Bunch Length Measurements With Laser/SR Cross-Correlation
Miller, Timothy; Daranciang, Dan; Lindenberg, Aaron; Corbett, Jeff; Fisher, Alan; Goodfellow, John; Huang, Xiaobiao; Mok, Walter; Safranek, James; Wen, Haidan; /SLAC
2012-07-06
By operating SPEAR3 in low-{alpha} mode the storage ring can generate synchrotron radiation pulses of order 1ps. Applications include pump-probe x-ray science and the production of THz radiation in the CSR regime. Measurements of the bunch length are difficult, however, because the light intensity is low and streak cameras typically provide resolution of only a few ps. Tests are now underway to resolve the short bunch length using cross-correlation between a 60-fs Ti:Sapphire laser and the visible SR beam in a BBO crystal. In this paper we report on the experimental setup, preliminary measurements and prospects for further improvement.
Measurement of the Correlation and Coherence Lengths in Boundary Layer Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palumbo, Daniel L.
2011-01-01
Wall pressure data acquired during flight tests at several flight conditions are analyzed and the correlation and coherence lengths of the data reported. It is shown how the frequency bandwidth of the analysis biases the correlation length and how the convection of the flow acts to reduce the coherence length. Coherence lengths measured in the streamwise direction appear much longer than would be expected based on classical results for flow over a flat plat.
Correlations of Length and Volume Measurements in Myofibril Suspensions
Kominz, David R.
1971-01-01
Instrumentation has been developed for the rapid electronic sizing of large numbers of myofibrils. The response of myofibrils in the presence of ATP to changes in Ca++ concentration was examined. Shortening of myofibrils upon addition of Ca++ was accompanied by an increased protein effective volume of approximately 10-40%. Whereas ATPase activation and increased turbidity of myofibrils upon addition of Ca++ were reversible upon subsequent addition of EGTA, the shortening and swelling were irreversible. It is proposed that the swelling may result from the breaking of hydrophobic bonds within myosin. The ATPase activity and turbidity are measures of the input, while the shortening and swelling are measures of the output of a coupled nonequilibrium process; failure of reversal of the output indicates an uncoupling under the experimental conditions. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 4Figure 6Figure 9 PMID:4249975
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellini, Tommaso; Clark, Noel A.; Degiorgio, Vittorio; Mantegazza, Francesco; Natale, Giorgio
1998-03-01
We have studied a composite system formed by a nematic thermotropic liquid crystal in which small silica particles have been dispersed. The colloids are aggregated and exert a randomizing effect on the nematic structure. The distorted pattern of the optical axis gives rise to a strong optical turbidity τ. We have measured τ as a function of the silica concentration Φ and of the temperature T in both the isotropic and nematic phase. We have found that, at fixed T, τ has a maximum as a function of Φ, and that, upon changing Φ, the whole shape of τ(T) drastically transforms. We have devised a model to describe the scattering of light from a distorted uniaxial system. The model has been developed both in the Born approximation and in the anomalous diffraction approximation, the two regimes which cover the broad range of experimental conditions. The family of τ(T) curves experimentally obtained at different Φ's is remarkably well described by the theoretical model, using as the only fitting parameter the correlation length ζ. We have found that, upon decreasing Φ, the nematic correlation length diverges as a power law of Φ. We compare the exponent of the power law with the prediction of the Imry-Ma theory of phase behavior in disordered systems, and we discuss the connection between ζ and the fractal correlation length of the silica aggregates.
Nguyen, Tho Duc; Nahata, Ajay; Vardeny, Z Valy
2012-07-01
Using terahertz (THz) transmission measurements through two-dimensional Fibonacci deterministic subwavelength hole arrays fabricated in metal foils, we find that the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) correlation lengths for aperiodic resonances are smaller than those associated with the underlying grid. The enhanced transmission spectra associated with these arrays contain two groups of Fano-type resonances: those related to the two-dimensional Fibonacci structure and those related to the underlying hole grid array upon which the aperiodic Fibonacci array is built. For both groups the destructive interference frequencies at which transmission minima occur closely match prominent reciprocal vectors in the hole array (HA) structure-factor in reciprocal space. However the Fibonacci-related transmission resonances are much weaker than both their calculated Fourier intensity in k space and the grid-related resonances. These differences may arise from the complex, multi-fractal dispersion relations and scattering from the underlying grid arrays. We also systematically studied and compared the transmission resonance strength of Fibonacci HA and periodic HA lattices as a function of the number of holes in the array structure. We found that the Fibonacci-related resonance strengths are an order of magnitude weaker than that of the periodic HA, consistent with the smaller SPP correlation length for the aperiodic structure. PMID:22772220
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pristinski, Denis; Khripin, Constantine; Tu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ming
2011-03-01
We report on the application of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to simultaneously measure the brightness, concentration, and length of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The technique relies on the intrinsic bandgap luminescence of (6,5) chirality semiconducting SWCNTs in the near infra-red (NIR) range and does not require sample labeling. The nanotubes used in this study have been dispersed in solution of single stranded DNA and length fractionated via size exclusion chromatography. The SWCNT length measured by FCS was in excellent agreement with more traditional techniques - polarized dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The apparent nanotube brightness is shown to grow linearly with the mean nanotube length, having a zero intensity cut-off at 110 nm, implying an exciton diffusion length of 55 nm for SWCNTs dispersed in sodium deoxycholate.
Measuring Thermodynamic Length
Crooks, Gavin E
2007-09-07
Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.
Motz, R; Schumacher, M; Nrnberg, J; Viemann, M; Grafmller, S; Fiedler, K; Claus, M; Kronberg, K
2014-12-01
Looking after children means caring for very small infants up to adult-sized adolescents, with weights ranging from 500 g to more than 100 kg and heights ranging from 25 to more than 200 cm. The available echocardiographic reference data were drawn from a small sample, which did not include preterm infants. Most authors have used body weight or body surface area to predict left ventricular dimensions. The current authors had the impression that body length would be a better surrogate parameter than body weight or body surface area. They analyzed their echocardiographic database retrospectively. The analysis included all available echocardiographic data from 6 June 2001 to 15 December 2011 from their echocardiographic database. The authors included 12,086 of 26,325 subjects documented as patients with normal hearts in their analysis by the examining the pediatric cardiologist. For their analysis, they selected body weight, length, age, and aortic and pulmonary valve diameter in two-dimensional echocardiography and left ventricular dimension in M-mode. They found good correlation between echocardiographic dimensions and body surface area, body weight, and body length. The analysis showed a complex relationship between echocardiographic measurements and body weight and body surface area, whereas body length showed a linear relationship. This makes prediction of echo parameters more reliable. According to this retrospective analysis, body length is a better parameter for evaluating echocardiographic measurements than body weight or body surface area and should therefore be used in daily practice. PMID:24894894
Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.
2010-01-01
Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.
Michalewski, Janusz; Nawrocka, Zofia; Bednarski, Maciej; Nawrocki, Jerzy
2014-01-01
Purpose. To report choroidal thickness and volume in healthy eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods. A prospective observational study of 122 patients examined with swept source OCT (DRI-OCT, Topcon, Japan). In each eye, we performed 256 horizontal scans, 12 mm in length and centered on the fovea. We calculated choroidal thickness manually with a built-in caliper and automatically using DRI-OCT mapping software. Choroidal volume was also automatically calculated. We measured axial length with optical low-coherence reflectometry (Lenstar LS 900, Haag-Streit, Switzerland). Results. The choroid has focally increased thickness under the fovea. Choroid was thinnest in the outer nasal quadrant. In stepwise regression analysis, age was estimated as the most significant factor correlating with decreased choroidal thickness (F = 23.146, P < 0.001) followed by axial length (F = 4.902, P = 0.03). Refractive error was not statistically significant (F = 1.16, P = 0.28). Conclusions. SS-OCT is the first commercially available system that can automatically create choroidal thickness and volume maps. Choroidal thickness is increased at the fovea and is thinnest nasally. Age and axial length are critical for the estimation of choroidal thickness and volume. Choroidal measurements derived from SS-OCT images have potential value for objectively documenting disease-related choroidal thickness abnormalities and monitoring progressive changes over time. PMID:25013793
Overview of bunch length measurements.
Lumpkin, A. H.
1999-02-19
An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed.
Noise correlation lengths in remote reference magnetotellurics
Goubau, W.M.; Maxton, P.M.; Koch, R.H.; Clarke, J.
1984-04-01
In remote reference magnetotellurics one uses a reference magnetometer, located typically several kilometers from the magnetotelluric site, to obtain estimates of the impedance tensor that are unbiased by random noise. Measurements have been made of the correlation length of this noise by using a third SQUID magnetometer as a local reference. The impedance tensor was determined as a function of the separation between this magnetometer and the magnetotelluric site, and compared with the tensor obtained simultaneously using the remote reference. This study yielded the surprising result that a separation of as little as 200 m was sufficient to obtain an unbiased estimate of the impedance tensor. The magnitude of the magnetic noise was determined with two different techniques: one involving the impedance tensor, and the other involving a magnetic transfer tensor. The second method produced a substantially lower estimate of the magnetic noise at periods longer than about 1 sec. It is concluded that a component of the noise arises from the non-plane wave nature of the magnetic and electric fields. 4 references, 4 figures.
Measurement of subpicosecond electron bunch lengths
Lihn, Hung-chi; Bocek, D.; Kung, P.; Settakorn, C.; Wiedemann, H.
1995-11-01
A new frequency-resolved bunch-length measuring system has been developed at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility suitable for subpicosecond electron bunches. This method utilizes a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches through optical auto-correlation. A simple and systematic way has also been developed to include interference effects caused by the beam splitter, so the electron bunch length can be easily obtained from the measurement. This autocorrelation method demonstrates subpicosecond resolving power that cannot be achieved by existing time-resolved methods.
Correlation length finite size scaling investigations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berg, Bernd A.; Alves, Nelson A.
1990-09-01
We consider the cylindrical geometry and perform MC simulations for the 3d Ising model, the 3d 3-state Potts model, 4d SU(2) and SU(3) pure gauge theory. The correlation length, defined as ? = In( {? 0}/{? 1}) where ?0 and ?1 are the two largest eigenvalues of the transfer matrix, is calculated with high precision. Nightingale's finite size scaling analysis is carried out for each model. In case of second order phase transitions (Ising and SU(2)), we find the critical exponent ? determined with convincing convergence. In contrast, when the transition is (supposed to be) first order (Potts and SU(3)), the convergence is bad and results for ? remain inconclusive.
NMR Measures of Heterogeneity Length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spiess, Hans W.
2002-03-01
Advanced solid state NMR spectroscopy provides a wealth of information about structure and dynamics of complex systems. On a local scale, multidimensional solid state NMR has elucidated the geometry and the time scale of segmental motions at the glass transition. The higher order correlation functions which are provided by this technique led to the notion of dynamic heterogeneities, which have been characterized in detail with respect to their rate memory and length scale. In polymeric and low molar mass glass formers of different fragility, length scales in the range 2 to 4 nm are observed. In polymeric systems, incompatibility of backbone and side groups as in polyalkylmethacrylates leads to heteogeneities on the nm scale, which manifest themselves in unusual chain dynamics at the glass transition involving extended chain conformations. References: K. Schmidt-Rohr and H.W. Spiess, Multidimensional Solid-State NMR and Polymers,Academic Press, London (1994). U. Tracht, M. Wilhelm, A. Heuer, H. Feng, K. Schmidt-Rohr, H.W. Spiess, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2727 (1998). S.A. Reinsberg, X.H. Qiu, M. Wilhelm, M.D. Ediger, H.W. Spiess, J.Chem.Phys. 114, 7299 (2001). S.A. Reinsberg, A. Heuer, B. Doliwa, H. Zimmermann, H.W. Spiess, J. Non-Crystal. Solids, in press (2002)
Telomere length correlations among somatic tissues in adult zebra finches.
Reichert, Sophie; Criscuolo, Franois; Verinaud, Elodie; Zahn, Sandrine; Massemin, Sylvie
2013-01-01
Telomeres are repetitive non coding DNA sequences located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes, which maintain the integrity of the genome by hiding the chromosome ends from being recognised as double stranded breaks. Telomeres are emerging as biomarkers for ageing and survival, and are susceptible to reflect different individual life history trajectories. In particular, the telomere length with which one starts in life has been shown to be linked with individual life-long survival, suggesting that telomere dynamics can be a proxy for individual fitness and thereby be implicated in evolutionary trade-offs. As a consequence, an increasing number of studies were conducted on telomeres in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology, in which telomere length was almost exclusively measured from blood samples. However, not only do the number of repeats of the telomeric sequences vary among species, but also within species with great inter-individual telomere lengths variability with age, tissues, and chromosomes. This raises the issue of the exact biological meaning of telomere measurement in blood cells and stimulated the study of the correlation of telomere lengths among tissues over age. By measuring telomere length in adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in different somatic tissues displaying variable cell turnovers (bone marrow, brain, spleen, pectoral muscle, heart, liver and in red blood cells), we checked that the measure of telomere length in red blood cells is related to telomere lengths in the other tissues. Here we show significant relationships between the telomere lengths of red blood cells and several somatic tissues at adulthood. As red blood cells are easily accessible and suitable for the longitudinal monitoring of the individual rate of telomere loss, our study confirms that telomere length measured in red blood cells could serve as a surrogate for telomere length in the whole avian organism. PMID:24349076
Telomere Length Correlations among Somatic Tissues in Adult Zebra Finches
Reichert, Sophie; Criscuolo, François; Verinaud, Elodie; Zahn, Sandrine; Massemin, Sylvie
2013-01-01
Telomeres are repetitive non coding DNA sequences located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes, which maintain the integrity of the genome by hiding the chromosome ends from being recognised as double stranded breaks. Telomeres are emerging as biomarkers for ageing and survival, and are susceptible to reflect different individual life history trajectories. In particular, the telomere length with which one starts in life has been shown to be linked with individual life-long survival, suggesting that telomere dynamics can be a proxy for individual fitness and thereby be implicated in evolutionary trade-offs. As a consequence, an increasing number of studies were conducted on telomeres in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology, in which telomere length was almost exclusively measured from blood samples. However, not only do the number of repeats of the telomeric sequences vary among species, but also within species with great inter-individual telomere lengths variability with age, tissues, and chromosomes. This raises the issue of the exact biological meaning of telomere measurement in blood cells and stimulated the study of the correlation of telomere lengths among tissues over age. By measuring telomere length in adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in different somatic tissues displaying variable cell turnovers (bone marrow, brain, spleen, pectoral muscle, heart, liver and in red blood cells), we checked that the measure of telomere length in red blood cells is related to telomere lengths in the other tissues. Here we show significant relationships between the telomere lengths of red blood cells and several somatic tissues at adulthood. As red blood cells are easily accessible and suitable for the longitudinal monitoring of the individual rate of telomere loss, our study confirms that telomere length measured in red blood cells could serve as a surrogate for telomere length in the whole avian organism. PMID:24349076
Chow, David; Guo, Lin; Gai, Feng; Goulian, Mark
2012-01-01
Structural inhomogeneities in biomembranes can lead to complex diffusive behavior of membrane proteins that depend on the length or time scales that are probed. This effect is well studied in eukaryotic cells, but has been explored only recently in bacteria. Here we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to study diffusion of the membrane protein TetA-YFP in E. coli. We find that the diffusion constant determined from FRAP is comparable to other reports of inner membrane protein diffusion constants in E. coli. However, FCS, which probes diffusion on shorter length scales, gives a value that is almost two orders of magnitude higher and is comparable to lipid diffusion constants. These results suggest there is a population of TetA-YFP molecules in the membrane that move rapidly over short length scales (? 400 nm) but move significantly more slowly over the longer length scales probed by FRAP. PMID:23119068
Is There a Correlation Between Footstep Length, Lower Extremities, and Stature?
Kanchan, Tanuj; Sinha, Shreya; Krishan, Kewal
2015-09-01
A probable correlation between stature and footstep length is expected, and consequently, the stature may be estimated from footstep length. The present research was conducted to study the correlation of footstep length with length of the lower extremities and stature. The study participants (n=142) were asked to walk on a paper sheet with inked feet and footstep length was measured. Mean stature and lower limb length were significantly larger in males. Sex differences were not observed in the average footstep length. Average footstep length and lower limb length did not show a significant correlation among the participants. A statistically significant correlation was observed between average footstep length and stature only among females. Our observations suggest that the length of the lower limb may not be a major factor in determining the footstep length of a person and that the forensic utility of stature estimation from footstep length may be limited. PMID:26218919
Sub-picosecond electron bunch length measurement
Settakorn, C.; Hernandez, M.; Wiedemann, H.
1997-08-01
A subpicosecond electron bunch length measuring system has been developed at the SUNSHINE facility. The method is based on an autocorrelation technique in the frequency domain utilizing the coherent radiation emitted from the electron bunch at wavelengths equal and longer than the bunch length. The radiation spectrum is the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and measuring this spectrum in a far-infrared Michelson interferometer allows the determination of the bunch length down to the femto-second regime. The experimental setup and measurement of subpicosecond electron pulses including possible improvements to maximize the bunch information available from an interferogram will be described.
Ozone Correlative Measurements Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hilsenrath, E. (editor)
1985-01-01
A study was conducted to determine the necessary parameters for the correlation of data on Earth ozone. Topics considered were: (1) measurement accuracy; (2) equipment considerations (SBUV); and (3) ground based measurements to support satellite data.
ULTRASHORT ELECTRON BUNCH LENGTH MEASUREMENTS AT DUVFEL.
GRAVES, W.S.; CARR, G.L.; DIMAURO, L.F.; DOYURAN, A.; HEESE, R.; JOHNSON, E.D.; NEUMAN, C.; RAKOWSKY, G.; ROSE, J.; RUDATI, J.; SHAFTAN, T.; SHEEHY, B.; SKARITKA, J.; YU, L.H.
2001-06-18
The DUVFEL electron linac is designed to produce sub-picosecond, high brightness electron bunches for driving a short wavelength FEL. Four experiments have been commissioned to address the challenge of accurately measuring bunch lengths on this timescale. In the frequency domain, a short 12 period undulator is used to produce both off-axis coherent emission and on-axis incoherent single-shot spectra. The total coherent infrared power scales inversely with bunch length and the spectral cutoff is an indication of bunch length. The density of power spikes in the single-shot visible spectrum may also be used to estimate bunch length. In the time domain, the linac accelerating sections and a bending magnet are used to implement the RF-zero phasing method, and a sub-picosecond streak camera is also installed. Beam measurements and comparisons of these methods are reported.
Carbon Nanotubes: Measuring Dispersion and Length
Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Bauer, Barry J.; Hobbie, Erik K.; Becker, Matthew L.; Hight-Walker, Angela; Simpson, Jeffrey R.; Chun, Jaehun; Obrzut, Jan; Bajpai, Vardhan; Phelan, Fred R.; Simien, Daneesh; Yeon Huh, Ji; Migler, Kalman B.
2011-03-01
Advanced technological uses of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) rely on the production of single length and chirality populations that are currently only available through liquid phase post processing. The foundation of all of these processing steps is the attainment of individualized nanotube dispersion in solution; an understanding of the collodial properties of the dispersed SWCNTs can then be used to designed appropriate conditions for separations. In many instances nanotube size, particularly length, is especially active in determining the achievable properties from a given population, and thus there is a critical need for measurement technologies for both length distribution and effective separation techniques. In this Progress Report, we document the current state of the art for measuring dispersion and length populations, including separations, and use examples to demonstrate the desirability of addressing these parameters.
Measurement of subpicosecond electron bunch lengths
Lihn, H.
1996-04-01
A new frequency-resolved bunch-length measuring system has been developed at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility suitable for subpicosecond electron bunches. This method utilizes a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches through optical autocorrelation. A simple and systematic way has also been developed to include interference effects caused by the beam splitter, so the electron bunch length can be easily obtained from the measurement. This autocorrelation method demonstrates subpicosecond resolving power that cannot be achieved by existing time-resolved methods. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Measurement of subpicosecond electron pulse length
Lihn, H. |
1997-01-01
A new frequency-resolved bunch-length measuring system has been developed at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility to characterize subpicosecond electron pulses. Using a far-infrared Michelson interferometer, this method measures the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches through optical autocorrelation. The electron bunch length is obtained from the measurement with a simple and systematic analysis that includes interference effects caused by the beam splitter. This method demonstrates subpicosecond resolving power that cannot be achieved by existing time-resolved methods. The principle of this method and experimental results are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Measurement of subpicosecond electron pulse length
Lihn, Hung chi
1996-04-01
A new frequency-resolved bunch-length measuring system has been developed at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility to characterize subpicosecond electron pulses. Using a far-infrared Michelson interferometer, this method measures the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches through optical autocorrelation. The electron bunch length is obtained from the measurement with a simple and systematic analysis which includes interference effects caused by the beam splitter. This method demonstrates subpicosecond resolving power that cannot be achieved by existing time-resolved methods. The principle of this method and experimental results are discussed.
Bunch length measurements using synchrotron ligth monitor
Ahmad, Mahmoud; Tiefenback, Michael G.
2015-09-01
The bunch length is measured at CEBAF using an invasive technique. The technique depends on applying an energy chirp for the electron bunch and imaging it through a dispersive region. The measurements are taken through Arc1 and Arc2 at CEBAF. The fundamental equations, procedure and the latest results are given.
Sonographic Measurement of Fetal Ear Length in Turkish Women with a Normal Pregnancy
zdemir, Mucize Eri; Uzun, I??l; Karahasano?lu, Ay?e; Aygn, Mehmet; Ak?n, Hale; Yaz?c?o?lu, Fehmi
2014-01-01
Background: Abnormal fetal ear length is a feature of chromosomal disorders. Fetal ear length measurement is a simple measurement that can be obtained during ultrasonographic examinations. Aims: To develop a nomogram for fetal ear length measurements in our population and investigate the correlation between fetal ear length, gestational age, and other standard fetal biometric measurements. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Ear lengths of the fetuses were measured in normal singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age and fetal ear length in millimetres was analysed by simple linear regression. In addition, the correlation of fetal ear length measurements with biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length were evaluated.Ear length measurements were obtained from fetuses in 389 normal singleton pregnancies ranging between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results: A nomogram was developed by linear regression analysis of the parameters ear length and gestational age. Fetal ear length (mm) = y = (1.348 X gestational age)?12.265), where gestational ages is in weeks. A high correlation was found between fetal ear length and gestational age, and a significant correlation was also found between fetal ear length and the biparietal diameter (r=0.962; p<0.001). Similar correlations were found between fetal ear length and head circumference, and fetal ear length and femur length. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a nomogram for fetal ear length. The study also demonstrates the relationship between ear length and other biometric measurements. PMID:25667783
Distance and Cable Length Measurement System
Hernndez, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay
2009-01-01
A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169
Bunch Length Measurements at JLab FEL
P. Evtushenko; J. L. Coleman; K. Jordan; J. M. Klopf; G. Neil; G. P. Williams
2006-09-01
The JLab FEL is routinely operated with sub-picosecond bunches. The short bunch length is important for high gain of the FEL. Coherent transition radiation has been used for the bunch length measurements for many years. This diagnostic can be used only in the pulsed beam mode. It is our goal to run FEL with CW beam and 74.85 MHz micropulse repetition rate. Hence it is very desirable to have the possibility of doing the bunch length measurements when running CW beam with any micropulse frequency. We use a Fourier transform infrared interferometer, which is essentially a Michelson interferometer, to measure the spectrum of the coherent synchrotron radiation generated in the last dipole of the magnetic bunch compressor upstream of the FEL wiggler. This noninvasive diagnostic provides the bunch length measurements for CW beam operation at any micropulse frequency. We also compare the measurements made with the help of the FTIR interferometer with the data obtained by the Martin-Puplett interferometer. Results of the two diagnostics are usually agree within 15%. Here we present a description of the experimental setup, data evaluation procedure and results of the beam measurements.
Correlation Length versus Gap in Frustration-Free Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gosset, David; Huang, Yichen
2016-03-01
Hastings established exponential decay of correlations for ground states of gapped quantum many-body systems. A ground state of a (geometrically) local Hamiltonian with spectral gap ɛ has correlation length ξ upper bounded as ξ =O (1 /ɛ ). In general this bound cannot be improved. Here we study the scaling of the correlation length as a function of the spectral gap in frustration-free local Hamiltonians, and we prove a tight bound ξ =O (1 /√{ɛ }) in this setting. This highlights a fundamental difference between frustration-free and frustrated systems near criticality. The result is obtained using an improved version of the combinatorial proof of correlation decay due to Aharonov, Arad, Vazirani, and Landau.
How Cells Measure Length on Subcellular Scales.
Marshall, Wallace F
2015-12-01
Cells are not just amorphous bags of enzymes, but precise and complex machines. With any machine, it is important that the parts be of the right size, yet our understanding of the mechanisms that control size of cellular structures remains at a rudimentary level in most cases. One problem with studying size control is that many cellular organelles have complex 3D structures that make their size hard to measure. Here we focus on linear structures within cells, for which the problem of size control reduces to the problem of length control. We compare and contrast potential mechanisms for length control to understand how cells solve simple geometry problems. PMID:26437596
Torque correlation length and stochastic twist dynamics of DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banigan, Edward J.; Marko, John F.
2014-06-01
We introduce a short correlation length for torque in twisting-stiff biomolecules, which is necessary for the physical property that torque fluctuations be finite in amplitude. We develop a nonequilibrium theory of dynamics of DNA twisting which predicts two crossover time scales for temporal torque correlations in single-molecule experiments. Bending fluctuations can be included, and at linear order we find that they do not affect the twist dynamics. However, twist fluctuations affect bending, and we predict the spatial inhomogeneity of twist, torque, and buckling arising in nonequilibrium "rotor-bead" experiments.
Torque correlation length and stochastic twist dynamics of DNA.
Banigan, Edward J; Marko, John F
2014-06-01
We introduce a short correlation length for torque in twisting-stiff biomolecules, which is necessary for the physical property that torque fluctuations be finite in amplitude. We develop a nonequilibrium theory of dynamics of DNA twisting which predicts two crossover time scales for temporal torque correlations in single-molecule experiments. Bending fluctuations can be included, and at linear order we find that they do not affect the twist dynamics. However, twist fluctuations affect bending, and we predict the spatial inhomogeneity of twist, torque, and buckling arising in nonequilibrium "rotor-bead" experiments. PMID:25019813
The torque correlation length and stochastic twist dynamics of DNA
Banigan, Edward J.; Marko, John F.
2014-01-01
We introduce a short correlation length for torque in twisting-stiff biomolecules, which is necessary for the physical property that torque fluctuations be finite in amplitude. We develop a nonequilibrium theory of dynamics of DNA twisting which predicts two crossover time scales for temporal torque correlations in single-molecule experiments. Bending fluctuations can be included, and at linear order we find that they do not affect the twist dynamics. However, twist fluctuations affect bending, and we predict the spatial inhomogeneity of twist, torque, and buckling arising in nonequilibrium “rotor-bead” experiments. PMID:25019813
Correlative Measurements Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parsons, C. L.
1988-01-01
The GSFC Correlative Measurements Program at the Wallops Flight Facility was represented on the Satellite/Satellite Intercomparisons Working Group. The Correlative Measurements Program uses the Rocket Ozonesonde (ROCOZ-A) and the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) balloon borne ozonesonde to measure the vertical profile of ozone amount in the atmosphere. The balloon work is described in a separate report. The ROCOZ-A instrument was used for many years to provide in situ truth data for various satellite ozone measuring systems, such as SBUV on Nimbus-7, SAGE-II, SBUV-II on the NOAA series of polar orbiting satellites, SME, LIMS, etc. The particular data sets of interest to the Ozone Trends Panel Working Group were collected at Natal, Brazil. The major results produced for and used by the Ozone Trends Panel are shown. The ROCOZ-A average ozone density profile is plotted versus altitude on the left. ECC ozonesondes were used for the portion of the profile below 20 km, the lower limit for ROCOZ-A. The difference between SAGE-II and ROCOZ-A average density profiles is shown.
Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation
Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Decker, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark; Iverson, Richard H.; Krejcik, Patrick; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, Dieter; Kirby, Neil; Clayton, Chris; Huang, Chengkun; Johnson, Devon K.; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Ken; Deng, Suzhi; Oz, Erdem; /Southern California U.
2005-06-24
The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10 kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28 GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts for a single shot CTR autocorrelator.
Material Effects and Detector Response Corrections for Bunch Length Measurements
Zacherl, W.; Blumenfeld, I.; Berry, M.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.; Kirby, N.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Zhou, M.; Katsouleas, T.C.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.
2007-06-28
A typical diagnostic used to determine the bunch length of ultra-short electron bunches is the auto-correlation of coherent transition radiation. This technique can produce artificially short bunch length results due to the attenuation of low frequency radiation if corrections for the material properties of the Michelson interferometer and detector response are not made. Measurements were taken using FTIR spectroscopy to determine the absorption spectrum of various materials and the response of a Molectron P1-45 pyroelectric detector. The material absorption data will be presented and limitations on the detector calibration discussed.
Cross correlation and length scales in turbulent flows near surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, J. C. R.; Moin, P.; Lee, M.; Moser, R. D.; Spalart, P.; Mansour, N. N.; Kaimal, J. C.; Gaynor, E.
1989-01-01
Two kinds of length scales are used in turbulent flows; 'functional length scales' such as mixing length, dissipation length L(sub epsilon), etc., and 'flow-field length scales' derived from cross correlations of velocity, pressure, etc. in the flow. Some connection between these scales are derived here. We first consider the cross correlation R(sub vv)(y,y(sub 1)) of the normal components u at two heights y, y(sub 1) above a rigid surface, normalized by the velocity y(sub 1) (greater than y). For shear-free boundary layers it is found theoretically, and in field and numerical experiments that R(sub vv) approximately equals y/y(sub 1). For shear layers it is also found that R(sub vv) approximately equals f(y/y(sub 1)) less than or equal to y,y(sub 1). This function f differs slightly between low Reynolds number numerical simulations and field experiments. The lateral structure defined by R(sub vv)(y,r(sub 3); y(sub 1),0) is also self similar and shows that the eddies centered at about y(sub 1) appear to have constant lateral width a(sub 3) above and below y(sub 1), where a(sub 3, sup +) approximately equals 7+1/(1.4dU(sup +)/dy(sup +)), when normalized on u(sub *) and v, where U is the mean velocity. Results for L(sub epsilon, sup -1) from direct numerical simulation are found to compare well with the formula L(sub epsilon, sup -1) = A(sub B)/y + A(sub S)dU/dy/v, for unidirectional and reversing turbulent boundary layers and channel flow, except near where dU/dy approximately equals 0. The conclusion is that the large-scale eddy structure and length scales in these flows are determined by a combination of shear and blocking, and that the vertical component of turbulence has a self-similar structure in both kinds of boundary layer.
Local-hybrid functional based on the correlation length
Johnson, Erin R.
2014-09-28
Local-hybrid functionals involve position-dependent mixing of Hartree-Fock and density-functional exchange, which should allow improved performance relative to conventional hybrids by reducing the inherent delocalization error and improving the long-range behaviour. Herein, the same-spin correlation length, obtained from the Fermi-hole radius, is used as the mixing parameter. The performance of the resulting local-hybrid functional is assessed for standard thermochemical and kinetics benchmarks. The local hybrid is shown to perform significantly better than the corresponding global hybrid in almost all cases.
Is There Any Correlation Between Patient Height and Patellar Tendon Length?
Navali, Amir M; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari
2015-01-01
Background: A potential specific problem of patellar tendon graft in ACL reconstruction is the possibility of graft-tunnel mismatch which could be more problematic with anatomic ACL reconstruction where the femoral tunnel is placed low on the lateral wall of the lateral femoral condyle. The occasional occurrence of this mismatch raises the question that whether a correlation exists between patient height and patellar tendon length. The purpose of the present study was to measure patellar tendon length as an anthropometric finding and to evaluate whether a correlation exists between patient height and patellar tendon length. Methods: Intra-operative measurement of patellar tendon length was carried out in 267 consecutive patients during bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) graft ACL reconstruction. Patient age, gender, height were recorded. The patellar tendon measurements were done independently by two surgeons and the possible inter-observer errors were checked. The data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean length of the patellar tendon was 46.4 4.8 mm (Mean SD) with a range of 3261 mm. The mean patient height was 177 7 cm (Mean SD) with a range of 159197 cm. A weak positive correlations were found between patient height and patellar tendon length (Pearson r = 0.24, P< 0.001). The linear regression equation for patellar tendon length (y, in millimeters) as a function of patient height (x, in centimeters) can be expressed as y=16.54 + 0.17x. Conclusions: Our study showed a weak correlation between patellar tendon length and patient height. This finding is in contrast to the usual measurements in human anthropometry in which taller individuals have normally longer tendons and ligaments. The graft-tunnel mismatch may be the result of this variation. PMID:26110175
Mask roughness induced LER: geometric model at long correlation lengths
McClinton, Brittany M.; Naulleau, Patrick P.
2011-02-11
Collective understanding of how both the resist and line-edge roughness (LER) on the mask affect the final printed LER has made significant advances. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which mask surface roughness couples to image plane LER as a function of illumination conditions, NA, and defocus. Recently, progress has been made in formulating a simplified solution for mask roughness induced LER. Here, we investigate the LER behavior at long correlation lengths of surface roughness on the mask. We find that for correlation lengths greater than 3/NA in wafer dimensions and CDs greater than approximately 0.75/NA, the previously described simplified model, which remains based on physical optics, converges to a 'geometric regime' which is based on ray optics and is independent of partial coherence. In this 'geometric regime', the LER is proportional to the mask slope error as it propagates through focus, and provides a faster alternative to calculating LER in contrast to either full 2D aerial image simulation modeling or the newly proposed physical optics model. Data is presented for both an NA = 0.32 and an NA = 0.5 imaging system for CDs of 22-nm and 50-nm horizontal-line-dense structures.
Length of adaptive walk on uncorrelated and correlated fitness landscapes.
Seetharaman, Sarada; Jain, Kavita
2014-09-01
We consider the adaptation dynamics of an asexual population that walks uphill on a rugged fitness landscape which is endowed with a large number of local fitness peaks. We work in a parameter regime where only those mutants that are a single mutation away are accessible, as a result of which the population eventually gets trapped at a local fitness maximum and the adaptive walk terminates. We study how the number of adaptive steps taken by the population before reaching a local fitness peak depends on the initial fitness of the population, the extreme value distribution of the beneficial mutations, and correlations among the fitnesses. Assuming that the relative fitness difference between successive steps is small, we analytically calculate the average walk length for both uncorrelated and correlated fitnesses in all extreme value domains for a given initial fitness. We present numerical results for the model where the fitness differences can be large and find that the walk length behavior differs from that in the former model in the Frchet domain of extreme value theory. We also discuss the relevance of our results to microbial experiments. PMID:25314469
Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR
Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.
1988-05-01
Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. The results showed that, although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the 'capacitive' component had also decreased relative to the 'inductive'--to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded 'capacitor' cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained. 7 refs., 6 figs.
Relating Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness Length to Interferometric SAR Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saatchi, Sassan; Rodriquez, Ernesto
1998-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of estimating aerodynamic roughness parameter from interferometric SAR (INSAR) measurements. The relation between the interferometric correlation and the rms height of the surface is presented analytically. Model simulations performed over realistic canopy parameters obtained from field measurements in boreal forest environment demonstrate the capability of the INSAR measurements for estimating and mapping surface roughness lengths over forests and/or other vegetation types. The procedure for estimating this parameter over boreal forests using the INSAR data is discussed and the possibility of extending the methodology over tropical forests is examined.
Automatic detection and measurement of femur length from fetal ultrasonography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Prateep; Swamy, Gokul; Gupta, Madhumita; Patil, Uday; Krishnan, Kajoli Banerjee
2010-03-01
Femur bone length is used in the assessment of fetal development and in the prediction of gestational age (GA). In this paper, we present a completely automated two-step method for identifying fetal femur and measuring its length from 2D ultrasound images. The detection algorithm uses a normalized score premised on the distribution of anatomical shape, size and presentation of the femur bone in clinically acceptable scans. The measurement process utilizes a polynomial curve fitting technique to determine the end-points of the bone from a 1D profile that is most distal from the transducer surface. The method has been tested with manual measurements made on 90 third trimester femur images by two radiologists. The measurements made by the experts are strongly correlated (Pearson's coefficient = 0.95). Likewise, the algorithm estimate is strongly correlated with expert measurements (Pearson's coefficient = 0.92 and 0.94). Based on GA estimates and their bounds specified in Standard Obstetric Tables, the GA predictions from automated measurements are found to be within +/-2SD of GA estimates from both manual measurements in 89/90 cases and within +/-3SD in all 90 cases. The method presented in this paper can be adapted to perform automatic measurement of other fetal limbs.
Gaps and Correlation Lengths in Spin-Ladders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syljusen, O. F.; Chakravarty, S.
1997-03-01
Using the description of the S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin-ladder as a finite sized two-dimensional quantum nonlinear ?-model( S.Chakravarty, cond- mat/9608124.) , we discuss the properties of even- and odd-legged spin-ladders. The predictions of the theory are that (?/J)(?/a)=1.67 at T=0, where, ?/J=3.347 exp[-0.682(L/a)] [ 1-0.734(a/L)]-1. These predictions are well-verified in numerical simulations. We extend our analysis to finite temperatures and we give analytic expressions of the gap and the correlation length as functions of temperature. These predictions are also in excellent agreeement with numerical results.
In-vitro correlation between tension and length change in an anterior cruciate ligament substitute.
Good, L
1995-06-01
The length change and tension patterns from multiple insertion locations of an anterior cruciate ligament substitute were studied in 10 cadaver knees. Length change was measured with a spring-loaded isometer of low stiffness, and tension was measured with a piezoelectric load cell. In both instances a thin Kevlar test ligament was positioned in five different femoral and two different tibial ligament insertion locations, that were all located within the normal attachments of the anterior cruciate ligament. Differences were found regarding length changes and tension patterns from a simulated active extension between the central, posterior, and anterior femoral locations. All locations showed larger length change and tension values in extension than in flexion. The anterior femoral ligament insertion location showed length change and tension patterns with increasing values in flexion compared to the other femoral locations. The anterior tibial ligament insertion location showed smaller excursions of both length and tension, than did the central one, but the patterns of the curves were similar. A statistically significant correlation was found between length change and tension patterns throughout a 130-0 degrees range of motion. A statistically significant correlation was also found between the maximum length and tension values. No fixed relationship was found between the magnitude of the length and tension values, when different intervals of the range of motion were studied. RELEVANCE: The intraoperative employment of length change measurements of a test ligament in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction gives information on where high tension can be expected in the range of motion of the knee, and how this can differ depending on the angle of graft fixation. The information gained can also be used to improve drill channel location. However, no predictions on the magnitude of tension can be made, mainly due to large biological variability. PMID:11415553
Large Scattering Lengths, Universality, Correlations and Few-Nucleon Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griesshammer, Harald W.
2010-02-01
In a plethora of processes pivotal e.g. for Big-Bang Nucleo-synthesis BBN, the typical energy scale lies below 10;MeV. Since the scattering lengths between two nucleons are much larger than the typical range of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, Nuclear Physics at these energies is described by the Effective Field Theory of Point-Like Interactions, EFT(PLI), a model-independent theory with systematically improvable, reliable theoretical uncertainties. It helps to provide the bridge from the deceptive simplicity of high-energy QCD, the microscopic theory of strong interactions, to the richness and complexity of few-nucleon physics, and to explain in turn how universal aspects emerge from that complexity. In contradistinction to atomic systems, effective-range contributions have often to be accounted for, as they provide sizable corrections of up to 30%. EFT(PLI) is an excellent tool to check data consistencies, to extract nucleon properties by uniquely subtracting nuclear binding effects, and to model-independently predict processes which are experimentally hard to access, e.g. for BBN and interactions between neutrinos and the lightest nuclei. Furthermore, its model-independent assessment of few-body interactions explains correlations between e.g. binding energies and scattering lengths, and thus allows to differentiate between observables which are dominated by large scattering lengths from those which are sensitive to the details of the nuclear force. The same concepts apply to halo-nuclei, i.e. systems which are much larger than its constituents, namely a small core orbited by nucleons. Some of these systems exhibit e.g. Borromean binding or an Efimov-spectrum. While the nucleon-nucleon scattering lengths cannot be tuned experimentally, there are indications that they are infinite when the pion has about 1.4 times its physical mass. EFT(PLI) explores whcih impact varying fundamental parameters of QCD has on the nuclear spectrum, and in particular on BBN. This contribution will illustrate the above points, focusing on concrete examples of general relevance. )
Direct measure of quantum correlation
Yu, Chang-shui; Zhao, Haiqing
2011-12-15
The quantumness of the correlation known as quantum correlation is usually measured by quantum discord. So far various quantum discords can be roughly understood as indirect measure by some special discrepancy of two quantities. We present a direct measure of quantum correlation by revealing the difference between the structures of classically and quantum correlated states. Our measure explicitly includes the contributions of the inseparability and local nonorthogonality of the eigenvectors of a density matrix. Besides its relatively easy computability, our measure can provide a unified understanding of quantum correlation of all the present versions.
Ultrasound Accuracy of Liver Length Measurement with Cadaveric Specimens
Riestra-Candelaria, Bárbara L.; Rodríguez-Mojica, Wilma; Vázquez-Quiñones, Luis E.; Jorge, Juan Carlos
2016-01-01
The liver is one of the principal organs of our body involved in over 500 physiological functions related to metabolism, digestion, immunity, and storage of nutrients, which makes it an essential organ to preserve life. Given that there are a number of approaches to measure liver length through diagnostic 2D sonography, this work aims to determine the most accurate measurement of this organ. Cadaveric specimens (n = 21) were employed to assess measurements in midclavicular line (MCL) and midaxillary line (MAL). Each measurement was calculated in anteroposterior (AP) and craniocaudal (CC) planes. In addition, in situ measurements were obtained by accessing the organ through the anterior thoracoabdominal wall. Statistical differences were detected between MCL and MAL measurements (p < 0.05), a positive correlation between MAL CC and in situ anterior measurements were noted (r = 0.97). Liver size, as assessed through in situ measurements, varied as a funtion of BMI and waist circumference (p < 0.05). It is concluded that CC measurement of the RLL in MAL from the uppermost right hemi-diaphragm to the inferior tip of the right lobe through a horizontal line parallel to the anterior liver wall is the most accurate measurement of the organ by sonography.
Correlation Length of Energy-Containing Structures in the Base of the Solar Corona
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramenko, V.; Zank, G. P.; Dosch, A. M.; Yurchyshyn, V.
2013-12-01
An essential parameter for models of coronal heating and fast solar wind acceleration that relay on the dissipation of MHD turbulence is the characteristic energy-containing length of the squared velocity and magnetic field fluctuations transverse to the mean magnetic field inside a coronal hole (CH) at the base of the corona. The characteristic length scale defines directly the heating rate. Rather surprisingly, almost nothing is known observationally about this critical parameter. Currently, only a very rough estimate of characteristic length was obtained based on the fact that the network spacing is about 30000 km. We attempted estimation of this parameter from observations of photospheric random motions and magnetic fields measured in the photosphere inside coronal holes. We found that the characteristic length scale in the photosphere is about 600-2000 km, which is much smaller than that adopted in previous models. Our results provide a critical input parameter for current models of coronal heating and should yield an improved understanding of fast solar wind acceleration. Fig. 1-- Plotted is the natural logarithm of the correlation function of the transverse velocity fluctuations u^2 versus the spatial lag r for the two CHs. The color code refers to the accumulation time intervals of 2 (blue), 5 (green), 10 (red), and 20 (black) minutes. The values of the Batchelor integral length ? the correlation length ? and the e-folding length L in km are shown. Fig. 2-- Plot of the natural logarithm of the correlation function of magnetic fluctuations b^2 versus the spatial lag r. The insert shows this plot with linear axes.
Two particle correlation measurements at PHENIX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todoroki, T.
2013-08-01
Measurements of two particle azimuthal correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions are useful tools to dissect the interplay between hard-scattered partons and hot dense medium. Correlations with trigger particle selection relative to second order event plane are sensitive to the path-length dependence of parton energy loss and to the influence of the medium on jet for high and intermediate transverse momenta pairs, respectively. To study the parton-medium coupling, it is also crucial to obtain correlations with rejection of contributions from higher harmonic flow. We present current results of second order event plane dependent correlations as well as correlations in which contributions from higher harmonic flow have been excluded in Au+Au collisions at ?{sNN} = 200GeV measured by PHENIX.
Measurement of attenuation length of drifting electrons in liquid xenon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichige, Masayuki; Aprile, Elena; Doke, Tadayoshi; Hasuike, Katsuhito; Itoh, Ken; Kikuchi, Jun; Masuda, Kimiaki
1993-09-01
To realize a long attenuation length of drifting electrons in liquid xenon, a purification system which consists of Oxisorb, molecular sieves and a Zr-V-Fe alloy getter has been constructed. A dual type gridded ionization chamber is used for the measurement of the attenuation length. An attenuation length longer than 2 m is achieved in the purified liquid xenon.
Interferometric measurement of the axial length of the eye
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hard, Sverker; Fuxin, Per-Ola; Gerhardsson, Dan; Torstensson, Per-Arne; Nilsson, Tomas; Sjostrand, Johan
1999-02-01
A fast and accurate fiberoptic-based interferometer for non- contact measurements of the axial length of the eye was constructed and tested. A novelty of the interferometer design is the use of a diffractive, bifocal lens, which simultaneously focuses on the cornea and on the retina. A superluminescent light emitting diode with a coherence length of 30 micrometers is used as light source. The axial length of the eye is measured by rapidly translating a reference mirror a distance covering the axial length. The estimated accuracy of a measurement is about 100 micrometer, a number which compares well with those of conventional ultrasonic-based measurements.
[Effects of DNA quality on the measurement of telomere length].
Voropaeva, E N; Maksimov, V N; Malyutina, S K; Bobak, M; Voevoda, M I
2015-01-01
Existing evidence on the association of telomere length with life expectancy and the risk of various age related diseases is discordant. This inconsistency in the data may be due to methodological factors, e.g., the differences in the techniques for measuring telomere length, cell harvesting, DNA isolation, and material. One of the general requirements to experiments concerned with the measurement of telomere length is the high quality of DNA samples under study. The current review considers the most common errors during the measurement of telomere length associated with the improper quality of the biological material. PMID:26299856
Correlation between length and tilt of lipid tails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopelevich, Dmitry I.; Nagle, John F.
2015-10-01
It is becoming recognized from simulations, and to a lesser extent from experiment, that the classical Helfrich-Canham membrane continuum mechanics model can be fruitfully enriched by the inclusion of molecular tilt, even in the fluid, chain disordered, biologically relevant phase of lipid bilayers. Enriched continuum theories then add a tilt modulus ?? to accompany the well recognized bending modulus ?. Different enrichment theories largely agree for many properties, but it has been noticed that there is considerable disagreement in one prediction; one theory postulates that the average length of the hydrocarbon chain tails increases strongly with increasing tilt and another predicts no increase. Our analysis of an all-atom simulation favors the latter theory, but it also shows that the overall tail length decreases slightly with increasing tilt. We show that this deviation from continuum theory can be reconciled by consideration of the average shape of the tails, which is a descriptor not obviously includable in continuum theory.
Correlation between length and tilt of lipid tails.
Kopelevich, Dmitry I; Nagle, John F
2015-10-21
It is becoming recognized from simulations, and to a lesser extent from experiment, that the classical Helfrich-Canham membrane continuum mechanics model can be fruitfully enriched by the inclusion of molecular tilt, even in the fluid, chain disordered, biologically relevant phase of lipid bilayers. Enriched continuum theories then add a tilt modulus ?? to accompany the well recognized bending modulus ?. Different enrichment theories largely agree for many properties, but it has been noticed that there is considerable disagreement in one prediction; one theory postulates that the average length of the hydrocarbon chain tails increases strongly with increasing tilt and another predicts no increase. Our analysis of an all-atom simulation favors the latter theory, but it also shows that the overall tail length decreases slightly with increasing tilt. We show that this deviation from continuum theory can be reconciled by consideration of the average shape of the tails, which is a descriptor not obviously includable in continuum theory. PMID:26493917
50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER03JY96.000 Figure 1 of Appendix C to Part...
50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER03JY96.000 Figure 1 of Appendix C to Part...
50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER03JY96.000 Figure 1 of Appendix C to Part...
50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., App. C Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER17AP13.000 ER17AP13.001...
50 CFR Appendix C to Part 622 - Fish Length Measurements
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish Length Measurements C Appendix C to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., App. C Appendix C to Part 622—Fish Length Measurements ER17AP13.000 ER17AP13.001...
From Concrete to Abstract in the Measurement of Length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephanou, Andreas; Fisher, William P., Jr.
2013-09-01
The concatenation of units of length is widely viewed as the paradigmatic expression of fundamental measurement. Survey, assessment, and test scores in educational and psychological measurement are often interpreted in ways that assume a concatenation of units to have been established, even though these assumptions are rarely stated or tested. A concatenation model for measurement is shown to be equivalent to a Rasch model: any two units of measurement placed end to end must together be of the same length as either one of them added to itself. This additive principle and a concatenation model of measurement together serve as a heuristic guide for organizing two experimental approaches to calibrating instruments for measuring length. The capacity to reproduce the unit of measurement from theory with no need for repeated empirical calibration experiments, as in the geometrical bisection of the line and the resultant halving of the length measure, is highlighted as essential to demonstrating a thorough understanding of the construct.
Time correlators from deferred measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oehri, D.; Lebedev, A. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.
2016-01-01
Repeated measurements that typically occur in two-time or multitime correlators rely on von Neumann's projection postulate, telling how to restart the system after an intermediate measurement. We invoke the principle of deferred measurement to describe an alternative procedure in which coevolving quantum memories extract system information through entanglement, combined with a final readout of the memories described by Born's rule. Our approach to repeated quantum measurements respects the unitary evolution of quantum mechanics during intermediate times, unifies the treatment of strong and weak measurements, and reproduces the projected and (anti)symmetrized correlators in the two limits. As an illustration, we apply our formalism to the calculation of the electron charge correlator in a mesoscopic physics setting, where single electron pulses assume the role of flying memory qubits. We propose an experimental setup that reduces the measurement of the time correlator to the measurement of currents and noise, exploiting the (pulsed) injection of electrons to cope with the challenge of performing short-time measurements.
Computable measure of quantum correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhtarshenas, S. Javad; Mohammadi, Hamidreza; Karimi, Saman; Azmi, Zahra
2015-01-01
A general state of an system is a classical-quantum state if and only if its associated -correlation matrix (a matrix constructed from the coherence vector of the party , the correlation matrix of the state, and a function of the local coherence vector of the subsystem ), has rank no larger than . Using the general Schatten -norms, we quantify quantum correlation by measuring any violation of this condition. The required minimization can be carried out for the general -norms and any function of the local coherence vector of the unmeasured subsystem, leading to a class of computable quantities which can be used to capture the quantumness of correlations due to the subsystem . We introduce two special members of these quantifiers: The first one coincides with the tight lower bound on the geometric measure of discord, so that such lower bound fully captures the quantum correlation of a bipartite system. Accordingly, a vanishing tight lower bound on the geometric discord is a necessary and sufficient condition for a state to be zero-discord. The second quantifier has the property that it is invariant under a local and reversible operation performed on the unmeasured subsystem, so that it can be regarded as a computable well-defined measure of the quantum correlations. The approach presented in this paper provides a way to circumvent the problem with the geometric discord. We provide some examples to exemplify this measure.
Mental Measurement in the Magnitude Estimation of Length
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hartley, Alan A.
1977-01-01
Investigations of the relation between judged length and measured length have concentrated on determining the form of the psychophysical function. The process by which the observer arrives at his judgment has not been described. An exploratory experiment was carried out in an attempt to identify the process. (Author)
Far-from-equilibrium measurements of thermodynamic length
Feng, Edward H.; Crooks, Gavin E.
2008-11-05
Thermodynamic length is a path function that generalizes the notion of length to the surface of thermodynamic states. Here, we show how to measure thermodynamic length in far-from-equilibrium experiments using the work fluctuation relations. For these microscopic systems, it proves necessary to define the thermodynamic length in terms of the Fisher information. Consequently, the thermodynamic length can be directly related to the magnitude of fluctuations about equilibrium. The work fluctuation relations link the work and the free energy change during an external perturbation on a system. We use this result to determine equilibrium averages at intermediate points of the protocol in which the system is out-of-equilibrium. This allows us to extend Bennett's method to determine the potential of mean force, as well as the thermodynamic length, in single molecule experiments.
Correlation Length of X-ray Brightest Abell Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muriel, H.; Abadi, M. G.; Lambas, D. G.
1998-12-01
We compute the cluster auto-correlation function xicc(r) of an X-ray flux limited sample of Abell clusters (XBACs, {ebe}). For the total XBACs sample we find a power-law fit xicc = (r/r_0)gamma with r_0 = 21.1 Mpc h^{-1}and gamma = -1.9 consistent with the results of R >= 1 Abell clusters. We also analyze xicc(r) for subsamples defined by different X-ray luminosity thresholds where we find a weak tendency of larger values of r_0 with increasing X-ray luminosity although with a low statistical significance. In the different subsamples analyzed we find 21 < r_0 < 35 Mpc h^{-1} and -1.9 < gamma < -1.6. Our analysis suggests that cluster X-ray luminosities may be used for a reliable confrontation of cluster spatial distribution properties in models and observations.
Measuring the Length of a Captured Burmese Python
Skip Snow (National Park Service) measures the length of a captured Burmese python (Python molurus) at the South Florida Research Center, Everglades National Park. Photo courtesy of Lori Oberhofer, NPS. ...
Length measurements of mid-latitude scintillation irregularities
Macdougall, J.W. )
1992-04-01
The lengths of irregularities which produce 150-MHz amplitude scintillations have been measured at 43 deg N, 81 deg W (geographic) using arrays of receivers with large spacings. The average length (major axis radius) of the irregularities was 6.1 km. This is much shorter than expected and implies that the measurements are of 'young' irregularities, less than 1 minute old. These irregularities appear to be a large, 25-50-percent perturbation of the background density. 8 refs.
Correlations between Muscle Activities and Strap Length and Types of School Bag during Walking
Yoon, Jung-Gyu
2014-01-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between muscle activities and strap length and type of the school bag during walking. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy students. An 8-channel electromyograph (8-EMG) (Pocket EMG, BTS, Italy) was used to measure the muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae during walking with the bag. The collected data were analyzed using Kendalls coefficient of concordance. [Results] The muscle activities of the right upper trapezius, left upper trapezius, right erector spinae and left erector spinae were significantly higher when walking with a shoulder bag than when walking with a backpack. No significant correlations were found between muscle activities and strap lengths of the bag. [Conclusion] While carrying a bag, the activities of the trunk muscles were influenced more by the type of the bag than by the strap length. These results indicate that a backpack is a better method of carrying a load than a shoulder bag. PMID:25540502
Automated Defect and Correlation Length Analysis of Block Copolymer Thin Film Nanopatterns
Murphy, Jeffrey N.; Harris, Kenneth D.; Buriak, Jillian M.
2015-01-01
Line patterns produced by lamellae- and cylinder-forming block copolymer (BCP) thin films are of widespread interest for their potential to enable nanoscale patterning over large areas. In order for such patterning methods to effectively integrate with current technologies, the resulting patterns need to have low defect densities, and be produced in a short timescale. To understand whether a given polymer or annealing method might potentially meet such challenges, it is necessary to examine the evolution of defects. Unfortunately, few tools are readily available to researchers, particularly those engaged in the synthesis and design of new polymeric systems with the potential for patterning, to measure defects in such line patterns. To this end, we present an image analysis tool, which we have developed and made available, to measure the characteristics of such patterns in an automated fashion. Additionally we apply the tool to six cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) polymers thermally annealed to explore the relationship between the size of each polymer and measured characteristics including line period, line-width, defect density, line-edge roughness (LER), line-width roughness (LWR), and correlation length. Finally, we explore the line-edge roughness, line-width roughness, defect density, and correlation length as a function of the image area sampled to determine each in a more rigorous fashion. PMID:26207990
Automated Defect and Correlation Length Analysis of Block Copolymer Thin Film Nanopatterns.
