni; Bocchetta, Alberto; Vanni, Roberta; Chillotti, Caterina; Del Zompo, Maria
2016-07-01
Bipolar disorder (BD) has been suggested to be associated with accelerated aging and premature cell senescence. While findings on shorter telomeres in BD are controversial, a recent study showed that long-term lithium treatment correlates with longer telomeres in BD. In our study, we sought to investigate the correlation between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and long-term lithium treatment in a sample of 200 BD patients characterized for lithium response. We also compared data from two different methods commonly used to measure telomere length, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH). We also measured, for the first time, the effect of lithium in vitro on the expression of the telomerase gene in human-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Our findings showed that LTL correlated negatively with age (p=0.0002) and was independent of sex, diagnosis, age at onset, suicidal behavior, number of mood episodes, response to lithium and use of other psychotropic medications. After correcting for age, LTL was positively correlated with lithium treatment duration in patients treated for more than two years (n=150, R=0.17, p=0.037). There was a significant correlation between data measured with qPCR and Q-FISH (p=0.012, R=0.826). Lithium treatment increased telomerase expression in NPCs, though this effect was not statistically significant. Our data support previous findings showing that long-term lithium treatment associates with longer telomeres in BD, though this effect appeared to be independent from clinical response to the treatment. Moreover, we suggested for the first time that lithium increases the expression of telomerase gene in human neural progenitor cells. PMID:27084304
Lorenzini, Antonello; Johnson, F Brad; Oliver, Anthony; Tresini, Maria; Smith, Jasmine S; Hdeib, Mona; Sell, Christian; Cristofalo, Vincent J; Stamato, Thomas D
2009-01-01
The identification of the cellular mechanisms responsible for the wide differences in species lifespan remains one of the major unsolved problems of the biology of aging. We measured the capacity of nuclear protein to recognize DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and telomere length of skin fibroblasts derived from mammalian species that exhibit wide differences in longevity. Our results indicate DNA DSB recognition increases exponentially with longevity. Further, an analysis of the level of Ku80 protein in human, cow, and mouse suggests that Ku levels vary dramatically between species and these levels are strongly correlated with longevity. In contrast mean telomere length appears to decrease with increasing longevity of the species, although not significantly. These findings suggest that an enhanced ability to bind to DNA ends may be important for longevity. A number of possible roles for increased levels of Ku and DNA-PKcs are discussed. PMID:19896964
Correlations between Muscle Activities and Strap Length and Types of School Bag during Walking.
Yoon, Jung-Gyu
2014-12-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between muscle activities and strap length and type of the school bag during walking. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy students. An 8-channel electromyograph (8-EMG) (Pocket EMG, BTS, Italy) was used to measure the muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae during walking with the bag. The collected data were analyzed using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. [Results] The muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae were significantly higher when walking with a shoulder bag than when walking with a backpack. No significant correlations were found between muscle activities and strap lengths of the bag. [Conclusion] While carrying a bag, the activities of the trunk muscles were influenced more by the type of the bag than by the strap length. These results indicate that a backpack is a better method of carrying a load than a shoulder bag. PMID:25540502
Correlations between Muscle Activities and Strap Length and Types of School Bag during Walking
Yoon, Jung-Gyu
2014-01-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between muscle activities and strap length and type of the school bag during walking. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy students. An 8-channel electromyograph (8-EMG) (Pocket EMG, BTS, Italy) was used to measure the muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae during walking with the bag. The collected data were analyzed using Kendall’s coefficient of concordance. [Results] The muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae were significantly higher when walking with a shoulder bag than when walking with a backpack. No significant correlations were found between muscle activities and strap lengths of the bag. [Conclusion] While carrying a bag, the activities of the trunk muscles were influenced more by the type of the bag than by the strap length. These results indicate that a backpack is a better method of carrying a load than a shoulder bag. PMID:25540502
Effective length measurements of prototype Main Injector Dipole endpacks
Glass, H.D.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.
1993-03-03
An endpack design has been developed for the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole. A major part of the design process was the testing of a series of prototype removable endpacks. The magnetic parameters that were tested included the effective length and the field shape variation. This report presents a description of the measurement techniques and the results for the effective length. The final endpack has an effective length at 1500 A (0.29T) of 2.6 {plus_minus} 0.3 mm greater than the steel length, and the change in effective length from 1500 A to maximum current of 9500 A (1.74T) is {minus}1.88 {plus_minus} 0.05 mm.
Laser multi-reflection confocal long focal-length measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhigang; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Xiao, Yang
2016-06-01
We propose a new laser multi-reflection confocal focal-length measurement (MCFM) method to meet the requirements of a high-precision measurement for a long focal-length more than 2 m. It places an optical flat and a reflector behind the test lens for reflecting the measuring beam repeatedly, and then, uses the property that the peak points of confocal response curves precisely corresponds to the convergence points of a multi-reflected measuring beam to exactly identify the positions of the convergence points. Subsequently, it obtains the position variation of the reflector with a different number of reflections by a distance measuring instrument, and thereby achieving the high precise long focal-length measurement. The theoretical analyses and preliminary experimental results indicate that MCFM has a relative standard uncertainty of 0.066% for a test lens with the focal-length of 9.76 m. MCFM can provide a novel approach for the high-precision focal-length measurement.
Automated Defect and Correlation Length Analysis of Block Copolymer Thin Film Nanopatterns
Murphy, Jeffrey N.; Harris, Kenneth D.; Buriak, Jillian M.
2015-01-01
Line patterns produced by lamellae- and cylinder-forming block copolymer (BCP) thin films are of widespread interest for their potential to enable nanoscale patterning over large areas. In order for such patterning methods to effectively integrate with current technologies, the resulting patterns need to have low defect densities, and be produced in a short timescale. To understand whether a given polymer or annealing method might potentially meet such challenges, it is necessary to examine the evolution of defects. Unfortunately, few tools are readily available to researchers, particularly those engaged in the synthesis and design of new polymeric systems with the potential for patterning, to measure defects in such line patterns. To this end, we present an image analysis tool, which we have developed and made available, to measure the characteristics of such patterns in an automated fashion. Additionally we apply the tool to six cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) polymers thermally annealed to explore the relationship between the size of each polymer and measured characteristics including line period, line-width, defect density, line-edge roughness (LER), line-width roughness (LWR), and correlation length. Finally, we explore the line-edge roughness, line-width roughness, defect density, and correlation length as a function of the image area sampled to determine each in a more rigorous fashion. PMID:26207990
Telomere Length: A Review of Methods for Measurement
Montpetit, Alison J.; Alhareeri, Areej A.; Montpetit, Marty; Starkweather, Angela R.; Elmore, Lynne W.; Filler, Kristin; Mohanraj, Lathika; Burton, Candace W.; Menzies, Victoria S.; Lyon, Debra E.; Collins, Judith B.; Teefey, Joseph M.; Jackson-Cook, Colleen K.
2014-01-01
Background The exciting discovery that telomere shortening is associated with many health conditions, and that telomere lengths can be altered in response to social and environmental exposures, has underscored the need for methods to accurately and consistently quantify telomere length. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary that compares and contrasts the current technologies used to assess telomere length. Discussion Multiple methods have been developed for the study of telomeres. These techniques include quantification of telomere length by terminal restriction fragmentation—which was one of the earliest tools used for length assessment—making it the gold standard in telomere biology. Quantitative-PCR provides the advantage of being able to use smaller amounts of DNA, thereby making it amenable to epidemiology studies involving large numbers of people. An alternative method uses fluorescent probes to quantify not only mean telomere lengths, but also chromosome-specific telomere lengths; however, the downside of this approach is that it can only be used on mitotically active cells. Additional methods that permit assessment of the length of a subset of chromosome-specific telomeres, or the subset of telomeres that demonstrate shortening, are also reviewed. Conclusion Given the increased utility for telomere assessments as a biomarker in physiological, psychological and biobehavioral research, it is important that investigators become familiar with the methodological nuances of the various procedures used for measuring telomere length. This will ensure that they are empowered to select an optimal assessment approach to meet the needs of their study designs. Gaining a better understanding of the benefits and drawbacks of various measurement techniques is important not only in individual studies, but also to further establish the science of telomere associations with biobehavioral phenomena. PMID:24977726
Measurement of Debye length in laser-produced plasma.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ehler, W.
1973-01-01
The Debye length of an expanded plasma created by placing an evacuated chamber with an entrance slit in the path of a freely expanding laser produced plasma was measured, using the slab geometry. An independent measurement of electron density together with the observed value for the Debye length also provided a means for evaluating the plasma electron temperature. This temperature has applications in ascertaining plasma conductivity and magnetic field necessary for confinement of the laser produced plasma. Also, the temperature obtained would be useful in analyzing electron-ion recombination rates in the expanded plasma and the dynamics of the cooling process of the plasma expansion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamanaka, Kota; Hirata, Shinnosuke; Hachiya, Hiroyuki
2016-07-01
Ultrasonic distance measurement for obstacles has been recently applied in automobiles. The pulse–echo method based on the transmission of an ultrasonic pulse and time-of-flight (TOF) determination of the reflected echo is one of the typical methods of ultrasonic distance measurement. Improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the echo and the avoidance of crosstalk between ultrasonic sensors in the pulse–echo method are required in automotive measurement. The SNR of the reflected echo and the resolution of the TOF are improved by the employment of pulse compression using a maximum-length sequence (M-sequence), which is one of the binary pseudorandom sequences generated from a linear feedback shift register (LFSR). Crosstalk is avoided by using transmitted signals coded by different M-sequences generated from different LFSRs. In the case of lower-order M-sequences, however, the number of measurement channels corresponding to the pattern of the LFSR is not enough. In this paper, pulse compression using linear-frequency-modulated (LFM) signals coded by M-sequences has been proposed. The coding of LFM signals by the same M-sequence can produce different transmitted signals and increase the number of measurement channels. In the proposed method, however, the truncation noise in autocorrelation functions and the interference noise in cross-correlation functions degrade the SNRs of received echoes. Therefore, autocorrelation properties and cross-correlation properties in all patterns of combinations of coded LFM signals are evaluated.
Measurement of Trap Length for an Optical Trap
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wrbanek, Susan Y.
2009-01-01
The trap length along the beam axis for an optical trap formed with an upright, oil-immersion microscope was measured. The goals for this effort were twofold. It was deemed useful to understand the depth to which an optical trap can reach for purposes of developing a tool to assist in the fabrication of miniature devices. Additionally, it was desired to know whether the measured trap length favored one or the other of two competing theories to model an optical trap. The approach was to trap a microsphere of known size and mass and raise it from its initial trap position. The microsphere was then dropped by blocking the laser beam for a pre-determined amount of time. Dropping the microsphere in a free-fall mode from various heights relative to the coverslip provides an estimate of how the trapping length changes with depth in water in a sample chamber on a microscope slide. While it was not possible to measure the trap length with sufficient precision to support any particular theory of optical trap formation, it was possible to find regions where the presence of physical boundaries influenced optical traps, and determine that the trap length, for the apparatus studied, is between 6 and 7 m. These results allow more precise control using optical micromanipulation to assemble miniature devices by providing information about the distance over which an optical trap is effective.
CORRELATION OF H-MODE BARRIER WIDTH AND NEUTRAL PENETRATION LENGTH
GROEBNER,RJ; MAHDAVI,MA; LEONARD,AW; OSBORNE,TH; WOLF,NS; PORTER,GD; STANGEBY,PC; BROOKS,NH; COLCHIN,RJ; HEIDBRINK,WW; LUCE,TC; MCKEE,GR; OWEN,LW; WANG,G; WHYTE,DG
2002-09-01
OAK A271 CORRELATION OF H-MODE BARRIER WIDTH AND NEUTRAL PENETRATION LENGTH. Pedestal studies in DIII-D find a good correlation between the width of the H-mode density barrier and the neutral penetration length. These results are obtained by comparing experimental density profiles to the predictions of an analytic model for the profile, obtained from the particle continuity equations for electrons and deuterium atoms. In its range of validity (edge temperature between 40-500 eV), the analytic model quantitatively predicts the observed decrease of the width as the pedestal density increases, the observed strong increase of the gradient of the density as the pedestal density increases and the observation that L-mode and H-mode profiles with the same pedestal density have very similar shapes. The width of the density barrier, measured from the edge of the electron temperature barrier, is the lower limit for the observed width of the temperature barrier. These results support the hypothesis that particle fueling provides the dominant control for the size of the H-mode transport barrier.
What can we learn about a dynamical length scale in glasses from measurements of surface mobility?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forrest, J. A.
2013-08-01
We consider the ability of recent measurements on the size of a liquid-like mobile surface region in glasses to provide direct information on the length scale of enhanced surface mobility. While these quantities are strongly related there are important distinctions that limit the ability of measurements to quantify the actual length over which the surface properties change from surface to bulk-like. In particular, we show that for temperatures near the bulk glass transition, measurements of a liquid-like mobile layer may have very limited predictive power when it comes to determining the temperature dependent length scale of enhanced surface mobility near the glass transition temperature. This places important limitations on the ability of measurements of such enhanced surface dynamics to contribute to discussion on the length scale for dynamical correlation in glassy materials.
Ludington, William B.; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Serebrenik, Yevgeniy V.; Ritter, Alex; Hernandez-Lopez, Rogelio A.; Gunzenhauser, Julia; Kannegaard, Elisa; Marshall, Wallace F.
2015-01-01
Cells control organelle size with great precision and accuracy to maintain optimal physiology, but the mechanisms by which they do so are largely unknown. Cilia and flagella are simple organelles in which a single measurement, length, can represent size. Maintenance of flagellar length requires an active transport process known as intraflagellar transport, and previous measurements suggest that a length-dependent feedback regulates intraflagellar transport. But the question remains: how is a length-dependent signal produced to regulate intraflagellar transport appropriately? Several conceptual models have been suggested, but testing these models quantitatively requires that they be cast in mathematical form. Here, we derive a set of mathematical models that represent the main broad classes of hypothetical size-control mechanisms currently under consideration. We use these models to predict the relation between length and intraflagellar transport, and then compare the predicted relations for each model with experimental data. We find that three models—an initial bolus formation model, an ion current model, and a diffusion-based model—show particularly good agreement with available experimental data. The initial bolus and ion current models give mathematically equivalent predictions for length control, but fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments rule out the initial bolus model, suggesting that either the ion current model or a diffusion-based model is more likely correct. The general biophysical principles of the ion current and diffusion-based models presented here to measure cilia and flagellar length can be generalized to measure any membrane-bound organelle volume, such as the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:25809250
Developing Measurement Concepts within Context: Children's Representations of Length
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacDonald, Amy; Lowrie, Tom
2011-01-01
This article presents data gathered from an investigation which focused on the experiences children have with measurement in the early years of schooling. The focus of this article is children's understandings of length at this early stage. 32 children aged 4-6 years at an Australian primary school were asked to draw a ruler and describe their…
Flores-Mir, Carlos; Rosenblatt, Mark R; Major, Paul W.; Carey, Jason P.; Heo, Giseon
2014-01-01
INTRODUCTION: This in vivo study assessed accuracy and reliability of tooth length measurements obtained from conventional panoramic radiographs and CBCT panoramic reconstructions to that of a digital caliper (gold standard). METHODS: The sample consisted of subjects who had CBCT and conventional panoramic radiographic imaging and who required maxillary premolar extraction for routine orthodontic treatment. A total of 48 teeth extracted from 26 subjects were measured directly with digital calipers. Radiographic images were scanned and digitally measured in Dolphin 3D software. Accuracy of tooth length measurements made by CBCT panoramic reconstructions, conventional panoramic radiographs and digital caliper (gold standard) were compared to each other by repeated measures one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction and by single measures intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Repeated root length measures with digital calipers, panoramic radiographs and CBCT constructed panoramic-like images were all individually highly reliable. Compared to the caliper (gold standard), tooth measurements obtained from conventional panoramic radiographs were on average 6.3 mm (SD = 2.0 mm) longer, while tooth measurements from CBCT panoramic reconstructions were an average of 1.7 mm (SD = 1.2 mm) shorter. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to actual tooth lengths, conventional panoramic radiographs were relatively inaccurate, overestimating the lengths by 29%, while CBCT panoramic reconstructions underestimated the lengths by 4%. PMID:25715716
Alignment techniques required by precise measurement of effective focal length
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wise, T. D.
1980-01-01
The characteristics of false color imagery produced by instrumentation on earth resource mapping satellites are examined. The spatial fidelity of the imagery is dependent upon the geometric accuracy (GA) and the band-to-band registration (BBR) with which the telescope instrument is assembled. BBR and GA require knowledge of telescope effective focal length (EFL) to one part in 10,000 in order that the next generation of earth mappers be able to carry out their missions. The basis for this level of precision is briefly considered, and a description is given of the means by which such precise EFL measurements have been carried out. Attention is given to accuracy requirements, the technique used to measure effective focal length, possible sources of error in the EFL measurement, approaches for eliminating errors, and the results of the efforts to control measurement errors in EFL determinations.
Minimal length in quantum gravity and gravitational measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farag Ali, Ahmed; Khalil, Mohammed M.; Vagenas, Elias C.
2015-10-01
The existence of a minimal length is a common prediction of various theories of quantum gravity. This minimal length leads to a modification of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to a Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). Various studies showed that a GUP modifies the Hawking radiation of black holes. In this paper, we propose a modification of the Schwarzschild metric based on the modified Hawking temperature derived from the GUP. Based on this modified metric, we calculate corrections to the deflection of light, time delay of light, perihelion precession, and gravitational redshift. We compare our results with gravitational measurements to set an upper bound on the GUP parameter.
Effective crack lengths by compliance measurement for ARALL-2 laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Christopher D.; Wilson, Dale A.
1991-01-01
As a means of determining a stress intensity factor solution, the compliance properties of an ARALL-2 laminated-sheet composite were investigated. Fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) tests were conducted on middle crack tension (MT) specimens fabricated from a layup consisting of three sheets of 2024-T3 aluminum bonded together with unidirectional aramid fibers embedded in epoxy. Excellent fatigue crack growth properties are obtained by the presence of unbroken aramid fibers in the wake of the crack tip. These unbroken fibers act as a bridging mechanism to inhibit further crack growth. To quantify the effect of maximum fatigue load on compliance, a series of FCGR tests were performed. Effective crack lengths were determined to be at least 10 mm shorter than surface measured crack lengths for a 76-mm-wide specimen. The bridging zone was estimated to be at least 5 mm. Compliance and stress intensity factor as functions of effective crack length were determined.
Reducing trial length in force platform posturographic sleep deprivation measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forsman, P.; Hæggström, E.; Wallin, A.
2007-09-01
Sleepiness correlates with sleep-related accidents, but convenient tests for sleepiness monitoring are scarce. The posturographic test is a method to assess balance, and this paper describes one phase of the development of a posturographic sleepiness monitoring method. We investigated the relationship between trial length and accuracy of the posturographic time-awake (TA) estimate. Twenty-one healthy adults were kept awake for 32 h and their balance was recorded, 16 times with 30 s trials, as a function of TA. The balance was analysed with regards to fractal dimension, most common sway amplitude and time interval for open-loop stance control. While a 30 s trial allows estimating the TA of individual subjects with better than 5 h accuracy, repeating the analysis using shorter trial lengths showed that 18 s sufficed to achieve the targeted 5 h accuracy. Moreover, it was found that with increasing TA, the posturographic parameters estimated the subjects' TA more accurately.
Developing measurement concepts within context: Children's representations of length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacDonald, Amy; Lowrie, Tom
2011-03-01
This article presents data gathered from an investigation which focused on the experiences children have with measurement in the early years of schooling. The focus of this article is children's understandings of length at this early stage. 32 children aged 4-6 years at an Australian primary school were asked to draw a ruler and describe their drawing, once in February at the beginning of school, and again in November towards the end of their first year of school. The drawings and their accompanying descriptions are classified within a matrix which, informed by Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory and literature regarding the development of length concepts, considers conceptual understanding and contextual richness. The responses revealed that children have a good understanding of length at the start of school, but that as their ability to contextualise develops so too does their conceptual understanding. This article suggests that participation in tasks such as these allows children to create their own understandings of length in meaningful ways. Additionally, the task and its matrix of analysis provide an assessment strategy for identifying children's understandings about length and the contexts in which these understandings develop.
