Sample records for correlation questions clinical

  1. Frequently Asked Questions about Clinical Research

    MedlinePLUS

    ... placebo effect" from influencing the results of the experiment. The placebo effect is the phenomenon of patients ... Research at NHGRI Clinical researchers at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) are developing advanced methods ...

  2. A characterization of clinical questions asked by rehabilitation therapists*†

    PubMed Central

    Kloda, Lorie Andrea; Bartlett, Joan C

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the information needs of rehabilitation therapists (occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists) working with patients who have had strokes in order to characterize their clinical questions, defined as their formalized information needs arising in the context of everyday clinical practice. Methods: The researchers took a constructivist, interpretive approach, in which fifteen rehabilitation therapists working in various settings were recruited. Data were gathered using diaries, followed by diary-guided interviews, and thematically analyzed using template analysis. Results: Rehabilitation therapists' clinical questions were characterized as having one or more of twelve foci and containing one or more of eight possible structural elements. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate that the evidence-based practice framework currently applied for questions relating to rehabilitation is inadequate for representing rehabilitation therapists' clinical questions. A new framework that is more comprehensive and descriptive is proposed. Implications: Librarians working with students and clinicians in rehabilitation can employ knowledge of the twelve foci and the question structure for rehabilitation to guide the reference interview. Instruction on question formulation in evidence-based practice can employ the revised structure for rehabilitation, offering students and clinicians an alternative to the traditional patient, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) structure. Information products, including bibliographic databases and synopsis services, can tailor their interfaces according to question foci and prompt users to enter search terms corresponding to any of the eight possible elements found in rehabilitation therapists' clinical questions. PMID:24860260

  3. Automatically Extracting Information Needs from Complex Clinical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yong-gang; Cimino, James J; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Objective Clinicians pose complex clinical questions when seeing patients, and identifying the answers to those questions in a timely manner helps improve the quality of patient care. We report here on two natural language processing models, namely, automatic topic assignment and keyword identification, that together automatically and effectively extract information needs from ad hoc clinical questions. Our study is motivated in the context of developing the larger clinical question answering system AskHERMES (Help clinicians to Extract and aRrticulate Multimedia information for answering clinical quEstionS). Design and Measurements We developed supervised machine-learning systems to automatically assign predefined general categories (e.g., etiology, procedure, and diagnosis) to a question. We also explored both supervised and unsupervised systems to automatically identify keywords that capture the main content of the question. Results We evaluated our systems on 4,654 annotated clinical questions that were collected in practice. We achieved an F1 score of 76.0% for the task of general topic classification and 58.0% for keyword extraction. Our systems have been implemented into the larger question answering system AskHERMES. Our error analyses suggested that inconsistent annotation in our training data have hurt both question analysis tasks. Conclusion Our systems, available at http://www.askhermes.org, can automatically extract information needs from both short (the number of word tokens <20) and long questions (the number of word tokens >20), and from both well-structured and ill-formed questions. We speculate that the performance of general topic classification and keyword extraction can be further improved if consistently annotated data are made available. PMID:20670693

  4. Remaining Questions about Clinical Variola Major

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    After the recent summary of World Health Organization–authorized research on smallpox, several clinical issues remain. This policy review addresses whether early hemorrhagic smallpox is disseminated intravascular coagulation and speculates about the cause of the high mortality rate among pregnant women and whether ocular smallpox is partly the result of trachoma or vitamin A deficiency. The joint destruction common in children with smallpox might be prevented by antiviral drugs, but intraarticular infusion of antiviral drugs is unprecedented. Development of highly effective antiviral drugs against smallpox raises the issue of whether postexposure vaccination can be performed without interference by an antiviral drug. Clinicians should consider whether patients with smallpox should be admitted to general hospitals. Although an adequate supply of second-generation smallpox vaccine exists in the United States, its use is unclear. Finally, political and ethical forces suggest that destruction of the remaining stocks of live smallpox virus is now appropriate. PMID:21470458

  5. Respiratory microbiota: addressing clinical questions, informing clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Geraint B; Shaw, Dominick; Marsh, Robyn L; Carroll, Mary P; Serisier, David J; Bruce, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have revolutionised efforts to understand the role played by microbes in airways disease. With the application of ever more sophisticated techniques, the literature has become increasingly inaccessible to the non-specialist reader, potentially hampering the translation of these gains into improvements in patient care. In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. We examine how an understanding of the respiratory microbiota both challenges fundamental assumptions and provides novel clinical insights into lung disease, and we set out a number of important targets for ongoing research. PMID:25035125

  6. Answering Clinical Questions with Knowledge-Based and Statistical Techniques

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jimmy

    designed to satisfy the information needs of physicians practicing evidence-based medicine. We haveAnswering Clinical Questions with Knowledge-Based and Statistical Techniques Dina Demner to structured representations of information needs, in accordance with the principles of evidence- based

  7. Independent clinical correlates of severe alcohol withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin L. Kraemer; David R. Calkins

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study sought to identify clinical variables that independently correlate with severe alcohol withdrawal and to quantify risk in a clinically useful manner. The records of 284 inpatients admitted to an acute detoxification unit at a Veterans Affairs teaching hospital were reviewed. Clinical data were recorded on standardized forms at the time of admission and abstracted by a

  8. Independent Clinical Correlates of Severe Alcohol Withdrawal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin L. Kraemer; Michael F. Mayo-Smith; David R. Calkins

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study sought to identify clinical variables that independently correlate with severe alcohol withdrawal and to quantify risk in a clinically useful manner. The records of 284 inpatients admitted to an acute detoxification unit at a Veterans Affairs teaching hospital were reviewed. Clinical data were recorded on standardized forms at the time of admission and abstracted by a

  9. [Ethical questions in clinical research with the mentally ill].

    PubMed

    Helmchen, H

    2008-09-01

    The review deals with present problems of protecting mentally ill patients who are incompetent to give informed consent to participating in clinical research, and of assessment of the capacity to consent. 1. Clinical trials of drugs on efficacy and safety in incompetent patients are ethically justified and legally admissible if the investigational drug can be expected to exert a direct potential individual benefit and if such trials will be performed under defined criteria to protect these vulnerable patients. In Germany it is questionable how far these prescriptions of the German Drug Law (AMG) are transferable to other than drug research. 2. Research with no direct potential individual benefit or only a group-specific benefit in incompetent patients is controversially discussed. However, it may be ethically justified as an exception, and is in Germany legally admissible only in minors, but not in adults. 3. However, internationally there exists a wide range of legal regulations, terms, interpretations, and practices of research with vulnerable persons. In the past years a shift seems to have developed from normatively oriented discussions to more empirically based investigations. Especially vague but clinically relevant terms in protection declarations or guidelines have been better specified, put in concrete form by anchor examples, and empirically studied. 4. In general the criteria of protecting the dignity and, even if impaired, the autonomy of incompetent patients as subjects for research appear to guarantee a high standard of protection. However, the application of these criteria must be improved by practicable procedures. This is valid particularly for the assessment of the basic criterion whether a patient is capable of consenting or not. 5. Open Questions are formulated as need of research. PMID:18633585

  10. Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Clinical Trials

    MedlinePLUS

    ... been in the trial? Questions about Risks and Benefits What are the possible side effects or risks ... can help answer any questions from my insurance company? Questions about Daily Life How could the trial ...