Murphy, Jeffrey N; Harris, Kenneth D; Buriak, Jillian M
2015-01-01
Line patterns produced by lamellae- and cylinder-forming block copolymer (BCP) thin films are of widespread interest for their potential to enable nanoscale patterning over large areas. In order for such patterning methods to effectively integrate with current technologies, the resulting patterns need to have low defect densities, and be produced in a short timescale. To understand whether a given polymer or annealing method might potentially meet such challenges, it is necessary to examine the evolution of defects. Unfortunately, few tools are readily available to researchers, particularly those engaged in the synthesis and design of new polymeric systems with the potential for patterning, to measure defects in such line patterns. To this end, we present an image analysis tool, which we have developed and made available, to measure the characteristics of such patterns in an automated fashion. Additionally we apply the tool to six cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) polymers thermally annealed to explore the relationship between the size of each polymer and measured characteristics including line period, line-width, defect density, line-edge roughness (LER), line-width roughness (LWR), and correlation length. Finally, we explore the line-edge roughness, line-width roughness, defect density, and correlation length as a function of the image area sampled to determine each in a more rigorous fashion. PMID:26207990
Basnet, Bishal Babu; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar; Suwal, Pramita; Shrestha, Pragya; Baral, Dharanidhar
2015-01-01
Background Establishment of proper occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) is one of the important tasks for successful prosthodontic therapy. An ideal method for determining OVD in terms of cost, time, and instrument requirements has been sought in prosthodontics by various investigators. However, no such single method has been formulated. In the current anthropometric study, the relationship of the length of the thumb to the OVD was tested in two ethnic groups of Nepal, Aryans, and Mongoloids. The result of this study can be useful in determining proper OVD in edentulous patients. Aims and objectives The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the length of the thumb and OVD in Aryan and Mongoloid ethnic groups. The secondary aim was to compare the correlation between OVD and other anatomic measurements (eyeear distance and pupil-to-rima oris distance) in these ethnicities. Materials and methods The OVD, thumb length, eyeear distance and distance between pupil of eye and rima oris were measured in a total of 500 adult dentulous volunteers. The correlation between OVD and thumb length as well as other anatomic measurements was checked with Pearsons product moment correlation coefficient. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship of OVD to the length of the thumb. Results The thumb length was significantly (P?0.05) correlated with strong and positive values (Pearsons coefficient =0.874 in the whole population, 0.826 in Aryans, and 0.944 in Mongoloids). Regression analysis showed that thumb length was significantly related to OVD in both ethnic groups. Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, the result implies that thumb length can be used as an adjunct for establishing OVD in the edentulous patients. PMID:25678817
Wolkowitz, Owen M; Mellon, Synthia H; Lindqvist, Daniel; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Lin, Jue; Reus, Victor I; Burke, Heather; Rosser, Rebecca; Mahan, Laura; Mackin, Scott; Yang, Tony; Weiner, Michael; Mueller, Susanne
2015-04-30
Accelerated cell aging, indexed in peripheral leukocytes by telomere shortness and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by telomerase activity, has been reported in several studies of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relevance of these peripheral measures for brain indices that are presumably more directly related to MDD pathophysiology is unknown. In this study, we explored the relationship between PBMC telomerase activity and leukocyte telomere length and magnetic resonance imaging-estimated hippocampal volume in un-medicated depressed individuals and healthy controls. We predicted that, to the extent peripheral and central telomerase activity are directly related, PBMC telomerase activity would be positively correlated with hippocampal volume, perhaps due to hippocampal telomerase-associated neurogenesis, neuroprotection or neurotrophic facilitation, and that this effect would be clearer in individuals with increased PBMC telomerase activity, as previously reported in un-medicated MDD. We did not have specific hypotheses regarding the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampal volume, due to conflicting reports in the published literature. We found, in 25 un-medicated MDD subjects, that PBMC telomerase activity was significantly positively correlated with hippocampal volume; this relationship was not observed in 18 healthy controls. Leukocyte telomere length was not significantly related to hippocampal volume in either group (19 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 healthy controls). Although the nature of the relationship between peripheral telomerase activity and telomere length and the hippocampus is unclear, these preliminary data are consistent with the possibility that PBMC telomerase activity indexes, and may provide a novel window into, hippocampal neuroprotection and/or neurogenesis in MDD. PMID:25773002
Magnetic-field dependence of phase correlation length in spin- and charge-density waves
Bjelis, A. ); Maki, K. )
1991-10-01
Within a simple quasi-two-dimensional model, we study the phason propagator in both spin- and charge-density waves in the presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the conducting plane. We find, though the magnetic field has little effect in the longitudinal correlation length (i.e., the correlation length in the chain direction), the magnetic field reduces significantly the transverse correlation length. This effect is most easily observable as increases in the fluctuation-induced specific heat and the resistivity in the chain direction in magnetic fields.
Fiber Length Measurement In Pulp And Paper Industry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piirainen, Raili A.
1986-10-01
For the pulp and paper maker, product quality and production costs are the major factors that determine profitability. Quality has to be high enough to satisfy the customer and costs low enough to maintain competitiveness. Accurate and readily available fiber length information is fast becoming one of the most important control factors to achieve these targets. Measurement of fiber length has been difficult and time consuming in the past --- appli-cation to production almost impossible due to the historical nature of the data. The Kajaani fiber length analyzer has revolutionized fiber length analysis. Even more accurate than the microscopic method and infinitely faster than mechanical classifiers, such as Bauer McNett or Clark classifiers, the Kajaani analyzer opens new horizons for the paper maker. The Kajaani method is an optical method and is based on the ability of fibers to change the direction of light polarization. With no critical sample preparation, the results are ready in a few minutes. During this time, the analyzer counts and measures over 3000 individual fibers. Results are printed out either in graphic or numerical form. Some of the typical applications of the Kajaani fiber length analyzer are to determine hardwood/softwood ratios in pulp and paper mills both in brownstock and stock preparation areas, to predict strength properties of mechanical pulp based on the fiber length information, to measure the coarseness of the fibers, to evaluate screening and refining processes and to check the quality of purchased pulp.
Telomere Length in Elderly Caucasians Weakly Correlates with Blood Cell Counts
Witecka, Joanna; Koscinska-Marczewska, Justyna; Szwed, Malgorzata; Owczarz, Magdalena; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Milewicz, Andrzej; Zejda, Jan; Wiecek, Andrzej
2013-01-01
Background. Age-related decrease in bone marrow erythropoietic capacity is often accompanied by the telomere length shortening in peripheral white blood cells. However, limited and conflicting data hamper the conclusive opinion regarding this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between telomere length and peripheral blood cell count parameters in the Polish elderly population. Material and Methods. The substudy included 1573 of 4981 subjects aged 65 years or over, participants of the population-based PolSenior study. High-molecular-weight DNA was isolated from blood mononuclear cells. Telomere length (TL) was measured by QRT-PCR as abundance of telomere template versus a single gene copy encoding acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. Results. Only white blood count (WBC) was significantly different in TL tertile subgroups in all subjects (P = 0.02) and in men (P = 0.01), but not in women. Merely in men significant but weak positive correlations were found between TL and WBC (r = 0.11, P < 0.05) and RBC (r = 0.08, P < 0.05). The multiple regression analysis models confirmed a weak, independent contribution of TL to both RBC and WBC. Conclusions. In the elderly, telomere shortening limits hematopoiesis capacity to a very limited extent. PMID:24453794
Measurement of Trap Length for an Optical Trap
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wrbanek, Susan Y.
2009-01-01
The trap length along the beam axis for an optical trap formed with an upright, oil-immersion microscope was measured. The goals for this effort were twofold. It was deemed useful to understand the depth to which an optical trap can reach for purposes of developing a tool to assist in the fabrication of miniature devices. Additionally, it was desired to know whether the measured trap length favored one or the other of two competing theories to model an optical trap. The approach was to trap a microsphere of known size and mass and raise it from its initial trap position. The microsphere was then dropped by blocking the laser beam for a pre-determined amount of time. Dropping the microsphere in a free-fall mode from various heights relative to the coverslip provides an estimate of how the trapping length changes with depth in water in a sample chamber on a microscope slide. While it was not possible to measure the trap length with sufficient precision to support any particular theory of optical trap formation, it was possible to find regions where the presence of physical boundaries influenced optical traps, and determine that the trap length, for the apparatus studied, is between 6 and 7 m. These results allow more precise control using optical micromanipulation to assemble miniature devices by providing information about the distance over which an optical trap is effective.
[Bone-length measurement at low back and its application].
Fang, Jin
2015-06-01
By reviewing some acupuncture literature regarding the settings of bone-length measurement at low back, it was found out that ancient and modern descriptions were not consistent. In China current acupuncture textbook, it was mostly described as "the horizontal distance between inner borders of two scapulas was 6 cun". However, after analysis, it was believed that this setting was not reasonable in the clinical application of acupuncture, and it was agreed with the opinion that "midpoint of inner borders of two scapulas when scapulas are in abduction position" should be taken as bone-length measurement of low back. Besides, a self-made bone-length scale was applied to locate acupoint at low back, which could provide references for its standardized application manipulation. PMID:26480557
Ludington, William B.; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Serebrenik, Yevgeniy V.; Ritter, Alex; Hernandez-Lopez, Rogelio A.; Gunzenhauser, Julia; Kannegaard, Elisa; Marshall, Wallace F.
2015-01-01
Cells control organelle size with great precision and accuracy to maintain optimal physiology, but the mechanisms by which they do so are largely unknown. Cilia and flagella are simple organelles in which a single measurement, length, can represent size. Maintenance of flagellar length requires an active transport process known as intraflagellar transport, and previous measurements suggest that a length-dependent feedback regulates intraflagellar transport. But the question remains: how is a length-dependent signal produced to regulate intraflagellar transport appropriately? Several conceptual models have been suggested, but testing these models quantitatively requires that they be cast in mathematical form. Here, we derive a set of mathematical models that represent the main broad classes of hypothetical size-control mechanisms currently under consideration. We use these models to predict the relation between length and intraflagellar transport, and then compare the predicted relations for each model with experimental data. We find that three models—an initial bolus formation model, an ion current model, and a diffusion-based model—show particularly good agreement with available experimental data. The initial bolus and ion current models give mathematically equivalent predictions for length control, but fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments rule out the initial bolus model, suggesting that either the ion current model or a diffusion-based model is more likely correct. The general biophysical principles of the ion current and diffusion-based models presented here to measure cilia and flagellar length can be generalized to measure any membrane-bound organelle volume, such as the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:25809250
Determination of ?? scattering lengths from measurement of ?? atom lifetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adeva, B.; Afanasyev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Benelli, A.; Berka, Z.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Chliapnikov, P. V.; Ciocarlan, C.; Constantinescu, S.; Costantini, S.; Curceanu (Petrascu), C.; Doskarova, P.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Dudarev, A.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Fungueirio Pazos, J. L.; Gallas Torreira, M.; Gerndt, J.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gomez, F.; Gorin, A.; Gorchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Gugiu, M.; Hansroul, M.; Hons, Z.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Karpukhin, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Kruglov, V.; Kruglova, L.; Kulikov, A.; Kuptsov, A.; Kuroda, K. I.; Lamberto, A.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshin, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levi Sandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Marin, J.; Narjoux, J. L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J. M.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Rappazzo, G. F.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronjin, V. M.; Rykalin, V.; Saborido, J.; Santamarina, C.; Schacher, J.; Schuetz, C.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M. J.; Trojek, T.; Trusov, S.; Utkin, V.; Vzquez Doce, O.; Vlachos, S.; Voskresenskaya, O.; Vrba, T.; Willmott, C.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zhabitsky, M.; Zrelov, P.
2011-10-01
The DIRAC experiment at CERN has achieved a sizeable production of ?? atoms and has significantly improved the precision on its lifetime determination. From a sample of 21 227 atomic pairs, a 4% measurement of the S-wave ?? scattering length difference |a-a||syst-0.0073+0.0078)M?-1 has been attained, providing an important test of Chiral Perturbation Theory.
Alignment techniques required by precise measurement of effective focal length
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wise, T. D.
1980-01-01
The characteristics of false color imagery produced by instrumentation on earth resource mapping satellites are examined. The spatial fidelity of the imagery is dependent upon the geometric accuracy (GA) and the band-to-band registration (BBR) with which the telescope instrument is assembled. BBR and GA require knowledge of telescope effective focal length (EFL) to one part in 10,000 in order that the next generation of earth mappers be able to carry out their missions. The basis for this level of precision is briefly considered, and a description is given of the means by which such precise EFL measurements have been carried out. Attention is given to accuracy requirements, the technique used to measure effective focal length, possible sources of error in the EFL measurement, approaches for eliminating errors, and the results of the efforts to control measurement errors in EFL determinations.
Length Scale Correlations of Cellular Microstructures in Directionally Solidified Binary System
Yunxue Shen
2002-06-27
In a cellular array, a range of primary spacing is found to be stable under given growth conditions. Since a strong coupling of solute field exists between the neighboring cells, primary spacing variation should also influence other microstructure features such as cell shape and cell length. The existence of multiple solutions is examined in this study both theoretically as well as experimentally. A theoretical model is developed that identifies and relates four important microstructural lengths, which are found to be primary spacing, tip radius, cell width and cell length. This general microstructural relationship is shown to be valid for different cells in an array as well as for other cellular patterns obtained under different growth conditions. The unique feature of the model is that the microstructure correlation does not depend on composition or growth conditions since these variables scale microstructural lengths to satisfy the relationship obtained in this study. Detailed directional solidification experimental studies have been carried out in the succinonitrile-salol system to characterize and measure these four length scales. Besides the validation of the model, experimental results showed additional scaling laws to be present. In the regime where only a cellular structure is formed, the shape of the cell, the cell tip radius and the length of the cell are all found to scale individually with the local primary spacing. The presence of multiple solutions of primary spacing is also shown to influence the cell-dendrite transition that is controlled not only by the processing variables (growth velocity, thermal gradient and composition) but also by the local cell spacing. The cell-dendrite transition was found not to be sharp, but occurred over a range of processing conditions. Two critical conditions have been identified such that only cells are present below lower critics condition, and only dendrites are formed above the upper critics condition. Between these two limits, both cells and dendrites have been found to coexist. In this mixed regime, a critical local spacing is found above which a cell is unstable and forms a dendrite. An analytical expression is developed that relates the critical spacing for the cell-dendrite transition with processing conditions.
Length Scale Correlations of Cellular Microstructures in Directionally Solidified Binary System
Yunxue Shen
2002-08-01
In a cellular array, a range of primary spacing is found to be stable under given growth conditions. Since a strong coupling of solute field exists between the neighboring cells, primary spacing variation should also influence other microstructure features such as cell shape and cell length. The existence of multiple solutions is examined in this study both theoretically as well as experimentally. A theoretical model is developed that identifies and relates four important microstructural lengths, which are found to be primary spacing, tip radius, cell width and cell length. This general microstructural relationship is shown to be valid for different cells in an array as well as for other cellular patterns obtained under different growth conditions. The unique feature of the model is that the microstructure correlation does not depend on composition or growth conditions since these variables scale microstructural lengths to satisfy the relationship obtained in this study. Detailed directional solidification experimental studies have been carried out in the succinonitrile-salol system to characterize and measure these four length scales. Besides the validation of the model, experimental results showed additional scaling laws to be present. In the regime where only a cellular structure is formed, the shape of the cell, the cell tip radius and the length of the cell are all found to scale individually with the local primary spacing. The presence of multiple solutions of primary spacing is also shown to influence the cell-dendrite transition that is controlled not only by the processing variables (growth velocity, thermal gradient and composition) but also by the local cell spacing. The cell-dendrite transition was found not to be sharp, but occurred over a range of processing conditions. Two critical conditions have been identified such that only cells are present below lower critics condition, and only dendrites are formed above the upper critics condition. Between these two limits, both cells and dendrites have been found to coexist. In this mixed regime, a critical local spacing is found above which a cell is unstable and forms a dendrite. An analytical expression is developed that relates the critical spacing for the cell-dendrite transition with processing conditions.
FEL Gain Length and Taper Measurements at LCLS
Ratner, Daniel; Brachmann, A.; Decker, F.J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, P.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Nuhn, H.D.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; Xiang, D.; Yocky, G.; ,
2010-07-30
We present experimental studies of the gain length and saturation power level from 1.5 nm to 1.5 {angstrom} at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). By disrupting the FEL process with an orbit kick, we are able to measure the X-ray intensity as a function of undulator length. This kick method is cross-checked with the method of removing undulator sections. We also study the FEL-induced electron energy loss after saturation to determine the optimal taper of the undulator K values. The experimental results are compared to theory and simulations.
How to Directly Measure a Kondo Cloud's Length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jinhong; Lee, S.-S. B.; Oreg, Yuval; Sim, H.-S.
2013-06-01
We propose a method to directly measure, by electrical means, the Kondo screening cloud formed by an Anderson impurity coupled to semi-infinite quantum wires, on which an electrostatic gate voltage is applied at distance L from the impurity. We show that the Kondo cloud, and hence the Kondo temperature and the electron conductance through the impurity, are affected by the gate voltage, as L decreases below the Kondo cloud length. Based on this behavior, the cloud length can be experimentally identified by changing L with a keyboard type of gate voltage or tuning the coupling strength between the impurity and the wires.
FEL GAIN LENGTH AND TAPER MEASUREMENTS AT LCLS
Ratner, D.; Fawley, W. M.; Brachmann, A.; Decker, F.J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, P.; Huang, Z.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Nuhn, H.D.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; Xiang, D.; Yocky, G.; Fawley, W. M.
2009-08-14
We present experimental studies of the gain length and saturation power level from 1.5 nm to 1.5 Angstroms at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). By disrupting theFEL process with an orbit kick, we are able to measure the X-ray intensity as a function of undulator length. This kick method is cross-checked with the method of removing undulator sections. We also study the FEL-induced electron energy loss after saturation to determine the optimal taper of the undulator K values. The experimental results are compared to theory and simulations.
Tanaka, Kaoru; Carlier, Stphane G; Mintz, Gary S; Sano, Koichi; Liu, Xuebo; Fujii, Kenichi; de Ribamar Costa, Jose; Lui, Joanna; Moses, Jeffrey W; Stone, Gregg W; Leon, Martin B
2007-12-01
Accurate length measurements by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) are necessary for stent length selection and for IVUS volumetric analysis. The comparative accuracy of commercially available transducer pullback systems--a necessity for accurate IVUS length and volume measurements--has never been studied. We evaluated the accuracy of four IVUS pullback systems by studying 180 patients (45 in each group) who had been treated with a single stent of known length. Stented lesions were located in the left anterior descending artery (n = 77), left circumflex artery (n = 41), right coronary artery (n = 41), left main (n = 2), and saphenous vein grafts (n = 19). The known lengths of implanted stents ranged from 8 to 33 mm. The correlations between known stent length and IVUS-measured stent length in each group were 0.92 for CVIS, 0.83 for BSC Galaxy, 0.63 for Endosonics TrackBack, and 0.69 for Volcano Model R-l00 research pullback device, respectively. Furthermore, the absolute value of the difference between the two measurements was 9.1 +/- 13.1%, 8.8 +/- 10.2%, 18.6 +/- 21.5%, and 17.5 +/- 31.4%, respectively. With the Volcano Model R-l00 research pullback device, there were 3 extreme outliers; if these three outliers were excluded, then the correlation improved from 0.69 to 0.91; and the absolute deviation from known stent length improved from 17.5 +/- 31.4% to 9.7 +/- 8.3%. Thus, there is a significant variation in length measurement accuracy among IVUS pullback devices. This should be taken into account both clinically and when planning scientific studies. PMID:17370139
Correlation of axial length and corneal curvature with diopter in eyes of adults with anisometropia
Zeng, Jin; Cui, Ying; Li, Juan; Xie, Wenjuan; Li, Zhongming; Zhang, Liang; Meng, Qianli
2015-01-01
Purpose: To analyze the causes of anisometropia. Methods: Between June 2011 and November 2012 101 participants were divided into three groups. The refraction comprising the degree of refractive errors in the presence of astigmatism which was converted into the degree of spherical equivalent as well as ocular axial length (AL), corneal curvature (CR), average corneal power (ave K) and diopters were measured. Results: The differences of ocular AL/CR and CR between two eyes were statistically significant among the three groups (P < 0.05). Standardized regression coefficients obtained by a multiple linear regression analysis indicated that AL/CR, AL and ave K differences correlated with anisometropia in descending order. Conclusion: The difference of AL/CR ratios between the eyes was the main cause for anisometropia, followed by AL and ave K values. PMID:26550307
Reducing trial length in force platform posturographic sleep deprivation measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forsman, P.; Hæggström, E.; Wallin, A.
2007-09-01
Sleepiness correlates with sleep-related accidents, but convenient tests for sleepiness monitoring are scarce. The posturographic test is a method to assess balance, and this paper describes one phase of the development of a posturographic sleepiness monitoring method. We investigated the relationship between trial length and accuracy of the posturographic time-awake (TA) estimate. Twenty-one healthy adults were kept awake for 32 h and their balance was recorded, 16 times with 30 s trials, as a function of TA. The balance was analysed with regards to fractal dimension, most common sway amplitude and time interval for open-loop stance control. While a 30 s trial allows estimating the TA of individual subjects with better than 5 h accuracy, repeating the analysis using shorter trial lengths showed that 18 s sufficed to achieve the targeted 5 h accuracy. Moreover, it was found that with increasing TA, the posturographic parameters estimated the subjects' TA more accurately.
Effective crack lengths by compliance measurement for ARALL-2 laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Christopher D.; Wilson, Dale A.
1991-01-01
As a means of determining a stress intensity factor solution, the compliance properties of an ARALL-2 laminated-sheet composite were investigated. Fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) tests were conducted on middle crack tension (MT) specimens fabricated from a layup consisting of three sheets of 2024-T3 aluminum bonded together with unidirectional aramid fibers embedded in epoxy. Excellent fatigue crack growth properties are obtained by the presence of unbroken aramid fibers in the wake of the crack tip. These unbroken fibers act as a bridging mechanism to inhibit further crack growth. To quantify the effect of maximum fatigue load on compliance, a series of FCGR tests were performed. Effective crack lengths were determined to be at least 10 mm shorter than surface measured crack lengths for a 76-mm-wide specimen. The bridging zone was estimated to be at least 5 mm. Compliance and stress intensity factor as functions of effective crack length were determined.
Developing measurement concepts within context: Children's representations of length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacDonald, Amy; Lowrie, Tom
2011-03-01
This article presents data gathered from an investigation which focused on the experiences children have with measurement in the early years of schooling. The focus of this article is children's understandings of length at this early stage. 32 children aged 4-6 years at an Australian primary school were asked to draw a ruler and describe their drawing, once in February at the beginning of school, and again in November towards the end of their first year of school. The drawings and their accompanying descriptions are classified within a matrix which, informed by Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory and literature regarding the development of length concepts, considers conceptual understanding and contextual richness. The responses revealed that children have a good understanding of length at the start of school, but that as their ability to contextualise develops so too does their conceptual understanding. This article suggests that participation in tasks such as these allows children to create their own understandings of length in meaningful ways. Additionally, the task and its matrix of analysis provide an assessment strategy for identifying children's understandings about length and the contexts in which these understandings develop.
Electron Bunch Length Measurement for LCLS at SLAC
Zelazny, M.; Allison, S.; Chevtsov, Sergei; Emma, P.; Kotturi, K.d.; Loos, H.; Peng, S.; Rogind, D.; Straumann, T.; /SLAC
2007-10-04
At Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) a Bunch Length Measurement system has been developed to measure the length of the electron bunch for its new Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This destructive measurement uses a transverse-mounted RF deflector (TCAV) to vertically streak the electron beam and an image taken with an insertable screen and a camera. The device control software was implemented with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit. The analysis software was implemented in Matlab{trademark} using the EPICS/Channel Access Interface for Scilab{trademark} and Matlab{trademark} (labCA). This architecture allowed engineers and physicists to develop and integrate their control and analysis without duplication of effort.
Telomere length dynamics in human lymphocyte subpopulations measured by flow cytometry.
Rufer, N; Dragowska, W; Thornbury, G; Roosnek, E; Lansdorp, P M
1998-08-01
To measure the average length of telomere repeats at chromosome ends in individual cells we developed a flow cytometry method using fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow FISH) with labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. Results of flow FISH measurements correlated with results of conventional telomere length measurements by Southern blot analysis (R = 0.9). Consistent differences in telomere length in CD8+ T-cell subsets were identified. Naive and memory CD4+ T lymphocytes in normal adults differed by around 2.5 kb in telomere length, in agreement with known replicative shortening of telomeres in lymphocytes in vivo. T-cell clones grown in vitro showed stabilization of telomere length after an initial decline and rare clones capable of growing beyond 100 population doublings showed variable telomere length. These results show that flow FISH can be used to measure specific nucleotide repeat sequences in single cells and indicate that the very large replicative potential of lymphocytes is only indirectly related to telomere length. PMID:9702772
Equivalence and Accuracy of MOSFET Channel Length Measurement Techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Sanjay
1989-02-01
It is shown that the MOSFET channel length measurement techniques of Terada and Muta, Peng et al., Whitfield, Suciu and Johnston, and De La Moneda et al. are actually equivalent, i.e. merely different expressions of the same formula for channel length in terms of measured resistance, and that some of the transresistance methods of Jain, although not equivalent, are also related to the same formula. The accuracy of this formula is evaluated for the general case and related to the error components due to source and drain resistance asymmetry, short channel geometry effect, and variation of series resistance with bias. No independent error component due to field-induced mobility degradation is found. Finally the errors in the methods of Terada and Muta, Chen et al., Sheu et al., Wordeman et al. and Jain, are determined and compared. The gate transresistance technique is found to be the most accurate method.
Interaural correlations in normal and traumatized cochleas: length and sensory cell loss
Bohne, B.A.; Bozzay, D.G.; Harding, G.W.
1986-12-01
Sizable intraspecies variations have been found in both the length of the organ of Corti (OC) and the amount of damage resulting from exposure to a particular ototraumatic agent. These variations have made it difficult to address certain research questions such as the susceptibility of the previously injured ear to further damage. If intra-animal correlation is high, the variability problem could be circumvented by using the two ears from a given animal for different aspects of the same study. Therefore, correlation coefficients were calculated for OC length and for percentage of missing inner (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) in a large sample of chinchillas which included controls and animals which had been exposed to noise or treated with ionizing radiation. The correlation coefficients were +0.96 for OC length, +0.93 for IHC loss, and +0.97 for OHC loss.
Comeron, J M; Kreitman, M
2000-01-01
Intron length is negatively correlated with recombination in both Drosophila melanogaster and humans. This correlation is not likely to be the result of mutational processes alone: evolutionary analysis of intron length polymorphism in D. melanogaster reveals equivalent ratios of deletion to insertion in regions of high and low recombination. The polymorphism data do reveal, however, an excess of deletions relative to insertions (i.e., a deletion bias), with an overall deletion-to-insertion events ratio of 1.35. We propose two types of selection favoring longer intron lengths. First, the natural mutational bias toward deletion must be opposed by strong selection in very short introns to maintain the minimum intron length needed for the intron splicing reaction. Second, selection will favor insertions in introns that increase recombination between mutations under the influence of selection in adjacent exons. Mutations that increase recombination, even slightly, will be selectively favored because they reduce interference among selected mutations. Interference selection acting on intron length mutations must be very weak, as indicated by frequency spectrum analysis of Drosophila intron length polymorphism, making the equilibrium for intron length sensitive to changes in the recombinational environment and population size. One consequence of this sensitivity is that the advantage of longer introns is expected to decrease inversely with the rate of recombination, thus leading to a negative correlation between intron length and recombination rate. Also in accord with this model, intron length differs between closely related Drosophila species, with the longest variant present more often in D. melanogaster than in D. simulans. We suggest that the study of the proposed dynamic model, taking into account interference among selected sites, might shed light on many aspects of the comparative biology of genome sizes including the C value paradox. PMID:11063693
Absolute bunch length measurements by incoherent radiation fluctuation analysis
Sannibale, Fernando; Stupakov, Gennady; Zolotorev, Max; Filippetto, Daniele; Jagerhofer, Lukas
2008-09-29
By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.
Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis
Sannibale, F.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Filippetto, D.; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.
2009-12-09
By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.
Intraoperative limb length measurement in total hip arthroplasty.
Naito, M; Ogata, K; Asayama, I
1999-01-01
In order to evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative measurement of limb length inequality (LLI), we performed a prospective study on 64 patients who underwent unilateral total hip arthroplasty. The patients were divided into 2 groups. In Group I, the LLI was evaluated by the Shuck test, and in Group II by intraoperative measurement using a Steinman pin and an adjustable caliper. Preoperative LLIs assessed on radiographs averaged 1.18 cm in Group I and 0.37 cm in Group II. PMID:10192014
Direct calculation of correlation length based on quasi-cumulant method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Noboru
2014-03-01
We formulate a method of directly obtaining a correlation length without full calculation of correlation functions, as a high-temperature series. The method is based on the quasi-cumulant method, which was formulated by the author in J. Stat. Phys. 111, 1049-1090 (2003) as a complementary method for the high-temperature series expansion originally for an SU(n) Heisenberg model, but is applicable to general spin models according to our recent reformulation. A correlation function divided by its lowest-order nonzero contribution has properties very similar to a generating function of some kind of moments, which we call quasi-moments. Their corresponding quasi-cumulants can be also derived, whose generating function is related to the correlation length. In addition, applications to other numerical methods such as the quantum Monte Carlo method are also discussed. JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25914008.
Cross-correlation between length and position in real fracture networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darcel, C.; Bour, O.; Davy, P.
2003-06-01
By analyzing local geometrical properties of a dense multiscale fracture pattern, we characterized statistically the correlations between length and position of a fracture. Apart from some resolution effects, we show that the mean distance between a fracture center and its nearest neighbor is correlated to its length l such as d ~ l 0.3. Likewise, the average area around each fracture center within which no other fracture portion is lying has an ellipsoidal shape whose factor of anisotropy is correlated to l. The long axis, along fracture strike, is correlated to l such as d ~ l 0. 25-0.3. The short axis remains invariant, about equal to the equivalent distance in a random fractal. At small scale (i.e., less than 1 m which is bed thickness) the shield area is isotropic. In addition to refining of geometrical model of fracture networks, such observations place some constraints on the stress interactions that prevail during fracture growth.
Measuring the length of poly(A) tails.
Nilsen, Timothy W
2015-04-01
Adenylation status has an important role in the regulation of mRNA metabolism: mRNAs are deadenylated before degradation, microRNAs (miRNAs) can cause deadenylation, and the poly(A) length of certain mRNAs is regulated during development. This protocol describes methods that can be used to measure the poly(A) tail length of specific mRNAs. These include, in the order of increasing sensitivity, (1) northern blotting of intact and experimentally deadenylated mRNAs and (2) northern blotting of intact and experimentally deadenylated mRNA fragments that have been cleaved near the 3' end with RNase H. Highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches are also discussed. PMID:25834263
Correlation length exponent of the 2-d Z(4) model using an exact method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
William, Peter
1990-05-01
Using a recently suggested exact method to determine the partition function of a discrete model, the correlation length exponent v for the two-dimensional Z(4) spin model is estimated. This estimation is made from a study of the zeros of the partition function on finite lattices.
Thin-filament length correlates with fiber type in human skeletal muscle
Gokhin, David S.; Kim, Nancy E.; Lewis, Sarah A.; Hoenecke, Heinz R.; D'Lima, Darryl D.
2012-01-01
Force production in skeletal muscle is proportional to the amount of overlap between the thin and thick filaments, which, in turn, depends on their lengths. Both thin- and thick-filament lengths are precisely regulated and uniform within a myofibril. While thick-filament lengths are essentially constant across muscles and species (∼1.65 μm), thin-filament lengths are highly variable both across species and across muscles of a single species. Here, we used a high-resolution immunofluorescence and image analysis technique (distributed deconvolution) to directly test the hypothesis that thin-filament lengths vary across human muscles. Using deltoid and pectoralis major muscle biopsies, we identified thin-filament lengths that ranged from 1.19 ± 0.08 to 1.37 ± 0.04 μm, based on tropomodulin localization with respect to the Z-line. Tropomodulin localized from 0.28 to 0.47 μm further from the Z-line than the NH2-terminus of nebulin in the various biopsies, indicating that human thin filaments have nebulin-free, pointed-end extensions that comprise up to 34% of total thin-filament length. Furthermore, thin-filament length was negatively correlated with the percentage of type 2X myosin heavy chain within the biopsy and shorter in type 2X myosin heavy chain-positive fibers, establishing the existence of a relationship between thin-filament lengths and fiber types in human muscle. Together, these data challenge the widely held assumption that human thin-filament lengths are constant. Our results also have broad relevance to musculoskeletal modeling, surgical reattachment of muscles, and orthopedic rehabilitation. PMID:22075691
Virmani, R; Chun, P K; Robinowitz, M; Goldstein, R E; McAllister, H A
1984-08-01
Previous coronary angiographic data have suggested that the left main length of the coronary artery correlated with dominance (origin of the posterior descending branch) and bicuspid aortic valves. In our autopsy study with direct measurements of left main lengths, 41 patients with tricuspid aortic valves and 13 with bicuspid aortic valves were examined for right, left, or codominance. There was no statistically significant difference in either coronary dominance or the length of left main coronary artery between the congenital bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valves. Age, sex, heart weight, extent of coronary artery disease, left ventricular wall thickness, and site of prior infarction did not correlate with left main length or dominance. Thus, short left main lengths do not correlate with coronary dominance or with aortic valves. Angiographic assessment of left main coronary artery length is subject to magnification, oblique projection, and catheter position errors. PMID:6547591
Measurements of Correlation-Enhanced Collision Rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Driscoll, C. Fred
2009-11-01
This talk presents the first detailed experimental measurements of the Salpeter collisional enhancement factor g ( γ) in strongly correlated plasmas. This factor is predicted to enhance the nuclear reaction rate in dense strongly-correlated plasmas, such as in giant planet interiors, brown dwarfs and degenerate stars;footnotetextE.E. Salpeter and H.M. Van Horn, Astrophys. J. 155, 183 (1969). and recent theory establishes that it also applies to the perpendicular-to-parallel collisions in magnetized plasmas described here.footnotetextD.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 025002 (2005). The enhancement is caused by plasma screening of the repulsive Coulomb potential between charges, allowing closer collisions for a given particle energy. The enhancement factor is predicted to be large when the plasma correlation parameter γ≡e^2 /aT is larger than unity, scaling as g ( γ) ˜e^γ. The perp-to-parallel collision rate is then ν|= n v b^2 ,( κ ) ,( γ), where I ( κ ) decreases precipitously below ( 8 √π / 15 ) λ in the highly magnetized regime of κ ≡√2 ,/ rc1. Our measurementsfootnotetextF. Anderegg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185001 (2009); F. Anderegg et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 055705 (2009). of ν| in Mg^+ pure ion plasmas are consistent with the predicted Salpeter correlation enhancement, with the comparison limited mainly by systematic spatial variations in the plasma temperature. The plasma temperatures are controlled over the range 4 x10-6 < T < 1eV, with the outer radii being up to 2x hotter. Bulk-averaged collision rates of 1 < ν|< 2 x10^4 sec-1 are measured by 2 techniques: for slow collisions, T| is heated or cooled, and the subsequent relaxation is directly observed; for rapid collisions, sinusoidal modulation of the plasma length at frequency fmod gives maximal heating when fmod = ν|/ 2 πc (γ), where c ( γ) is the specific heat. Two densities are used, 2.0 and 0.12 x10^7 cm-3; the lower density has ˜2.5 x less correlation at any temperature. Experiments clearly show the expected ν|T-3/2 regime at high temperatures, and show the strong I ( κ ) suppression of ν| for b / rc1. At low temperatures and high density, the measured ν| is enhanced by up to g ˜10^12 over the uncorrelated prediction, consistent with the Salpeter-enhanced prediction. At low (uncorrelated) densities, no enhancement is observed. Future experiments may be able to image ``burn fronts'' propagating from hot regions to cold regions.
Correlated measurement error hampers association network inference.
Kaduk, Mateusz; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Vis, Daniel J; Reijmers, Theo; van der Greef, Jan; Smilde, Age K; Hendriks, Margriet M W B
2014-09-01
Modern chromatography-based metabolomics measurements generate large amounts of data in the form of abundances of metabolites. An increasingly popular way of representing and analyzing such data is by means of association networks. Ideally, such a network can be interpreted in terms of the underlying biology. A property of chromatography-based metabolomics data is that the measurement error structure is complex: apart from the usual (random) instrumental error there is also correlated measurement error. This is intrinsic to the way the samples are prepared and the analyses are performed and cannot be avoided. The impact of correlated measurement errors on (partial) correlation networks can be large and is not always predictable. The interplay between relative amounts of uncorrelated measurement error, correlated measurement error and biological variation defines this impact. Using chromatography-based time-resolved lipidomics data obtained from a human intervention study we show how partial correlation based association networks are influenced by correlated measurement error. We show how the effect of correlated measurement error on partial correlations is different for direct and indirect associations. For direct associations the correlated measurement error usually has no negative effect on the results, while for indirect associations, depending on the relative size of the correlated measurement error, results can become unreliable. The aim of this paper is to generate awareness of the existence of correlated measurement errors and their influence on association networks. Time series lipidomics data is used for this purpose, as it makes it possible to visually distinguish the correlated measurement error from a biological response. Underestimating the phenomenon of correlated measurement error will result in the suggestion of biologically meaningful results that in reality rest solely on complicated error structures. Using proper experimental designs that allow for the quantification of the size of correlated and uncorrelated errors, can help to identify suspicious connections in association networks constructed from (partial) correlations. PMID:24951433
More Voodoo correlations: when average-based measures inflate correlations.
Brand, Andrew; Bradley, Michael T
2012-01-01
A Monte-Carlo simulation was conducted to assess the extent that a correlation estimate can be inflated when an average-based measure is used in a commonly employed correlational design. The results from the simulation reveal that the inflation of the correlation estimate can be substantial, up to 76%. Additionally, data was re-analyzed from two previously published studies to determine the extent that the correlation estimate was inflated due to the use of an averaged based measure. The re-analyses reveal that correlation estimates had been inflated by just over 50% in both studies. Although these findings are disconcerting, we are somewhat comforted by the fact that there is a simple and easy analysis that can be employed to prevent the inflation of the correlation estimate that we have simulated and observed. PMID:24837177
An easy measure of quantum correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Hui; Wu, Zhao-Qin; Hu, Li-Yun; Xu, Xue-Xiang; Huang, Jie-Hui
2015-11-01
To measure the quantum correlation of a bipartite state, a test matrix is constructed through the commutations among the blocks of its density matrix, which turns out to be a zero matrix for a classical state with zero quantum correlation, and a nonzero one for a quantum state with positive quantum correlation. The Frobenius norm of the test matrix is used to measure the quantum correlation, which satisfies the basic requirements for a good measure and coincides with Wootters concurrence for two-qubit pure states. Since no optimization is involved in the definition, this measure of quantum correlation is easy to compute and even can be calculated manually.
Influence of tapered thermowell length on temperature measurement
Zhou, Z.J.; Motriuk, R.W.
1996-12-01
Temperature probe assemblies are frequently subjected to vibrations at their natural frequencies. Centrifugal compressor generated acoustic energy is large enough to excite piping and the temperature probe assemblies attached to it. Vibration of the assemblies leads to their component failures. The thermowell is a main mechanical component of such an assembly and it often fails due to fatigue phenomena. Incidents of thermowell failures at Nova Gas Transmission Limited (NGTL) piping system triggered a complete review of the company standard defining design of a temperature probe assembly. The proposed new standard recommends a reduction of the thermowell insertion length from six to three inches. Implementation of this recommendation changes the mechanical natural frequencies (MNFs) of the temperature probe assembly. To ensure that the modified temperature probe assembly has an adequate temperature measurement accuracy and acceptable response time, a number of heat transfer analyses have been performed. This paper summarizes the analytical results taking into account the following factors: (i) the effects of gas pressure, velocity, and material properties on the accuracy of measurement, (ii) the time required to obtain a reasonable measurement accuracy, and (iii) implications of design changes on the measurement procedure.
Comparison of three methods of measuring the atmospheric coherence length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slavin, Ann C.; Wells, Ann L.; Fugate, Robert Q.; Fried, David L.; Drexler, James J.
1997-09-01
In the fall of 1996, we had the opportunity to mneasure the atmospheric coherence length (Fried's r0 parameter) at the STarfire Optical Range using three instruments. Each instrument measured r0 using a different theory and technique. The first instrument, designed and built by Dr. Donald Walters of the Naval Postgraduate School, is based on measuring the MTF of the atmosphere using a stellar image on a one dimensional detector. The second instrument, designed and built by Lockheed Martin engineers at White Sands Missile Range, is based on measuring the differential motion of stellar images. The third technique in this study used short exposure star images taken through the 1.5m telescope and processed by matching the images to shrot exposure theory values of r0. All of the instruments were located at the STarfire Optical Range and data were collected during both day and night hours. This paper presents the results of these measurements and discusses the different techniques in terms of the results obtained.
Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Mellon, Synthia H.; Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Su, Yali; Reus, Victor I.; Rosser, Rebecca; Burke, Heather M.; Kupferman, Eve; Compagnone, Mariana; Nelson, J. Craig; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
2011-01-01
Background Depression is associated with an unusually high rate of aging-related illnesses and early mortality. One aspect of accelerated aging in depression may be shortened leukocyte telomeres. When telomeres critically shorten, as often occurs with repeated mitoses or in response to oxidation and inflammation, cells may die. Indeed, leukocyte telomere shortening predicts early mortality and medical illnesses in non-depressed populations. We sought to determine if leukocyte telomeres are shortened in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), whether this is a function of lifetime depression exposure and whether this is related to putative mediators, oxidation and inflammation. Methodology Leukocyte telomere length was compared between 18 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 controls and was correlated with lifetime depression chronicity and peripheral markers of oxidation (F2-isoprostane/Vitamin C ratio) and inflammation (IL-6). Analyses were controlled for age and sex. Principal Findings The depressed group, as a whole, did not differ from the controls in telomere length. However, telomere length was significantly inversely correlated with lifetime depression exposure, even after controlling for age (p<0.05). Average telomere length in the depressed subjects who were above the median of lifetime depression exposure (?9.2 years' cumulative duration) was 281 base pairs shorter than that in controls (p<0.05), corresponding to approximately seven years of accelerated cell aging. Telomere length was inversely correlated with oxidative stress in the depressed subjects (p<0.01) and in the controls (p<0.05) and with inflammation in the depressed subjects (p<0.05). Conclusions These preliminary data indicate that accelerated aging at the level of leukocyte telomeres is proportional to lifetime exposure to MDD. This might be related to cumulative exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation in MDD. This suggest that telomere shortening does not antedate depression and is not an intrinsic feature. Rather, telomere shortening may progress in proportion to lifetime depression exposure. PMID:21448457
Correlation between weighted spectral distribution and average path length in evolving networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Bo; Shi, Jianmai; Wu, Xiaoqun; Nie, Yuanping; Huang, Chengdong; Du, Jing; Zhou, Ying; Guo, Ronghua; Tao, Yerong
2016-02-01
The weighted spectral distribution (WSD) is a metric defined on the normalized Laplacian spectrum. In this study, synchronic random graphs are first used to rigorously analyze the metric's scaling feature, which indicates that the metric grows sublinearly as the network size increases, and the metric's scaling feature is demonstrated to be common in networks with Gaussian, exponential, and power-law degree distributions. Furthermore, a deterministic model of diachronic graphs is developed to illustrate the correlation between the slope coefficient of the metric's asymptotic line and the average path length, and the similarities and differences between synchronic and diachronic random graphs are investigated to better understand the correlation. Finally, numerical analysis is presented based on simulated and real-world data of evolving networks, which shows that the ratio of the WSD to the network size is a good indicator of the average path length.
Correlation between weighted spectral distribution and average path length in evolving networks.
Jiao, Bo; Shi, Jianmai; Wu, Xiaoqun; Nie, Yuanping; Huang, Chengdong; Du, Jing; Zhou, Ying; Guo, Ronghua; Tao, Yerong
2016-02-01
The weighted spectral distribution (WSD) is a metric defined on the normalized Laplacian spectrum. In this study, synchronic random graphs are first used to rigorously analyze the metric's scaling feature, which indicates that the metric grows sublinearly as the network size increases, and the metric's scaling feature is demonstrated to be common in networks with Gaussian, exponential, and power-law degree distributions. Furthermore, a deterministic model of diachronic graphs is developed to illustrate the correlation between the slope coefficient of the metric's asymptotic line and the average path length, and the similarities and differences between synchronic and diachronic random graphs are investigated to better understand the correlation. Finally, numerical analysis is presented based on simulated and real-world data of evolving networks, which shows that the ratio of the WSD to the network size is a good indicator of the average path length. PMID:26931591
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chih-Hao; Chang, Hsin-Ho; Su, Hui-Chia; Wu, Yu-Han; Hu, Chih-Wei; Chang, L. J.; Ioffe, A.; Bussmann, K.; Brückel, Th.
2009-09-01
The magnetic correlation length of a mixed nickel ferrite powder was studied by a newly commissioned depolarized neutron beamline at the W3 port of Tsing Hua Open Pool Reactor (THOR). In this work, Ni ferrite powder samples with different packing densities were studied. The magnetic correlation lengths of the sample were observed to be 2 μm at virgin state and about 3.1 μm at remanent state from the packing density of 20-60%. This magnetic domain size is smaller than particle size. No significant change of domain size at this packing density implies the domain wall motion is hindered by the porosity effectively up to at least 60% of packing density.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleich, Otto; Dooling, Robert J.; Manley, Geoffrey A.
2005-12-01
The inner ear in the group of archosaurs (birds, crocodilians, and extinct dinosaurs) shows a high degree of structural similarity, enabling predictions of their function in extinct species based on relationships among similar variables in living birds. Behavioral audiograms and morphological data on the length of the auditory sensory epithelium (the basilar papilla) are available for many avian species. By bringing different data sets together, we show that body mass and the size of the basilar papilla are significantly correlated, and the most sensitive frequency in a given species is inversely related to the body mass and the length of the basilar papilla. We also demonstrate that the frequency of best hearing is correlated with the high-frequency limit of hearing. Small species with a short basilar papilla hear higher frequencies compared with larger species with a longer basilar papilla. Based on the regression analysis of two significant correlations in living archosaurs (best audiogram frequency vs body mass and best audiogram frequency vs papillar length), we suggest that hearing in large dinosaurs was restricted to low frequencies with a high-frequency limit below 3 kHz.
Representative Elementary Length to Measure Soil Mass Attenuation Coefficient
Borges, J. A. R.; Pires, L. F.; Costa, J. C.
2014-01-01
With increasing demand for better yield in agricultural areas, soil physical property representative measurements are more and more essential. Nuclear techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and gamma-ray attenuation (GAT) have been widely employed with this purpose. The soil mass attenuation coefficient (?s) is an important parameter for CT and GAT analysis. When experimentally determined (?es), the use of suitable sized samples enable to evaluate it precisely, as well as to reduce measurement time and costs. This study investigated the representative elementary length (REL) of sandy and clayey soils for ?es measurements. Two radioactive sources were employed (241Am and 137Cs), three collimators (24?mm diameters), and 14 thickness (x) samples (215?cm). Results indicated ideal thickness intervals of 1215 and 24?cm for the sources 137Cs and 241Am, respectively. The application of such results in representative elementary area (REA) evaluations in clayey soil clods via CT indicated that ?es average values obtained for x?>?4?cm and source 241Am might induce to the use of samples which are not large enough for soil bulk density evaluations (?s). As a consequence, ?s might be under- or overestimated, generating inaccurate conclusions about the physical quality of the soil under study. PMID:24672338
Vojtisek-Lom, Michal
2011-02-01
To evaluate the effectiveness of various means to combat the negative health effects of ultrafine particles emitted by internal combustion engines, a reliable, low-cost instrument for dynamic measurements of the exhaust emissions of ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is needed. In this study, an ordinary ionization-type building smoke detector was modified to serve as a measuring ionization chamber and utilized for dynamic measurements of PM emissions from diesel engines. When used with diluted exhaust, the readings show an excellent correlation with total particulate length. The instrument worked well with raw and diluted exhaust and with varying emission levels and is well suitable for on-board use. PMID:21387930
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizuno, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Ryoichi
2011-07-01
We have investigated dynamical heterogeneity in a highly supercooled liquid using molecular-dynamics simulations in three dimensions. Dynamical heterogeneity can be characterized by three quantities: correlation length ?4, intensity ?4, and lifetime ?hetero. We evaluated all three quantities consistently from a single order parameter. In a previous study [H. Mizuno and R. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.030501 82, 030501(R) (2010)], we examined the lifetime ?hetero(t) in two time intervals t=?? and ?ngp, where ?? is the ?-relaxation time and ?ngp is the time at which the non-Gaussian parameter of the Van Hove self-correlation function is maximized. In the present study, in addition to the lifetime ?hetero(t), we evaluated the correlation length ?4(t) and the intensity ?4(t) from the same order parameter used for the lifetime ?hetero(t). We found that as the temperature decreases, the lifetime ?hetero(t) grows dramatically, whereas the correlation length ?4(t) and the intensity ?4(t) increase slowly compared to ?hetero(t) or plateaus. Furthermore, we investigated the lifetime ?hetero(t) in more detail. We examined the time-interval dependence of the lifetime ?hetero(t) and found that as the time interval t increases, ?hetero(t) monotonically becomes longer and plateaus at the relaxation time of the two-point density correlation function. At the large time intervals for which ?hetero(t) plateaus, the heterogeneous dynamics migrate in space with a diffusion mechanism, such as the particle density.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.
2015-04-01
The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. But how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer ‘how far is far enough,’ we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25-2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high-pass filter time constants shorter than about τ = 38 h, all datasets exhibit a correlation length ξ that falls at least as fast as {{τ }-1} . Since the inter-site separation needed for statistical independence falls for shorter time scales, higher-rate fluctuations can be effectively smoothed by aggregating wind plants over areas smaller than otherwise estimated.
Measurement of the Length of an Optical Trap
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wrbanek, Susan Y.
2010-01-01
NASA Glenn has been involved in developing optical trapping and optical micromanipulation techniques in order to develop a tool that can be used to probe, characterize, and assemble nano and microscale materials to create microscale sensors for harsh flight environments. In order to be able to assemble a sensor or probe candidate sensor material, it is useful to know how far an optical trap can reach; that is, the distance beyond/below the stable trapping point through which an object will be drawn into the optical trap. Typically, to measure the distance over which an optical trap would influence matter in a horizontal (perpendicular to beam propagation) direction, it was common to hold an object in one optical trap, place a second optical trap a known distance away, turn off the first optical trap, and note if the object was moved into the second trap when it was turned on. The disadvantage of this technique is that it only gives information of trap influence distance in horizontal (x y) directions. No information about the distance of the influence of the trap is gained in the direction of propagation of the beam (the z direction). A method was developed to use a time-of-flight technique to determine the length along the propagation direction of an optical trap beam over which an object may be drawn into the optical trap. Test objects (polystyrene microspheres) were held in an optical trap in a water-filled sample chamber and raised to a pre-determined position near the top of the sample chamber. Next, the test objects were released by blocking the optical trap beam. The test objects were allowed to fall through the water for predetermined periods of time, at the end of which the trapping beam was unblocked. It was noted whether or not the test object returned to the optical trap or continued to fall. This determination of the length of an optical trap's influence by this manner assumes that the test object falls through the water in the sample chamber at terminal velocity for the duration of its fall, so that the distance of trap influence can be computed simply by: d = VTt, where d is the trap length (or distance of trap reach), VT is the terminal velocity of the test object, and t is the time interval over which the object is allowed to fall.
Postulates for measures of genuine multipartite correlations
Bennett, Charles H.; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard; Horodecki, Pawel
2011-01-15
A lot of research has been done on multipartite correlations, but the problem of satisfactorily defining genuine multipartite correlations--those not trivially reducible to lower partite correlations--remains unsolved. In this paper we propose three reasonable postulates which each measure or indicator of genuine multipartite correlations (or genuine multipartite entanglement) should satisfy. We also introduce the concept of degree of correlations, which gives partial characterization of multipartite correlations. Then, we show that covariance does not satisfy two postulates and hence it cannot be used as an indicator of genuine multipartite correlations. Finally, we propose a candidate for a measure of genuine multipartite correlations based on the work that can be drawn from a local heat bath by means of a multipartite state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Nishan; Patterson, Mark; Hughes, Stephen
2015-06-01
Intrinsic disorder in photonic crystal waveguides occurs via rapid fluctuations of the air-dielectric interface and is typically characterized by a quadratic mean surface roughness and a surface correlation length. We theoretically study the impact of correlation length on extrinsic scattering losses and discuss the numerical implementation for several different waveguide designs. The role of correlation length is found to be strongly influenced by the underlying Bloch modes which are dependent on waveguide design and frequency, and can thus be partly controlled via spatial-dispersion engineering. For most frequencies and waveguide designs, we find an asymptotical increase in losses as the correlation length increases; however, we show that for some frequencies and designs, a maximum scattering loss is achieved for a finite correlation length. Our results also demonstrate the importance of choosing an appropriate correlation function for modeling quickly varying disorder.
Optimal chirped probe pulse length for terahertz pulse measurement.
Peng, Xiao-Yu; Willi, Oswald; Chen, Min; Pukhov, Alexander
2008-08-01
A detailed analysis of the relationship between the duration of the chirped probe pulse and the bipolar terahertz (THz) pulse length in the spectral encoding technique is carried out. We prove that there is an optimal chirped probe pulse length (or an optimal chirp rate of the chirped probe pulse) matched to the input THz pulse length and derive a rigorous relationship between them. We find that only under this restricted condition the THz signal can be correctly retrieved. PMID:18679511
Hills, Peter J; Eaton, Elizabeth; Pake, J Michael
2016-04-01
Psychometric schizotypy in the general population correlates negatively with face recognition accuracy, potentially due to deficits in inhibition, social withdrawal, or eye-movement abnormalities. We report an eye-tracking face recognition study in which participants were required to match one of two faces (target and distractor) to a cue face presented immediately before. All faces could be presented with or without paraphernalia (e.g., hats, glasses, facial hair). Results showed that paraphernalia distracted participants, and that the most distracting condition was when the cue and the distractor face had paraphernalia but the target face did not, while there was no correlation between distractibility and participants' scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Schizotypy was negatively correlated with proportion of time fixating on the eyes and positively correlated with not fixating on a feature. It was negatively correlated with scan path length and this variable correlated with face recognition accuracy. These results are interpreted as schizotypal traits being associated with a restricted scan path leading to face recognition deficits. PMID:25835241
Keršič, Matej; Dolinar, Drago; Antolič, Vane; Mavčič, Blaž
2014-01-01
In a single-surgeon series of 119 patients with unilateral primary uncemented total hip arthroplasty, four leg-length discrepancy measurement methods (absolute, relative, trochanteric, standardized-trochanteric) were analyzed for their impact on WOMAC score, Oxford Hip Score and self-perceived leg-length discrepancy. After adjustment for age, gender and BMI, postoperative WOMAC scores correlated only with clinical absolute measurements of leg elongation (P=0.05). Self-perceived leg-length discrepancy corresponded best to the clinically measured relative leg-length discrepancy (11 mm perceived vs. 7 mm unperceived; P=0.04) while there was no significant correspondence with radiographic measurements or leg elongation magnitudes. Within the <10 mm range of mean postoperative leg length discrepancy in the studied series, its impact on the overall clinical satisfaction was detectable but not considerable. PMID:23680505
Measurements of the Influence of Integral Length Scale on Stagnation Region Heat Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanfossen, G. James; Ching, Chang Y.
1994-01-01
The purpose was twofold: first, to determine if a length scale existed that would cause the greatest augmentation in stagnation region heat transfer for a given turbulence intensity and second, to develop a prediction tool for stagnation heat transfer in the presence of free stream turbulence. Toward this end, a model with a circular leading edge was fabricated with heat transfer gages in the stagnation region. The model was qualified in a low turbulence wind tunnel by comparing measurements with Frossling's solution for stagnation region heat transfer in a laminar free stream. Five turbulence generating grids were fabricated; four were square mesh, biplane grids made from square bars. Each had identical mesh to bar width ratio but different bar widths. The fifth grid was an array of fine parallel wires that were perpendicular to the axis of the cylindrical leading edge. Turbulence intensity and integral length scale were measured as a function of distance from the grids. Stagnation region heat transfer was measured at various distances downstream of each grid. Data were taken at cylinder Reynolds numbers ranging from 42,000 to 193,000. Turbulence intensities were in the range 1.1 to 15.9 percent while the ratio of integral length scale to cylinder diameter ranged from 0.05 to 0.30. Stagnation region heat transfer augmentation increased with decreasing length scale. An optimum scale was not found. A correlation was developed that fit heat transfer data for the square bar grids to within +4 percent. The data from the array of wires were not predicted by the correlation; augmentation was higher for this case indicating that the degree of isotropy in the turbulent flow field has a large effect on stagnation heat transfer. The data of other researchers are also compared with the correlation.
Scale and time dependence of serial correlations in word-length time series of written texts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.
2014-11-01
This work considered the quantitative analysis of large written texts. To this end, the text was converted into a time series by taking the sequence of word lengths. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used for characterizing long-range serial correlations of the time series. To this end, the DFA was implemented within a rolling window framework for estimating the variations of correlations, quantified in terms of the scaling exponent, strength along the text. Also, a filtering derivative was used to compute the dependence of the scaling exponent relative to the scale. The analysis was applied to three famous English-written literary narrations; namely, Alice in Wonderland (by Lewis Carrol), Dracula (by Bram Stoker) and Sense and Sensibility (by Jane Austen). The results showed that high correlations appear for scales of about 50-200 words, suggesting that at these scales the text contains the stronger coherence. The scaling exponent was not constant along the text, showing important variations with apparent cyclical behavior. An interesting coincidence between the scaling exponent variations and changes in narrative units (e.g., chapters) was found. This suggests that the scaling exponent obtained from the DFA is able to detect changes in narration structure as expressed by the usage of words of different lengths.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estienne, B.; Regnault, N.; Bernevig, B. A.
2015-05-01
Using the newly developed matrix product state formalism for non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states, we address the question of whether a FQH trial wave function written as a correlation function in a nonunitary conformal field theory (CFT) can describe the bulk of a gapped FQH phase. We show that the nonunitary Gaffnian state exhibits clear signatures of a pathological behavior. As a benchmark we compute the correlation length of a Moore-Read state and find it to be finite in the thermodynamic limit. By contrast, the Gaffnian state has an infinite correlation length in (at least) the non-Abelian sector, and is therefore gapless. We also compute the topological entanglement entropy of several non-Abelian states with and without quasiholes. For the first time in the FQH effect the results are in excellent agreement in all topological sectors with the CFT prediction for unitary states. For the nonunitary Gaffnian state in finite size systems, the topological entanglement entropy seems to behave like that of the composite fermion Jain state at equal filling.