Length Scale Correlations of Cellular Microstructures in Directionally Solidified Binary System
Yunxue Shen
2002-06-27
In a cellular array, a range of primary spacing is found to be stable under given growth conditions. Since a strong coupling of solute field exists between the neighboring cells, primary spacing variation should also influence other microstructure features such as cell shape and cell length. The existence of multiple solutions is examined in this study both theoretically as well as experimentally. A theoretical model is developed that identifies and relates four important microstructural lengths, which are found to be primary spacing, tip radius, cell width and cell length. This general microstructural relationship is shown to be valid for different cells in an array as well as for other cellular patterns obtained under different growth conditions. The unique feature of the model is that the microstructure correlation does not depend on composition or growth conditions since these variables scale microstructural lengths to satisfy the relationship obtained in this study. Detailed directional solidification experimental studies have been carried out in the succinonitrile-salol system to characterize and measure these four length scales. Besides the validation of the model, experimental results showed additional scaling laws to be present. In the regime where only a cellular structure is formed, the shape of the cell, the cell tip radius and the length of the cell are all found to scale individually with the local primary spacing. The presence of multiple solutions of primary spacing is also shown to influence the cell-dendrite transition that is controlled not only by the processing variables (growth velocity, thermal gradient and composition) but also by the local cell spacing. The cell-dendrite transition was found not to be sharp, but occurred over a range of processing conditions. Two critical conditions have been identified such that only cells are present below lower critics condition, and only dendrites are formed above the upper critics condition. Between
Length Scale Correlations of Cellular Microstructures in Directionally Solidified Binary System
Yunxue Shen
2002-08-01
In a cellular array, a range of primary spacing is found to be stable under given growth conditions. Since a strong coupling of solute field exists between the neighboring cells, primary spacing variation should also influence other microstructure features such as cell shape and cell length. The existence of multiple solutions is examined in this study both theoretically as well as experimentally. A theoretical model is developed that identifies and relates four important microstructural lengths, which are found to be primary spacing, tip radius, cell width and cell length. This general microstructural relationship is shown to be valid for different cells in an array as well as for other cellular patterns obtained under different growth conditions. The unique feature of the model is that the microstructure correlation does not depend on composition or growth conditions since these variables scale microstructural lengths to satisfy the relationship obtained in this study. Detailed directional solidification experimental studies have been carried out in the succinonitrile-salol system to characterize and measure these four length scales. Besides the validation of the model, experimental results showed additional scaling laws to be present. In the regime where only a cellular structure is formed, the shape of the cell, the cell tip radius and the length of the cell are all found to scale individually with the local primary spacing. The presence of multiple solutions of primary spacing is also shown to influence the cell-dendrite transition that is controlled not only by the processing variables (growth velocity, thermal gradient and composition) but also by the local cell spacing. The cell-dendrite transition was found not to be sharp, but occurred over a range of processing conditions. Two critical conditions have been identified such that only cells are present below lower critics condition, and only dendrites are formed above the upper critics condition. Between
Electron Bunch Length Measurement for LCLS at SLAC
Zelazny, M.; Allison, S.; Chevtsov, Sergei; Emma, P.; Kotturi, K.d.; Loos, H.; Peng, S.; Rogind, D.; Straumann, T.; /SLAC
2007-10-04
At Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) a Bunch Length Measurement system has been developed to measure the length of the electron bunch for its new Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This destructive measurement uses a transverse-mounted RF deflector (TCAV) to vertically streak the electron beam and an image taken with an insertable screen and a camera. The device control software was implemented with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit. The analysis software was implemented in Matlab{trademark} using the EPICS/Channel Access Interface for Scilab{trademark} and Matlab{trademark} (labCA). This architecture allowed engineers and physicists to develop and integrate their control and analysis without duplication of effort.
Repeat Measurement of Cervical Length in Women with Threatened Preterm Labor
Wagner, P.; Sonek, J.; Heidemeyer, M.; Schmid, M.; Abele, H.; Hoopmann, M.; Kagan, K. O.
2016-01-01
Objective: To examine the value of a repeat measurement some days after the first cervical length measurement done at the time of preterm contractions. Study Design: Retrospective study involving women with singleton pregnancies who presented with preterm contractions at 24 to 33 + 6 weeks of gestation. The cervical length was measured at the time of presentation and some days afterwards. Results: The study population consisted of 17 cases with a preterm delivery within 14 days and 288 uneventful pregnancies. Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between delivery within 14 days and both, the first and second cervical length measurements as well as the difference between the two measurements. Up to a false positive rate of 20 %, ROC curve analysis showed an improved detection rate for preterm delivery by inluding both measurements. At a false positive rate of 10 % – which corresponds to a first and second cervical length of 10 and 9 mm – the detection rate was 17.6 % with the first cervical length measurement, 47.0 % with the second and 52.9 % if the difference between both measurements was added. Conclusion: Our results indicate that in women with symptoms of preterm labor it is worth to repeat the measurement some days later and to take into account the difference between both measurements.
Negative correlation between age of subjects and length of the appendix in Bangladeshi males
Bakar, Sheikh Muhammad Abu; Shamim, Manjare; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul
2013-01-01
Introduction The anatomy of the vermiform appendix shows variations in its macroscopic dimensions some of which have potential to influence the clinical aspects of the appendix. Anatomical studies on the appendix using people in Bangladesh as a sample are limited and fall short of producing any standardized anthropometric data. This study is predominantly a cross-sectional observational study which also uses some statistical analysis to understand the relationships amongst variables. Material and methods Fifty-six adult male postmortem appendices and adnexa were examined for macroscopic features. Possible interrelationships among the variables were assessed through statistical analysis. The age of the samples ranged from 18 to 67 years. The most common position of the appendix was retrocolic (53.57%) followed by pelvic (30.35%), postileal (12.5%), and subcaecal (3.5%). Results In most cases (62.5%) the mesoappendix did not reach the tip of the appendix. The appendicular length varied from 6.00 cm to 16.30 cm with mean (± SD) and median value of 10.21 ±2.50 cm and 10.00 cm respectively. The base of the appendix was 1.90 to 3.80 cm away from the ileocaecal junction. The other macroscopic measurements of the appendix were taken at the base, at the midzone and at the tip of the appendix and the mean of the three measurements was considered as the overall value. Thus, the overall external diameter varied between 0.32 cm and 0.83 cm. Assessment of possible correlations amongst different variables revealed a significant negative correlation between the age of the subjects and the length of the appendix. Conclusions The data of the present study may provide a baseline along with some previous data in the standardization of the anthropometric information regarding the vermiform appendix of Bangladeshi males. PMID:23515519
Absolute length measurement using manually decided stereo correspondence for endoscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasaki, M.; Koishi, T.; Nakaguchi, T.; Tsumura, N.; Miyake, Y.
2009-02-01
In recent years, various kinds of endoscope have been developed and widely used to endoscopic biopsy, endoscopic operation and endoscopy. The size of the inflammatory part is important to determine a method of medical treatment. However, it is not easy to measure absolute size of inflammatory part such as ulcer, cancer and polyp from the endoscopic image. Therefore, it is required measuring the size of those part in endoscopy. In this paper, we propose a new method to measure the absolute length in a straight line between arbitrary two points based on the photogrammetry using endoscope with magnetic tracking sensor which gives camera position and angle. In this method, the stereo-corresponding points between two endoscopic images are determined by the endoscopist without any apparatus of projection and calculation to find the stereo correspondences, then the absolute length can be calculated on the basis of the photogrammetry. The evaluation experiment using a checkerboard showed that the errors of the measurements are less than 2% of the target length when the baseline is sufficiently-long.
Vibration transfer mobility measurements using maximum length sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singleton, Herbert L.
2005-09-01
Vibration transfer mobility measurements are required under Federal Transit Administration guidelines when developing detailed predictions of ground-borne vibration for rail transit systems. These measurements typically use a large instrumented hammer to generate impulses in the soil. These impulses are measured by an array of accelerometers to characterize the transfer mobility of the ground in a localized area. While effective, these measurements often make use of heavy, custom-engineered equipment to produce the impulse signal. To obtain satisfactory signal-to-noise ratios, it is necessary to generate multiple impulses to generate an average value, but this process involves considerable physical labor in the field. To address these shortcomings, a transfer mobility measurement system utilizing a tactile transducer and maximum length sequences (MLS) was developed. This system uses lightweight off-the-shelf components to significantly reduce the weight and cost of the system. The use of MLS allows for adequate signal-to-noise ratio from the tactile transducer, while minimizing the length of the measurement. Tests of the MLS system show good agreement with the impulse-based method. The combination of the cost savings and reduced weight of this new system facilitates transfer mobility measurements that are less physically demanding, and more economical when compared with current methods.
Distribution of the lateral correlation length in GaN epitaxial layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlowski, J.; Paszkiewicz, R.; Korbutowicz, R.; Tlaczala, M.
2001-12-01
GaN structures belong to the most popular wide-bandgap semiconductors. Large lattice mismatch existing between the layer and substrates (3.5% for SiC and even 16% in the case of sapphire substrate) results in structures with a large number of defects. The typical GaN epitaxial layer consists of dislocation-free regions with lateral dimensions equal to a few hundred nanometers. The dislocation density changes from 10 8 cm -2 inside the grains to 10 10 cm -2 in the grain boundaries. The average value of the lateral correlation lengths (coherence wavelength) seems to be not quite satisfactory. Particularly, it is connected with lateral direction, because the vertical length is approximately equal to the thickness of the epitaxial layer. This paper presents the new approach for the determination of GaN crystallites dislocation-free block size distributions. This method is based on the X-ray peak profile analysis and solution of the Fredholm integral equation. The necessary peaks are obtained from the high-resolution X-ray diffractometry measurements. The obtained results have been shown for the various samples: GaN layers grown on low temperature buffer layer (GaN or AlN). Very interesting results were obtained in the first case, where two different sizes of the blocks appear.
Electron bunch length measurement at the Vanderbilt FEL
Amirmadhi, F.; Brau, C.A.; Mendenhall, M.
1995-12-31
During the past few years, a number of experiments have been performed to demonstrate the possibility to extract the longitudinal charge distribution from spectroscopic measurements of the coherent far-infrared radiation emitted as transition radiation or synchrotron radiation. Coherent emission occurs in a spectral region where the wavelength is comparable to or longer than the bunch length, leading to an enhancement of the radiation intensity that is on the order of the number of particles per bunch, as compared to incoherent radiation. This technique is particularly useful in the region of mm and sub-mm bunch lengths, a range where streak-cameras cannot be used for beam diagnostics due to their limited time resolution. Here we report on experiments that go beyond the proof of principle of this technique by applying it to the study and optimization of FEL performance. We investigated the longitudinal bunch length of the Vanderbilt FEL by analyzing the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted by the electron bunches. By monitoring the bunch length while applying a bunch-compression technique, the amount of the compression could be easily observed. This enabled us to perform a systematic study of the FEL performance, especially gain and optical pulse width, as a function of the longitudinal electron distribution in the bunch. The results of this study will be presented and discussed.
Comeron, J M; Kreitman, M
2000-11-01
Intron length is negatively correlated with recombination in both Drosophila melanogaster and humans. This correlation is not likely to be the result of mutational processes alone: evolutionary analysis of intron length polymorphism in D. melanogaster reveals equivalent ratios of deletion to insertion in regions of high and low recombination. The polymorphism data do reveal, however, an excess of deletions relative to insertions (i.e., a deletion bias), with an overall deletion-to-insertion events ratio of 1.35. We propose two types of selection favoring longer intron lengths. First, the natural mutational bias toward deletion must be opposed by strong selection in very short introns to maintain the minimum intron length needed for the intron splicing reaction. Second, selection will favor insertions in introns that increase recombination between mutations under the influence of selection in adjacent exons. Mutations that increase recombination, even slightly, will be selectively favored because they reduce interference among selected mutations. Interference selection acting on intron length mutations must be very weak, as indicated by frequency spectrum analysis of Drosophila intron length polymorphism, making the equilibrium for intron length sensitive to changes in the recombinational environment and population size. One consequence of this sensitivity is that the advantage of longer introns is expected to decrease inversely with the rate of recombination, thus leading to a negative correlation between intron length and recombination rate. Also in accord with this model, intron length differs between closely related Drosophila species, with the longest variant present more often in D. melanogaster than in D. simulans. We suggest that the study of the proposed dynamic model, taking into account interference among selected sites, might shed light on many aspects of the comparative biology of genome sizes including the C value paradox. PMID:11063693
Interaural correlations in normal and traumatized cochleas: length and sensory cell loss
Bohne, B.A.; Bozzay, D.G.; Harding, G.W.
1986-12-01
Sizable intraspecies variations have been found in both the length of the organ of Corti (OC) and the amount of damage resulting from exposure to a particular ototraumatic agent. These variations have made it difficult to address certain research questions such as the susceptibility of the previously injured ear to further damage. If intra-animal correlation is high, the variability problem could be circumvented by using the two ears from a given animal for different aspects of the same study. Therefore, correlation coefficients were calculated for OC length and for percentage of missing inner (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) in a large sample of chinchillas which included controls and animals which had been exposed to noise or treated with ionizing radiation. The correlation coefficients were +0.96 for OC length, +0.93 for IHC loss, and +0.97 for OHC loss.
Measurement of the hot electron attenuation length of copper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garramone, J. J.; Abel, J. R.; Sitnitsky, I. L.; Zhao, L.; Appelbaum, I.; LaBella, V. P.
2010-02-01
Ballistic electron emission microscopy is utilized to investigate the hot-electron scattering properties of Cu through Cu/Si(001) Schottky diodes. A Schottky barrier height of 0.64±0.02 eV and a hot-electron attenuation length of 33.4±2.9 nm are measured at a tip bias of 1.0 eV and a temperature of 80 K. The dependence of the attenuation length with tip bias is fit to a Fermi liquid model that allows extraction of the inelastic and elastic scattering components. This modeling indicates that elastic scattering due to defects, grain boundaries, and interfaces is the dominant scattering mechanism in this energy range.
Measurement of radon diffusion length in thin membranes.
Malki, A; Lavi, N; Moinester, M; Nassar, H; Neeman, E; Piasetzky, E; Steiner, V
2012-07-01
Building regulations in Israel require the insulating of buildings against radon (222)Rn penetration from soil. In radon-prone areas membranes stretched between the soil and the building foundation are used, together with sealing other possible penetration routes. Designing the radon mitigation procedure requires checking that all sealing materials are practically, radon tight, having a thickness of at least three times the radon diffusion length. In this work, a very simple technique to evaluate the radon diffusion length in thin membranes, using a radon source of known activity and an activated charcoal canister as radon detector is presented. The theoretical formalism and measurement results for polyethylene membranes of different densities obtained in a recent comparison exercise are presented. PMID:22232779
Real time bunch length measurements in the SLC linac
Sheppard, J.C.; Clendenin, J.E.; James, M.B.; Miller, R.H.; Ross, M.C.
1985-02-01
The longitudinal charge distribution of bunches accelerated in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) linac will strongly affect the performance of the Collider. Bunch lengths are chosen in a balance between the deleterious effects of longitudinal and transverse wakefields. The former impacts on the beam energy spread whereas the latter is important to the transverse emittance. Two bunch length measurement ports have been installed in the SLC linac: one in the injector region and one after the emittance damping ring to linac reinjection point. These ports utilize a fused quartz Cerenkov radiator in conjunction with an electrooptic streak camera to permit real time monitoring of single s-band buckets with a resolution of several picoseconds. The design of the radiators and light collection optics is discussed with an emphasis on those issues important to high resolution. Experimental results are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs.
Direct calculation of correlation length based on quasi-cumulant method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Noboru
2014-03-01
We formulate a method of directly obtaining a correlation length without full calculation of correlation functions, as a high-temperature series. The method is based on the quasi-cumulant method, which was formulated by the author in J. Stat. Phys. 111, 1049-1090 (2003) as a complementary method for the high-temperature series expansion originally for an SU(n) Heisenberg model, but is applicable to general spin models according to our recent reformulation. A correlation function divided by its lowest-order nonzero contribution has properties very similar to a generating function of some kind of moments, which we call quasi-moments. Their corresponding quasi-cumulants can be also derived, whose generating function is related to the correlation length. In addition, applications to other numerical methods such as the quantum Monte Carlo method are also discussed. JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25914008.
Karti, Omer; Selver, Ozlem B; Karahan, Eyyup; Zengin, Mehmet O; Uyar, Murat
2015-01-01
Purpose : To evaluate the normal distribution of exophthalmometric values in Turkish adult population and the effect of age, gender, refractive status and axial length on globe position. Methods : One hundred and twenty-two males and 114 healthy females with age ranging from 18 to 87 years were included in the study. The study population was recruited from patients presenting to our institution for routine refractive examination. Hertel exophthalmometer was used to measure the degree of ocular protrusion. Effect of age, refractive error, interpupillary distance, and axial length on globe position was detected with linear regression analyses. Results : The mean Hertel exophthalmometric size was 15.7+2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm). The mean value for males was 16.1±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm), and for females 15.5±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 20 mm). The mean distance between the lateral rims of the orbit was 102 + 5.1 mm (range; 88 to 111mm). The mean exophthalmometric values were not statistically different in males and females. Age and mean spherical equivalents were negatively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Axial length was positively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Conclusion : The exophthalmometric measurement of the eye is affected by the age, spherical equivalent and the axial length. Standard normative values of the Hertel exophthalmometric measurements should be reevaluated with larger samples. PMID:26089994
Diffusion length measurements of thin amorphous silicon layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van den Heuvel, J. C.; van Oort, R. C.; Geerts, M. J.
1989-02-01
A new method for the analysis of diffusion length measurements by the Surface Photovoltage (SPV) method is presented. It takes into account the effect of the reflection of light from the back contact in thin layers and the effect of a finite bandwidth of the used interference filters. The model was found to agree with experiments on thin amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layers. It is shown that in the region were these effects are negligible this method is equivalent to the standard method.
Humphries, T D; Sheppard, D A; Buckley, C E
2015-06-30
For homoleptic 18-electron complex hydrides, an inverse linear correlation has been established between the T-deuterium bond length (T = Fe, Co, Ni) and the average electronegativity of the metal countercations. This relationship can be further employed towards aiding structural solutions and predicting physical properties of novel complex transition metal hydrides. PMID:26077621
Measurement of the Coherent Neutron Scattering Length of 3He
Ketter, W.; Heil, W.; Badurek, G.; Baron, M.; Loidl, R.; Rauch, H.
2005-01-01
By means of neutron interferometry the s-wave neutron scattering length of the 3He nucleus was re-measured at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL). Using a skew symmetrical perfect crystal Si-interferometer and a linear twin chamber cell, false phase shifts due to sample misalignment were reduced to a negligible level. Simulation calculations suggest an asymmetrically alternating measuring sequence in order to compensate for systematic errors caused by thermal phase drifts. There is evidence in the experiment’s data that this procedure is indeed effective. The neutron refractive index in terms of Sears’ exact expression for the scattering amplitude has been analyzed in order to evaluate the measured phase shifts. The result of our measurement, b′c = (6.000 ± 0.009) fm, shows a deviation towards a greater value compared to the presently accepted value of b′c = (5.74 ± 0.07) fm, confirming the observation of the partner experiment at NIST. On the other hand, the results of both precision measurements at NIST and ILL exhibit a serious 12σ (12 standard uncertainties) deviation, the reason for which is not clear yet.
Comparison of three methods of measuring the atmospheric coherence length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slavin, Ann C.; Wells, Ann L.; Fugate, Robert Q.; Fried, David L.; Drexler, James J.
1997-09-01
In the fall of 1996, we had the opportunity to mneasure the atmospheric coherence length (Fried's r0 parameter) at the STarfire Optical Range using three instruments. Each instrument measured r0 using a different theory and technique. The first instrument, designed and built by Dr. Donald Walters of the Naval Postgraduate School, is based on measuring the MTF of the atmosphere using a stellar image on a one dimensional detector. The second instrument, designed and built by Lockheed Martin engineers at White Sands Missile Range, is based on measuring the differential motion of stellar images. The third technique in this study used short exposure star images taken through the 1.5m telescope and processed by matching the images to shrot exposure theory values of r0. All of the instruments were located at the STarfire Optical Range and data were collected during both day and night hours. This paper presents the results of these measurements and discusses the different techniques in terms of the results obtained.
SAGE II aerosol correlative observations - Profile measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osborn, M. T.; Rosen, J. M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, Pi-Huan; Livinfston, J. M.
1989-01-01
Profiles of the aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with profiles from five correlative experiments between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative profiles were derived from six-channel dustsonde measurements and two-wavelength lidar backscatter data. The correlation between the dustsonde- and lidar-derived measurements and the SAGE II data is good, validating the SAGE II lower stratospheric aerosol extinction measurements.
Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Mellon, Synthia H.; Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Su, Yali; Reus, Victor I.; Rosser, Rebecca; Burke, Heather M.; Kupferman, Eve; Compagnone, Mariana; Nelson, J. Craig; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
2011-01-01
Background Depression is associated with an unusually high rate of aging-related illnesses and early mortality. One aspect of “accelerated aging” in depression may be shortened leukocyte telomeres. When telomeres critically shorten, as often occurs with repeated mitoses or in response to oxidation and inflammation, cells may die. Indeed, leukocyte telomere shortening predicts early mortality and medical illnesses in non-depressed populations. We sought to determine if leukocyte telomeres are shortened in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), whether this is a function of lifetime depression exposure and whether this is related to putative mediators, oxidation and inflammation. Methodology Leukocyte telomere length was compared between 18 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 controls and was correlated with lifetime depression chronicity and peripheral markers of oxidation (F2-isoprostane/Vitamin C ratio) and inflammation (IL-6). Analyses were controlled for age and sex. Principal Findings The depressed group, as a whole, did not differ from the controls in telomere length. However, telomere length was significantly inversely correlated with lifetime depression exposure, even after controlling for age (p<0.05). Average telomere length in the depressed subjects who were above the median of lifetime depression exposure (≥9.2 years' cumulative duration) was 281 base pairs shorter than that in controls (p<0.05), corresponding to approximately seven years of “accelerated cell aging.” Telomere length was inversely correlated with oxidative stress in the depressed subjects (p<0.01) and in the controls (p<0.05) and with inflammation in the depressed subjects (p<0.05). Conclusions These preliminary data indicate that accelerated aging at the level of leukocyte telomeres is proportional to lifetime exposure to MDD. This might be related to cumulative exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation in MDD. This suggest that telomere shortening does not antedate depression and is
Vojtisek-Lom, Michal
2011-02-01
To evaluate the effectiveness of various means to combat the negative health effects of ultrafine particles emitted by internal combustion engines, a reliable, low-cost instrument for dynamic measurements of the exhaust emissions of ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is needed. In this study, an ordinary ionization-type building smoke detector was modified to serve as a measuring ionization chamber and utilized for dynamic measurements of PM emissions from diesel engines. When used with diluted exhaust, the readings show an excellent correlation with total particulate length. The instrument worked well with raw and diluted exhaust and with varying emission levels and is well suitable for on-board use. PMID:21387930
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chih-Hao; Chang, Hsin-Ho; Su, Hui-Chia; Wu, Yu-Han; Hu, Chih-Wei; Chang, L. J.; Ioffe, A.; Bussmann, K.; Brückel, Th.