  11. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  12. Frequently Asked Questions: Other Clinical and Translational Programs (Non-ACGME-Accredited)

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    aspects of a clinical fellowship on the NIH campus? The NIH Clinical Center is a unique research hospitalFrequently Asked Questions: Other Clinical and Translational Programs (Non-ACGME- Accredited) What are the NIH's other clinical and translational (non-ACGME-accredited) training programs? Like many other

  13. Human Correlates of Provocative Questions in Pancreatic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Oliver G.; Maitra, Anirban; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of cell lines and of animal models of pancreatic cancer have raised a number of provocative questions about the nature and origins of human pancreatic cancer and have provided several leads into exciting new approaches for the treatment of this deadly cancer. In addition, clinicians with little or no contact with human pathology have challenged the way that pancreatic pathology is practiced, suggesting that “genetic signals” may be more accurate than today’s multi-modal approach to diagnoses. In this review we consider eight provocative issues in pancreas pathology, with an emphasis on “the evidence derived from man.” PMID:23060061

  14. Utilization of the PICO framework to improve searching PubMed for clinical questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie Schardt; Martha B Adams; Thomas Owens; Sheri Keitz; Paul Fontelo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supporting 21st century health care and the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) requires ubiquitous access to clinical information and to knowledge-based resources to answer clinical questions. Many questions go unanswered, however, due to lack of skills in formulating questions, crafting effective search strategies, and accessing databases to identify best levels of evidence. METHODS: This randomized trial was designed as

  15. A Three-Question Framework to Facilitate Clinical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibold, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Context: Highly developed critical thinking and the ability to discriminate among many possible therapeutic interventions is a core behavior for the practicing athletic trainer. However, while athletic training students receive a great deal of clinically applicable information, many are not explicitly trained in efficient methods for channeling…

  16. Increasing the practice of questioning among pediatric nurses: "The Growing Culture of Clinical Inquiry" project.

    PubMed

    Laibhen-Parkes, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative methodology implemented in an acute care pediatric setting to build nurses' confidence and competence in questioning practice. The Growing Culture of Clinical Inquiry (GCCI) project was composed of several evidence-based strategies to attain and maintain a spirit of clinical inquiry. These strategies included PowerPoint presentations, evidence-based practice (EBP) unit champions, patient-intervention-comparison-outcome (PICO) boxes, Clinical Inquiry Posters, summaries of evidence (SOE), layman's SOE, medical librarian in-services, and journal clubs. After 1 year of implementation, the GCCI project was evaluated and found to be a promising methodology for fostering a culture of inquiry among pediatric nurses. PMID:24188785

  17. Atypical lytic lesions of skull: Clinical and radiological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Binit, Sureka; Mittal, Mahesh Kumar; Mittal, Aliza; Thukral, Brij Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Imaging alone cannot differentiate various isolated atypical lytic lesions involving the skull. Clinical and radiological correlation is mandatory in reaching to a diagnosis. Histopathology remains the gold standard. We describe few atypical cases presenting as isolated lytic lesions of skull with characteristic imaging findings and a brief clinical approach to reach towards the diagnosis. PMID:25745329

  18. Clinical Questions in Online Health Communities: The Case of “See your doctor” Threads

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jina

    2015-01-01

    Online health communities are known to provide psychosocial support. However, concerns for misinformation being shared around clinical information persist. An existing practice addressing this concern includes monitoring and, as needed, discouraging asking clinical questions in the community. In this paper, I examine such practice where moderators redirected patients to see their health care providers instead of consulting the community. I observed that, contrary to common beliefs, community members provided constructive tips and persuaded the patients to see doctors rather than attempting to make a diagnosis or give medical advice. Moderators’ posts on redirecting patients to see their providers were highly associated with no more follow up replies, potentially hindering active community dynamic. The findings showed what is previously thought of as a solution—quality control through moderation—might not be best and that the community, in coordination with moderators, can provide critical help in addressing clinical questions and building constructive information sharing community environment.

  19. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Sleepy Pediatric Psychiatry Clinic Patients: Polysomnographic and Clinical Correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Pagel; Steve Snyder; Dawn Dawson

    2004-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the incidence of polysomnographically defined obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in pediatric psychiatric clinic patients reporting daytime sleepiness on questionnaire, and to identify diagnostic correlates for OSA in this grouping. Design: Prospective and observational. Setting: Outpatient pediatric psychiatry clinic, outpatient sleep medicine clinic, AASM-accredited hospital-based sleep laboratory. Subjects: Children aged 3 to 16 years, reporting daytime sleepiness

  20. Clinical correlations of dentin structure and function.

    PubMed

    Pashley, D H

    1991-12-01

    Dentin, a porous, fluid-filled mineralized tissue, may provide critical mechanical support to overlying enamel. Once the enamel or cementum surface seals are lost by disease or trauma, the same organization that provided critical mechanical support then becomes a liability, offering millions of fluid-filled diffusion channels from the periphery directly to the pulp. If restorative materials placed in cavities do not seal the dentin, there is a fluid-filled continuum from the cavosurface margins, around gaps between the restorative material and the tooth, to dentin surfaces, then through dentin via its tubules to the pulp. Under most conditions these channels permit bidirectional diffusion of exogenous and endogenous substances across dentin. Occasionally, hydrodynamic stimuli will produce transient, rapid movement of dentinal fluid that will induce pain. The tubules are sometimes so close together in deep dentin that their intrinsic wetness interferes with the bonding of adhesive resins. This permits the formation of gaps, microleakage, dentin sensitivity, and, occasionally, pulpal irritation. Many clinical problems such as poor dentin bonding, microleakage, dentin sensitivity, and pulpal irritation have a common denominator in the structure and function of dentin. PMID:1805028

  1. Are internet searches a reliable source of information for answering residents' clinical questions in the emergency room

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane G. Schwartz; June Abbas; Richard Krause; Ronald Moscati; Shravanti Halpern

    2010-01-01

    Emergency Department (ED) residents perceived Internet resources to be reliable and regularly searched the Internet to answer clinical questions in the ED. A single blinded prospective study was conducted to determine if Emergency Medicine residents (EMR) working in a teaching hospital could accurately answer clinical questions, such as those that routinely occur in an ED, using only Google. Thirty-three EMR

  2. Evaluation of Tricuspid Regurgitation Severity: Echocardiographic and Clinical Correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaron Shapira; Avital Porter; Mordechay Wurzel; Mordechay Vaturi; Alex Sagie

    1998-01-01

    The correlation between 19 echocardiographic markers of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) severity and findings on physical examination was studied in 66 consecutive patients (age 63 ± 12 years) with moderate or severe TR. Clinical TR was defined by two or more of the following: prominent jugular venous pulse V waves, pulsating liver, and sea-saw parasternal movement. Thirty-eight patients (57.6%) had clinical TR,

  3. Accepted Manuscript Title: Anatomo-clinical atlases correlate clinical data and

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    - Atlases help acquire a better understanding of functional mapping in deep structures *Highlights (for region. Such atlases and associated analysis may help better understanding of functional mapping in deepAccepted Manuscript Title: Anatomo-clinical atlases correlate clinical data and electrode contact

  4. Malaria real-time PCR: correlation with clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Dormond, L; Jaton, K; de Vallière, S; Genton, B; Greub, G

    2015-05-01

    Among 112 patients infected only by Plasmodium falciparum, WHO criteria of severity were compared with parasite load assessed by microscopy and quantitative PCR. Clinical severity was significantly correlated with higher parasite load as determined by microscopy (p < 0.001) and by PCR (p < 0.001). Hence, quantitative PCR might be useful to predict outcome. PMID:25905022

  5. Correlation of Angiographic Morphology and Clinical Presentation in Unstable Angina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Dangas; Roxana Mehran; Sylvan Wallenstein; Nikolaos A Courcoutsakis; Venu Kakarala; Jacqueline Hollywood; John A Ambrose

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to correlate angiographically detected complex lesions and intracoronary thrombus with the severity of clinical presentation in unstable angina (UA).Background. Unstable angina is usually related to acute thrombosis superimposed on a disrupted plaque. Complex and thrombotic lesions are more prevalent in UA and have been associated with a worse prognosis. The highest levels of the Braunwald classification

  6. Upper Limb Assessment in Tetraplegia: Clinical, Functional and Kinematic Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; de Oliveira, Roberta; Ortolan, Rodrigo L.; Varoto, Renato; Cliquet, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and functional evaluations with kinematic variables of upper limp reach-to-grasp movement in patients with tetraplegia. Twenty chronic patients were selected to perform reach-to-grasp kinematic assessment using a target placed at a distance equal to the arm's length. Kinematic variables (hand peak…