Hierarchy of Correlations via LDERS Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Shunlong; Fu, Shuangshuang
2012-04-01
The classification and quantification of correlations (classical and quantum) in composite quantum systems are of fundamental significance for quantum information processing. While the paradigm of separability versus entanglement has been intensively studied, the scenario of classicality versus quantumness, with focus on the quantum discord, has also attracted many recent interests. In this paper, pursuing further the latter scenario and exploiting the intrinsic structure of bipartite quantum states via local projective measurements, we introduce the notion of coherent dimension of correlations in terms of the Lders measurements. The coherent dimension can alternatively be regarded as a generalization of the Schmidt number of a pure state. Furthermore, we propose some families of measures for correlations, which extend naturally both the quantum discord and the quantum mutual information (total correlations), and furthermore interpolate between them. These quantities reveal some hierarchial structures, and provide a more complete description, of both classical and quantum correlations in the quantum realm.
Hierarchy of Correlations via LDERS Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Shunlong; Fu, Shuangshuang
2013-01-01
The classification and quantification of correlations (classical and quantum) in composite quantum systems are of fundamental significance for quantum information processing. While the paradigm of separability versus entanglement has been intensively studied, the scenario of classicality versus quantumness, with focus on the quantum discord, has also attracted many recent interests. In this paper, pursuing further the latter scenario and exploiting the intrinsic structure of bipartite quantum states via local projective measurements, we introduce the notion of coherent dimension of correlations in terms of the Lders measurements. The coherent dimension can alternatively be regarded as a generalization of the Schmidt number of a pure state. Furthermore, we propose some families of measures for correlations, which extend naturally both the quantum discord and the quantum mutual information (total correlations), and furthermore interpolate between them. These quantities reveal some hierarchial structures, and provide a more complete description, of both classical and quantum correlations in the quantum realm.
Norm-based measurement of quantum correlation
Wu Yuchun; Guo Guangcan
2011-06-15
In this paper we derived a necessary and sufficient condition for classical correlated states and proposed a norm-based measurement Q of quantum correlation. Using the max norm of operators, we gave the expression of the quantum correlation measurement Q and investigated the dynamics of Q in Markovian and non-Markovian cases, respectively. Q decays exponentially and vanishes only asymptotically in the Markovian case and causes periodical death and rebirth in the non-Markovian case. In the pure state, the quantum correlation Q is always larger than the entanglement, which was different from other known measurements. In addition, we showed that locally broadcastable and broadcastable are equivalent and reproved the density of quantum correlated states.
Line Tensions, Correlation Lengths, and Critical Exponents in Lipid Membranes Near Critical Points
Honerkamp-Smith, Aurelia R.; Cicuta, Pietro; Collins, Marcus D.; Veatch, Sarah L.; den Nijs, Marcel; Schick, M.; Keller, Sarah L.
2008-01-01
Membranes containing a wide variety of ternary mixtures of high chain-melting temperature lipids, low chain-melting temperature lipids, and cholesterol undergo lateral phase separation into coexisting liquid phases at a miscibility transition. When membranes are prepared from a ternary lipid mixture at a critical composition, they pass through a miscibility critical point at the transition temperature. Since the critical temperature is typically on the order of room temperature, membranes provide an unusual opportunity in which to perform a quantitative study of biophysical systems that exhibit critical phenomena in the two-dimensional Ising universality class. As a critical point is approached from either high or low temperature, the scale of fluctuations in lipid composition, set by the correlation length, diverges. In addition, as a critical point is approached from low temperature, the line tension between coexisting phases decreases to zero. Here we quantitatively evaluate the temperature dependence of line tension between liquid domains and of fluctuation correlation lengths in lipid membranes to extract a critical exponent, ?. We obtain ? = 1.2 0.2, consistent with the Ising model prediction ? = 1. We also evaluate the probability distributions of pixel intensities in fluorescence images of membranes. From the temperature dependence of these distributions above the critical temperature, we extract an independent critical exponent of ? = 0.124 0.03, which is consistent with the Ising prediction of ? = 1/8. PMID:18424504
On the measurability of quantum correlation functions
Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio de Azevedo, Sérgio; Rosas, Alexandre
2015-05-15
The concept of correlation function is widely used in classical statistical mechanics to characterize how two or more variables depend on each other. In quantum mechanics, on the other hand, there are observables that cannot be measured at the same time; the so-called incompatible observables. This prospect imposes a limitation on the definition of a quantum analog for the correlation function in terms of a sequence of measurements. Here, based on the notion of sequential weak measurements, we circumvent this limitation by introducing a framework to measure general quantum correlation functions, in principle, independently of the state of the system and the operators involved. To illustrate, we propose an experimental configuration to obtain explicitly the quantum correlation function between two Pauli operators, in which the input state is an arbitrary mixed qubit state encoded on the polarization of photons.
On the measurability of quantum correlation functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Lima Bernardo, Bertlio; Azevedo, Srgio; Rosas, Alexandre
2015-05-01
The concept of correlation function is widely used in classical statistical mechanics to characterize how two or more variables depend on each other. In quantum mechanics, on the other hand, there are observables that cannot be measured at the same time; the so-called incompatible observables. This prospect imposes a limitation on the definition of a quantum analog for the correlation function in terms of a sequence of measurements. Here, based on the notion of sequential weak measurements, we circumvent this limitation by introducing a framework to measure general quantum correlation functions, in principle, independently of the state of the system and the operators involved. To illustrate, we propose an experimental configuration to obtain explicitly the quantum correlation function between two Pauli operators, in which the input state is an arbitrary mixed qubit state encoded on the polarization of photons.
Quantum correlation cost of the weak measurement
Zhang, Jun; Wu, Shao-xiong; Yu, Chang-shui
2014-12-15
Quantum correlation cost (QCC) characterizing how much quantum correlation is used in a weak-measurement process is presented based on the trace norm. It is shown that the QCC is related to the trace-norm-based quantum discord (TQD) by only a factor that is determined by the strength of the weak measurement, so it only catches partial quantumness of a quantum system compared with the TQD. We also find that the residual quantumness can be extracted not only by the further von Neumann measurement, but also by a sequence of infinitesimal weak measurements. As an example, we demonstrate our outcomes by the Bell-diagonal state.
Measuring and modeling correlations in multiplex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito
2015-09-01
The interactions among the elementary components of many complex systems can be qualitatively different. Such systems are therefore naturally described in terms of multiplex or multilayer networks, i.e., networks where each layer stands for a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes. There is today a growing interest in understanding when and why a description in terms of a multiplex network is necessary and more informative than a single-layer projection. Here we contribute to this debate by presenting a comprehensive study of correlations in multiplex networks. Correlations in node properties, especially degree-degree correlations, have been thoroughly studied in single-layer networks. Here we extend this idea to investigate and characterize correlations between the different layers of a multiplex network. Such correlations are intrinsically multiplex, and we first study them empirically by constructing and analyzing several multiplex networks from the real world. In particular, we introduce various measures to characterize correlations in the activity of the nodes and in their degree at the different layers and between activities and degrees. We show that real-world networks exhibit indeed nontrivial multiplex correlations. For instance, we find cases where two layers of the same multiplex network are positively correlated in terms of node degrees, while other two layers are negatively correlated. We then focus on constructing synthetic multiplex networks, proposing a series of models to reproduce the correlations observed empirically and/or to assess their relevance.
Analysis of factors important for measurements of focal length of optical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pokorný, P.; Opat, J.; Mikš, A.; Novák, J.; Novák, P.
2015-09-01
A focal length is a basic optical characteristic of an optical system. Thus, it is important to be able to measure this value for a given optical system very accurately in practice. At present there exist various physical principles of the focal length measurement which can achieve a different measurement accuracy. In our work we analyse several methods of measurement of the focal length with respect to factors, which are important for a measurement accuracy. The analysis is performed on examples.
McFadden, Dennis; Garcia-Sierra, Adrian; Hsieh, Michelle D; Maloney, Mindy M; Champlin, Craig A; Pasanen, Edward G
2012-07-01
Brief tones of 1.0 and 8.0 kHz were used to evoke auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), and the differences between the wave-V latencies for those two frequencies were used as a proxy for cochlear length. The tone bursts (8 ms in duration including 2-ms rise/fall times, and 82 dB in level) were, or were not, accompanied by a continuous, moderately intense noise band, highpass filtered immediately above the tone. The proxy values for length were compared with various measures of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) obtained from the same ears. All the correlations were low, suggesting that cochlear length, as measured by this proxy at least, is not strongly related to the various group and individual differences that exist in OAEs. Female latencies did not differ across the menstrual cycle, and the proxy length measure exhibited no sex difference (either for menses females vs. males or midluteal females vs. males) when the highpass noises were used. However, when the subjects were partitioned into Whites and Non-Whites, a substantial sex difference in cochlear length did emerge for the White group, although the correlations with OAEs remained low. Head size was not highly correlated with any of the ABR measures. PMID:22546328
Correlation of interannual length-of-day variation with El Nino/Southern Oscillation, 1972-1986
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, B. Fong
1988-01-01
Correlation between interannual length-of-day (LOD) changes and an index representation of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) for the period of 1972-1986 was examined in two ways: as the cross-correlation function in the time domain and as the complex coherence spectrum in the frequency domain. The ENSO representation was derived from barometric measurements from the Tahiti and Darwin, Australia, meteorological stations, as the difference of the sea-level pressure between the two locations. The cross correlation between this ENSO representation and LOD variation on the interannual time scale was found to have a maximum value of 0.68 and the LOD phase lag of 2 months, indicating that most of the interannual LOD variation is caused by ENSO, and that the transfer of ENSO's axial angular momentum to the solid earth lags behind the Tahiti-Darwin pressure variation by about 2 months. The corresponding coherence spectrum showed minimum correlation around biennial periods, indicating an influence of the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation on LOD variations.
Measurement of exciton correlations using electrostatic lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Remeika, M.; Leonard, J. R.; Dorow, C. J.; Fogler, M. M.; Butov, L. V.; Hanson, M.; Gossard, A. C.
2015-09-01
We present a method for determining correlations in a gas of indirect excitons in a semiconductor quantum well structure. The method involves subjecting the excitons to a periodic electrostatic potential that causes modulations of the exciton density and photoluminescence (PL). Experimentally measured amplitudes of energy and intensity modulations of exciton PL serve as an input to a theoretical estimate of the exciton correlation parameter and temperature. We also present a proof-of-principle demonstration of the method for determining the correlation parameter and discuss how its accuracy can be improved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stterlin, Daniel; Erni, Daniel; Schlott, Volker; Sigg, Hans; Jckel, Heinz; Murk, Axel
2010-10-01
A spatial, electro-optical autocorrelation (EOA) interferometer using the vertically polarized lobes of coherent transition radiation (CTR) has been developed as a single-shot electron bunch length monitor at an optical beam port downstream the 100 MeV preinjector LINAC of the Swiss Light Source. This EOA monitor combines the advantages of step-scan interferometers (high temporal resolution) [D. Mihalcea et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 082801 (2006) and T. Takahashi and K. Takami, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 363 (2008)] and terahertz-gating technologies [U. Schmidhammer et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 95 (2009) and B. Steffen et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009)] (fast response), providing the possibility to tune the accelerator with an online bunch length diagnostics. While a proof of principle of the spatial interferometer was achieved by step-scan measurements with far-infrared detectors, the single-shot capability of the monitor has been demonstrated by electro-optical correlation of the spatial CTR interference pattern with fairly long (500 ps) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulses in a ZnTe crystal. In single-shot operation, variations of the bunch length between 1.5 and 4 ps due to different phase settings of the LINAC bunching cavities have been measured with subpicosecond time resolution.
Suetterlin, Daniel; Erni, Daniel; Schlott, Volker; Sigg, Hans; Jaeckel, Heinz; Murk, Axel
2010-10-15
A spatial, electro-optical autocorrelation (EOA) interferometer using the vertically polarized lobes of coherent transition radiation (CTR) has been developed as a single-shot electron bunch length monitor at an optical beam port downstream the 100 MeV preinjector LINAC of the Swiss Light Source. This EOA monitor combines the advantages of step-scan interferometers (high temporal resolution) [D. Mihalcea et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 082801 (2006) and T. Takahashi and K. Takami, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 363 (2008)] and terahertz-gating technologies [U. Schmidhammer et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 95 (2009) and B. Steffen et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009)] (fast response), providing the possibility to tune the accelerator with an online bunch length diagnostics. While a proof of principle of the spatial interferometer was achieved by step-scan measurements with far-infrared detectors, the single-shot capability of the monitor has been demonstrated by electro-optical correlation of the spatial CTR interference pattern with fairly long (500 ps) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulses in a ZnTe crystal. In single-shot operation, variations of the bunch length between 1.5 and 4 ps due to different phase settings of the LINAC bunching cavities have been measured with subpicosecond time resolution.
Understanding the amplitudes of noise correlation measurements
Tsai, Victor C.
2011-01-01
Cross correlation of ambient seismic noise is known to result in time series from which station-station travel-time measurements can be made. Part of the reason that these cross-correlation travel-time measurements are reliable is that there exists a theoretical framework that quantifies how these travel times depend on the features of the ambient noise. However, corresponding theoretical results do not currently exist to describe how the amplitudes of the cross correlation depend on such features. For example, currently it is not possible to take a given distribution of noise sources and calculate the cross correlation amplitudes one would expect from such a distribution. Here, we provide a ray-theoretical framework for calculating cross correlations. This framework differs from previous work in that it explicitly accounts for attenuation as well as the spatial distribution of sources and therefore can address the issue of quantifying amplitudes in noise correlation measurements. After introducing the general framework, we apply it to two specific problems. First, we show that we can quantify the amplitudes of coherency measurements, and find that the decay of coherency with station-station spacing depends crucially on the distribution of noise sources. We suggest that researchers interested in performing attenuation measurements from noise coherency should first determine how the dominant sources of noise are distributed. Second, we show that we can quantify the signal-to-noise ratio of noise correlations more precisely than previous work, and that these signal-to-noise ratios can be estimated for given situations prior to the deployment of seismometers. It is expected that there are applications of the theoretical framework beyond the two specific cases considered, but these applications await future work.
Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook
Cook, DR
2011-01-31
The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.
Finite-size effects of correlation lengths in planar uniaxial ferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abraham, D. B.; Parry, A. O.; Upton, P. J.
1995-06-01
The finite-size structure of two-point correlation functions is studied using the bubble model applied to the two-dimensional Ising model at subcritical temperatures in a small bulk field H wrapped around a cylinder with a circumference of M lattice sites. Particular emphasis is placed on a crossover occurring in the mass gap at ||H||=H× corresponding to an ``avoided level crossing'' in the second and third eigenvalues of the transfer matrix. It is argued that this crossover occurs because the class of bubble determining the behavior of correlation functions changes from a single connected closed loop for ||H||>H× to two disconnected closed loops encircling the cylinder for 0<||H||
Knight, Rosemary J.; Irving, James D.; Tercier, Paulette; Freeman, Eugene J.; Murray, Christopher J.; Rockhold, Mark L.
2007-11-08
Surface-based ground-penetrating radar data were collected at the Hanford Site in Washington, U.S.A. to assess the use of radar reflection images as a means of quantifying the spatial variability of subsurface water content. Available at the selected test site were two sets of water content data derived from neutron probe measurements that had been made to a depth of ~18 m in 32 wells. The comparison of probe-derived water content data, synthetic radar data, and the acquired radar data indicated a good correspondence between the changes in probe-derived water content and the location of reflections in the radar data. Geostatistical analysis was conducted on the two sets of probe-derived water content values and the amplitudes of the reflections in the radar reflection image to determine the horizontal correlation length of water content. The experimental semivariograms for the water content data were fit with a single exponential model with a correlation length of 10 m. The semivariogram for the radar data was fit with a nested structure containing a dominant long-range structure with a correlation length of 14 m, and a smaller-scale structure with a correlation length of 0.3 m. Quantifying the scale triplet the spacing, extent, and support for the two forms of measurement provided a framework for comparing and assessing the derived correlation structures.
Bnszegi, Oxna; Kosztolnyi, Andrs; Bakonyi, Gbor; Szab, Borbla; Dombos, Mikls
2014-01-01
The collembolan, Folsomia candida, is widely used in soil ecotoxicology. In recent years, growth rate of collembolans has become as frequently used endpoint as reproduction rate in ecotoxicological studies. However, measuring collembolan body sizes to estimate growth rate is a complicated and time-consuming task. Here we present a new image analysis method, which facilitates and accelerates the body length measurement of the collembolan Folsomia candida. The new software package, called CollScope, consists of three elements: 1) an imaging device; 2) photographing software; 3) an ImageJ macro for image processing, measurement and data analysis. We give a complete description of the operation of the software, the image analyzing process and describe its accuracy and reliability. The software with a detailed usage manual is attached as Supplementary Material. We report a case study to demonstrate that the automated measurement of collembolan body sizes is highly correlated with the traditional manual measurements (estimated measuring accuracy 0.05 mm). Furthermore, we performed a dose-response ecotoxicity test using cadmium-sulfate by using CollScope as well as classical methods for size measurement. Size data measured by CollScope or manually did not differ significantly. Furthermore the new software package decreased time consumption of the measurements to 42% when tested on 35 animals. Consequently, methodological investigations performed in this study should be regarded as a recommendation for any other routine dose-response study where body growth is an endpoint. PMID:24901322
Boddum, Kim; Hansen, Mathias Hvidtfelt; Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek
2016-01-01
The hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides (hcrt) are key players in the control of sleep and wakefulness evidenced by the fact that lack of hcrt leads to the sleep disorder Narcolepsy Type 1. Sleep disturbances are common in mood disorders, and hcrt has been suggested to be poorly regulated in depressed subjects. To study seasonal variation in hcrt levels, we obtained data on hcrt-1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 227 human individuals evaluated for central hypersomnias at a Danish sleep center. The samples were taken over a 4 year timespan, and obtained in the morning hours, thus avoiding impact of the diurnal hcrt variation. Hcrt-1 concentration was determined in a standardized radioimmunoassay. Using biometric data and sleep parameters, a multivariate regression analysis was performed. We found that the average monthly CSF hcrt-1 levels varied significantly across the seasons following a sine wave with its peak in the summer (June—July). The amplitude was 19.9 pg hcrt/mL [12.8–26.9] corresponding to a 10.6% increase in midsummer compared to winter. Factors found to significantly predict the hcrt-1 values were day length, presence of snow, and proximity to the Christmas holiday season. The hcrt-1 values from January were much higher than predicted from the model, suggestive of additional factors influencing the CSF hcrt-1 levels such as social interaction. This study provides evidence that human CSF hcrt-1 levels vary with season, correlating with day length. This finding could have implications for the understanding of winter tiredness, fatigue, and seasonal affective disorder. This is the first time a seasonal variation of hcrt-1 levels has been shown, demonstrating that the hcrt system is, like other neurotransmitter systems, subjected to long term modulation. PMID:27008404
Boddum, Kim; Hansen, Mathias Hvidtfelt; Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek
2016-01-01
The hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides (hcrt) are key players in the control of sleep and wakefulness evidenced by the fact that lack of hcrt leads to the sleep disorder Narcolepsy Type 1. Sleep disturbances are common in mood disorders, and hcrt has been suggested to be poorly regulated in depressed subjects. To study seasonal variation in hcrt levels, we obtained data on hcrt-1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 227 human individuals evaluated for central hypersomnias at a Danish sleep center. The samples were taken over a 4 year timespan, and obtained in the morning hours, thus avoiding impact of the diurnal hcrt variation. Hcrt-1 concentration was determined in a standardized radioimmunoassay. Using biometric data and sleep parameters, a multivariate regression analysis was performed. We found that the average monthly CSF hcrt-1 levels varied significantly across the seasons following a sine wave with its peak in the summer (June-July). The amplitude was 19.9 pg hcrt/mL [12.8-26.9] corresponding to a 10.6% increase in midsummer compared to winter. Factors found to significantly predict the hcrt-1 values were day length, presence of snow, and proximity to the Christmas holiday season. The hcrt-1 values from January were much higher than predicted from the model, suggestive of additional factors influencing the CSF hcrt-1 levels such as social interaction. This study provides evidence that human CSF hcrt-1 levels vary with season, correlating with day length. This finding could have implications for the understanding of winter tiredness, fatigue, and seasonal affective disorder. This is the first time a seasonal variation of hcrt-1 levels has been shown, demonstrating that the hcrt system is, like other neurotransmitter systems, subjected to long term modulation. PMID:27008404
Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Magnetic Correlation Lengths in Nanoparticle Assemblies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majetich, Sara
2009-03-01
Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of ordered arrays of surfactant-coated magnetic nanoparticle reveal characteristic length scales associated with interparticle and intraparticle magnetic ordering. The high degree of uniformity in the monodisperse nanoparticle size and spacing leads to a pronounced diffraction peak and allows for a straightforward determination of these length scales [1]. There are notable differences in these length scales depending on the particle moment, which depends on the material (Fe, Co, Fe3O4) and diameter, and also on whether the metal particle core is surrounded by an oxide shell. For 8.5 nm particles containing an Fe core and thick Fe3O4 shell, evidence of a spin flop phase is seen in the magnetite shell when a field is applied , but not when the shell thickness is 0.5 nm [2]. 8.0 nm particles with an e-Co core and 0.75 nm CoO shell show no exchange bias effects while similar particles with a 2 nm thick shell so significant training effects below 90 K. Polarized SANS studied of 7 nm Fe3O4 nanoparticle assemblies show the ability to resolve the magnetization components in 3D. [4pt] [1] M. Sachan, C. Bonnoit, S. A. Majetich, Y. Ijiri, P. O. Mensah-Bonsu, J. A. Borchers, and J. J. Rhyne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 152503 (2008). [0pt] [2] Yumi Ijiri, Christopher V. Kelly, Julie A. Borchers, James J. Rhyne, Dorothy F. Farrell, Sara A. Majetich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243102-243104 (2005). [0pt] [3] K. L. Krycka, R. Booth, J. A. Borchers, W. C. Chen, C. Conlon, T. Gentile, C. Hogg, Y. Ijiri, M. Laver, B. B. Maranville, S. A. Majetich, J. Rhyne, and S. M. Watson, Physica B (submitted).
Entanglement measures based on observable correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Shunlong
2008-06-01
By regarding quantum states as communication channels and using observable correlations quantitatively expressed by mutual information, we introduce a hierarchy of entanglement measures that includes the entanglement of formation as a particular instance. We compare the maximal and minimal measures and indicate the conceptual advantages of the minimal measure over the entanglement of formation. We reveal a curious feature of the entanglement of formation by showing that it can exceed the quantum mutual information, which is usually regarded as a theoretical measure of total correlations. This places the entanglement of formation in a broader scenario, highlights its peculiarity in relation to pure-state ensembles, and introduces a competing definition with intrinsic informational significance.
Subnanosecond spectral diffusion measurement using photon correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sallen, G.; Tribu, A.; Aichele, T.; Andr, R.; Besombes, L.; Bougerol, C.; Richard, M.; Tatarenko, S.; Kheng, K.; Poizat, J.-Ph.
2010-10-01
Spectral diffusion is a result of random spectral jumps of a narrow line as a result of a fluctuating environment. It is an important issue in spectroscopy, because the observed spectral broadening prevents access to the intrinsic line properties. However, its characteristic parameters provide local information on the environment of a light emitter embedded in a solid matrix, or moving within a fluid, leading to numerous applications in physics and biology. We present a new experimental technique for measuring spectral diffusion based on photon correlations within a spectral line. Autocorrelation on half of the line and cross-correlation between the two halves give a quantitative value of the spectral diffusion time, with a resolution only limited by the correlation set-up. We have measured spectral diffusion of the photoluminescence of a single light emitter with a time resolution of 90 ps, exceeding by four orders of magnitude the best resolution reported to date.
Automated path length and M{sub 56} measurements at Jefferson Lab
Hardy, D.; Tang, J.; Legg, R.
1997-08-01
Accurate measurement of path length and path length changes versus momentum (M{sub 56}) are critical for maintaining minimum beam energy spread in the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The relative path length for each circuit of the beam (1256m) must be equal within 1.5 degrees of 1497 MHz RF phase. A relative path length measurement is made by measuring the relative phases of RF signals from a cavity that is separately excited for each pass of a 4.2 {mu}s pulsed beam. This method distinguishes the path length to less than 0.5 path length error. The development of a VME based automated measurement system for path length and M{sub 56} has contributed to faster machine setup time and has the potential for use as a feedback parameter for automated control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sofia, Giulia; Marinello, Francesco; Tarolli, Paolo
2014-10-01
This work presents the potential for high-resolution remote sensing data (LiDAR digital terrain models) to determine the spatial heterogeneity of terraced landscapes. The study objective is achieved through the identification of a new parameter that distinguishes this unique landscape form from more natural land formations. The morphological indicator proposed is called the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC), and it is derived from the local analysis of slope self-similarity. The SLACC is obtained over two steps: (i) calculating the correlation between a slope patch and a defined surrounding area and (ii) identifying the characteristic length of correlation for each neighbourhood. The SLLAC map texture can be measured using a surface metrology metric called the second derivative of peaks, or Spc. For the present study, we tested the algorithm for two types of landscapes: a Mediterranean and an Alpine one. The research method involved an examination of both real LiDAR DTMs and simulated ones, in which it was possible to control terrace shapes and the percentage of area covered by terraces. The results indicate that SLLAC maps exhibit a random aspect for natural surfaces. In contrast, terraced landscapes demonstrate a higher degree of order, and this behaviour is independent of the morphological context and terracing system. The outcomes of this work also prove that Spc values decrease as the area of terraced surfaces increases within the investigated region: the Spc for terraced areas is significantly different from the Spc of a natural landscape. In areas of smooth natural morphology, the Spc identifies terraced areas with a 20% minimum height range covered in terraces. In contrast, in areas of steep morphologies and vertical cliffs, the algorithm performs well when terraces cover at least 50% of the investigated surface. Given the increasing importance of terraced landscapes, the proposed procedure offers a significant and promising tool for the exploration of spatial heterogeneity in terraced sites.
PHENIX Measurements of Correlations at RHIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taranenko, Arkadiy
2016-01-01
Relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide a unique opportunity to study the expansion dynamics and the transport properties of the produced strongly interacting quark gluon plasma (QGP). This article reviews the recent soft physics results obtained via correlation measurements from the PHENIX experiment at RHIC: space-time extent of the pion emission source and azimuthal anisotropy of the particle production.
Androgyny: Concept, Measurement, Correlates and Antecedents.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeFronzo, James; Boudreau, Frances
This paper introduces the concept of psychological androgyny to sociologists, examines the ways in which androgyny has been measured and operationally defined by psychologists, and reviews available research concerning the antecedents and correlates of androgyny. The results of original research conducted with 622 students at the University of
Refractive index of air for interferometric length measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abou-Zeid, A.
2015-02-01
The refractive index of air can be directly measured by a refractometer or can be calculated by using updated Edln's formulas by measuring the parameters of the surrounding air or by using the modified two-colour method. In this paper an overview on the three methods is given by taking into account for their features, uncertainties and application fields.
Quantum Correlations and the Measurement Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bub, Jeffrey
2014-10-01
The transition from classical to quantum mechanics rests on the recognition that the structure of information is not what we thought it was: there are operational, i.e., phenomenal, probabilistic correlations that lie outside the polytope of local correlations. Such correlations cannot be simulated with classical resources, which generate classical correlations represented by the points in a simplex, where the vertices of the simplex represent joint deterministic states that are the common causes of the correlations. The `no go' hidden variable theorems tell us that we can't shoe-horn phenomenal correlations outside the local polytope into a classical simplex by supposing that something has been left out of the story. The replacement of the classical simplex by the quantum convex set as the structure representing probabilistic correlations is the analogue for quantum mechanics of the replacement of Newton's Euclidean space and time by Minkowski spacetime in special relativity. The nonclassical features of quantum mechanics, including the irreducible information loss on measurement, are generic features of correlations that lie outside the classical simplex. This paper is an elaboration of these ideas, which have their source in work by Pitowsky (J. Math. Phys. 27:1556, 1986; Math. Program. 50:395, 1991; Phys. Rev. A 77:062109, 2008), Garg and Mermin (Found. Phys. 14:1-39, 1984), Barrett (Phys. Rev. A 75:032304, 2007; Phys. Rev. A 7:022101, 2005) and others, e.g., Brunner et al. (arXiv:1303.2849, 2013), but the literature goes back to Boole (An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, Dover, New York, 1951). The final section looks at the measurement problem of quantum mechanics in this context. A large part of the problem is removed by seeing that the inconsistency in reconciling the entangled state at the end of a quantum measurement process with the definiteness of the macroscopic pointer reading and the definiteness of the correlated value of the measured micro-observable depends on a stipulation that is not required by the structure of the quantum possibility space. Replacing this stipulation by an alternative consistent stipulation is the first step to resolving the problem.
Correlates of implicit cognitive line length representation in two-dimensional space.
Doty, Richard L; Koti, Ajay; O'Hara, Thomas A; Landy, Jeffrey; Shin, Christina; Silas, Jonathan
2014-10-01
Twenty-eight sex- and age-matched participants, half dextrals and half sinstrals, were instructed to move a pen-sized planometer three inches (7.6 cm) while blindfolded. Under separate trials, movements were made at four angles, towards and away from the body, and at two distances from the body (30 cm, 53 cm). Half were made with the right hand and half with the left hand. Line estimates increased in length across blocks of trials in a linear fashion and progressively overestimated the three-inch imagined criterion. Lines made moving towards the body were longer than those made moving away from the body, implying an egocentric frame of reference in making the estimates. Line estimates made at an oblique angle differed significantly from estimates made at other angles. No influences of sex, handedness, or the hand used in making the estimates were observed. The findings suggest that motoric estimates of line lengths made without visual cues-a unique measure of an implicit cognitive concept-are significantly altered by temporal and spatial factors, but not by sex or hemispheric laterality. PMID:25244556
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, R. A.; Wehrly, T.
1976-01-01
Population models for dependence between two angular measurements and for dependence between an angular and a linear observation are proposed. The method of canonical correlations first leads to new population and sample measures of dependence in this latter situation. An example relating wind direction to the level of a pollutant is given. Next, applied to pairs of angular measurements, the method yields previously proposed sample measures in some special cases and a new sample measure in general.
[Compensation in leg length inequality with orthopedic shoe measures].
Meyer, P E; Petersen, D
1992-06-01
There are three different methods of compensating for differences in leg length. The first is the construction of special shoes, which is adequate for differences of up to about 3 cm. The heels can be either higher or lower, or a cork sole 5-10 mm thick can be incorporated, the shaft made higher, and supplementary features, such as aids to push-off, can also be implemented. The second method is the wearing of the classic orthopedic boot or shoe, in which the necessary compensation for the shorter leg is incorporated as a part of the orthopedic footwear. The third method is the construction of a shoe within a shoe, for which different designs have crystallized out for the five groups presented. All designs incorporate leather, the tried and tested material, next to the skin. Stabilizing components are made of fiberglass-reinforced synthetic resin or Thermoplast. New materials allow aesthetically acceptable orthopedic footwear. On average, such shoes are 25% lighter than conventional orthopedic boots. The stability and wear-resistance allow large perforations and open-toe designs, which has made it possible to solve the problem of ventilation. PMID:1508545
Tomography via Correlation of Noisy Measurement Records
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryan, Colm; Johnson, Blake; Gambetta, Jay; Chow, Jerry; Silva, Marcus; Dial, Oliver; Ohki, Thomas
2014-03-01
We present methods and results of shot-by-shot correlation of noisy measurements to extract entangled state and process tomography in a superconducting qubit architecture [2]. We show that averaging continuous values, rather than counting discrete thresholded values, is a valid tomographic strategy and is in fact the better choice in the low signal-to-noise regime. We show that the effort to measure N-body correlations from individual measurements scales exponentially with N, but with sufficient signal-to-noise the approach remains viable for few-body correlations. We provide a new protocol to optimally account for the transient behavior of pulsed measurements. Despite single-shot measurement fidelity that is less than perfect, we demonstrate appropriate processing to extract and verify entangled states and processes. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), through the Army Research Office contract no. W911NF-10-1-0324.
Evolution equation for geometric quantum correlation measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ming-Liang; Fan, Heng
2015-05-01
A simple relation is established for the evolution equation of quantum-information-processing protocols such as quantum teleportation, remote state preparation, Bell-inequality violation, and particularly the dynamics of geometric quantum correlation measures. This relation shows that when the system traverses the local quantum channel, various figures of merit of the quantum correlations for different protocols demonstrate a factorization decay behavior for dynamics. We identified the family of quantum states for different kinds of quantum channels under the action of which the relation holds. This relation simplifies the assessment of many quantum tasks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dugave, Maxime; Ghmann, Frank; Kozlowski, Karol K.; Suzuki, Junji
2015-08-01
We consider the spectrum of correlation lengths of the spin-\\displaystyle \\frac{1}{2} XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime. These are given as ratios of eigenvalues of the quantum transfer matrix of the model. The eigenvalues are determined by integrals over certain auxiliary functions and by their zeros. The auxiliary functions satisfy nonlinear integral equations. We analyse these nonlinear integral equations in the low-temperature limit. In this limit we can determine the auxiliary functions and the expressions for the eigenvalues as functions of a finite number of parameters which satisfy finite sets of algebraic equations, the so-called higher-level Bethe ansatz equations. The behaviour of these equations, if we send the temperature T to zero, is different for zero and non-zero magnetic field h. If h is zero the situation is much like in the case of the usual transfer matrix. Non-trivial higher-level Bethe ansatz equations remain which determine certain complex excitation parameters as functions of hole parameters which are free on a line segment in the complex plane. If h is non-zero, on the other hand, a remarkable restructuring occurs, and all parameters which enter the description of the quantum transfer matrix eigenvalues can be interpreted entirely in terms of particles and holes which are freely located on two curves when T goes to zero. Dedicated to Professor Baxter on the occasion of his 75th birthday.
Optimizing Stimulus Length for Clinical Nasalance Measures in Swedish
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Doorn, Jan; Bergh, Ida; Brunnegard, Karin
2008-01-01
Standardized passages used for speech nasalance measures may be too long for clinical use with very young or non-compliant patients. The aim of this study was to establish whether nasalance scores from shorter sections of three Swedish speech stimuli were equivalent to those from their corresponding whole stimulus. Nasalance recordings for three
Applications of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy: Polydispersity Measurements.
Starchev; Buffle; Prez
1999-05-15
The method of histograms is applied to the determination of polydispersity of particles and molecules in solution from fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) data. This is an ill-posed problem, which can be overcome by using a common strategy for imposed regularization and constraint conditions. The method developed for evaluating the polydispersity is tested on both computer-generated correlation curves and real FCS data. The results obtained show that FCS measurements can be successfully used for the determination of polydispersity of suspensions, with an efficiency comparable to that of photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). The advantage of FCS, however, is its better sensitivity to small particles (size <50 nm) and molecules in dilute solutions, as well as its better selectivity. The usefulness of FCS for environmental chemistry is discussed with regard to the obtained results. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10222089
Measurement and analysis of sarcomere length in rat cardiomyocytes in situ and in vitro
Camelliti, P.; Bollensdorff, C.; Stuckey, D. J.; Picton, G.; Burton, R. A. B.; Clarke, K.; Kohl, P.
2010-01-01
Sarcomere length (SL) is an important determinant and indicator of cardiac mechanical function; however, techniques for measuring SL in living, intact tissue are limited. Here, we present a technique that uses two-photon microscopy to directly image striations of living cells in cardioplegic conditions, both in situ (Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and ventricular tissue slices, stained with the fluorescent marker di-4-ANEPPS) and in vitro (acutely isolated rat ventricular myocytes). Software was developed to extract SL from two-photon fluorescence image sets while accounting for measurement errors associated with motion artifact in raster-scanned images and uncertainty of the cell angle relative to the imaging plane. Monte-Carlo simulations were used to guide analysis of SL measurements by determining error bounds as a function of measurement path length. The mode of the distribution of SL measurements in resting Langendorff-perfused heart is 1.95 μm (n = 167 measurements from N = 11 hearts) after correction for tissue orientation, which was significantly greater than that in isolated cells (1.71 μm, n = 346, N = 9 isolations) or ventricular slice preparations (1.79 μm, n = 79, N = 3 hearts) under our experimental conditions. Furthermore, we find that edema in arrested Langendorff-perfused heart is associated with a mean SL increase; this occurs as a function of time ex vivo and correlates with tissue volume changes determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Our results highlight that the proposed method can be used to monitor SL in living cells and that different experimental models from the same species may display significantly different SL values under otherwise comparable conditions, which has implications for experiment design, as well as comparison and interpretation of data. PMID:20228259
Subpicometer Length Measurement Using Semiconductor Laser Tracking Frequency Gauge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thapa, Rajesh; Phillips, James D.; Rocco, Emanuele; Reasenburg, Robert D.
2011-01-01
We have demonstrated heretofore unattained distance precision of 0:14pm (2pm) incremental and 14nm (2.9 micrometers) absolute in a resonant (nonresonant) interferometer at an averaging time of 1 s, using inexpensive telecommunications diode lasers. We have controlled the main source of error, that due to spurious reflection and the resulting amplitude modulation. In the resonant interferometer, absolute distance precision is well under lambda/6. Therefore, after an interruption, an absolute distance measurement can be used to return to the same interferometer order.
Bunch Length and Impedance Measurements at SPEAR3
Corbett, W.J.; Cheng, W.X.; Fisher, A.S.; Huang, X.; /SLAC
2011-11-02
Streak camera measurements were made at SPEAR3 to characterize longitudinal coupling impedance. For the nominal optics, data was taken at three rf voltages and a single-bunch current range of 0-20mA. Both bunchcentroid phase shift and bunch lengthening were recorded to extract values for resistive and reactive impedance. An (R+L) and a Q=1 model were then back-substituted into the Haissinski equation and compared with raw profile data. In the short bunch (low-{alpha}) mode, distribution 'bursting' was observed.
Kunc, Vlastimil; Frame, Barbara J; Nguyen, Ba N.; TuckerIII, Charles L.; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio
2007-01-01
Procedures for fiber length distribution (FLD) measurement of long fiber reinforced injection molded thermoplastics were refined for glass and carbon fibers. Techniques for sample selection, fiber separation, digitization and length measurement for both fiber types are described in detail. Quantitative FLD results are provided for glass and carbon reinforced polypropylene samples molded with a nominal original fiber length of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) using equipment optimized for molding short fiber reinforced thermoplastics.
Polguj, M; J?drzejewski, K S; Podgrski, M; Topol, M
2011-05-01
The concept of the study was to find the correlation between the morphometry of the suprascapular notch and basic anthropometric measurements of the human scapula. The measurements of the human scapulae included: morphological length and width, maximal width and length projection of scapular spine, length of acromion, and maximal length of the coracoid process. The glenoid cavity was measured in two perpendicular directions to evaluate its width and length. The width-length scapular and glenoid cavity indexes were calculated for every bone. In addition to standard anthropometric measurements two other measurements were defined and evaluated for every suprascapular notch: maximal depth (MD) and superior transverse diameter (STD). The superior transverse suprascapular ligament was completely ossified in 7% of cases. Ten (11.6%) scapulae had a discrete notch. In the studied material, in 21 (24.4%) scapulae the MD was longer than the STD. Two (2.3%) scapulae had equal maximal depth and superior transverse diameter. In 47 (57.7%) scapulae the superior transverse diameter was longer than the maximal depth. There was no statistically significant difference between anthropometric measurements in the group with higher MD and the group with higher STD. The maximal depth of the suprascapular notch negatively correlated with the scapular width-length index. The maximal depth of the scapular notch correlated with the morphological length of the scapulae. PMID:21630232
Young Children's Understandings of Length Measurement: Evaluating a Learning Trajectory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szilagyi, Janka; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie
2013-01-01
This study investigated the development of length measurement ideas in students from prekindergarten through 2nd grade. The main purpose was to evaluate and elaborate the developmental progression, or levels of thinking, of a hypothesized learning trajectory for length measurement to ensure that the sequence of levels of thinking is consistent…
Young Children's Understandings of Length Measurement: Evaluating a Learning Trajectory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szilagyi, Janka; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie
2013-01-01
This study investigated the development of length measurement ideas in students from prekindergarten through 2nd grade. The main purpose was to evaluate and elaborate the developmental progression, or levels of thinking, of a hypothesized learning trajectory for length measurement to ensure that the sequence of levels of thinking is consistent
Nonsymmetrized correlations in quantum noninvasive measurements.
Bednorz, Adam; Bruder, Christoph; Reulet, Bertrand; Belzig, Wolfgang
2013-06-21
A long-standing problem in quantum mesoscopic physics is which operator order corresponds to noise expressions like , where I(?) is the measured current at frequency ?. Symmetrized order describes a classical measurement while nonsymmetrized order corresponds to a quantum detector, e.g., one sensitive to either emission or absorption of photons. We show that both order schemes can be embedded in quantum weak-measurement theory taking into account measurements with memory, characterized by a memory function which is independent of a particular experimental detection scheme. We discuss the resulting quasiprobabilities for different detector temperatures and how their negativity can be tested on the level of second-order correlation functions already. Experimentally, this negativity can be related to the squeezing of the many-body state of the transported electrons in an ac-driven tunnel junction. PMID:23829718
Aerosol pattern correlation techniques of wind measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eloranta, Edwin W.
1985-01-01
This paper reviews the current status of lidar image correlation techniques of remote wind measurement. It also examines the potential use of satellite borne lidar global wind measurements using this approach. Lidar systems can easily detect spatial variations in the volume scattering cross section of naturally occurring aerosols. Lidar derived RHI, PPI and range-time displays of aerosol backscatter have been extensively employed in the study of atmospheric structure. Descriptions of this type of data can be obtained in many references including Kunkel et al. (1977), Kunkel et al. (1980), Boers et al. (1984), Uthe et al. (1980), Melfi et al. (1985) and Browell et al. (1983). It is likely that the first space-borne lidars for atmospheric studies will observe aerosol backscatter to measure parameters such as boundary layer depth and cloud height. This paper examines the potential application of these relatively simple aerosol backscatter lidars to global wind measurements.
Winter, Gunnar De; Martins, Henrique Ramalho; Trovo, Rafael Arnoni; Chapman, Ben B
2016-01-01
Behavioural variation among individuals has received a lot of attention by behavioural ecologists in the past few years. Its causes and consequences are becoming vast areas of research. The origin and maintenance of individual variation in behaviour within and among populations is affected by many facets of the biotic and abiotic environment. Here, two populations of lab-reared juvenile three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are tested for three behaviours (boldness, exploration, and sociability). Given the identical rearing conditions, the only difference between these populations is the parental habitat. In both populations, correlations between behaviour and body length are found. Interestingly, these differ between the populations. In one population body length was negatively correlated with exploratory behaviour, while in the other one body length correlated negatively with sociability. Considering the identical environment these juvenile fish were exposed to, these findings suggest a potential (epi)genetic foundation for these correlations and shows that, in three-spined sticklebacks, the proximate basis for correlations between body length and behaviour appears quite malleable. PMID:26581320
Large-aperture laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement and its system.
Zhao, Weiqian; Li, Zhigang; Qiu, Lirong; Ren, Huan; Shao, Rongjun
2015-06-29
A new laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement (LDCFM) method is proposed with the capability to self-calibrate the reference lens (RL) focal length and the axial space between the test lens and RL. Using the property that the focus of laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement system (LDCFS) precisely corresponds to the null point of the differential confocal axial intensity curve, the proposed LDCFM measures the RL focal length f(R)' by precisely identifying the positions of the focus and last surface of RL, measures the axial space d(0) between RL and test ultra-long focal length lens (UFL) by identifying the last surface of RL and the vertex of UFL last surface, and measures the variation l in focus position of LDCFS with and without test UFL, and then calculates the UFL focal length f(T)' by the above measured f(R)', d(0) and l. In addition, a LDCFS based on the proposed method is developed for a large aperture lens. The experimental results indicate that the relative uncertainty is less than 0.01% for the test UFL, which has an aperture of 610 mm and focal length of 31,000 mm. LDCFM provides a novel approach for the high-precision focal-length measurement of large-aperture UFL. PMID:26191747
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F.; Haentjens-van Meeteren, Marleen M.
2013-01-01
Beginning readers' reading latencies increase as words become longer. This length effect is believed to be a marker of a serial reading process. We examined the effects of visual and phonological skills on the length effect. Participants were 184 second-grade children who read 3- to 5-letter words and nonwords. Results indicated that reading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F.; Haentjens-van Meeteren, Marleen M.
2013-01-01
Beginning readers' reading latencies increase as words become longer. This length effect is believed to be a marker of a serial reading process. We examined the effects of visual and phonological skills on the length effect. Participants were 184 second-grade children who read 3- to 5-letter words and nonwords. Results indicated that reading…
Growcott, Abraham; Miller, Brian; Sirguey, Pascal; Slooten, Elisabeth; Dawson, Stephen
2011-07-01
Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) emit short, broadband clicks which often include multiple pulses. The time interval between these pulses [inter-pulse interval (IPI)] represents the two-way time for a pulse to travel between the air sacs located at either end of the sperm whale's head. The IPI therefore, is a proxy of head length which, using an allometric relationship, can be used to estimate total body length. Previous studies relating IPI to an independent measure of length have relied on very small sample sizes and manual techniques for measuring IPI. Sound recordings and digital stereo photogrammetric measurements of 21 individuals were made off Kaikoura, New Zealand, and, in addition, archived recordings of whales measured with a previous photogrammetric system were reanalyzed to obtain a total sample size of 33 individuals. IPIs were measured automatically via cepstral analysis implemented via a software plug-in for pamguard, an open-source software package for passive acoustic monitoring. IPI measurements were highly consistent within individuals (mean CV=0.63%). The new regression relationship relating IPI (I) and total length (T) was found to be T=1.258I+5.736 (r(2)=0.77, p<0.001). This new regression provides a better fit than previous studies of large (> 11 m) sperm whales. PMID:21786922
Stan, Cristina; Cristescu, Monica Teodora; Luiza, Buimaga Iarinca; Cristescu, C P
2013-03-21
In the framework of multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, we investigate characteristics of series of length of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of some bacteria and archaea. We propose the use of a multifractal cross-correlation series that can be defined for any pair of equal lengths data sequences (or time series) and that can be characterized by the full set of parameters that are attributed to any time series. Comparison between characteristics of series of length of coding and non-coding DNA sequences and of their associated multifractal cross-correlation series for selected groups is used for the identification of class affiliation of certain bacteria and archaea. The analysis is carried out using the dependence of the generalized Hurst exponent on the size of fluctuations, the shape of the singularity spectra, the shape and relative disposition of the curves of the singular measures scaling exponent and the values of the associated parameters. Empirically, we demonstrate that the series of lengths of coding and non-coding sequences as well as the associated multifractal cross-correlation series can be approximated as universal multifractals. PMID:23313335
Measuring the lens focal length by laser reflection-confocal technology.
Yang, Jiamiao; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Shao, Rongjun; Li, Zhigang
2013-06-01
A laser reflection-confocal focal-length measurement (LRCFM) is proposed for the high-accuracy measurement of lens focal length. LRCFM uses the peak points of confocal response curves to precisely identify the lens focus and vertex of the lens last surface. LRCFM then accurately measures the distance between the two positions to determine the lens focal length. LRCFM uses conic fitting, which significantly enhances measurement accuracy by inhibiting the influence of environmental disturbance and system noise on the measurement results. The experimental results indicate that LRCFM has a relative expanded uncertainty of less than 0.0015%. Compared with existing measurement methods, LRCFM has high accuracy and a concise structure. Thus, LRCFM is a feasible method for high-accuracy focal-length measurements. PMID:23736337
Focal length measurement based on the wavefront difference method by a Fizeau interferometer.
Yang, Zhongming; Gao, Zhishan; Dou, Jiantai; Wang, Xinxing
2014-09-01
A method for measuring the focal length of the lens by a Fizeau interferometer is proposed. Based on the Gaussian imaging equation and the longitudinal displacements of the object point and image point, a precise formula for focal length calculation is deduced. The longitudinal displacement of the object points is determined by the wavefront difference method with a subnanometer resolution. An experimental system for focal length measurements is set up to verify the principle. The sources of uncertainty in measurement are discussed. Both the positive and negative lens experimental results indicate that the measurement accuracy is less than 0.16% under normal experimental environment. PMID:25321352
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tan-Sisman, Gulcin; Aksu, Meral
2012-01-01
"Knowing and doing measurement" is a fundamental competency in real life since measuring attributes of objects in appropriate units and using measuring tools assist students to quantify and understand the world. For this reason, the study of measurement has a special place in every mathematics curriculum. Among the domains of measurement, length
Eddy correlation measurements of submarine groundwater discharge
Crusius, J.; Berg, P.; Koopmans, D.J.; Erban, L.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a new, non-invasive means of quantifying groundwater discharge into marine waters using an eddy correlation approach. The method takes advantage of the fact that, in virtually all aquatic environments, the dominant mode of vertical transport near the sediment-water interface is turbulent mixing. The technique thus relies on measuring simultaneously the fluctuating vertical velocity using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and the fluctuating salinity and/or temperature using rapid-response conductivity and/or temperature sensors. The measurements are typically done at a height of 5-15??cm above the sediment surface, at a frequency of 16 to 64??Hz, and for a period of 15 to 60??min. If the groundwater salinity and/or temperature differ from that of the water column, the groundwater specific discharge (cm d- 1) can be quantified from either a heat or salt balance. Groundwater discharge was estimated with this new approach in Salt Pond, a small estuary on Cape Cod (MA, USA). Estimates agreed well with previous estimates of discharge measured using seepage meters and 222Rn as a tracer. The eddy correlation technique has several desirable characteristics: 1) discharge is quantified under in-situ hydrodynamic conditions; 2) salinity and temperature can serve as two semi-independent tracers of discharge; 3) discharge can be quantified at high temporal resolution, and 4) long-term records of discharge may be possible, due to the low power requirements of the instrumentation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ATLAS-3 correlative measurement opportunities with UARS and surface observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harrison, Edwin F.; Denn, Fred M.; Gibson, Gary G.
1995-01-01
The third ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission was flown aboard the Space Shuttle launched on November 3, 1994. The mission length was approximately 10 days and 22 hours. The ATLAS-3 Earth-viewing instruments provided a large number of measurements which were nearly coincident with observations from experiments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Based on ATLAS-3 instrument operating schedules, simulations were performed to determine when and where correlative measurements occurred between ATLAS and UARS instruments, and between ATLAS and surface observations. Results of these orbital and instrument simulations provide valuable information for scientists to compare measurements between various instruments on the two satellites and at selected surface sites.
Mahakizadeh, S; -Ghoroghi, F Moghani; Moshkdanian, Gh; Mokhtari, T; Hassanzadeh, G
2016-03-01
Estimation of stature is an important issue, which is significantly considered in forensic anthropology. It will be difficult to predict the identification of an individual when only some parts of dead body are discovered following disasters or criminal events. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between stature and upper limb and hand length in Iranian adults to generate regression formulae for stature estimation. Three anthropometric measurements; Stature, Upper Limb Length (ULL) and Hand Length (HL) were taken on subjects, comprising 142 male students (18-25 years) using standard measuring instruments. The data were analysed using SPSS 16. Then linear regression models were used to estimate stature. The results indicated a positive correlation between stature and upper limb and hand measurements. The correlation coefficient with upper limb length was r= 0.89 & p =0.0001 and with hand length was r= 0.78 & p =0.0001. In conclusion, we found a strong correlation between stature and upper limb and hand length. The regression analysis also showed that the Upper Limb Length give better prediction of stature compared to Hand length measurements. PMID:26795396
Diffusion length measurements using the scanning electron microscope. [in semiconductor devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weizer, V. G.
1975-01-01
A measurement technique employing the scanning electron microscope is described in which values of the true bulk diffusion length are obtained. It is shown that surface recombination effects can be eliminated through the application of highly doped surface field layers. The influence of high injection level effects and low-high junction current generation on the resulting measurement was investigated. Close agreement is found between the diffusion lengths measured by this method and those obtained using a penetrating radiation technique.
Measurement of the digit lengths and the anogenital distance in mice.
Manno, Francis Anthony Michael
2008-01-28
In humans, research has demonstrated the ratio of the 2nd to 4th digit lengths (2D:4D) are: (i) sexually dimorphic with males having a lower ratio than females, the latter having near equidistant lengths [J. Manning, D. Scutt, J. Wilson, & D. Lewis-Jones, (1998). The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen. Hum Reprod. 13(11):3000-3004], and are theorized to be (ii) determined in utero during gestational development [J. Manning, & P. Bundred, (2000). The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition? Med Hypotheses. 54(5):855-857], and (iii) correlated with prenatal androgen levels [J. Manning, & P. Bundred, (2000). The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition? Med Hypotheses. 54(5):855-857; J. Manning, R. Trivers, D. Singh, & R. Thornhill, (1999). The mystery of female beauty. Nature. 399:214-215; T. Williams, M. Pepitone, S. Christensen, B. Cooke, A. Huberman, N. Breedlove, et al., (2000). Finger-length ratios and sexual orientation: measuring people's finger patterns may reveal some surprising information. Nature. 404:455-456]. These phenotypes correspond to the hormonal effects of testosterone (i.e. androgens) in utero in both sexes. In mice, testosterone in utero is associated in males and females with the anogenital distance (AGD), a phenotype where AGD is greater in males and females contiguous with two males (2M) have a masculinized AGD phenotype whereas those juxtaposed to fewer males, one or zero (1M or 0M), have a more feminine phenotype, i.e. shorter AGD [F. vom Saal, & F. Bronson, (1980). Sexual characteristics of adult female mice are correlated with their blood testosterone levels during prenatal development. Science. 208:597-599; R. Gandelman, F. vom Saal, & J. Reinisch, (1977). Contiguity to male foetuses affects morphology and behaviour of female mice. Nature. 266:722-724; A. Hotchkiss, & J. Vandenbergh, (2005). The anogenital distance index of mice (Mus musculus domesticus): an analysis. Contem Top Lab Anim Sci. 44(4):46-48; C. Kinsley, J. Miele, C. Wagner, L. Ghiraldi, J. Broida, B. Svare, (1986). Prior intrauterine position influences body weight in male and female mice. Horm Behav. 20:201-211; S. Graham, R. Gandelman, (1986). The expression of ano-genital distance data in the mouse. Physiol Behav. 36(1):103-104; B. Ryan, & J. Vandenbergh, (2002). Intrauterine position effects. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 26(6):665-678; J. Vandenbergh, & C. Huggett, (1995). The anogenital distance index, a predictor of the intrauterine position effects on reproduction in female house mice. Lab Anim Sci. 45(5):567-573]. Furthermore, in humans AGD is sexually dimorphic with neonate males having a greater distance than females [E. Salazar-Martinez, P. Romano-Riquer, E. Yanez-Marquez, M. Longnecker, M. Hernandez-Avila, (2004). Anogenital distance in human male and female newborns: a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source. 2004:3:(8) (doi:10.1186/1476-069X-3-8) [12
Correlations of telomere length, P53 mutation, and chromosomal translocation in soft tissue sarcomas
Liu, Chunxia; Li, Bingcheng; Li, Li; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Yunzhao; Cui, Xiaobin; Hu, Jianming; Jiang, Jingfang; Qi, Yan; Li, Feng
2015-01-01
Background: Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors that can be divided into specific reciprocal translocation associated in STSs (SRTSs) and nonspecific reciprocal translocation associated in STSs (NRTSs). Telomeres play a key role in maintaining chromosomal stability; pathological telomere elongation is found in a number of cancers. In this study, we aimed to assess telomere lengths in the two types of sarcomas. Twenty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tissues, namely, 10 sarcomas with characteristic translocations and 10 without characteristic translocations, were included in this study. Expression levels of special fusion gene transcripts were detected in these tumors by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Telomere lengths were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results showed that in 10 of the 10 cases of SRTSs, telomere lengths were similar to or reduced compared with the surrounding normal cells. Telomere lengths were elongated in eight of 10 cases of NRTSs, but reduced in two cases. The difference in telomere length was statistically significant in the two types of sarcomas (P = 0.001). Upon combining the P53 mutation status, we found that the telomere length was short in eight cases, and only one case demonstrated p53 mutation. However, the telomere length was long in eight cases, and p53 mutation was observed in five cases. These data suggested that p53 mutation was accompanied with long telomeres, and telomeres possibly play an important role in NRTSs. Therefore, telomere-targeting therapy may lead to novel therapeutic strategies to improve treatment of NRTS patients. PMID:26191279
DNA as a Metrology Standard for Length and Force Measurements with Optical Tweezers
Rickgauer, John Peter; Fuller, Derek N.; Smith, Douglas E.
2006-01-01
Optical tweezers have broad applications in studies of structures and processes in molecular and cellular biophysics. Use of optical tweezers for quantitative molecular-scale measurement requires careful calibration in physical units. Here we show that DNA molecules may be used as metrology standards for force and length measurements. Analysis of DNA molecules of two specific lengths allows simultaneous determination of all essential measurement parameters. We validate this biological-calibration method experimentally and with simulated data, and show that precisions in determining length scale factor (∼0.2%), length offset (∼0.03%), force scale factor (∼2%), and compliance of the traps (∼3%) are limited only by current measurement variation, much of which arises from polydispersity of the microspheres (∼2%). We find this procedure to be simpler and more convenient than previous methods, and suggest that it provides an easily replicated standard that can insure uniformity of measurements made in different laboratories. PMID:16963512
Cross correlation for debris flow velocity measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arattano, M.