2009-09-01
The magnetic correlation length of a mixed nickel ferrite powder was studied by a newly commissioned depolarized neutron beamline at the W3 port of Tsing Hua Open Pool Reactor (THOR). In this work, Ni ferrite powder samples with different packing densities were studied. The magnetic correlation lengths of the sample were observed to be 2 μm at virgin state and about 3.1 μm at remanent state from the packing density of 20-60%. This magnetic domain size is smaller than particle size. No significant change of domain size at this packing density implies the domain wall motion is hindered by the porosity effectively up to at least 60% of packing density.
Correlation between weighted spectral distribution and average path length in evolving networks.
Jiao, Bo; Shi, Jianmai; Wu, Xiaoqun; Nie, Yuanping; Huang, Chengdong; Du, Jing; Zhou, Ying; Guo, Ronghua; Tao, Yerong
2016-02-01
The weighted spectral distribution (WSD) is a metric defined on the normalized Laplacian spectrum. In this study, synchronic random graphs are first used to rigorously analyze the metric's scaling feature, which indicates that the metric grows sublinearly as the network size increases, and the metric's scaling feature is demonstrated to be common in networks with Gaussian, exponential, and power-law degree distributions. Furthermore, a deterministic model of diachronic graphs is developed to illustrate the correlation between the slope coefficient of the metric's asymptotic line and the average path length, and the similarities and differences between synchronic and diachronic random graphs are investigated to better understand the correlation. Finally, numerical analysis is presented based on simulated and real-world data of evolving networks, which shows that the ratio of the WSD to the network size is a good indicator of the average path length. PMID:26931591
Correlation between weighted spectral distribution and average path length in evolving networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Bo; Shi, Jianmai; Wu, Xiaoqun; Nie, Yuanping; Huang, Chengdong; Du, Jing; Zhou, Ying; Guo, Ronghua; Tao, Yerong
2016-02-01
The weighted spectral distribution (WSD) is a metric defined on the normalized Laplacian spectrum. In this study, synchronic random graphs are first used to rigorously analyze the metric's scaling feature, which indicates that the metric grows sublinearly as the network size increases, and the metric's scaling feature is demonstrated to be common in networks with Gaussian, exponential, and power-law degree distributions. Furthermore, a deterministic model of diachronic graphs is developed to illustrate the correlation between the slope coefficient of the metric's asymptotic line and the average path length, and the similarities and differences between synchronic and diachronic random graphs are investigated to better understand the correlation. Finally, numerical analysis is presented based on simulated and real-world data of evolving networks, which shows that the ratio of the WSD to the network size is a good indicator of the average path length.
Decadal correlation between crustal deformation and variation in length of day of the Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qing-Liang; Chen, Yun-Tai; Cui, Du-Xin; Wang, Wen-Ping; Liang, Wei-Feng
2000-11-01
Recently, in comparing with Earth rotation data, we found some exciting correlation phenomena between length-of-day (LOD) and crustal deformations as well as stress observations in China, the correlation appears most typically on decade time scales and seems to be direction-dependent. As LOD variation induced stress and deformation is far less than the observed ones, we infer that decade variations in crustal deformation and stress are very possibly attributed to the core-mantle coupling process, just like LOD decade variations are attributed to core-mantle coupling. More detailed and extended investigations are going on, and we believe that the similar correlation phenomena should also exist in other part of the world. The LOD-correlated crustal deformations are expected to provide a better constraint on verifying the real core-mantle coupling mechanism, topographic, electromagnetic or gravitational coupling.
Measurement of the Length of an Optical Trap
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wrbanek, Susan Y.
2010-01-01
NASA Glenn has been involved in developing optical trapping and optical micromanipulation techniques in order to develop a tool that can be used to probe, characterize, and assemble nano and microscale materials to create microscale sensors for harsh flight environments. In order to be able to assemble a sensor or probe candidate sensor material, it is useful to know how far an optical trap can reach; that is, the distance beyond/below the stable trapping point through which an object will be drawn into the optical trap. Typically, to measure the distance over which an optical trap would influence matter in a horizontal (perpendicular to beam propagation) direction, it was common to hold an object in one optical trap, place a second optical trap a known distance away, turn off the first optical trap, and note if the object was moved into the second trap when it was turned on. The disadvantage of this technique is that it only gives information of trap influence distance in horizontal (x y) directions. No information about the distance of the influence of the trap is gained in the direction of propagation of the beam (the z direction). A method was developed to use a time-of-flight technique to determine the length along the propagation direction of an optical trap beam over which an object may be drawn into the optical trap. Test objects (polystyrene microspheres) were held in an optical trap in a water-filled sample chamber and raised to a pre-determined position near the top of the sample chamber. Next, the test objects were released by blocking the optical trap beam. The test objects were allowed to fall through the water for predetermined periods of time, at the end of which the trapping beam was unblocked. It was noted whether or not the test object returned to the optical trap or continued to fall. This determination of the length of an optical trap's influence by this manner assumes that the test object falls through the water in the sample chamber at
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleich, Otto; Dooling, Robert J.; Manley, Geoffrey A.
2005-12-01
The inner ear in the group of archosaurs (birds, crocodilians, and extinct dinosaurs) shows a high degree of structural similarity, enabling predictions of their function in extinct species based on relationships among similar variables in living birds. Behavioral audiograms and morphological data on the length of the auditory sensory epithelium (the basilar papilla) are available for many avian species. By bringing different data sets together, we show that body mass and the size of the basilar papilla are significantly correlated, and the most sensitive frequency in a given species is inversely related to the body mass and the length of the basilar papilla. We also demonstrate that the frequency of best hearing is correlated with the high-frequency limit of hearing. Small species with a short basilar papilla hear higher frequencies compared with larger species with a longer basilar papilla. Based on the regression analysis of two significant correlations in living archosaurs (best audiogram frequency vs body mass and best audiogram frequency vs papillar length), we suggest that hearing in large dinosaurs was restricted to low frequencies with a high-frequency limit below 3 kHz.
Cavity length measurement: bias from misalignment and mismatching.
Reasenberg, Robert D
2013-11-20
SR-POEM, the sounding rocket principle of equivalence measurement, uses a set of six tracking-frequency laser gauges operating in Fabry-Perot cavities to determine the relative acceleration of two test masses (TMs) that are chemically different. One end of each cavity is a flat mirror on a TM; the other end is a concave coupling mirror mounted to a common reference plate. The tracking-frequency laser gauges work by locking a variable frequency laser to the cavity by the method of Pound, Drever, and Hall. Because the TMs are unconstrained, they are expected to rotate slightly during measurement. Although the distance measurements are intended to be based on the TEM₀₀ cavity mode, any misalignment will couple into higher-order transverse modes, particularly the TEM₁₀ and TEM₀₁. Light thus coupled will contribute a spurious signal to the cavity locking servo that causes a bias (i.e., a systematic error) in the length determination. The spurious signal proportional to the misalignment has an antisymmetric distribution at the detector and thus has a zero average, but causes a distance bias because of the inhomogeneity of the detector responsivity. To prevent such bias, SR-POEM includes a servo to keep the incoming laser beam aligned with the cavity. The required performance of that alignment servo is less stringent than has already been achieved by other projects. There is also a spurious signal proportional to the square of the misalignment that produces a symmetric distribution at the detector. This signal is also made unimportant by the operation of an alignment servo, even when operating well above the shot noise limit. We also look at the locking of a laser to a high finesse cavity and conclude that the alignment quality sets a bound on the ratio of measurement accuracy to cavity linewidth. PMID:24513772
Kociszewski, Jacek; Suzin, Jacek; Dresler, Maria; Surkont, Grzegorz
2016-01-01
There has been a rise in the use of sonographic urethrocystography in patients with a full bladder. So far, no publications have been made on the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements performed during this procedure. Aim An assessment of repeatability and reproducibility of urethral length measurements during sonographic urethrocystography in females with a full bladder in the introital approach, using real-time two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound. Material and methods The ultrasound was performed in accordance with a standardized technique in female patients with a full bladder containing 200–300 mL of liquid. A total of 92 patients were included in the analysis. Results The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient for repeatability and reproducibility of urethral length measurements in sonographic urethrocystography ranged between 0.9217 and 0.9873 (p = 0.0000). The analysis of ultrasound urethral length measurements taken by two different physicians at an interval of several months confirmed their very high compatibility (ICC = 0.81, p = 0.000). Conclusions Very good repeatability and reproducibility of urethral length findings during sonographic urethrocystography performed in accordance with the presented technique support the possible use of this type of examination in both clinical practice and research. PMID:27104000
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.
2015-04-01
The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. But how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer ‘how far is far enough,’ we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25-2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high
St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.
2015-04-02
The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. However, how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer 'how far is far enough,' we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25–2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high
Measurements of the Influence of Integral Length Scale on Stagnation Region Heat Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanfossen, G. James; Ching, Chang Y.
1994-01-01
The purpose was twofold: first, to determine if a length scale existed that would cause the greatest augmentation in stagnation region heat transfer for a given turbulence intensity and second, to develop a prediction tool for stagnation heat transfer in the presence of free stream turbulence. Toward this end, a model with a circular leading edge was fabricated with heat transfer gages in the stagnation region. The model was qualified in a low turbulence wind tunnel by comparing measurements with Frossling's solution for stagnation region heat transfer in a laminar free stream. Five turbulence generating grids were fabricated; four were square mesh, biplane grids made from square bars. Each had identical mesh to bar width ratio but different bar widths. The fifth grid was an array of fine parallel wires that were perpendicular to the axis of the cylindrical leading edge. Turbulence intensity and integral length scale were measured as a function of distance from the grids. Stagnation region heat transfer was measured at various distances downstream of each grid. Data were taken at cylinder Reynolds numbers ranging from 42,000 to 193,000. Turbulence intensities were in the range 1.1 to 15.9 percent while the ratio of integral length scale to cylinder diameter ranged from 0.05 to 0.30. Stagnation region heat transfer augmentation increased with decreasing length scale. An optimum scale was not found. A correlation was developed that fit heat transfer data for the square bar grids to within +4 percent. The data from the array of wires were not predicted by the correlation; augmentation was higher for this case indicating that the degree of isotropy in the turbulent flow field has a large effect on stagnation heat transfer. The data of other researchers are also compared with the correlation.
Postulates for measures of genuine multipartite correlations
Bennett, Charles H.; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard; Horodecki, Pawel
2011-01-15
A lot of research has been done on multipartite correlations, but the problem of satisfactorily defining genuine multipartite correlations--those not trivially reducible to lower partite correlations--remains unsolved. In this paper we propose three reasonable postulates which each measure or indicator of genuine multipartite correlations (or genuine multipartite entanglement) should satisfy. We also introduce the concept of degree of correlations, which gives partial characterization of multipartite correlations. Then, we show that covariance does not satisfy two postulates and hence it cannot be used as an indicator of genuine multipartite correlations. Finally, we propose a candidate for a measure of genuine multipartite correlations based on the work that can be drawn from a local heat bath by means of a multipartite state.
Hills, Peter J; Eaton, Elizabeth; Pake, J Michael
2016-01-01
Psychometric schizotypy in the general population correlates negatively with face recognition accuracy, potentially due to deficits in inhibition, social withdrawal, or eye-movement abnormalities. We report an eye-tracking face recognition study in which participants were required to match one of two faces (target and distractor) to a cue face presented immediately before. All faces could be presented with or without paraphernalia (e.g., hats, glasses, facial hair). Results showed that paraphernalia distracted participants, and that the most distracting condition was when the cue and the distractor face had paraphernalia but the target face did not, while there was no correlation between distractibility and participants' scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Schizotypy was negatively correlated with proportion of time fixating on the eyes and positively correlated with not fixating on a feature. It was negatively correlated with scan path length and this variable correlated with face recognition accuracy. These results are interpreted as schizotypal traits being associated with a restricted scan path leading to face recognition deficits. PMID:25835241
St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.
2015-04-02
The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. However, how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer 'how far is far enough,' we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25–2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high
Transfer-matrix scaling from disorder-averaged correlation lengths for diluted Ising systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Queiroz, S. L. A.; Stinchcombe, R. B.
1994-10-01
A transfer-matrix-scaling technique is developed for randomly diluted systems, and applied to the site-diluted Ising model on a square lattice in two dimensions. For each allowed disorder configuration between two adjacent columns, the contribution of the respective transfer matrix to the decay of correlations is considered only as far as the ratio of its two largest eigenvalues, allowing an economical calculation of a configuration-averaged correlation length. Standard phenomenological-renormalization procedures are then used to analyze aspects of the phase boundary which are difficult to assess accurately by alternative methods. For magnetic site concentration p close to pc, the extent of exponential behavior of the Tc×p curve is clearly seen for over two decades of variation of p-pc. Close to the pure-system limit, the exactly known reduced slope is reproduced to a very good approximation, though with nonmonotonic convergence. The averaged correlation lengths are inserted into the exponent-amplitude relationship predicted by conformal invariance to hold at criticality. The resulting exponent η remains near the pure value (1/4) for all intermediate concentrations until it crosses over to the percolation value at the threshold.
Scale and time dependence of serial correlations in word-length time series of written texts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.
2014-11-01
This work considered the quantitative analysis of large written texts. To this end, the text was converted into a time series by taking the sequence of word lengths. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used for characterizing long-range serial correlations of the time series. To this end, the DFA was implemented within a rolling window framework for estimating the variations of correlations, quantified in terms of the scaling exponent, strength along the text. Also, a filtering derivative was used to compute the dependence of the scaling exponent relative to the scale. The analysis was applied to three famous English-written literary narrations; namely, Alice in Wonderland (by Lewis Carrol), Dracula (by Bram Stoker) and Sense and Sensibility (by Jane Austen). The results showed that high correlations appear for scales of about 50-200 words, suggesting that at these scales the text contains the stronger coherence. The scaling exponent was not constant along the text, showing important variations with apparent cyclical behavior. An interesting coincidence between the scaling exponent variations and changes in narrative units (e.g., chapters) was found. This suggests that the scaling exponent obtained from the DFA is able to detect changes in narration structure as expressed by the usage of words of different lengths.
Weak Measurements Destroy Too Much Quantum Correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shao-xiong; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-shui; Song, He-shan
2016-01-01
The quantum correlation under weak measurements is studied via skew information. For 2 × d-dimensional states, it can be given by a closed form which linearly depends on the quantum correlation [EPL. 107 (2014) 10007] determined by the strength of the weak measurement. It is found that the quantum correlation under weak measurements only captures partial quantumness of the state. In particular, the extraction of the residual quantumness by the latter measurements will inevitably destroy too much quantumness. To demonstration, the Werner state is given as an example.
Lorenzini, Antonello; Johnson, F. Brad; Oliver, Anthony; Tresini, Maria; Smith, Jasmine S.; Hdeib, Mona; Sell, Christian; Cristofalo, Vincent J.; Stamato, Thomas D.
2009-01-01
Summary The identification of the cellular mechanisms responsible for the wide differences in species lifespan remains one of the major unsolved problems of the biology of aging. We measured the capacity of nuclear protein to recognize DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and telomere length of skin fibroblasts derived from mammalian species that exhibit wide differences in longevity. Our results indicate DNA DSB recognition increases exponentially with longevity. Further, an analysis of the level of Ku80 protein in human, cow, and mouse suggests that Ku levels vary dramatically between species and these levels are strongly correlated with longevity. In contrast mean telomere length appears to decrease with increasing longevity of the species, although not significantly. These findings suggest that an enhanced ability to bind to DNA-ends may be important for longevity. A number of possible roles for increased levels of Ku and DNA-PKcs are discussed. PMID:19896964
Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Chinkes, David L.; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Aarsland, Asle; Herndon, David N.
2014-01-01
Autografting of burn wounds results in generation of donor site wounds. Here we measured donor site wound protein Fractional Synthesis Rate (FSR) in a burn pediatric population and showed that FSR increases over time postsurgery and correlates with the length of hospital stay (LOS) normalized for total body surface area (TBSA) burn size. 3.9±1.1 days after the grafting surgery patients participated in a metabolic study consisting of continuous infusion of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine and donor site wound punch biopsies. Donor site wound protein FSR was 10.4±7.5 %/day. Wound FSR demonstrated linear correlation with the time postsurgery (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that LOS/TBSA correlated with donor site wound protein FSR and time postsurgery (p < 0.001) and the following equation describes the relationship: Estimated LOS/TBSA = (FSR - 12.95 – 1.414 × Postsurgery day)/(−17.8). This equation predicted that FSR corrected for the postsurgery day when the metabolic study was conducted accounted for 67 % of the variability (r2 = 0.673) in the LOS/TBSA. Donor site wound protein FSR correlated to LOS/TBSA of burn patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Measurement of protein deposition in regenerating donor site wound using stable isotope technique provides a quantitative measure of wound healing. PMID:20412556
Topological phases and topological entropy of two-dimensional systems with finite correlation length
Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Fradkin, Eduardo; Raman, Kumar S.
2007-12-01
We elucidate the topological features of the entanglement entropy of a region in two-dimensional quantum systems in a topological phase with a finite correlation length {xi}. First, we suggest that simpler reduced quantities, related to the von Neumann entropy, could be defined to compute the topological entropy. We use our methods to compute the entanglement entropy for the ground-state wave function of a quantum eight-vertex model in its topological phase and show that a finite correlation length adds corrections of the same order as the topological entropy which come from sharp features of the boundary of the region under study. We also calculate the topological entropy for the ground state of the quantum dimer model on a triangular lattice by using a mapping to a loop model. The topological entropy of the state is determined by loop configurations with a nontrivial winding number around the region under study. Finally, we consider extensions of the Kitaev wave function, which incorporate the effects of electric and magnetic charge fluctuations, and use it to investigate the stability of the topological phase by calculating the topological entropy.
Norm-based measurement of quantum correlation
Wu Yuchun; Guo Guangcan
2011-06-15
In this paper we derived a necessary and sufficient condition for classical correlated states and proposed a norm-based measurement Q of quantum correlation. Using the max norm of operators, we gave the expression of the quantum correlation measurement Q and investigated the dynamics of Q in Markovian and non-Markovian cases, respectively. Q decays exponentially and vanishes only asymptotically in the Markovian case and causes periodical death and rebirth in the non-Markovian case. In the pure state, the quantum correlation Q is always larger than the entanglement, which was different from other known measurements. In addition, we showed that locally broadcastable and broadcastable are equivalent and reproved the density of quantum correlated states.
Complexity measures, emergence, and multiparticle correlations.
Galla, Tobias; Gühne, Otfried
2012-04-01
We study correlation measures for complex systems. First, we investigate some recently proposed measures based on information geometry. We show that these measures can increase under local transformations as well as under discarding particles, thereby questioning their interpretation as a quantifier for complexity or correlations. We then propose a refined definition of these measures, investigate its properties, and discuss its numerical evaluation. As an example, we study coupled logistic maps and study the behavior of the different measures for that case. Finally, we investigate other local effects during the coarse graining of the complex system. PMID:22680558
Complexity measures, emergence, and multiparticle correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galla, Tobias; Gühne, Otfried
2012-04-01
We study correlation measures for complex systems. First, we investigate some recently proposed measures based on information geometry. We show that these measures can increase under local transformations as well as under discarding particles, thereby questioning their interpretation as a quantifier for complexity or correlations. We then propose a refined definition of these measures, investigate its properties, and discuss its numerical evaluation. As an example, we study coupled logistic maps and study the behavior of the different measures for that case. Finally, we investigate other local effects during the coarse graining of the complex system.
Instrument for measuring thin-film belt lengths
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Casad, T. A.; Piggott, H.; Hoffman, J. K.
1974-01-01
Instrument consists of base, vernier height gauge, sliding block, and balance-beam assembly with tension weight. Pulley bracket is provided with three pulley mounting holes, 4 inches apart, to accommodate widely different belt lengths. Instrument is accurate to within 0.001 inch and is suitable for commercial production.
Telomere length measurement by a novel Luminex-based assay: a blinded comparison to Southern blot.