  7. Unmasking masked hypertension: prevalence, clinical implications, diagnosis, correlates and future directions.

    PubMed

    Peacock, J; Diaz, K M; Viera, A J; Schwartz, J E; Shimbo, D

    2014-09-01

    'Masked hypertension' is defined as having non-elevated clinic blood pressure (BP) with elevated out-of-clinic average BP, typically determined by ambulatory BP monitoring. Approximately 15-30% of adults with non-elevated clinic BP have masked hypertension. Masked hypertension is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with sustained normotension (non-elevated clinic and ambulatory BP), which is similar to or approaching the risk associated with sustained hypertension (elevated clinic and ambulatory BP). The confluence of increased cardiovascular risk and a failure to be diagnosed by the conventional approach of clinic BP measurement makes masked hypertension a significant public health concern. However, many important questions remain. First, the definition of masked hypertension varies across studies. Further, the best approach in the clinical setting to exclude masked hypertension also remains unknown. It is unclear whether home BP monitoring is an adequate substitute for ambulatory BP monitoring in identifying masked hypertension. Few studies have examined the mechanistic pathways that may explain masked hypertension. Finally, scarce data are available on the best approach to treating individuals with masked hypertension. Herein, we review the current literature on masked hypertension including definition, prevalence, clinical implications, special patient populations, correlates, issues related to diagnosis, treatment and areas for future research. PMID:24573133

  8. UNMASKING MASKED HYPERTENSION: PREVALENCE, CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS, DIAGNOSIS, CORRELATES, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, James; Diaz, Keith M.; Viera, Anthony J.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    ‘Masked hypertension’ is defined as having non-elevated clinic blood pressure (BP) with elevated out-of-clinic average BP, typically determined by ambulatory BP monitoring. Approximately 15–30% of adults with non-elevated clinic BP have masked hypertension. Masked hypertension is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared to sustained normotension (non-elevated clinic and ambulatory BP), which is similar to or approaching the risk associated with sustained hypertension (elevated clinic and ambulatory BP). The confluence of increased cardiovascular risk and a failure to be diagnosed by the conventional approach of clinic BP measurement makes masked hypertension a significant public health concern. However, many important questions remain. First, the definition of masked hypertension varies across studies. Further, the best approach in the clinical setting to exclude masked hypertension also remains unknown. It is unclear whether home BP monitoring is an adequate substitute for ambulatory BP monitoring in identifying masked hypertension. Few studies have examined the mechanistic pathways that may explain masked hypertension. Finally, scarce data are available on the best approach to treating individuals with masked hypertension. Herein, we review the current literature on masked hypertension including definition, prevalence, clinical implications, special patient populations, correlates, issues related to diagnosis, treatment, and areas for future research. PMID:24573133

  9. The Effect of Preservice Laserdisc Presentation of Question Types and Wait-Time Use on Questioning and Wait-Time Use in Clinical Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Stephen R.; And Others

    This study explored whether the addition of visual examples through laser disc instruction influenced the learning and application of convergent and divergent questioning techniques and wait-time by preservice elementary education teachers during their clinical experience. The study compared the difference in the frequency of convergent and…

  10. Correlation between knee roentgenogram changes and clinical symptoms in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Pavelka, K; Gatterová, J; Pavelka, K; Pelítskova, Z; Svarcová, Z; Janousek, J; Fencl, F; Urbanová, Z; Gollerová, V; Sedlacková, M

    1992-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between clinical symptoms and roentgenographic changes in patients with incipient osteoarthritis of the knees (OA). One hundred and sixty-two patients (126 women, 36 men, mean age 59 years) with established osteoarthritis of the knee were examined. Patients performed subjective self-assessment using Lequesne's questionnaire (index of severity for OA of the knee) and had frontal and lateral roentgenograms of both knees. Validity of the indices as reflections of individual symptoms was documented. A statistically significant correlation was found between clinical and patient indices (r = 0.327, p < 0.0001) as well as a very weak correlation between the clinical and roentgenogram indices (r = 0.196, p = 0.286). However, there was no correlation between the patient index and roentgenogram index (r = 0.065, p = 0.47). For the assessment of severity and progression of the disease, items reflecting acute irritation (swelling, effusion, increased joint temperature, pain during passive motion) were more reliable than items reflecting chronicity (muscular atrophy, decreased range of motion, crepitus). This study confirmed that Lequesne's questionnaire is a suitable tool for assessing subjective symptoms as well as for generating a condensed measure of disease severity. In addition, sclerosis, narrowing and osteophytes were proved to be important features characterizing the OA process. PMID:1494737

  11. Questions to Ask When Selecting an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Clinic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Technical Notes Glossary of Terms Reporting Clinics States A-M Reporting Clinics States N-Z Nonreporting Clinics National ... Technical Notes Glossary of Terms Reporting Clinics States A-M Reporting Clinics States N-Z Nonreporting Clinics National ...

  12. Antibody-Mediated Rejection: Emergence of Animal Models to Answer Clinical ?Questions

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, William M.; Valujskikh, Anna; Fairchild, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Decades of experiments in small animals had tipped the balance of opinion away from antibodies as a cause of transplant rejection, but clinical experience, especially with sensitized patients, has convinced basic immunologists of the need to develop models to investigate mechanisms underlying antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). This resurgent interest has resulted in several new rodent models to investigate antibody-mediated mechanisms of heart and renal allograft injury, but satisfactory models of chronic AMR remain more elusive. Nevertheless, these new studies have begun to reveal many insights into the molecular and pathological sequelae of antibody binding to the allograft endothelium. In addition, complement-independent and –dependent effects of antibodies on endothelial cells have been identified in vitro. As small animals models become better defined, it is anticipated that they will be more widely used to answer further questions concerning mechanisms of antibody-mediated tissue injury as well as to design therapeutic interventions. PMID:20346069

  13. Clinical correlates of quality of life in Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E; Gulisano, Mariangela; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Calì, Paola; Robertson, Mary M; Rizzo, Renata

    2011-03-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder involving tics, which is frequently accompanied by comorbid obsessive compulsive (OCD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Individuals with TS often report poor quality of life (QoL) in comparison with the general population. This study investigated the clinical correlates of QoL in young people with TS using a self-report multidimensional QoL measure, and a range of clinical scales used to assess tic severity and the symptoms of anxiety, depression, OCD, ADHD and other emotional and behavioral symptoms. Symptoms of depression, OCD, and ADHD appeared to have a widespread negative impact on QoL, but poorer QoL was not associated with increased tic severity. Greater emotional and behavioral difficulties, including symptoms of OCD, were among the best predictors of poor QoL in young people with TS. PMID:21506153

  14. Molecular subtypes of uterine leiomyosarcoma and correlation with clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Barlin, Joyce N; Zhou, Qin C; Leitao, Mario M; Bisogna, Maria; Olvera, Narciso; Shih, Karin K; Jacobsen, Anders; Schultz, Nikolaus; Tap, William D; Hensley, Martee L; Schwartz, Gary K; Boyd, Jeff; Qin, Li-Xuan; Levine, Douglas A

    2015-02-01

    The molecular etiology of uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is poorly understood, which accounts for the wide disparity in outcomes among women with this disease. We examined and compared the molecular profiles of ULMS and normal myometrium (NL) to identify clinically relevant molecular subtypes. Discovery cases included 29 NL and 23 ULMS specimens. RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix U133A 2.0 transcription microarrays. Differentially expressed genes and pathways were identified using standard methods. Fourteen NL and 44 ULMS independent archival samples were used for external validation. Molecular subgroups were correlated with clinical outcome. Pathway analyses of differentially expressed genes between ULMS and NL samples identified overrepresentation of cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, and genomic integrity. External validation confirmed differential expression in 31 genes (P < 4.4 × 10(-4), Bonferroni corrected), with 84% of the overexpressed genes, including CDC7, CDC20, GTSE1, CCNA2, CCNB1, and CCNB2, participating in cell cycle regulation. Unsupervised clustering of ULMS identified two clades that were reproducibly associated with progression-free (median, 4.0 vs 26.0 months; P = .02; HR, 0.33) and overall (median, 18.2 vs 77.2 months; P = .04; HR, 0.33) survival. Cell cycle genes play a key role in ULMS sarcomagenesis, providing opportunities for therapeutic targeting. Reproducible molecular subtypes associated with clinical outcome may permit individualized adjuvant treatment after clinical trial validation. PMID:25748237

  15. Correlation of quality of life with clinical symptoms and signs at the time of glaucoma diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, R P