2003-04-01
The velocity of debris-flows cannot be easily measured through the classic techniques employed in hydraulics. In hydraulics velocity measurements are made through the use of current meters, through methods that appeal to the principle of critical flow (weirs, Venturi flumes, Parshall flumes etc.) or that make use of chemical tracers. Debris-flow fronts contain large boulders and their tails, which are certainly more fluid, remain charged with pebble-sized fragments. This impedes the use of current meters, weirs and flumes that would be damaged or destroyed by the passage of the flow. Thus debris flow velocity measurements require the use of remote sensors. A pair of ultrasonic sensors placed at a known distance from each other along the torrent have been used as a method to obtain mean front velocity of debris-flows. Also seismic and acoustic sensors have been employed to measure debris-flow front velocity and discharge in the same manner. However these methods require the presence of a well identifiable and defined main front in the debris flow wave. In fact the time lag between the recordings of the front of the wave at two consecutive stations allows an estimation of its mean velocity. When the front is not present cross correlation may help in identifying the mean velocity of the flow. This has been proved using the field data recorded through seismic and ultrasonic sensors in a small instrumented catchment on the Italian Alps.
Correlating Beauty and Two Measures of Pleasure.
Vale, Lauren; Gerger, Gernot; Leder, Helmut; Pelli, Denis
2015-01-01
When you look at your beauty and I look at mine, do we have the same feeling? Kant (1764) and Santayana (1896) say that the experience of beauty is pleasure, with qualifications. So we measure pleasure. Observers use Google Images to find an image that is beautiful to them. The observer is asked to look at that image and rate pleasure by continually adjusting the spread of two fingers to track the decaying pleasure they feel from the image. We record both the finger spread rating (on smartphone screen using our emotiontracker.net) and facial muscle activity (fEMG, facial electromyography of M. corrugator supercilii and M. zygomaticus major). We find a high correlation between the feeling of beauty (or liking) and fEMG and finger-rating responses. The rating correlation is 80% until 90 s after stimulus offset. This consistent finding across observers suggests that the two physiological responses, one overt and the other automatic, both track the pleasure of beauty. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325934
Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten
2016-01-26
Chirality is a fundamental scientific concept best described by the absence of mirror symmetry and the inability to superimpose an object onto its mirror image by translation and rotation. Chirality is expressed at almost all molecular levels, from single molecules to supramolecular systems, and present virtually everywhere in nature. Here, to explore how chirality propagates from a chiral nanoscale surface, we study gold nanoparticles functionalized with axially chiral binaphthyl molecules. In particular, we synthesized three enantiomeric pairs of chiral ligand-capped gold nanoparticles differing in size, curvature, and ligand density to tune the chirality transfer from nanoscale solid surfaces to a bulk anisotropic liquid crystal medium. Ultimately, we are examining how far the chirality from a nanoparticle surface reaches into a bulk material. Circular dichroism spectra of the gold nanoparticles decorated with binaphthyl thiols confirmed that the binaphthyl moieties form a cisoid conformation in isotropic organic solvents. In the chiral nematic liquid crystal phase, induced by dispersing the gold nanoparticles into an achiral anisotropic nematic liquid crystal solvent, the binaphthyl moieties on the nanoparticle surface form a transoid conformation as determined by imaging the helical twist direction of the induced cholesteric phase. This suggests that the ligand density on the nanoscale metal surfaces provides a dynamic space to alter and adjust the helicity of binaphthyl derivatives in response to the ordering of the surrounding medium. The helical pitch values of the induced chiral nematic phase were determined, and the helical twisting power (HTP) of the chiral gold nanoparticles calculated to elucidate the chirality transfer efficiency of the binaphthyl ligand capped gold nanoparticles. Remarkably, the HTP increases with increasing diameter of the particles, that is, the efficiency of the chirality transfer of the binaphthyl units bound to the nanoparticle surface is diminished as the size of the particle is reduced. However, in comparison to the free ligands, per chiral molecule all tested gold nanoparticles induce helical distortions in a 10- to 50-fold larger number of liquid crystal host molecules surrounding each particle, indicating a significantly enhanced chiral correlation length. We propose that both the helicity and the chirality transfer efficiency of axially chiral binaphthyl derivatives can be controlled at metal nanoparticle surfaces by adjusting the particle size and curvature as well as the number and density of the chiral ligands to ultimately measure and tune the chiral correlation length. PMID:26735843
Measurement of Quantum Correlation on Two-Mode Continuous State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zhen Hua; Li, Chong; Shi, Ying; Chen, Xin Yu
2016-02-01
In this paper, we investigated measurement of quantum correlation for two mode continuous variable systems, and constructed two operators to measure quantum correlation of continuous variable systems. These operators not only can be criteria for quantum correlation, but also can be measurement for quantum correlation.
Bunch length measurement at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector using a Martin-Puplett interferometer
Thurman-Keup, Randy; Fliller, Raymond Patrick; Kazakevich, Grigory; /Fermilab
2008-05-01
We present preliminary measurements of the electron bunch lengths at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector using a Martin-Puplett interferometer on loan from DESY. The photoinjector provides a relatively wide range of bunch lengths through laser pulse width adjustment and compression of the beam using a magnetic chicane. We present comparisons of data with simulations that account for diffraction distortions in the signal and discuss future plans for improving the measurement.
Optical fiber length measurement by external phase modulation type optical heterodyne reflectometry
Kimura, T.; Sawada, I.; Sasaki, N.; Noda, K. )
1989-04-01
A method for measuring optical fiber length is proposed and demonstrated experimentally with external phase modulation optical heterodyne reflectometry using a He-Ne laser as a light source. The system offers a simple length measuring method with satisfactory resolution. The reflected waves from fiber faults, if any, also can be detected by this method by observing two signals which occur at fault points and the fiber end.
Puchta, H; Hohn, B
1991-01-01
An assay to monitor homologous recombination in plant cells has been established by cotransfecting Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplasts with different topological forms of plasmids of various deletion mutants of a non-selectable marker gene, the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. Transient GUS enzyme activities were measured by a sensitive assay. In the nuclear DNA of the cotransfected protoplasts the recombined complete GUS gene could be detected by a specially modified PCR analysis. In comparison to the standard assay, which monitors homologous recombination by integration of a selectable marker, the described assay avoids position effects of gene expression, is fast, easy to handle and large numbers of samples can be processed simultaneously. We were able to demonstrate a positive correlation between the length of overlapping homology (up to 1200 base pairs) of the transfected supercoiled circular or linearized plasmids and the respective GUS activities. We found a significant drop in the recombination rates when the overlap of both substrates was reduced to 456 basepairs or less. The requirement for such a long stretch of homology for efficient recombination might ensure the stability of the rather repetitive plant genome. Images PMID:2041745
A comparison of two methods for measuring vessel length in woody plants.
Pan, Ruihua; Geng, Jing; Cai, Jing; Tyree, Melvin T
2015-12-01
Vessel lengths are important to plant hydraulic studies, but are not often reported because of the time required to obtain measurements. This paper compares the fast dynamic method (air injection method) with the slower but traditional static method (rubber injection method). Our hypothesis was that the dynamic method should yield a larger mean vessel length than the static method. Vessel length was measured by both methods in current year stems of Acer, Populus, Vitis and Quercus representing short- to long-vessel species. The hypothesis was verified. The reason for the consistently larger values of vessel length is because the dynamic method measures air flow rates in cut open vessels. The Hagen-Poiseuille law predicts that the air flow rate should depend on the product of number of cut open vessels times the fourth power of vessel diameter. An argument is advanced that the dynamic method is more appropriate because it measures the length of the vessels that contribute most to hydraulic flow. If all vessels had the same vessel length distribution regardless of diameter, then both methods should yield the same average length. This supports the hypothesis that large-diameter vessels might be longer than short-diameter vessels in most species. PMID:26084355
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sofia, Giulia; Marinello, Francesco; Tarolli, Paolo
2014-05-01
Terraces represent an outstanding example that displays centuries of a ubiquitous human-Earth interaction, in a very specific and productive way, and they are a significant part of numerous local economies. They, in fact, optimise the local resources for agricultural purposes, but also exploit marginal landscapes, expanding local populations. The ubiquity, variety, and importance of terraces have motivated studies designed to understand them better both as cultural and ecological features, but also as elements that can deeply influence runoff generation and propagation, contributing to local instabilities, and triggering or aggravating land degradation processes. Their vulnerability in the face of fast-growing urban settlements and the changes in agricultural practices is also well known, prompting protection measures strongly supported by local communities, but also by national and international projects. This work explores the spatial heterogeneity of terraced landscapes, identifying a proper indicator able to discriminate a terraced landscape respect to a more natural one. Recognizing and characterizing terraced areas can offer important multi-temporal insights into issues such as agricultural sustainability, indigenous knowledge systems, human-induced impact on soil degradation or erosive and landslide processes, geomorphological and pedologic processes that influence soil development, and climatic and biodiversity changes. More in detail, the present work introduces a new morphological indicator from LiDAR, effectively implementable for the automatic characterization of terraced landscapes. For the study, we tested the algorithm for environments that differ in term of natural morphology and terracing system. Starting from a LiDAR Digital Terrain Models (DTM), we considered the local auto-correlation (~local self-similarity) of the slope, calculating the correlation between a slope patch and its surrounding areas. We define the resulting map as the "Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation", or SLLAC map. The SLLAC map texture is characterized by the presence of peculiar elongated fibers that change depending on the landscape morphology, and on the type of terracing system. The differences in texture can be measured, and they can be used to discriminate terraced areas from more natural ones. Given the raising importance of these landscapes, the proposed procedure can offer an important and promising tool to explore the spatial heterogeneity of terraced sites.
Polarization gating enables sarcomere length measurements by laser diffraction in fibrotic muscle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, Kevin W.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Lieber, Richard L.
2014-11-01
Sarcomere length is a key parameter commonly measured in muscle physiology since it dictates striated muscle active force. Laser diffraction (LD)-based measurements of sarcomere length are time-efficient and sample a greater number of sarcomeres compared with traditional microscopy-based techniques. However, a limitation to LD techniques is that signal quality is severely degraded by scattering events as photons propagate through tissue. Consequently, sarcomere length measurements are unattainable when the number of scattering events is sufficiently large in muscle tissue with a high scattering probability. This occurs in fibrotic skeletal muscle seen in muscular dystrophies and secondary to tissue trauma, thus eliminating the use of LD to study these skeletal muscle ailments. Here, we utilize polarization gating to extract diffracted signals that are buried in noise created by scattering. Importantly, we demonstrate that polarization-gated laser diffraction (PGLD) enables sarcomere length measurements in muscles from chronically immobilized mice hind limbs; these muscles have a substantial increase of intramuscular connective tissue that scatter light and disable sarcomere length measurements by traditional LD. Further, we compare PGLD sarcomere lengths to those measured by bright field (BF) and confocal microscopy as positive controls and reveal a significant bias of BF but not of confocal microscopy.
Modified Sagnac interferometer for contact-free length measurement of a direct absorption cell.
Elandaloussi, Hadj; Rouillé, Christian; Marie-Jeanne, Patrick; Janssen, Christof
2016-03-10
Accurate path length measurements in absorption cells are recurrent requirements in quantitative molecular absorption spectroscopy. A new twin path laser interferometer for length measurements in a simple direct path absorption geometry is presented, along with a full uncertainty budget. The path in an absorption cell is determined by measuring the optical path length change due to the diminution of the refractive index when the cell originally filled with nitrogen gas is evacuated. The performance of the instrument based on a stabilized HeNe laser is verified by comparison with the results of direct mechanical length measurements of a roughly 45 mm long, specially designed absorption cell. Due to a resolution of about 1/300 of a HeNe fringe, an expanded (coverage factor k=2) uncertainty of 16 μm in the length measurement is achieved, providing an expanded relative uncertainty of 3.6·10^{-4} for the length of our test absorption cell. This value is about 8 times lower than what has been reported previously. The instrument will be useful for precision measurements of absorption cross sections of strong absorbers which require short light paths, such as ozone, halogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds in the UV. PMID:26974791
Polarization gating enables sarcomere length measurements by laser diffraction in fibrotic muscle
Young, Kevin W.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Lieber, Richard L.
2014-01-01
Abstract. Sarcomere length is a key parameter commonly measured in muscle physiology since it dictates striated muscle active force. Laser diffraction (LD)based measurements of sarcomere length are time-efficient and sample a greater number of sarcomeres compared with traditional microscopybased techniques. However, a limitation to LD techniques is that signal quality is severely degraded by scattering events as photons propagate through tissue. Consequently, sarcomere length measurements are unattainable when the number of scattering events is sufficiently large in muscle tissue with a high scattering probability. This occurs in fibrotic skeletal muscle seen in muscular dystrophies and secondary to tissue trauma, thus eliminating the use of LD to study these skeletal muscle ailments. Here, we utilize polarization gating to extract diffracted signals that are buried in noise created by scattering. Importantly, we demonstrate that polarization-gated laser diffraction (PGLD) enables sarcomere length measurements in muscles from chronically immobilized mice hind limbs; these muscles have a substantial increase of intramuscular connective tissue that scatter light and disable sarcomere length measurements by traditional LD. Further, we compare PGLD sarcomere lengths to those measured by bright field (BF) and confocal microscopy as positive controls and reveal a significant bias of BF but not of confocal microscopy. PMID:25422904
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Subramaniam, Karthigeyan
2014-01-01
Prospective secondary mathematics teachers' pedagogical knowledge for teaching the estimation of length measurements was investigated by examining their personal benchmarks for measurement estimation. Benchmarks for measurement estimation are the meaningful representations of units that serve to increase one's understanding of…
The Length of a Pestle: A Class Exercise in Measurement and Statistical Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Reilly, James E.
1986-01-01
Outlines the simple exercise of measuring the length of an object as a concrete paradigm of the entire process of making chemical measurements and treating the resulting data. Discusses the procedure, significant figures, measurement error, spurious data, rejection of results, precision and accuracy, and student responses. (TW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Subramaniam, Karthigeyan
2014-01-01
Prospective secondary mathematics teachers' pedagogical knowledge for teaching the estimation of length measurements was investigated by examining their personal benchmarks for measurement estimation. Benchmarks for measurement estimation are the meaningful representations of units that serve to increase one's understanding of
Wu, Min; Fraser, Robert F; Chen, Chang Wen
2004-09-01
The cervical length measured by transvaginal ultrasound is a proven clinical tool for predicting premature birth. The standard manual measurement of the cervix is limited by variability in the technique. In this research, we develop the first computer algorithm that is able to identify the anatomic landmarks of the cervix on a transvaginal ultrasound image and determine the standard cervical length. The system is composed of four stages: The first stage is adaptive speckle suppression using variable length sticks algorithm. The second stage is the location of the internal cervical opening or "os" using a region-based segmentation. The third stage is delineation of the cervical canal. The fourth stage uses gray level summation patterns and prior knowledge to first localize the tissue boundary of the external cervix, and then use a template to determine the specific location of the external os. The cervical length is determined and calculated to image scale. To validate the proposed algorithm, 101 cervical ultrasound images were selected from a series of 37 examinations performed on 17 patients over an eight-month period. Repeated measurements of cervical length using the computer-assisted method were compared with those carried out by two experienced sonographers. The median intraobserver variability for the 101 images using the computer-assisted method was significantly smaller than that of the manual method by either sonographer. In a pairwise comparison, the mean cervical length for the computer method matches with the mean manual cervical length. PMID:15484439
Godinho, Bruno M D C; Ogier, Julien R; Quinlan, Aoife; Darcy, Raphael; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F; O'Driscoll, Caitriona M
2014-10-01
Silencing disease-related genes in the central nervous system (CNS) using short interfering RNA (siRNA) holds great promise for treating neurological disorders. Yet, delivery of RNAi therapeutics to the brain poses major challenges to non-viral systems, especially when considering systemic administration. Cationic nanoparticles have been widely investigated for siRNA delivery, but the tendency of these to aggregate in physiological environments limits their intravenous application. Thus, strategies to increase the stability of nanoparticles have been developed. Here, we investigated the ability of modified cationic amphiphilic or PEGylated amphiphilic cyclodextrins (CD) to formulate stable CD.siRNA nanoparticles. To this end, we describe a simple method for post-modification of pre-formed cationic CD.siRNA nanoparticles at their surface using PEGylated CDs of different PEG lengths. PEGylated CD.siRNA nanoparticles presented reduced surface charges and increased stability in physiological salt conditions. Stability of PEGylated CD.siRNA nanoparticles in vitro increased with both PEG length and PEG density at the surface. Furthermore, in a comparative pharmacokinetic study, increased systemic exposure and reduced clearance were achieved with CD-formulations when compared to naked siRNAs. However, no significant differences were observed among non-PEGylated and PEGylated CD.siRNAs suggesting that longer PEG lengths might be required for improving stability in vivo. PMID:24992319
In-process Measuring of Capacitance Per Unit Length for Single-core Electric Wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldshtein, A. E.; Vavilova, G. V.; Mazikov, S. V.
2016-01-01
The paper describes technical in-process implementation of the electrical method to measure the electrical capacitance per unit length of a single core electric wire. The basic design values of the electro-capacitive measuring transducer are determined. The impact of changes in water conductivity on measurement results is analyzed. Techniques to offset from the impact of changes in water conductivity on the results of the electrical capacitance per unit length control based on indirect electrical conductivity measurement are considered. An appropriate correction of the conversion function is made.
Tyre contact length on dry and wet road surfaces measured by three-axial accelerometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matilainen, Mika; Tuononen, Ari
2015-02-01
We determined the tyre contact length on dry and wet roads by measuring the accelerations of the inner liner with a three-axial accelerometer. The influence of the tyre pressure, driving velocity, and tread depth on the contact length was studied in both types of road surface conditions. On dry asphalt the contact length was almost constant, regardless of the driving velocity. On wet asphalt the presence of water could be detected even at low driving velocities (e.g. 20 km/h for a worn tyre) as the contact length began to decrease from that found in the dry asphalt situation. In addition to improving the performance of active safety systems and driver warning systems, the contact length information could be beneficial for classifying and studying the aquaplaning behaviour of tyres.
2011-01-01
Triplet repeats contribute to normal variation in behavioral traits and when expanded, cause brain disorders. While Huntington's Disease is known to be caused by a CAG triplet repeat in the gene Huntingtin, the effect of CAG repeats on brain function below disease threshold has not been studied. The current study shows a significant correlation between the CAG repeat length of the maternal and paternal allele in the Huntingtin gene among healthy subjects, suggesting assortative mating. PMID:22008211
Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J
2015-01-01
Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977
Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J.
2015-01-01
Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977
Large-aperture ultra-long focal length measurement and its system by laser confocal techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhigang; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Guo, Yongkui; Yuan, Quan
2015-09-01
A new laser confocal ultralong focal length measurement method (LCFM) is proposed with the capability to self-calibrate the reference lens (RL) focal length and the axial space between the test lens and the RL. Using the property that the focus of a laser confocal ultralong focal length measurement system (LCFS) precisely corresponds to the peak point of the confocal axial intensity curve, the proposed LCFM measures the RL focal length f\\text{R}\\prime by precisely identifying the positions of the focus and the last surface of the RL, measures the axial space d0 between the RL and the test ultra-long focal-length lens (UFL) by identifying the last surface of the RL and the vertex of the UFL last surface, measures the variation l in focus position of the LCFS with and without the test UFL, and then calculates the UFL focal length f\\text{T}\\prime using the above-measured f\\text{R}\\prime , d0, and l. Furthermore, the LCFM uses conic fitting, which obviously enhances the measurement accuracy by reducing the influences of random disturbances. In addition, an LCFS based on the proposed method is developed for large aperture lens. The experimental results indicate that the relative uncertainty is less than 0.015% for the test UFL, which has an aperture of 610?mm and a focal length of 31?000?mm. Compared with existing methods, the LCFM utilizes a concise structure and has good stability, making it especially suitable for practical engineering applications.
Su, H.-C.; Chang, H.-H.; Hu, C.-W.; Lee, C.-H.; Wu, Y.-H.; Chang, L. J.; Ioffe, A.; Kraan, H. T.
2010-01-05
A new three dimensional neutron depolarization beamline was commissioning at W3 beam port of Tsing Hua Open Pool Reactor (THOR, 2 MW) located in Hsinchu, Taiwan. The beamline consists of a pair of Heusler crystals as neutron polarizer and analyzer. Two three-dimensional rotators were placed before and after the sample position. The sample chamber was enclosed in a mu-metal enclosure with a gradient field at incident and exit ports. Typically, 0.237 nm of monoenergetic neutron was selected for experiments. A flipping ratio of 23 can be obtained which corresponds to a polarization ratio of 92% of this beamline. The typical intensity is 400 n/cm{sup 2}s at 1 MW operation. Magnetic correlation lengths of Ni-ferrite powders with different packing densities were measured to understand the characteristics of this beamline. The magnetic correlation lengths were observed to be 2 mum at virgin state and about 3.1 mum at remanent state. This magnetic correlation length in the virgin state is similar than the particle size. No significant change of domain size at packing density up to 60% implies that the domain wall motion is hindered by the porosity of the sample.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Hui-Chia; Lee, Chih-Hao; Chang, Hsin-Ho; Wu, Yu-Han; Hu, Chih-Wei; Chang, L. J.; Ioffe, A.; Kraan, H. T.
2010-01-01
A new three dimensional neutron depolarization beamline was commissioning at W3 beam port of Tsing Hua Open Pool Reactor (THOR, 2 MW) located in Hsinchu, Taiwan. The beamline consists of a pair of Heusler crystals as neutron polarizer and analyzer. Two three-dimensional rotators were placed before and after the sample position. The sample chamber was enclosed in a μ-metal enclosure with a gradient field at incident and exit ports. Typically, 0.237 nm of monoenergetic neutron was selected for experiments. A flipping ratio of 23 can be obtained which corresponds to a polarization ratio of 92% of this beamline. The typical intensity is 400 n/cm2s at 1 MW operation. Magnetic correlation lengths of Ni-ferrite powders with different packing densities were measured to understand the characteristics of this beamline. The magnetic correlation lengths were observed to be 2 μm at virgin state and about 3.1 μm at remanent state. This magnetic correlation length in the virgin state is similar than the particle size. No significant change of domain size at packing density up to 60% implies that the domain wall motion is hindered by the porosity of the sample.
NIU, YU-JUN; ZHANG, XIANG-LIN; CAO, A-DAN; LENG, BING
2013-01-01
This study aimed to investigate the correlations between the detection rate of mural coronary artery (MCA) by 128-slice CT and the MCA compression extent in systole with myocardial bridge (MB) length and thickness. A retrospective analysis was conducted for 580 patients receiving multislicespiral CT coronary angiography (MSCTCA). In addition, the MCA incidence rate and position were detected, and the MB length and thickness in the left anterior descending branch (LAD) and MCA compression extent in systole were measured to compare the differences between MB-MCA length and thickness among the mild, moderate and severe groups. A total of 140 cases of MB-MCA (24.14%) were involved in the study. Among them, 104 cases occurred in the middle segment of the LAD (74.3%), 16 cases (11.4%) occurred in the distal segment of the LAD, 8 cases (5.7%) occurred in the left circumflex-obtuse marginal branch (LCX-OM), 7 cases (5.0%) occurred in the first diagonal branch (1st D), 3 cases (2.1%) in the intermediate branch (M) and 2 cases (1.5%) occurred in the posterior descending branch of the right coronary artery (RCA-PD). The mean length of the MB in the LAD was 21.805.98 mm, the mean thickness was 2.150.74 mm and the mean compression extent was 38.519.6%. Among the different groups, there were no significant difference in MB length (P>0.05) but there were significant differences in MB thickness (P<0.05). In addition, the extent of MCA compression in systole was linearly and positively correlated with MB thickness (r=0.408, P<0.05) but was not correlated with MB length (r=0.076, P>0.05). 128-slice CT coronary angiography (SCTCA) is able to accurately detect MB-MCA and evaluate the correlations of MCA compression extent in systole with MB length and thickness which provides a basis for its clinical use. PMID:23408740
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra; Winton, Carly; Barrientos, Jimmy
2012-02-01
Recent studies on microtubules composed of different ? tubulin isotypes indicate their different functionality in terms of their dynamical behavior or the mechanism of their interaction with chemotherapeutic drugs. Along these lines, the result of our recent study measuring the rigidity of neural and non-neural samples of microtubules with different ? tubulin isotype compositions suggests that the distinguished mechanical properties of microtubules, such as rigidity, may also be associated with the different distribution of their ? tubulin isotypes. In our current study, we have reported the persistence length of a single soybean microtubule. This plant microtubule has a structural composition different from that of mammalian microtubules. Under the same experimental methods of measurement, the soybean microtubules showed a different persistence length as compared to the value of the persistence length that we estimated in the study of both single Bovine Brain and MCF7 microtubules.
Measurement of long focal lengths with a double-grating interferometer.
Chen, Hao; He, Yong; Li, Jianxin; Lu, Heng
2013-09-20
A method for measuring long focal lengths using a double-grating interferometer is proposed. The intensity distribution of a double-grating interferometer illuminated by a spherical beam is derived with diffraction theory. A tiny rotation angle is set between the two gratings, and a high-contrast interference pattern is produced by the adjacent diffracted orders. The angular change in the fringes after insertion of a test lens is a measure of the focal length. The uncertainty due to aberration of the collimated beam was analyzed by measuring a series of lenses. The relative deviations are less than 0.1%. PMID:24085168
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schdel, R.
2015-08-01
Traceability of length measurements to the international system of units (SI) can be realized by using optical interferometry making use of well-known frequencies of monochromatic light sources mentioned in the Mise en Pratique for the realization of the metre. At some national metrology institutes, such as Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany, the absolute length of prismatic bodies (e.g. gauge blocks) is realized by so-called gauge-block interference comparators. At PTB, a number of such imaging phase-stepping interference comparators exist, including specialized vacuum interference comparators, each equipped with three highly stabilized laser light sources. The length of a material measure is expressed as a multiple of each wavelength. The large number of integer interference orders can be extracted by the method of exact fractions in which the coincidence of the lengths resulting from the different wavelengths is utilized as a criterion. The unambiguous extraction of the integer interference orders is an essential prerequisite for correct length measurements. This paper critically discusses coincidence criteria and their validity for three modes of absolute length measurements: 1) measurements under vacuum in which the wavelengths can be identified with the vacuum wavelengths, 2) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained from environmental parameters using an empirical equation, and 3) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained interferometrically by utilizing a vacuum cell placed along the measurement pathway. For case 3), which corresponds to PTBs Ksters-Comparator for long gauge blocks, the unambiguous determination of integer interference orders related to the air refractive index could be improved by about a factor of ten when an overall dispersion value, suggested in this paper, is used as coincidence criterion.
Zou, Xihua; Li, Ming; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Yan, Lianshan; Shao, Liyang
2014-05-01
Radio-frequency (RF) frequency shift of incoherent light source based optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) is employed to measure the optical length change. In the proposed OEO using an incoherent light source, the optical length under test is inserted in the optoelectronic hybrid loop. The frequency shift of RF oscillation modes at the output of the OEO reflects the optical length change, with the change being measured via frequency shift analysis. Two OEO configurations are theoretically designed and experimentally performed, while an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source serves as the incoherent light source. A linear relationship between the frequency shift and the optical length change has been confirmed for measurement, and a reconfigurable measurement sensitivity is available by selecting different oscillation modes. Moreover, the use of ASE greatly reduces the complexity and the cost for stabilization control on light source, while the derived results are consistent with that obtained in a laser source based OEO both in the measured optical length changes and the phase noise performance. A sensitivity of -28 KHz/cm, -480 KHz/cm or higher, and a resolution of nano-meter scale are obtained, which can be used to monitor the displacement, the changes in refractive index, temperature. PMID:24921811
16 CFR 500.12 - Measurement of commodities by length and width, how expressed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... square foot (929 cm2) be expressed in terms of length and width in linear measure. The customary inch... the linear dimensions, the quantity of contents, in addition to being declared in the manner... statement of the linear dimensions of the largest unit of measurement, a parenthetical declaration of...
Aubert, Geraldine; Hills, Mark; Lansdorp, Peter M
2012-02-01
Studies of telomeres and telomere biology often critically rely on the detection of telomeric DNA and measurements of the length of telomere repeats in either single cells or populations of cells. Several methods are available that provide this type of information and it is often not clear what method is most appropriate to address a specific research question. The major variables that need to be considered are the material that is or can be made available and the accuracy of measurements that is required. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the most commonly used methods and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. Methods that start with genomic DNA include telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length analysis, PCR amplification of telomere repeats relative to a single copy gene by Q-PCR or MMQPCR and single telomere length analysis (STELA), a PCR-based approach that accurately measures the full spectrum of telomere lengths from individual chromosomes. A different set of methods relies on fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect telomere repeats in individual cells or chromosomes. By including essential calibration steps and appropriate controls these methods can be used to measure telomere repeat length or content in chromosomes and cells. Such methods include quantitative FISH (Q-FISH) and flow FISH which are based on digital microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. Here the basic principles of various telomere length measurement methods are described and their strengths and weaknesses are highlighted. Some recent developments in telomere length analysis are also discussed. The information in this review should facilitate the selection of the most suitable method to address specific research question about telomeres in either model organisms or human subjects. PMID:21663926
Müllner, Tibor; Zankel, Armin; Lv, Yongqin; Svec, Frantisek; Höltzel, Alexandra; Tallarek, Ulrich
2015-10-21
A general, model-free, quantitative approach to the key morphological properties of a porous polymer monolith is presented. After 3D reconstruction, image-based analysis delivers detailed spatial and spatially correlated information on the structural heterogeneities in the void space and the polymer skeleton. Identified heterogeneities, which limit the monolith's performance in targeted applications, are traced back to the preparation process. PMID:26314251
Khatami, Saeid Reza; Galehdari, Hamid; Rasekh, Abdorrahman; Mombeini, Hayat; Konar, Elham
2015-01-01
Background The androgen receptor (AR) gene contains a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat that encodes a polyglutamine tract in its N-terminal transactivation domain (N- TAD). We aimed to find a correlation between the length of this polymorphic tract and azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods In this case-control study during two years till 2010, we searched for microdeletions in the Y chromosome in 84 infertile male patients with normal karyotype who lived in Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran. All cases (n=12) of azoospermia or oligozoospermia resulting from Y chromosome microdele- tions were excluded from our study. The number of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene was determined in 72 patients with azoospermia or oligozoospermia and in 72 fertile controls, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results Microdeletions were detected in 14.3% (n=12) patients suffering severe oligozoospermia. The mean CAG repeat length was 18.99 0.35 (range, 11-26) and 19.96 0.54 (range, 12-25) in infertile males and controls, respectively. Also in the infertile group, the most common allele was 19 (26.38%), while in controls, it was 25 (22.22%). Conclusion Y chromosome microdeletions could be one of the main reasons of male infertility living in Khuzestan Province, while there was no correlation between CAG length in AR gene with azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran. PMID:26246877
Chen, Qianghua; Luo, Huifu; Wang, Sumei; Wang, Feng; Chen, Xinhua
2012-09-01
A measurement method based on interferometry with two different reference cavity lengths is presented and applied in air refractive index measurement in which the two cavity lengths and a laser wavelength are combined to generate two wavelength equivalents of cavity. Corresponding calculation equations are derived, and the optical path configuration is designed, which is inspired by the traditional synthetic wavelength method. Theoretical analyses indicate that the measurement uncertainty of the determined index of refraction is about 2.310(-8), which is mainly affected by the length precision of the long vacuum cavity and the ellipticity of polarization components of the dual-frequency laser, and the range of nonambiguity is 3.010(-5), which is decided by the length difference of the two cavities. Experiment results show that the accuracy of air refractive index measurement is better than 5.010(-8) when the laboratory conditions changes slowly. The merit of the presented method is that the classical refractometry can be also used without evacuation of the gas cavity during the experiment. Furthermore, the application of the traditional synthetic wavelength method may be extended by using the wavelength equivalents of cavity, any value of which can be easily acquired by changing cavity length rather than using actual wavelengths whose number is limited. PMID:22945157
Langemo, Diane; Spahn, James; Spahn, Thomas; Pinnamaneni, V Chowdry
2015-03-01
The study objective was to examine precision in wound measurement using a recently Food and Drug Administration-approved Scout (WoundVision, LLC, Indianapolis, Indiana) device to measure wound length (L) and width (W). Wound perimeter and a ruler measurement of L and W were also made. Images of 40 actual patient wounds were measured using the Scout device. All 3 techniques (length, width, perimeter) demonstrated acceptable within and between reader precision; however, the best precision was in wound perimeter measurement. PMID:25679463
Bunch Length Measurements at the JLab FEL Using Coherent Transition and Synchrotron Radiation
Pavel Evtushenko; James Coleman; Kevin Jordan; J. Michael Klopf; George Neil; Gwyn Williams
2006-05-01
The JLab FEL is routinely operated with sub-picosecond bunches. The short bunch length is important for high gain of the FEL. Coherent transition radiation has been used for the bunch length measurements for many years [1]. This diagnostic can be used only in the pulsed beam mode. It is our goal to run the FEL with CW beam and a 74.85 MHz micropulse repetition rate, which, with the 135 pC nominal bunch charge corresponds to the beam average current of 10 mA. Hence it is very desirable to have the possibility of making bunch length measurements when running CW beam with any micropulse frequency. We use a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interferometer, which is essentially a Michelson interferometer, to measure the spectrum of the coherent synchrotron radiation generated in the last dipole of the magnetic bunch compressor upstream of the FEL wiggler. This noninvasive diagnostic provides bunch length measurements for CW beam operation at any micropulse frequency. We also compare the measurements made with the help of the FTIR interferometer with data obtained using the Martin-Puplett interferometer [1]. Results of the two diagnostics agree within 15 %. Here we present a description of the experimental setup, data evaluation procedure and results of the beam measurements.
Bunch Length Measurements at the JLab FEL Using Coherent Transition and Synchrotron Radiation
Evtushenko, P.; Coleman, J.; Jordan, K.; Klopf, J. Michael; Neil, G.; Williams, G. P.
2006-11-20
The JLab FEL is routinely operated with sub-picosecond bunches. The short bunch length is important for high gain of the FEL. Coherent transition radiation has been used for the bunch length measurements for many years. This diagnostic can be used only in the pulsed beam mode. It is our goal to run the FEL with CW beam and a 74.85 MHz micropulse repetition rate, which, with the 135 pC nominal bunch charge corresponds to the beam average current of 10 mA, Hence it is very desirable to have the possibility of making bunch length measurements when running CW beam with any micropulse frequency. We use a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interferometer, which is essentially a Michelson interferometer, to measure the spectrum of the coherent synchrotron radiation generated in the last dipole of the magnetic bunch compressor upstream of the FEL wiggler. This noninvasive diagnostic provides bunch length measurements for CW beam operation at any micropulse frequency. We also compare the measurements made with the help of the FTIR interferometer with data obtained using the Martin-Puplett interferometer. Results of the two diagnostics agree within 15 %. Here we present a description of the experimental setup, data evaluation procedure and results of the beam measurements.
Bunch Length Measurements at the JLab FEL Using Coherent Transition and Synchrotron Radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evtushenko, P.; Coleman, J.; Jordan, K.; Klopf, J. Michael; Neil, G.; Williams, G. P.
2006-11-01
The JLab FEL is routinely operated with sub-picosecond bunches. The short bunch length is important for high gain of the FEL. Coherent transition radiation has been used for the bunch length measurements for many years. This diagnostic can be used only in the pulsed beam mode. It is our goal to run the FEL with CW beam and a 74.85 MHz micropulse repetition rate, which, with the 135 pC nominal bunch charge corresponds to the beam average current of 10 mA, Hence it is very desirable to have the possibility of making bunch length measurements when running CW beam with any micropulse frequency. We use a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interferometer, which is essentially a Michelson interferometer, to measure the spectrum of the coherent synchrotron radiation generated in the last dipole of the magnetic bunch compressor upstream of the FEL wiggler. This noninvasive diagnostic provides bunch length measurements for CW beam operation at any micropulse frequency. We also compare the measurements made with the help of the FTIR interferometer with data obtained using the Martin-Puplett interferometer. Results of the two diagnostics agree within 15 %. Here we present a description of the experimental setup, data evaluation procedure and results of the beam measurements.
Correlation measurements in the optical range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlov, A. A.; Moskaletz, O. D.; Moskaletz, D. O.
2015-09-01
The review of the radio pulses acousto-optical correlator allows us to create an algorithm for calculation the correlation functions on the basis of pre-calculated instantaneous spectra of correlated pulse signals and it is given its interpretation in the form of a functional scheme. The new definition of the instantaneous spectrum explaining the operation of real spectral devices: an acousto-optical spectrum analyzer of radio signals and diffraction (lattice) spectral optical analyzer was introduced. Mathematical identity complex spread functions of acousto-optic spectrum analyzer of radio signals and optical diffraction spectral analyzer allows us to put the question about the implementation of the correlation of the optical pulse signals based on diffractive optical spectral analyzers.
Longitudinal-to-Transverse Mapping for Femtosecond Electron Bunch Length Measurement
Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; /SLAC
2010-08-25
A longitudinal-to-transverse mapping technique is proposed to measure the length and temporal profile of ultrashort electron bunches. In this scheme a special chicane and a radio-frequency deflecting cavity are used to transform the beam's longitudinal distribution into angular distribution which is further converted to transverse distribution after a parallel-to-point imaging beam line. With this technique, the temporal profile of the electron beam is exactly mapped to the transverse profile. This makes it possible to measure ultrashort electron bunch length with a resolution well beyond 1 femtosecond.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flat, A.; Milnes, A. G.
1978-01-01
In scanning electron microscope (SEM) injection measurements of minority carrier diffusion lengths some uncertainties of interpretation exist when the response current is nonlinear with distance. This is significant in epitaxial layers where the layer thickness is not large in relation to the diffusion length, and where there are large surface recombination velocities on the incident and contact surfaces. An image method of analysis is presented for such specimens. A method of using the results to correct the observed response in a simple convenient way is presented. The technique is illustrated with reference to measurements in epitaxial layers of GaAs. Average beam penetration depth may also be estimated from the curve shape.
Tricot, G; Saitoh, A; Takebe, H
2015-11-28
The structure of tin borophosphate glasses, considered for the development of low temperature sealing glasses or anode materials for Li-batteries, has been analysed at the intermediate length scale by a combination of high field standard and advanced 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The nature and extent of B/P mixing were analysed using the (11)B((31)P) dipolar heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence NMR sequence and the data interpretation allowed (i) detecting the presence and analysing the nature of the B-O-P linkages, (ii) re-interpreting the 1D (31)P spectra and (iii) extracting the proportion of P connected to borate species. Interaction between the different borate species was analysed using the (11)B double quantum-simple quantum experiment to (i) investigate the presence and nature of the B-O-B linkage, (ii) assign the different borate species observed all along the composition line and (iii) monitor the borate network formation. In addition, (119)Sn static NMR was used to investigate the evolution of the chemical environment of the tin polyhedra. Altogether, the set of data allowed determining the structural units constituting the glass network and quantifying the extent of B/P mixing. The structural data were then used to explain the non-linear and unusual evolution of the glass transition temperature. PMID:26186677
An Imaging System for Automated Characteristic Length Measurement of Debrisat Fragments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moraguez, Mathew; Patankar, Kunal; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, Marlon; Cowardin, Heather; Opiela, John; Krisko, Paula H.
2015-01-01
The debris fragments generated by DebriSat's hypervelocity impact test are currently being processed and characterized through an effort of NASA and USAF. The debris characteristics will be used to update satellite breakup models. In particular, the physical dimensions of the debris fragments must be measured to provide characteristic lengths for use in these models. Calipers and commercial 3D scanners were considered as measurement options, but an automated imaging system was ultimately developed to measure debris fragments. By automating the entire process, the measurement results are made repeatable and the human factor associated with calipers and 3D scanning is eliminated. Unlike using calipers to measure, the imaging system obtains non-contact measurements to avoid damaging delicate fragments. Furthermore, this fully automated measurement system minimizes fragment handling, which reduces the potential for fragment damage during the characterization process. In addition, the imaging system reduces the time required to determine the characteristic length of the debris fragment. In this way, the imaging system can measure the tens of thousands of DebriSat fragments at a rate of about six minutes per fragment, compared to hours per fragment in NASA's current 3D scanning measurement approach. The imaging system utilizes a space carving algorithm to generate a 3D point cloud of the article being measured and a custom developed algorithm then extracts the characteristic length from the point cloud. This paper describes the measurement process, results, challenges, and future work of the imaging system used for automated characteristic length measurement of DebriSat fragments.
Research on all fiber beat length measurement system for polarization-maintaining fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Li; Feng, Lishuang; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Hong, Lingfei
2011-05-01
Polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) has attracted great attentions not only due to its ability to realize coherent optic communication with ultrahigh-capacity, but also because it can be widely employed in high-precise fiber-optic sensors and optic information processors, e.g., fiber-optic gyroscope and fiber-optic amperemeter. Distinct with common monomode optic fibers, additional birefringence is introduced in the PMF, minimizing the effect of mode coupling between two orthogonal polarization modes in optic fibers. Thus, light polarization can be maintained after long distance transmission in the PMF. However, beat-length, which reflects the characteristic of induced birefringence and evaluates the ability of polarization maintaining, is one of the most important parameters for PMF. Accurate measurement of PMF beat length becomes more and more important along with the expanding of its application field. The uniqueness of the measurement results determines the identity of PMF fabrication and the resolution of fiber-optic sensors. The existing measurement methods for PMF beat length are introduced first. Most testing setups are established by several individual components, which lead to complicated setup, inconvenient testing, and unsteady measurement. In this paper, a novel all fiber beat length measurement system is presented, where optic source, integrated optic modulator, stress apply structure, polarization detector, and polarization indicator of output light are included. The configuration and working principle of the whole system, and the designing and realization of each components, are addressed in the paper. Furthermore, the influence on measurement results by the relative direction between applied stress and principal axis of the optic fiber is analyzed. Moreover, optimized designs, including polarized light incidence, pressure apply, and precise movement systems, are performed, which ensure the identical pressure apply direction in the moving process. Finally, measurement of PMF samples is carried out on experimental setup. In comparison with the other existing system, due to its all fiber light incidence structure, the novel beat length measurement system represents great stability and high reliability.
Research on all fiber beat length measurement system for polarization-maintaining fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Li; Feng, Lishuang; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Hong, Lingfei
2010-12-01
Polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) has attracted great attentions not only due to its ability to realize coherent optic communication with ultrahigh-capacity, but also because it can be widely employed in high-precise fiber-optic sensors and optic information processors, e.g., fiber-optic gyroscope and fiber-optic amperemeter. Distinct with common monomode optic fibers, additional birefringence is introduced in the PMF, minimizing the effect of mode coupling between two orthogonal polarization modes in optic fibers. Thus, light polarization can be maintained after long distance transmission in the PMF. However, beat-length, which reflects the characteristic of induced birefringence and evaluates the ability of polarization maintaining, is one of the most important parameters for PMF. Accurate measurement of PMF beat length becomes more and more important along with the expanding of its application field. The uniqueness of the measurement results determines the identity of PMF fabrication and the resolution of fiber-optic sensors. The existing measurement methods for PMF beat length are introduced first. Most testing setups are established by several individual components, which lead to complicated setup, inconvenient testing, and unsteady measurement. In this paper, a novel all fiber beat length measurement system is presented, where optic source, integrated optic modulator, stress apply structure, polarization detector, and polarization indicator of output light are included. The configuration and working principle of the whole system, and the designing and realization of each components, are addressed in the paper. Furthermore, the influence on measurement results by the relative direction between applied stress and principal axis of the optic fiber is analyzed. Moreover, optimized designs, including polarized light incidence, pressure apply, and precise movement systems, are performed, which ensure the identical pressure apply direction in the moving process. Finally, measurement of PMF samples is carried out on experimental setup. In comparison with the other existing system, due to its all fiber light incidence structure, the novel beat length measurement system represents great stability and high reliability.
Focal length measurement of a varifocal liquid lens with capacitance detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noda, Kentaro; Binh-Khiem, Nguyen; Takei, Yusuke; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao
2014-04-01
This paper reports on a detailed deformation model of varifocal liquid lenses fabricated by Parylene-on-liquid-deposition (POLD), which can be applied to measure and adjust the focal length of such lenses without using extra sensors or sensing mechanisms. The lens was fabricated by encapsulating a liquid between a transparent electrode and a polymer film that was covered with a metal electrode. When voltage is applied to the two electrodes, the lens deforms due to the electrostatic force, and its focal length and the capacitance between the two electrodes change simultaneously. This characteristic enables the focal length of the lens to be adjusted and detected by measuring the capacitance change. The focal length of the fabricated varifocal liquid lens changed from 153.6 to 82.6 mm by applying 150-V. The focal length change of the liquid lens was calculated from the change in its capacitance. Finally, to confirm the efficiency of this varifocal liquid lens, we fabricated a confocal distance sensor using the lens for laser scanning and demonstrated that this system can be used to measure distances of 94-140 mm with an average error of 0.83 mm and a standard deviation of 0.77 mm.
Improving surface measurement by adaptive focal length adjustment and approximation networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apolinar Muoz Rodrguez, J.
2013-06-01
A three-dimensional model to perform measurements of variable range is presented. This model is performed by a Bezier network via projection of a laser line and an adaptive focal length. The variation of the measurement range is provided by the adjustment of the camera placement and the focal length. The modifications of these parameters are determined by image processing of the laser line during the vision task. The initial calibration of the vision parameters is deduced by means of the variation of focal length. The technique is applied to retrieve the contour of complex shapes by means of the adjustment of the measurement range. This technique avoids external re-calibration to compute the surface depth when the measurement range is adjusted. Therefore, the accuracy of the surface measurement is improved. It is because the errors of re-calibration are not added to the system during the measurement process. The change of the measurement range is achieved in fractions of a second. The contribution of this technique is stated by an evaluation based on the lighting methods that perform measurements of variable range. Also, the time to obtain measurements of variable range is described in the evaluation.
Quantum information as a measure of multipartite correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phoenix, Simon J. D.
2015-10-01
The mutual information has been successfully used as a measure of correlation strength between quantum systems, especially for bipartite systems. Here, we examine the use of this measure for multipartite quantum systems. For system of qubits, we find that the difference between `classical' and `quantum' regimes of correlation strength amounts to just 1 bit of information, at most. We show that the information content of a correlation can be expanded into correlations between pairwise components and demonstrate that in terms of this information-based measure of correlation the GHZ states are the only states that simultaneously optimise these pairwise correlations for systems of qubits.
Lifetime and diffusion length measurements on silicon material and solar cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Othmer, S.; Chen, S. C.
1978-01-01
Experimental methods were evaluated for the determination of lifetime and diffusion length in silicon intentionally doped with potentially lifetime-degrading impurities found in metallurgical grade silicon, impurities which may be residual in low-cost silicon intended for use in terrestrial flat-plate arrays. Lifetime measurements were made using a steady-state photoconductivity method. Diffusion length determinations were made using short-circuit current measurements under penetrating illumination. Mutual consistency among all experimental methods was verified, but steady-state photoconductivity was found preferable to photoconductivity decay at short lifetimes and in the presence of traps. The effects of a number of impurities on lifetime in bulk material, and on diffusion length in cells fabricated from this material, were determined. Results are compared with those obtained using different techniques. General agreement was found in terms of the hierarchy of impurities which degrade the lifetime.
Zhang, Wenlu; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 ; Lin, Zhihong; Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871
2013-10-15
Using the canonical perturbation theory, we show that the orbit-averaged theory only requires a time-scale separation between equilibrium and perturbed motions and verifies the widely accepted notion that orbit averaging effects greatly reduce the microturbulent transport of energetic particles in a tokamak. Therefore, a recent claim [Hauff and Jenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 075004 (2009); Jenko et al., ibid. 107, 239502 (2011)] stating that the orbit-averaged theory requires a scale separation between equilibrium orbit size and perturbation correlation length is erroneous.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahm, T. S.; Burrell, K. H.
1996-01-01
The radial correlation length of the turbulence responsible for transport can have a different gyroradius scaling in low (L)-mode and high (H)-mode plasmas due to E×B flow shear effects, as predicted by the two-point nonlinear analysis in general tokamak geometry [Phys. Plasmas 2, 1648 (1995)]. This difference offers a possible understanding of the recent ρ*-scan experiment results on DIII-D [Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)] L-mode and H-mode plasmas [Phys. Plasmas 2, 2342 (1995)]. Within our model, thermal diffusivity in H-mode plasmas scales like gyro-Bohm, independent of the scaling in L-mode plasmas.
Failure of the Cross Correlation Measurement Technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGill, Ken; Ham, Katie; Schock, Kris
2014-03-01
The experiment involves creating a sound wave that propagates down a pipe with 8 transducers attached at equally spaced intervals of 0.01016 meters. The numerical method used to solve for the phase component, the Cross Correlation Method, creates a high correlation value, but the speed of sound varies immensely. The method involves a Fast Fourier Transform of the collected data, which is used to find the phase of the sound wave, and the slope of the position versus time graph, which is used to calculate the speed of sound. This high correlation values shows that the data is correct, but the numerical method for analyzing the data is incorrect. We would like to thank Dr. Ken McGill for all of his time, help, and guidance with this research project. We would also like to thank Georgia College and State University for both the resources and space necessary for this experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astashev, M. E.; Belosludtsev, K. N.; Kharakoz, D. P.
2014-05-01
One of the most accurate methods for measuring the compressibility of liquids is resonance measurement of sound velocity in a fixed-length interferometer. This method combines high sensitivity, accuracy, and small sample volume of the test liquid. The measuring principle is to study the resonance properties of a composite resonator that contains a test liquid sample. Ealier, the phase-locked loop (PLL) scheme was used for this. In this paper, we propose an alternative measurement scheme based on digital analysis of harmonic signals, describe the implementation of this scheme using commercially available data acquisition modules, and give examples of test measurements with accuracy evaluations of the results.
Heltshe, Sonya L.; Borowitz, Drucy S.; Leung, Daniel H.; Ramsey, Bonnie; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole
2014-01-01
Background CF infants often do not grow as expected which adversely affects later clinical outcomes, thus sensitive early measures of growth deficiency are important. This study compared attained growth for age with velocity standards to determine which better predicts growth deficits at 24 months of age. Methods Growth deficiency in infancy based on weight and length velocity, and attained growth was calculated for 1,992 infants in the US CF Foundation National Registry using the World Health Organization (WHO) and US growth standards. One, two, and three month increments were used for calculating velocity and pooled for each age interval. Sensitivity and specificity of early indicators to predict growth deficiency at 24 months were calculated. Results Observed prevalence of weight deficiency (<10th percentile) during the first year of life was 26.8% higher (95%CI=(25.6, 28.1%), p<0.001) on average when measured by attained weight for age than velocity. Attained weight for age at four months was a more sensitive predictor of diminished weight for age (<10th percentile) at 24 months (sensitivity=100%, 95%CI=(87, 100%)) than weight velocity (sensitivity=40%, 95%CI=(23, 59%)). Attained length at four months was more sensitive to detecting subsequent stunting (<10th percentile length for age) (77%, 95%CI=(62, 87%)) than length velocity (30%, 95%CI=(19, 45%)). Conclusions In CF infancy, attained weight or length are more sensitive than velocity-based definitions for predicting subsequent diminished growth. PMID:24917114
Sub-picosecond bunch length measurement at the TESLA test facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geitz, M.; Schmidt, G.; Schmüser, P.; Walter, G. v.
2000-05-01
Sub-picosecond electron bunches are required for the operation of future VUV and X-ray Free Electron Lasers. A streak camera, a Martin-Puplett interferometer and a longitudinal phase space rotation method have been applied at the TESLA Test Facility linac to measure electron bunch lengths.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, John P., III; Males, Lorraine M.; Dietiker, Leslie C.; Lee, KoSze; Mosier, Aaron
2013-01-01
Extensive research has shown that elementary students struggle to learn the basic principles of length measurement. However, where patterns of errors have been documented, the origins of students' difficulties have not been identified. This study investigated the hypothesis that written elementary mathematics curricula contribute to the
Understanding the influence of fiber length on the HVI measurement of cotton fiber strength
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
An earlier study confirmed the influence of cotton fiber length characteristics on the HVITM strength measurement and devised a quantitative correction factor to compensate for the effect. The current paper investigated the validity of two important assumptions utilised in the previous study. Firs...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Hydrologic and morphological properties of claypan landscapes cause variability in soybean root and shoot biomass. This study was conducted to develop predictive models of soybean root length density distribution (RLDd) using direct measurements and sensor based estimators of claypan morphology. A c...
Focal length measurement of a microlens-array by grating shearing interferometry.
Zhu, Xianchang; Hu, Song; Zhao, Lixin
2014-10-10
Based on grating shearing interferometry, a simple technique is introduced for focal length measurements of a microlens-array (MLA). The measurement system is composed of a He-Ne laser, condenser, collimator, the MLA under testing, a Ronchi grating, and CCD sensor. The plane wavefront from the collimator is transformed to a spherical wavefront by the MLA, while the curvature center is at the focus. Interference stripes appear at the overlap between the zero-order and first-order diffractive patterns of the grating and are detected by the CCD sensor. By analyzing the period change of stripes, the focal length is determined after the defocus of the grating is calculated. To validate the feasibility, an experiment is performed. The measurement uncertainty is discussed and measurement accuracy was determined to be 2%. PMID:25322367
Jones, Stephanie D; Wallman, James F; Byrne, Phillip G
2015-12-01
The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis proposes that secondary sexual characters (SSCs) advertise a male's fertility to prospective mates. However, findings from empirical studies attempting to test this hypothesis are often ambivalent or even contradictory, and few studies have simultaneously evaluated how both morphological and behavioural SSCs relate to ejaculate characteristics. Males of the small hairy maggot blowfly, Chrysomya varipes, possess conspicuous foreleg ornaments and display highly stereotyped courtship behaviour. These traits are favoured by females during pre-copulatory mate choice, but it remains unknown whether they correlate with post-copulatory traits expected to influence male fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate whether male courtship and ornamentation correlate with testis size and sperm length in C. varipes. We found that males investing more in courtship had bigger testes, and males with more extensive foreleg ornamentation released sperm with longer tails. Based on the assumption that larger testes enable males to produce more sperm, and that sperm with longer tails have greater propulsive force, our findings suggest that more vigorous and more ornamented males may be more fertile. These findings lend support to the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis. However, a complete test of this hypothesis will require evaluating whether testis size and sperm length influence male fertilisation ability, as well as female fecundity and/or fertility. PMID:26297128
Infrared Spectroscope for Electron Bunch-length Measurement: Heat Sensor Parameters Analysis
Domgmo-Momo, Gilles; /Towson U. /SLAC
2012-09-05
The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is used for many experiments. Taking advantage of the free electron laser (FEL) process, scientists of various fields perform experiments of all kind. Some for example study protein folding; other experiments are more interested in the way electrons interact with the molecules before they are destroyed. These experiments among many others have very little information about the electrons x-ray produced by the FEL, except that the FEL is using bunches less than 10 femtoseconds long. To be able to interpret the data collected from those experiments, more accurate information is needed about the electron's bunch-length. Existing bunch length measurement techniques are not suitable for the measurement of such small time scales. Hence the need to design a device that will provide more precise information about the electron bunch length. This paper investigates the use of a pyreoelectric heat sensor that has a sensitivity of about 1.34 micro amps per watt for the single cell detector. Such sensitivity, added to the fact that the detector is an array sensor, makes the detector studied the primary candidate to be integrated to an infrared spectrometer designed to better measure the LCLS electron bunch length.
Taketani, Kaori; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori; Takakuwa, Tetsuya
2015-05-01
Normal growth of the lateral ventricles (LVs) was characterized three-dimensionally using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 16 human fetuses at 16-25 weeks of gestation. The LV was differentiated into four primary regions, the anterior horn, central parts, posterior horn, and inferior horn, at 16 weeks of gestation. The LV changed shape mainly by elongation and narrowing, which corresponded to the external and internal growth of the surrounding cerebrum. Six length parameters measured in the LV correlated with biparietal diameter by simple regression analysis (R(2) range, 0.56-0.93), which may be valuable for establishing a standardized prenatal protocol to assess fetal well-being and development across intrauterine periods. No correlation was found between biparietal diameter and LV volume (R(2) = 0.13). PMID:25059317
Methods and apparatus for measuring a length of cable suspending a well logging tool in a borehole
Broding, R.A.
1986-07-01
A system is described for measuring depth from the mouth of a borehole to a well logging tool connected to one end of an electrically conductive cable suspended in the borehole comprising: means for applying an initial electrical time pulse signal to one end of the cable, whereby the initial electrical time pulse signal propagates the length of the cable to one end of the cable to the well logging tool connected to the other end of the cable; means for detecting at the mouth of the borehole, which is intermediate both ends of the cable, the passage of the initial electrical time pulse signal along the length of the cable; means for detecting at the mouth of the borehole a subsequent electrical time pulse propagating along the length of the cable reflected from the other end of the cable; means for determining a time interval between the detection of the initial electrical time pulse signal at the mouth of the borehole and the detection of the subsequent electrical time pulse signal at the mouth of the borehole; and means for correlating the time interval with the depth to which the well logging tool is suspended in the borehole as measured from the mouth of the borehole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitkin, M.