Pierce, Brandon L; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Zhang, Chenan; Aviv, Abraham; Hunt, Steven C; Ahsan, Habibul; Kibriya, Muhammad G
2016-01-01
Telomere length (TL) is a potential biomarker of aging and age-related disease risk. We recently published a novel Luminex-based method for high-throughput, low-cost TL measurement. Here we describe a blinded comparison of the Luminex method to Southern blot, the most precise TL measurement method. Luminex and Southern blot measurements for the same 50 DNA samples were taken in two independent laboratories; each sample was measured twice, several months apart. The inter-assay CV for Luminex ranged from 5.5 to 9.1 (depending on CV estimation method), and Southern blot CV from 1.0 to 1.7. Both measures were inversely associated with age. The correlation between the repeated measurements was 0.66 for Luminex and 0.97 for Southern blot. The correlation between Southern blot and Luminex was 0.65 in round 1 and 0.75 in round 2, and the relationship showed no evidence of non-linearity. Our results demonstrate that the Luminex assay is a valid and reproducible method for high-throughput TL measurement. The Luminex assay involves no DNA amplification, which may make Luminex an attractive alternative to PCR-based TL measurement. PMID:27186324
Telomere length measurement by a novel Luminex-based assay: a blinded comparison to Southern blot
Pierce, Brandon L; Jasmine, Farzana; Roy, Shantanu; Zhang, Chenan; Aviv, Abraham; Hunt, Steven C; Ahsan, Habibul; Kibriya, Muhammad G
2016-01-01
Telomere length (TL) is a potential biomarker of aging and age-related disease risk. We recently published a novel Luminex-based method for high-throughput, low-cost TL measurement. Here we describe a blinded comparison of the Luminex method to Southern blot, the most precise TL measurement method. Luminex and Southern blot measurements for the same 50 DNA samples were taken in two independent laboratories; each sample was measured twice, several months apart. The inter-assay CV for Luminex ranged from 5.5 to 9.1 (depending on CV estimation method), and Southern blot CV from 1.0 to 1.7. Both measures were inversely associated with age. The correlation between the repeated measurements was 0.66 for Luminex and 0.97 for Southern blot. The correlation between Southern blot and Luminex was 0.65 in round 1 and 0.75 in round 2, and the relationship showed no evidence of non-linearity. Our results demonstrate that the Luminex assay is a valid and reproducible method for high-throughput TL measurement. The Luminex assay involves no DNA amplification, which may make Luminex an attractive alternative to PCR-based TL measurement. PMID:27186324
On the measurability of quantum correlation functions
Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio de Azevedo, Sérgio; Rosas, Alexandre
2015-05-15
The concept of correlation function is widely used in classical statistical mechanics to characterize how two or more variables depend on each other. In quantum mechanics, on the other hand, there are observables that cannot be measured at the same time; the so-called incompatible observables. This prospect imposes a limitation on the definition of a quantum analog for the correlation function in terms of a sequence of measurements. Here, based on the notion of sequential weak measurements, we circumvent this limitation by introducing a framework to measure general quantum correlation functions, in principle, independently of the state of the system and the operators involved. To illustrate, we propose an experimental configuration to obtain explicitly the quantum correlation function between two Pauli operators, in which the input state is an arbitrary mixed qubit state encoded on the polarization of photons.
Hu, Y H; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Wang, C T; Tai, C
1999-12-01
1. Heritabilities and genetic correlations in the base population of a closed strain of Muscovy duck, moderately selected for body weight at 10 weeks of age, have been estimated from the data of 9 successive generations for the following traits: male and female body weight at 10 and 18 weeks of age (BW10m, BW18m, BW10f, BW18f) and length of the 8th primary feather at 10 weeks of age (F110m, F110f). 2. Multivariate REML with an animal model was used, pooling data from the 9 generations (3283 and 3289 male and female offspring respectively). The same trait expressed in male and female was considered as 2 different traits. 3. The 8th primary feather was longer in females than in males by 6% to 22% at 10 weeks of age. Body weight was heavier in males than in females by 42% to 58% at 10 weeks of age and by 57% to 75% at 18 weeks of age. 3. The heritability estimates for body weight traits showed moderate values, being a little higher for females than for males at the same age, increasing with age from h2=0.24 at BW10m to h2=0.43 at BW18f. 4. The heritability estimates for feather length showed that a greater response would be obtained in selection for male feather length (h2=0.37) than for female length (h2=0.14). Both have high genetic correlations with body weight so they could be indirectly improved. 5. Heritabilities of the difference in body weights between males and females at 10 weeks (h2=0.07) and 18 weeks of age (h2=0.10) were small, as well as for feather length (h2=0.10). It would probably be difficult to modify sexual dimorphism in body weight through selection. 6. Genetic correlations between BW10m, BW18m and BW10f, BW18f were respectively r(g)=0.77 and r(g)=0.80. They were larger for body weight at the same ages between males and females, r(g)=0.90 (r(g)=0.88 between F110m and F110f). Body weight in males and females at the same age should be better considered as 2 different traits in a selection programme. 7. The cumulated predicted genetic gains
Hermanussen, M; Geiger-Benoit, K; Burmeister, J; Sippell, W G
1988-01-01
Recently, a new anthropometric method of accurate lower leg length measurement (knemometry) was introduced. The present study was performed to investigate rigorously its strengths and weaknesses for auxological purposes, and to promote a standardized method of use. The data are based on 6 x 2200 single estimations of the lower leg length in 90 children of both sexes with normal, tall or short stature aged between 2.4 and 17.1 years. The overall technical error of this measurement was found to be 0.16 mm, which is reduced to 0.13 mm if the first estimation within each series of six is ignored. The following sources of systematic error could be detected: intra-daily variation, dependency on physical pressure put on or removed from the leg, vigorous physical activity prior to the measuring procedure, and a slow but significant correlation between day-to-day variation of lower leg length and body weight (r = 0.299, b = 0.372 mm/kg). There was no covariation with atmospheric parameters such as outside temperature, barometric pressure and others. After elimination of a linear trend from the individual growth curves, there was a remaining day-to-day variation of SD = 0.697 mm. This represents real changes of lower leg length and cannot be explained by the technical error of measurement which contributes to less than 10% of the total variation. Some of this day-to-day variation may be explained by non-linearity of growth. Knemometry appears to be a robust and precise new tool for the investigation of short term kinetics of longitudinal growth. Proposals for a standardized use of this technique are given. PMID:3348587
Measuring and modeling correlations in multiplex networks.
Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito
2015-09-01
The interactions among the elementary components of many complex systems can be qualitatively different. Such systems are therefore naturally described in terms of multiplex or multilayer networks, i.e., networks where each layer stands for a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes. There is today a growing interest in understanding when and why a description in terms of a multiplex network is necessary and more informative than a single-layer projection. Here we contribute to this debate by presenting a comprehensive study of correlations in multiplex networks. Correlations in node properties, especially degree-degree correlations, have been thoroughly studied in single-layer networks. Here we extend this idea to investigate and characterize correlations between the different layers of a multiplex network. Such correlations are intrinsically multiplex, and we first study them empirically by constructing and analyzing several multiplex networks from the real world. In particular, we introduce various measures to characterize correlations in the activity of the nodes and in their degree at the different layers and between activities and degrees. We show that real-world networks exhibit indeed nontrivial multiplex correlations. For instance, we find cases where two layers of the same multiplex network are positively correlated in terms of node degrees, while other two layers are negatively correlated. We then focus on constructing synthetic multiplex networks, proposing a series of models to reproduce the correlations observed empirically and/or to assess their relevance. PMID:26465526
Measuring and modeling correlations in multiplex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito
2015-09-01
The interactions among the elementary components of many complex systems can be qualitatively different. Such systems are therefore naturally described in terms of multiplex or multilayer networks, i.e., networks where each layer stands for a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes. There is today a growing interest in understanding when and why a description in terms of a multiplex network is necessary and more informative than a single-layer projection. Here we contribute to this debate by presenting a comprehensive study of correlations in multiplex networks. Correlations in node properties, especially degree-degree correlations, have been thoroughly studied in single-layer networks. Here we extend this idea to investigate and characterize correlations between the different layers of a multiplex network. Such correlations are intrinsically multiplex, and we first study them empirically by constructing and analyzing several multiplex networks from the real world. In particular, we introduce various measures to characterize correlations in the activity of the nodes and in their degree at the different layers and between activities and degrees. We show that real-world networks exhibit indeed nontrivial multiplex correlations. For instance, we find cases where two layers of the same multiplex network are positively correlated in terms of node degrees, while other two layers are negatively correlated. We then focus on constructing synthetic multiplex networks, proposing a series of models to reproduce the correlations observed empirically and/or to assess their relevance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sütterlin, Daniel; Erni, Daniel; Schlott, Volker; Sigg, Hans; Jäckel, Heinz; Murk, Axel
2010-10-01
A spatial, electro-optical autocorrelation (EOA) interferometer using the vertically polarized lobes of coherent transition radiation (CTR) has been developed as a single-shot electron bunch length monitor at an optical beam port downstream the 100 MeV preinjector LINAC of the Swiss Light Source. This EOA monitor combines the advantages of step-scan interferometers (high temporal resolution) [D. Mihalcea et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 082801 (2006) and T. Takahashi and K. Takami, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 363 (2008)] and terahertz-gating technologies [U. Schmidhammer et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 95 (2009) and B. Steffen et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009)] (fast response), providing the possibility to tune the accelerator with an online bunch length diagnostics. While a proof of principle of the spatial interferometer was achieved by step-scan measurements with far-infrared detectors, the single-shot capability of the monitor has been demonstrated by electro-optical correlation of the spatial CTR interference pattern with fairly long (500 ps) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulses in a ZnTe crystal. In single-shot operation, variations of the bunch length between 1.5 and 4 ps due to different phase settings of the LINAC bunching cavities have been measured with subpicosecond time resolution.
Suetterlin, Daniel; Erni, Daniel; Schlott, Volker; Sigg, Hans; Jaeckel, Heinz; Murk, Axel
2010-10-15
A spatial, electro-optical autocorrelation (EOA) interferometer using the vertically polarized lobes of coherent transition radiation (CTR) has been developed as a single-shot electron bunch length monitor at an optical beam port downstream the 100 MeV preinjector LINAC of the Swiss Light Source. This EOA monitor combines the advantages of step-scan interferometers (high temporal resolution) [D. Mihalcea et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 082801 (2006) and T. Takahashi and K. Takami, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 363 (2008)] and terahertz-gating technologies [U. Schmidhammer et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 95 (2009) and B. Steffen et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009)] (fast response), providing the possibility to tune the accelerator with an online bunch length diagnostics. While a proof of principle of the spatial interferometer was achieved by step-scan measurements with far-infrared detectors, the single-shot capability of the monitor has been demonstrated by electro-optical correlation of the spatial CTR interference pattern with fairly long (500 ps) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulses in a ZnTe crystal. In single-shot operation, variations of the bunch length between 1.5 and 4 ps due to different phase settings of the LINAC bunching cavities have been measured with subpicosecond time resolution.
Noise probes of underlying static correlation lengths in the superconducting peak effect
Rabin, M.W.; Merithew, R.D.; Weissman, M.B.; Higgins, M.J.; Bhattacharya, S.
1998-01-01
The sensitivity of low-frequency noise to ac magnetic-field perturbations is explored in the plastic flow regime near the {open_quotes}peak effect{close_quotes} in the clean type-II superconductor NbSe{sub 2}. Very small ac magnetic fields (on the order of 1 Oe in a dc field of about 20000 Oe) substantially reduce the low-frequency spectral density by inducing rapid switching among metastable configurations present in the pinned state. This sensitivity to ac fields shrinks rapidly as H increases in the peak-effect regime, indicating reduced static correlation lengths as the peak is approached. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Fitness correlates of spur length and spur asymmetry in male wild turkeys.
Badyaev, A V; Etges, W J; Faust, J D; Martin, T E
1998-11-01
Tarsal spurs play an important role in intrasexual competition for females among male wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Thus variation in spur development may have important fitness consequences. Fitness correlates of spur development were studied in a free-living population of wild turkeys and it was found that heavier males and males with longer beards had longer spurs. Males that had longer spurs spent more time on display areas during the breeding season and less time moving among these areas compared to males with shorter spurs, independently of their body mass. Otherwise ideally symmetrical spurs showed fluctuating asymmetry between left and right tarsi, the degree of absolute asymmetry decreased with spur length in adults, but not in subadults, and males that survived at least one winter had more symmetrical spurs compared to males that did not. We conclude that if the ability to produce symmetrical spurs has a genetic basis, then spur length and spur asymmetry could reliably indicate individual quality and that these traits are under directional selection for increased size and symmetry in wild turkeys. PMID:26412365
Error analysis and modeling for the time grating length measurement system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhonghua; Fen, Jiqin; Zheng, Fangyan; Chen, Ziran; Peng, Donglin; Liu, Xiaokang
2013-10-01
Through analyzing errors of the length measurement system in which a linear time grating was the principal measuring component, we found that the study on the error law was very important to reduce system errors and optimize the system structure. Mainly error sources in the length measuring system, including the time grating sensor, slide way, and cantilever, were studied; and therefore total errors were obtained. Meanwhile we erected the mathematic model of errors of the length measurement system. Using the error model, we calibrated system errors being in the length measurement system. Also, we developed a set of experimental devices in which a laser interferometer was used to calibrate the length measurement system errors. After error calibrating, the accuracy of the measurement system was improved from original 36um/m to 14um/m. The fact that experiment results are consistent with the simulation results shows that the error mathematic model is suitable for the length measuring system.
Hepcidin and Iron Metabolism in Pregnancy: Correlation with Smoking and Birth Weight and Length.
Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Gajewska, Joanna; Jabłońska-Głąb, Ewa; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz
2016-09-01
To estimate the effect of tobacco smoking on iron homeostasis and the possible association between hepcidin and the neonatal birth weight and length, concentrations of serum hepcidin and selected iron markers were measured in 81 healthy pregnant women (41 smokers and 40 nonsmokers). The smoking mothers had significantly lower concentrations of serum hepcidin (p < 0.001), iron (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin (p < 0.05), but higher erythropoietin (p < 0.05) levels compared with non-smoking pregnant women. Logistic regression analysis showed the highest negative impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day (β = -0.46; p < 0.01) and positive impact of ferritin level (β = 0.47; p < 0.001) on serum hepcidin concentration. The birth weight and the body length of smoking mothers' infants were significantly lower than in tobacco abstinent group (p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, birth body weight (β = 0.56; p < 0.001) and length (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) were significantly related to maternal hepcidin values. Tobacco smoking affected hepcidin level in serum of pregnant women in a dose-dependent manner. Low concentrations of iron and hemoglobin in maternal serum coexisting with high level of erythropoietin suggest that smoking could lead to subclinical iron deficiency and chronic hypoxia not only in mothers but also in fetus. Low serum hepcidin concentration in smoking pregnant women might be associated with lower fetal birth weight and length. PMID:26785641
Nelson, Christa M; Dewald, Julius P A; Murray, Wendy M
2016-06-14
Muscle fascicle lengths are commonly measured in vivo using static 2D ultrasound. However, static ultrasound is best suited for muscles with shorter, pennate fascicles, in which entire fascicles can be viewed in one static image. An informal review of data from cadaver dissections suggests that over 60% of muscles in the upper and lower limbs have optimal lengths longer than the field-of-view of standard ultrasound transducers. Extended field-of-view ultrasound (EFOV) has been validated for measurement of fascicle lengths, but has yet to be implemented in the upper extremity in humans. In this study, EFOV ultrasound was used to measure the lengths of fascicles sampled from the anterior portion of the biceps brachii (long head) and the distal half of the triceps brachii (lateral head). Data were collected from both limbs of eleven healthy subjects in three elbow postures under passive conditions. Image analysis was completed via Image J. Fascicle length measurements were highly reliable, with intra-class correlations ranging from .92 to .95 for biceps and .81-.92 for triceps (p<.001). Systematic, significant differences in measured lengths, consistent with muscle function, were observed between elbow positions. In vivo measurements for both muscles in this study were within the range of cadaver data. This work establishes the feasibility and reliability of EFOV ultrasound for measurement of the long fascicles of muscles in the upper limb. PMID:27083062
Correlation of interannual length-of-day variation with El Nino/Southern Oscillation, 1972-1986
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, B. Fong
1988-01-01
Correlation between interannual length-of-day (LOD) changes and an index representation of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) for the period of 1972-1986 was examined in two ways: as the cross-correlation function in the time domain and as the complex coherence spectrum in the frequency domain. The ENSO representation was derived from barometric measurements from the Tahiti and Darwin, Australia, meteorological stations, as the difference of the sea-level pressure between the two locations. The cross correlation between this ENSO representation and LOD variation on the interannual time scale was found to have a maximum value of 0.68 and the LOD phase lag of 2 months, indicating that most of the interannual LOD variation is caused by ENSO, and that the transfer of ENSO's axial angular momentum to the solid earth lags behind the Tahiti-Darwin pressure variation by about 2 months. The corresponding coherence spectrum showed minimum correlation around biennial periods, indicating an influence of the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation on LOD variations.
Understanding the amplitudes of noise correlation measurements
Tsai, Victor C.
2011-01-01
Cross correlation of ambient seismic noise is known to result in time series from which station-station travel-time measurements can be made. Part of the reason that these cross-correlation travel-time measurements are reliable is that there exists a theoretical framework that quantifies how these travel times depend on the features of the ambient noise. However, corresponding theoretical results do not currently exist to describe how the amplitudes of the cross correlation depend on such features. For example, currently it is not possible to take a given distribution of noise sources and calculate the cross correlation amplitudes one would expect from such a distribution. Here, we provide a ray-theoretical framework for calculating cross correlations. This framework differs from previous work in that it explicitly accounts for attenuation as well as the spatial distribution of sources and therefore can address the issue of quantifying amplitudes in noise correlation measurements. After introducing the general framework, we apply it to two specific problems. First, we show that we can quantify the amplitudes of coherency measurements, and find that the decay of coherency with station-station spacing depends crucially on the distribution of noise sources. We suggest that researchers interested in performing attenuation measurements from noise coherency should first determine how the dominant sources of noise are distributed. Second, we show that we can quantify the signal-to-noise ratio of noise correlations more precisely than previous work, and that these signal-to-noise ratios can be estimated for given situations prior to the deployment of seismometers. It is expected that there are applications of the theoretical framework beyond the two specific cases considered, but these applications await future work.
Correlation Length Scales of Isotopic Variations Along Mid-Ocean Ridges and Upper Mantle Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graham, D. W.; Spera, F. J.
2003-12-01
How isotopic variations in basalts erupted at the Earth's surface are linked to convective mixing in the underlying mantle is a central problem in geodynamics. The objective of this study is to quantify the length scales of upper mantle heterogeneity through spatial statistical analysis of MORB. We define a characteristic length scale, the scale of segregation L, computed from the spatial self-correlations for 3He/4He, 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd and 206,207,208Pb/204Pb in "zero age" lavas from mid-ocean ridges. Our working hypothesis is that small scale convection in the upper mantle controls dispersion of geochemical tracers. Differences in L between ocean basins may then be quantitatively related to unsteadiness in this convection, due to thickening of the lithosphere, plume impingement, or lateral temperature/compositional differences between continental and oceanic lithosphere induced by batholith formation. The correlation coefficient R, and the separation distance r, are calculated for every i,j pair of points. Ri,j is given by the product of the deviations in isotope composition from the population mean, normalized to the population variance, and R(r) is computed as an ensemble average. The total number of point pairs (N) for n sample locations is given by N=n(n-1)/2. For the global MORB data set (n=1265 and 735 for Sr and He, respectively), N exceeds 105 (799480 and 269745, respectively). A value of R(r) close to 1 indicates that an isotope ratio above (or below) the population average is likely to be associated with an above (or below) average value at a distance r away. A value of R(r) close to zero implies a random relationship, and a value close to -1 implies an anti-correlation. R(r) approaches unity at small r by definition, as points close together are from the same "clump" of mantle. The value of r at which R first goes to zero is denoted as r*. On a diagram of R(r) vs. r (the correlogram), the integral of R(r) from r=0 to r=r* is the scale of
Automated path length and M{sub 56} measurements at Jefferson Lab
Hardy, D.; Tang, J.; Legg, R.
1997-08-01
Accurate measurement of path length and path length changes versus momentum (M{sub 56}) are critical for maintaining minimum beam energy spread in the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The relative path length for each circuit of the beam (1256m) must be equal within 1.5 degrees of 1497 MHz RF phase. A relative path length measurement is made by measuring the relative phases of RF signals from a cavity that is separately excited for each pass of a 4.2 {mu}s pulsed beam. This method distinguishes the path length to less than 0.5 path length error. The development of a VME based automated measurement system for path length and M{sub 56} has contributed to faster machine setup time and has the potential for use as a feedback parameter for automated control.
Knight, Rosemary J.; Irving, James D.; Tercier, Paulette; Freeman, Eugene J.; Murray, Christopher J.; Rockhold, Mark L.
2007-11-08
Surface-based ground-penetrating radar data were collected at the Hanford Site in Washington, U.S.A. to assess the use of radar reflection images as a means of quantifying the spatial variability of subsurface water content. Available at the selected test site were two sets of water content data derived from neutron probe measurements that had been made to a depth of ~18 m in 32 wells. The comparison of probe-derived water content data, synthetic radar data, and the acquired radar data indicated a good correspondence between the changes in probe-derived water content and the location of reflections in the radar data. Geostatistical analysis was conducted on the two sets of probe-derived water content values and the amplitudes of the reflections in the radar reflection image to determine the horizontal correlation length of water content. The experimental semivariograms for the water content data were fit with a single exponential model with a correlation length of 10 m. The semivariogram for the radar data was fit with a nested structure containing a dominant long-range structure with a correlation length of 14 m, and a smaller-scale structure with a correlation length of 0.3 m. Quantifying the scale triplet – the spacing, extent, and support – for the two forms of measurement provided a framework for comparing and assessing the derived correlation structures.
Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook
Cook, DR
2011-01-31
The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.
Boddum, Kim; Hansen, Mathias Hvidtfelt; Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek
2016-01-01
The hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides (hcrt) are key players in the control of sleep and wakefulness evidenced by the fact that lack of hcrt leads to the sleep disorder Narcolepsy Type 1. Sleep disturbances are common in mood disorders, and hcrt has been suggested to be poorly regulated in depressed subjects. To study seasonal variation in hcrt levels, we obtained data on hcrt-1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 227 human individuals evaluated for central hypersomnias at a Danish sleep center. The samples were taken over a 4 year timespan, and obtained in the morning hours, thus avoiding impact of the diurnal hcrt variation. Hcrt-1 concentration was determined in a standardized radioimmunoassay. Using biometric data and sleep parameters, a multivariate regression analysis was performed. We found that the average monthly CSF hcrt-1 levels varied significantly across the seasons following a sine wave with its peak in the summer (June-July). The amplitude was 19.9 pg hcrt/mL [12.8-26.9] corresponding to a 10.6% increase in midsummer compared to winter. Factors found to significantly predict the hcrt-1 values were day length, presence of snow, and proximity to the Christmas holiday season. The hcrt-1 values from January were much higher than predicted from the model, suggestive of additional factors influencing the CSF hcrt-1 levels such as social interaction. This study provides evidence that human CSF hcrt-1 levels vary with season, correlating with day length. This finding could have implications for the understanding of winter tiredness, fatigue, and seasonal affective disorder. This is the first time a seasonal variation of hcrt-1 levels has been shown, demonstrating that the hcrt system is, like other neurotransmitter systems, subjected to long term modulation. PMID:27008404
Boddum, Kim; Hansen, Mathias Hvidtfelt; Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek
2016-01-01
The hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides (hcrt) are key players in the control of sleep and wakefulness evidenced by the fact that lack of hcrt leads to the sleep disorder Narcolepsy Type 1. Sleep disturbances are common in mood disorders, and hcrt has been suggested to be poorly regulated in depressed subjects. To study seasonal variation in hcrt levels, we obtained data on hcrt-1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 227 human individuals evaluated for central hypersomnias at a Danish sleep center. The samples were taken over a 4 year timespan, and obtained in the morning hours, thus avoiding impact of the diurnal hcrt variation. Hcrt-1 concentration was determined in a standardized radioimmunoassay. Using biometric data and sleep parameters, a multivariate regression analysis was performed. We found that the average monthly CSF hcrt-1 levels varied significantly across the seasons following a sine wave with its peak in the summer (June—July). The amplitude was 19.9 pg hcrt/mL [12.8–26.9] corresponding to a 10.6% increase in midsummer compared to winter. Factors found to significantly predict the hcrt-1 values were day length, presence of snow, and proximity to the Christmas holiday season. The hcrt-1 values from January were much higher than predicted from the model, suggestive of additional factors influencing the CSF hcrt-1 levels such as social interaction. This study provides evidence that human CSF hcrt-1 levels vary with season, correlating with day length. This finding could have implications for the understanding of winter tiredness, fatigue, and seasonal affective disorder. This is the first time a seasonal variation of hcrt-1 levels has been shown, demonstrating that the hcrt system is, like other neurotransmitter systems, subjected to long term modulation. PMID:27008404
Correlates of implicit cognitive line length representation in two-dimensional space.
Doty, Richard L; Koti, Ajay; O'Hara, Thomas A; Landy, Jeffrey; Shin, Christina; Silas, Jonathan
2014-10-01
Twenty-eight sex- and age-matched participants, half dextrals and half sinstrals, were instructed to move a pen-sized planometer three inches (7.6 cm) while blindfolded. Under separate trials, movements were made at four angles, towards and away from the body, and at two distances from the body (30 cm, 53 cm). Half were made with the right hand and half with the left hand. Line estimates increased in length across blocks of trials in a linear fashion and progressively overestimated the three-inch imagined criterion. Lines made moving towards the body were longer than those made moving away from the body, implying an egocentric frame of reference in making the estimates. Line estimates made at an oblique angle differed significantly from estimates made at other angles. No influences of sex, handedness, or the hand used in making the estimates were observed. The findings suggest that motoric estimates of line lengths made without visual cues-a unique measure of an implicit cognitive concept-are significantly altered by temporal and spatial factors, but not by sex or hemispheric laterality. PMID:25244556
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnan, P.
1987-01-01
A physical length scale in the wavefront corresponding to the parameter (r sub 0) characterizing the loss in detail in a long exposure image is identified, and the influence of the correlation scale of turbulence as r sub 0 approaches this scale is shown. Allowing for the effect of 2-point correlations in the fluctuations of the refractive index, Venkatakrishnan and Chatterjee (1987) proposed a modified law for the phase structure function. It is suggested that the departure of the phase structure function from the 5/3 power law for length scales in the wavefront approaching the correlation scale of turbulence may lead to better 'seeing' at longer wavelengths.
Generating nonclassical correlations without fully aligning measurements
Wallman, Joel J.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Liang, Yeong-Cherng
2011-02-15
We investigate the scenario where spatially separated parties perform measurements in randomly chosen bases on an N-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. We show that without any alignment of the measurements, the observers will obtain correlations that violate a Bell inequality with a probability that rapidly approaches 1 as N increases and that this probability is robust against noise. We also prove that restricting these randomly chosen measurements to a plane perpendicular to a common direction will always generate correlations that violate some Bell inequality. Specifically, if each observer chooses their two measurements to be locally orthogonal, then the N observers will violate one of two Bell inequalities by an amount that increases exponentially with N. These results are also robust against noise and perturbations of each observer's reference direction from the common direction.
Computer Anxiety: Definition, Measurement, and Correlates.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cambre, Marjorie A.; Cook, Desmond L.
This review examines the definition, measurement, and correlates of computer anxiety as provided in available research. The concept of computer anxiety reflects an anxiety state, rather than an anxiety trait, thus rendering it susceptible to change over time. Computer anxiety is similar in nature to math anxiety and test anxiety. Two approaches to…
PHENIX Measurements of Correlations at RHIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taranenko, Arkadiy
2016-01-01
Relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide a unique opportunity to study the expansion dynamics and the transport properties of the produced strongly interacting quark gluon plasma (QGP). This article reviews the recent soft physics results obtained via correlation measurements from the PHENIX experiment at RHIC: space-time extent of the pion emission source and azimuthal anisotropy of the particle production.
Quantum Correlations and the Measurement Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bub, Jeffrey
2014-10-01
The transition from classical to quantum mechanics rests on the recognition that the structure of information is not what we thought it was: there are operational, i.e., phenomenal, probabilistic correlations that lie outside the polytope of local correlations. Such correlations cannot be simulated with classical resources, which generate classical correlations represented by the points in a simplex, where the vertices of the simplex represent joint deterministic states that are the common causes of the correlations. The `no go' hidden variable theorems tell us that we can't shoe-horn phenomenal correlations outside the local polytope into a classical simplex by supposing that something has been left out of the story. The replacement of the classical simplex by the quantum convex set as the structure representing probabilistic correlations is the analogue for quantum mechanics of the replacement of Newton's Euclidean space and time by Minkowski spacetime in special relativity. The nonclassical features of quantum mechanics, including the irreducible information loss on measurement, are generic features of correlations that lie outside the classical simplex. This paper is an elaboration of these ideas, which have their source in work by Pitowsky (J. Math. Phys. 27:1556, 1986; Math. Program. 50:395, 1991; Phys. Rev. A 77:062109, 2008), Garg and Mermin (Found. Phys. 14:1-39, 1984), Barrett (Phys. Rev. A 75:032304, 2007; Phys. Rev. A 7:022101, 2005) and others, e.g., Brunner et al. (arXiv:1303.2849, 2013), but the literature goes back to Boole (An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, Dover, New York, 1951). The final section looks at the measurement problem of quantum mechanics in this context. A large part of the problem is removed by seeing that the inconsistency in reconciling the entangled state at the end of a quantum measurement process with the definiteness of the macroscopic pointer reading and the definiteness of the correlated value of the measured micro
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubica, Aleksander; Yoshida, Beni
2014-03-01
We invent a novel real-space renormalization group (RG) scheme which accurately estimates correlation length exponents ν near criticality of quantum Ising and clock models in higher dimensions. The method, based on a recent proposal by Miyazaki et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 051103 (2011), is remarkably simple (often analytical), grouping only a few spins into a block spin so that renormalized Hamiltonian has a closed form. A previous difficulty of spatial anisotropy and unwanted terms arising in higher-dimensional RG schemes is avoided by incorporating rotational invariance and internal Zq symmetries of the Hamiltonian. By applying this scheme to (2+1)-dim Ising model on a triangular lattice, we obtained ν = 0 . 6300 which is within statistical error of the current best Monte-Carlo result and ϕ4 theory estimation with seven-loop corrections. We also apply the scheme to higher-dimensional clock (Potts) models for which ordinary Monte-Carlo methods are not efficient due to suppression of quantum fluctuation in first-order phase transition.
Correlation between CAG repeat length and clinical features in Machado-Joseph disease
Maciel, P.; Gaspar, C.; Silveira, I.
1995-07-01
Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is associated with the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in a novel gene on 14q32.1. We confirmed the presence of this expansion in 156 MJD patients from 33 families of different geographic origins: 15 Portuguese Azorean, 2 Brazilian, and 16 North American of Portuguese Azorean descent. Normal chromosomes contain between 12 and 37 CAG repeats in the MJD gene, whereas MJD gene carriers have alleles within the expanded range of 62-84 CAG units. The distribution of expanded alleles and the gap between normal and expanded allele sizes is either inconsistent with a premutation hypothesis or most (if not all) of the alleles we studied descend from a common ancestor. There is a strong correlation between the expanded repeat size and the age at onset of the disease as well as the clinical presentation. There is mild instability of the CAG tract length with transmission of the expanded alleles; both increase and decrease in size between parents and progeny occur, with larger variations in male than in female transmissions. Together, these effects can partly explain the variability of age at onset and of phenotypic features in MJD; however, other modifying factors must exist. 37 refs., 6 figs.
Correlation between CAG Repeat Length and Clinical Features in Machado-Joseph Disease
Maciel, Patrícia; Gaspar, Claudia; DeStefano, Anita L.; Silveira, Isabel; Coutinho, Paula; Radvany, João; Dawson, David M.; Sudarsky, Lewis; Guimarães, João; Loureiro, Jose E. L.; Nezarati, Marjan M.; Corwin, Lee I.; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Rooke, Karen; Rosenberg, Roger; MacLeod, Patrick; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Sequeiros, Jorge; Rouleau, Guy A.
1995-01-01
Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is associated with the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in a novel gene on 14q32.1. We confirmed the presence of this expansion in 156 MJD patients from 33 families of different geographic origins: 15 Portuguese Azorean, 2 Brazilian, and 16 North American of Portuguese Azorean descent. Normal chromosomes contain between 12 and 37 CAG repeats in the MJD gene, whereas MJD gene carriers have alleles within the expanded range of 62–84 CAG units. The distribution of expanded alleles and the gap between normal and expanded allele sizes is either inconsistent with a premutation hypothesis or most (if not all) of the alleles we studied descend from a common ancestor. There is a strong correlation between the expanded repeat size and the age at onset of the disease as well as the clinical presentation. There is mild instability of the CAG tract length with transmission of the expanded alleles; both increase and decrease in size between parents and progeny occur, with larger variations in male than in female transmissions. Together, these effects can partly explain the variability of age at onset and of phenotypic features in MJD; however, other modifying factors must exist. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:7611296
Extinction measurement with open-path cavity ring-down technique of variable cavity length.
Cui, Hao; Li, Bincheng; Han, Yanling; Wang, Jing; Gao, Chunming; Wang, Yafei
2016-06-13
Open-path cavity ring down (OPCRD) technique with variable cavity length was developed to measure optical extinction including scattering and absorption of air in laboratory environment at 635 nm wavelength. By moving the rear cavity mirror of the ring-down cavity to change cavity length, ring-down time with different cavity lengths was experimentally obtained and the dependence of total cavity loss on cavity length was determined. The extinction coefficient of air was determined by the slope of linear dependence of total cavity loss on cavity length. The extinction coefficients of air with different particle concentrations at 635 nm wavelength were measured to be from 10.46 to 84.19 Mm^{-1} (ppm/m) in a normal laboratory environment. This variable-cavity-length OPCRD technique can be used for absolute extinction measurement and real-time environmental monitoring without closed-path sample cells and background measurements. PMID:27410351
Measurement and analysis of sarcomere length in rat cardiomyocytes in situ and in vitro
Camelliti, P.; Bollensdorff, C.; Stuckey, D. J.; Picton, G.; Burton, R. A. B.; Clarke, K.; Kohl, P.
2010-01-01
Sarcomere length (SL) is an important determinant and indicator of cardiac mechanical function; however, techniques for measuring SL in living, intact tissue are limited. Here, we present a technique that uses two-photon microscopy to directly image striations of living cells in cardioplegic conditions, both in situ (Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and ventricular tissue slices, stained with the fluorescent marker di-4-ANEPPS) and in vitro (acutely isolated rat ventricular myocytes). Software was developed to extract SL from two-photon fluorescence image sets while accounting for measurement errors associated with motion artifact in raster-scanned images and uncertainty of the cell angle relative to the imaging plane. Monte-Carlo simulations were used to guide analysis of SL measurements by determining error bounds as a function of measurement path length. The mode of the distribution of SL measurements in resting Langendorff-perfused heart is 1.95 μm (n = 167 measurements from N = 11 hearts) after correction for tissue orientation, which was significantly greater than that in isolated cells (1.71 μm, n = 346, N = 9 isolations) or ventricular slice preparations (1.79 μm, n = 79, N = 3 hearts) under our experimental conditions. Furthermore, we find that edema in arrested Langendorff-perfused heart is associated with a mean SL increase; this occurs as a function of time ex vivo and correlates with tissue volume changes determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Our results highlight that the proposed method can be used to monitor SL in living cells and that different experimental models from the same species may display significantly different SL values under otherwise comparable conditions, which has implications for experiment design, as well as comparison and interpretation of data. PMID:20228259
Diffraction effects in length measurements by laser interferometry.
Sasso, C P; Massa, E; Mana, G
2016-03-21
High-accuracy dimensional measurements by laser interferometers require corrections because of diffraction, which makes the effective fringe-period different from the wavelength of a plane (or spherical) wave λ_{0}. By using a combined X-ray and optical interferometer as a tool to investigate diffraction across a laser beam, we observed wavelength variations as large as 10^{-8}λ_{0}. We show that they originate from the wavefront evolution under paraxial propagation in the presence of wavefront- and intensity-profile perturbations. PMID:27136842
Subpicometer Length Measurement Using Semiconductor Laser Tracking Frequency Gauge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thapa, Rajesh; Phillips, James D.; Rocco, Emanuele; Reasenburg, Robert D.
2011-01-01
We have demonstrated heretofore unattained distance precision of 0:14pm (2pm) incremental and 14nm (2.9 micrometers) absolute in a resonant (nonresonant) interferometer at an averaging time of 1 s, using inexpensive telecommunications diode lasers. We have controlled the main source of error, that due to spurious reflection and the resulting amplitude modulation. In the resonant interferometer, absolute distance precision is well under lambda/6. Therefore, after an interruption, an absolute distance measurement can be used to return to the same interferometer order.
Bunch Length and Impedance Measurements at SPEAR3
Corbett, W.J.; Cheng, W.X.; Fisher, A.S.; Huang, X.; /SLAC
2011-11-02
Streak camera measurements were made at SPEAR3 to characterize longitudinal coupling impedance. For the nominal optics, data was taken at three rf voltages and a single-bunch current range of 0-20mA. Both bunchcentroid phase shift and bunch lengthening were recorded to extract values for resistive and reactive impedance. An (R+L) and a Q=1 model were then back-substituted into the Haissinski equation and compared with raw profile data. In the short bunch (low-{alpha}) mode, distribution 'bursting' was observed.
Kunc, Vlastimil; Frame, Barbara J; Nguyen, Ba N.; TuckerIII, Charles L.; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio
2007-01-01
Procedures for fiber length distribution (FLD) measurement of long fiber reinforced injection molded thermoplastics were refined for glass and carbon fibers. Techniques for sample selection, fiber separation, digitization and length measurement for both fiber types are described in detail. Quantitative FLD results are provided for glass and carbon reinforced polypropylene samples molded with a nominal original fiber length of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) using equipment optimized for molding short fiber reinforced thermoplastics.
Measurement of focal length using phase shifted moiré deflectometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trivedi, Satyaprakash; Dhanotia, Jitendra; Prakash, Shashi
2013-06-01
In present communication, a simple technique for determining the focal length using moiré deflectometry has been proposed. Necessary mathematical premise expressing the focal length of lens in terms of defocusing distance and the slope of wavefront phase has been deduced. Using a four-step phase shifting technique the testing procedure for determining the focal length has been demonstrated. Uncertainty in measurement has been estimated. Good co-relation between the measured value and the standard value has been obtained.
Evolution equation for geometric quantum correlation measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ming-Liang; Fan, Heng
2015-05-01
A simple relation is established for the evolution equation of quantum-information-processing protocols such as quantum teleportation, remote state preparation, Bell-inequality violation, and particularly the dynamics of geometric quantum correlation measures. This relation shows that when the system traverses the local quantum channel, various figures of merit of the quantum correlations for different protocols demonstrate a factorization decay behavior for dynamics. We identified the family of quantum states for different kinds of quantum channels under the action of which the relation holds. This relation simplifies the assessment of many quantum tasks.
Young Children's Understandings of Length Measurement: Evaluating a Learning Trajectory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szilagyi, Janka; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie
2013-01-01
This study investigated the development of length measurement ideas in students from prekindergarten through 2nd grade. The main purpose was to evaluate and elaborate the developmental progression, or levels of thinking, of a hypothesized learning trajectory for length measurement to ensure that the sequence of levels of thinking is consistent…
Monitoring quantum transport: Backaction and measurement correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussein, Robert; Gómez-García, Jorge; Kohler, Sigmund
2014-10-01
We investigate a tunnel contact coupled to a double quantum dot (DQD) and employed as a charge monitor for the latter. We consider both the classical limit and the quantum regime. In the classical case, we derive measurement correlations from conditional probabilities, yielding quantitative statements about the parameter regime in which the detection scheme works well. Moreover, we demonstrate that not only the DQD occupation but also the corresponding current may strongly correlate with the detector current. The quantum-mechanical solution, obtained with a Bloch-Redfield master equation, shows that the backaction of the measurement tends to localize the DQD electrons, and thus significantly reduces the DQD current. Moreover, it provides the effective parameters of the classical treatment. It turns out that already the classical description is adequate for most operating regimes.
High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.
Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion; Smith, Joseph D; Pagano, Ian S; Ako, Simon; Fogako, Josephine; Leke, Rose G F; Taylor, Diane Wallace
2012-01-01
VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4)SCN) was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+)) and those without (PM(-)) at delivery. Results showed that PM(-) women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047) and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009) than PM(+) women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI) and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9) and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0) reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria. PMID:22761948
Focal length measurement based on the wavefront difference method by a Fizeau interferometer.
Yang, Zhongming; Gao, Zhishan; Dou, Jiantai; Wang, Xinxing
2014-09-01
A method for measuring the focal length of the lens by a Fizeau interferometer is proposed. Based on the Gaussian imaging equation and the longitudinal displacements of the object point and image point, a precise formula for focal length calculation is deduced. The longitudinal displacement of the object points is determined by the wavefront difference method with a subnanometer resolution. An experimental system for focal length measurements is set up to verify the principle. The sources of uncertainty in measurement are discussed. Both the positive and negative lens experimental results indicate that the measurement accuracy is less than 0.16% under normal experimental environment. PMID:25321352
Nonsymmetrized correlations in quantum noninvasive measurements.
Bednorz, Adam; Bruder, Christoph; Reulet, Bertrand; Belzig, Wolfgang
2013-06-21
A long-standing problem in quantum mesoscopic physics is which operator order corresponds to noise expressions like , where I(ω) is the measured current at frequency ω. Symmetrized order describes a classical measurement while nonsymmetrized order corresponds to a quantum detector, e.g., one sensitive to either emission or absorption of photons. We show that both order schemes can be embedded in quantum weak-measurement theory taking into account measurements with memory, characterized by a memory function which is independent of a particular experimental detection scheme. We discuss the resulting quasiprobabilities for different detector temperatures and how their negativity can be tested on the level of second-order correlation functions already. Experimentally, this negativity can be related to the squeezing of the many-body state of the transported electrons in an ac-driven tunnel junction. PMID:23829718
Nonsymmetrized Correlations in Mesoscopic Current Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belzig, Wolfgang; Bednorz, Adam; Bruder, Christoph; Reulet, Bertrand
2014-03-01
A long-standing problem in quantum mesoscopic physics is which operator order corresponds to noise expressions like < I(ω) I(- ω) > , where I(ω) is the measured current at frequency ω. Symmetrized order describes a classical measurement while nonsymmetrized order corresponds to a quantum detector, e.g., one sensitive to either emission or absorption of photons. We show that both order schemes can be embedded in quantum weak-measurement theory taking into account measurements with memory, characterized by a memory function which is independent of a particular experimental detection scheme [A. Bednorz, C. Bruder, B. Reulet, and W. Belzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 250404 (2013)]. We discuss the resulting quasiprobabilities for different detector temperatures and how their negativity can be tested on the level of second-order correlation functions already. Experimentally, this negativity can be related to the squeezing of the many-body state of the transported electrons in an ac-driven tunnel junction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F.; Haentjens-van Meeteren, Marleen M.