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between clinical measures of visual function and patient-reported measures of symptoms and health status in a large cohort of glaucoma patients at the time of diagnosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The 607 patients in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS) received standardized examinations of visual acuity and visual field at enrollment. In addition, they completed a health-related quality-of-life instrument, which included the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ), Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), a symptom and a comorbidity chart, a question about their degree of worry about becoming blind, and many other items. RESULTS: The SIP total and dimension scores correlated only weakly, and not significantly, with visual acuity and visual field measures. The VAQ total and subscale scores, particularly the peripheral vision subscale, correlated weakly and significantly with visual acuity and visual field scores, especially those from the better eye. Worry about blindness and symptoms attributed to glaucoma correlated weakly but significantly to visual field scores from the worse eye. Attempts to improve correlations by scoring the visual fields differently, including only paracentral and pericentral test locations in the scores, and simulating binocular visual field scores were largely unsuccessful. CONCLUSIONS: At diagnosis, most patients were relatively free of glaucoma-induced impairments, so clinical measures were poor predictors of a patient's perception of health-related quality of life. The vision-specific VAQ and glaucoma-related symptom score correlated better than the generic SIP with clinical measures at the time of enrollment into CIGTS. PMID:10360308

  16. Clinical correlations of microstructural changes in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Tessitore, Alessandro; Giordano, Alfonso; Caiazzo, Giuseppina; Corbo, Daniele; De Micco, Rosa; Russo, Antonio; Liguori, Sara; Cirillo, Mario; Esposito, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

    2014-10-01

    In patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), previous reports have shown a severe white matter (WM) damage involving supra and infratentorial regions including cerebellum. In the present study, we investigated potential correlations between WM integrity loss and clinical-cognitive features of patients with PSP. By using magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging with tract based spatial statistic analysis, we analyzed WM volume in 18 patients with PSP and 18 healthy controls (HCs). All patients and HCs underwent a detailed clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Relative to HCs, patients with PSP showed WM changes encompassing supra and infratentorial areas such as corpus callosum, fornix, midbrain, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, superior cerebellar peduncle, superior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, cingulate gyrus, and cortico-spinal tract bilaterally. Among different correlations between motor-cognitive features and WM structural abnormalities, we detected a significant association between fronto-cerebellar WM loss and executive cognitive impairment in patients with PSP. Our findings, therefore, corroborate the hypothesis that cognitive impairment in PSP may result from both "intrinsic" and "extrinsic" frontal lobe dysfunction, likely related to cerebellar disconnection. PMID:24786632

  17. COMPASS identifies T-cell subsets correlated with clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Finak, Greg; Ushey, Kevin; Seshadri, Chetan; Hawn, Thomas R; Frahm, Nicole; Scriba, Thomas J; Mahomed, Hassan; Hanekom, Willem; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Tomaras, Georgia D; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; Robb, Merlin L; O'Connell, Robert J; Karasavvas, Nicos; Gilbert, Peter; C De Rosa, Stephen; McElrath, M Juliana; Gottardo, Raphael

    2015-06-01

    Advances in flow cytometry and other single-cell technologies have enabled high-dimensional, high-throughput measurements of individual cells as well as the interrogation of cell population heterogeneity. However, in many instances, computational tools to analyze the wealth of data generated by these technologies are lacking. Here, we present a computational framework for unbiased combinatorial polyfunctionality analysis of antigen-specific T-cell subsets (COMPASS). COMPASS uses a Bayesian hierarchical framework to model all observed cell subsets and select those most likely to have antigen-specific responses. Cell-subset responses are quantified by posterior probabilities, and human subject-level responses are quantified by two summary statistics that describe the quality of an individual's polyfunctional response and can be correlated directly with clinical outcome. Using three clinical data sets of cytokine production, we demonstrate how COMPASS improves characterization of antigen-specific T cells and reveals cellular 'correlates of protection/immunity' in the RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial that are missed by other methods. COMPASS is available as open-source software. PMID:26006008

  18. Small Group Teaching: Clinical Correlation with a Human Patient Simulator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Tammy Y. Euliano (University of Florida College of Medicine Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    2001-03-01

    The popularity of the problem-based learning paradigm has stimulated new interest in small group, interactive teaching techniques. Medical educators of physiology have long recognized the value of such methods, using animal-based laboratories to demonstrate difficult physiological principles. Due to ethical and other concerns, a replacement of this teaching tool has been sought. Here, the author describes the use of a full-scale human patient simulator for such a workshop. The simulator is a life-size mannequin with physical findings (palpable pulses, breath/heart sounds, blinking eyes, etc.) and sophisticated mechanical and software models of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. It can be connected to standard physiological monitors to reproduce a realistic clinical environment. In groups of 10, first-year medical students explore StarlingÂ?s law of the heart, the physiology of the Valsalva maneuver, and the function of the baroreceptor in a clinically realistic context using the simulator. With the use of a novel pre-/postworkshop assessment instrument that included student confidence in their answers, student confidence improved for all questions and survey items following the simulator session (P 85% of the students rating the workshop "very good" or "excellent."

  19. American tegumentary leishmaniasis: correlations among immunological, histopathological and clinical parameters*

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Luiza Grizzo Peres; Barreto, Jaison Antonio; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Martins, Ana Claudia Grizzo Peres

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND American tegumentary leishmaniasis has an annual incidence of 1 to 1.5 million cases. In some cases, the patient's immune response can eliminate the parasite, and the lesion spontaneously resolves. However, when this does not occur, patients develop the disseminated form of the disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. METHODS A retrospective study of the medical records of 47 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data were collected, and semi-quantitative histopathological analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (p <0.05). RESULTS Mean patient age was 40.5 years. A total of 29.7% individuals were female and 70.2% were male, and 40.4% of the patients were farmers. The ulcerative form was found in 53.2% of patients, of whom 59.6% had lesions in the limbs. The average time to diagnosis was 22.3 months. The following positive correlations were significant: age and duration of the disease, Montenegro reaction, degree of granulomatous transformation and epithelioid cell count; duration of disease, Montenegro reaction and number of lymphocytes; epithelial hyperplasia and edema, hemorrhaging, and epithelial aggression; number of plasmocytes and number of parasites. The main negative correlations found were as follows: age and serology; time and parasite load; epithelial hyperplasia and degree of granulomatous transformation. CONCLUSION The long duration of the disease could be explained by the fact that lesions were relatively asymptomatic, and therefore ignored by patients with low literacy levels. Individuals may have simply waited for spontaneous healing, which proved to be dependent on the activation of hypersensitivity mechanisms. PMID:24626648

  20. Clinical Correlates of Herpes Simplex Virus Viremia Among Hospitalized Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berrington, William R.; Jerome, Keith R.; Cook, Linda; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Casper, Corey

    2009-01-01

    Background The quantification of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA from the peripheral blood is often used to evaluate patients suspected of having disseminated HSV infection. Few studies have examined the clinical correlates of HSV viremia among adults. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of blood samples sent to a reference molecular virology diagnostic facility at a university hospital for quantification of HSV DNA between October 2001 and June 2006. Medical records of patients with detectable HSV DNA were reviewed to abstract relevant clinical characteristics. Results HSV DNA was detected in 37 (4.0%) of 951 samples from 29 individual patients. 19 (65.5%) were >16 years of age, and detailed medical records were available for review from 13 (68.4%) of 19 adults patients. Of the 10 patients whose HSV infection was typed, 6 (60%) had HSV-2, 3 (30%) had HSV-1, and one had evidence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection. All viremic patients were treated with antiviral medications. The most common clinical findings were hepatitis (62%), fever (54%), CNS alterations (46%), skin lesions (38%), abdominal pain (31%), and sepsis (31%). Respiratory failure (23%) was uncommon. Patients with HSV viremia were observed to have a high mortality rate (6 of 10 immunocompromised and 1 of 3 immunocompetent individuals). Conclusions HSV viremia may be associated with a variety of morbid signs and symptoms in hospitalized immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults, and is associated with high rates of mortality, though causality can only be determined by additional studies. PMID:19807272

  1. Apathy in schizophrenia: clinical correlates and association with functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Michael; Christensen, Bruce K; Remington, Gary; Kapur, Shitij