2015-08-01
There have been recent claims (Anderson et al., EPL, 110, 10002) of a 5.9 year periodicity in measurements of Newton's gravitational constant, $G$, which show a very strong correlation with observed periodic variations in the length of the day. I have used Bayesian model comparison to test this claim compared to other hypotheses that could explain the variation in the $G$ measurements. I have used the data from the initial claim, and from an updated set of compiled $G$ measurements that more accurately reflect the experimental dates, and find that a model containing an additional unknown Gaussian noise component is hugely favoured, by factors of $\\gtrsim e^{30}$, over two models allowing for a sinusoidal component.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, C.; Zhang, J.; Yang, D.; Zhou, B.; Tang, G.; Wang, S.
2009-02-01
The fundamental measurement theory of an electrostatic probe and cross-correlation velocity measurement method are introduced in the paper. The effects of the probe's geometric parameters including the length of the probe, the thickness, the length and the relative permittivity of the dielectric pipe, the radius of the screen on the dimensionless calibration coefficient (k) and the statistical error of the transit time (?m) of the correlation velocity measurement system using electrostatic probes were investigated theoretically. Finally the measurement system was applied in a 10 mm bore horizontal section of a dense phase pneumatic conveying system under high pressure circulating pulverized coal over a superficial air velocity range of 0.5-7 m/s for a particle concentration 0.052-0.141 m3/m3. Experimental results obtained demonstrate that the system is capable of providing solid particle velocity measurements with repeatability better than 10 % under the given experimental conditions.
Family-portraits for daphnids: scanning living individuals and populations to measure body length.
Agatz, Annika; Hammers-Wirtz, Monika; Gergs, Andre; Mayer, Tanja; Preuss, Thomas G
2015-08-01
A method has been developed and tested to determine the body length of living daphnids. The purpose of the method was the simple, accurate, repeatable, quick, and to the living organism, harmless measurement of body length of all individuals in a population to enhance the capability of observing population development over time. Generally, organisms are transferred to a petri dish and temporarily fixed by removing access medium. A picture of the petri dish is taken using an ordinary flatbed scanner. Pictures are manually analysed with purposely developed software. We found no significant impact of the method on either individual performance (growth and reproduction) or population development (abundance and structure) of daphnids in comparison to the previously used method for data gathering (sieving, counting and length measurement of a subsample via microscopy). The disadvantage of our method, an increased demand in time for picture analysis, is negligible compared to the advantages this method has. Data generated with the new method do represent the population structure more accurately than those data generated with the previously used method. Scanning organisms does also allow a retrospective quality control for generated data as pictures can securely be stored. The quality of the pictures is furthermore sufficient to include additional endpoints to the analysis (e.g., number and size of aborts, number and size of eggs in the brood pouch, spine length). Here, we present, test and discuss an alternative approach to automated image analysis for data gathering in single and multiple individual and species experiments. PMID:26048239
Measurement of Two-Plasmon-Decay Dependence on Plasma Density Scale Length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haberberger, D.
2013-10-01
An accurate understanding of the plasma scale-length (Lq) conditions near quarter-critical density is important in quantifying the hot electrons generated by the two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability in long-scale-length plasmas. A novel target platform was developed to vary the density scale length and an innovative diagnostic was implemented to measure the density profiles above 1021 cm-3 where TPD is expected to have the largest growth. A series of experiments was performed using the four UV (351-nm) beams on OMEGA EP that varied the Lq by changing the radius of curvature of the target while maintaining a constant Iq/Tq. The fraction of laser energy converted to hot electrons (fhot) was observed to increase rapidly from 0.005% to 1% by increasing the plasma scale length from 130 ?m to 300 ?m, corresponding to target diameters of 0.4 mm to 8 mm. A new diagnostic was developed based on refractometry using angular spectral filters to overcome the large phase accumulation in standard interferometric techniques. The angular filter refractometer measures the refraction angles of a 10-ps, 263-nm probe laser after propagating through the plasma. An angular spectral filter is used in the Fourier plane of the probe beam, where the refractive angles of the rays are mapped to space. The edges of the filter are present in the image plane and represent contours of constant refraction angle. These contours are used to infer the phase of the probe beam, which are used to calculate the plasma density profile. In long-scale-length plasmas, the diagnostic currently measures plasma densities from ~1019 cm-3 to ~2 1021 cm-3. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944. In collaboration with D. H. Edgell, S. X. Hu, S. Ivancic, R. Boni, C. Dorrer, and D. H. Froula (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, U. of Rochester).
Is Socioeconomic Status Associated With Biological Aging as Measured by Telomere Length?
Robertson, Tony; Batty, G. David; Der, Geoff; Fenton, Candida; Shiels, Paul G.; Benzeval, Michaela
2013-01-01
It has been hypothesized that one way in which lower socioeconomic status (SES) affects health is by increasing the rate of biological aging. A widely used marker of biological aging is telomere length. Telomeres are structures at the ends of chromosomes that erode with increasing cell proliferation and genetic damage. We aimed to identify, through systematic review and meta-analysis, whether lower SES (greater deprivation) is associated with shorter telomeres. Thirty-one articles, including 29 study populations, were identified. We conducted 3 meta-analyses to compare the telomere lengths of persons of high and low SES with regard to contemporaneous SES (12 study populations from 10 individual articles), education (15 study populations from 14 articles), and childhood SES (2 study populations from 2 articles). For education, there was a significant difference in telomere length between persons of high and low SES in a random-effects model (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.060, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.002, 0.118; P = 0.042), although a range of sensitivity analyses weakened this association. There was no evidence for an association between telomere length and contemporaneous SES (SMD = 0.104, 95% CI: −0.027, 0.236; P = 0.119) or childhood SES (SMD = −0.037, 95% CI: −0.143, 0.069; P = 0.491). These results suggest weak evidence for an association between SES (as measured by education) and biological aging (as measured by telomere length), although there was a lack of consistent findings across the SES measures investigated here. PMID:23258416
Measuring limb length discrepancy using pelvic radiographs: the most reproducible method.
Heaver, Catriona; St Mart, Jean-Pierre; Nightingale, Peter; Sinha, Aabha; Davis, Edward T
2013-01-01
Leg length inequality following total hip replacement remains common. In an effort to reduce this occurrence, surgeons undertake pre-operative measurements, templating and use various forms of intraoperative measurements, including computer navigation. This study aims to delineate which measurement technique is most appropriate for measuring leg length inequality from a pelvic radiograph. Three observers took a total of 9600 measurements from 100 pelvic radiographs. Four lines were constructed on each of the radiographs, bisecting the acetabular teardrops, ischial spines, inferior sacroiliac joint and inferior obturator foramen. Measurements were taken from these lines to the most prominent medial point on the lesser trochanter and to the tip of the greater trochanter. The effect of pelvic positioning was also assessed using radiographs of a synthetic pelvis and femur. Intra-observer and inter-observer variability were calculated. Measuring from the inferior aspect of the ischial tuberosities to the most prominent medial point on the lesser trochanter appears to be the best method for measuring LLD however large error margin still exist, even when corrected for magnification errors. PMID:23934902
Adherence to Criteria for Transvaginal Ultrasound Imaging and Measurement of Cervical Length
Iams, JD; Grobman, WA; Lozitska, A; Spong, CY; Saade, G; Mercer, BM; Tita, AN; Rouse, DJ; Sorokin, Y; Wapner, RJ; Leveno, KJ; Esplin, MS; Tolosa, JE; Thorp, JM; Caritis, SN; Van Dorsten, JP
2014-01-01
Background Adherence to published criteria for transvaginal imaging and measurement of cervical length is uncertain. We sought to assess adherence by evaluating images submitted to certify research sonographers for participation in a clinical trial. Study Design We reviewed qualifying test results of sonographers seeking certification to image and measure cervical length in a clinical trial. Participating sonographers were required to access training materials and submit 15 images, three each from five pregnant women not enrolled in the trial. One of two sonologists reviewed all qualifying images. We recorded the proportion of images that did not meet standard criteria (excess compression, landmarks not seen, improper image size, or full maternal bladder) and the proportion in which the cervical length was measured incorrectly. Failure for a given patient was defined as more than one unacceptable image, or more than two acceptable images with incorrect caliper placement or erroneous choice of the “shortest best” cervical length. Certification required satisfactory images and cervical length measurement from four or more patients. Results 327 sonographers submitted 4905 images. 271 sonographers (83%) were certified on the first, 41 (13%) on the second, and 2 (0.6%) on the third submission. 13 never achieved certification. Of 314 who passed, 196 submitted 15 acceptable images that were appropriately measured for all five women. There were 1277 deficient images: 493 were acceptable but incorrectly measured images from sonographers who passed certification because mis-measurement occurred no more than twice. Of 784 deficient images submitted by sonographers who failed the certification, 471 were rejected because of improper measurement (caliper placement and/or failure to identify the shortest best image), and 313 because of failure to obtain a satisfactory image (excessive compression, required landmarks not visible, incorrect image size, brief examination, and/or full maternal bladder) Conclusion Although 83% of sonographers were certified on their first submission, more than one in four ultrasound images submitted did not meet published quality criteria. Increased attention to standardized education and credentials is warranted for persons who perform ultrasound examinations of the cervix in pregnancy. PMID:23958649
Fan Blade Deflection Measurement and Analyses Correlation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehmed, Oral; Janetzke, David C.
1997-01-01
Steady deflection measurements were taken of two identical NASA/Pratt & Whitney-designed fan blades while they were rotating in a vacuum in NASA Lewis Research Center's Dynamic Spin Facility. The one-fifth-scale fan blades, which have a tip diameter of 22 in. and a pinroot retention, are of sparshell construction and were unducted for this test. The purpose of the test was to measure the change of the radial deflection of the blade tip and blade angle at selected radial stations along the blade span with respect to rotational speed. The procedure for radial deflection measurement had no precedent and was newly developed for this test. Radial deflection measurements were made to assure adequate tip clearance existed between the fan blades and the duct for a follow-on wind tunnel test. Also, blade angle deflection measurements were desired before pitchsetting parts for the wind tunnel test were finish machined. During the test, laser beams were aimed across the blade path into photodiodes to give signals that were used to determine blade angle change or tip radial deflection. These laser beams were set parallel to the spin axis at selected radial stations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gumus, Kutalmis; Erkaya, Halil
2013-04-01
Nowadays the developments in the technologies are contributed to accuracy and reliability of terrestrial laser Scanning Technology. Therefore, Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) are used in many engineering applications. The working principle of Terrestrial laser scanners is similar to reflectorless total stations. Terrestrial laser scanner is a device that can quickly measure the 3-dimensional point cloud of an image that is scanned in the form of x, y, z points. With the help of these operations, the realistic 3D models of scanned objects are generated. Terrestrial laser scanners have also significant advantages that distinguish them from traditional measurement methods. The accuracy and reliability of final products of TLS depends on accuracy and resolution of data obtained from laser scanner. The scientific research studies are carried out focusing on accuracy and sensitivity. Studies in this paper were made in Calibration Baseline (20-meter) and EDM Baseline (300 -meter) in the department of Geomatic Engineering, at the Yildiz Technical University. Purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy and sensitivity of length measuring of Optech ILRIS 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Total station. Tests were carried out with specially prepared targets and in environments where they included the environmental and laboratory impacts. In this paper, geometric and nominal measurements of 3-dimensional (3D) models or point coordinate gathered by scanning object surfaces and targets using TLS were compared to the measurements of Total Stations (1+2ppm). In particular, the effects of the accuracy and sensitivity of the measuring length of the targets were determined. This reference targets shifted at varying intervals from the center of the scan point. TLS measurements were made between reference points and the starting point. The point clouds obtained by scanning created surface models. The differences in these movement directions of created surface models have identifying the movement of the reference object. The Tests determining the accuracy of length measurement of Optech ILRIS 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Total Station are discussed.
Measurement of the KL nuclear interaction length in the NaI(Tl) calorimeter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achasov, M. N.; Beloborodov, K. I.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Vasiljev, A. V.; Golubev, V. B.; Dimova, T. V.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Korol, A. A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Pakhtusova, E. V.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Silagadze, Z. K.; Usov, Yu. V.
2015-09-01
In the study of the reaction e+e-? KSKL at the VEPP-2M e+e- collider with the SND detector the nuclear interaction length of KL meson in NaI(Tl) has been measured. Its value is found to be 30-50 cm in the KL momentum range 0.11-0.48 GeV/c. The results are compared with the values used in the simulation programs GEANT4 and UNIMOD.
Ultrasonic measurement of stress in railroad wheels and in long lengths of welded rail
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clotfelter, W. N.; Risch, E. R.
1974-01-01
The failure of high speed emergency braking is discussed for railroad wheels and track. It is shown that high compressive residual stresses exist in the rims of new wheels which generate excessive heat, reducing the stress levels. Thermal stresses that build up in continuous lengths of welded track are reported and nondestructive methods of measuring stresses in thick steel are presented for identification, replacement, or adjustment before hazardous failures occur.
Filippetto, D.; Sannibale, F.; Zolotorev, Max Samuil; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC
2008-01-24
By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, S. A.; Ferland, B.; Chin, S. L.
We present a new method to measure the length of a filament induced by the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses in air. We used an antenna to detect electromagnetic pulses radiated from multipole moments inside the filament oscillating at the plasma frequency. The results are compared with the values detected from the backscattered fluorescence induced by multiphoton ionization of nitrogen molecules excited inside the filament. The values are found to be in good agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopietz, Peter
1989-09-01
The renormalization-group recursion relations for the spin-S nearest-neighbor quantum Heisenberg ferromagnet recently derived by Chakravarty and the present author are analyzed in one dimension. It is found that the susecptibility ? is given at low temperatures T by T?=C(0)?(JS2/T) [1+C(1)??+O(?2)], where J is the exchange coupling and the dimensionless expansion parameter ? is given by ?=?-1(T/JS3)1/2. For the correlation length ? we find (?/a)=C(0)?(JS2/T) [1+C(1)??+O(?2)], where a is the lattice spacing. The values of the coefficients C(j)? and C(j)? (j=0,1), have been determined by fitting the above expressions with Monte Carlo data obtained for the S=1/2 Heisenberg chain at temperatures as low as T/J=0.01.
Hahm, T.S.; Burrell, K.H.
1996-01-01
The radial correlation length of the turbulence responsible for transport can have a different gyroradius scaling in low (L)-mode and high (H)-mode plasmas due to {bold E{times}B} flow shear effects, as predicted by the two-point nonlinear analysis in general tokamak geometry [Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 1648 (1995)]. This difference offers a possible understanding of the recent {rho}{sub {asterisk}}-scan experiment results on DIII-D [Fusion Technol. {bold 8}, 441 (1985)] L-mode and H-mode plasmas [Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 2342 (1995)]. Within our model, thermal diffusivity in H-mode plasmas scales like gyro-Bohm, independent of the scaling in L-mode plasmas. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Isotopic fractionation in proteins as a measure of hydrogen bond length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenzie, Ross H.; Athokpam, Bijyalaxmi; Ramesh, Sai G.
2015-07-01
If a deuterated molecule containing strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds is placed in a hydrogenated solvent, it may preferentially exchange deuterium for hydrogen. This preference is due to the difference between the vibrational zero-point energy for hydrogen and deuterium. It is found that the associated fractionation factor Φ is correlated with the strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds. This correlation has been used to determine the length of the H-bonds (donor-acceptor separation) in a diverse range of enzymes and has been argued to support the existence of short low-barrier H-bonds. Starting with a potential energy surface based on a simple diabatic state model for H-bonds, we calculate Φ as a function of the proton donor-acceptor distance R. For numerical results, we use a parameterization of the model for symmetric O-H⋯O bonds [R. H. McKenzie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 535, 196 (2012)]. We consider the relative contributions of the O-H stretch vibration, O-H bend vibrations (both in plane and out of plane), tunneling splitting effects at finite temperature, and the secondary geometric isotope effect. We compare our total Φ as a function of R with NMR experimental results for enzymes, and in particular with an earlier model parametrization Φ(R), used previously to determine bond lengths.
Isotopic fractionation in proteins as a measure of hydrogen bond length.
McKenzie, Ross H; Athokpam, Bijyalaxmi; Ramesh, Sai G
2015-07-28
If a deuterated molecule containing strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds is placed in a hydrogenated solvent, it may preferentially exchange deuterium for hydrogen. This preference is due to the difference between the vibrational zero-point energy for hydrogen and deuterium. It is found that the associated fractionation factor ? is correlated with the strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds. This correlation has been used to determine the length of the H-bonds (donor-acceptor separation) in a diverse range of enzymes and has been argued to support the existence of short low-barrier H-bonds. Starting with a potential energy surface based on a simple diabatic state model for H-bonds, we calculate ? as a function of the proton donor-acceptor distance R. For numerical results, we use a parameterization of the model for symmetric O-H?O bonds [R. H. McKenzie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 535, 196 (2012)]. We consider the relative contributions of the O-H stretch vibration, O-H bend vibrations (both in plane and out of plane), tunneling splitting effects at finite temperature, and the secondary geometric isotope effect. We compare our total ? as a function of R with NMR experimental results for enzymes, and in particular with an earlier model parametrization ?(R), used previously to determine bond lengths. PMID:26233131
Turbulence spectra and length scales measured in film coolant flows emerging from discrete holes
Burd, S.W.; Simon, T.W.
1999-07-01
To date, very little attention has been devoted to the scales and turbulence energy spectra of coolant exiting from film cooling holes. Length-scale documentation and spectral measurements have primarily been concerned with the free-stream flow with which the coolant interacts. Documentation of scales and energy decomposition of the coolant flow leads to more complete understanding of this important flow and the mechanisms by which it disperses and mixes with the free stream. CFD modeling of the emerging flow can use these data as verification that flow computations are accurate. To address this need, spectral measurements were taken with single-sensor, hot-wire anemometry at the exit plane of film cooling holes. Energy spectral distributions and length scales calculated from these distributions are presented for film cooling holes of different lengths and for coolant supply plenums of different geometries. Measurements are presented on the hole streamwise centerline at the center of the hole, one-half diameter upstream of center, and one-half diameter downstream of center. The data highlight some fundamental differences in energy content, dominant frequencies, and scales with changes in the hole and plenum geometries. Coolant flowing through long holes exhibits smoothly distributed spectra as might be anticipated in fully developed tube flows. Spectra from short-hole flows, however, show dominant frequencies.
Scanning laser image correlation for measurement of flow.
Rossow, Molly J; Mantulin, William W; Gratton, Enrico
2010-01-01
Scanning laser image correlation (SLIC) is an optical correlation technique for measuring the fluid velocity of particles suspended in a liquid. This technique combines laser scanning of an arbitrary pattern with pair cross-correlation between any two points in the pattern. SLIC overcomes many of the limitations of other optical correlation techniques for flow measurement, such as laser speckle, spatial temporal image correlation spectroscopy, and two-foci methods. One of the main advantages of SLIC is that the concept can be applied to measurements on a range of scales through simple zooming or modifications in the instrumentation. Additionally, SLIC is relatively insensitive to instrument noise through the use of correlation analysis and is insensitive to background. SLIC can provide detailed information about the direction and pattern of flow. SLIC has potential applications ranging from microfluidics to blood flow measurements. PMID:20459248
Internalized Heterosexism: Measurement, Psychosocial Correlates, and Research Directions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szymanski, Dawn M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Meyer, Jill
2008-01-01
This article provides an integrated critical review of the literature on internalized heterosexism/internalized homophobia (IH), its measurement, and its psychosocial correlates. It describes the psychometric properties of six published measures used to operationalize the construct of IH. It also critically reviews empirical studies on correlates
Dogandžić, Tamara; Braun, David R.; McPherron, Shannon P.
2015-01-01
Blank size and form represent one of the main sources of variation in lithic assemblages. They reflect economic properties of blanks and factors such as efficiency and use life. These properties require reliable measures of size, namely edge length and surface area. These measures, however, are not easily captured with calipers. Most attempts to quantify these features employ estimates; however, the efficacy of these estimations for measuring critical features such as blank surface area and edge length has never been properly evaluated. In addition, these parameters are even more difficult to acquire for retouched implements as their original size and hence indication of their previous utility have been lost. It has been suggested, in controlled experimental conditions, that two platform variables, platform thickness and exterior platform angle, are crucial in determining blank size and shape meaning that knappers can control the interaction between size and efficiency by selecting specific core angles and controlling where fracture is initiated. The robustness of these models has rarely been tested and confirmed in context other than controlled experiments. In this paper, we evaluate which currently employed caliper measurement methods result in the highest accuracy of size estimations of blanks, and we evaluate how platform variables can be used to indirectly infer aspects of size on retouched artifacts. Furthermore, we investigate measures of different platform management strategies that control the shape and size of artifacts. To investigate these questions, we created an experimental lithic assemblage, we digitized images to calculate 2D surface area and edge length, which are used as a point of comparison for the caliper measurements and additional analyses. The analysis of aspects of size determinations and the utility of blanks contributes to our understanding of the technological strategies of prehistoric knappers and what economic decisions they made during process of blank production. PMID:26332773
El-Ardat, Mohammad Abou; Gavrankapetanovic, Fatima; Abou El-Ardat, Khalil A.; Dekovic, Sanjin; Murtezic, Senad; Mehmedbasic, Eldar; Hiros, Nadja
2014-01-01
ABSTRACT Introduction: The incidence of preterm delivery has been increasing even in developed countries and remains a serious problem for fetuses and neonates. Although many predictors for preterm delivery have been proposed, complete prediction and prevention have not yet been established. Aims: To examine the potential association between sonographic measurement of cervical length and threatened preterm birth (TPTB) in pregnant woman at 24-36 weeks of gestation. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study included a total of 360 pregnant woman at 24-36 weeks of gestation categorized in two groups: TPTB group (n=160) and non TPTB group (n=200). The study was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Clinical Center University of Sarajevo (KCUS). Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients were obtained from medical records and physical examination by gynecologist. Transvaginal sonography was carried out by GE Voluson 730. Results: There was a significant association between TPTB and sonographic measurement of cervical length <25 mm (P<0.001). The logistic regression model was statistically significant, x2(7) = 281.530, P<0. 001. The model explained 72.6% of the variance in TPTB and correctly classified 88.1% of cases. Sensitivity was 83.8%, specificity was 91.5%, positive predictive value was 88.7% and negative predictive value was 87.6%. Out of the 7 predictor variables only 5 were statistically significant: cervical length, cervical consistency, rupture of membranes, uterine contractions and amine odor test. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest association between sonographic measurement of cervical length and TPTB. PMID:25568578
Photon path length distributions for cloudy atmospheres from GOSAT satellite measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kremmling, Beke; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Wagner, Thomas
2014-05-01
The presence of clouds in the atmosphere has significant influence on the photon paths of the scattered sunlight. Besides reflections of radiation at the cloud top, additional scattering events inside the cloud may occur and thus lengthening or shortening of the photon path in the atmosphere. Clouds consisting of multiple layers or patches may lead to a "ping pong" behaviour of the photons due to reflections at the individual surfaces. The objective of our study is the retrieval of photon path length distributions for various atmospheric cloud situations which will lead to a better understanding of the influence of clouds on the atmospheric radiative transport. Following principles from ground based photon path length retrieval (Funk et al., 2003), our research uses the combination of space based measurements of the oxygen A-band and radiative transfer simulations. The experimental spectra originate from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), more precisely the Fourier Transform Spectrometer TANSO-FTS. Its high spectral resolution allows to almost completely resolve the individual absorption lines which is a prerequisite to our study. The Monte Carlo radiative transfer model McArtim (Deutschmann et al., 2011) is used to model the measured spectra. This model allows user-defined input for the altitude dependent cross sections and furthermore the incorporation of three dimensional cloud shapes and properties. From the simulation output and the sun-satellite geometry, photon path length distributions can be obtained. Distributions of photon path lengths are presented for a selection of GOSAT observations of entirely cloud covered atmospheres with similar measurement geometries.
Kim, Jin-Woo; Lee, Dong-Gi
2014-10-01
During the compression molding of fiber-reinforced plastic composites, there are two issues: one is separation of fiber and matrix because of the different flow state and fiber orientation. Due to separation and orientation, moldings become nonhomogeneous, and show anisotropy. Therefore, separation and orientation should be closely corresponded to molding condition and fiber structure. If fiber shows strong agglomeration, it increases the separation, but fiber orientation will be limited. That is, separation and orientation of fiber is closely related, and the relationship should be clearly defined. In this study, fiber content and length is varied for stacked laminates, and primary sheet is fabricated with thermal compression press. Primary sheet is heated and molded with 30-ton hydraulic press. Nonhomogeneity, one of indicators for separation, is measured from one-dimensional rectangular plate after compression. Orientation function is calculated using X-ray image on moldings and image scanner for processing imagery data. From the correlation between the separation and the orientation of fiber and matrix, the correlation coefficient is defined, and the impact of fiber length on the coefficient is evaluated. PMID:25942851
Two particle correlation measurements with respect to higher harmonic event planes at PHENIX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todoroki, Takahito
2013-05-01
Measurements of two particle azimuthal correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions provide information of the possible interplay between hard-scattered partons and the hot-dense medium. Toward an understanding of parton-medium coupling, it is indispensable to obtain correlations where contributions from higher harmonic flow(vn) are rejected. It is also important to produce correlation measurements where the trigger particle is selected relative to second and third order event planes. This enables us to explore path-length dependence of parton energy loss and the influence of the medium on the jets. We present the latest PHENIX results of correlations in which contributions from higher harmonic flow have been subtracted, as well as second and third order event plane-dependent correlations in Au+Au collisions at s=200GeV.
Colin, Rémy; Alsayed, Ahmed M; Gay, Cyprien; Abou, Bérengère
2015-12-14
Clusters of fast and slow correlated particles, identified as dynamical heterogeneities (DHs), constitute a central aspect of glassy dynamics. A key factor of the glass transition scenario is a significant increase of the cluster size ξ4 as the transition is approached. In need of easy-to-compute tools to measure ξ4, the dynamical susceptibility χ4 was introduced recently, and used in various experimental studies to probe DHs. Here, we investigate DHs in dense microgel suspensions using image correlation analysis, and compute both χ4 and the four-point correlation function G4. The spatial decrease of G4 provides a direct access to ξ4, which is found to grow significantly with increasing volume fraction. However, this increase is not captured by χ4. We show that the assumptions that validate the connection between χ4 and ξ4 are not fulfilled in our experiments. PMID:26412312
Spatial correlation of measured unsteady surface pressure behind a backward-facing step
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilka, Michael J.; Paluta, Mark R.; Silver, Jonathan C.; Morris, Scott C.
2015-02-01
The spatial correlations of the unsteady surface pressure for a backward-facing step were studied experimentally. The measurements were acquired using an array of surface pressure sensors within an anechoic wind tunnel which was designed to minimize acoustic contamination. The maximum Reynolds number based on the step height was 59,200. The spatial characteristics of the surface pressure were studied in two parts. First, a linear array of microphones oriented in the streamwise direction was used to obtain the evolution of the pressure spectra, length scale, and phase speed. Second, an array oriented in the spanwise direction was used to provide the coherence and integral length scales in that direction. The correlation length functions were found to vary with downstream location in the separated region behind the step. After reattachment, the integral scales of the surface pressure continued to increase in magnitude as far as 18 step heights downstream of the step.
Collider signatures of minimal flavor mixing from stop decay length measurements
Hiller, Gudrun; Kim, Jong Soo; Sedello, Henning
2009-12-01
We investigate the prospects to extract supersymmetric couplings from a decay length measurement at the LHC. Specifically, we exploit the opportunity of a light and long-lived stop which is pair-produced through gluinos in association with like-sign top quarks. Any observed finite value of the stop decay length strongly supports models in which flavor is broken in a minimal way solely by the standard model Yukawa couplings. We find that a 1 picosecond stop lifetime, dominated by t-tilde{yields}c{chi}{sup 0} decays, yields macroscopic transverse impact parameters of about 180 microns. If the lightest neutralino is predominantly Higgsino or very close in mass to the light stop, the stop lifetime even increases and allows to observe stop tracks and possibly secondary vertices directly. Measuring squark flavor violation with the stop decay length works also with a gravitino lightest supersymmetric particle if the neutralino is the next lightest supersymmetric particle. For this case, opportunities from t-tilde{yields}c{chi}{sup 0}{yields}c{gamma}G-tilde decays for very light gravitinos with mass < or approx. keV are pointed out.
Method of glass melter electrode length measurement using time domain reflectometry (TDR)
Tarpley, James M.; Zamecnik, John R.
2000-02-28
The present invention overcomes the drawbacks inherent in the prior art and solves the problems inherent in conventional Joule-heated vitrification melters, where the melter preferably comprises a vessel having a refractory liner and an opening for receiving material which is converted into molten vitreous material in the vessel. The vessel has an outlet port for removing molten vitreous material from the vessel. A plurality of electrodes is disposed in the vessel and electrical energy is passed between electrode pairs through feed material and molten vitreous material in the vessel. Typically, the electrodes erode and wear in time, and this invention seeks to monitor and evaluate the length and condition of the electrodes. The present invention uses time domain reflectometry (TDR) methods to accurately measure the length of an electrode that is subject to wear and electrolytic decomposition due to the extreme conditions in which the electrode is required to operate. Specifically, TDR would be used to measure the length and effects of erosion of molybdenum electrodes used in Joule-heated vitrification melter. Of course, the inventive concept should not be limited to this preferred environment.
Boardman, Lisa A.; Johnson, Ruth A.; Viker, Kimberly B.; Hafner, Kari A.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Litzelman, Kristin; Seo, Songwon; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Rider, David N.; Vanderboom, Russell J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Skinner, Halcyon G.
2013-01-01
Introduction Colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN) and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS) and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+). However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-). MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition. Experimental Design MSS rectal cancers from patients ≤50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher) or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]). Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH. Results Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN-) and chromosomally instable (CIN+) by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6) had fewer copy number changes (<17% of their clones with DNA copy number changes) than CIN+ tumors (65%; n=13) which had high levels of copy number changes in 20% to 49% of clones. Telomere lengths were longer in CIN- compared to CIN+ tumors (p=0.0066) and in those in which telomerase was not activated (p=0.004). Tumors exhibiting activation of telomerase had shorter tumor telomeres (p=0.0040); and tended to be CIN+ (p=0.0949). Conclusions MSS rectal cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase. PMID:24278232
Measurement and Correlation of Ice Accretion Roughness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, David N.; Hentschel, Daniel B.; Ruff, Gary A.
2003-01-01
Measurements were taken of the roughness characteristics of ice accreted on NACA 0012 airfoils in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Tests were conducted with size scaled, using models with chords of 26.7, 53.3, and 80.0 cm, and with liquid-water content scaled, both according to previously-tested scaling methods. The width of the smooth zone which forms on either side of the leading edge of the airfoil and the diameter of the roughness elements are presented in non-dimensional form as functions of the accumulation parameter. The smooth-zone width was found to decrease with increasing accumulation parameter. The roughness-element diameter increased with accumulation parameter until a plateau was reached. This maximum diameter was about 0.06 times twice the model leading-edge radius. Neither smooth-zone width nor element diameter were affected by a change in freezing fraction from 0.2 to 0.4. Both roughness characteristics appeared to scale with model size and with liquid-water content.
Bunch Length Measurements at the ATF Damping Ring in April 2000
Bane, K.L.F.; Naito, T.; Okugi, T.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba
2005-12-19
We want to accurately know the energy spread and bunch length dependence on current in the ATF damping ring. One reason is to know the strength of the impedance: From the energy spread measurements we know whether or not we are above the threshold to the microwave instability, and from the energy spread and bunch length measurements we find out the extent of potential-well bunch lengthening (PWBL). Another reason for these measurements is to help in our understanding of the intra-beam scattering (IBS) effect in the ATF. The ATF as it is now, running below design energy and with the wigglers turned off, is strongly affected by IBS. To check for consistency with IBS theory of, for example, the measured vertical beam size, we need to know all dimensions of the beam, including the longitudinal one. But beyond this practical reason for studying IBS, IBS is currently a hot research topic at many accelerators around the world (see e.g. Ref. [1]), and the effect in actual machines is not well understood. Typically, when comparing theory with measurements fudge factors are needed to get agreement (see e.g. Ref. [1]). With its strong IBS effect, the ATF is an ideal machine for studying IBS, and an indispensable ingredient for this study is a knowledge of the longitudinal phase space of the beam. The results of earlier bunch lengthening measurements in the ATF can be found in Refs. [2]-[4]. Measurements of current dependent effects, especially bunch length measurements using a streak camera, can be difficult to perform accurately. For example, space charge in the camera itself can lead to systematic errors in the measurement results. It is important the results be accurate and reproducible. In the measurements of both December 1998[3] and December 1999[4], by using light filters, the authors first checked that space charge in the streak camera was not significant. And then the Dec 99 authors show that their results agree with those Dec 98, i.e. on the dates of the two measurements the results were reproducible. Since IBS is so strong in the ATF, in the Dec 99 measurements an attempt was made to estimate the impedance effect using the following method: First, from the form of the energy spread vs. current measurements it was concluded that the threshold to the microwave instability was beyond 2 mA. Then, by dividing the bunch length vs. current curve by the energy spread vs. current curve the effect of IBS was divided out, and PWBL was approximated. The assumption is that PWBL can be treated as a perturbation on top of IBS. The result was that this component of bunch lengthening was found to grow by 7-15% (depending on the rf voltage) between the currents of .5 mA and 2 mA, about a factor of 3 less than the total bunch length growth. The conclusion was that the inductive component of the impedance was small, in fact much smaller than had been concluded earlier in Ref. [2]. Electron machines generally run in a parameter regime where IBS is an insignificant effect, and impedance measurements and calculations have also normally been performed for machines where IBS is unimportant. To simplify the interpretation of the impedance from bunch length measurements, in April 2000 the energy spread and bunch length measurements of Dec 99 were repeated, but now with the beam on a linear (difference) coupling resonance, where the horizontal and vertical emittances were approximately equal. For this case the effect of IBS was expected to be very small. An energy spread vs. current measurement under such conditions will also allow us to more clearly see whether we reach the threshold to the microwave instability. As part of the April data taking we, in addition, repeated the earlier off-coupling measurements, in order to check the reproducibility of the earlier results. In this report we present and analyze this recent set of data, and compare it with the results of the earlier measurements, particularly those of Dec 99. The measurements and analysis of data in this report follow essentially the same procedure as was used in Ref. [4]. In the present report we will try to be relatively brief. The comparison of our results with IBS theory will be given in a following report. For more details about the measurement and analysis techniques presented in this report, the reader should consult Ref. [4].
Fissile mass-multiplication factor correlation for Pu measurement
Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T.; De Ridder, P.; Verrecchia, G.P.D.; Chare, P.; Vocino, V.
1993-06-01
An empirical correlation between the fissile mass and the leakage multiplication factor, as determined by High Level Neutron Coincidence (HLNC) counting, was developed based on available measurement data. This correlation has been used successfully for the simulation of HLNC counting. With the singles count rate (totals), the correlation can be used to obtain a quick estimate of the plutonium mass of the sample in less time than required to measure the real coincidence count rate. The correlation can also be used to evaluate samples contaminated with ({alpha},n) sources such as fluorine.
Visual Decisions in the Presence of Measurement and Stimulus Correlations
Bhardwaj, Manisha; Carroll, Samuel; Ma, Wei Ji; Josi?, Kreimir
2015-01-01
Humans and other animals base their decisions on noisy sensory input. Much work has been devoted to understanding the computations that underlie such decisions. The problem has been studied in a variety of tasks and with stimuli of differing complexity. However, how the statistical structure of stimuli, along with perceptual measurement noise, affects perceptual judgments is not well understood. Here we examine how correlations between the components of a stimulusstimulus correlationstogether with correlations in sensory noise, affect decision making. As an example, we consider the task of detecting the presence of a single or multiple targets among distractors. We assume that both the distractors and the observers measurements of the stimuli are correlated. The computations of an optimal observer in this task are nontrivial yet can be analyzed and understood intuitively. We find that when distractors are strongly correlated, measurement correlations can have a strong impact on performance. When distractor correlations are weak, measurement correlations have little impact unless the number of stimuli is large. Correlations in neural responses to structured stimuli can therefore have a strong impact on perceptual judgments. PMID:26378875
Measurement of growing dynamical length scale on approach to jamming in granular systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durian, Douglas
2009-03-01
The flow of granular materials is of widespread practical and fundamental interest. One challenge to understanding and controlling behavior is that the response is nonlinear, with a forcing threshold below which the medium is static. Furthermore, just above threshold the response may be intermittent even though the forcing is steady. Two familiar examples are avalanches on a heap and clogging in a silo. Another example is dynamical heterogeneities for systems brought close to jamming, where intermediate-time motion is correlated in the form of intermitted string-like swirls. Here this will be illustrated with experiments on air-driven beads, where jamming is approached by lowering the effective temperature, as well as by experiments on rapid heap flow, where jamming is approached as a function of depth from the free surface. Use of novel statistical quantities and optical spectroscopies reveal a growing dynamical length scale on approach to jamming. Collaborators: Adam Abate, Hiroaki Katsuragi, Aaron Keys, Sharon Glotzer.
Power and frequency measurements from a uniform backward wave oscillator as a function of length
Moreland, L.D.; Roitman, A.M.; Schamiloglu, E.; Pegel, I.V.; Lemke, R.W.
1994-12-31
The authors describe results from an experiment where the number of ripple periods in the slow wave structure of a backward wave oscillator (BWO) is increased. Both microwave power and frequency measurements are made for each shot. For a given cathode voltage and beam current, the microwave peak power and frequency are plotted as a function of BWO length. In previous investigations, the observation of two power maxima as a function of length was explained by the interaction of the electron beam with the forward traveling wave and reflections at the transition from the slow wave structure into the output waveguide. However, recent numerical calculations using the phase dynamics of electron beam and electromagnetic modes suggest that the power maxima are due to the phase relationship between the electron beam density wave and the backward wave. Experiments were performed on the Sinus-6, a relativistic electron beam accelerator. By adjusting the pressure in the Sinus-6 spark gap switch, cathode voltages between 400 kV to 650 kV can be obtained. The experiment was repeated for different sets of beam parameters. In all cases, the magnetic field used for beam transport was longer than the length of the slow wave structure. The experimental results are compared with phase model calculations and PIC code simulations using KARAT and TWOQUICK.
Identification of source of oscillations in apparent sarcomere length measured by laser diffraction.
Burton, K; Huxley, A F
1995-01-01
The most widely used technique for dynamic estimates of sarcomere length in muscle is laser light diffraction. We have identified conditions under which artifactual oscillations can arise in apparent sarcomere length measured by this technique and report methods to reduce the effect. Altringham et al. (1984) first reported that the diffraction angle can exhibit one cycle of oscillation for each sarcomere length displacement of the illuminated portion of the fiber. We find that the amplitude of similar oscillations is strongly dependent on the intensity of light scattered from objects near the fiber and on the spacing between fiber and scatterer. The oscillations can be eliminated by minimizing scattered light and positioning the fiber a few millimeters from sources of scattering. A theoretical description shows that oscillations of this kind are expected from interference of scattered and diffracted light. Interference fringes were observed along the meridian of the pattern, and these moved during translation of either a fiber or a grating. The movement of fringes across the diffraction order shifts the centroid back and forth and, when associated with steady shortening, can give rise to "steps" and "pauses" in apparent striation spacing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:7647247
Measurement of Photon Path Length Distributions For Validation of Radiative Transfer Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholl, T.; Nägele, U.; Funk, O.; Platt, U.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Lemke, H.; Quante, M.; Sievers, O.; Crewell, S.; Venema, V.
High resolution DOAS spectroscopy of the Oxygen A-band (760-780 nm) in zenith- scattered light is a powerful tool to infer path length distributions (PDF) of solar pho- tons transmitted to the ground. Solar photon PDF's thus provide information on mul- tiple scattering statistics of cloudy sky radiative transport (RT). When combining so- lar photon PDF's measurements with simultaneous RADAR measurements of the 3D cloud structure and radiometric measurements of the Liquid Water Path (LWP) effects of the 3-D cloud structure on the RT can be studied thoroughly. One strong indicator for 3-D effects on the cloudy sky RT is the investigation of the mean total photon path length (
Inlet Turbulence and Length Scale Measurements in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thurman, Douglas; Flegel, Ashlie; Giel, Paul
2014-01-01
Constant temperature hotwire anemometry data were acquired to determine the inlet turbulence conditions of a transonic turbine blade linear cascade. Flow conditions and angles were investigated that corresponded to the take-off and cruise conditions of the Variable Speed Power Turbine (VSPT) project and to an Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) scaled rotor blade tip section. Mean and turbulent flowfield measurements including intensity, length scale, turbulence decay, and power spectra were determined for high and low turbulence intensity flows at various Reynolds numbers and spanwise locations. The experimental data will be useful for establishing the inlet boundary conditions needed to validate turbulence models in CFD codes.
Diffusion length measurement using the scanning electron microscope. [for silicon solar cell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weizer, V. G.
1975-01-01
The present work describes a measuring technique employing the scanning electron microscope in which values of the true bulk diffusion length are obtained. It is shown that surface recombination effects can be eliminated through application of highly doped surface field layers. The effects of high injection level and low-high junction current generation are investigated. Results obtained with this technique are compared to those obtained by a penetrating radiation (X-ray) method, and a close agreement is found. The SEM technique is limited to cells that contain a back surface field layer.
Bunch length and phase stability measurements at the TESLA test facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerth, Ch.; Feldhaus, J.; Honkavaara, K.; Kavanagh, K. D.; Piot, Ph.; Plucinski, L.; Schreiber, S.; Will, I.
2003-07-01
Electron bunch lengths and time jitters have been measured with sub-ps resolution at the TESLA Test Facility at DESY. Synchrotron radiation emitted from a dipole magnet reflects the longitudinal charge distribution of the electron bunch and can also be used as a timing reference of the radiation pulses produced by the free-electron laser. For sub-ps time resolution, dispersion effects of the spectrally broad-band synchrotron radiation have to be suppressed. The phase stability of the FEL pulses with respect to the radio-frequency master oscillator has been studied with a streak camera operating in synchroscan mode.
Miracoli, R.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Gobin, R.; Delferriere, O.; Adroit, G.; Senee, F.; Ciavola, G.
2012-05-15
The high intensity ion source (SILHI), in operation at CEA-Saclay, has been used to produce a 90 mA pulsed proton beam with pulse length and repetition rates suitable for the European Spallation Source (ESS) linac. Typical r-r{sup '} rms normalized emittance values smaller than 0.2{pi} mm mrad have been measured for operation in pulsed mode (0.01 < duty cycle < 0.15 and 1 ms < pulse duration < 10 ms) that are relevant for the design update of the Linac to be used at the ESS in Lund.
A multifunctional optical correlator for picosecond UV laser pulse measurement
Abudureyimu, Reheman; Wang, Yang; Garcia, Frances; Long, Cary D; Huang, Chunning; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Liu, Yun
2014-01-01
A compact optical correlator system that measures both the autocorrelation between two infrared (IR) lights and the cross-correlation between an IR and an ultraviolet (UV) light using a single nonlinear optical crystal has been designed and experimentally demonstrated. The rapid scanning of optical delay line, switching between auto and cross-correlations, crystal angle tuning, and data acquisition and processing are all computer controlled. Pulse widths of an IR light from a mode-locked laser are measured by the correlator and the results are compared with a direct measurement using a high-speed photodetector system. The correlator has been used to study the parameter dependence of the pulse width of a macropulse UV laser designed for laser-assisted hydrogen ion (H-) beam stripping for the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Multifunctional optical correlator for picosecond ultraviolet laser pulse measurement.
Rakhman, Abdurahim; Wang, Yang; Garcia, Frances; Long, Cary; Huang, Chunning; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Liu, Yun
2014-11-01
A compact multifunctional optical correlator system for pulse width measurement of ultrashort ultraviolet (UV) pulses has been designed and experimentally demonstrated. Both autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions are measured using a single nonlinear crystal, and the switching between two measurements requires no adjustment of phase matching and detector. The system can measure UV pulse widths from sub-picoseconds to 100ps, and it involves no auxiliary pulse in the measurement. The measurement results on a burst-mode picosecond UV laser show a high-quality performance on speed, accuracy, resolution, and dynamic range. The proposed correlator can be applied to measure any ultrashort UV pulses produced through sum-frequency generation or second-harmonic generation. PMID:25402928
Enhancing robustness of multiparty quantum correlations using weak measurement
Singh, Uttam; Mishra, Utkarsh; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar
2014-11-15
Multipartite quantum correlations are important resources for the development of quantum information and computation protocols. However, the resourcefulness of multipartite quantum correlations in practical settings is limited by its fragility under decoherence due to environmental interactions. Though there exist protocols to protect bipartite entanglement under decoherence, the implementation of such protocols for multipartite quantum correlations has not been sufficiently explored. Here, we study the effect of local amplitude damping channel on the generalized Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state, and use a protocol of optimal reversal quantum weak measurement to protect the multipartite quantum correlations. We observe that the weak measurement reversal protocol enhances the robustness of multipartite quantum correlations. Further it increases the critical damping value that corresponds to entanglement sudden death. To emphasize the efficacy of the technique in protection of multipartite quantum correlation, we investigate two proximately related quantum communication tasks, namely, quantum teleportation in a one sender, many receivers setting and multiparty quantum information splitting, through a local amplitude damping channel. We observe an increase in the average fidelity of both the quantum communication tasks under the weak measurement reversal protocol. The method may prove beneficial, for combating external interactions, in other quantum information tasks using multipartite resources. - Highlights: • Extension of weak measurement reversal scheme to protect multiparty quantum correlations. • Protection of multiparty quantum correlation under local amplitude damping noise. • Enhanced fidelity of quantum teleportation in one sender and many receivers setting. • Enhanced fidelity of quantum information splitting protocol.
Axial length measurement acquisition rates of two optical biometers in cataractous eyes
Epitropoulos, Alice
2014-01-01
Purpose To compare the ability of two optical biometers to acquire the axial length (AL) measurement in cataractous eyes. Methods This prospective, comparative, single-center study comprised 105 eyes (63 patients). AL was acquired by the composite mean value of 20 measurements (composite-20 IM) and five measurements (composite-5 IM) (IOLMaster 500 version 7.1 software), and the standard mean value of the first five measurements (standard-5 LS, Lenstar LS 900). Anterior chamber depth (ACD) and average keratometry (K) readings were acquired. Results AL was acquired in 83.8%, 92.4%, and 84.8% of eyes for the composite-5 IM, composite-20 IM, and standard-5 LS, respectively. Standard-5 LS AL measurements were significantly shorter (P<0.001). IOLMaster 500-acquired ACD (corneal epithelium to lens) measurements were significantly shorter (P<0.001). IOLMaster 500 average K measurements were significantly steeper (P<0.001). Conclusion The composite-20 IM had the highest AL acquisition success rate of the three versions evaluated. AL, ACD, and average Ks were statistically different between the two biometers, although the differences were clinically insignificant. PMID:25092960
A Note on Moran's Measure of Multiple Rank Correlation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bobko, Philip
1977-01-01
A measure of multiple rank correlation is proposed for the situation of no tied observations in the variables. The measure is a weighted average of two squared Kendall taus. The measure is equivalent to one proposed by Moran. (Author/JKS)
Apparatus for Measurements of Time and Space Correlation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Favre, Alexandre; Gaviglio, J; Dumas, R
1955-01-01
A brief review is made of improvements to an experimental apparatus for time and space correlation designed for study of turbulence. Included is a description of the control of the measurements and a few particular applications.
Accurate Measurement of Canal Length during Root Canal Treatment: An In Vivo Study
Sadaf, Durre; Ahmad, Muhammad Zubair
2015-01-01
Objectives: To assess the consistency and accuracy of Electronic Apex Locator (EAL) (Root ZXII) in individual canals and its association with other clinical variables. Study Design: Cross-Sectional study. Place of study: Dental section of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Working length was measured by EAL in 180 patients requiring endodontic therapy in molar and premolar teeth. The effects of clinical variables e.g. gender and pulpal status on the consistency and accuracy of EAL were recorded. Performance of apex locator was considered Consistent when the scale bar was stable and moved only in correspondence to the movement of file in the root canal. Accuracy was determined by inserting the file at the working length determined by the EAL and periapical view of radiograph was taken using paralleling technique. Estimated working length was considered accurate when the file tip was located 0-2mm short of the radiographic apex. If the file was overextended from the radiographic apex, it showed dysfunction of the EAL. Results: Consistency of EAL was found 97.6% in distobuccal canals, 91.1% in palatal canals, 73.7% in mesiolingual canals, 83.3% in mesiobuccal and 80.2% in distal canals. Accuracy of EAL was 91.4% in mesiolingual canal, 92% in mesiobuccal, and 90.2% in Palatal and 93.2% in distal canal. Conclusion: Consistency of electronic apex locator vary in different canals, however consistent measurements are highly accurate. No significant association was found between other clinical variables with the consistency and accuracy of EAL.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopietz, Peter; Chakravarty, Sudip
1989-09-01
The low-temperature behavior of quantum Heisenberg models can be obtained by combining a renormalization-group analysis of the quantum models with a Monte Carlo simulation of the corresponding classical model, where the ``spins'' are represented by unit vectors defined on a lattice. In this approach renormalization-group equations for the quantum models lead to an effective classical O(3) nonlinear ? model in appropriate regimes of the parameter space. In the present work we apply this technique, which was recently used by Chakravarty, Halperin, and Nelson to discuss the low-temperature behavior of quantum antiferromagnets, to ferromagnets and calculate the correlation length and the susceptibility of a two-dimensional quantum ferromagnet at low temperatures. The results obtained with this method are then compared with those obtained from a direct simulation of the spin S=1/2 quantum ferromagnet. Excellent agreement between the two approaches leads us to believe that the analytic expressions obtained in the renormalization-group method are accurate at low temperatures. This strengthens the validity of the procedure adopted for antiferromagnets as well, where no such simulation results are yet known. The present paper also further substantiates recent work on the properties of solid 3He in two dimensions.
Measurement of intact-core length of atomizing liquid jets by image deconvolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodward, Roger; Burch, Robert; Kuo, Kenneth; Cheung, Fan-Bill
1993-01-01
The investigation of liquid jet breakup and spray development is critical to the understanding of combustion phenomena in liquid propellant rocket engines. Much work has been done to characterize low-speed liquid jet breakup and dilute sprays, but atomizing jets and dense sprays have yielded few quantitative measurements due to their high liquid load fractions and hence their optical opacity. Focus was on a characteristic of the primary breakup process of round liquid jets, namely the length of the intact-liquid core. The specific application considered is that of shear-coaxial-type rocket engine injectors in which liquid oxygen is injected through the center post while high velocity gaseous hydrogen is injected through a concentric annulus, providing a shear force to the liquid jet surface. Real-time x ray radiography, capable of imaging through the dense two-phase region surrounding the liquid core, is used to make the measurements. The intact-liquid-core length data were obtained and interpreted using two conceptually different methods to illustrate the effects of chamber pressure, gas-to-liquid momentum ratio, and cavitation.
Corpus Callosum Measurements Correlate with Developmental Delay in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome
Lee, Ryan W.Y.; Yoshida, Shoko; Jung, Eun Sol; Mori, Susumu; Baker, Eva H.; Porter, Forbes D.
2013-01-01
Background Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a multiple malformation, neurodevelopmental disorder of cholesterol metabolism caused by mutations in 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7). Corpus callosum (CC) malformations and developmental delay are common manifestations of this disorder, but the relationship between the two has not been evaluated. We tested the hypothesis that shorter callosal length and smaller area correlates with higher serum 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) and increased severity of neurodevelopmental delay in a large cohort of SLOS patients. Methods Thirty-six individuals with SLOS (18M/18F) between 0.20 and 12.5 years (mean = 3.9, SD = 3.6) and 36 typically developing controls (18M/18F) between 0.12 and 12.8 years (mean = 4.0, SD = 3.6) were each imaged one time on a 1.5T MR scanner. One mid-sagittal image per study was selected for manual measurement of CC cross-sectional area and length. Gross motor, fine motor, and language developmental quotients, anatomical severity score, and serum sterol levels were assessed with imaging measurements. Results Shorter CC length and smaller area correlated with lower developmental quotient in gross motor and language domains. Furthermore, length and area negatively correlated with a serum 7DHC, 8DHC, sterol ratio, and anatomical severity score, and positively correlated with total cholesterol. The degree of developmental delay ranged from mild to severe, involving all domains. Conclusions For individuals with SLOS, smaller callosal area and length are associated with higher serum 7DHC, anatomic severity, and motor and language delay. These findings suggest the relationship between callosal development, biochemistry, and neurodevelopment may lead to finding predictors of outcome in SLOS. PMID:23859856
Precision measurement of {pi}{pi} scattering lengths at the NA48/2 experiment
Venditti, Stefano
2010-12-28
The NA48/2 experiment at CERN [1] collected {approx}18{center_dot}10{sup 9} charged kaon decays during the years 2003/4. Along with the primary goals of the collaboration, i.e. the measurement of the CP-violating asymmetry in the K{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and K{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} decays thanks to the simultaneous collection of K{sup +} and K{sup -} events, the collected data allowed to perform many other interesting analyses. In this paper two independent measurements of {pi}{pi} scattering lengths will be reviewed, using NA48/2 data from the K{sup {+-}}{yields}e{sup {+-}}{nu}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay and from the cusp effect in K{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.
1976-01-01
Radiometric data were obtained over a range of parametric test conditions at three positions along the length of an experimental combustor segment corresponding to the primary, intermediate, and dilution zones. The concentration of soot entrained in the combustion gases was calculated by a technique using spectral radiance measurements. Tests were conducted primarily with Jet A fuel, although limited data were taken with two fuels having higher aromatic content, diesel oil number 2 and a blend of 40 percent tetralin in Jet A fuel. Radiometric observation of the combustion gases indicated that the maximum total radiance peaked at the intermediate zone, which was located immediately upstream of the dilution holes. Soot concentrations calculated from optical measurements in the dilution zone compared favorably with those obtained by in situ gas sampling at the exhaust. The total radiance increased with the higher aromatic content fuels.
Electro-optical measurements of picosecond bunch length of a 45 MeV electron beam
Tsang, T.; Castillo, V.; Larsen, R.; Lazarus, D. M.; Nikas, D.; Ozben, C.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Kowalski, L.
2001-05-01
We have measured the temporal duration of 45 MeV picosecond electron beam bunches using a noninvasive electro-optical (EO) technique. The amplitude of the EO modulation was found to increase linearly with electron beam charge and decrease inversely with distance from the electron beam. The rise time of the temporal signal was limited by our detection system to {approx}70 ps. The EO signal due to ionization caused by the electrons traversing the EO crystal was also observed. It has a distinctively long decay time constant and signal polarity opposite to that due to the field induced by the electron beam. The electro-optical technique may be ideal for the measurement of bunch length of femtosecond, relativistic, high energy, charged, particle beams.
Holyst, Robert; Bielejewska, Anna; Szyma?ski, Jedrzej; Wilk, Agnieszka; Patkowski, Adam; Gapi?ski, Jacek; Zywoci?ski, Andrzej; Kalwarczyk, Tomasz; Kalwarczyk, Ewelina; Tabaka, Marcin; Ziebacz, Natalia; Wieczorek, Stefan A
2009-10-28
We measured the viscosity of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 6000, 12,000, 20,000) in water using capillary electrophoresis and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with nanoscopic probes of different diameters (from 1.7 to 114 nm). For a probe of diameter smaller than the radius of gyration of PEG (e.g. rhodamine B or lyzozyme) the measured nanoviscosity was orders of magnitude smaller than the macroviscosity. For sizes equal to (or larger than) the polymer radius of gyration, macroscopic value of viscosity was measured. A mathematical relation for macro and nanoviscosity was found as a function of PEG radius of gyration, R(g), correlation length in semi-dilute solution, xi, and probe size, R. For R < R(g), the nanoviscosity (normalized by water viscosity) is given by exp(b(R/xi)a), and for R > R(g), both nano and macroviscosity follow the same curve, exp(b(R/xi)a), where a and b are two constants close to unity. This mathematical relation was shown to equally well describe rhodamine (of size 1.7 nm) in PEG 20,000 and the macroviscosity of PEG 8,000,000, whose radius of gyration exceeds 200 nm. Additionally, for the smallest probes (rhodamine B and lysozyme) we have verified, using capillary electrophoresis and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, that the Stokes-Einstein (SE) relation holds, providing that we use a size-dependent viscosity in the formula. The SE relation is correct even in PEG solutions of very high viscosity (three orders of magnitude larger than that of water). PMID:19812821
Measurement of the persistence length of polymerized actin using fluorescence microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ott, A.; Magnasco, M.; Simon, A.; Libchaber, A.
1993-09-01
Single actin filaments were confined between bovine-serum-albumine-coated glass plates, with a separation of about 1 μm, and their flickering Brownian movement was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The rigidity of the filaments was measured by extracting the correlation function given by the mean dot product between unit tangent vectors of an isolated filament. The result is consistent with current rigidity values found in the literature.
Atmospheric correlation time measurements using coherent CO2 lidar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ancellet, G. M.; Menzies, R. T.
1986-01-01
A pulsed TEA-CO2 lidar with coherent detection was used to measure the correlation time of backscatter from an ensemble of atmospheric aerosol particles which are illuminated by the pulsed radiation. The correlation time of the backscatter return signal is important in studies of atmospheric turbulence and its effects on optical propagation and backscatter. If the temporal coherence of the pulse is large enough, then the temporal coherence of the return signal is dominated by the turbulence and shear for a variety of interesting atmospheric conditions. Various techniques for correlation time measurement are discussed and evaluated.