2013-01-01
Beginning readers' reading latencies increase as words become longer. This length effect is believed to be a marker of a serial reading process. We examined the effects of visual and phonological skills on the length effect. Participants were 184 second-grade children who read 3- to 5-letter words and nonwords. Results indicated that reading…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jianfeng; Zhang, Xu; Konstantinidis, Avraam A.; Kang, Guozheng
2015-06-01
The internal length is the governing parameter in strain gradient theories which among other things have been used successfully to interpret size effects at the microscale. Physically, the internal length is supposed to be related with the microstructure of the material and evolves during the deformation. Based on Taylor hardening law, we propose a power-law relationship to describe the evolution of the variable internal length with strain. Then, the classical Fleck-Hutchinson strain gradient theory is extended with a strain-dependent internal length, and the generalized Fleck-Hutchinson theory is confirmed here, by comparing our model predictions to recent experimental data on tension and torsion of thin wires with varying diameter and grain size. Our work suggests that the internal length is a configuration-dependent parameter, closely related to dislocation characteristics and grain size, as well as sample geometry when this affects either the underlying microstructure or the ductility of the material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lunt, Richard R.; Giebink, Noel C.; Belak, Anna A.; Benziger, Jay B.; Forrest, Stephen R.
2009-03-01
We demonstrate spectrally resolved photoluminescence quenching as a means to determine the exciton diffusion length of several archetype organic semiconductors used in thin film devices. We show that aggregation and crystal orientation influence the anisotropy of the diffusion length for vacuum-deposited polycrystalline films. The measurement of the singlet diffusion lengths is found to be in agreement with diffusion by Förster transfer, whereas triplet diffusion occurs primarily via Dexter transfer.
Hazrati, Sahel; Hourigan, Suchitra K; Waller, Allison; Yui, Yvonne; Gilchrist, Nancy; Huddleston, Kathi; Niederhuber, John
2016-01-01
Background Childhood obesity studies rely on parentally reported anthropometrics. However, the accuracy of such data has not been evaluated for 12-month-old children. Moreover, methods to improve the accuracy of reported data have not been assessed in prior studies. Methods A total of 185 children enrolled in a northern Virginia childhood longitudinal cohort genomic study had parentally completed surveys at 12 months. Measured weights and lengths were recorded for the same children from their 12-month paediatrician visit. Weight for length percentiles were calculated using World Health Organization gender-specific growth charts. The agreement between reported and measured values was examined using Pearson's correlation, paired t-test and κ statistics. The interquartile outlier rule was used to detect and remove outliers. Results Parentally reported weight was strongly associated with measured weight at 12 months (r=0.90). There was only a moderate correlation between parentally reported and measured lengths (r=0.52) and calculated weight for length percentiles (r=0.65). After removing outliers from parentally reported data, there was an increase in correlation between parentally reported and measured data for weight (r=0.93), length (r=0.69) and weight for length percentiles (r=0.76). Outliers removed compared to all children included were more likely to have maternal education less than a bachelor's degree (p=0.007). Conclusions After removal of outliers from reported data, there is a strong correlation between calculated reported and measured weight for length percentiles suggesting that this may be an effective method to increase accuracy when conducting large-scale obesity studies in young children where study costs benefit from using parentally reported data. PMID:27491670
Measuring system for cable length and diameter based on photoelectric technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, WeiMin; Zhou, Zhou; Wei, Ping; Qi, Fang
2012-10-01
Precise online measurement of cable diameter and length will ensure stability of quality production and production speed. This paper describes a measuring device to measure cable length and diameter simultaneously, accomplish online production process control. The device consists mainly of a synchronous sampling part, calculation and control part. The synchronous sampling part consists of two parallel rollers one meter far from each other. A measuring band cinctures the rollers and move together with them. There are two electromagnetic chucks on the measuring band which are controlled by two photoelectric position switches to hold or release a cable, in order to make the cable move with measuring system synchronously. An optical encoder is connected to one of the rollers coaxially to measure cable length. For cable diameter measurement, two orthogonal CCD sensors are used. Accuracy of online diameter measurement is mainly affected by vibration of cable movement. In order to reduce the cable diameter measurement error caused by vibration, measuring system uses a mechanical damping device and high-speed CCD sensors which exposure time is up to microseconds. The calculation and control part of measuring device can filter, amplify and binarizate electrical signals from synchronous sampling part, then they are processed by microcontroller 8051 to complete cable length and diameter measurement. As well, the measuring device can set error limits and detect online whether cable length and diameter size are in default range , if not it would give corresponding alarm.
Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Handbook
Cook, D. R.
2016-01-01
The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration. The instruments used are: • a fast-response, three-dimensional (3D) wind sensor (sonic anemometer) to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the speed of sound (SOS) (used to derive the air temperature) • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain the water vapor density and the CO2 concentration, and • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain methane density and methane flux at one SGP EF and at the NSA CF. The ECOR systems are deployed at the locations where other methods for surface flux measurements (e.g., energy balance Bowen ratio [EBBR] systems) are difficult to employ, primarily at the north edge of a field of crops. A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system in SGP, NSA, Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes. The SEBS at one SGP and one NSA site also support upwelling and downwelling PAR measurements to qualify those two locations as Ameriflux sites.
Experience of the fibrotest for measuring cotton fiber length and strength properties
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The Fibrotest is a device developed by Textechno for measuring cotton fiber length and strength properties. The Fibrotest provides abundant information, including more than 20 length and strength parameters in absolute and relative modes, and displays fibrogram, load-elongation curve, and fiber bea...
Quantifying precision of in situ length and weight measurements of fish
Gutreuter, S.; Krzoska, D.J.
1994-01-01
We estimated and compared errors in field-made (in situ) measurements of lengths and weights of fish. We made three measurements of length and weight on each of 33 common carp Cyprinus carpio, and on each of a total of 34 bluegills Lepomis macrochirus and black crappies Pomoxis nigromaculatus. Maximum total lengths of all fish were measured to the nearest 1 mm on a conventional measuring board. The bluegills and black crappies (85–282 mm maximum total length) were weighed to the nearest 1 g on a 1,000-g spring-loaded scale. The common carp (415–600 mm maximum total length) were weighed to the nearest 0.05 kg on a 20-kg spring-loaded scale. We present a statistical model for comparison of coefficients of variation of length (Cl ) and weight (Cw ). Expected Cl was near zero and constant across mean length, indicating that length can be measured with good precision in the field. Expected Cw decreased with increasing mean length, and was larger than expected Cl by 5.8 to over 100 times for the bluegills and black crappies, and by 3 to over 20 times for the common carp. Unrecognized in situ weighing errors bias the apparent content of unique information in weight, which is the information not explained by either length or measurement error. We recommend procedures to circumvent effects of weighing errors, including elimination of unnecessary weighing from routine monitoring programs. In situ weighing must be conducted with greater care than is common if the content of unique and nontrivial information in weight is to be correctly identified.
Analysis on the Time-Lag Correlation for the Changes of the Length of the Day and Geomagnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Guo-Ming; Kang, Guo-Fa; Bai, Chun-Hua; Li, Wei
2007-06-01
Two data sets including the historical geomagnetic field model and the length of the day are used to analyze the correlation characteristics of the geomagnetic field variation and the changes in the length of the day from 1840-2000. The results show that a lag correlation is available in the changes of geomagnetic field and the length od the day. The geomagnetic intensity parameter is approximately exceeding LOD by 7.5-10 year. However the geomagnetic western drift parameters lag behind LOD variation, the western drift components lag behind LOD by 7.5 years, the average drifting speed and the latitudinal drifting components of the geomagnetic filed lag behind LOD by 20-22.5 years.
Direct measurement of the plasma screening length and surface potential near the lunar terminator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benson, J.
1977-01-01
Direct measurement of the lunar dayside surface potential and screening length has been made by the suprathermal ion detector experiment (Side) near the terminator. In a region 20-30 deg from the terminator at the Apollo 14 and 15 sites the surface potential is found to be approximately 50 V negative, and the screening length to be about 1 km. This value of the screening length is more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than the solar wind 'Debye' length. The strong negative surface potential in this region may be due to enhanced temperature and density of the solar wind plasma.
ATLAS-3 correlative measurement opportunities with UARS and surface observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harrison, Edwin F.; Denn, Fred M.; Gibson, Gary G.
1995-01-01
The third ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission was flown aboard the Space Shuttle launched on November 3, 1994. The mission length was approximately 10 days and 22 hours. The ATLAS-3 Earth-viewing instruments provided a large number of measurements which were nearly coincident with observations from experiments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Based on ATLAS-3 instrument operating schedules, simulations were performed to determine when and where correlative measurements occurred between ATLAS and UARS instruments, and between ATLAS and surface observations. Results of these orbital and instrument simulations provide valuable information for scientists to compare measurements between various instruments on the two satellites and at selected surface sites.
Cosmological measurements with general relativistic galaxy correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raccanelli, Alvise; Montanari, Francesco; Bertacca, Daniele; Doré, Olivier; Durrer, Ruth
2016-05-01
We investigate the cosmological dependence and the constraining power of large-scale galaxy correlations, including all redshift-distortions, wide-angle, lensing and gravitational potential effects on linear scales. We analyze the cosmological information present in the lensing convergence and in the gravitational potential terms describing the so-called ``relativistic effects'', and we find that, while smaller than the information contained in intrinsic galaxy clustering, it is not negligible. We investigate how neglecting them does bias cosmological measurements performed by future spectroscopic and photometric large-scale surveys such as SKA and Euclid. We perform a Fisher analysis using the CLASS code, modified to include scale-dependent galaxy bias and redshift-dependent magnification and evolution bias. Our results show that neglecting relativistic terms, especially lensing convergence, introduces an error in the forecasted precision in measuring cosmological parameters of the order of a few tens of percent, in particular when measuring the matter content of the Universe and primordial non-Gaussianity parameters. The analysis suggests a possible substantial systematic error in cosmological parameter constraints. Therefore, we argue that radial correlations and integrated relativistic terms need to be taken into account when forecasting the constraining power of future large-scale number counts of galaxy surveys.
d + Au hadron correlation measurements from PHENIX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sickles, Anne M.
2015-01-01
Recent observations of extended pseudorapidity correlations at the LHC in p+p and p+Pb collisions are of great interest. Here we present related results from d+Au collisions at PHENIX. We present the observed v2 and discuss the possible origin in the geometry of the collision region. We also present new measurements of the pseudorapidity dependence of the ridge in d+Au collision. Future plans to clarify the role of geometry in small collision systems using 3 He + Au collisions are discussed.
Zhao, Zhihua; Zheng, Zhiqin; Roux, Clément; Delmas, Céline; Marty, Jean-Daniel; Kahn, Myrtil L; Mingotaud, Christophe
2016-08-22
Analysis of nanoparticle size through a simple 2D plot is proposed in order to extract the correlation between length and width in a collection or a mixture of anisotropic particles. Compared to the usual statistics on the length associated with a second and independent statistical analysis of the width, this simple plot easily points out the various types of nanoparticles and their (an)isotropy. For each class of nano-objects, the relationship between width and length (i.e., the strong or weak correlations between these two parameters) may suggest information concerning the nucleation/growth processes. It allows one to follow the effect on the shape and size distribution of physical or chemical processes such as simple ripening. Various electron microscopy pictures from the literature or from the authors' own syntheses are used as examples to demonstrate the efficiency and simplicity of the proposed 2D plot combined with a multivariate analysis. PMID:27460632
Cesium oscillator strengths measured with a multiple-path-length absorption cell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Exton, R. J.
1976-01-01
Absorption-oscillator-strength measurements for the principal series in cesium were measured using a multiple-path-length cell. The optical arrangement included a movable transverse path for checking the uniformity of the alkali density along the length of the cell and which also allowed strength measurements to be made simultaneously on both strong and weak lines. The strengths measured on the first 10 doublets indicate an increasing trend in the doublet ratio. The individual line strengths are in close agreement with the high resolution measurements of Pichler (1974) and with the calculations of Norcross (1973).
A comparison of two methods for measuring vessel length in woody plants.
Pan, Ruihua; Geng, Jing; Cai, Jing; Tyree, Melvin T
2015-12-01
Vessel lengths are important to plant hydraulic studies, but are not often reported because of the time required to obtain measurements. This paper compares the fast dynamic method (air injection method) with the slower but traditional static method (rubber injection method). Our hypothesis was that the dynamic method should yield a larger mean vessel length than the static method. Vessel length was measured by both methods in current year stems of Acer, Populus, Vitis and Quercus representing short- to long-vessel species. The hypothesis was verified. The reason for the consistently larger values of vessel length is because the dynamic method measures air flow rates in cut open vessels. The Hagen-Poiseuille law predicts that the air flow rate should depend on the product of number of cut open vessels times the fourth power of vessel diameter. An argument is advanced that the dynamic method is more appropriate because it measures the length of the vessels that contribute most to hydraulic flow. If all vessels had the same vessel length distribution regardless of diameter, then both methods should yield the same average length. This supports the hypothesis that large-diameter vessels might be longer than short-diameter vessels in most species. PMID:26084355
[Shushu (ancient Chinese numerology) in Lingshu: Gudu (Miraculous Pivot: Bone-Length Measurement)].
Zhuo, Lian-Shi
2010-10-01
Lingshu: Gudu (Miraculous Pivot: Bone-Length Measurement) is compared with literatures concerning the Shushu (ancient Chinese numerology) of the Qin Dynasty (221 B. C. - 206 B. C. ) and the Han Dynasty (206 B. C.-220 A. D.) in this article. And it is discovered that "the number of heaven and earth" in Yijing (The Book of Change) was implied in the bone-length measurement. The theory of Shushu is hidden in the sized of head, neck, chest, abdomen, back and 4 extremities according to the measurement. The meaning of establishment of bone-length measurement, which is found to have universality, laid in setting down the measurement of meridians. And it is the origin of the proportional measurement of locating acupoints. Checked with the theory of Shushu, errors in the description of bone-length measurement could also be found in Lingshu: Gudu (Miraculous Pivot: Bone-Length Measurement) of the present edition, which is helpful for the modern study on the measurement. PMID:21058490
Modified Sagnac interferometer for contact-free length measurement of a direct absorption cell.
Elandaloussi, Hadj; Rouillé, Christian; Marie-Jeanne, Patrick; Janssen, Christof
2016-03-10
Accurate path length measurements in absorption cells are recurrent requirements in quantitative molecular absorption spectroscopy. A new twin path laser interferometer for length measurements in a simple direct path absorption geometry is presented, along with a full uncertainty budget. The path in an absorption cell is determined by measuring the optical path length change due to the diminution of the refractive index when the cell originally filled with nitrogen gas is evacuated. The performance of the instrument based on a stabilized HeNe laser is verified by comparison with the results of direct mechanical length measurements of a roughly 45 mm long, specially designed absorption cell. Due to a resolution of about 1/300 of a HeNe fringe, an expanded (coverage factor k=2) uncertainty of 16 μm in the length measurement is achieved, providing an expanded relative uncertainty of 3.6·10⁻⁴ for the length of our test absorption cell. This value is about 8 times lower than what has been reported previously. The instrument will be useful for precision measurements of absorption cross sections of strong absorbers which require short light paths, such as ozone, halogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds in the UV. PMID:26974791
Polarization gating enables sarcomere length measurements by laser diffraction in fibrotic muscle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, Kevin W.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Lieber, Richard L.
2014-11-01
Sarcomere length is a key parameter commonly measured in muscle physiology since it dictates striated muscle active force. Laser diffraction (LD)-based measurements of sarcomere length are time-efficient and sample a greater number of sarcomeres compared with traditional microscopy-based techniques. However, a limitation to LD techniques is that signal quality is severely degraded by scattering events as photons propagate through tissue. Consequently, sarcomere length measurements are unattainable when the number of scattering events is sufficiently large in muscle tissue with a high scattering probability. This occurs in fibrotic skeletal muscle seen in muscular dystrophies and secondary to tissue trauma, thus eliminating the use of LD to study these skeletal muscle ailments. Here, we utilize polarization gating to extract diffracted signals that are buried in noise created by scattering. Importantly, we demonstrate that polarization-gated laser diffraction (PGLD) enables sarcomere length measurements in muscles from chronically immobilized mice hind limbs; these muscles have a substantial increase of intramuscular connective tissue that scatter light and disable sarcomere length measurements by traditional LD. Further, we compare PGLD sarcomere lengths to those measured by bright field (BF) and confocal microscopy as positive controls and reveal a significant bias of BF but not of confocal microscopy.
Rosa, Dayana P.; Borstad, John D.; Pires, Elisa D.; Camargo, Paula R.
2016-01-01
Background: Pectoralis minor adaptive shortening may change scapula resting position and scapular kinematics during arm elevation. A reliable and clinically feasible method for measuring pectoralis minor length will be useful for clinical decision making when evaluating and treating individuals with shoulder pain and dysfunction. Objectives: To evaluate intrarater, interrater, and between-day reliability of a pectoralis minor (PM) muscle length measurement in subjects with and without signs of shoulder impingement. Method: A convenience sample of 100 individuals (50 asymptomatic and 50 symptomatic) participated in this study. Intra- and interrater reliability of the measurement was estimated in 50 individuals (25 asymptomatic and 25 symptomatic), and between-day reliability of the measurement repeated over an interval of 7 days was estimated in an independent sample of 50 additional participants. Pectoralis minor length was measured using a flexible tape measure with subjects standing. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3,k) for intrarater and interrater reliability ranged from 0.86-0.97 and 0.95 for between-day reliability in both groups. Standard error of measurements (SEM) ranged from 0.30-0.42 cm, 0.70-0.84 cm, and 0.40-0.41 cm for intrarater, interrater, and between-day reliability, respectively, across the sample. The minimal detectable change (MDC) for between-day measurements ranged from 1.13-1.14 cm for both groups. Conclusions: In asymptomatic individuals and in those with signs of shoulder impingement, a single rater or pair of raters can measure pectoralis minor muscle length using a tape measure with very good reliability. This measurement can also be reliably used by the same rater over a seven day interval. PMID:26982455
Focal length and radius of curvature measurement using wavefront difference method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zhongming; Gao, Zhishan; Wang, Shuai; Cheng, Jinlong; Yuan, Qun
2015-10-01
A method for measuring the focal length of the lens and the radius of curvature of the spherical surface using wavefront difference method is proposed. Based on Fizeau interferometer, an experimental system for focal length measurements is set up to verify the principle. Based on the point diffraction interferometer, an experimental system for radius of curvature measurements is proposed to verify the proposed method. With the focal length testing system, both the positive and negative lens experimental results indicate that the measurement accuracy is less than 0.16%under normal experimental environment. With the radius of curvature testing system, the radius of curvature of spherical mirrors and the surface figure can be measured in a higher precision simultaneously. The experimental results indicate that the measurement accuracy is in the order of 10-4 .
Automatic interface measurement and analysis. [shoreline length of Alabama using LANDSAT imagery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Faller, K. H.
1975-01-01
A technique for detecting and measuring the interface between two categories in classified scanner data is described together with two application demonstrations. Measurements were found to be accurate to 1.5% root mean square error on features of known length while comparison of measurements made using the technique on LANDSAT data to opisometer measurements on 1:24,000 scale maps shows excellent agreement. Application of the technique to two frames of LANDSAT data classified using a two channel, two class classifier resulted in a computation of 64 km annual decrease in shoreline length. The tidal shoreline of a portion of Alabama was measured using LANDSAT data. Based on the measurement of this portion, the total tidal shoreline length of Alabama is estimated to be 1313 kilometers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Subramaniam, Karthigeyan
2014-01-01
Prospective secondary mathematics teachers' pedagogical knowledge for teaching the estimation of length measurements was investigated by examining their personal benchmarks for measurement estimation. Benchmarks for measurement estimation are the meaningful representations of units that serve to increase one's understanding of…
Laser multi-reflection differential confocal long focal-length measurement.