    2003-09-01

    Apathy is considered one of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, but its natural history and relationship to other clinical characteristics have not been systematically studied. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to measure the level of apathy in schizophrenia and its relation to other symptoms and functional outcome. Twenty-eight patients with schizophrenia, and receiving antipsychotic treatment, were assessed with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES). The mean level of apathy of patients with schizophrenia, as rated by the AES, was significantly higher than that of matched healthy control subjects. In the patients, apathy was not significantly correlated with positive symptoms or depressive symptoms. It was significantly correlated with the item "emotional withdrawal" on the negative subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), but was not correlated with the overall negative subscale score. Apathy was more highly associated with functional outcome than were other symptom measures, and it was independently associated with functional outcome above and beyond other negative symptoms. It was not associated with observed interest in playing a video game or performance on a simulated clerical task. PMID:12892861

  2. The effect of Tomm's therapeutic questioning styles on therapeutic alliance: a clinical analog study.

    PubMed

    Dozier, R M; Hicks, M W; Cornille, T A; Peterson, G W

    1998-01-01

    Tomm (1988) suggests that circular and reflexive questions tend to elicit feelings of freedom/acceptance whereas lineal and strategic questions usually trigger feelings of judgment/constraint. Employing an analog methodology, each of Tomm's four questioning styles was portrayed in the form of a 5-minute videotaped intake scenario. Forty family triads with a mother, father, and adolescent son were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with ten families each. Each condition involved viewing one of four questioning style scenarios. All participants (N = 120 individuals--40 mothers, 40 fathers, and 40 adolescent sons) completed the Family Therapy Alliance Scale (FTAS; Pinsof & Catherall, 1986) and a validity-check instrument. The results indicated that circular and reflexive questioning styles elicited significantly higher (p < 0.001) alliance scores on the FTAS than did either lineal or strategic questions. Implications for the use of different types of questions in family therapy are discussed. PMID:9693949

  3. Clinical Correlates of Histopathology in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Heather; Lavine, Joel E.; Van Natta, Mark L.; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.; Kleiner, David; Molleston, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in American children. Noninvasive means to discriminate between NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) might diminish requirement for liver biopsy or predict those at increased risk for progression. Methods Data obtained prospectively from children (aged 6–17 yrs) enrolled in the NASH Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) were analyzed to identify clinical-pathological correlates of pediatric NAFLD. All participants underwent liver biopsy within 6 months of clinical data that was reviewed by a central pathology committee. Results 176 children (mean age 12.4 years, 77% male) were eligible for inclusion. Using ordinal logistic regression analysis, increasing AST (OR 1.017 per U/L, 95% CI 1.004–1.031) and GGT (OR 1.016 per U/L, 95% CI 1.000–1.033) were independently associated with increasing severity of NASH. Increasing AST (OR 1.015 per U/L, 95% CI 1.006–1.024), increasing white blood cell count (OR 1.22 per 1000/mm3, 95% CI 1.07–1.38), and decreasing hematocrit (OR 0.87 per %, 95% CI 0.79–0.96) were independently associated with increasing severity of fibrosis. Area under the ROC for a model with AST and ALT was 0.75 (95% CI=0.66–0.84) and 0.74 (95% CI 0.63–0.85) for distinguishing steatosis from more advanced forms of NASH and bridging fibrosis from lesser degrees of fibrosis, respectively. Conclusions Certain components of routine laboratory tests are predictive of NAFLD pattern and fibrosis severity, but do not have adequate discriminate power to replace liver biopsy in evaluating pediatric NAFLD. PMID:19013463

  4. Clinical and Statistical Correlation of Various Lumbar Pathological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J. Michael; Mahfouz, Mohamed; Battaglia, Nicholas V.; Sharma, Adrija; Cheng, Joseph S.; Komistek, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Current clinical evaluations often rely on static anatomic imaging modalities for diagnosis of mechanical low back pain, which provide anatomic snapshots and a surrogate analysis of a functional disease. Three dimensional in vivo motion is available with the use of digital fluoroscopy, which was used to capture kinematic data of the lumbar spine in order to identify coefficients of motion that may assist the physician in differentiating patient pathology. 40 patients distributed among 4 classes of lumbar degeneration, from healthy to degenerative, underwent CT, MRI, and digital x-ray fluoroscopy. Each patient underwent diagnosis by a neurosurgeon. Fluoroscopy was taken as the patient performed lateral bending (LB), axial rotation (AR) and flexion-extension (FE). Patient specific models were registered with the fluoroscopy images to obtain in vivo kinematic data. Motion coefficients, CLB, CAR, CFE, were calculated as the ratio of in-plane motion to total out-of-plane motion. Range of motion (ROM) was calculated about the axis of motion for each exercise. Inter- and Intra- group statistics were examined for each coefficient and a flexible Bayesian classifier was used to differentiate patients with degeneration. The motion coefficients CLB and CFE were significantly different (p < 0.05) in 4 of 6 group comparisons. In plane motion, ROMLB, was significantly different in only 1 of 6 group comparisons. The classifier achieved 95% sensitivity and specificity using (CFE, CLB, ROMLB) as input features, and 40% specificity and 80% sensitivity using ROM variables. The new coefficients were better correlated with patient pathology than ROM measures. The coefficients suggest a relationship between pathology and measured motion which has not been reported previously. PMID:23270717

  5. Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts in Patients with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Ryan J.; Ray, Alaka; Pirl, William F.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Cancer patients are at heightened risk of suicide. Clinical correlates of suicidal ideation in advanced cancer patients were examined to identify those at risk and to inform the development of interventions to reduce suicidal ideation in this vulnerable group. Methods Coping with Cancer (CwC) is an NCI- and NIMH-funded multi-institutional investigation examining psychosocial influences on the quality of life and care of advanced cancer patients. Baseline face-to-face interviews that assessed mental and physical functioning, coping, spirituality, and use of mental health services were conducted with 700 advanced cancer patients. Results Compared to patients without suicidal ideation, the 8.9% of patients who reported suicidal thoughts were more likely to be white and report no affiliation with an organized religion (p<.05). Adjusted analyses revealed that cancer patients who met criteria for current Panic Disorder [adjusted OR (95% CI) 3.24 (1.01, 10.4)] and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [3.97 (1.13, 14.1)], who accessed mental health services [3.70 (2.07, 6.67)], particularly psychotherapy [2.62 (1.20,5.71) ], who were not feeling well physically, and who lacked a sense of self-efficacy, spirituality, and being supported were more likely than others to report thoughts of suicide (p<.05). Conclusions Advanced cancer patients who report suicidal thoughts are more likely to meet criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder and panic disorder, feel unsupported, lack a religious affiliation, spirituality, and a sense of self-efficacy, and experience more physical distress. Palliative care interventions that promote a sense of self-efficacy, spirituality, and support while minimizing physical distress may offer promise for reducing suicidal thoughts in this at-risk group. PMID:21989317

  6. Giardia intestinalis genotypes: Risk factors and correlation with clinical symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Mahdy, A K; Surin, Johari; Wan, K L; Mohd-Adnan, A; Al-Mekhlafi, M S Hesham; Lim, Y A L

    2009-10-01

    This study was conducted to identify genotypes related risk factors of Giardia intestinalis in an Orang Asli (aboriginal) community in Pahang, Malaysia. Stool samples were collected from 321 individuals aged between 2 and 76 years old, of whom 160 were males and 161 were females. Faecal samples were processed with trichrome staining technique for the primary identification of G. intestinalis. Molecular identification was carried out by the amplification of a partial SSU rRNA gene using nested PCR. PCR products were purified and genotyped. 42 samples successfully amplified from the 76 positive faecal samples, only 1 was Assemblage A, the rest were Assemblage B. Risk analysis based on the detected genotypes of Giardia using univariate analysis and logistic regression identified three significant risk factors of giardiasis caused by assemblage B which included children correlated with clinical symptoms of giardiasis (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.13-5.12, p=0.019). Females infected with Assemblage B were at higher risk of manifesting gastroenteritis signs and symptoms (OR=3.9, 95% CI=1.50-10.31, p=0.004). It has been concluded that giardiasis is still a public health problem in Orang Asli community and most commonly caused by assemblage B. The dynamic of transmission is most probably anthroponotic which is human to human either directly or indirectly through contaminated food. This route of transmission should be considered in the control strategy of the disease. Mass treatment together with health education could be the most practical intervention for reducing the infection. Those at high risk should receive more attention from public health authorities. PMID:19560431