Monaco, Thomas A; Taylor, Jim A; Langenbach, Anke; Gordon, Sebastian; Vance, Eric
2014-05-01
This study evaluated segmental measurement techniques for predicting immediate post-deployment intraluminal tracheal stent length in dogs with naturally occurring tracheal collapse. Radiographs of 12 client-owned dogs that underwent intraluminal tracheal stent placement were retrospectively reviewed. Tracheal lengths were divided into 1, 2, 3, or 4 equal segments. Stent lengths were predicted using the widest dorsoventral height of each segment, with and without the addition of 10%, and an accompanying foreshortening chart. Techniques were compared for intra- and inter-observer reliability, and post-deployment stent length predictability. There was good to high intra- and inter-observer reliability for all segmental measurements; median intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.98 and 0.92, respectively. Measuring 2 segments without the addition of 10% to the widths was significantly more accurate in predicting immediate post-deployment stent length in terms of percent (P = 0.03) and absolute difference (P = 0.02). Segmental measuring techniques are repeatable amongst observers and may help guide stent selection. PMID:24790228
Computable measure of total quantum correlations of multipartite systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behdani, Javad; Akhtarshenas, Seyed Javad; Sarbishaei, Mohsen
2016-01-01
Quantum discord as a measure of the quantum correlations cannot be easily computed for most of density operators. In this paper, we present a measure of the total quantum correlations that is operationally simple and can be computed effectively for an arbitrary mixed state of a multipartite system. The measure is based on the coherence vector of the party whose quantumness is investigated as well as the correlation matrix of this part with the remainder of the system. Being able to detect the quantumness of multipartite systems, such as detecting the quantum critical points in spin chains, alongside with the computability characteristic of the measure, makes it a useful indicator to be exploited in the cases which are out of the scope of the other known measures.
Effect of a magnetic field on crack length measurement of 9NI steel by unloading compliance method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagasaki, C.; Matsui, K.; Shibata, K.
2002-05-01
In the fracture toughness measurement of ferro-magnetic materials in high magnetic fields, it has not been clarified whether we can use the same formulas as ones used in a non-magnetic field. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the magnetic effect in the fracture toughness measurement of ferro-magnetic materials. As the first step, crack length was measured at 4 K by unloading compliance method in the testing of CT specimen of 9% nickel steel. The same formula was used in the magnetic field of 0 and 8 Tesla. They were compared with the length measured by optical fractography. The magnetic field had little effect on the crack length measurement by the unloading compliance method. The small amount of retained austenite in Q T heat-treated specimen did not exhibit a magnetic effect on the crack length measurement by the unloading compliance method.
Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Messac, A.; Hodge, B. M.
2013-08-01
This paper significantly advances the hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology, enabling it to account for variations of both wind speed and direction. The advanced hybrid MCP method uses the recorded data of multiple reference stations to estimate the long-term wind condition at a target wind plant site. The results show that the accuracy of the hybrid MCP method is highly sensitive to the combination of the individual MCP algorithms and reference stations. It was also found that the best combination of MCP algorithms varies based on the length of the correlation period.
Diffraction effects in coherent transition radiation diagnostics for sub-mm bunch length measurement
Maxwell, T.J.; Mihalcea, D.; Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab
2008-09-01
Electrons crossing the boundary between different media generate bursts of transition radiation. In the case of bunches of N electrons, the radiation is coherent and has an N-squared enhancement at wavelengths related to the longitudinal bunch distribution. This coherent transition radiation has therefore attracted attention as an interceptive charged particle beam diagnostic technique. Many analytical descriptions have been devised describing the spectral distribution generated by electron bunches colliding with thin metallic foils making different simplifying assumptions. For typical bunches having lengths in the sub-millimeter range, measurable spectra are generated up into the millimeter range. Analysis of this THz radiation is performed using optical equipment tens of millimeters in size. This gives rise to concern that optical diffraction effects may spread the wavefront of interest into regions larger than the optical elements and partially escape detection, generating a wavelength-dependent instrument response. In this paper we present a model implementing vector diffraction theory to analyze these effects in bunch length diagnostics based on coherent transition radiation.
Turbulent transport and length scale measurement experiments with comfined coaxial jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Roback, R.
1984-01-01
A three phase experimental study of mixing downstream of swirling and nonswirling confined coaxial jets was conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently employed in a variety of computational procedures. The present effort was directed toward the acquisition of length scale and dissipation rate data that provide more accurate inlet boundary conditions for the computational procedures and a data base to evaluate the turbulent transport models in the near jet region where recirculation does not occur, and the acquisition of mass and momentum turbulent transport data for a nonswirling flow condition with a blunt inner jet inlet configuration rather than the tapered inner jet inlet. A measurement technique, generally used to obtain approximate integral length and microscales of turbulence and dissipation rates, was computerized. Results showed the dissipation rate varied by 2 1/2 orders of magnitude across the inlet plane, by 2 orders of magnitude 51 mm from the inlet plane, and by 1 order of magnitude at 102 mm from the inlet plane for a nonswirling flow test conditions.
In vivo measurement of ACL length and relative strain during walking
Taylor, K A; Cutcliffe, H C; Queen, R M; Utturkar, G M; Spritzer, C E; Garrett, W E; DeFrate, L E
2012-01-01
Although numerous studies have addressed the effects of ACL injury and reconstruction on knee joint motion, there is currently little data available describing in vivo ACL strain during activities of daily living. Data describing in vivo ACL strain during activities such as gait is critical to understanding the biomechanical function of the ligament, and ultimately, to improving the surgical treatment of patients with ACL rupture. Thus, our objective was to characterize the relative strain in the ACL during both the stance and swing phases of normal level walking. Eight normal subjects were recruited for this study. Through a combination of magnetic resonance imaging, biplanar fluoroscopy, and motion capture, we created in vivo models of each subjects normal walking movements to measure knee flexion, ACL length, and relative ACL strain during gait. Regression analysis demonstrated an inverse relationship between knee flexion and ACL length (R2=0.61, p<0.001). Furthermore, relative strain in the ACL peaked at 132% (mean 95%CI) during mid-stance when the knee was near full extension. Additionally, there was a second local maximum of 107% near the end of swing phase, just prior to heel strike. These data are a vital step in further comprehending the normal in vivo biomechanics experienced by the ACL. In the future, this information could prove critical to improving ACL reconstruction and provide useful validation to future computational models investigating ACL function. PMID:23178040
2011-01-01
Background Surprisingly, in several multi-cellular eukaryotes optimal codon use correlates negatively with gene length. This contrasts with the expectation under selection for translational accuracy. While suggested explanations focus on variation in strength and efficiency of translational selection, it has rarely been noticed that the negative correlation is reported only in organisms whose optimal codons are biased towards codons that end with G or C (-GC). This raises the question whether forces that affect base composition - such as GC-biased gene conversion - contribute to the negative correlation between optimal codon use and gene length. Results Yeast is a good organism to study this as equal numbers of optimal codons end in -GC and -AT and one may hence compare frequencies of optimal GC- with optimal AT-ending codons to disentangle the forces. Results of this study demonstrate in yeast frequencies of GC-ending (optimal AND non-optimal) codons decrease with gene length and increase with recombination. A decrease of GC-ending codons along genes contributes to the negative correlation with gene length. Correlations with recombination and gene expression differentiate between GC-ending and optimal codons, and also substitution patterns support effects of GC-biased gene conversion. Conclusion While the general effect of GC-biased gene conversion is well known, the negative correlation of optimal codon use with gene length has not been considered in this context before. Initiation of gene conversion events in promoter regions and the presence of a gene conversion gradient most likely explain the observed decrease of GC-ending codons with gene length and gene position. PMID:21481245
The Measurement and Correlates of Career Decision Making.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harren, Vincent A.; Kass, Richard A.
This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding career decision making (CDM); introduces an instrument, Assessment of Career Decision Making (ACDM) to measure CDM with college students; and presents correlational data on sex role and cognitive style factors hypothesized to influence CDM. The ACDM, designed to measure the Tiedeman and
Statistical measures of Planck scale signal correlations in interferometers
Hogan, Craig J.; Kwon, Ohkyung
2015-06-22
A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parametrized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. As a result, simple projections of sensitivity for specific experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will directly yield constraints on a universal time derivative of the correlation function, and thereby confirm or rule out a class of Planck scale departures from classical geometry.
Measuring Omega and the real correlation function from the redshift correlation function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, A. J. S.
1992-01-01
Peculiar velocities distort the correlation function of galaxies in redshift space. In the linear regime, the distortion has a characteristic quadrupole plus hexadecapole form. The amplitude of the distortion depends on the cosmological density parameter Omega. Practical formulas are derived here which can be applied to redshift galaxy catalogs to measure Omega in the linear regime. The formulas also yield the real underlying correlation function in the linear regime, corrected for peculiar velocities.
Optical correlation technique for cement particle size measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorsky, M. P.; Maksimyak, P. P.
2015-11-01
Article describes optical correlation method of cement particle size distribution definition. It based on transverse coherent function definition. It has been shown that set of particles with random shapes and orientations produces correlation function which is almost the same as a function for round particles set. Measurements of coherence function are performed using polarization transverse shearing interferometer. Described method allows fast and high reliable definition of cement particle distribution by sizes.
Analyzing complex networks through correlations in centrality measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furlan Ronqui, Jos Ricardo; Travieso, Gonzalo
2015-05-01
Many real world systems can be expressed as complex networks of interconnected nodes. It is frequently important to be able to quantify the relative importance of the various nodes in the network, a task accomplished by defining some centrality measures, with different centrality definitions stressing different aspects of the network. It is interesting to know to what extent these different centrality definitions are related for different networks. In this work, we study the correlation between pairs of a set of centrality measures for different real world networks and two network models. We show that the centralities are in general correlated, but with stronger correlations for network models than for real networks. We also show that the strength of the correlation of each pair of centralities varies from network to network. Taking this fact into account, we propose the use of a centrality correlation profile, consisting of the values of the correlation coefficients between all pairs of centralities of interest, as a way to characterize networks. Using the yeast protein interaction network as an example we show also that the centrality correlation profile can be used to assess the adequacy of a network model as a representation of a given real network.
Direct measurement of correlation functions in a lattice Lorentz gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Binder, P.-M.; Frenkel, D.
1990-01-01
Simulations of a two-dimensional ballistic Lorentz gas on a lattice are reported. A moment-propagation technique allows direct measurements of the velocity correlation function and its moments with low relative errors for all times. The predicted 1/t-sq algebraic tails in the velocity correlation function are observed at all studied scatterer densities, unlike what has been reported for continuous systems. In the square lattice a fast oscillation is observed, consistent with the existence of staggered density modes. For the second-rank tensor correlation function, an extremely slow approach to the expected 1/t exp 3 tail is found.
Direct measurement of correlation functions in a lattice Lorentz gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binder, P.-M.; Frenkel, D.
1990-08-01
Simulations of a two-dimensional ballistic Lorentz gas on a lattice are reported. A moment-propagation technique allows direct measurements of the velocity correlation function and its moments with low relative errors for all times. The predicted 1/t-sq algebraic tails in the velocity correlation function are observed at all studied scatterer densities, unlike what has been reported for continuous systems. In the square lattice a fast oscillation is observed, consistent with the existence of staggered density modes. For the second-rank tensor correlation function, an extremely slow approach to the expected 1/t exp 3 tail is found.
Measuring telomere length and telomere dynamics in evolutionary biology and ecology
Nussey, Daniel H; Baird, Duncan; Barrett, Emma; Boner, Winnie; Fairlie, Jennifer; Gemmell, Neil; Hartmann, Nils; Horn, Thorsten; Haussmann, Mark; Olsson, Mats; Turbill, Chris; Verhulst, Simon; Zahn, Sandrine; Monaghan, Pat
2014-01-01
Telomeres play a fundamental role in the protection of chromosomal DNA and in the regulation of cellular senescence. Recent work in human epidemiology and evolutionary ecology suggests adult telomere length (TL) may reflect past physiological stress and predict subsequent morbidity and mortality, independent of chronological age. Several different methods have been developed to measure TL, each offering its own technical challenges. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the advantages and drawbacks of each method for researchers, with a particular focus on issues that are likely to face ecologists and evolutionary biologists collecting samples in the field or in organisms that may never have been studied in this context before. We discuss the key issues to consider and wherever possible try to provide current consensus view regarding best practice with regard to sample collection and storage, DNA extraction and storage, and the five main methods currently available to measure TL. Decisions regarding which tissues to sample, how to store them, how to extract DNA, and which TL measurement method to use cannot be prescribed, and are dependent on the biological question addressed and the constraints imposed by the study system. What is essential for future studies of telomere dynamics in evolution and ecology is that researchers publish full details of their methods and the quality control thresholds they employ. PMID:25834722
Tests for time-invariant correlation of longitudinally measured biomarkers.
Chen, Su; Braun, Thomas M
2015-12-20
Our work is motivated by a study that longitudinally measured serum biomarkers and levels of bacterial pathogens in the oral cavity with the intent of testing if the correlation between each biomarker and each pathogen is homogeneous over time. To address this question, we propose a model for the joint distribution of the serial biomarker measures and the serial pathogen measures and use the variance of this distribution to derive the asymptotic distribution of the sample correlation coefficient of a biomarker and a pathogen at each time point. We use both a Wald test based upon Fisher's Z-transformation and an F-test with an estimated degrees of freedom in order to produce a test with valid size. We examine the performance of both tests via Monte Carlo simulation in a variety of settings defined by the number of subjects, the number of time points, and the range of the true correlation coefficients. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26172451
Fan, Xinyu; Koshikiya, Yusuke; Ito, Fumihiko
2007-11-15
A novel type of optical frequency domain reflectometry with a measurement range much longer than the laser coherence length is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. To reduce the influence of laser phase noise, the measurement signal is compensated by using reference signals generated from a single auxiliary interferometer supported by a newly proposed compensation process. The compensation is accomplished numerically with a computer for each section of the delay fiber length in an auxiliary interferometer after only one data acquisition. By using the proposed technique, it is confirmed experimentally that the laser phase noise is well compensated even beyond the coherence length. PMID:18026262
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulzacchelli, John F.; Lee, Hae-Seung; Hong, Merit Y.; Misewich, James A.; Ketchen, Mark B.
2003-12-01
Segmented correlation is a useful technique for testing a superconducting analogue-to-digital converter, as it allows the output spectrum to be estimated with fine frequency resolution even when data record lengths are limited by small on-chip acquisition memories. Previously, we presented segmented correlation measurements on a superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator sampling at 40.2 GHz under idle channel (no input) conditions. This paper compares the modulator output spectra measured by segmented correlation with and without an input tone. Important practical considerations of calculating segmented correlations are discussed in detail. Resolution enhancement by segmented correlation does reduce the spectral width of the input tone in the desired manner, but the signal power due to the input increases the variance of the spectral estimate near the input frequency, hindering accurate calculation of the in-band noise. This increased variance, which is predicted by theory, must be considered carefully in the application of segmented correlation. Methods for obtaining more accurate estimates of the quantization noise spectrum which are closer to those measured with no input are described.
Comparative Study of Bunch Length And Arrival Time Measurements at FLASH
Schlarb, H.; Azima, A.; Dusterer, S.; Huning, M.; Knabbe, E.A.; Roehrs, M.; Rybnikov, V.; Schmidt, B.; Steffen, B.; Ross, M.C.; Schmueser, P.; Winter, A.; /Hamburg U.
2007-04-16
Diagnostic devices to precisely measure the longitudinal electron beam profile and the bunch arrival time require elaborate new instrumentation techniques. At FLASH, two entirely different methods are used. The bunch profile can be determined with high precision by a transverse deflecting RF structure, but the method is disruptive and does not allow to monitor multiple bunches in a macro-pulse train. It is therefore complemented by two non-disruptive electrooptical devices, called EO and TEO. The EO setup uses a dedicated diagnostic laser synchronized to the machine RF. The longitudinal electron beam profile is encoded in the intensity profile of a chirped laser pulse and analyzed by looking at the spectral composition of the pulse. The second setup, TEO, utilizes the TiSa-based laser system used for pump-probe experiments. Here, the temporal electron shape is encoded into the spatial dimension of the laser pulse by an intersection angle between the laser and the electron beam at the EO-crystal. In this paper, we present a comparative study of bunch length and arrival time measurements performed simultaneously with all three experimental techniques.
Avian hind-limb digit length ratios measured from radiographs are sexually dimorphic
Leoni, Barbara; Rubolini, Diego; Romano, Maria; di Giancamillo, Mauro; Saino, Nicola
2008-01-01
Sexual dimorphism in digit length ratios is well established in humans, and has been reported in other vertebrate species as well, including birds. The sign of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios may, however, vary both within and between vertebrate classes. It has been hypothesized that sex differences in digit ratios arise via differential prenatal exposure of the two sexes to steroids, which may affect the expression of the Hox genes controlling the osteometric development of digits and appendices. Among birds, the evidence for sex dimorphism in hind-limb digit ratios is conflicting, though all previous studies were based on measurements of undissected digits, implying that results could be confounded by sex-related variation in soft tissues. Here we report that digit ratios derived from radiographs of both feet of a large passerine bird, the hooded crow (Corvus corone), are sexually dimorphic, males showing larger 2D : 3D (effect size, r = 0.33) and 2D : 4D than females (effect size, r = 0.28). We also observed a good agreement (r = 0.45) between radiographic estimates of digit ratios and digit ratios calculated based on undissected digit measurements (thus including soft tissues). Importantly, we found that the patterns of sex and side differences were largely coherent between the two methods. Therefore, our findings show for the first time in avian species that sex differences in digit ratios have an osteometric basis, a fundamental prerequisite for a role of Hox genes in originating such dimorphism. PMID:18691377
Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent smith-purcell radiation
Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM)
1999-01-01
A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches.
Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation
Nguyen, D.C.
1999-03-30
A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches. 8 figs.
Hao, Xiao-Dan; Yang, Yue; Song, Xin; Zhao, Xue-Ke; Wang, Li-Dong; He, Jun-Dong; Kong, Qing-Peng; Tang, Nelson Leung Sang; Zhang, Ya-Ping
2013-01-01
Genomic instability caused by telomere erosion is an important mechanism of tumorigenesis. p53 plays a key role in cellular senescence and/or apoptosis associated with telomere erosion which positions p53 as a guard against tumorigenesis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential interactions between p53 functional mutations, polymorphisms, allelic loss and telomere erosion in 126 breast tumor patients and 68 esophageal cancer patients. Telomere length (TL) was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Somatic mutations, polymorphisms and allelic loss in the TP53 gene were detected by direct sequencing of both tumor and normal tissue samples. Our results showed that telomeres were significantly shorter in tumors with somatic p53 mutations compared with tumors with wild-type p53 in both breast tumors (P=0.007) and esophageal cancer (P=0.001). Telomeres of patients with minor genotype CC of rs12951053 and GG of rs1042522 were significantly shorter compared to patients with other genotypes of this single nucleotide polymorphism in esophageal cancer tissue. Furthermore, TP53 allelic loss was detected and significantly associated with somatic mutations in both types of tumor tissues. These findings suggest that somatic p53 mutations, rs12951053 genotype CC and rs1042522 genotype GG contribute to erosion of telomeres, and TP53 allelic loss may be one of the representations of chromosomal instability caused by telomere erosion combined with somatic p53 mutations. These results support that the TP53 gene has a strong interaction with TL erosion in tumorigenesis. PMID:23124483
Knafo, A; Israel, S; Darvasi, A; Bachner-Melman, R; Uzefovsky, F; Cohen, L; Feldman, E; Lerer, E; Laiba, E; Raz, Y; Nemanov, L; Gritsenko, I; Dina, C; Agam, G; Dean, B; Bornstein, G; Ebstein, R P
2008-04-01
Human altruism is a widespread phenomenon that puzzled evolutionary biologists since Darwin. Economic games illustrate human altruism by showing that behavior deviates from economic predictions of profit maximization. A game that most plainly shows this altruistic tendency is the Dictator Game. We hypothesized that human altruistic behavior is to some extent hardwired and that a likely candidate that may contribute to individual differences in altruistic behavior is the arginine vasopressin 1a (AVPR1a) receptor that in some mammals such as the vole has a profound impact on affiliative behaviors. In the current investigation, 203 male and female university students played an online version of the Dictator Game, for real money payoffs. All subjects and their parents were genotyped for AVPR1a RS1 and RS3 promoter-region repeat polymorphisms. Parents did not participate in online game playing. As variation in the length of a repetitive element in the vole AVPR1a promoter region is associated with differences in social behavior, we examined the relationship between RS1 and RS3 repeat length (base pairs) and allocation sums. Participants with short versions (308-325 bp) of the AVPR1a RS3 repeat allocated significantly (likelihood ratio = 14.75, P = 0.001, df = 2) fewer shekels to the 'other' than participants with long versions (327-343 bp). We also implemented a family-based association test, UNPHASED, to confirm and validate the correlation between the AVPR1a RS3 repeat and monetary allocations in the dictator game. Dictator game allocations were significantly associated with the RS3 repeat (global P value: likelihood ratio chi(2) = 11.73, df = 4, P = 0.019). The association between the AVPR1a RS3 repeat and altruism was also confirmed using two self-report scales (the Bardi-Schwartz Universalism and Benevolence Value-expressive Behavior scales). RS3 long alleles were associated with higher scores on both measures. Finally, long AVPR1a RS3 repeats were associated with higher AVPR1a human post-mortem hippocampal messenger RNA levels than short RS3 repeats (one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA): F = 15.04, P = 0.001, df = 14) suggesting a functional molecular genetic basis for the observation that participants with the long RS3 repeats allocate more money than participants with the short repeats. This is the first investigation showing that a common human polymorphism, with antecedents in lower mammals, contributes to decision making in an economic game. The finding that the same gene contributing to social bonding in lower animals also appears to operate similarly in human behavior suggests a common evolutionary mechanism. PMID:17696996
Non-Markovianity measure using two-time correlation functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Md. Manirul; Lo, Ping-Yuan; Tu, Matisse Wei-Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Min
2015-12-01
We investigate non-Markovianity measure using two-time correlation functions for open quantum systems. We define non-Markovianity measure as the difference between the exact two-time correlation function and the one obtained from quantum regression theorem in the Born-Markov approximation. Such non-Markovianity can easily be measured in experiments. We found that the non-Markovianity dynamics in different time scale crucially depends on the system-environment coupling strength and other physical parameters such as the initial temperature of the environment and the initial state of the system. In particular, we obtain the short-time and long-time behaviors of non-Markovianity for different spectral densities. We find that the thermal fluctuation always reduce the non-Markovian memory effect. Also, the non-Markovianity measure shows nontrivial initial state dependence in different time scales.
PROTOTYPE CORRELATION MASK FLAME PHOTOMETRIC DETECTOR FOR MEASURING SULFUR DIOXIDE
A prototype flame photometric detector system (FPD) to measure gaseous sulfur compounds was fabricated using a previously developed correlation mask optical system and a new flame housing. Also, a new burner for the FPD system was optimized to view the excited molecular sulfur em...
CORRELATION OF EGG PHYSICAL QUALITY MEASUREMENTS AND FUNCTIONAL DETERMINATIONS
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Both physical and functional determinations have served as a means for determining shell egg quality. A study was conducted to determine if correlations exist between these types of egg quality measurements. Shell eggs were collected weekly after processing from a U.S. inline processing facility f...
Mullany, LC; Darmstadt, GL; Khatry, SK; LeClerq, SC; Tielsch, JM
2008-01-01
Background Classification of infants into low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) or very low birth weight (VLBW, <2000 g) categories is a crucial step in targeting interventions to high-risk infants. Objective To compare the validity of chest circumference and foot length as surrogate anthropometric measures for the identification of LBW and VLBW infants. Subjects and setting Newborn infants (n = 1640) born between March and June 2004 in 30 Village Development Committees of Sarlahi district, Nepal. Design Chest circumference, foot length and weight (SECA 727, precise to 2 g) of newborns were measured within 72 h after birth. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for a range of cutoff points of the anthropometric measures were estimated using the digital scale measurements as the gold standard. Results Among LBW infants (469/1640, 28.6%), chest circumference measures <30.3 cm were 91% sensitive and 83% specific. Similar levels of sensitivity for foot length were achieved only with considerable loss of specificity (<45%). Foot length measurements <6.9 cm were 88% sensitive and 86% specific for the identification of VLBW infants. Conclusion Chest circumference was superior to foot length in classification of infants into birth weight categories. For the identification of VLBW infants, foot length performed well, and may be preferable to chest circumference, as the former measure does not require removal of infant swaddling clothes. In the absence of more precise direct measures of birth weight, chest circumference is recommended over foot length for the identification of LBW infants. Sponsorship The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; the Saving Newborn Lives Initiative, Save the Children US and the Office of Heath and Nutrition, United States Agency for International Development (see Acknowledgements). PMID:16885929
Improved three-dimensional image correlation for surface displacement measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helm, Jeffrey D.; McNeill, Stephen R.; Sutton, Michael A.
1996-07-01
A PC-based, 3D surface profile and displacement measurement system capable of micron-level accuracy using moderately priced off-the-shelf equipment has been developed. For use in field applications, a simplified calibration process using precision grids and camera translations is developed. An improved image correlation process is developed which corrects for perspective distortions due to viewpoint differences between the two cameras. The accuracy of the system was assessed experimentally and results expressed using several different error measures, including a new error measure proposed by the authors. The accuracy for both the profile and displacement measurement systems was established through a series of profile and translation tests. The baseline tests confirmed that the measurement system is capable of highly accurate full-field measurements. The system was also used successfully to measure both the bending of a clamped circular plate under pressure loading and the local buckling which occurs during tension loading of a cracked plate.
Panchangam, Appaji; Claflin, Dennis R.; Palmer, Mark L.; Faulkner, John A.
2008-01-01
A laser-diffraction technique was developed that rapidly reports the lengths of sarcomeres (Ls) in serially connected sectors of permeabilized single fibers. The apparatus translates a laser beam along the entire length of a fiber segment within 2 ms, with brief stops at each of 20 contiguous sectors. We tested the hypothesis that during lengthening contractions, when maximally activated fibers are stretched, sectors that contain the longer sarcomeres undergo greater increases in Ls than those containing shorter sarcomeres. Fibers (n = 16) were obtained from the soleus muscles of adult male rats and the middle portions (length = 1.05 0.11 mm; mean SD) were investigated. Single stretches of strain 27% and a strain rate of 54% s?1 were initiated at maximum isometric stress and resulted in a 19 9% loss in isometric stress. The data on Ls revealed that 1), the stretch was not distributed uniformly among the sectors, and 2), during the stretch, sectors at long Ls before the stretch elongated more than those at short lengths. The findings support the hypothesis that during stretches of maximally activated skeletal muscles, sarcomeres at longer lengths are more susceptible to damage by excessive strain. PMID:18469072
Constrained tension control of a tethered space-tug system with only length measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Hao; Zhu, Zheng H.; Jin, Dongping; Hu, Haiyan
2016-02-01
The paper presents a tension control law to stabilize the motions of a Tethered Space-Tug system during its deorbiting process by regulating the tension in the tether. The tension control law is designed on a basis of two straightforward ideas, i.e., the potential energy shaping and the damping injection. The law is expressed in an analytical feedback form in terms of only the tether length without the need of the feedback of full state information. Meanwhile, the requirements of measuring velocities are removed with the aid of a dynamic extension technique based on the feedback interconnection of Euler-Lagrange systems. The positive and bounded tension constraint is taken into consideration explicitly by including a pair of special saturation terms in the feedback control law. The relative motions of the space-tug and the debris are described with respect to a local non-inertial orbital frame of reference, whereas the orbital motion equations of the system are formulated in terms of the modified equinoctial elements of the orbit. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated via numerical case studies.
Franchignoni, F; Tesio, L; Martino, M T; Benevolo, E; Castagna, M
1998-01-01
A model for prediction of length of stay (LOS, in days) of stroke rehabilitation inpatients was developed, based on patients' age (years) and function at admission (scored on the Functional Independence Measure, FIMSM). One hundred and twenty-nine cases, consecutively admitted to three free-standing rehabilitation centres in Italy, were analyzed. A multiple linear regression using forward stepwise selection procedure was adopted. Median admission and discharge scores were: 57 and 75 for the total FIM score, 29 and 48 for the 13-item motor FIM subscore, 29 and 30 for the 5-item cognitive FIM subscore (potential range: 18-126, 13-91, 5-35, respectively). Median LOS was 44 days (interquartile range 30-62). The logLOS predictive model included three FIM items ("toilet transfer", TTr; "social interaction"; "expression") and patient's age (R2 = 0.48). TTr alone explained 31.3% of the variance of logLOS. These results are consistent with previous American studies, showing that FIM scores at admission are strong predictors of patients' LOS, with the transfer items having the greatest predictive power. PMID:10234877
Degree of polarization as a cross-correlation detector for absolute distance measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro Alves, D.; Abreu, Manuel; Cabral, Alexandre; Rebordo, J. M.
2013-11-01
We present an absolute distance measurement concept based on pulse frequency repetition (PRF) sweep with a mode-locked laser diode. This technique requires a Michelson interferometer, a mode-locked laser source and a cross-correlation detector. The role of the cross-correlator is to analyze the state of superposition of a pair of pulses, one travelling over the reference arm of the interferometer, the other, corresponding to the measuring arm, travelling from the apparatus to the target and reflected back. Using two distinct laser pulse repetition frequency and knowing the cross-correlation peak position at reference arm of the interferometer for each frequency, it's possible to obtain the length of the measuring arm, i.e., a distance measuring. The main techniques for performing pulse correlation are based in 2nd order effects over second harmonic crystal (SHG) or a two-photon absorption (TPA) process in a semiconductor junction. Both SHG and TPA methods require reasonably high pulse energies to achieve fair signal to noise ratios. The use Degree of Polarization (DOP) technique for cross-correlation detection allows the use of optical powers as low as -60 dBm. Such high sensitivity can be very convenient for low energy pulse sources such is the case of high frequency mode-locked laser diodes. The DOP technique can however limit the maximum measurement range, constrained by the loss of coherence of the laser source for longer distances. In this paper we present the first results of this measurement concept, based in the DOP correlator, discussing the main limitations of this technique for long distance measurements.
Two Point Space-Time Correlation of Density Fluctuations Measured in High Velocity Free Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayanta
2006-01-01
Two-point space-time correlations of air density fluctuations in unheated, fully-expanded free jets at Mach numbers M(sub j) = 0.95, 1.4, and 1.8 were measured using a Rayleigh scattering based diagnostic technique. The molecular scattered light from two small probe volumes of 1.03 mm length was measured for a completely non-intrusive means of determining the turbulent density fluctuations. The time series of density fluctuations were analyzed to estimate the integral length scale L in a moving frame of reference and the convective Mach number M(sub c) at different narrow Strouhal frequency (St) bands. It was observed that M(sub c) and the normalized moving frame length scale L*St/D, where D is the jet diameter, increased with Strouhal frequency before leveling off at the highest resolved frequency. Significant differences were observed between data obtained from the lip shear layer and the centerline of the jet. The wave number frequency transform of the correlation data demonstrated progressive increase in the radiative part of turbulence fluctuations with increasing jet Mach number.
Kawashima, Kazuko; Shikama, Hiroshi; Imoto, Kazuhiko; Izawa, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Susumu ); Naruke, Tsuguo; Okabayashi, Kenzo )
1988-04-01
Restriction length fragment polymorphism of the L-MYC gene was examined in DNAs from lung cancer tissues and normal tissues of 51 Japanese patients with lung cancer. In individual patients, no difference was seen between the restriction length fragments of the two alleles of L-MYC (6-kilobase (kb)) and 10-kb fragments in EcoRI digests in lung cancer tissues and normal tissues. But a striking correlation was found between the restriction length fragment polymorphism pattern of L-MYC and the extent of metastasis, particularly to the lymph nodes at the time of surgery: Patients with only the L band (10 kb) had few lymph node metastatic lesions, whereas patients with either the S band (6 kb) or the S and L bands almost always had lymph node metastatic lesion. A similar correlation was found between the presence of the S band and metastases to other organs. This correlation was particularly marked in cases of adenocarcinoma. These results indicate a clear genetic influence on metastases and a consequent poor prognosis for certain patients of lung cancer; L-MYC restriction length fragment polymorphism is thus shown to be a useful marker for predicting the metastatic potential of human lung cancer.
Correlation of Spatially Filtered Dynamic Speckles in Distance Measurement Application
Semenov, Dmitry V.; Nippolainen, Ervin; Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Miridonov, Serguei V.
2008-04-15
In this paper statistical properties of spatially filtered dynamic speckles are considered. This phenomenon was not sufficiently studied yet while spatial filtering is an important instrument for speckles velocity measurements. In case of spatial filtering speckle velocity information is derived from the modulation frequency of filtered light power which is measured by photodetector. Typical photodetector output is represented by a narrow-band random noise signal which includes non-informative intervals. Therefore more or less precious frequency measurement requires averaging. In its turn averaging implies uncorrelated samples. However, conducting research we found that correlation is typical property not only of dynamic speckle patterns but also of spatially filtered speckles. Using spatial filtering the correlation is observed as a response of measurements provided to the same part of the object surface or in case of simultaneously using several adjacent photodetectors. Found correlations can not be explained using just properties of unfiltered dynamic speckles. As we demonstrate the subject of this paper is important not only from pure theoretical point but also from the point of applied speckle metrology. E.g. using single spatial filter and an array of photodetector can greatly improve accuracy of speckle velocity measurements.
Measurement-induced disturbances and nonclassical correlations of Gaussian states
Mista, Ladislav Jr.; Tatham, Richard; Korolkova, Natalia; Girolami, Davide; Adesso, Gerardo
2011-04-15
We study quantum correlations beyond entanglement in two-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems by means of the measurement-induced disturbance (MID) and its ameliorated version (AMID). In analogy with the recent studies of the Gaussian quantum discord, we define a Gaussian AMID by constraining the optimization to all bi-local Gaussian positive operator valued measurements. We solve the optimization explicitly for relevant families of states, including squeezed thermal states. Remarkably, we find that there is a finite subset of two-mode Gaussian states comprising pure states where non-Gaussian measurements such as photon counting are globally optimal for the AMID and realize a strictly smaller state disturbance compared to the best Gaussian measurements. However, for the majority of two-mode Gaussian states the unoptimized MID provides a loose overestimation of the actual content of quantum correlations, as evidenced by its comparison with Gaussian discord. This feature displays strong similarity with the case of two qubits. Upper and lower bounds for the Gaussian AMID at fixed Gaussian discord are identified. We further present a comparison between Gaussian AMID and Gaussian entanglement of formation, and classify families of two-mode states in terms of their Gaussian AMID, Gaussian discord, and Gaussian entanglement of formation. Our findings provide a further confirmation of the genuinely quantum nature of general Gaussian states, yet they reveal that non-Gaussian measurements can play a crucial role for the optimized extraction and potential exploitation of classical and nonclassical correlations in Gaussian states.
Measurement of electrostriction in bone using digital image correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Lianyun; Hou, Zhende; Fu, Donghui; Yang, Lei; Yi, Weitian; Kang, Huimin
2015-02-01
The electromechanical properties of bone may play roles in the growth of bone tissue. The electrostriction effect of bone, which is one of the electromechanical properties of bone, was investigated using the digital image correlation technique (DIC). The advantage of using DIC is that the light beam used for the displacement measurement does not interfere with the electric field exerted on the bone specimen. To measure the bending deflections of a bone cantilever in an electric field, the displacement of the free end surface of the cantilever was measured using the image correlation technique. The experimental results show that the bending direction of the bone cantilevers is independent of the electric field direction and that the bending deflections are proportional to the square of the applied voltages. The attractive force between the charges on the electrode and the unlike charges in the specimen can be equivalent to a uniform distribution load regardless of the thickness of the bone specimen.
Soft defect printability: correlation to optical flux-area measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Darren; Fiekowsky, Peter
2001-01-01
Soft defects on photomasks have, historically, been difficult to measure, and predict how the measured size of a soft defect will correlate to what prints, if at all. Over the past few years KLA-Tencor STARlight surface inspection has become the inspection of choice for soft defects. Though the capture rate of this tool is exceptional, the defect sizing capability has lacked in accuracy. Customer specifications have traditionally been built around defect size and transmission. If a given defect cannot be accurately sized then it cannot be accurately dispositioned. In this study we are attempting to show a correlation between the AVI defect measurement tool sizing and what actually prints on the wafer. We will show defect sizing both from the KLA-Tencor STARlight and pattern tools, the AVI tool, AIMS and VSS printability data.
Local quantum measurement and no-signaling imply quantum correlations.
Barnum, H; Beigi, S; Boixo, S; Elliott, M B; Wehner, S
2010-04-01
We show that, assuming that quantum mechanics holds locally, the finite speed of information is the principle that limits all possible correlations between distant parties to be quantum mechanical as well. Local quantum mechanics means that a Hilbert space is assigned to each party, and then all local positive-operator-valued measurements are (in principle) available; however, the joint system is not necessarily described by a Hilbert space. In particular, we do not assume the tensor product formalism between the joint systems. Our result shows that if any experiment would give nonlocal correlations beyond quantum mechanics, quantum theory would be invalidated even locally. PMID:20481921
Correlation techniques and measurements of wave-height statistics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guthart, H.; Taylor, W. C.; Graf, K. A.; Douglas, D. G.
1972-01-01
Statistical measurements of wave height fluctuations have been made in a wind wave tank. The power spectral density function of temporal wave height fluctuations evidenced second-harmonic components and an f to the minus 5th power law decay beyond the second harmonic. The observations of second harmonic effects agreed very well with a theoretical prediction. From the wave statistics, surface drift currents were inferred and compared to experimental measurements with satisfactory agreement. Measurements were made of the two dimensional correlation coefficient at 15 deg increments in angle with respect to the wind vector. An estimate of the two-dimensional spatial power spectral density function was also made.
Park, So Yeong; Hong, Chung Ki; Lim, Jun
2014-04-15
We measured the spatial coherence length and incoherent source size of a hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II, the stored electron energy of which has been increased from 2.5 GeV to 3 GeV. The coherence length was determined by single-slit measurement of the visibility of the Fresnel diffraction pattern. The correlated incoherent source size was cross-checked for three different optics: the single slit, beryllium parabolic compound refractive lenses, and the Fresnel zone plate. We concluded that the undulator beamline has an effective incoherent source size (FWHM) of 540 μm (horizontal) × 50 μm (vertical)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ino, Naoyuki; Yamamoto, Naoki
2008-12-01
Monochromatic cathodoluminescence (CL) images of threading dislocations in GaN epitaxial layers were observed using a transmission electron microscopy combined with CL system. The carrier diffusion lengths were derived from the free exciton emission intensity profile of the dislocation contrast in the CL images. The carrier diffusion lengths in Si-doped and Mg-doped GaN were nearly the same and shorter than that in undoped GaN in the temperature range from 20 to 140 K, respectively. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the diffusion length shows that the acoustic phonon scattering mainly affects the exciton diffusion process at low temperatures from 40 to 120 K.
Hisagi, Miwako; Shafer, Valerie L; Strange, Winifred; Sussman, Elyse S
2015-11-11
This study examined automaticity of discrimination of a Japanese length contrast for consonants (mi?i vs. mi??i) in native (Japanese) and non-native (American-English) listeners using behavioral measures and the event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN). Attention to the auditory input was manipulated either away from the auditory input via a visual oddball task (Visual Attend), or to the input by asking the listeners to count auditory deviants (Auditory Attend). Results showed a larger MMN when attention was focused on the consonant contrast than away from it for both groups. The MMN was larger for consonant duration increments than decrements. No difference in MMN between the language groups was observed, but the Japanese listeners did show better behavioral discrimination than the American English listeners. In addition, behavioral responses showed a weak, but significant correlation with MMN amplitude. These findings suggest that both acoustic-phonetic properties and phonological experience affects automaticity of speech processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:26119918
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steinbrink, Claudia; Groth, Katarina; Lachmann, Thomas; Riecker, Axel
2012-01-01
This fMRI study investigated phonological vs. auditory temporal processing in developmental dyslexia by means of a German vowel length discrimination paradigm (Groth, Lachmann, Riecker, Muthmann, & Steinbrink, 2011). Behavioral and fMRI data were collected from dyslexics and controls while performing same-different judgments of vowel duration in
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steinbrink, Claudia; Groth, Katarina; Lachmann, Thomas; Riecker, Axel
2012-01-01
This fMRI study investigated phonological vs. auditory temporal processing in developmental dyslexia by means of a German vowel length discrimination paradigm (Groth, Lachmann, Riecker, Muthmann, & Steinbrink, 2011). Behavioral and fMRI data were collected from dyslexics and controls while performing same-different judgments of vowel duration in…
Reliability-guided digital image correlation for image deformation measurement
Pan Bing
2009-03-10
A universally applicable reliability-guided digital image correlation (DIC) method is proposed for reliable image deformation measurement. The zero-mean normalized cross correlation (ZNCC) coefficient is used to identify the reliability of the point computed. The correlation calculation begins with a seed point and is then guided by the ZNCC coefficient. That means the neighbors of the point with the highest ZNCC coefficient in a queue for computed points will be processed first. Thus the calculation path is always along the most reliable direction, and possible error propagation of the conventional DIC method can be avoided. The proposed novel DIC method is universally applicable to the images with shadows, discontinuous areas, and deformation discontinuity. Two image pairs were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique, and the successful results clearly demonstrate its robustness and effectiveness.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Genetic parameters for length of productive life given the opportunity (LPL|O), measured as days between first calving and disposal conditioned on one of six opportunity groups, (e.g., L2 is length of productive life in days given the opportunity to live 2 yr after first calving), and lifetime produ...
Chappard, D; Degasne, I; Huré, G; Legrand, E; Audran, M; Baslé, M F
2003-04-01
Surface properties of a biomaterial are important factors that govern in part its biocompatibility. Among them, surface roughness is now recognized as a very important factor for cell interactions. Surface roughness (Ra) is routinely measured by contact profilometry but other methods are presently usable. We compared two methods (contact profilometry and image analysis of scanning electron microscopic images SEM) on a series of 12 titanium test pieces. The texture analysis of SEM pictures was done by the heterogeneity and run-length methods. Fractal geometry was also used with the "skyscraper" and "blanket" methods providing respectively the D(SKY) and D(BLANK) fractal dimensions. The fractal dimension of the profilometric curve was also computed (D(MINK)). Computer-simulated textures were used to evaluate the pertinence of the algorithms. A significant correlation was found between Ra and all the texture descriptors except heterogeneity. The correlation coefficient was dependent on the microscopic magnification. The fractal dimension of the curve was correlated with D(SKY) and D(BLANK). Run-length, D(SKY) and D(BLANK) were highly correlated, independent of the magnification used, a finding related to the self-similarity of the images. Image texture analysis can be a useful alternative to profilometry with brittle or soft materials or with objects having a complex shape. PMID:12527281
Gillett, Jarred G; Barrett, Rod S; Lichtwark, Glen A
2013-01-01
Manual tracking of muscle fascicle length changes from ultrasound images is a subjective and time-consuming process. The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability and accuracy of an automated algorithm for tracking fascicle length changes in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle during passive length changes and active contractions (isometric, concentric and eccentric) performed on a dynamometer. The freely available, automated tracking algorithm was based on the Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm with an affine optic flow extension, which accounts for image translation, dilation, rotation and shear between consecutive frames of an image sequence. Automated tracking was performed by three experienced assessors, and within- and between-examiner repeatability was computed using the coefficient of multiple determination (CMD). Fascicle tracking data were also compared with manual digitisation of the same image sequences, and the level of agreement between the two methods was calculated using the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC). The CMDs across all test conditions ranged from 0.50 to 0.93 and were all above 0.98 when recomputed after the systematic error due to the estimate of the initial fascicle length on the first ultrasound frame was removed from the individual fascicle length waveforms. The automated and manual tracking approaches produced similar fascicle length waveforms, with an overall CMC of 0.88, which improved to 0.94 when the initial length offset was removed. Overall results indicate that the automated fascicle tracking algorithm was a repeatable, accurate and time-efficient method for estimating fascicle length changes of the MG muscle in controlled passive and active conditions. PMID:22235878
Jenkins, D.M.; Lysak, P.D.; Capone, D.E.; Brown, W.L.; Askari, V.
2006-07-01
Based on past experience with ultrasonic cross-correlation flow meters in power plant environments, the presence of spatially correlated noise due to pressure waves, vibration, or sources other than transport of turbulent eddies will cause a bias in the time delays measured by the meter. Several techniques were developed to detect the existence of such correlated noise and correct for its effect at plant conditions. An analytical and experimental investigation was performed to further understand the basic physics of the noise mechanisms. The dominant error mechanisms investigated in this work were speed of sound perturbations due to pressure fluctuations and beam path length changes due to wall vibration. An analytical model was formulated which estimates the signal level of the flow meter based on the turbulent velocity field. From this model, an estimate of the system noise which would cause contamination could be determined. A test at a water tunnel facility was performed in order to evaluate the noise mechanisms. During this test, measurements were taken with and without controlled noise sources. Pressure and acceleration measurements were used to evaluate a coherent noise removal technique developed to mitigate the impact of noise in the ultrasonic cross-correlation flow measurement. The coherent noise removal technique was shown to be effective in removing noise during the water tunnel test. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallagher, M. W.; Nemitz, E.; Dorsey, J. R.; Fowler, D.; Sutton, M. A.; Flynn, M.; Duyzer, J.
2002-06-01
New micrometeorological measurements of small (0.1-0.2 ?m diameter) aerosol particle fluxes using the eddy correlation technique are presented for moorland and also for grassland vegetation, the latter measurements being made both before and after cutting of the grassland to observe the resultant change in particle deposition velocity. These data are considered together with previously reported and reanalyzed micrometeorological measurements, again using the eddy correlation technique, for a number of different surface types, including arable crops and forest. Differences in observed surface deposition velocities, vds, due to the different surface roughnesses are highlighted. It was found that the various data sets showed a wholly consistent behavior when ensemble averages over the typical range of atmospheric stability ranges are considered in order to reduce the scatter inherent in these types of measurements. A working parameterization of surface deposition velocity in terms of the surface's roughness length, zo, is presented. This is then extended for different atmospheric stabilities, using the parameterization suggested by Lamaud et al. [1994c], to yield vds/u* = k1 + k2 (-300 z/L)2/3, where k1 = k1 = 0.001222 log(zo) + 0.003906, k2 = 0.0009, where z is the measurement height, L is the Obukhov stability length, and u* is the local friction speed. The new data are finally compared to current analytical model descriptions of the deposition process, highlighting deficiencies in our understanding of the surface collection efficiency even for these small particles.
Interplay between computable measures of entanglement and other quantum correlations
Girolami, Davide; Adesso, Gerardo
2011-11-15
Composite quantum systems can be in generic states characterized not only by entanglement but also by more general quantum correlations. The interplay between these two signatures of nonclassicality is still not completely understood. In this work we investigate this issue, focusing on computable and observable measures of such correlations: entanglement is quantified by the negativity N, while general quantum correlations are measured by the (normalized) geometric quantum discord D{sub G}. For two-qubit systems, we find that the geometric discord reduces to the squared negativity on pure states, while the relationship D{sub G}{>=}N{sup 2} holds for arbitrary mixed states. The latter result is rigorously extended to pure, Werner, and isotropic states of two-qudit systems for arbitrary d, and numerical evidence of its validity for arbitrary states of a qubit and a qutrit is provided as well. Our results establish an interesting hierarchy, which we conjecture to be universal, between two relevant and experimentally friendly nonclassicality indicators. This ties in with the intuition that general quantum correlations should at least contain and in general exceed entanglement on mixed states of composite quantum systems.
Correlating Function and Imaging Measures of the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus
Sakaie, Ken; Takahashi, Masaya; Remington, Gina; Wang, Xiaofeng; Conger, Amy; Conger, Darrel; Dimitrov, Ivan; Jones, Stephen; Frohman, Ashley; Frohman, Teresa; Sagiyama, Koji; Togao, Osamu
2016-01-01
Objective To test the validity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of tissue injury by examining such measures in a white matter structure with well-defined function, the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF). Injury to the MLF underlies internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO). Methods 40 MS patients with chronic INO and 15 healthy controls were examined under an IRB-approved protocol. Tissue integrity of the MLF was characterized by DTI parameters: longitudinal diffusivity (LD), transverse diffusivity (TD), mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA). Severity of INO was quantified by infrared oculography to measure versional disconjugacy index (VDI). Results LD was significantly lower in patients than in controls in the medulla-pons region of the MLF (p < 0.03). FA was also lower in patients in the same region (p < 0.0004). LD of the medulla-pons region correlated with VDI (R = -0.28, p < 0.05) as did FA in the midbrain section (R = 0.31, p < 0.02). Conclusions This study demonstrates that DTI measures of brain tissue injury can detect injury to a functionally relevant white matter pathway, and that such measures correlate with clinically accepted evaluation indices for INO. The results validate DTI as a useful imaging measure of tissue integrity. PMID:26800522
Measurement and correlation of jet fuel viscosities at low temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schruben, D. L.
1985-01-01
Apparatus and procedures were developed to measure jet fuel viscosity for eight current and future jet fuels at temperatures from ambient to near -60 C by shear viscometry. Viscosity data showed good reproducibility even at temperatures a few degrees below the measured freezing point. The viscosity-temperature relationship could be correlated by two linear segments when plotted as a standard log-log type representation (ASTM D 341). At high temperatures, the viscosity-temperature slope is low. At low temperatures, where wax precipitation is significant, the slope is higher. The breakpoint between temperature regions is the filter flow temperature, a fuel characteristic approximated by the freezing point. A generalization of the representation for the eight experimental fuels provided a predictive correlation for low-temperature viscosity, considered sufficiently accurate for many design or performance calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Long; Liu, Zhigang; Zhang, Weibo
2015-09-01
Because of its compact size and portability, optical fiber has been wildly used as optical paths in frequency-scanning interferometers for high-precision absolute distance measurements. However, since the fiber is sensitive to ambient temperature, its length and refractive index change with temperature, resulting in an optical path length drift that influences the repeatability of measurements. To improve the thermal stability of the measurement system, a novel frequency-scanning interferometer composed of two Michelson-type interferometers sharing a common fiber optical path is proposed. One interferometer defined as origin interferometer is used to monitor the drift of the measurement origin due to the optical path length drift of the optical fiber under on-site environment. The other interferometer defined as measurement interferometer is used to measure the distance to the target. Because the optical path length drift of the fiber appears in both interferometers, its influence can be eliminated by subtracting the optical path difference of the origin interferometer from the optical path difference of the measurement interferometer. A prototype interferometer was developed in our research, and experimental results demonstrate its robustness and stability. Under on-site environment, an accuracy about 4 ?m was achieved for a distance of about 1 m.
A quantitative measure of phase correlations in density fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scherrer, Robert J.; Melott, Adrian L.; Shandarin, Sergei F.
1991-01-01
A quantitative measure of the phase correlations in a density field is presented based on the location of the maxima of the Fourier components of that field. It is found that this measue can easily detect non-Gaussian behavior either in artificially constructed density fields or those that become non-Gaussian from gravitational clustering of Gaussian initial conditions. It is found that different initial power spectra produce somewhat distinguishable signals, and the signals are robust against sparse sampling.
Applications of correlation and quantum entanglement to optical measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, David S.
Entangled-photon methods have led to a number of new techniques and effects in optical imaging, communication, and measurement. These range from dispersion cancelation techniques to ghost imaging and quantum lithography. Although all of these methods made use of entangled quantum systems in their original forms, in some cases it has since been found that similar effects can be reproduced with the entangled-photon pairs replaced by classically correlated beams. The goal in this thesis is to develop a cluster of new methods using entangled photon pairs or classically-correlated light beams for applications in optical imaging and measurement. In each of these methods, the photons are detected pairwise by two detectors connected via a coincidence circuit. Thus, the devices to he described have correlated or entangled biphoton states, rather than individual photons, as their basic operating unit. The major theme running through the proposed applications is that correlation and entanglement allow unprecedented control over the phases of these pairs. This control allows useful new effects that are impossible in devices whose operation depends on the detection of individual photons. The applications discussed fall into three general categories. First we show that by arranging for pairwise phase cancelations we may reduce or eliminate a number of distorting influences, allowing improved image quality and reduced noise. Within this category, we will concentrate on the cancelation of optical turbulence caused by passage of light through fluids and on cancelation of static abberations introduced by passage through an optical system. The second category of application is microscopy. Two new devices (the correlation confocal microscope and twin-photon microscope) are described which make use of pairwise phase correlations to improve lateral resolution in confocal microscopy. These differ from each other and from the standard two-photon microscope by the manner in which the correlation is imposed. Finally, the third category of application involves the characterization of periodic structures on the surfaces of materials. Two techniques (quantum scatterometry and holographic scatterometry) are proposed to enhance nonimaging surface structure characterization by means of correlated photon methods.
Kasai, Yohei; Nishihara, Sadamitsu; Yuasa, Masao; Kanoshige, Toshiya; Matsuura, Takaaki
2015-05-01
A short length scatterer is adopted to measure the X-ray spectrum of computed tomography (CT) equipment with a wide irradiation field in the body axis direction. The purpose of this study is to compare X-ray spectra measured using different length scatterers and determine the most appropriate length for the scatterer. 320-slice CT equipment (Aquilion ONE) was used in this study. Circular carbonrods (3 cm diameter) with five different lengths (1-16 cm) were used as scatterers. The effect of the beam hardening phenomenon from different length carbon rods was evaluated according to the effective energy. The measurement accuracy for photon information was also evaluated based on the photon count corresponding to the characteristic X-ray. As a result, the beam hardening effect was scarcely observed when the 1 cm long scatterer was used, and the number of the photons measured for the characteristic X-ray was the most. Therefore, it was concluded that the 1 cm long circular carbon rod scatterer was the most suitable. PMID:25994395
Lee, Jin Bae; Chang, Sung Gug; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Young Soo; Ryu, Jae Kean; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Kee Sik; Park, Jae Sik
2012-10-01
The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the three-dimensional (3D) quantitative coronary analysis (QCA) system by comparing with that of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) QCA and two-dimensional (2D) QCA. 3D QCA, 2D QCA and IVUS QCA were performed in 45 vessel segments. The obtained values for the branch to branch segment vessel length and the proximal part of the segment vessel's lumen diameter were measured. Inter-technique agreement was analyzed using paired sample t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. No differences were found in vessel lengths taken by 3D QCA and IVUS QCA (mean difference: 0.29 1.06 mm, P = 0.07). When compared with IVUS QCA, 2D QCA underestimated vessel length (mean difference: -1.78 2.55, P < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed close agreement and a small bias between 3D QCA and IVUS QCA in the measurement of vessel length. The vessel lumen diameter measurements by 2D QCA and 3D QCA were significantly lower than that by IVUS QCA (mean difference: -0.64 0.69, P < 0.001; -0.56 0.52, P < 0.001 respectively). Rotational angiography with 3D reconstruction can provide a more accurate vessel length measurement, whereas 2D and 3D QCA underestimated the vessel lumen diameter compared with IVUS QCA. PMID:22179945
Measurement of correlated b quark cross sections at CDF
Gerdes, D.; CDF Collaboration
1994-09-01
Using data collected during the 1992--93 collider run at Fermilab, CDF has made measurements of correlated b quark cross section where one b is detected from a muon from semileptonic decay and the second b is detected with secondary vertex techniques. We report on measurements of the cross section as a function of the momentum of the second b and as a function of the azimuthal separation of the two b quarks, for transverse momentum of the initial b quark greater than 15 GeV. Results are compared to QCD predictions.
Babichenko, V. S. Kagan, Yu.
2012-11-15
The influence of multiparticle correlation effects and Cooper pairing in an ultracold Fermi gas with a negative scattering length on the formation rate of molecules is investigated. Cooper pairing is shown to cause the formation rate of molecules to increase, as distinct from the influence of Bose-Einstein condensation in a Bose gas on this rate. This trend is retained in the entire range of temperatures below the critical one.
Leng, X; Starchev, K; Buffle, J
2001-10-01
Diffusion dynamics of a polysaccharide, schizophyllan has been studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Several different sizes of nondenatured and denatured schizophyllan have been labeled with rhodamine 6G in borate buffer. The length of the nondenatured schizophyllan was calculated from FCS data by using the Broersma's relationship for rod-like macromolecules. The obtained length was close to that obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Denatured schizophyllan possesses a random coil conformation. Its hydrodynamic radius R(h) was measured by FCS. The relationship between R(h) and the molecular mass M has been studied and the scaling relationship R(h)--M(0.59) has been obtained, which is in agreement with the random coil model with excluded volume effect. The persistence length q(denat) of the denatured schizophyllan was determined by Hearst's relationship, to be equal to 5.16 +/- 0.75 (nm). The work demonstrates the utility of FCS method for dynamics investigations of biopolymers especially in diluted regime (concentration lower than 10(-8)M could be measured) where other techniques could not be used. PMID:11473353
3D shape measurement with phase correlation based fringe projection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kühmstedt, Peter; Munckelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Notni, Gunther
2007-06-01
Here we propose a method for 3D shape measurement by means of phase correlation based fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by following features. Correlation between phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This work stands in contrast to the sole usage of phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and image co-ordinates - camera raster values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The method's main advantage is the insensitivity of the 3D-coordinates from the absolute phase values. Thus it prevents errors in the determination of the co-ordinates and improves robustness in areas with interreflections artefacts and inhomogeneous regions of intensity. A technical advantage is the fact that the accuracy of the 3D co-ordinates does not depend on the projection resolution. Thus the achievable quality of the 3D co-ordinates can be selectively improved by the use of high quality camera lenses and can participate in improvements in modern camera technologies. The presented new solution of the stereo based fringe projection with phase correlation makes a flexible, errortolerant realization of measuring systems within different applications like quality control, rapid prototyping, design and CAD/CAM possible. In the paper the phase correlation method will be described in detail. Furthermore, different realizations will be shown, i.e. a mobile system for the measurement of large objects and an endoscopic like system for CAD/CAM in dental industry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huska, Dalibor; Adam, Vojtech; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene
2009-05-01
The main aim of this work was to study the dependence of oligoadenine isolation efficiency on the chain length by using paramagnetic particles covered by homo-deoxythymidines ((dT)25) with subsequent detection by adsorptive transfer technique coupled with square wave voltammetry. For this purpose, the oligonucleotides of the length A5, A10, A15, A20, A25, A30, A35, A40 and poly(A) in various concentrations were chosen. We determined that the isolation efficiency defined as "isolated oligonucleotide concentration"/"given oligonucleotide concentration" was about 55% on average. Sequence A25 demonstrated the best binding onto microparticles surface.