Li, Zhigang; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Zhao, Qi
2016-06-20
We propose a new laser multi-reflection differential confocal focal-length measurement (LDCFM) method to meet the requirements of high-precision measurements of long focal lengths. An optical flat and a reflector are placed behind a test lens for reflecting the measuring beam repeatedly. Then, LDCFM uses the property that the null points of differential confocal response curves precisely correspond to the convergence points of the multi-reflected measuring beam to exactly determine the positions of the convergence points accurately. Subsequently, the position variation of the reflector is measured with different reflection times by using a distance-measuring instrument, and thereby the long focal length is measured precisely. Theoretical analyses and preliminary experimental results indicate that the LDCFM method has a relative expanded standard uncertainty (k=2) of 0.04% for the test lens with a focal length of 9.76 m. The LDCFM method can provide a novel approach for high-precision focal-length measurements. PMID:27409117
Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten
2016-01-26
surface is diminished as the size of the particle is reduced. However, in comparison to the free ligands, per chiral molecule all tested gold nanoparticles induce helical distortions in a 10- to 50-fold larger number of liquid crystal host molecules surrounding each particle, indicating a significantly enhanced chiral correlation length. We propose that both the helicity and the chirality transfer efficiency of axially chiral binaphthyl derivatives can be controlled at metal nanoparticle surfaces by adjusting the particle size and curvature as well as the number and density of the chiral ligands to ultimately measure and tune the chiral correlation length. PMID:26735843
Divergent selection for fiber length and bundle strength and correlated responses in cotton
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Cotton breeders must develop cultivars to meet the demand for longer, stronger, and more uniform fibers. In the current study, two cycles of divergent selection for fiber upper-half mean length (UHML) and bundle strength (Str) were conducted within five diverse parental combinations selected based o...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sofia, Giulia; Marinello, Francesco; Tarolli, Paolo
2014-05-01
Length of Auto-Correlation", or SLLAC map. The SLLAC map texture is characterized by the presence of peculiar elongated fibers that change depending on the landscape morphology, and on the type of terracing system. The differences in texture can be measured, and they can be used to discriminate terraced areas from more natural ones. Given the raising importance of these landscapes, the proposed procedure can offer an important and promising tool to explore the spatial heterogeneity of terraced sites.
In-process Measuring of Capacitance Per Unit Length for Single-core Electric Wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldshtein, A. E.; Vavilova, G. V.; Mazikov, S. V.
2016-01-01
The paper describes technical in-process implementation of the electrical method to measure the electrical capacitance per unit length of a single core electric wire. The basic design values of the electro-capacitive measuring transducer are determined. The impact of changes in water conductivity on measurement results is analyzed. Techniques to offset from the impact of changes in water conductivity on the results of the electrical capacitance per unit length control based on indirect electrical conductivity measurement are considered. An appropriate correction of the conversion function is made.
Tyre contact length on dry and wet road surfaces measured by three-axial accelerometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matilainen, Mika; Tuononen, Ari
2015-02-01
We determined the tyre contact length on dry and wet roads by measuring the accelerations of the inner liner with a three-axial accelerometer. The influence of the tyre pressure, driving velocity, and tread depth on the contact length was studied in both types of road surface conditions. On dry asphalt the contact length was almost constant, regardless of the driving velocity. On wet asphalt the presence of water could be detected even at low driving velocities (e.g. 20 km/h for a worn tyre) as the contact length began to decrease from that found in the dry asphalt situation. In addition to improving the performance of active safety systems and driver warning systems, the contact length information could be beneficial for classifying and studying the aquaplaning behaviour of tyres.
Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J.
2015-01-01
Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977
Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J
2015-01-01
Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977
Pereira, Rafael Noschang; Karam, Francisco Consoli; Schwanke, Roberto Luís; Millman, Rubens; Foletto, Zilmar Minetto; Schwanke, Carla Helena Augustin
2016-01-01
Objective Preoperative estimation of the length and diameter of the semitendinosus (ST) and gracilis (G) tendons can assist surgeons and allow them to have the opportunity to choose alternative grafts. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and body mass index (BMI) or the patient's age and sex have any correlation with the thickness and the length of ST and G tendons. Methods Data were gathered from 64 patients who underwent the surgical procedure of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the tendons of the ST and G muscles as grafts, between June 2012 and August 2013. Variables such as age, sex, weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and length and diameter of the tendons of the ST and G muscles were analyzed. Results There was a positive correlation between the height and total diameter of the quadruple graft (r = 0.254; p = 0.043), total length of the ST tendon (r = 0.450; p < 0.01), diameter of the double ST (r = 0.270; p = 0.031), triple ST (r = 0.347; p = 0.005), length of G tendon (r = 0.249; p = 0.047) and diameter of the double-G (r = 0.258; p = 0.039). However, age (r = -0.015; p = 0.908), weight (r = 0.165; p = 0.193) and body mass index (r = 0.012; p = 0.926) showed no correlation. Conclusion Our results show that age, weight and BMI did not correlate with the diameter and length of the graft, while the height had a positive correlation with the total length of the flexor tendons and the diameter of the graft from the flexors (ST and G). PMID:27069886
Godinho, Bruno M D C; Ogier, Julien R; Quinlan, Aoife; Darcy, Raphael; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F; O'Driscoll, Caitriona M
2014-10-01
Silencing disease-related genes in the central nervous system (CNS) using short interfering RNA (siRNA) holds great promise for treating neurological disorders. Yet, delivery of RNAi therapeutics to the brain poses major challenges to non-viral systems, especially when considering systemic administration. Cationic nanoparticles have been widely investigated for siRNA delivery, but the tendency of these to aggregate in physiological environments limits their intravenous application. Thus, strategies to increase the stability of nanoparticles have been developed. Here, we investigated the ability of modified cationic amphiphilic or PEGylated amphiphilic cyclodextrins (CD) to formulate stable CD.siRNA nanoparticles. To this end, we describe a simple method for post-modification of pre-formed cationic CD.siRNA nanoparticles at their surface using PEGylated CDs of different PEG lengths. PEGylated CD.siRNA nanoparticles presented reduced surface charges and increased stability in physiological salt conditions. Stability of PEGylated CD.siRNA nanoparticles in vitro increased with both PEG length and PEG density at the surface. Furthermore, in a comparative pharmacokinetic study, increased systemic exposure and reduced clearance were achieved with CD-formulations when compared to naked siRNAs. However, no significant differences were observed among non-PEGylated and PEGylated CD.siRNAs suggesting that longer PEG lengths might be required for improving stability in vivo. PMID:24992319
Is it True That the Normal Valence-Length Correlation Is Irrelevant for Metal-Metal Bonds?
Singh, Vijay; Dixit, Mudit; Kosa, Monica; Major, Dan Thomas; Levi, Elena; Aurbach, Doron
2016-04-01
The most intriguing feature of metal-metal bonds in inorganic compounds is an apparent lack of correlation between the bond order and the bond length. In this study, we combine a variety of literature data obtained by quantum chemistry and our results based on the empirical bond valence model (BVM), to confirm for the first time the existence of a normal exponential correlation between the effective bond order (EBO) and the length of the metal-metal bonds. The difference between the EBO and the formal bond order is attributed to steric conflict between the (TM)n cluster (TM=transition metal) and its environment. This conflict, affected mainly by structural type, should cause high lattice strains, but electron redistribution around TM atoms, evident from the BVM calculations, results in a full or partial strain relaxation. PMID:26929001
Study on surface photovoltage measurement of long diffusion length silicon: Simulation results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anttila, O. J.; Hahn, S. K.
1993-07-01
The limitations of surface photovoltage method (SPV), using the analytical solution for the minority-carrier distribution, are studied in detail. The principal source of error in thin wafers of long diffusion length material is the back surface recombination. The possibility of measuring large diffusion lengths in a reliable manner is discussed. With proper back surface passivation, diffusion lengths as long as several times the sample thickness can be measured. Evaluation of minor amounts of iron contamination in p-type material is possible even if the back surface recombination velocity is high, but a correction factor is required for the traditionally used relationship to convert the observed diffusion length change to iron concentration. The value of the correction factor varies between 1 and 1.5 for high back surface recombination velocity; the magnitude depends on the ratio between wafer thickness and the diffusion length of the minority carriers. The detection limit for iron is in the 109-1011 at/cm3 range, depending on the quality of the instrumentation and on the sample preparation; low back surface recombination gives better sensitivity. The use of SPV to measure the denuded zone width in precipitated material is briefly analyzed. It is shown that in heavily precipitated material an SPV measurement underestimates the denuded zone width, and the result will be very sensitive to the diffusion length in the bulk of the sample. Finally, the sensitivity of the measured diffusion length to different sources of errors and requirements for the sample preparation are discussed. The use of constant-flux method introduces some potential errors, which can be avoided through the use of constant bias illumination during the measurement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Dalwoo; Oh, Ki-Jang; Lim, Choong-Soo
1998-12-01
We developed an on-line measurement system for the simultaneous measurement of the root-mean-square roughness and autocorrelation length which are the parameters of surface roughness. The measurement is based on the scattering theory of light on the rough surface. Computer simulation shows that the measurement range depends on the wavelength of the light source, and this is verified with the experiment. We installed the measurement system at the finishing line of a cold-rolling steel work, and measured the two parameters in situ. The rms roughness and autocorrelation length are measured and transformed in the average surface roughness and then umber of peaks per inch, respectively. The measured data for both of the parameters are compared with those of stylus method, an the optical method is well coincided with the conventional stylus method.
Technique for the focal-length measurement of positive lenses using Fizeau interferometry
Pavan Kumar, Yeddanapudi; Chatterjee, Sanjib
2009-02-01
We present what we believe is a new technique for the focal-length measurement of positive lenses using Fizeau interferometery. The technique utilizes the Gaussian lens equation. The image distance is measured interferometrically in terms of the radius of curvature of the image-forming wavefront emerging from the lens. The radii of curvature of the image-forming wavefronts corresponding to two different axial object positions of known separation are measured. The focal length of the lens is determined by solving the equations obtained using the Gaussian lens equation for the two object positions. Results obtained for a corrected doublet lens of a nominal focal length of 200.0 mm with a measurement uncertainty of {+-}2.5% is presented.
Wakoh, Mamoru; Harada, Takuya; Otonari, Takamichi; Otonari-Yamamoto, Mika; Ohkubo, Mai; Kousuge, Yuji; Kobayashi, Norio; Mizuta, Shigeru; Kitagawa, Hiromi; Sano, Tsukasa
2006-08-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of distance measurements of implant length based on periapical radiographs compared with that of other modalities. We carried out an experimental trial to compare precision in distance measurement. Dental implant fixtures were buried in the canine and first molar regions. These were then subjected to periapical (PE) radiography, panoramic (PA) radiography, conventional (CV) and medical computed (CT) tomography. The length of the implant fixture on each film was measured by nine observers and degree of precision was statistically analyzed. The precision of both PE radiographs and CT tomograms was closest at the highest level. Standardized PE radiography, in particular, was superior to CT tomography in the first molar region. This suggests that standardized PE radiographs should be utilized as a reliable modality for longitudinal and linear distance measurement, depending on implant length at local implantation site. PMID:17344618
Calibration for the errors resulted from aberration in long focal length measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Jiang; Luo, Jia; He, Fan; Bai, Jian; Wang, Kaiwei; Hou, Xiyun; Hou, Changlun
2014-09-01
In this paper, a high-accuracy calibration method for errors resulted from aberration in long focal length measurement, is presented. Generally, Gaussian Equation is used for calculation without consideration of the errors caused by aberration. However, the errors are the key factor affecting the accuracy in the measurement system of a large aperture and long focal length lens. We creatively introduce an effective way to calibrate the errors, with detailed analysis of the long focal length measurement based on divergent light and Talbot interferometry. Aberration errors are simulated by Zemax. Then, we achieve auto-correction with the help of Visual C++ software and the experimental results reveal that the relative accuracy is better than 0.01%.By comparing modified values with experimental results obtained in knife-edge testing measurement, the proposed method is proved to be highly effective and reliable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schödel, R.
2015-08-01
Traceability of length measurements to the international system of units (SI) can be realized by using optical interferometry making use of well-known frequencies of monochromatic light sources mentioned in the Mise en Pratique for the realization of the metre. At some national metrology institutes, such as Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany, the absolute length of prismatic bodies (e.g. gauge blocks) is realized by so-called gauge-block interference comparators. At PTB, a number of such imaging phase-stepping interference comparators exist, including specialized vacuum interference comparators, each equipped with three highly stabilized laser light sources. The length of a material measure is expressed as a multiple of each wavelength. The large number of integer interference orders can be extracted by the method of exact fractions in which the coincidence of the lengths resulting from the different wavelengths is utilized as a criterion. The unambiguous extraction of the integer interference orders is an essential prerequisite for correct length measurements. This paper critically discusses coincidence criteria and their validity for three modes of absolute length measurements: 1) measurements under vacuum in which the wavelengths can be identified with the vacuum wavelengths, 2) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained from environmental parameters using an empirical equation, and 3) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained interferometrically by utilizing a vacuum cell placed along the measurement pathway. For case 3), which corresponds to PTB’s Kösters-Comparator for long gauge blocks, the unambiguous determination of integer interference orders related to the air refractive index could be improved by about a factor of ten when an ‘overall dispersion value,’ suggested in this paper, is used as coincidence criterion.
16 CFR 500.12 - Measurement of commodities by length and width, how expressed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... square foot (929 cm2) be expressed in terms of length and width in linear measure. The customary inch... the linear dimensions, the quantity of contents, in addition to being declared in the manner... statement of the linear dimensions of the largest unit of measurement, a parenthetical declaration of...
The measurement of the optical cavity length for the Infrared Free-Electron Laser
C.J. Curtis; J.C. Dahlberg; W.A. Oren; K.J. Tremblay
1999-10-01
One of the final tasks involved in the alignment of the newly constructed Free Electron Laser at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility was to accurately measure the length between two mirrors which make up the optical cavity. This presentation examines the survey techniques and equipment assembled in order to complete these measurements, together with the possible sources of error, and the accuracy achieved.
16 CFR 500.11 - Measurement of commodity length, how expressed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurement of commodity length, how expressed. 500.11 Section 500.11 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT... REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 4 OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.11 Measurement of commodity...
Effects of Text Length on Lexical Diversity Measures: Using Short Texts with Less than 200 Tokens
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koizumi, Rie; In'nami, Yo
2012-01-01
Despite the importance of lexical diversity (LD) in L2 speaking and writing performance, LD assessment measures are known to be affected by the number of words analyzed in the text. This study aims to identify LD measures that are least affected by text length and can be used for the analysis of short L2 texts (50-200 tokens). We compared the…
Precision neutron interferometric measurement of the n- 3He coherent neutron scattering length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huffman, P. R.; Jacobson, D. L.; Schoen, K.; Arif, M.; Black, T. C.; Snow, W. M.; Werner, S. A.
2004-07-01
A measurement of the n- 3He coherent scattering length using neutron interferometry is reported. The result, bc =(5.8572±0.0072) fm , improves the measured precision of any single measurement of bc by a factor of eight; the previous world average, bc =(5.74±0.04) fm , now becomes bc =(5.853±0.007) fm . Measurements of the n-p , n-d , and n- 3He coherent scattering lengths have now been performed using the same technique, thus allowing one to extract the scattering length ratios: parameters that minimize systematic errors. We obtain values of bn 3He / bnp =(-1.5668±0.0021) and bnd / bnp =(-1.7828±0.0014) . Using the new world average value of bc and recent high-precision spin-dependent scattering length data also determined by neutron optical techniques, we extract new values for the bound singlet and triple scattering lengths of b0 =(9.949±0.027) fm and b1 =(4.488±0.017) fm for the n- 3He system. The free nuclear singlet and triplet scattering lengths are a0 =(7.456±0.020) fm and a1 =(3.363±0.013) fm . The coherent scattering cross section is σc =(4.305±0.007) b and the total scattering cross section is σs =(5.837±0.014) b . Comparisons of a0 and a1 to the only existing high-precision theoretical predictions for the n- 3He system, calculated using a resonating group technique with nucleon-nucleon potentials incorporating three-nucleon forces, have been performed. Neutron scattering length measurements in few-body systems are now sensitive enough to probe small effects not yet adequately treated in present theoretical models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Hui-Chia; Lee, Chih-Hao; Chang, Hsin-Ho; Wu, Yu-Han; Hu, Chih-Wei; Chang, L. J.; Ioffe, A.; Kraan, H. T.
2010-01-01
A new three dimensional neutron depolarization beamline was commissioning at W3 beam port of Tsing Hua Open Pool Reactor (THOR, 2 MW) located in Hsinchu, Taiwan. The beamline consists of a pair of Heusler crystals as neutron polarizer and analyzer. Two three-dimensional rotators were placed before and after the sample position. The sample chamber was enclosed in a μ-metal enclosure with a gradient field at incident and exit ports. Typically, 0.237 nm of monoenergetic neutron was selected for experiments. A flipping ratio of 23 can be obtained which corresponds to a polarization ratio of 92% of this beamline. The typical intensity is 400 n/cm2s at 1 MW operation. Magnetic correlation lengths of Ni-ferrite powders with different packing densities were measured to understand the characteristics of this beamline. The magnetic correlation lengths were observed to be 2 μm at virgin state and about 3.1 μm at remanent state. This magnetic correlation length in the virgin state is similar than the particle size. No significant change of domain size at packing density up to 60% implies that the domain wall motion is hindered by the porosity of the sample.
Chen, Qianghua; Luo, Huifu; Wang, Sumei; Wang, Feng; Chen, Xinhua
2012-09-01
A measurement method based on interferometry with two different reference cavity lengths is presented and applied in air refractive index measurement in which the two cavity lengths and a laser wavelength are combined to generate two wavelength equivalents of cavity. Corresponding calculation equations are derived, and the optical path configuration is designed, which is inspired by the traditional synthetic wavelength method. Theoretical analyses indicate that the measurement uncertainty of the determined index of refraction is about 2.3×10(-8), which is mainly affected by the length precision of the long vacuum cavity and the ellipticity of polarization components of the dual-frequency laser, and the range of nonambiguity is 3.0×10(-5), which is decided by the length difference of the two cavities. Experiment results show that the accuracy of air refractive index measurement is better than 5.0×10(-8) when the laboratory conditions changes slowly. The merit of the presented method is that the classical refractometry can be also used without evacuation of the gas cavity during the experiment. Furthermore, the application of the traditional synthetic wavelength method may be extended by using the wavelength equivalents of cavity, any value of which can be easily acquired by changing cavity length rather than using actual wavelengths whose number is limited. PMID:22945157
Langemo, Diane; Spahn, James; Spahn, Thomas; Pinnamaneni, V Chowdry
2015-03-01
The study objective was to examine precision in wound measurement using a recently Food and Drug Administration-approved Scout (WoundVision, LLC, Indianapolis, Indiana) device to measure wound length (L) and width (W). Wound perimeter and a ruler measurement of L and W were also made. Images of 40 actual patient wounds were measured using the Scout device. All 3 techniques (length, width, perimeter) demonstrated acceptable within and between reader precision; however, the best precision was in wound perimeter measurement. PMID:25679463
Bunch Length Measurements at the JLab FEL Using Coherent Transition and Synchrotron Radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evtushenko, P.; Coleman, J.; Jordan, K.; Klopf, J. Michael; Neil, G.; Williams, G. P.
2006-11-01
The JLab FEL is routinely operated with sub-picosecond bunches. The short bunch length is important for high gain of the FEL. Coherent transition radiation has been used for the bunch length measurements for many years. This diagnostic can be used only in the pulsed beam mode. It is our goal to run the FEL with CW beam and a 74.85 MHz micropulse repetition rate, which, with the 135 pC nominal bunch charge corresponds to the beam average current of 10 mA, Hence it is very desirable to have the possibility of making bunch length measurements when running CW beam with any micropulse frequency. We use a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interferometer, which is essentially a Michelson interferometer, to measure the spectrum of the coherent synchrotron radiation generated in the last dipole of the magnetic bunch compressor upstream of the FEL wiggler. This noninvasive diagnostic provides bunch length measurements for CW beam operation at any micropulse frequency. We also compare the measurements made with the help of the FTIR interferometer with data obtained using the Martin-Puplett interferometer. Results of the two diagnostics agree within 15 %. Here we present a description of the experimental setup, data evaluation procedure and results of the beam measurements.
Longitudinal-to-Transverse Mapping for Femtosecond Electron Bunch Length Measurement
Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; /SLAC
2010-08-25
A longitudinal-to-transverse mapping technique is proposed to measure the length and temporal profile of ultrashort electron bunches. In this scheme a special chicane and a radio-frequency deflecting cavity are used to transform the beam's longitudinal distribution into angular distribution which is further converted to transverse distribution after a parallel-to-point imaging beam line. With this technique, the temporal profile of the electron beam is exactly mapped to the transverse profile. This makes it possible to measure ultrashort electron bunch length with a resolution well beyond 1 femtosecond.
Correlation of atmospheric optical turbulence and meteorological measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaucher, Gail M. Tirrell
1989-06-01
The correlation of meteorological events such as the jet stream, gravity waves and boundary layer circulation with the optical turbulence parameters, the transverse coherence length r sub o and the isoplanatic angle is essential for interpreting and forecasting imaging and laser systems performance. In support of the United States Air Force Relay Mirror Experiment, the Naval Postgraduate School performed a series of six site characterization measurements near Kihei, Maui, during August 1987 to July 1988. Spatial and temporal summaries of atmospheric events corresponding to the optical remote sensor data are presented using meteorological data from the National Weather Service Radiosonde Observation stations, synoptic charts, GOES-WEST infrared satellite images, and four Kihei, Maui rawinsonde datasets. To quantify the correlation between optical turbulence measurements and meteorological phenomena, four methods of calculating C square (T) from rawinsonde data were investigated. Results show that existing rawinsonde systems are inadequate for direct C square (T) calculation. However, moderate improvements in the vertical resolution, the temperature resolution and probe response time, will allow direct calculations of optical turbulence parameters from rawinsonde data.