  7. Graves' ophthalmopathy: II. Correlation of clinical signs with measures derived from computed tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E S Hallin; S E Feldon

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative clinical and computed tomographic (CT) measures of Graves' ophthalmopathy were obtained in 76 patients. Significant correlation of several CT parameters of the mid-orbital axial CT slice with optic nerve involvement was established. By means of clinical measures, only limitation of ocular motility was found to correlate with the optic neuropathy. The results suggested that there were two distinct populations

  8. Clinical and neuroimaging correlation of movement disorders in multiple sclerosis: case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Rudzinska, Monika; Nojszewska, Monika; Podlecka-Pi?towska, Aleksandra; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Zakrzewska-Pniewska, Beata; Go??biowski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, in which movement disorders (MD) have been reported very rarely. Anatomopathological studies of MS indicate two main processes: inflammation and neurodegeneration. The occurrence of the movement disorders symptoms in MS revises the question of aetiology of these two diseases. During the 10 years of observation in our out-patient clinic and MS units we examined about 2500 patients with clinically definite MS diagnosed according to the revised McDonald's criteria. Only in 10 cases we found coexistence of MS and MD signs. Below we present rare cases of patients with coexistence of MS and chorea, pseudoathetosis, dystonia and parkinsonism. Searching for the strategic focal lesion in our case series showed demyelinating plaques placed in the thalamus most often. Detailed analysis of the clinical, pharmacological and neuroimaging correlations may help to explain the character of movement disorders in MS. PMID:24729346

  9. Childhood Ataxia: Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, Key Unanswered Questions, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Claire N.; Hoang, Kelly D.; Lynch, David R.; Perlman, Susan L.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood ataxia is characterized by impaired balance and coordination primarily due to cerebellar dysfunction. Friedreich ataxia, a form of childhood ataxia, is the most common multisystem autosomal recessive disease. Most of these patients are homozygous for the GAA repeat expansion located on the first intron of the frataxin gene on chromosome 9. Mutations in the frataxin gene impair mitochondrial function, increase reactive oxygen species, and trigger redistribution of iron in the mitochondria and cytosol. Targeted therapies for Friedreich ataxia are undergoing testing. In addition, a centralized database, patient registry, and natural history study have been launched to support clinical trials in Friedreich ataxia. The 2011 Neurobiology of Disease in Children symposium, held in conjunction with the 40th annual Child Neurology Society meeting, aimed to (1) describe clinical features surrounding Friedreich ataxia, including cardiomyopathy and genetics; (2) discuss recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of Friedreich ataxia and developments of clinical trials; (3) review new investigations of characteristic symptoms; (4) establish clinical and biochemical overlaps in neurodegenerative diseases and possible directions for future basic, translational, and clinical studies. PMID:22859693

  10. Finding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical Questions Quickly and Effectively See also the Biomedical Libraries' Evidence-Based Medicine Research Guide

    E-print Network

    for the treatment of Alzheimer's? Clinical Pharmacology Online Micromedex Epocrates Online evidenceFinding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical Questions ­ Quickly and Effectively See also the Biomedical Libraries' Evidence-Based Medicine Research Guide Finding Evidence-Based Answers to Clinical

  11. A Widely Used In Vitro Biofilm Assay Has Questionable Clinical Significance for Enterococcal Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Leuck, Anne-Marie; Johnson, James R.; Dunny, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by Enterococcus faecalis, including endocarditis. Most biofilm studies use a polystyrene dish assay to quantify biofilm biomass. However, recent studies of E. faecalis strains in tissue and animal models suggest that polystyrene dish results need to be interpreted with caution. We evaluated 158 clinical E. faecalis isolates using a polystyrene dish assay and found variation in biofilm formation, with many isolates forming little biofilm even when different types of media were used. However, all tested clinical isolates were able to form biofilms on porcine heart valve explants. Dextrose-enhanced biofilm formation in the polystyrene dish assay was found in 6/12 (50%) of clinical isolates tested and may explain some, but not all of the differences between the polystyrene dish assay and the heart valve assay. These findings suggest that in studies assessing the clinical relevance of enterococcal biofilm-forming ability, ex vivo biofilm formation on a relevant tissue surface may be warranted to validate results of in vitro assays. PMID:25255085

  12. Sample Test Questions for General Clinical Trials Education Class | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to content The National Cancer Institute www.cancer.gov The National Institutes of Health AccrualNetTM STRATEGIES, TOOLS AND RESOURCES TO SUPPORT ACCRUAL TO CLINICAL TRIALS User menu Register Sign In Search form Search Main menu Protocol Accrual

  13. Molecular/clinical correlations in females with fragile X

    SciTech Connect

    Sobesky, W.E.; Riddle, J.; Hagerman, R.J. [Children`s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others] [Children`s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States); and others

    1996-08-09

    Females who are affected by fragile X syndrome (FXS) can have significant physical, neuropsychological and emotional involvement. This study was designed to explore the relationships between these three domains and to learn how the degree of involvement in each of these phenotypic areas relates to molecular parameters including CGG repeat length and activation ratio (the proportion of normal FMR1 alleles on the active X chromosome). Three groups of females were studied: 35 women who grew up in a fragile X family but do not carry an FMR1 mutation, 92 women with a premutation, and 29 women with a full mutation. Correlations between neurocognitive, physical and emotional traits were calculated for each of the three groups. Within the full mutation group significant correlations were seen between schizotypal traits and full scale IQ. The Lie scale was significantly correlated with the physical findings index. The activation ratio correlated significantly with the measure of executive function (r = .50, P = .01). There was a trend toward correlations of activation ratio with the physical index score, outer ear prominence and IQ. CGG repeat number significantly correlated only with the physical index (r = .44, P = .0 1). Thus, activation ratio may be the more pertinent molecular parameter in full mutation women in determining the degree of cognitive and physical phenotypic involvement. 29 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Clinical, functional, and intertask correlations of measures developed by the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia Consortium.

    PubMed

    Gold, James M; Barch, Deanna M; Carter, Cameron S; Dakin, Steven; Luck, Steven J; MacDonald, Angus W; Ragland, J Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Kovacs, Ilona; Silverstein, Steven M; Strauss, Milton

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia (CNTRACS) Consortium was to develop measures of discrete cognitive processes, allowing for the interpretation of specific deficits that could be linked to specific neural systems. Here we report on the intertask, clinical, and functional correlates of the 4 tasks that were investigated in large groups of patients with schizophrenia (>100) and healthy controls (>73) at 5 sites across the United States. In both healthy and patient groups, the key dependent measures from the CNTRACS tasks were minimally intercorrelated, suggesting that they are measuring discrete abilities. Correlations were examined between CNTRACS tasks and measures of functional capacity, premorbid IQ, symptom severity, and level of community functioning. Performance on tasks measuring relational memory encoding, goal maintenance, and visual gain control were correlated with premorbid IQ and the former 2 tasks with the functional capacity. Goal maintenance task performance was negatively correlated with negative symptom severity and informant reports of community function. These correlations reflect the relationship of specific abilities with functional outcome. They are somewhat lower than functional outcome correlations observed with conventional neuropsychological tests that confound multiple cognitive and motivational deficits. The measures of visual integration and gain control were not significantly correlated with clinical symptoms or function. These results suggest that the CNTRACS tasks measure discrete cognitive abilities, some of which relate to aspects of functional capacity/outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:22101961

  15. Seasonality and its distinct clinical correlates in bipolar II disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Sun; Ha, Tae Hyon; Chang, Jae Seung; Park, Yoon Seong; Huh, Iksoo; Kim, Jayoun; Hong, Kyung Sue; Park, Taesung; Ha, Kyooseob