Measuring Fisher Information Accurately in Correlated Neural Populations
Kohn, Adam; Pouget, Alexandre
2015-01-01
Neural responses are known to be variable. In order to understand how this neural variability constrains behavioral performance, we need to be able to measure the reliability with which a sensory stimulus is encoded in a given population. However, such measures are challenging for two reasons: First, they must take into account noise correlations which can have a large influence on reliability. Second, they need to be as efficient as possible, since the number of trials available in a set of neural recording is usually limited by experimental constraints. Traditionally, cross-validated decoding has been used as a reliability measure, but it only provides a lower bound on reliability and underestimates reliability substantially in small datasets. We show that, if the number of trials per condition is larger than the number of neurons, there is an alternative, direct estimate of reliability which consistently leads to smaller errors and is much faster to compute. The superior performance of the direct estimator is evident both for simulated data and for neuronal population recordings from macaque primary visual cortex. Furthermore we propose generalizations of the direct estimator which measure changes in stimulus encoding across conditions and the impact of correlations on encoding and decoding, typically denoted by Ishuffle and Idiag respectively. PMID:26030735
Direct measurements of exciton diffusion length limitations on organic solar cell performance.
Kozub, Derek R; Vakhshouri, Kiarash; Kesava, Sameer Vajjala; Wang, Cheng; Hexemer, Alexander; Gomez, Enrique D
2012-06-14
Through a combination of X-ray scattering and energy-filtered electron microscopy, we have quantitatively examined the relationship between the mesostructure of the photoactive layer and device performance in PBTTT/PC(71)BM solar cells. We can predict device performance from X-ray structural data through a simple morphological model which includes the exciton diffusion length. PMID:22572808
Wada, Kenji; Matsukura, Satoru; Tanaka, Amaka; Matsuyama, Tetsuya; Horinaka, Hiromichi
2015-09-01
A simple method to measure single-mode optical fiber lengths is proposed and demonstrated using a gain-switched 1.55-μm distributed feedback laser without a fast photodetector or an optical interferometer. From the variation in the amplified spontaneous emission noise intensity with respect to the modulation frequency of the gain switching, the optical length of a 1-km single-mode fiber immersed in water is found to be 1471.043915 m ± 33 μm, corresponding to a relative standard deviation of 2.2 × 10(-8). This optical length is an average value over a measurement time of one minute under ordinary laboratory conditions. PMID:26368406
Detecting correlated errors in state-preparation-and-measurement tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, Christopher; van Enk, S. J.
2015-10-01
Whereas in standard quantum-state tomography one estimates an unknown state by performing various measurements with known devices, and whereas in detector tomography one estimates the positive-operator-valued-measurement elements of a measurement device by subjecting to it various known states, we consider here the case of SPAM (state preparation and measurement) tomography where neither the states nor the measurement device are assumed known. For d -dimensional systems measured by d -outcome detectors, we find there are at most d2(d2-1 ) "gauge" parameters that can never be determined by any such experiment, irrespective of the number of unknown states and unknown devices. For the case d =2 we find gauge-invariant quantities that can be accessed directly experimentally and that can be used to detect and describe SPAM errors. In particular, we identify conditions whose violations detect the presence of correlations between SPAM errors. From the perspective of SPAM tomography, standard quantum-state tomography and detector tomography are protocols that fix the gauge parameters through the assumption that some set of fiducial measurements is known or that some set of fiducial states is known, respectively.
Measurement of helicopter rotor blade deformation using digital image correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sirohi, Jayant; Lawson, Michael S.
2012-04-01
An experimental study on the application of the digital image correlation (DIC) technique to measure the deformation of rotating helicopter blades is described. Measurements on two different rotors of diameter 24 and 39 in., with different rotor hubs, were carried out to explore applicability of the technique over a range of scales. Commercial DIC software was synchronized with the frequency of rotation such that rotor blade images could be obtained at a constant rotor azimuth. Bending and torsion mode shapes were extracted from the data with deformation as high as 0.4 in. measured with an accuracy of 0.0038 in. This technique is very advantageous because it is noncontact, cost effective, accurate and simple to implement while yielding full-field, three-dimensional data with a high spatial resolution.
Photon-burst correlation techniques for atmospheric crosswind measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
She, C. Y.; Kelley, R. F.
1984-04-01
With a cw visible laser, the method of photon-burst correlation is used measure atmospheric crosswinds. A scaling law, including the effects of atmospheric turbulence, for performance evaluation of both laser Doppler (LDV) and laser time-of-flight (LTV) velocimeters, is introduced theoretically and established experimentally with field experiments. Crosswind measurements in the night at a range of 500 m with a low-power argon-ion laser are reported. The measured signal particle arrival rate is consistent with the predicted arrival rate based on the scaling law. In addition to the use of higher laser power, it is suggested that with proper inclusion of signal photon bursts resulting from the simultaneous arrival of several particles, routine operation of this type of laser velocimeter for long ranges, up to 1000m, should be feasible.
Photon-burst correlation techniques for atmospheric crosswind measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
She, C. Y.; Kelley, R. F.
1983-09-01
With a CW visible laser, the method of photon-burst correlation is used to measure atmospheric crosswinds. A scaling law, including the effects of atmospheric turbulence, for performance evaluation of both laser Doppler (LDV) and laser time-of-flight (LTV) velocimeters, is introduced theoretically and established experimentally with field experiments. Crosswind measurements in the night at a range of 500 m with a low power argon-ion laser are reported. The measured signal particle arrival rate is consistent with the predicted arrival rate based on the scaling law. In addition to the use of higher laser power, it is suggested that with proper inclusion of signal photon bursts resulting from the simultaneous arrival of several particles, routine operation of this type of laser velocimeter for long ranges, up to 1000 m, should be feasible.
Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav
2013-01-01
We introduce a new measure for capital market efficiency. The measure takes into consideration the correlation structure of the returns (long-term and short-term memory) and local herding behavior (fractal dimension). The efficiency measure is taken as a distance from an ideal efficient market situation. The proposed methodology is applied to a portfolio of 41 stock indices. We find that the Japanese NIKKEI is the most efficient market. From a geographical point of view, the more efficient markets are dominated by the European stock indices and the less efficient markets cover mainly Latin America, Asia and Oceania. The inefficiency is mainly driven by a local herding, i.e. a low fractal dimension.
Extracting quantitative measures from finite length nonlinear timeseries- complex systems approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wicks, R.; Chapman, S. C.; Kiyani, K.; Hnat, B.; Dendy, R. O.
2006-12-01
We consider two complex systems approaches to obtaining quantitative measures from `real world' timeseries, such as in situ solar wind observations and geomagnetic indices, where information about the process in not known a priori. The first is statistical- we discuss the problem of obtaining the scaling exponents from the PDF of fluctuations (differenced variables) via PDF collapse and structure functions. If the probability density is heavy tailed, outliers strongly influence the scaling behaviour of the moments. From an operational point of view, we wish to recover the scaling exponents of the underlying process by excluding a minimal population of these outliers. We test these ideas on a synthetically generated symmetric alpha-stable Lvy process and show that the Lvy exponent is recovered in up to the 6th order moment after ~0.1-0.5% of the data are excluded. The scaling properties of the excluded outliers can then be tested to provide additional information about the system. We highlight application of this technique to in- situ spacecraft observation of the turbulent solar wind and to geomagnetic indices. The second of these is dynamical- we explore the use of Mutual Information (MI) as a method to determine order- disorder transitions and test this idea on the Viscek `boid' model for flocking. We compare MI with the full system susceptibility we demonstrate that MI can pinpoint the phase transition with reasonable accuracy. We also consider the MI as a tool for detecting nonlinear correlation between different systems with application to `space weather', that is, solar wind triggering of geomagnetic activity on the earth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sasmal, Sudipta
We present results of year-long analysis of VLF signals, both for VTX-Malda (`west-east' propagation path) and VTX-Pune (`east-west' propagation path). We analyzed whole year data of 2008 and 2009 for VTX-Malda and VTX-Pune propagation path, respectively. In both the cases we found that `VLF day-length' (defined as time difference between sunset terminator time and sunrise terminator time) became anomalously high 1-2 days before an earthquake. Besides this year-long study we have also done some case by case analysis. On 9th January, 2009 an earthquake of magnitude 5.5 occurred at Carlsberg Ridge (latitude 10.3(°) N, longitude 57.1(°) E). In a separate incident, on 3rd November, 2009, another earthquake of magnitude 5.4 occurred at Andaman Islands (latitude 14.1(°) N, longitude 93.1(°) E). We analyze VLF signals for VTX-Pune (`east-west’ propagation path) propagation path around these two earthquake days and found that for both of these cases, the `VLF-day-length' became anomalously high two days before the event. This agrees well with statistical analysis based on year-long data for VTX-Pune path. Furthermore, during time period of June, 2010, two major earthquakes of low-depth ( 10Km) and high magnitude (M>5) occurred near NWC-Salt Lake (east-west propagation path) propagation paths. First one occurred on 13th June, 2010 at Nicobar Islands, India (latitude 7.8(°) N, longitude 92.0(°) E). Its magnitude was 5.1 (in Richter scale). The second one of magnitude 6.0 (in Richter Scale) occurred on 19th June, 2010 at Andaman Islands, India (latitude 13.4(°) N, longitude 93.0(°) E). For both of these two earthquakes, we found that VLF-day-length, became anomalously high one day before earthquakes. We claim that these were pre-cursors of the earthquakes which occurred in Andaman and Nicober Islands.
Consistent scaling of multifractal measures: Multifractal spatial correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Platt, Daniel E.; Family, Fereydoon
1993-04-01
There are a number of apparently disparate problems in multifractal scaling whose solutions have remained unclear, ranging from rather pathological cases where the standard Legendre transformations do not produce effective measures for the Hölder exponent and Hausdorff-Besicovitch dimension to the problem of describing the scaling of point-point correlation functions of moments of multifractal measures. We prove that an equivalent statement of multifractal scaling is the invariance of the generating functions of the scaling transformation. We show that the invariance of the generating functions is what allows the moment integrals to scale with simple power laws. We show that this definition can be successfully extended to cover the scaling of point-point correlation functions of moments of multifractal measures. Previous attempts to solve this problem have lead to non-scale-invariant behavior, presented as an inconsistency by Cates and Deutsch [Phys. Rev. A 35, 4907 (1987)]. We propose that the invariance of generating functions under their own transformations is the central defining characteristic of scale invariance in multifractal scaling.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sonwalker, V. S.; Inan, U. S.
1986-01-01
A new experimental technique is developed to simultaneously measure the wave propagation direction and the effective length of a small (L value much smaller than wavelength) electric dipole antenna on a spin-stabilized satellite in the magnetosphere. The technique relies on the near simultaneous measurement of single components of the electric and magnetic fields of a coherent VLF signal injected into the medium from a ground-based source. The spin fading characteristics of the signal received by the electric dipole and the magnetic loop antenna permit the measurement of the wave normal direction assuming whistler-mode propagation. In-situ and remote measurements of the local cold plasma density are used to determine the refractive index. The wave electric field is then inferred from the wave magnetic field as measured on the loop antenna, the refractive index and the direction of propagation. Comparing this electric field with the measured voltage across the dipole antenna leads to the determination of the effective length of the receiving electric dipole. The technique is applied to data from the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite observations of whistler mode signals injected into the magnetosphere from the Siple, Antarctica, VLF transmitter. In one case, with the measured background cold plasma density being 15 el/cu cm, the effective length of the 200 m-long electric dipole antenna is found to be 222 + or - 56 m, i.e., about twice the conventional value.
Some measurements of time and space correlation in wind tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Favre, A; Gaviglio, J; Dumas, R
1955-01-01
Results are presented of research obtained by means of an apparatus for measurement of time and space correlation and of a spectral analyzer in the study of the longitudinal component of turbulence velocities in a wind tunnel downstream of a grid of meshes. Application to the case of a flat-plate boundary layer is illustrated. These researches were made at the Laboratoire de Mecanique de l'Atmosphere de l'I.M.F.M. for the O.N.E.R.A.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Long; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Ding, Ya-Yun; Zhou, Li; Wen, Liang-Jian; Xie, Yu-Guang; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Cai, Xiao; Sun, Xi-Lei; Fang, Jian; Xue, Zhen; Zhang, Ai-Wu; L, Qi-Wen; Sun, Li-Jun; Ge, Yong-Shuai; Liu, Ying-Biao; Niu, Shun-Li; Hu, Tao; Cao, Jun; L, Jun-Guang
2013-07-01
An attenuation length measurement device was constructed using an oscilloscope and LabVIEW for signal acquisition and processing. The performance of the device has been tested in a variety of ways. The test results show that the set-up has a good stability and high precision (sigma/mean reached 0.4 percent). Besides, the accuracy of the measurement system will decrease by about 17 percent if a filter is used. The attenuation length of a gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator (Gd-LS) was measured as 15.100.35 m where Gd-LS was heavily used in the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment. In addition, one method based on the Beer-Lambert law was proposed to investigate the reliability of the measurement device, the R-square reached 0.9995. Moreover, three purification methods for Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) production were compared in the experiment.
Measurements of 3D slip velocities and plasma column lengths of a gliding arc discharge
Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Moseev, Dmitry; Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Alpers, Andreas E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Gritzmann, Peter; Schwenk, Martin
2015-01-26
A non-thermal gliding arc discharge was generated at atmospheric pressure in an air flow. The dynamics of the plasma column and tracer particles were recorded using two synchronized high-speed cameras. Whereas the data analysis for such systems has previously been performed in 2D (analyzing the single camera image), we provide here a 3D data analysis that includes 3D reconstructions of the plasma column and 3D particle tracking velocimetry based on discrete tomography methods. The 3D analysis, in particular, the determination of the 3D slip velocity between the plasma column and the gas flow, gives more realistic insight into the convection cooling process. Additionally, with the determination of the 3D slip velocity and the 3D length of the plasma column, we give more accurate estimates for the drag force, the electric field strength, the power per unit length, and the radius of the conducting zone of the plasma column.
Measurements of 3D slip velocities and plasma column lengths of a gliding arc discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan; Moseev, Dmitry; Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Alpers, Andreas; Gritzmann, Peter; Schwenk, Martin
2015-01-01
A non-thermal gliding arc discharge was generated at atmospheric pressure in an air flow. The dynamics of the plasma column and tracer particles were recorded using two synchronized high-speed cameras. Whereas the data analysis for such systems has previously been performed in 2D (analyzing the single camera image), we provide here a 3D data analysis that includes 3D reconstructions of the plasma column and 3D particle tracking velocimetry based on discrete tomography methods. The 3D analysis, in particular, the determination of the 3D slip velocity between the plasma column and the gas flow, gives more realistic insight into the convection cooling process. Additionally, with the determination of the 3D slip velocity and the 3D length of the plasma column, we give more accurate estimates for the drag force, the electric field strength, the power per unit length, and the radius of the conducting zone of the plasma column.
Norbash, A.M.; Marks, M.P.; Lane, B.
1994-05-01
To determine whether there is a physiologic explanation for the predisposition of patients with certain angiographic characteristics to symptoms of hemorrhage and steal. Superselective transcatheter feeding arterial pressure and mean arterial pressure measurements were obtained before embolotherapy in 32 patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Pressures were correlated with previously described angioarchitectural characteristics predisposing to hemorrhage and steal. These included size of the arteriovenous malformation, feeding artery length, venous drainage pattern, and angiomatous change. The feeding arterial pressure and feeding arterial pressure/mean arterial pressure ratios were significantly decreased in patients with angiomatous change. Feeding arterial pressure and feeding arterial pressure/mean arterial pressure ratios progressively decreased as lesions went from peripheral, to mixed, to central venous drainage. A trend for lower feeding arterial pressure was also demonstrated with greater feeding pedicle length. A statistically significant correlation could not be demonstrated between feeding arterial pressure or feeding arterial pressure/mean arterial pressure ratios and size of the arteriovenous malformation, hemorrhage, or symptoms of steal. Feeding arterial pressure measurements help provide a physiologic basis for the relationship between certain angiographic characteristics and hemorrhage and steal symptoms in patients with arteriovenous malformation. 27 refs., 1 fig.
Efficient measurement of point-to-set correlations and overlap fluctuations in glass-forming liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berthier, Ludovic; Charbonneau, Patrick; Yaida, Sho
2016-01-01
Cavity point-to-set correlations are real-space tools to detect the roughening of the free-energy landscape that accompanies the dynamical slowdown of glass-forming liquids. Measuring these correlations in model glass formers remains, however, a major computational challenge. Here, we develop a general parallel-tempering method that provides orders-of-magnitude improvement for sampling and equilibrating configurations within cavities. We apply this improved scheme to the canonical Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones model for temperatures down to the mode-coupling theory crossover. Most significant improvements are noted for small cavities, which have thus far been the most difficult to study. This methodological advance also enables us to study a broader range of physical observables associated with thermodynamic fluctuations. We measure the probability distribution of overlap fluctuations in cavities, which displays a non-trivial temperature evolution. The corresponding overlap susceptibility is found to provide a robust quantitative estimate of the point-to-set length scale requiring no fitting. By resolving spatial fluctuations of the overlap in the cavity, we also obtain quantitative information about the geometry of overlap fluctuations. We can thus examine in detail how the penetration length as well as its fluctuations evolve with temperature and cavity size.
Berthier, Ludovic; Charbonneau, Patrick; Yaida, Sho
2016-01-14
Cavity point-to-set correlations are real-space tools to detect the roughening of the free-energy landscape that accompanies the dynamical slowdown of glass-forming liquids. Measuring these correlations in model glass formers remains, however, a major computational challenge. Here, we develop a general parallel-tempering method that provides orders-of-magnitude improvement for sampling and equilibrating configurations within cavities. We apply this improved scheme to the canonical Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones model for temperatures down to the mode-coupling theory crossover. Most significant improvements are noted for small cavities, which have thus far been the most difficult to study. This methodological advance also enables us to study a broader range of physical observables associated with thermodynamic fluctuations. We measure the probability distribution of overlap fluctuations in cavities, which displays a non-trivial temperature evolution. The corresponding overlap susceptibility is found to provide a robust quantitative estimate of the point-to-set length scale requiring no fitting. By resolving spatial fluctuations of the overlap in the cavity, we also obtain quantitative information about the geometry of overlap fluctuations. We can thus examine in detail how the penetration length as well as its fluctuations evolve with temperature and cavity size. PMID:26772579
Water Velocity Measurement on an Extended-Length Submerged Bar Screen at John Day Dam
Weiland, Mark A.; Escher, Charles
2001-04-02
This report describes a study of water velocity around an extended-length submerged bar screen (ESBS) at John Day Dam. The study was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers by AScI Corporation and MEVATEC Corporation in March of 2000. This report was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. ESBS are being studied as one method for diverting juvenile migrating fish from the dam's turbine intakes into the gate well and through the juvenile fish bypass channels.
Sannibale, Fernando; Zolotorev, Max S.; Filippetto, Daniele; Stupakov, Gennady V.
2007-06-22
By analysing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations ofthe radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of thespectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatialdistribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of theLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and tested asimple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolutemeasurement of the bunch length. A description of the method and theexperimental results are presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tan-Sisman, Gulcin; Aksu, Meral
2012-01-01
"Knowing and doing measurement" is a fundamental competency in real life since measuring attributes of objects in appropriate units and using measuring tools assist students to quantify and understand the world. For this reason, the study of measurement has a special place in every mathematics curriculum. Among the domains of measurement, length…
Digital speckle displacement measurement by fuzzy logic correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dong Hui; Guo, Li; Qiu, Tian
2006-02-01
Fuzzy set has an advantage over classic set for representation of objects with a high degree of vagueness, inaccurate, or uncertainty. Fuzzy set theory could be seen as a generalization of classic set theory. In this paper, a digital speckle correlation method based on fuzzy logic (DSCMF) is proposed to measure the displacement of laser speckles. DSCMF is developed to improve performances of the digital speckle correlation method based on classic logic (DSCMC), at the same time keeping low computation simplicity. Fuzzy correlation between two images could be defined as an integral of membership of similarity between elements of two images. Membership function of similarity is defined to represent the distance of two values. An optical and analysis system was set up to verify DSCMF's validity. A parameter ? SN is introduced to represent the ratio of signal to noise. Experimental results show that DSCMF using triangle tent similarity membership function could obtain a bigger t? SN than DSCMC could. This paper also shows the influence on ? SN of quantification of membership function.
Karmakar, Chandan; Udhayakumar, Radhagayathri K; Palaniswami, Marimuthu
2015-08-01
Heart rate complexity analysis is a powerful non-invasive means to diagnose several cardiac ailments. Non-linear tools of complexity measurement are indispensable in order to bring out the complete non-linear behavior of Physiological signals. The most popularly used non-linear tools to measure signal complexity are the entropy measures like Approximate entropy (ApEn) and Sample entropy (SampEn). But, these methods become unreliable and inaccurate at times, in particular, for short length data. Recently, a novel method of complexity measurement called Distribution Entropy (DistEn) was introduced, which showed reliable performance to capture complexity of both short term synthetic and short term physiologic data. This study aims to i) examine the competence of DistEn in discriminating Arrhythmia from Normal sinus rhythm (NSR) subjects, using RR interval time series data; ii) explore the level of consistency of DistEn with data length N; and iii) compare the performance of DistEn with ApEn and SampEn. Sixty six RR interval time series data belonging to two groups of cardiac conditions namely `Arrhythmia' and `NSR' have been used for the analysis. The data length N was varied from 50 to 1000 beats with embedding dimension m = 2 for all entropy measurements. Maximum ROC area obtained using ApEn, SampEn and DistEn were 0.83, 0.86 and 0.94 for data length 1000, 1000 and 500 beats respectively. The results show that DistEn undoubtedly exhibits a consistently high performance as a classification feature in comparison with ApEn and SampEn. Therefore, DistEn shows a promising behavior as bio marker for detecting Arrhythmia from short length RR interval data. PMID:26737465
The Effect of Error Correlation on Interfactor Correlation in Psychometric Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westfall, Peter H.; Henning, Kevin S. S.; Howell, Roy D.
2012-01-01
This article shows how interfactor correlation is affected by error correlations. Theoretical and practical justifications for error correlations are given, and a new equivalence class of models is presented to explain the relationship between interfactor correlation and error correlations. The class allows simple, parsimonious modeling of error
3D robust digital image correlation for vibration measurement.
Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Xianmin; Fatikow, Sergej
2016-03-01
Discrepancies of speckle images under dynamic measurement due to the different viewing angles will deteriorate the correspondence in 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC) for vibration measurement. Facing this kind of bottleneck, this paper presents two types of robust 3D-DIC methods for vibration measurement, SSD-robust and SWD-robust, which use a sum of square difference (SSD) estimator plus a Geman-McClure regulating term and a Welch estimator plus a Geman-McClure regulating term, respectively. Because the regulating term with an adaptive rejecting bound can lessen the influence of the abnormal pixel data in the dynamical measuring process, the robustness of the algorithm is enhanced. The robustness and precision evaluation experiments using a dual-frequency laser interferometer are implemented. The experimental results indicate that the two presented robust estimators can suppress the effects of the abnormality in the speckle images and, meanwhile, keep higher precision in vibration measurement in contrast with the traditional SSD method; thus, the SWD-robust and SSD-robust methods are suitable for weak image noise and strong image noise, respectively. PMID:26974624
Measurement of correlated b quark cross sections at CDF
CDF Collaboration
1994-05-01
Using data collected during the 1992--1993 collider run at Fermilab, CDF has made measurements of correlated b quark cross sections where one b is detected from the lepton from semileptonic decay and the second b is detected with secondary vertex techniques. We report on measurements of the cross section as a function of the momentum of the second b and as a function of the azimuthal separation of the two b quarks, for transverse momentum of the initial b quark greater than 15 GeV. The vertex reconstruction techniques are valid over a large range in transverse momentum, starting at a minimum of 10 GeV. Results are compared to QCD predictions.
Strongly correlated two-dimensional plasma explored from entropy measurements.
Kuntsevich, A Y; Tupikov, Y V; Pudalov, V M; Burmistrov, I S
2015-01-01
Charged plasma and Fermi liquid are two distinct states of electronic matter intrinsic to dilute two-dimensional electron systems at elevated and low temperatures, respectively. Probing their thermodynamics represents challenge because of lack of an adequate technique. Here, we report a thermodynamic method to measure the entropy per electron in gated structures. Our technique appears to be three orders of magnitude superior in sensitivity to a.c. calorimetry, allowing entropy measurements with only 10(8) electrons. This enables us to investigate the correlated plasma regime, previously inaccessible experimentally in two-dimensional electron systems in semiconductors. In experiments with clean two-dimensional electron system in silicon-based structures, we traced entropy evolution from the plasma to Fermi liquid regime by varying electron density. We reveal that the correlated plasma regime can be mapped onto the ordinary non-degenerate Fermi gas with an interaction-enhanced temperature-dependent effective mass. Our method opens up new horizons in studies of low-dimensional electron systems. PMID:26099565
Baggett, F J; Mackie, I C; Worthington, H V
1996-08-10
A study was undertaken to determine if a tactile technique, using absorbent paper points, could be used to estimate the working length of nonvital immature incisor teeth undergoing endodontic treatment. Two operators were involved in measuring 35 incisor teeth. The tactile technique was found to be valid and reliable. In 95% of the cases the estimated working length was within 1 mm of the radiographic diagnostic length. It is recommended that diagnostic radiographs are no longer necessary in the majority of cases involving endodontic treatment of incisor teeth requiring root end closure in children, for practitioners who are regularly carrying out endodontic treatment of immature incisor teeth. However, if a tooth has been on open drainage a diagnostic radiograph is still required. PMID:8810108
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drabi?ska, Aneta; Kami?ska, Maria; Wo?o?, Agnieszka; Strupinski, W?odek; Wysmo?ek, Andrzej; Bardyszewski, Witold; Bo?ek, Rafa?; Baranowski, J. M.
2013-10-01
In this paper, contactless microwave spectroscopy measurements of weak localization in as-grown and hydrogen intercalated quasi-free-standing graphene (QFSG) grown on SiC are presented. Delamination from the substrate is observed by the change from substrate dominated to grain boundaries dominated intervalley elastic scattering in QFSG comparing to epitaxial graphene. In the case of as-grown graphene, the finite coherence length at 0 K caused by an additional inelastic scattering is observed. This additional scattering mechanism vanishes for hydrogen intercalated QFSG, and the significant enhancement of coherence length comparing to as-grown QFSG and epitaxial graphene is observed. The coherence length is comparable to that observed in free-standing graphene. The conditions under which the quantum corrections produce weak localization or weak antilocalization behavior in conductivity are also discussed.
Hering, Marco; Koerner, Klaus; Jaehne, Bernd
2009-01-20
The partial coherent illumination of the specimen, which is required for white-light interferometric measurements of optically rough surfaces, directly leads to speckle. The electric field of such speckle patterns strongly fluctuates in amplitude and phase. This spatially correlated noise influences the accuracy of the measuring device. Although a variety of noise sources in white-light interferometry has been studied in recent years, they do not account for spatial correlation and, hence, they cannot be applied to speckle noise. Thus, we derive a new model enabling quantitative predictions for measurement uncertainty caused by speckle. The model reveals that the accuracy can be attributed mainly to the degree of spatial correlation, i.e., the average size of a speckle, and to the coherence length of the light source. The same parameters define the signal-to-noise ratio in the spectral domain. The model helps to design filter functions that are perfectly adapted to the noise characteristics of the respective device, thus improving the accuracy of postprocessing algorithms for envelope detection. The derived expressions are also compared to numerical simulations and experimental data of two different types of interferometers. These results are a first validation of the theoretical considerations of this article.
Hering, Marco; Krner, Klaus; Jhne, Bernd
2009-01-20
The partial coherent illumination of the specimen, which is required for white-light interferometric measurements of optically rough surfaces, directly leads to speckle. The electric field of such speckle patterns strongly fluctuates in amplitude and phase. This spatially correlated noise influences the accuracy of the measuring device. Although a variety of noise sources in white-light interferometry has been studied in recent years, they do not account for spatial correlation and, hence, they cannot be applied to speckle noise. Thus, we derive a new model enabling quantitative predictions for measurement uncertainty caused by speckle. The model reveals that the accuracy can be attributed mainly to the degree of spatial correlation, i.e., the average size of a speckle, and to the coherence length of the light source. The same parameters define the signal-to-noise ratio in the spectral domain. The model helps to design filter functions that are perfectly adapted to the noise characteristics of the respective device, thus improving the accuracy of postprocessing algorithms for envelope detection. The derived expressions are also compared to numerical simulations and experimental data of two different types of interferometers. These results are a first validation of the theoretical considerations of this article. PMID:19151821
Shaw, A.; Ghosh, A.
2014-10-28
We have studied the mixed network former effect on the dynamics of lithium ions in borotellurite glasses in wide composition and temperature ranges. The length scales of ion dynamics, such as characteristic mean square displacement and spatial extent of sub-diffusive motion of lithium ions have been determined from the ac conductivity and dielectric spectra, respectively, in the framework of linear response theory. The relative concentrations of different network structural units have been determined from the deconvolution of the FTIR spectra. A direct correlation between the ion dynamics and the characteristic length scales and the relative concentration of BO{sub 4} units has been established for different compositions of the borotellurite glasses.
Two-particle correlation measurements in p+Nb reactions ?sNN = 3.18 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, Oliver
2016-01-01
We present a two-particle correlation measurement of proton- and of ?p-pairs, measured with the HADES detector in p+Nb reactions at a kinetic beam energy of 3.5 GeV. The proton-proton correlation function is used to extract the size of the region of homogeneity. Using this information together with a UrQMD transport simulation opens the possibility to study the interaction of ?p pairs in terms of spin average scattering length and effective range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cliff, W. C.; Skarda, J. R.
1987-01-01
NASA's Airborne Doppler Lidar System has been used to obtain a detailed 'instantaneous' mapping of horizontal spatial wind fields at 600-800 m elevations on the east side of the San Gorgonio Pass in California, in the form of checkerboard-fashion horizontal wind vectors spaced at 300 m intervals along and normal to the flight path. Spatial autocorrelations for the lateral and longitudinal components are ensemble-averaged, and integral turbulent length scales are computed for the wind fields' longitudinal and lateral directions. The flow in the region studied does not appear to be isotropic.
Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D.T.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Li, Wenjun; Galica, Andrew M.; Kang, Hyun Gu; Casey, Virginia A.; Hannan, Marian T.
2012-01-01
Objective Impaired balance is associated with falls in older adults. However, there is no accepted gold standard on how balance should be measured. Few studies have examined measures of postural sway and clinical balance concurrently in large samples of community-dwelling older adults. We examined the associations among four types of measures of laboratory- and clinic-based balance in a large population-based cohort of older adults. Methods We evaluated balance measures in the MOBILIZE Boston Study (276 men, 489 women, 6497 years). Measures included: (1) laboratory-based anteroposterior (AP) path length and average sway speed, mediolateral (ML) average sway and root-mean-square, and area of ellipse postural sway; (2) Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB); (3) Berg Balance Scale; and (4) one-leg stand. Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients (r) were assessed among the balance measures. Results Area of ellipse sway was highly correlated with the ML sway measures (r >0.9, p < 0.0001), and sway speed was highly correlated with AP sway (r=0.97, p < 0.0001). The Berg Balance Scale was highly correlated with SPPB (r=0.7, p<0.001), and one-leg stand (r=0.8, p<0.001). Correlations between the laboratory- and clinic-based balance measures were low but statistically significant (0.2 < r < 0.3, p<0.0001). Conclusion Clinic-based balance measures, and laboratory-based measures comparing area of ellipse with ML sways or sway speed with AP sway, are highly correlated. Clinic- with laboratory-based measures are less correlated. As both laboratory- and clinic-based measures inform balance in older adults but are not highly correlated with each other, future work should investigate the differences. PMID:22745045
Gonzlez-Garca, Lola; Parra-Barranco, Julin; Snchez-Valencia, Juan R; Barranco, Angel; Borrs, Ana; Gonzlez-Elipe, Agustn R; Garca-Gutirrez, Mari-Cruz; Hernndez, Jaime J; Rueda, Daniel R; Ezquerra, Tiberio A
2012-05-25
This paper reports a thorough microstructural characterization of glancing angle deposited (GLAD) TiO(2) thin films. Atomic force microscopy (afm), grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and water adsorption isotherms have been used to determine the evolution of porosity and the existence of some correlation distances between the nanocolumns constituting the basic elements of the film's nanostructure. It is found that the deposition angle and, to a lesser extent, the film thickness are the most important parameters controlling properties of the thin film. The importance of porosity and some critical dimensions encountered in the investigated GLAD thin films is highlighted in relation to the analysis of their optical properties when utilized as antireflective coatings or as hosts and templates for the development of new composite materials. PMID:22543422
Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in cardiac patients
Ozemek, Cemal; Riggin, Katrina; Strath, Scott; Kaminsky, Leonard
2014-01-01
Cardiac patients would benefit from increasing their physical activity (PA) levels. Understanding of factors that influence cardiac patients’ PA participation would benefit the development of effective interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine correlates of objectively-measured PA in cardiac patients. Participants were 65 cardiac patients (74% male, 95% white), age 58.6±10.6 years. The amount of time spent in PA was measured by ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers for 7 days prior to joining cardiac rehabilitation programs (CRP). A total of 25 potential determinants of PA across multiple domains (demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral) were measured via self-reported questionnaire and clinical examinations. Backward elimination model selection procedures were performed to examine associations of potential determinants with total PA (min/day) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (min/day). Patients spent 153.8±62.8 and 8.4±8.1 min/day in total PA and MVPA, respectively. Across four domains, ten and five potential correlates were found to be significant in univariate analyses for MVPA and total PA, respectively. In the final model, functional capacity, PA readiness, and participation in regular exercise were positively associated with MVPA (R2 =26.6%). Functional capacity and PA readiness were also positively associated with total PA (R2 =15.9%). Future initiatives to increase PA levels in cardiac patients could be improved by considering patients’ functional capacity, PA readiness, and exercise history in designing interventions. PMID:25414828
Forde, Elizabeth; Booth, Jeremy; Leech, Michelle
2014-07-01
The established dosimetric benefits of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy have lead to their increased use in prostate radiotherapy. Complimenting these techniques, volumetric image guidance has supported increased positional accuracy. In addition, 3-dimensional image guidance has also allowed for assessment of potential dosimetric variation that can be attributed to a deformation of either internal or external structures, such as rectal distension or body contour. Compounding these issues is the variation of tissue density through which the new field position passes and also the variation of dose across a modulated beam. Despite the growing level of interest in this area, there are only a limited number of articles that examine the effect of a variation in beam path length, particularly across a modulated field. IMRT and volumetric-modulated radiation therapy (VMAT) fields are dynamic in nature, and the dose gradient within these fields is variable. Assessment of variation of path length away from the beam's central axis and across the entire field is vital where there is considerable variation of dose within the field, such as IMRT and VMAT. In these cases, reliance on the traditional central axis to focus skin distances is no longer appropriate. This article discusses these more subtle challenges that may have a significant clinical effect if left unrecognized and undervalued.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Leduc, M.
2004-11-01
A numerical investigation of two-laser photoassociation (PA) spectroscopy on spin-polarized metastable helium (He*) atoms is presented within the context of experimental observation of the least-bound energy level in the scattering potential and subsequent determination of the s-wave scattering length. Starting out from the model developed by Bohn and Julienne [Phys. Rev. A 60, 414 (1999)], PA rate coefficients are obtained as a function of the parameters of the two lasers. The rate coefficients are used to simulate one- and two-laser PA spectra. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a spectroscopic determination of the binding energy of the least-bound level. The simulated spectra may be used as a guideline when designing such an experiment, whereas the model may also be employed for fitting experimentally obtained PA spectra. In addition, the prospects for substantial modification of the He* scattering length by means of optical Feshbach resonances are considered. Several experimental issues relating to the numerical investigation presented here are discussed.
Measurement of laminar burning speeds and Markstein lengths using a novel methodology
Tahtouh, Toni; Halter, Fabien; Mounaim-Rousselle, Christine
2009-09-15
Three different methodologies used for the extraction of laminar information are compared and discussed. Starting from an asymptotic analysis assuming a linear relation between the propagation speed and the stretch acting on the flame front, temporal radius evolutions of spherically expanding laminar flames are postprocessed to obtain laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths. The first methodology fits the temporal radius evolution with a polynomial function, while the new methodology proposed uses the exact solution of the linear relation linking the flame speed and the stretch as a fit. The last methodology consists in an analytical resolution of the problem. To test the different methodologies, experiments were carried out in a stainless steel combustion chamber with methane/air mixtures at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The equivalence ratio was varied from 0.55 to 1.3. The classical shadowgraph technique was used to detect the reaction zone. The new methodology has proven to be the most robust and provides the most accurate results, while the polynomial methodology induces some errors due to the differentiation process. As original radii are used in the analytical methodology, it is more affected by the experimental radius determination. Finally, laminar burning velocity and Markstein length values determined with the new methodology are compared with results reported in the literature. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iinuma, Masataka; Suzuki, Yutaro; Nii, Taiki; Kinoshita, Ryuji; Hofmann, Holger F.
2016-03-01
In general, it is difficult to evaluate measurement errors when the initial and final conditions of the measurement make it impossible to identify the correct value of the target observable. Ozawa proposed a solution based on the operator algebra of observables which has recently been used in experiments investigating the error-disturbance trade-off of quantum measurements. Importantly, this solution makes surprisingly detailed statements about the relations between measurement outcomes and the unknown target observable. In the present paper, we investigate this relation by performing a sequence of two measurements on the polarization of a photon, so that the first measurement commutes with the target observable and the second measurement is sensitive to a complementary observable. While the initial measurement can be evaluated using classical statistics, the second measurement introduces the effects of quantum correlations between the noncommuting physical properties. By varying the resolution of the initial measurement, we can change the relative contribution of the nonclassical correlations and identify their role in the evaluation of the quantum measurement. It is shown that the most striking deviation from classical expectations is obtained at the transition between weak and strong measurements, where the competition between different statistical effects results in measurement values well outside the range of possible eigenvalues.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Yanmei; Li, Rong; Zhang, Liyun; He, Yulin; Wang, Huaning
2006-08-01
From a large number of SOHO/MDI longitudinal magnetograms, three physical measures including the maximum horizontal gradient, the length of the neutral line, and the number of singular points are computed. These measures are used to describe photospheric magnetic field properties including nonpotentiality and complexity, which is believed to be closely related to solar flares. Our statistical results demonstrate that solar flare productivity increases with nonpotentiality and complexity. Furthermore, the relationship between the flare productivity and these measures can be well fitted with a sigmoid function. These results can be beneficial to future operational flare forecast models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, Abhijit A.; Pandey, Yogendra Narayan; Doxastakis, Manolis; Stein, Gila E.
2014-10-01
The acid-catalyzed deprotection of glassy poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-tertbutyl acrylate) films was studied with infrared absorbance spectroscopy and stochastic simulations. Experimental data were interpreted with a simple description of subdiffusive acid transport coupled to second-order acid loss. This model predicts key attributes of observed deprotection rates, such as fast reaction at short times, slow reaction at long times, and a nonlinear dependence on acid loading. Fickian diffusion is approached by increasing the postexposure bake temperature or adding plasticizing agents to the polymer resin. These findings demonstrate that acid mobility and overall deprotection kinetics are coupled to glassy matrix dynamics. To complement the analysis of bulk kinetics, acid diffusion lengths were calculated from the anomalous transport model and compared with nanopattern line widths. The consistent scaling between experiments and simulations suggests that the anomalous diffusion model could be further developed into a predictive lithography tool.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunlop, Katherine M.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Huffard, Christine L.; Caress, David W.; Henthorn, Richard G.; Hobson, Brett W.; McGill, Paul; Smith, Kenneth L.
2015-02-01
The 25 year time-series collected at Station M, ~4000 m on the Monterey Deep-sea Fan, has substantially improved understanding of the role of the deep-ocean benthic environment in the global carbon cycle. However, the role of deep-ocean benthic megafauna in carbon bioturbation, remineralization and sequestration is relatively unknown. It is important to gather both accurate and precise measurements of megafaunal community abundance, size distribution and biomass to further define their role in deep-sea carbon cycling and possible sequestration. This study describes initial results from a stereo camera system attached to a remotely operated vehicle and analyzed using the EventMeasure photogrammetric measurement software to estimate the density, length and biomass of 10 species of mobile epibenthic megafauna. Stereo length estimates were compared to those from a single video camera system equipped with sizing lasers and analyzed using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's Video Annotation and Reference System. Both camera systems and software were capable of high measurement accuracy and precision (<1 mm measurement error and precision). However, the oblique angle of the single video camera caused the spatial scale of the image perspective to change with distance from the camera, resulting in error when measurements were not parallel or vertical to two horizontal-oriented scaling lasers. Analysis showed that the stereo system recorded longer lengths and higher biomass estimates than the single video camera system for the majority of the 10 megafauna species studied. The stereo image analysis process took substantially longer than the video analysis and the value of the EventMeasure software tool would be improved with developments in analysis automation. The stereo system is less influenced by object orientation and height, and is potentially a useful tool to be mounted on an autonomous underwater vehicle and for measuring deep-sea pelagic animals where the use of lasers is not feasible.
Viscosity Measurements and Correlation of the Squalane + CO2 Mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomida, D.; Kumagai, A.; Yokoyama, C.
2007-02-01
Experimental results for the viscosity of squalane + CO2 mixtures are reported. The viscosities were measured using a rolling ball viscometer. The experimental temperatures were 293.15, 313.15, 333.15, and 353.15 K, and pressures were 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 MPa. The CO2 mole fraction of the mixtures varied from 0 to 0.417. The experimental uncertainties in viscosity were estimated to be within 3.0%. The viscosity of the mixtures decreased with an increase in the CO2 mole fraction. The experimental data were compared with predictions from the Grunberg-Nissan and McAllister equations, which correlated the experimental data with maximum deviations of 10 and 8.7%, respectively.
Measuring the first two statistics moments using the Correlator resources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saez, A.; Herrera, D.; Sepulveda, Jorge
2014-07-01
The ALMA telescope is composed of 66 high precision antennas, each antenna having 8 high bandwidth digitizers (4Gsamples/Second). It is a critical task to determine the well functioning of those digitizers prior to starting a round of observations. Since observation time is a valuable resource, it is germane that a tool be developed which can provide a quick and reliable answer regarding the digitizer status. Currently the digitizer output statistics are measured by using comparators and counters. This method introduced uncertainties due to the low amount of integration, in addition to going through all the possible states for all available digitizer time which all resulted in the antennas taking a considerable amount of time. In order to avoid the aforementioned described problems, a new method based on correlator resources is hereby presented.
Michel, D T; Davis, A K; Goncharov, V N; Sangster, T C; Hu, S X; Igumenshchev, I V; Meyerhofer, D D; Seka, W; Froula, D H
2015-04-17
Measurements of the conduction-zone length (11020???m at t=2.8??ns), the averaged mass ablation rate of the deuterated plastic (7.950.3???g/ns), shell trajectory, and laser absorption are made in direct-drive cryogenic implosions and are used to quantify the electron thermal transport through the conduction zone. Hydrodynamic simulations that use nonlocal thermal transport and cross-beam energy transfer models reproduce these experimental observables. Hydrodynamic simulations that use a time-dependent flux-limited model reproduce the measured shell trajectory and the laser absorption but underestimate the mass ablation rate by ?10% and the length of the conduction zone by nearly a factor of 2. PMID:25933317
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, D. T.; Davis, A. K.; Goncharov, V. N.; Sangster, T. C.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Seka, W.; Froula, D. H.
2015-04-01
Measurements of the conduction-zone length (110 20 ? m at t =2.8 ns ), the averaged mass ablation rate of the deuterated plastic (7.95 0.3 ? g /ns ), shell trajectory, and laser absorption are made in direct-drive cryogenic implosions and are used to quantify the electron thermal transport through the conduction zone. Hydrodynamic simulations that use nonlocal thermal transport and cross-beam energy transfer models reproduce these experimental observables. Hydrodynamic simulations that use a time-dependent flux-limited model reproduce the measured shell trajectory and the laser absorption but underestimate the mass ablation rate by 10 % and the length of the conduction zone by nearly a factor of 2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amelink, Arjen; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Bard, Martin P. L.; Burgers, Sjaak A.
2004-05-01
We demonstrate the capability of differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) to determine the local optical properties of tissue in vivo. DPS measurements on bronchial mucosa are analyzed and yield information on the local blood oxygenation, blood content, average microvessel diameter, and wavelength dependence of the reduced scattering coefficient. Our data collected to date show that cancerous bronchial mucosa has a lower capillary oxygenation and a larger average capillary diameter than normal bronchial mucosa.
LEI, HAN; FENG, DALI; ZHOU, FUXIANG; XU, HUI; TANG, TIAN; YU, HAIJUN; XIE, CONGHUA; ZHOU, YUNFENG
2015-01-01
The close association between telomere length and radiosensitivity has been established by several studies. There is also a hypothesis that telomere length may be regulated by human protection of telomere 1 (hPOT1) in human carcinoma cells. In the present study, the hPOT1 level between the radioresistant Hep-2R cells and the wild-type were compared, and the results showed that the hPOT1 gene was upregulated in the radioresistant Hep-2R cell lines compared with the wild-type. This suggested that the expression level of hPOT1 correlates with radiosensitivity. Additionally, an hPOT1-directed short hairpin (sh)RNA plasmid was constructed and transferred into the Hep-2R cells, which lead to telomere shortening, an increase in apoptosis and markedly decreased growth of the RNAi-Hep-2R cell line. These results demonstrate that hPOT1-directed shRNAs are associated with telomere length and radiosensitivity, and maybe a potent sensitizer for laryngeal cancer radiotherapy. PMID:26622642
Quantifying Path Length: Fourth-Grade Children's Developing Abstractions for Linear Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barrett, Jeffrey E.; Clements, Douglas H.
2003-01-01
This article describes how children build increasingly abstract knowledge of linear measurement, emphasizing ways they relate space and number. Assessments indicate children struggle to understand measurement, especially concepts related to complex paths as in perimeter tasks. This article draws on developmental accounts of children's knowledge of…
Correlated Protein Motion Measurements of Dihydrofolate Reductase Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Mengyang; Niessen, Katherine; Pace, James; Cody, Vivian; Markelz, Andrea
2014-03-01
We report the first direct measurements of the long range structural vibrational modes in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). DHFR is a universal housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of 7,8-dihydrofolate to 5,6,7,8-tetra-hydrofolate, with the aid of coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). This crucial enzymatic role as the target for anti-cancer [methotrexate (MTX)], and other clinically useful drugs, has made DHFR a long-standing target of enzymological studies. The terahertz (THz) frequency range (5-100 cm-1), corresponds to global correlated protein motions. In our lab we have developed Crystal Anisotropy Terahertz Microscopy (CATM), which directly measures these large scale intra-molecular protein vibrations, by removing the relaxational background of the solvent and residue side chain librational motions. We demonstrate narrowband features in the anisotropic absorbance for mouse DHFR with the ligand binding of NADPH and MTX single crystals as well as Escherichia coli DHFR with the ligand binding of NADPH and MTX single crystals. This work is supported by NSF grant MRI2 grant DBI2959989.
Measuring ?- ? angular correlation with laser trapped 6He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leredde, Arnaud; Bailey, Kevin; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas; Bagdasarova, Yelena; Garcia, Alejandro; Hong, Ran; Sternberg, Matthew; Storm, Derek; Swanson, Erik; Wauters, Frederik; Zumwalt, David W.; Flechard, Xavier; Lienard, Etienne; Knetch, Andreas; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar
2014-09-01
Exotic current contributions to the weak interaction can be constrained through measuring the beta-neutrino angular correlation parameter a?? in nuclear beta decay - providing opportunities to find evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. Our goal is to measure a?? with a precision of 0.1% for the beta decay of 6He (t1/2 = 807 ms) which is particularly sensitive to the exotic tensor currents. For this purpose, we have built a double magneto-optical trap (MOT) system to provide a cold and point-like source of 6He. Of the 1x1010 6He atoms/s produced via the 7Li(d,3He)6He nuclear reaction, roughly 1000 atoms/s are captured in the first MOT and periodically transferred to the second, low background MOT that is surrounded by a detector system. Coincidence detection of the beta particle and the recoiling ion offers kinematic reconstruction of a?? in combination with high statistic numerical simulations of the detector setup. The performance of the trap setup, preliminary coincidence data, and studies of systematic uncertainties will be presented. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract nos. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and DE-FG02-97ER41020.
Water equivalent path length measurement in proton radiotherapy using time resolved diode dosimetry
Gottschalk, B.; Tang, S.; Bentefour, E. H.; Cascio, E. W.; Prieels, D.; Lu, H.-M.
2011-04-15
Purpose: To verify water equivalent path length (WEPL) before treatment in proton radiotherapy using time resolved in vivo diode dosimetry. Methods: Using a passively scattered range modulated proton beam, the output of a diode driving a fast current-to-voltage amplifier is recorded at a number of depths in a water tank. At each depth, a burst of overlapping single proton pulses is observed. The rms duration of the burst is computed and the resulting data set is fitted with a cubic polynomial. Results: When the diode is subsequently set to an arbitrary depth and the polynomial is used as a calibration curve, the ''unknown'' depth is determined within 0.3 mm rms. Conclusions: A diode or a diode array, placed (for instance) in the rectum in conjunction with a rectal balloon, can potentially determine the WEPL at that point, just prior to treatment, with submillimeter accuracy, allowing the beam energy to be adjusted. The associated unwanted dose is about 0.2% of a typical single fraction treatment dose.
Length scales in alloy dissolution and measurement of absolute interfacial free energy.
Rugolo, J; Erlebacher, J; Sieradzki, K
2006-12-01
De-alloying is the selective dissolution of one or more of the elemental components of an alloy. In binary alloys that exhibit complete solid solubility, de-alloying of the less noble component results in the formation of nanoporous metals, a materials class that has attracted attention for applications such as catalysis, sensing and actuation. In addition, the occurrence of de-alloying in metallic alloy systems under stress is known to result in stress-corrosion cracking, a key failure mechanism in fossil fuel and nuclear plants, ageing aircraft, and also an important concern in the design of nuclear-waste storage containers. Central to the design of corrosion-resistant alloys is the identification of a composition-dependent electrochemical critical potential, Vcrit, above which the current rises dramatically with potential, signalling the onset of bulk de-alloying. Below Vcrit, the surface is passivated by the accumulation of up to several monolayers of the more noble component. The current understanding of the processes that control Vcrit is incomplete. Here, we report on de-alloying results of Ag/Au superlattices that clarify the role of pre-existing length scales in alloy dissolution. Our data motivated us to re-analyse existing data on critical potentials of Ag-Au alloys and develop a simple unifying picture that accounts for the compositional dependence of solid-solution alloy critical potentials. PMID:17099702
Measurement of amyloid fibril mass-per-length by tilted-beam transmission electron microscopy
Chen, Bo; Thurber, Kent R.; Shewmaker, Frank; Wickner, Reed B.; Tycko, Robert
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that accurate values of mass-per-length (MPL), which serve as strong constraints on molecular structure, can be determined for amyloid fibrils by quantification of intensities in dark-field electron microscope images obtained in the tilted-beam mode of a transmission electron microscope. MPL values for fibrils formed by residues 218289 of the HET-s fungal prion protein, for 2-fold- and 3-fold-symmetric fibrils formed by the 40-residue ?-amyloid peptide, and for fibrils formed by the yeast prion protein Sup35NM are in good agreement with previous results from scanning transmission electron microscopy. Results for fibrils formed by the yeast prion protein Rnq1, for which the MPL value has not been previously reported, support an in-register parallel ?-sheet structure, with one Rnq1 molecule per 0.47-nm ?-sheet repeat spacing. Since tilted-beam dark-field images can be obtained on many transmission electron microscopes, this work should facilitate MPL determination by a large number of research groups engaged in studies of amyloid fibrils and similar supramolecular assemblies. PMID:19706519
Ning, Peng; Li, Sa; White, Philip J.; Li, Chunjian
2015-01-01
Larger, and deeper, root systems of new maize varieties, compared to older varieties, are thought to have enabled improved acquisition of soil resources and, consequently, greater grain yields. To compare the spatial distributions of the root systems of new and old maize varieties and their relationships with spatial variations in soil concentrations of available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), two years of field experiments were performed using six Chinese maize varieties released in different eras. Vertical distributions of roots, and available N, P and K in the 060 cm soil profile were determined in excavated soil monoliths at silking and maturity. The results demonstrated that new maize varieties had larger root dry weight, higher grain yield and greater nutrient accumulation than older varieties. All varieties had similar total root length and vertical root distribution at silking, but newer varieties maintained greater total root length and had more roots in the 3060 cm soil layers at maturity. The spatial variation of soil mineral N (Nmin) in each soil horizon was larger than that of Olsen-P and ammonium-acetate-extractable K, and was inversely correlated with root length density (RLD), especially in the 020 cm soil layer. It was concluded that greater acquisition of mineral nutrients and higher yields of newer varieties were associated with greater total root length at maturity. The negative relationship between RLD and soil Nmin at harvest for all varieties suggests the importance of the spatial distribution of the root system for N uptake by maize. PMID:25799291
Ning, Peng; Li, Sa; White, Philip J; Li, Chunjian
2015-01-01
Larger, and deeper, root systems of new maize varieties, compared to older varieties, are thought to have enabled improved acquisition of soil resources and, consequently, greater grain yields. To compare the spatial distributions of the root systems of new and old maize varieties and their relationships with spatial variations in soil concentrations of available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), two years of field experiments were performed using six Chinese maize varieties released in different eras. Vertical distributions of roots, and available N, P and K in the 0-60 cm soil profile were determined in excavated soil monoliths at silking and maturity. The results demonstrated that new maize varieties had larger root dry weight, higher grain yield and greater nutrient accumulation than older varieties. All varieties had similar total root length and vertical root distribution at silking, but newer varieties maintained greater total root length and had more roots in the 30-60 cm soil layers at maturity. The spatial variation of soil mineral N (Nmin) in each soil horizon was larger than that of Olsen-P and ammonium-acetate-extractable K, and was inversely correlated with root length density (RLD), especially in the 0-20 cm soil layer. It was concluded that greater acquisition of mineral nutrients and higher yields of newer varieties were associated with greater total root length at maturity. The negative relationship between RLD and soil Nmin at harvest for all varieties suggests the importance of the spatial distribution of the root system for N uptake by maize. PMID:25799291
Lapham, Kyle; Kvale, Mark N; Lin, Jue; Connell, Sheryl; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Fang, Lynn; Hesselson, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya; McGuire, William B; Miles, Sunita; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil; Schaefer, Catherine; Blackburn, Elizabeth H
2015-08-01
The Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health (RPGEH) Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort includes DNA specimens extracted from saliva samples of 110,266 individuals. Because of its relationship to aging, telomere length measurement was considered an important biomarker to develop on these subjects. To assay relative telomere length (TL) on this large cohort over a short time period, we created a novel high throughput robotic system for TL analysis and informatics. Samples were run in triplicate, along with control samples, in a randomized design. As part of quality control, we determined the within-sample variability and employed thresholds for the elimination of outlying measurements. Of 106,902 samples assayed, 105,539 (98.7%) passed all quality control (QC) measures. As expected, TL in general showed a decline with age and a sex difference. While telomeres showed a negative correlation with age up to 75 years, in those older than 75 years, age positively correlated with longer telomeres, indicative of an association of longer telomeres with more years of survival in those older than 75. Furthermore, while females in general had longer telomeres than males, this difference was significant only for those older than age 50. An additional novel finding was that the variance of TL between individuals increased with age. This study establishes reliable assay and analysis methodologies for measurement of TL in large, population-based human studies. The GERA cohort represents the largest currently available such resource, linked to comprehensive electronic health and genotype data for analysis. PMID:26092717
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taulbee, Timothy D.