An Imaging System for Automated Characteristic Length Measurement of Debrisat Fragments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moraguez, Mathew; Patankar, Kunal; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, Marlon; Cowardin, Heather; Opiela, John; Krisko, Paula H.
2015-01-01
The debris fragments generated by DebriSat's hypervelocity impact test are currently being processed and characterized through an effort of NASA and USAF. The debris characteristics will be used to update satellite breakup models. In particular, the physical dimensions of the debris fragments must be measured to provide characteristic lengths for use in these models. Calipers and commercial 3D scanners were considered as measurement options, but an automated imaging system was ultimately developed to measure debris fragments. By automating the entire process, the measurement results are made repeatable and the human factor associated with calipers and 3D scanning is eliminated. Unlike using calipers to measure, the imaging system obtains non-contact measurements to avoid damaging delicate fragments. Furthermore, this fully automated measurement system minimizes fragment handling, which reduces the potential for fragment damage during the characterization process. In addition, the imaging system reduces the time required to determine the characteristic length of the debris fragment. In this way, the imaging system can measure the tens of thousands of DebriSat fragments at a rate of about six minutes per fragment, compared to hours per fragment in NASA's current 3D scanning measurement approach. The imaging system utilizes a space carving algorithm to generate a 3D point cloud of the article being measured and a custom developed algorithm then extracts the characteristic length from the point cloud. This paper describes the measurement process, results, challenges, and future work of the imaging system used for automated characteristic length measurement of DebriSat fragments.
Path-length measurement performance evaluation of polarizing laser interferometer prototype
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yu-qiong; Luo, Zi-ren; Liu, He-shan; Dong, Yu-hui; Jin, Gang
2015-02-01
The space laser interferometer has been considered the most promising means for detecting gravitational waves and improving the accuracy and spatial resolution of the Earth's gravity model. An on-ground polarizing laser interferometer prototype equipped with one reference interferometer and two measurement interferometers having equal-length arms is presented in the paper. The laser interferometer prototype is designed as the demonstration of a Chinese space laser interferometer antenna in the future, of which the path-length measurement performance evaluation and preliminary noise analysis are investigated here. The results show that the path-length measurement sensitivity is better than 200 pm/Hz½ in the frequency band of 10 mHz-1 Hz, and the sensitivity of measuring the motion of a sinusoidally driven testmass is better than 100 pm within the frequency regime of 1 mHz-1 Hz. In this way, laboratory activities have demonstrated the feasibility of this prototype to measure tiny path-length fluctuations of the simulated testmass. As a next step, adopting an integrated design of optics and optical substrate to enhance the stability of the laser interferometer is being planned, and other key techniques included in the space laser interferometer such as laser pointing modulation and laser phase-locking control are to be implanted into this prototype are under consideration.
Griffiths, Clive; Murray, Alan; Zheng, Dingchang
2016-01-01
Objective This study investigated the effect of stethoscope side and tube length on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Methods Thirty-two healthy participants were studied. For each participant, four measurements with different combinations of stethoscope characteristics (bell or diaphragm side, standard or short tube length) were each recorded at two repeat sessions, and eight Korotkoff sound recordings were played twice on separate days to one experienced listener to determine the systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Analysis of variance was carried out to study the measurement repeatability between the two repeat sessions and between the two BP determinations on separate days, as well as the effects of stethoscope side and tube length. Results There was no significant paired difference between the repeat sessions and between the repeat determinations for both SBP and DBP (all P-values>0.10, except the repeat session for SBP using short tube and diaphragm). The key result was that there was a small but significantly higher DBP on using the bell in comparison with the diaphragm (0.66 mmHg, P=0.007), and a significantly higher SBP on using the short tube in comparison with the standard length (0.77 mmHg, P=0.008). Conclusion This study shows that stethoscope characteristics have only a small, although statistically significant, influence on clinical BP measurement. Although this helps understand the measurement technique and resolves questions in the published literature, the influence is not clinically significant. PMID:26741415
Lifetime and diffusion length measurements on silicon material and solar cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Othmer, S.; Chen, S. C.
1978-01-01
Experimental methods were evaluated for the determination of lifetime and diffusion length in silicon intentionally doped with potentially lifetime-degrading impurities found in metallurgical grade silicon, impurities which may be residual in low-cost silicon intended for use in terrestrial flat-plate arrays. Lifetime measurements were made using a steady-state photoconductivity method. Diffusion length determinations were made using short-circuit current measurements under penetrating illumination. Mutual consistency among all experimental methods was verified, but steady-state photoconductivity was found preferable to photoconductivity decay at short lifetimes and in the presence of traps. The effects of a number of impurities on lifetime in bulk material, and on diffusion length in cells fabricated from this material, were determined. Results are compared with those obtained using different techniques. General agreement was found in terms of the hierarchy of impurities which degrade the lifetime.
Electron beam induced current measurements of minority carrier diffusion length in gallium nitride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernyak, Leonid; Osinsky, Andrei; Temkin, Henryk; Yang, J. W.; Chen, Q.; Asif Khan, M.
1996-10-01
Minority carrier diffusion length in epitaxial GaN layers was measured as a function of majority carrier concentration and temperature. The diffusion length of holes in n-type GaN is found to decrease from 3.4 to 1.2 μm in the doping range of 5×1015-2×1018 cm-3. The experimental results can be fitted by assuming the Einstein relation and by the experimental dependence of hole mobilities on carrier concentration. The low injection carrier lifetime of ˜15 ns, used in the fit, is largely independent of the doping level. The diffusion length, measured for ˜5×1015 and 2×1018 cm-3 dopant concentrations, shows an increase with increasing temperature, characterized by an activation energy Ea of ˜90 meV, independent of the impurity concentration.
Tricot, G; Saitoh, A; Takebe, H
2015-11-28
The structure of tin borophosphate glasses, considered for the development of low temperature sealing glasses or anode materials for Li-batteries, has been analysed at the intermediate length scale by a combination of high field standard and advanced 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The nature and extent of B/P mixing were analysed using the (11)B((31)P) dipolar heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence NMR sequence and the data interpretation allowed (i) detecting the presence and analysing the nature of the B-O-P linkages, (ii) re-interpreting the 1D (31)P spectra and (iii) extracting the proportion of P connected to borate species. Interaction between the different borate species was analysed using the (11)B double quantum-simple quantum experiment to (i) investigate the presence and nature of the B-O-B linkage, (ii) assign the different borate species observed all along the composition line and (iii) monitor the borate network formation. In addition, (119)Sn static NMR was used to investigate the evolution of the chemical environment of the tin polyhedra. Altogether, the set of data allowed determining the structural units constituting the glass network and quantifying the extent of B/P mixing. The structural data were then used to explain the non-linear and unusual evolution of the glass transition temperature. PMID:26186677
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kotsopoulos, Donna; Makosz, Samantha; Zambrzycka, Joanna; McCarthy, Katharine
2015-01-01
This research investigated the effects of different pedagogical approaches on the learning of length measurement in kindergarten children. Specifically examined were the pedagogical approaches of guided instruction, center-based learning, and free exploration in the context of a play-based learning environment. This mixed design research was…
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Hydrologic and morphological properties of claypan landscapes cause variability in soybean root and shoot biomass. This study was conducted to develop predictive models of soybean root length density distribution (RLDd) using direct measurements and sensor based estimators of claypan morphology. A c...
Diffusion length measurements in solar cells: An analysis and comparison of techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woollam, J. A.; Khan, A. A.; Soukup, R. J.; Hermann, A. M.
1982-01-01
A brief review of the major techniques for measuring minority carrier diffusion lengths in solar cells is given. Emphasis is placed on comparing limits of applicability for each method, especially as applied to silicon cells or to gallium arsenide cells, including the effects of radiation damage.
Correlation among DNA Linker Length, Linker Histone Concentration, and Histone Tails in Chromatin.
Luque, Antoni; Ozer, Gungor; Schlick, Tamar
2016-06-01
Eukaryotic cells condense their genetic material in the nucleus in the form of chromatin, a macromolecular complex made of DNA and multiple proteins. The structure of chromatin is intimately connected to the regulation of all eukaryotic organisms, from amoebas to humans, but its organization remains largely unknown. The nucleosome repeat length (NRL) and the concentration of linker histones (ρLH) are two structural parameters that vary among cell types and cell cycles; the NRL is the number of DNA basepairs wound around each nucleosome core plus the number of basepairs linking successive nucleosomes. Recent studies have found a linear empirical relationship between the variation of these two properties for different cells, but its underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we apply our established mesoscale chromatin model to explore the mechanisms responsible for this relationship, by investigating chromatin fibers as a function of NRL and ρLH combinations. We find that a threshold of linker histone concentration triggers the compaction of chromatin into well-formed 30-nm fibers; this critical value increases linearly with NRL, except for long NRLs, where the fibers remain disorganized. Remarkably, the interaction patterns between core histone tails and chromatin elements are highly sensitive to the NRL and ρLH combination, suggesting a molecular mechanism that could have a key role in regulating the structural state of the fibers in the cell. An estimate of the minimized work and volume associated with storage of chromatin fibers in the nucleus further suggests factors that could spontaneously regulate the NRL as a function of linker histone concentration. Both the tail interaction map and DNA packing considerations support the empirical NRL/ρLH relationship and offer a framework to interpret experiments for different chromatin conditions in the cell. PMID:27276249
Zhang, Wenlu; Lin, Zhihong
2013-10-15
Using the canonical perturbation theory, we show that the orbit-averaged theory only requires a time-scale separation between equilibrium and perturbed motions and verifies the widely accepted notion that orbit averaging effects greatly reduce the microturbulent transport of energetic particles in a tokamak. Therefore, a recent claim [Hauff and Jenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 075004 (2009); Jenko et al., ibid. 107, 239502 (2011)] stating that the orbit-averaged theory requires a scale separation between equilibrium orbit size and perturbation correlation length is erroneous.
Focal length measurement of a microlens-array by grating shearing interferometry.
Zhu, Xianchang; Hu, Song; Zhao, Lixin
2014-10-10
Based on grating shearing interferometry, a simple technique is introduced for focal length measurements of a microlens-array (MLA). The measurement system is composed of a He-Ne laser, condenser, collimator, the MLA under testing, a Ronchi grating, and CCD sensor. The plane wavefront from the collimator is transformed to a spherical wavefront by the MLA, while the curvature center is at the focus. Interference stripes appear at the overlap between the zero-order and first-order diffractive patterns of the grating and are detected by the CCD sensor. By analyzing the period change of stripes, the focal length is determined after the defocus of the grating is calculated. To validate the feasibility, an experiment is performed. The measurement uncertainty is discussed and measurement accuracy was determined to be 2%. PMID:25322367
Measurement of leg length inequalities by Micro-Dose digital radiographs
Altongy, J.F.; Harcke, H.T.; Bowen, J.R.
1987-05-01
New technology may, in time, supersede orthoroentgenograms for measurement of leg length inequalities. Micro-Dose digital scans are a new form of radiographs that require 1% of the radiation needed to produce conventional images. The Micro-Dose digital scan and orthoroentgenogram were compared in a clinical series of 25 children and in cadaveric femoral measurements. The accuracy of digital radiographs for this application was confirmed.
Measurement of high-birefringent spun fiber parameters using short-length fiber Bragg gratings.
Vasiliev, S A; Przhiyalkovsky, Ya V; Gnusin, P I; Medvedkov, O I; Dianov, E M
2016-05-30
Spectral polarization characteristics of short-length fiber Bragg gratings UV-written in a highly-birefringent spun-fiber have been investigated. Based on the analysis of the characteristics the technique for measuring the built-in linear phase birefringence as well as the spin period in this fiber type has been suggested. In this method the birefringence dispersion is excluded and therefore the built-in linear phase birefringence can be measured with an improved accuracy. PMID:27410060
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Funk, O.; Pfeilsticker, K.
2003-03-01
This paper addresses the statistics underlying cloudy sky radiative transfer (RT) by inspection of the distribution of the path lengths of solar photons. Recent studies indicate that this approach is promising, since it might reveal characteristics about the diffusion process underlying atmospheric radiative transfer (Pfeilsticker, 1999). Moreover, it uses an observable that is directly related to the atmospheric absorption and, therefore, of climatic relevance. However, these studies are based largely on the accuracy of the measurement of the photon path length distribution (PPD). This paper presents a refined analysis method based on high resolution spectroscopy of the oxygen A-band. The method is validated by Monte Carlo simulation atmospheric spectra. Additionally, a new method to measure the effective optical thickness of cloud layers, based on fitting the measured differential transmissions with a 1-dimensional (discrete ordinate) RT model, is presented. These methods are applied to measurements conducted during the cloud radar inter-comparison campaign CLARE’98, which supplied detailed cloud structure information, required for the further analysis. For some exemplary cases, measured path length distributions and optical thicknesses are presented and backed by detailed RT model calculations. For all cases, reasonable PPDs can be retrieved and the effects of the vertical cloud structure are found. The inferred cloud optical thicknesses are in agreement with liquid water path measurements.
Infrared Spectroscope for Electron Bunch-length Measurement: Heat Sensor Parameters Analysis
Domgmo-Momo, Gilles; /Towson U. /SLAC
2012-09-05
The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is used for many experiments. Taking advantage of the free electron laser (FEL) process, scientists of various fields perform experiments of all kind. Some for example study protein folding; other experiments are more interested in the way electrons interact with the molecules before they are destroyed. These experiments among many others have very little information about the electrons x-ray produced by the FEL, except that the FEL is using bunches less than 10 femtoseconds long. To be able to interpret the data collected from those experiments, more accurate information is needed about the electron's bunch-length. Existing bunch length measurement techniques are not suitable for the measurement of such small time scales. Hence the need to design a device that will provide more precise information about the electron bunch length. This paper investigates the use of a pyreoelectric heat sensor that has a sensitivity of about 1.34 micro amps per watt for the single cell detector. Such sensitivity, added to the fact that the detector is an array sensor, makes the detector studied the primary candidate to be integrated to an infrared spectrometer designed to better measure the LCLS electron bunch length.
Di Cola, Emanuela; Waigh, Thomas A.; Trinick, John; Tskhovrebova, Larissa; Houmeida, Ahmed; Pyckhout-Hintzen, Wim; Dewhurst, Charles
2005-01-01
The persistence length of titin from rabbit skeletal muscles was measured using a combination of static and dynamic light scattering, and neutron small angle scattering. Values of persistence length in the range 9–16 nm were found for titin-II, which corresponds to mainly physiologically inelastic A-band part of the protein, and for a proteolytic fragment with 100-nm contour length from the physiologically elastic I-band part. The ratio of the hydrodynamic radius to the static radius of gyration indicates that the proteins obey Gaussian statistics typical of a flexible polymer in a θ-solvent. Furthermore, measurements of the flexibility as a function of temperature demonstrate that titin-II and the I-band titin fragment experience a similar denaturation process; unfolding begins at 318 K and proceeds in two stages: an initial gradual 50% change in persistence length is followed by a sharp unwinding transition at 338 K. Complementary microrheology (video particle tracking) measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity in dilute solution behaves according to the Flory/Fox model, providing a value of the radius of gyration for titin-II (63 ± 1 nm) in agreement with static light scattering and small angle neutron scattering results. PMID:15792980
Sharma, Nitin; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Srinivas, M.; Agarwala, Sandeep; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Raju
2014-01-01
Aims: This study was undertaken to establish correlation between intracholedochal cystic pressure (ICCP) with biochemical changes in bile, liver histology, cyst wall histology, length of common channel, and cyst volume. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ICCP was measured after surgical access before any mobilization by direct cyst cannulation. Bile was then aspirated for biochemical estimation (bilirubin, amylase, lipase, pH, and electrolytes). Common channel length and cyst volume were determined by preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Liver histology was assessed under parenchymal, bile duct, and portal parameters. Cyst wall was examined for ulceration, inflammation, fibrosis, and metaplasia. Results: ICCP was recorded in 31 patients; mean and median ICCP were 15.64 and 14 mmHg, respectively (range = 6-30 mmHg). Cases with median ICCP < 14 had median cyst volume of 48 cc (range = 36-115) and amylase 2052 IU/L (range = 190-5052) whereas those with ICCP ≥ 15 had volume of 20 cc (range = 10-100) (P = 0.004) and amylase 36 IU/L (range = 0-2806) (P = 0.0004) suggesting inverse correlation. No significant correlation was found with bilirubin and electrolytes. ICCP directly correlated with parenchymal changes like hepatocellular damage (P = 0.002) and cholestasis (P = 0.001). It also correlated with bile duct changes. ICCP inversely correlated with cyst wall changes (P = 0.003, 0.0001, 0.023, 0.0013, respectively). High pressure cysts had normal pancreaticobiliary junction. Conclusion: High-pressure cysts tend to be smaller but have more severe backpressure changes in liver parenchyma. Low-pressure cysts have high volume and higher levels of amylase and lipase and therefore have more severe cyst wall changes. PMID:24604978
Failure of the Cross Correlation Measurement Technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGill, Ken; Ham, Katie; Schock, Kris
2014-03-01
The experiment involves creating a sound wave that propagates down a pipe with 8 transducers attached at equally spaced intervals of 0.01016 meters. The numerical method used to solve for the phase component, the Cross Correlation Method, creates a high correlation value, but the speed of sound varies immensely. The method involves a Fast Fourier Transform of the collected data, which is used to find the phase of the sound wave, and the slope of the position versus time graph, which is used to calculate the speed of sound. This high correlation values shows that the data is correct, but the numerical method for analyzing the data is incorrect. We would like to thank Dr. Ken McGill for all of his time, help, and guidance with this research project. We would also like to thank Georgia College and State University for both the resources and space necessary for this experiment.
Methods and apparatus for measuring a length of cable suspending a well logging tool in a borehole
Broding, R.A.
1986-07-01
A system is described for measuring depth from the mouth of a borehole to a well logging tool connected to one end of an electrically conductive cable suspended in the borehole comprising: means for applying an initial electrical time pulse signal to one end of the cable, whereby the initial electrical time pulse signal propagates the length of the cable to one end of the cable to the well logging tool connected to the other end of the cable; means for detecting at the mouth of the borehole, which is intermediate both ends of the cable, the passage of the initial electrical time pulse signal along the length of the cable; means for detecting at the mouth of the borehole a subsequent electrical time pulse propagating along the length of the cable reflected from the other end of the cable; means for determining a time interval between the detection of the initial electrical time pulse signal at the mouth of the borehole and the detection of the subsequent electrical time pulse signal at the mouth of the borehole; and means for correlating the time interval with the depth to which the well logging tool is suspended in the borehole as measured from the mouth of the borehole.
Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Fernanda; Santana-Lemos, Bárbara A.; Scheucher, Priscila S.; Alves-Paiva, Raquel M.; Calado, Rodrigo T.
2014-01-01
Telomere length measurement is an essential test for the diagnosis of telomeropathies, which are caused by excessive telomere erosion. Commonly used methods are terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis by Southern blot, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with flow cytometry (flow-FISH), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Although these methods have been used in the clinic, they have not been comprehensively compared. Here, we directly compared the performance of flow-FISH and qPCR to measure leukocytes' telomere length of healthy individuals and patients evaluated for telomeropathies, using TRF as standard. TRF and flow-FISH showed good agreement and correlation in the analysis of healthy subjects (R2 = 0.60; p<0.0001) and patients (R2 = 0.51; p<0.0001). In contrast, the comparison between TRF and qPCR yielded modest correlation for the analysis of samples of healthy individuals (R2 = 0.35; p<0.0001) and low correlation for patients (R2 = 0.20; p = 0.001); Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement between the two methods for both patients and controls. Quantitative PCR and flow-FISH modestly correlated in the analysis of healthy individuals (R2 = 0.33; p<0.0001) and did not correlate in the comparison of patients' samples (R2 = 0.1, p = 0.08). Intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was similar for flow-FISH (10.8±7.1%) and qPCR (9.5±7.4%; p = 0.35), but the inter-assay CV was lower for flow-FISH (9.6±7.6% vs. 16±19.5%; p = 0.02). Bland-Altman analysis indicated that flow-FISH was more precise and reproducible than qPCR. Flow-FISH and qPCR were sensitive (both 100%) and specific (93% and 89%, respectively) to distinguish very short telomeres. However, qPCR sensitivity (40%) and specificity (63%) to detect telomeres below the tenth percentile were lower compared to flow-FISH (80% sensitivity and 85% specificity). In the clinical setting, flow-FISH was more accurate, reproducible, sensitive, and specific in the
Taketani, Kaori; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori; Takakuwa, Tetsuya
2015-05-01
Normal growth of the lateral ventricles (LVs) was characterized three-dimensionally using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 16 human fetuses at 16-25 weeks of gestation. The LV was differentiated into four primary regions, the anterior horn, central parts, posterior horn, and inferior horn, at 16 weeks of gestation. The LV changed shape mainly by elongation and narrowing, which corresponded to the external and internal growth of the surrounding cerebrum. Six length parameters measured in the LV correlated with biparietal diameter by simple regression analysis (R(2) range, 0.56-0.93), which may be valuable for establishing a standardized prenatal protocol to assess fetal well-being and development across intrauterine periods. No correlation was found between biparietal diameter and LV volume (R(2) = 0.13). PMID:25059317