    2015-02-28

    Seasonality is one of the key features in subjects with mood disorders and is involved in the multi-faceted nature of the clinical course. However, few studies have explored the clinical implications of seasonality in bipolar disorders. We examined the differential effects of seasonality on clinical variables between bipolar I and II disorder (BD I and II). Seasonality was assessed using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) in 204 subjects with BD I and 308 with BD II. Following the comparisons between BD I and II groups, clinical characteristics related to seasonality were explored. Next, to predict the presence of seasonality, a logistic regression model was applied. The global seasonality score on the SPAQ was significantly higher in the BD II group than in the BD I group. In the BD I group, seasonality was associated with suicide attempt history. In the BD II group, on the other hand, seasonality was associated with female gender, depressive predominance, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). In the regression models, the presence of PMDD and female gender was significantly associated with seasonality in the BD II group. Our findings suggest that high seasonality tendency, a vulnerability maker for cyclic worsening, may contribute to a differential pattern of clinical characteristics in BD II. PMID:25537487

  16. Neurophysiological correlate of clinical signs in Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josep Valls-Solé; Francesc Valldeoriola

    2002-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not always coincident with pathological findings. A better characterization of the disease from the results of studies in various areas of neuroscience can help in improving the rate of diagnostic certainty. Neurophysiology is among the techniques with better chances to furnish specific diagnostic cues on motor aspects of the disease. Neurophysiology provides quantifiable

  17. Testing the utility of a cancer clinical trial specific Question Prompt List (QPL-CT) during oncology consultations. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    A QPL is a proven intervention to aid patients to be active participants in consultations with their physicians by asking questions. This study tested the efficacy of a targeted QPL for clinical trials.

  18. HIV Replication at Low Copy Number and its Correlation with the HIV Reservoir: A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sarmati, Loredana; D'Ettorre, Gabriella; Parisi, Saverio Giuseppe; Andreoni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of combination therapy (antiretroviral therapy - ARV) is demonstrated by the high rates of viral suppression achieved in most treated HIV patients. Whereas contemporary treatments may continuously suppress HIV replication, they do not eliminate the latent reservoir, which can reactivate HIV infection if ARV is discontinued. The persistence of HIV proviral DNA and infectious viruses in CD4+ T cells and others cells has long been considered a major obstacle in eradicating the HIV virus in treated patients. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated the persistence of HIV replication at low copies in most patients on suppressive ARV. The source of this ‘residual viraemia’ and whether it declines over years of therapy remain unknown. Similarly, little is known regarding the biological relationships between the HIV reservoir and viral replication at low copies. The question of whether this ‘residual viraemia’ represents active replication or the release of non-productive virus from the reservoir has not been adequately resolved. From a clinical perspective, both the quantification of the HIV reservoir and the detection of low levels of replication in full-responder patients on prolonged ARV may provide important information regarding the effectiveness of treatment and the eradication of HIV. To date, the monitoring of these two parameters has been conducted only for research purposes; the routine use of standardised tests procedure is lacking. This review aims to assess the current data regarding the correlation between HIV replication at low copies and the HIV reservoir and to provide useful information for clinicians. PMID:25845389

  19. Tumors of the Central Nervous System: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Unanswered Questions, and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Michael A.; Kostova, Felina V.; Fountain, Jane; Guha, Abhijit; Packer, Roger J.; Pollack, Ian F.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Many histological subtypes and biological variants exist. The 2007 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 36th annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to define current knowledge in the field and to develop specific aims for future clinical, translational, and fundamental science. Because of advances in structural and metabolic imaging, surgical technique, and combination therapies, the life expectancy of children with some of the most common tumors, such as cerebellar astrocytomas and medulloblastomas, has improved. Other common tumor types, including diffuse pontine gliomas and malignant embryonal tumors, still have a dismal prognosis. As novel therapies are identified for pediatric central nervous system tumors, long-term survival may be associated with considerable disability. A cooperative effort is crucial to early diagnosis and to translating basic research findings into safe, effective new treatments. PMID:18952577

  20. Eosinophilic/T-cell Chorionic Vasculitis: Histological and Clinical Correlations.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Bradley; Heinrich, Stephen; Ward, Kenneth; Craver, Randall

    2015-04-01

    Eosinophilic T-cell chorionic vasculitis (E/TCV) is composed of eosinophils and T-lymphocytes originating within chorionic vessels, radiating toward the intervillous space and away from the amnion in a fashion different from the fetal vascular response seen in amnionitis. Clinical significance and risk factors are not well established. We report four pregnancies (five infants, one triplet was spared) with E/TCV, gestational ranging from 23 weeks to term. All had concurrent acute chorioamnionitis, three had the typical acute fetal inflammatory response. One had placental fetal obstructive vasculopathy and an upper extremity reduction defect (radio-ulnar synostosis), the mother had pre-eclampsia. A second case involved 2 of 3 23 week previable triplets. Our third case had a metatarsus varus resistant to casting, the mother had gestational diabetes. The last case was a normal infant. We review the literature, discuss the clinical findings and present the histologic characteristics of this infrequently recognized lesion. PMID:25338020

  1. Identifying questions in the American Association of Swine Veterinarian's PRRS risk assessment survey that are important for retrospectively classifying swine herds according to whether they reported clinical PRRS outbreaks in the previous 3 years.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, Derald J; Lin, Hui; Wang, Chong; O'Connor, Annette M

    2012-09-01

    The American Association of Swine Veterinarian's (AASV) Production Animal Disease Risk Assessment Program (PADRAP) is a web-based program that offers a set of risk assessment surveys being used by veterinarians who are members of the AASV. Members use PADRAP to help producers systematically assess risk factors that may be associated with clinical outcomes. As assessments are performed the completed surveys are added to the dataset maintained at the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine. One of the surveys included in PADRAP is the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) Risk Assessment for the Breeding Herd. The aim of the study was to categorize questions in version 2 of the PRRS Risk Assessment for the Breeding Herd survey as important or unimportant for classifying herds according to whether they reported clinical PRRS outbreaks in the previous 3 years. The results elucidate the relative importance of risk factors and areas of risk factors for clinical outcomes and removing unimportant questions may reduce the time required to complete the survey without affecting the quality of information obtained. Surveys from 896 sow herd sites in the United States and Canada completed between March 2005 and March 2009 were included in the analysis. The survey contained a large number of questions with a complex correlation structure among the questions. Responses for several questions were dependent upon responses to others. To address these issues, an approach was developed using a series of statistical methods including random forest, principle component analysis, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to classify the herds using the questions in the survey as explanatory variables. Questions were ranked by importance and systematically excluded from least important to most important. The questions excluded, without significantly affecting the performance of the model for classifying herds were identified as unimportant. Thirty-eight of the 127 questions analyzed were identified as unimportant for classifying herds according to whether they reported clinical PRRS outbreaks in the previous 3 years. Sections of the survey where a large number of questions were identified as unimportant included (1) entry of semen into the breeding herd and (2) transportation of live animals. Sections with a high percentage of questions identified as unimportant included (1) characteristics of the site, (2) disposal of dead animals and waste management and (3) employee and visitors. PMID:22475927

  2. Clinical Outcomes and Correlates of TP53 Mutations and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Ana I.; Harris, Curtis C.

    2010-01-01

    The initial observation that p53 accumulation might serve as a surrogate biomarker for TP53 mutation has been the cornerstone for vast translational efforts aimed at validating its clinical use for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of cancer. Early on, it was realized that accurate evaluation of p53 status and function could not be achieved through protein-expression analysis only. As our understanding of the p53 pathway has evolved and more sophisticated methods for assessment of p53 functional integrity have become available, the clinical and molecular epidemiological implications of p53 abnormalities in cancers are being revealed. They include diagnostic testing for germline p53 mutations, and the assessment of selected p53 mutations as biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and cancer risk and prognosis. Here, we describe the strengths and limitations of the most frequently used techniques for determination of p53 status in tumors, as well as the most remarkable latest findings relating to its clinical and epidemiological value. PMID:20300207

  3. question_1412830344 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  4. question_1410865099 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  5. question_1414049861 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  6. question_1412590509 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  7. question_1410251969 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  8. question_1410689941 — Provocative Questions

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  9. Clinical Correlates of Comorbid Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Depression in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavera, Kristin E.; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Ehrenreich May, Jill T.; Pincus, Donna B.