The goal of this research was to determine whether neutron dose reconstruction could be improved through re-analysis of historic NTA films worn by workers in the 1950 through the 1970s. To improve neutron dose reconstruction, the underlying neutron energy spectra is critical in determining the organ dose due to energy dependence of the dose conversion factor as well as the application of radiation weighting factors used in epidemiology and probability of causation calculations. Monte Carlo models of proton-recoil track length distributions were developed and benchmarked against measurement data for both NTA and Ilford films. These models, when applied to several NTA film dosimeter configurations, demonstrated that proton-recoil track length distributions change based upon incident neutron energy. The neutron energy spectra changes that result from the general work environment such as source term and shielding can subsequently be modeled to predict the response of the NTA film dosimeter. An Automatic NTA Film Analyzer has been designed and developed to determine if the difference in proton-recoil track length distributions predicted by the Monte Carlo models could be measured and whether these differences could be correlated to the incident neutron energy spectra. The design required the development of a 2D-3D hybrid track recognition algorithm for a three dimensional analysis of the NTA film in order to accurately determine the proton-recoil track length for subsequent neutron energy determination. NTA films exposed to a plutonium fluoride (PuF4) and polonium boron (PoB) calibration sources were measured and compared. The proton-recoil track lengths were used to reconstruct the incident neutron energy spectra demonstrating the functionality of the analyzer and that reconstruction of the neutron energy spectra from NTA films is feasible. These measurements were compared to the Monte Carlo models and confirmed the applicability of using models to determine the NTA film response. Based on the Monte Carlo Modeling and the Automatic NTA Film Analyzer, the neutron energy spectra to which an individual worker was exposed can be retrospectively determined through re-analysis of historic NTA dosimeter films thus improving retrospective neutron dose assessments.
Measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length and edge surface-recombination velocity in InP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, Sheila G.; Hakimzadeh, Roshanak
1993-01-01
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure the electron (minority carrier) diffusion length (L(sub n)) and the edge surface-recombination velocity (V(sub s)) in zinc-doped Czochralski-grown InP wafers. Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) profiles were obtained in specimens containing a Schottky barrier perpendicular to the scanned (edge) surface. An independent technique was used to measure V(sub s), and these values were used in a theoretical expression for normalized EBIC. A fit of the experimental data with this expression enabled us to determine L(sub n).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boulesteix, Thierry; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire
2004-09-01
We extend second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to the measurement of sarcomere length in unstained living cardiac myocytes with 20-nm accuracy. We quantify individual sarcomere shortening in the presence of saxitoxin and find that it is in agreement with mechanical measurements of atrial tissue contracture. This functional application of SHG microscopy is generally applicable to quantify the physiological effects of drugs on contractile tissue. Our data also suggest that packed myosin heads in sarcomere thick filaments are responsible for the large second-harmonic endogenous signal in muscle tissue.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steyn-Ross, Moira L.; Steyn-Ross, D. A.; Sleigh, J. W.; Whiting, D. R.
2003-08-01
In a recent series of papers, the authors have developed a stochastic theory to describe the electrical response of a spatially homogeneous cerebral cortex to infusion of a general anesthetic agent. We showed that by modeling the GABAergic (propofol-like) drug effect as a prolongation of the inhibitory postsynaptic impulse response, we obtain a prediction that there will be a hysteretically separated pair of first-order phase transitions in the population-average excitatory soma voltage, the first occurring at the point of induction of unconsciousness, and the second at the point of emergence from unconsciousness. In the present paper we generalize our earlier zero-dimensional homogeneous cortex to a one-dimensional (1D) line of cortical mass, thus allowing for the possibility of spatial inhomogeneities in neural activity. Following the spirit of our earlier adiabatic (slow membrane) philosophy, we impose a spatioadiabatic approximation that permits us to compute analytic expressions for changes in EEG (electroencephalographic) correlation length and EEG spatial covariance as a function of anesthetic effect. We establish that the correlation length of the EEG fluctuations is expected to increase at the approach to the transition points, and this finding is consistent with both the homogeneous-cortex prediction of increased correlation time (critical slowing down) near transition, and the recent, comprehensive anesthetic study by John et al.?[Conscious. Cogn. 10, 165 (2001)] reporting an increase in EEG coherence near the points of loss and recovery of consciousness. In addition, we find that if the long-range (corticocortical) excitatory-to-inhibitory connectivity in the 1D cortex is stronger than the long-range excitatory-to-excitatory connectivity, then the spatioadiabatic system can organize itself into large-amplitude spatial patterns (dissipative structures) consisting of giant stationary quasiperiodic voltage fluctuations distributed along the cortical rod.
Udhayakumar, Radhagayathri K; Karmakar, Chandan; Peng Li; Palaniswami, Marimuthu
2015-08-01
Complexity analysis of a given time series is executed using various measures of irregularity, the most commonly used being Approximate entropy (ApEn), Sample entropy (SampEn) and Fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn). However, the dependence of these measures on the critical parameter of tolerance `r' leads to precarious results, owing to random selections of r. Attempts to eliminate the use of r in entropy calculations introduced a new measure of entropy namely distribution entropy (DistEn) based on the empirical probability distribution function (ePDF). DistEn completely avoids the use of a variance dependent parameter like r and replaces it by a parameter M, which corresponds to the number of bins used in the histogram to calculate it. When tested for synthetic data, M has been observed to produce a minimal effect on DistEn as compared to the effect of r on other entropy measures. Also, DistEn is said to be relatively stable with data length (N) variations, as far as synthetic data is concerned. However, these claims have not been analyzed for physiological data. Our study evaluates the effect of data length N and bin number M on the performance of DistEn using both synthetic and physiologic time series data. Synthetic logistic data of `Periodic' and `Chaotic' levels of complexity and 40 RR interval time series belonging to two groups of healthy aging population (young and elderly) have been used for the analysis. The stability and consistency of DistEn as a complexity measure as well as a classifier have been studied. Experiments prove that the parameters N and M are more influential in deciding the efficacy of DistEn performance in the case of physiologic data than synthetic data. Therefore, a generalized random selection of M for a given data length N may not always be an appropriate combination to yield good performance of DistEn for physiologic data. PMID:26738118
Manjula, B N; Tsai, A; Upadhya, R; Perumalsamy, K; Smith, P K; Malavalli, A; Vandegriff, K; Winslow, R M; Intaglietta, M; Prabhakaran, M; Friedman, J M; Acharya, A S
2003-01-01
Increasing the molecular size of acellular hemoglobin (Hb) has been proposed as an approach to reduce its undesirable vasoactive properties. The finding that bovine Hb surface decorated with about 10 copies of PEG5K per tetramer is vasoactive provides support for this concept. The PEGylated bovine Hb has a strikingly larger molecular radius than HbA (1). The colligative properties of the PEGylated bovine Hb are distinct from those of HbA and even polymerized Hb, suggesting a role for the colligative properties of PEGylated Hb in neutralizing the vasoactivity of acellular Hb. To correlate the colligative properties of surface-decorated Hb with the mass of the PEG attached and also its vasoactivity, we have developed a new maleimide-based protocol for the site-specific conjugation of PEG to Hb, taking advantage of the unusually high reactivity of Cys-93(beta) of oxy HbA and the high reactivity of the maleimide to protein thiols. PEG chains of 5, 10, and 20 kDa have been functionalized at one of their hydroxyl groups with a maleidophenyl moiety through a carbamate linkage and used to conjugate the PEG chains at the beta-93 Cys of HbA to generate PEGylated Hbs carrying two copies of PEG (of varying chain length) per tetramer. Homogeneous preparations of (SP-PEG5K)(2)-HbA, (SP-PEG10K)(2)-HbA, and (SP-PEG20K)(2)-HbA have been isolated by ion exchange chromatography. The oxygen affinity of Hb is increased slightly on PEGylation, but the length of the PEG-chain had very little additional influence on the O(2) affinity. Both the hydrodynamic volume and the molecular radius of the Hb increased on surface decoration with PEG and exhibited a linear correlation with the mass of the PEG chain attached. On the other hand, both the viscosity and the colloidal osmotic pressure (COP) of the PEGylated Hbs exhibited an exponential increase with the increase in PEG chain length. In contrast to the molecular volume, viscosity, and COP, the vasoactivity of the PEGylated Hbs was not a direct correlate of the PEG chain length. There appeared to be a threshold for the PEG chain length beyond which the protection against vasoactivity is decreased. These results suggest that the modulation of the vasoactivity of Hb by PEG could be a function of the surface shielding afforded by the PEG, the latter being a function of the disposition of the PEG chain on the protein surface, which in turn is a function of the length of the PEG chain. Thus, the biochemically homogeneous PEGylated Hbs described in the present study, surface-decorated with PEG chains of appropriate size, could serve as potential candidates for Hb-based oxygen carriers. PMID:12643758
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loudon, James; Yazdi, S.; Kasama, T.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.
2015-03-01
We demonstrate that images of flux vortices in a superconductor taken with a transmission electron microscope can be used to measure simultaneously the penetration depth and coherence length in all directions at the same temperature and magnetic field. This is particularly useful for MgB2 where these quantities vary with the applied magnetic field and values are difficult to obtain at low field or in the c direction. We obtained images of flux vortices from a sample cut in the ac plane by focussed ion beam milling and compared these with simulations which accounted for flux vortices with a non-zero core in a thin, anisotropic superconductor. This gave penetration depths ?ab = 100 +/- 35 nm, ?c = 120 +/- 15 nm and coherence lengths ?ab = 41 +/- 13 nm and ?c = 34 +/- 10 nm at 10.8 K in a field of 4.8 mT. The implications of these values for type-1.5 superconductivity will be discussed.
Tao, X. D.; Feng, Z.; Miao, B. F.; Sun, L.; You, B.; Wu, D.; Du, J.; Zhang, W.; Ding, H. F.
2014-05-07
We present the experimental study of the spin Hall angle (SHA) and spin diffusion length of Pd with the spin pumping and microwave photoresistance effects. The Py/Pd bilayer stripes are excited with an out-of-plane microwave magnetic field. The pure spin current is thus pumped and transforms into charge current via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in Pd layer, yielding an ISHE voltage. The ISHE voltage can be distinguished from the unwanted signal caused by the anisotropic magnetoresistance according to their different symmetries. Together with Pd thickness dependent measurements of in and out-of-plane precessing angles and effective spin mixing conductance, the SHA and spin-diffusion length of Pd are quantified as 0.0056 ± 0.0007 and 7.3 ± 0.7 nm, respectively.
Evaluation of Length-of-Stain Gas Indicator Tubes for Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Air.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klaubert, Earl C.; And Others
Techniques for detection and measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) in air are of interest and utility in many aspects of automotive safety. CO concentrations may range from less than 100 parts per million (ppm), or 0.01 percent, to about 10 percent by volume. Gas indicator tubes have been used for many years primarily as detectors of hazardous gases
Evaluation of Length-of-Stain Gas Indicator Tubes for Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Air.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klaubert, Earl C.; And Others
Techniques for detection and measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) in air are of interest and utility in many aspects of automotive safety. CO concentrations may range from less than 100 parts per million (ppm), or 0.01 percent, to about 10 percent by volume. Gas indicator tubes have been used for many years primarily as detectors of hazardous gases…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Fang
In this dissertation, advances in linear and non-linear viscoelastic analysis and experimentation have been employed to investigate the properties of materials using nanoindentation. In the first study, a general linear-viscoelastic model was developed to measure the properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a flat punch indenter. Subsequently, linear viscoelastic nanoindentation was used to measure the young's relaxation modulus of a locally-heterogeneous thermally-aged bismaleimide resin using a Berkovich indenter. Nanoindentation measurements were conducted on both surface and cross section of aged bismaleimide resin specimens with different aging time at 200C and 300C respectively to extract the oxidation effect of sample under high temperatures. Finally, nanoindentation measurements were made on human tympanic membrane specimens with using a spherical nanoindenter tip in direct contact with the collagen fiber layer. Linear viscoelastic analysis was conducted to extract the Young's relaxation modulus distributions. The study also focused on the development of non-linear viscoelastic analysis of indentation experiments. Despite the fact that the nanoindentation technique is well established for the characterization of elasto-plastic materials, nanoindentation on viscoelastic materials is not fully understood especially in nonlinear viscoelastic region. In the dissertation, a nonlinear viscoelastic model was developed and implemented in Abaqus/Implicit Code to analyze the nonlinear visceoelastic behavior of polyvinyl acetate (PVA) under nanoindentation.
Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc.
Beta-Neutrino Correlation Measurements in 37K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anholm, Melissa; Ashery, D.; Craiciu, I.; Behling, S.; Fenker, B.; Gorelov, A.; Gwinner, G.; Kurchaninov, L.; Mehlman, M.; Melconian, D.; Olchankski, K.; Shidling, P. D.; Smale, S.; Behr, J. A.; Trinat Collaboration
2013-10-01
The TRIUMF Neutral Atom Trap utilizes a unique set of techniques to obtain samples of cold, polarized atoms. We have been particularly interested in trapping 37K atoms, which decay by β+ emission in a mixed Fermi/Gamow-Teller transition to their isobaric analog, 37Ar. Because the higher-order standard model corrections to this decay process are well understood, it is ideal for for improving constraints on interactions beyond the standard model. By observing the daughter particles, we are sensitive to possible scalar, tensor, and right-handed vector currents in a process that is known to be predominantly a left-handed form of the weak interaction. Observations of overdetermined kinematics in the ion and β time-of-flight spectra allow us to reconstruct the neutrino flight paths, thereby providing an effective strategy for measuring the β-asymmetry parameter, the recoil asymmetry, the β-neutrino correlation, and the tensor alignment parameter. Here I focus primarily on the latter two. NSERC, NRC through TRIUMF, DOE ER41747 ER40773, State of Texas, Israel Science Foundation.
Cui, Jiwen; Li, Junying; Feng, Kunpeng; Tan, Jiubin
2015-10-01
A 3-dimensional fiber probe based on orthogonal micro focal-length collimation (MFL-collimation) is proposed for the measurement of micro parts with high aspect ratios. The probe consists of a fiber stylus which acts as a micro focal-length cylindrical lens (MFLC-lens) of the two orthogonal MFL-collimation optical paths and a probe tip fixed on the free end of the fiber stylus for touching the workpiece. The fiber stylus will deflect (deflection mode) or buckle (buckling mode) under contacts, and the deflection or buckling of the fiber stylus will cause corresponding shifts of the fringe images of the two orthogonal MFL-collimation optical paths. Therefore, the 3-dimensional displacements of the probe tip are transformed into the centroid position shifts of the zero-order fringe images. Experimental results indicate that the fiber probe has a measuring capability in 3-dimensional tactility, and a radial and axial resolution of 5 nm and 3 nm can be obtained respectively. The probe is easily applied in the measurement of micro parts because of its high resolution, low cost, high measurable aspect ratio, low probing forces and capability in three-dimensional tactility. PMID:26480152
Swimm, R.T.; Dumas, K.A.
1982-11-01
The optical absorption coefficient of silicon solar cell material grown by three low-cost growth methods was measured in the wavelength interval 0.8< or =lambda< or =1.0 ..mu..m, the wavelength region of interest in surface photovoltage measurements of the minority carrier diffusion length. The square root of the absorption coefficient was found to vary linearly with photon energy over the wavelengths studied, and the measured data agree with a linear empirical fit to within 0.5% RMS. The absorption coefficients obtained are slightly lower than those reported by Runyan, with the greatest disagreement at long wavelengths. Minority carrier diffusion lengths computed using the present absorption coefficients are approximately 16% greater than those calculated using Runyan's data. Excellent sample-to-sample agreement within and between lots indicates that for two of the growth methods studied, material quality as judged by optical properties has not been sacrificed by the use of low-cost growth methods. Samples grown by the third growth method studied showed measurably poorer optical quality.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgee, Thomas J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Gross, Michael; Heaps, William S.; Ferrare, Richard
1992-01-01
Measurements of stratospheric ozone, temperature, and aerosols were made by the NASA/GSFC mobile stratospheric lidar during the UARS (Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite) Correlative Measurement Campaign at the JPL-Table Mountain Facility in Feb. and Mar. 1992. Due to the presence of substantial amounts of residual volcanic aerosol from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, the GSFC lidar system was modified for an accurate measurement of ozone concentration in the stratosphere. While designed primarily for the measurement of stratospheric ozone, this lidar system was also used to measure middle atmosphere temperature and density from 30 to 65 km and stratospheric aerosol from 15 to 35 km. In the following sections, we will briefly describe and present some typical measurements made during this campaign. Stratospheric ozone, temperature, and aerosols profiles derived from data taken between 15 Feb. and 20 Mar., 1992 will be presented at the conference.
Cross-correlation procedures for measuring noise and distortion in AGC hearing aids.
Kates, J M
2000-06-01
The magnitude-squared coherence function (MSC) has been used to measure noise and distortion in linear and compression hearing aids. However, the MSC will overestimate the distortion in a linear time-varying system such as a compression amplifier. The reduction in coherence caused by varying the gain in an otherwise linear system can be substantial, and can lead to large errors in estimating the distortion present in a compression hearing aid. The effects of gain changes in a linear system can be reduced by measuring the normalized system input-output cross correlation, which emphasizes the variance in the system phase response and deemphasizes the system gain fluctuations. Estimates of the total noise and distortion produced using the MSC, phase variance, and notched-noise measurement techniques are compared for additive noise, clipping distortion, and compression amplification. The MSC is found to give the most accurate results for estimating the noise and distortion in a linear time-invariant system, and the notched noise measurements are the most accurate for a compression system. The phase variance is found to give reasonable measurements for a time-varying gain as long as the system variations are slow relative to the length of the analysis data segments. PMID:10875385
Ning, Z Y; Fu, M Q; Shi, T W; Guo, Y; Wei, X L; Gao, S; Chen, Q
2014-07-11
The relationship between property and structure is one of the most important fundamental questions in the field of nanomaterials and nanodevices. Understanding the multiproperties of a given nano-object also aids in the development of novel nanomaterials and nanodevices. In this paper, we develop for the first time a comprehensive platform for in situ multiproperty measurements of individual nanomaterials using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Mechanical, electrical, electromechanical, optical, and photoelectronic properties of individual nanomaterials, with lengths that range from less than 200 nm to 20 ?m, can be measured in situ with an SEM on the platform under precisely controlled single-axial strain and environment. An individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was measured on the platform. Three-terminal electronic measurements in a field effect transistor structure showed that the SWCNT was semiconducting and agreed with the structure characterization by transmission electron microscopy after the in situ measurements. Importantly, we observed a bandgap increase of this SWCNT with increasing axial strain, and for the first time, the experimental results quantitatively agree with theoretical predictions calculated using the chirality of the SWCNT. The vibration performance of the SWCNT, a double-walled CNT, and a triple-walled CNT were also studied as a function of axial strain, and were proved to be in good agreement with classical beam theory, although the CNTs only have one, two, or three atomic layers, respectively. Our platform has wide applications in correlating multiproperties of the same individual nanostructures with their atomic structures. PMID:24959846
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makarevich, V.
2012-01-01
The COOMET Project No 507/BY/10, 'Supplementary comparison of length standards for measuring gear parameters', KCDB Reference COOMET.L-S10, was organized by the COOMET Technical Committee TC 1.5 'Length and Angle'. This comparison started in September 2010 and finished in September 2011. It was piloted by the Belarusian State Institute of Metrology, BelGIM, Minsk, the Republic of Belarus, with VNIIMS (Moscow, Russia) as the other participant. The transfer standard was a gear involute master provided by BelGIM. This standard has two base circle radii of 150 mm and 60 mm, and corresponding profiles on the left and on the right. The involute profile was measured from root towards tip of the tooth. The scanning was performed in automatic mode along the mid-section of the base cylinder over the complete estimation range, with a scanning speed of 2 mm s-1. The software program GEAR PRO involute was used to determine three parameters: the total profile deviation, the profile form deviation and the profile slope deviation. Each participant performed ten measurements for each of two involute profiles with basic circle radius of 150 mm and 60 mm, respectively. The measurement result for each parameter was calculated as a mean value from the ten measurements. The comparison results demonstrate that the measured values are consistent with the stated uncertainties and that the measurement standards under comparison are equivalent. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).
Diverging Entanglement Length in Gapped Quantum Spin Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verstraete, F.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Cirac, J. I.
2004-03-01
We study two-point correlations and the associated correlation length in spin chains from the point a view of quantum entanglement theory. We show how these correlations are lower bounds to the entanglement that can be localized between the spins under consideration by doing local measurements on all the other spins. This type of entanglement is especially useful in the context of quantum repeaters which play a central role in the field of quantum information theory. It follows that the correlation length is always a lower bound to the entanglement length. As an example, we consider so-called finitely correlated states (the ground states of AKLT-type Hamiltonians) and prove the existence of gapped quantum Hamiltonians whose ground states exhibit an infinite entanglement length (as opposed to their finite correlation length). We also discuss the case of finite temperatures and provide evidence for the diverging entanglement length in ground states of the spin-1 antiferromagnetic spin chain.
Bhardwaj, A.; Walker-Kopp, N; Casjens, S; Cingolani, G
2009-01-01
Bacteriophages of the Podoviridae family use short noncontractile tails to inject their genetic material into Gram-negative bacteria. In phage P22, the tail contains a thin needle, encoded by the phage gene 26, which is essential both for stabilization and for ejection of the packaged viral genome. Bioinformatic analysis of the N-terminal domain of gp26 (residues 1-60) led us to identify a family of genes encoding putative homologues of the tail needle gp26. To validate this idea experimentally and to explore their diversity, we cloned the gp26-like gene from phages HK620, Sf6 and HS1, and characterized these gene products in solution. All gp26-like factors contain an elongated {alpha}-helical coiled-coil core consisting of repeating, adjacent trimerization heptads and form trimeric fibers with length ranging between about 240 to 300 {angstrom}. gp26 tail needles display a high level of structural stability in solution, with Tm (temperature of melting) between 85 and 95 C. To determine how the structural stability of these phage fibers correlates with the length of the {alpha}-helical core, we investigated the effect of insertions and deletions in the helical core. In the P22 tail needle, we identified an 85-residue-long helical domain, termed MiCRU (minimal coiled-coil repeat unit), that can be inserted in-frame inside the gp26 helical core, preserving the straight morphology of the fiber. Likewise, we were able to remove three quarters of the helical core of the HS1 tail needle, minimally decreasing the stability of the fiber. We conclude that in the gp26 family of tail needles, structural stability increases nonlinearly with the length of the {alpha}-helical core. Thus, the overall stability of these bacteriophage fibers is not solely dependent on the number of trimerization repeats in the {alpha}-helical core.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, M. G.; Arif, M.; Chen, W. C.; Gentile, T. R.; Hussey, D. S.; Black, T. C.; Pushin, D. A.; Shahi, C. B.; Wietfeldt, F. E.; Yang, L.
2014-12-01
We report a determination of the n -3He scattering length difference Δ b'=b1'-b0'=[-5.411 ±0.031 (statistical)±0.039 (systematic)] fm between the triplet and singlet states using a neutron interferometer. This revises our previous result Δ b'=[-5.610 ±0.027 (statistical)±0.032 (systematic)] fm obtained using the same technique in 2008 [Huber et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 200401 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.200401; Huber et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 179903(E) (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.179903]. This revision is attributable to a reanalysis of the 2008 experiment that now includes a systematic correction caused by magnetic-field gradients near the 3He cell which had been previously underestimated. Furthermore, we more than doubled our original data set from 2008 by acquiring 6 months of additional data in 2013. Both the new data set and a reanalysis of the older data are in good agreement. Scattering lengths of low-Z isotopes are valued for use in few-body nuclear effective field theories, provide important tests of modern nuclear potential models, and, in the case of 3He, aid in the interpretation of neutron scattering from quantum liquids. The difference Δ b' was determined by measuring the relative phase shift between two incident neutron polarizations caused by the spin-dependent interaction with a polarized 3He target. The target 3He gas was sealed inside a small, flat-windowed glass cell that was placed in one beam path of the interferometer. The relaxation of 3He polarization was monitored continuously with neutron transmission measurements. The neutron polarization and spin-flipper efficiency were determined separately using 3He analyzers and two different polarimetry analysis methods. A summary of the measured scattering lengths for n -3He with a comparison to nucleon interaction models is given.
PRIOR GENETIC CORRELATIONS AND NON-MEASURED TRAITS
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Current international genetic evaluations are based on how related country populations are genetically (across-country genetic correlations). Those correlations may be influenced strongly by prior expectations that were not based on sound scientific principles. Objective methods to predict prior cor...
2013-01-01
Background The prevalence of obesity in U.S. has been rising at an alarming rate, particularly among Hispanic, African, and Asian minority groups. This trend is due in part to excessive calorie consumption and sedentary lifestyle. We sought to investigate whether parental origins influence eating behaviors in healthy urban middle school students. Methods A multiethnic/racial population of students (N = 182) enrolled in the ROAD (Reduce Obesity and Diabetes) Study, a school-based trial to assess clinical, behavioral, and biochemical risk factors for adiposity and its co-morbidities completed questionnaires regarding parental origins, length of US residency, and food behaviors and preferences. The primary behavioral questionnaire outcome variables were nutrition knowledge, attitude, intention and behavior, which were then related to anthropometric measures of waist circumference, BMI z-scores, and percent body fat. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the joint effects of number of parents born in the U.S. and ethnicity on food preference and knowledge score. The Tukey-Kramer method was used to compute pairwise comparisons to determine where differences lie. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the joint effects of number of parents born in the US and student ethnicity, along with the interaction term, on each adiposity measure outcome. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between maternal and paternal length of residency in the US with measures of adiposity, food preference and food knowledge. Results African Americans had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference and body fat percentage compared to other racial and ethnic groups. Neither ethnicity/race nor parental origins had an impact on nutrition behavior. Mothers’ length of US residency positively correlated with students’ nutrition knowledge, but not food attitude, intention or behavior. Conclusions Adiposity measures in children differ according to ethnicity and race. In contrast, food behaviors in this middle school sample were not influenced by parental origins. Longer maternal US residency benefited offspring in terms of nutrition knowledge only. We suggest that interventions to prevent obesity begin in early childhood. PMID:24134822
Eich, T; Sieglin, B; Scarabosio, A; Fundamenski, W; Goldston, R J; Herrmann, A
2011-11-18
Experimental measurements of the SOL power decay length (?(q)) estimated from analysis of fully attached divertor heat load profiles from two tokamaks, JET and ASDEX Upgrade, are presented. Data was measured by means of infrared thermography. An empirical scaling reveals parametric dependency ?(q) in mm = 0.73B(T)(-0.78)q(cyl)(1.2)P(SOL)(0.1)R(geo)(0), where B(T)(T) describes the toroidal magnetic field, q(cyl) the cylindrical safety factor, P(SOL)(MW) the power crossing the separatrix and R(geo)(m) the major radius of the device. A comparison of these measurements to a heuristic particle drift-based model shows satisfactory agreement in both absolute magnitude and scaling. Extrapolation to ITER gives ?(q) ? 1 mm. PMID:22181888
Li, B.
2009-01-01
Sound velocity measurements at pressure and/or temperature provide important information in the material's structural behavior and physical properties under extreme conditions. With the application of synchrotron X-radiation sources, new developments have emerged to facilitate the study properties and structures of crystalline and amorphous materials. In the last decade, we have developed a unique technique for measuring sound velocity in a cubic type multianvil apparatus installed at X-17B2, National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Lab, which allows us to conduct precise velocity measurements on crystalline and noncrystalline materials at various pressure and temperature conditions by conducting simultaneous X-radiation and ultrasonic interferometry measurements. In this paper, sound velocities at high temperatures for some ceramics and metals are measured to study the behavior and property change of these materials undergoing compression/expansion as well as phase transition and structural instabilities. This technique opens new opportunities for the study of materials that are of interest to many disciplines, such as earth science, materials science, and condensed matter physics.
Correlating wine quality indicators to chemical and sensory measurements.
Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Ebeler, Susan E; Heymann, Hildegarde
2015-01-01
Twenty-seven commercial Californian Cabernet Sauvignon wines of different quality categories were analyzed with sensory and chemical methods. Correlations between five quality proxies-points awarded during a wine competition, wine expert scores, retail price, vintage, and wine region-were correlated to sensory attributes, volatile compounds, and elemental composition. Wine quality is a multi-faceted construct, incorporating many different layers. Depending on the quality proxy studied, significant correlations between quality and attributes, volatiles and elements were found, some of them previously reported in the literature. PMID:25985352
Effectively classically correlated state of a measured system and a bosonic measurement apparatus
Camalet, S.
2011-04-15
We consider a multilevel system coupled to a bosonic measurement apparatus. We derive exact expressions for the time-dependent expectation values of a large class of physically relevant observables that depend on degrees of freedom of both systems. We find that, for this class, though the two systems become entangled as a result of their interaction, they appear classically correlated for long enough times. The unique corresponding time-dependent separable state is determined explicitly. To better understand the physical parameters that control the time scale of this effective disentanglement process, we study a one-dimensional measurement apparatus.
Measuring spin correlations in optical lattices using superlattice potentials
Pedersen, K. G. L.; Andersen, B. M.; Soerensen, A. S.; Bruun, G. M.; Syljuaasen, O. F.
2011-10-15
We suggest two experimental methods for probing both short- and long-range spin correlations of atoms in optical lattices using superlattice potentials. The first method involves an adiabatic doubling of the periodicity of the underlying lattice to probe neighboring singlet (triplet) correlations for fermions (bosons) by the occupation of the resulting vibrational ground state. The second method utilizes a time-dependent superlattice potential to generate spin-dependent transport by any number of prescribed lattice sites, and probes correlations by the resulting number of doubly occupied sites. For experimentally relevant parameters, we demonstrate how both methods yield large signatures of antiferromagnetic correlations of strongly repulsive fermionic atoms in a single shot of the experiment. Lastly, we show how this method may also be applied to probe d-wave pairing, a possible ground-state candidate for the doped repulsive Hubbard model.
Barrôco, Rui; Nery, Caio; Favero, Gabriela; Mombach, Renan; Nascimento, Oswaldo; Jorge, Silvia; Monteiro, Marina; Diedrichs, Letícia; Abreu, Felipe
2015-01-01
To identify the mean normal length of the metatarsals and the most common metatarsal formulas through a simple measurement method, thereby providing surgeons with data for planning treatment on symptomatic individuals with biometric abnormalities of the foot. Methods: We evaluated and measured dorsoplantar weight-bearing radiographs of normal adult feet (83 males and 83 females). Results: We found relative mean lengths for metatarsus I of 125.4 mm for males and 115.1 mm for females; for metatarsus II, 127.8 mm for males and 117.3 mm for females; for metatarsus III, 123.4 mm for males and 113.5 mm for females; for metatarsus IV, 114.2 mm for males and 105.3 mm for females; for metatarsus V, 99.5 mm for males and 91.7 mm for females. The mean forefoot width was 87.1 mm for males and 80.8 mm for females. Conclusion: Feet with index minus occurred most frequently in both sexes, although all three metatarsal formulas can be considered to be normal patterns. The mean normal pattern for males and females respectively was the following: metatarsus I 2.4 mm and 2.2 mm shorter than metatarsus II; metatarsus III 4.4 mm and 3.8 mm shorter than metatarsus II; metatarsus IV 9.2 mm and 8.2 mm shorter than metatarsus III; metatarsus V 14.7 mm and 13.6 mm shorter than metatarsus IV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yong Hyun; Song, Kwang Yong
2014-05-01
Optical time-domain measurement and characterization of intermodal beat length in an elliptic-core two-mode fiber (ecore TMF) is demonstrated using Brillouin dynamic grating. A mode-selective coupler is used for selective launch and retrieval of different modes, and the operations of BDG for four different pairs of pump-probe (LP01 x-LP11 x, LP01 x-LP11 y, LP01 y-LP11 x, LP01 y-LP11 y) are observed, representing a fine structure of modal birefringence in the e-core TMF. Distributed measurement of the BDG spectrum is performed for each pair of pump-probe with 1.5 m spatial resolution mapping the difference of the effective refractive indexes of spatial and polarization modes along a 75 m TMF.
Sack, Lawren; Caringella, Marissa; Scoffoni, Christine; Mason, Chase; Rawls, Michael; Markesteijn, Lars; Poorter, Lourens
2014-10-01
Leaf vein length per unit leaf area (VLA; also known as vein density) is an important determinant of water and sugar transport, photosynthetic function, and biomechanical support. A range of software methods are in use to visualize and measure vein systems in cleared leaf images; typically, users locate veins by digital tracing, but recent articles introduced software by which users can locate veins using thresholding (i.e. based on the contrasting of veins in the image). Based on the use of this method, a recent study argued against the existence of a fixed VLA value for a given leaf, proposing instead that VLA increases with the magnification of the image due to intrinsic properties of the vein system, and recommended that future measurements use a common, low image magnification for measurements. We tested these claims with new measurements using the software LEAFGUI in comparison with digital tracing using ImageJ software. We found that the apparent increase of VLA with magnification was an artifact of (1) using low-quality and low-magnification images and (2) errors in the algorithms of LEAFGUI. Given the use of images of sufficient magnification and quality, and analysis with error-free software, the VLA can be measured precisely and accurately. These findings point to important principles for improving the quantity and quality of important information gathered from leaf vein systems. PMID:25096977
Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Mittal, Pooja; Gotsch, Francesca; Ward, Clara; Romero, Vivian; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Pacora, Percy; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.
2013-01-01
Objective To determine the pregnancy outcome of asymptomatic patients in the second trimester with a non-measurable cervical length (0 mm). Methods This retrospective cohort study included 78 patients with singleton pregnancies and a sonographic non-measurable cervix detected at 1428 weeks gestation. Patients with cervical cerclage were excluded. Results 1) 75.3% of the patients delivered before 32 weeks; 2) the median diagnosis-to-delivery interval was 20.5 days; the delivery rate within 7 and 14 days was 28.2% and 35.6%, respectively; 3) patients with a non-measurable cervix diagnosed <24 weeks had a shorter median diagnosis-to-delivery interval than those diagnosed at 2428 weeks (17.5 vs. 41 days; p=0.009). Conclusions 1) Asymptomatic women with a non-measurable cervix in the second trimester have a median diagnosis-to-delivery interval of ~3 weeks; 2) almost 65% of these patients will not deliver within two weeks, yet 75% deliver before 32 weeks; 3) the earlier a non-measurable cervix is identified the shorter the diagnosis-to-delivery interval. PMID:20659728
Benjamini, Dan; Basser, Peter J.
2014-01-01
In this work, we present an experimental design and analytical framework to measure the nonparametric joint radius-length (R-L) distribution of an ensemble of parallel, finite cylindrical pores, and more generally, the eccentricity distribution of anisotropic pores. Employing a novel 3D double pulsed-field gradient acquisition scheme, we first obtain both the marginal radius and length distributions of a population of cylindrical pores and then use these to constrain and stabilize the estimate of the joint radius-length distribution. Using the marginal distributions as constraints allows the joint R-L distribution to be reconstructed from an underdetermined system (i.e., more variables than equations), which requires a relatively small and feasible number of MR acquisitions. Three simulated representative joint R-L distribution phantoms corrupted by different noise levels were reconstructed to demonstrate the process, using this new framework. As expected, the broader the peaks in the joint distribution, the less stable and more sensitive to noise the estimation of the marginal distributions. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of the joint distribution is remarkably robust to increases in noise level; we attribute this characteristic to the use of the marginal distributions as constraints. Axons are known to exhibit local compartment eccentricity variations upon injury; the extent of the variations depends on the severity of the injury. Nonparametric estimation of the eccentricity distribution of injured axonal tissue is of particular interest since generally one cannot assume a parametric distribution a priori. Reconstructing the eccentricity distribution may provide vital information about changes resulting from injury or that occurred during development. PMID:25481136
Benjamini, Dan; Basser, Peter J
2014-12-01
In this work, we present an experimental design and analytical framework to measure the nonparametric joint radius-length (R-L) distribution of an ensemble of parallel, finite cylindrical pores, and more generally, the eccentricity distribution of anisotropic pores. Employing a novel 3D double pulsed-field gradient acquisition scheme, we first obtain both the marginal radius and length distributions of a population of cylindrical pores and then use these to constrain and stabilize the estimate of the joint radius-length distribution. Using the marginal distributions as constraints allows the joint R-L distribution to be reconstructed from an underdetermined system (i.e., more variables than equations), which requires a relatively small and feasible number of MR acquisitions. Three simulated representative joint R-L distribution phantoms corrupted by different noise levels were reconstructed to demonstrate the process, using this new framework. As expected, the broader the peaks in the joint distribution, the less stable and more sensitive to noise the estimation of the marginal distributions. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of the joint distribution is remarkably robust to increases in noise level; we attribute this characteristic to the use of the marginal distributions as constraints. Axons are known to exhibit local compartment eccentricity variations upon injury; the extent of the variations depends on the severity of the injury. Nonparametric estimation of the eccentricity distribution of injured axonal tissue is of particular interest since generally one cannot assume a parametric distribution a priori. Reconstructing the eccentricity distribution may provide vital information about changes resulting from injury or that occurred during development. PMID:25481136
Measuring primordial anisotropic correlators with CMB spectral distortions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino
2015-10-01
We show that inflationary models with broken rotational invariance generate testable off-diagonal signatures in the correlation between the μ -type distortion and temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background. More precisely, scenarios with a quadrupolar bispectrum asymmetry, usually generated by fluctuations of primordial vector fields, produce a nonvanishing μ -T correlation when |ℓ1-ℓ2|=2 . Since spectral distortions are sensitive to primordial fluctuations up to very small scales, a cosmic variance limited spectral distortion experiment can detect such effects with a high signal-to-noise ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batle, J.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Abdalla, S.
2015-12-01
The purity entanglement measure introduced by Los Alamos group a decade ago is reexamined in the light of interesting features. The role played by purity, reaching a real thermodynamic limit, in detecting quantum phase transitions is studied with a different system, the bond-alternating X Y model in an external magnetic field. The properties of this system are described as well. By considering the dynamics of the original X Y model, we observe that nonergodicity is also grasped by the purity measure, in accordance with other quantum correlation measures that have no common physical or mathematical relation. Adiabaticity is not recovered from the dynamic to the static case, in accordance with one of the consequences of the celebrated Kibble-Zurek mechanism.
Atmospheric pollution measurement by optical cross correlation methods - A concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisher, M. J.; Krause, F. R.
1971-01-01
Method combines standard spectroscopy with statistical cross correlation analysis of two narrow light beams for remote sensing to detect foreign matter of given particulate size and consistency. Method is applicable in studies of generation and motion of clouds, nuclear debris, ozone, and radiation belts.
Benefits of Time Correlation Measurements for Passive Screening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murer, David; Blackie, Douglas; Peerani, Paolo
2014-02-01
The “FLASH Portals Project” is a collaboration between Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd (CH), the Atomic Weapons Establishment (UK), and the Joint Research Centre (European Commission), supported by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). The program's goal was to develop and demonstrate a technology to detect shielded special nuclear materials (SNM) more efficiently and less ambiguously by exploiting time correlation. This study presents experimental results of a two-sided portal monitor equipped with in total 16 4He fast neutron detectors as well as four polyvinyltoluene (PVT) plastic scintillators. All detectors have been synchronized to nanosecond precision, thereby allowing the resolution of time correlations from timescales of tens of microseconds (such as (n, γ) reactions) down to prompt fission correlations directly. Our results demonstrate that such correlations can be detected in a typical radiation portal monitor (RPM) geometry and within operationally acceptable time scales, and that exploiting these signatures significantly improves the performance of the RPM compared to neutron counting. Furthermore, the results show that some time structure remains even in the presence of heavy shielding, thus significantly improving the sensitivity of the detection system to shielded SNM.
The Internal Structure and Correlates of Some School Climate Measures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gottfredson, Gary D.
J. M. Richards (1989) has demonstrated that when individuals' reports about environments are aggregated to create environmental measures, the use of coefficient alpha to estimate single occasion reliability can be misleadingly elevated and that alpha cannot distinguish an environmental measure from a "disguised measure of individual differences."…
Barry, Edward; Dogic, Zvonimir; Meyer, Robert B; Pelcovits, Robert A; Oldenbourg, Rudolf
2009-03-26
In the 1970s, deGennes discussed the fundamental geometry of smectic liquid crystals and established an analogy between the smectic A phase and superconductors. It follows that smectic layers expel twist deformations in the same way that superconductors expel magnetic field. We make a direct observation of the penetration of twist at the edge of a single isolated smectic A layer composed of chiral fd virus particles subjected to a depletion interaction. Using the LC-PolScope, we make quantitative measurements of the spatial dependence of the birefringence due to molecular tilt near the layer edges. We match data to theory for the molecular tilt penetration profile and determine the twist penetration length for this system. PMID:18975886
Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Guillot, Michel
2015-01-01
Period life expectancies are commonly used to compare populations, but these correspond to simple juxtapositions of current mortality levels. In order to construct life expectancies for cohorts, a complete historical series of mortality rates is needed, and these are available for only a subset of developed countries. The truncated cross-sectional average length of life (TCAL) is a new measure that captures historical information about all cohorts present at a given moment and is not limited to countries with complete cohort mortality data. The value of TCAL depends on the rates used to complete the cohort series, but differences between TCALs of two populations remain similar irrespective of the data used to complete the cohort series. This result is illustrated by a comparison of TCALs for the US with those for Denmark, Japan, and other high-longevity countries. Specific cohorts that account for most of the disparity in mortality between the populations are identified. PMID:25871610
Characterization of S -T+ transition dynamics via correlation measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dickel, Christian; Foletti, Sandra; Umansky, Vladimir; Bluhm, Hendrik
2015-09-01
Nuclear spins are an important source of dephasing for electron spin qubits in GaAs quantum dots. Most studies of their dynamics have focused on the relatively slow longitudinal polarization. We present a semiclassical model and experimental data showing that the dynamics of the transverse hyperfine field can be probed by correlating individual Landau-Zener sweeps across the S -T+ transition of a two-electron spin qubit. The relative Larmor precession of different nuclear spin species leads to oscillations in these correlations, which decay due to dephasing of the nuclei. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, oscillations with the absolute Larmor frequencies whose amplitude depends on the spin-orbit coupling strength are expected. These oscillations reflect rapid dynamics of the transverse hyperfine field, which are relevant for several qubit control schemes.
Correlation measure to detect time series distances, whence economy globalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mi?kiewicz, Janusz; Ausloos, Marcel
2008-11-01
An instantaneous time series distance is defined through the equal time correlation coefficient. The idea is applied to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) yearly increments of 21 rich countries between 1950 and 2005 in order to test the process of economic globalisation. Some data discussion is first presented to decide what (EKS, GK, or derived) GDP series should be studied. Distances are then calculated from the correlation coefficient values between pairs of series. The role of time averaging of the distances over finite size windows is discussed. Three network structures are next constructed based on the hierarchy of distances. It is shown that the mean distance between the most developed countries on several networks actually decreases in time, -which we consider as a proof of globalization. An empirical law is found for the evolution after 1990, similar to that found in flux creep. The optimal observation time window size is found ?15 years.
Reduction of Gun Erosion and Correlation of Gun Erosion Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bogdanoff, Dave; Wercinski, Paul (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
Gun barrel erosion is serious problem with two-stage light gas guns. Excessive barrel erosion can lead to poor or failed launches and frequent barrel changes, with the corresponding down time. Also, excessive barrel erosion can limit the maximum velocity obtainable by loading down the hydrogen working gas with eroded barrel material. Guided by a CFD code, the operating conditions of the Ames 0.5-inch gun were modified to reduce barrel erosion. The changes implemented included: (1) reduction in the piston mass, powder mass and hydrogen fill pressure; and (2) reduction in pump tube volume, while maintaining hydrogen mass. The latter change was found, in particular, to greatly reduce barrel erosion. For muzzle velocity ranges of 6.1 - 6.9 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 10. Even for the higher muzzle velocity range of 7.0 - 8.2 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 4. Gun erosion data from the Ames 0.5-inch, 1.0-inch, and 1.5-inch guns operated over a wide variety of launch conditions was examined and it was found that this data could be correlated using four different parameters: normalized powder charge energy, normalized hydrogen energy density, normalized pump tube volume and barrel diameter. The development of the correlation and the steps used to collapse the experimental data are presented. Over a certain parameter range in the correlation developed, the barrel erosion per shot is found to increase very rapidly. The correlation should prove useful in the selection of gun operating conditions and the design of new guns. Representative shapes of eroded gun barrels are also presented.
Measuring temporal speckle correlations at ultrafast x-ray sources.
Gutt, C; Stadler, L-M; Duri, A; Autenrieth, T; Leupold, O; Chushkin, Y; Grbel, G
2009-01-01
We present a new method to extract the intermediate scattering function from series of coherent diffraction patterns taken with 2D detectors. Our approach is based on analyzing speckle patterns in terms of photon statistics. We show that the information obtained is equivalent to the conventional technique of calculating the intensity autocorrelation function. Our approach represents a route for correlation spectroscopy on ultrafast timescales at X-ray free-electron laser sources. PMID:19129872
Eaton, Mitchell J.; Link, William A.
2011-01-01
Estimating the age of individuals in wild populations can be of fundamental importance for answering ecological questions, modeling population demographics, and managing exploited or threatened species. Significant effort has been devoted to determining age through the use of growth annuli, secondary physical characteristics related to age, and growth models. Many species, however, either do not exhibit physical characteristics useful for independent age validation or are too rare to justify sacrificing a large number of individuals to establish the relationship between size and age. Length-at-age models are well represented in the fisheries and other wildlife management literature. Many of these models overlook variation in growth rates of individuals and consider growth parameters as population parameters. More recent models have taken advantage of hierarchical structuring of parameters and Bayesian inference methods to allow for variation among individuals as functions of environmental covariates or individual-specific random effects. Here, we describe hierarchical models in which growth curves vary as individual-specific stochastic processes, and we show how these models can be fit using capture–recapture data for animals of unknown age along with data for animals of known age. We combine these independent data sources in a Bayesian analysis, distinguishing natural variation (among and within individuals) from measurement error. We illustrate using data for African dwarf crocodiles, comparing von Bertalanffy and logistic growth models. The analysis provides the means of predicting crocodile age, given a single measurement of head length. The von Bertalanffy was much better supported than the logistic growth model and predicted that dwarf crocodiles grow from 19.4 cm total length at birth to 32.9 cm in the first year and 45.3 cm by the end of their second year. Based on the minimum size of females observed with hatchlings, reproductive maturity was estimated to be at nine years. These size benchmarks are believed to represent thresholds for important demographic parameters; improved estimates of age, therefore, will increase the precision of population projection models. The modeling approach that we present can be applied to other species and offers significant advantages when multiple sources of data are available and traditional aging techniques are not practical.
Eaton, M.J.; Link, W.A.
2011-01-01
Estimating the age of individuals in wild populations can be of fundamental importance for answering ecological questions, modeling population demographics, and managing exploited or threatened species. Significant effort has been devoted to determining age through the use of growth annuli, secondary physical characteristics related to age, and growth models. Many species, however, either do not exhibit physical characteristics useful for independent age validation or are too rare to justify sacrificing a large number of individuals to establish the relationship between size and age. Length-at-age models are well represented in the fisheries and other wildlife management literature. Many of these models overlook variation in growth rates of individuals and consider growth parameters as population parameters. More recent models have taken advantage of hierarchical structuring of parameters and Bayesian inference methods to allow for variation among individuals as functions of environmental covariates or individual-specific random effects. Here, we describe hierarchical models in which growth curves vary as individual-specific stochastic processes, and we show how these models can be fit using capture-recapture data for animals of unknown age along with data for animals of known age. We combine these independent data sources in a Bayesian analysis, distinguishing natural variation (among and within individuals) from measurement error. We illustrate using data for African dwarf crocodiles, comparing von Bertalanffy and logistic growth models. The analysis provides the means of predicting crocodile age, given a single measurement of head length. The von Bertalanffy was much better supported than the logistic growth model and predicted that dwarf crocodiles grow from 19.4 cm total length at birth to 32.9 cm in the first year and 45.3 cm by the end of their second year. Based on the minimum size of females observed with hatchlings, reproductive maturity was estimated to be at nine years. These size benchmarks are believed to represent thresholds for important demographic parameters; improved estimates of age, therefore, will increase the precision of population projection models. The modeling approach that we present can be applied to other species and offers significant advantages when multiple sources of data are available and traditional aging techniques are not practical. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.
Optical fiber measurement techniques based on complementary correlation codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Tao; Wen, Ke; Wang, Rong; Xu, Zhi-Yong
2001-10-01
Now, single-mode optical fiber has been widely applied in communication systems and the users of optical fiber have migrated to longer transmission wavelengths, which results in the task of optical fiber measurement becoming more difficult. A method measuring optical fiber properties such as fiber loss and attenuation is optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) measurement. Conventional OTDRs have a limitation: the trade-off between signal-to-noise ratio and response resolution. This paper presents an approach that applies spectrum-spread techniques to remedy this limitation, and improves dynamic range and reduces measurement time without sacrificing response resolution.
Williams, Kiel; /SLAC
2012-09-07
The electron pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory occur on the order of tens of femtoseconds and cannot be directly measured by conventional means. The length of the pulses can instead be reconstructed by measuring the spectrum of optical transition radiation emitted by the electrons as they move toward a conducting foil. Because the emitted radiation occurs in the mid-infrared from 0.6 to 30 microns a novel optical layout is required. Using a helium-neon laser with wavelength 633 nm, a series of gold-coated off-axis parabolic mirrors were positioned to direct a beam through a zinc selenide prism and to a focus at a CCD camera for imaging. Constructing this layout revealed a number of novel techniques for reducing the aberrations introduced into the system by the off-axis parabolic mirrors. The beam had a recorded radius of less than a millimeter at its final focus on the CCD imager. This preliminary setup serves as a model for the spectrometer that will ultimately measure the LCLS electron pulse duration.
Resolving Dynamics Structure in the Mlt: Correlative Measurements with Tidi and Hrdi
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niciejewski, R.; Skinner, W. R.; Marshall, A.; Cooper, M.
2011-12-01
Undoubtedly, line of sight Doppler measurements of the terrestrial limb have and continue to provide the longest sequence of routine synoptic wind data of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. To provide the community with basic information about global MLT winds, UARS/HRDI was launched in 1991 and later joined by TIMED/TIDI in 2001. Correlative observations of the MLT with the two instruments began in February 2002 and continued until April 2005 when battery problems aboard UARS forced the final turn-off of HRDI. TIDI continues observing the MLT to the present day with nearly a 100% duty cycle. On short time intervals (a few days), tidal frequencies are difficult to unambiguously identify from orbit by either HRDI or TIDI due to aliasing issues with single satellite observations. Combining measurements from the two platforms provides a significant improvement in understanding two-dimensional frequency wavenumber spectra for short data sets. This paper will describe the progress that has been made in characterizing migrating and non-migrating diurnal tides in the MLT. Short data sets of several days' length are necessary to identify planetary waves, such as the two-day wave, and its effect on MLT dynamics. These waves can transport water vapour exhaust from rocket launches over large distances providing a seed for enhancing noctilucent cloud formation at high latitudes.
Correlation measurements of light transmittance in polymer dispersed liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maksimyak, P. P.; Nehrych, A. L.
2015-11-01
The methods of correlation optics are for the first time applied to study structure of liquid crystal (LC) - polymer (P) composites at various concentrations of LC and P. Their phase correlation function (PCF) was obtained considering LC-P composite as a random phase screen. The amplitude of PCF contains information about number of LC domains and structure of LC director inside of them, while a half-width of this function is connected with a size of these domains. We studied unpowered and powered composite layers with a thickness of 5 ?m. As liquid crystal and polymer were used nematic LC E7 from Merck and photopolymer composition NOA65 from Norland. Concentration of polymer ?P was varied in a range 10-55 vol. %. In good agreement with previous studies by SEM technique we detected monotone decrease of LC domains with concentration of polymer. With application of electric field, amplitude of PCF behaves differently for the samples with different polymer content. For the samples with ?P>35 vol. % (samples having morphology of polymer dispersed LC), this dependence is monotonic. In turn, if ?P<35 vol. % (samples with polymer network LC morphology), the amplitude of PCF non-monotonically depends on the applied voltage going through a maximum. The latter fact is explained by transformation of orientational defects of LC phase with the applied voltage.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tabib-Azar, Massood
1997-01-01
We report values of minority carrier diffusion length in n-type 6H SiC measured using a planar Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) method. Values of hole diffusion length in defect free regions of n-type 6H SiC, with a doping concentration of 1.7El7 1/cu cm, ranged from 1.46 microns to 0.68 microns. We next introduce a novel variation of the planar method used above. This 'planar mapping' technique measured diffusion length along a linescan creating a map of diffusion length versus position. This map is then overlaid onto the EBIC image of the corresponding linescan, allowing direct visualization of the effect of defects on minority carrier diffusion length. Measurements of the above n-type 6H SiC resulted in values of hole diffusion length ranging from 1.2 micron in defect free regions to below 0.1 gm at the center of large defects. In addition, measurements on p-type 6H SiC resulted in electron diffusion lengths ranging from 1.42 micron to 0.8 micron.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loudon, J. C.; Yazdi, S.; Kasama, T.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.
2015-02-01
We demonstrate that images of flux vortices in a superconductor taken with a transmission electron microscope can be used to measure the penetration depth and coherence length in all directions at the same temperature and magnetic field. This is particularly useful for MgB 2, where these quantities vary with the applied magnetic field and values are difficult to obtain at low field or in the c direction. We obtained images of flux vortices from a MgB 2 single crystal cut in the a c plane by focused ion beam milling and tilted to 45? with respect to the electron beam about the crystallographic a axis. A new method was developed to simulate these images that accounted for vortices with a nonzero core in a thin, anisotropic superconductor and a simplex algorithm was used to make a quantitative comparison between the images and simulations to measure the penetration depths and coherence lengths. This gave penetration depths ?a b=100 35 nm and ?c=120 15 nm at 10.8 K in a field of 4.8 mT. The large error in ?a b is a consequence of tilting the sample about a and had it been tilted about c , the errors on ?a b and ?c would be reversed. Thus obtaining the most precise values requires taking images of the flux lattice with the sample tilted in more than one direction. In a previous paper [J. C. Loudon et al., Phys. Rev. B 87, 144515 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.144515], we obtained a more precise value for ?a b using a sample cut in the a b plane. Using this value gives ?a b=107 8 nm, ?c=120 15 nm, ?a b=39 11 nm, and ?c=35 10 nm, which agree well with measurements made using other techniques. The experiment required two days to conduct and does not require large-scale facilities. It was performed on a very small sample, 30 15 ? m and 200-nm thick, so this method could prove useful for superconductors where only small single crystals are available, as is the case for some iron-based superconductors.
Sampl, Sandra; Pramhas, Sibylle; Stern, Christian; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine; Holzmann, Klaus
2012-01-01
Cancer cells bypass replicative senescence, the major barrier to tumor progression, by using telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs). Correlation between ALT and patient survival was demonstrated for high-grade astrocytomas. Transcription from subtelomeres produces telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a natural inhibitor of telomerase activity (TA). This led us to evaluate correlations of TERRA and TMM with tumor grade and outcome in astrocytoma patients. SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for quantitation of total and chromosome 2p and 18p specific TERRA levels were developed. Tumor samples from 46 patients with astrocytoma grade 2 to 4, tissue controls, and cell lines were assessed. TMMs were evaluated by measuring TA and by detecting long telomeres due to ALT. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grade 4, total TERRA levels were similar to cell lines but 14-, 31-, and 313-fold lower compared with grade 3, grade 2, and nonmalignant tissue, respectively. Total TERRA levels differed from chromosomal levels. Low 2p TERRA levels correlated with dense promoter methylation of subtelomeric CpG islands, indicating that TERRA expression in gliomas may be chromosome specific and epigenetically regulated. Total TERRA levels correlated with diagnosis, with low or absent TA and the presence of ALT, and were tentatively associated with favorable patient prognosis in our cohort (P = .06). TA and short telomeres identified a subset of GBM with a median survival of only 14.8 months. TERRA and TA may be prognostic in astrocytic tumors. PMID:22348177
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ullmann, V.; Emam, S.; Manske, E.
2015-08-01
For absolute length and form measurements at a large working distance (>150 mm) two special interferometers, a tandem interferometer and a Michelson interferometer with achromatic polarizing optics are constructed. In our experiments, both consist of a combination of one low-coherence interferometer and one laser interferometer. For the low-coherence interferometer part, a simple white-light source with less than 100 µW optical power output is chosen. It bases upon a low-cost fiber-coupled near-infrared LED with a large spectral width (FWHM > 68 nm at 825 nm). The use of achromatic polarizing optics such as broadband polarizing beamsplitters and achromatic quarter-wave plates in the low-coherence interferometer parts increases the contrast level of the white-light signal fringe pattern to nearly 100%. Furthermore, the fringe pattern in a polarized interferometer has no subsignatures and is unique. Hence, different algorithms are tested for signal processing and automated zero-point detection of the white-light signature. The software for an automated measurement is tested in a standard room without thermal control and without damped oscillation. Therefore, in experiments with the tandem interferometer, it was possible to measure the zero-point position of a white-light signature with a peak-to-peak difference of 154 nm under uncontrolled environmental conditions without thermal stabilization. The white-light Michelson interferometer with polarizing achromatic optics allows zero-point detections with a standard deviation (mean value) of less than 15 nm. The drift is proved through measurement results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maglich, Bogdan; Radovic, Anna; Druey, Christian
2012-10-01
Genome length, L=, no. of DNA nucleotide base pairs in cell of bovine (b) and porcine (p) tissues, closest to human genome, were hitherto measured by genomic sequencing Lb=3, Lp=2.7 Giga base pairs [1,2] (Gbp) errors not given. - We report measurements of Lb/Lp and Lb, Lp without sequencing by atometry [3,4]. No. of O and C atoms, N, in nucleotide molecules, was obtained from prompt γ rate, G, emitted in inel. scatt. 14 MeV neutrons, with nuclei of C, O, in nucleotide molecule. Since G prop. N, Lb/Lp=Gb/Gp. p and b meat was irradiated for 30'. From msd G we obtained Lb /Lp=1.28±0.02 16% greater than [1,2]. We got absolute Lb=1.65/f, Lp=1.28/f Gbp, 0.3