    2010-01-01

    A burgeoning body of literature addresses the comorbidity of depression and OCD in adults. The purpose of this study was to extend this area of research to children and adolescents by examining the clinical correlates associated with co-occurring depressive disorders in a clinical sample of youth with OCD. Participants included children and…

  10. Muscle biopsy abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus: correlation with clinical and laboratory parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K L Lim; R Abdul-Wahab; J Lowe; R J Powell

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate the incidence and significance of Type II fibre atrophy, vessel wall thickening, lymphocytic vasculitis and myositis in needle quadriceps muscle biopsies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and their correlations with clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS--Needle quadriceps muscle biopsies from 55 patients with SLE and 26 controls were prospectively examined. Clinical and laboratory parameters recorded at the

  11. Frequency and Clinical Correlates of Occlusive Lesions of Cerebral Arteries in Japanese Patients without Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Uehara; Masayasu Tabuchi; Etsuro Mori

    1998-01-01

    To determine the frequency and clinical correlates of intra- and extracranial arterial occlusive lesions in a stroke-free population, we studied cerebral arteries in 156 subjects with no evidence of stroke who presented at a neurologic clinic with concerns about a possible stroke (104 males ranging in age from 37 to 83 years, with a mean age of 63.0) by using

  12. Chronic widespread pain: clinical comorbidities and psychological correlates.

    PubMed

    Burri, Andrea; Ogata, Soshiro; Vehof, Jelle; Williams, Frances

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have provided consistent evidence for a genetic influence on chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the etiological structure underlying CWP by examining the covariation between CWP and psychological comorbidities and psychoaffective correlates and (2) the decomposition of the covariation into genetic and environmental components. A total of 3266 female twins (mean age 56.6 years) were subject to multivariate analyses. Using validated questionnaires to classify twins as having CWP, the prevalence of CWP was 20.8%. In the multivariate analysis, the most suitable model was the common pathway model. This model revealed 2 underlying latent variables, one common to anxiety, emotional intelligence, and emotional instability (f1) and the other common to depression and CWP (f2), the latter being highly heritable (86%). Both latent variables (f1 and f2) shared an additive genetic and a nonshared environmental factor. In addition, a second additive genetic factor loading only on f2 was found. This study reveals the structure of genetic and environmental influences of CWP and its psychoaffective correlates. The results show that the clustering of CWP and depression is due to a common, highly heritable, underlying latent trait. In addition, we found evidence that CWP, anxiety, emotional instability, and emotional intelligence are influenced by different underlying latent traits sharing the same genetic and nonshared environmental factors. This is the first study to reveal the structure and relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on complex etiological mechanisms of CWP and its correlates. PMID:25851458

  13. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Schizophrenia: Clinical and Neuropsychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Flashman, Laura A.; Roth, Robert M.; Pixley, Heather S.; Cleavinger, Howard B.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Vidaver, Robert; Saykin, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased frequency of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) has been inconsistently observed in schizophrenia, and little is known about its functional implications. We investigated whether patients with schizophrenia were more likely than healthy controls to have CSP, and among patients assessed the relationship between CSP, psychiatric symptoms, and selected neuropsychological functions. Seventy-seven patients with diagnoses of DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 55 healthy controls were studied and completed a 1.5 T MRI scan. Two raters, blind to group membership, determined the presence, length and grade of the CSP. A subset of participants also underwent neuropsychological testing. A CSP of at least 1 mm in length was present in 68.8% of patients and 76.4% of controls, and the groups did not differ significantly with respect to presence or absence, length, overall size, or percent with an abnormally large CSP (? 6 mm). Patients with an abnormally large CSP demonstrated poorer performance on measures of verbal learning and memory than patients with smaller CSP. Among patients, CSP length was significantly correlated with negative symptoms, verbal learning, and sentence comprehension. Among patients with abnormally large CSP, CSP length was correlated with reaction time on two conditions of a Continuous Performance Test. CSP, while prevalent, was not more frequent in our sample of patients with schizophrenia, and had few associations with symptom severity or neuropsychological deficits. PMID:17291728

  14. Clinically Correlated Anatomical Basis of Cricothyrotomy and Tracheostomy

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Melih; Dinc, Ahmet Hakan; Altinors, Nur

    2010-01-01

    Objective Cricothyrotomy and tracheostomy are performed by physicians in various disciplines. It is important to know the comprehensive anatomy of the laryngotracheal region. Hemorrhage, esophageal injury, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, pneumothorax, hemothorax, false passage of the tube and tracheal stenosis after decannulation are well known complications of the cricothyrotomy and tracheostomy. Cricothyrotomy and tracheostomy should be performed without complications and as quickly as possible with regards the patients' clinical condition. Methods A total of 40 cadaver necks were dissected in this study. The trachea and larynx and the relationship between the trachea and larynx and the surrounding structures was investigated. The tracheal cartilages and annular ligaments were counted and the relationship between tracheal cartilages and the thyroid gland and vascular structures was investigated. We performed cricothyrotomy and tracheostomy in eleven cadavers while simulating intensive care unit conditions to determine the duration of those procedures. Results There were 11 tracheal cartilages and 10 annular ligaments between the cricoid cartilage and sternal notch. The average length of trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch was 6.9 to 8.2 cm. The cricothyroid muscle and cricothyroid ligament were observed and dissected and no vital anatomic structure detected. The average length and width of the cricothyroid ligament was 8 to 12 mm and 8 to 10 mm, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the surgical time required for cricothyrotomy and tracheostomy (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Tracheostomy and cricothyrotomy have a low complication rate if the person performing the procedure has thorough knowledge of the neck anatomy. The choice of tracheostomy or cricothyrotomy to establish an airway depends on the patients' clinical condition, for instance; cricothyrotomy should be preferred in patients with cervicothoracal injury or dislocation who suffer from respiratory dysfunction. Furthermore; if a patient is under risk of hypoxia or anoxia due to a difficult airway, cricothyrotomy should be preferred rather than tracheostomy. PMID:20379468

  15. question_1298942394 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

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  16. question_1302099820 — Provocative Questions

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  17. question_1337052960 — Provocative Questions

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  18. question_1297533065 — Provocative Questions

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  19. question_1309291860 — Provocative Questions

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  20. question_1309209288 — Provocative Questions

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  1. question_1297191134 — Provocative Questions

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  2. question_1302015319 — Provocative Questions

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  3. question_1296057192 — Provocative Questions

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  4. question_1296826774 — Provocative Questions

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  5. question_1296786566 — Provocative Questions

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  6. question_1333398119 — Provocative Questions

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  7. question_1296850328 — Provocative Questions

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  8. question_1297435384 — Provocative Questions

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  9. Anhedonia and Substance Dependence: Clinical Correlates and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Hatzigiakoumis, Daniele Stavros; Martinotti, Giovanni; Giannantonio, Massimo Di; Janiri, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Anhedonia is a condition in which the capacity of experiencing pleasure is totally or partially lost, and it refers to both a state symptom in various psychiatric disorders and a personality trait. It has a putative neural substrate, originating in the dopaminergic mesolimbic and mesocortical reward circuit. Anhedonia frequently occurs in mood disorders, as a negative symptom in schizophrenia, and in substance use disorders. In particular, we focus our attention on the relationships occurring between anhedonia and substance use disorders, as highlighted by many studies. Several authors suggested that anhedonia is an important factor involved in relapse as well as in the transition from recreational use to excessive drug intake. In particular, anhedonia has been found to be a frequent feature in alcoholics and addicted patients during acute and chronic withdrawal as well as in cocaine, stimulant, and cannabis abusers. Furthermore, in subjects with a substance dependence disorder, there is a significant correlation between anhedonia, craving, intensity of withdrawal symptoms, and psychosocial and personality characteristics. Therefore treating anhedonia in detoxified alcohol-dependent subjects could be critical in terms of relapse prevention strategies, given its strong relationship with craving. PMID:21556280

  10. Correlation between clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging findings in lumbar disc prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Janardhana, Aithala P; Rajagopal; Rao, Sharath; Kamath, Asha

    2010-01-01

    Background: Lumbar disc prolapse is one of the common causes of low back pain seen in the working population. There are contradictorty reports regarding the clinical significance of various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings observed in these patients. The study was conducted to correlate the abnormalities observed on MRI and clinical features of lumbar disc prolapse. Materials and Methods: 119 clinically diagnosed patients with lumbar disc prolapse were included in the study. Clinical evaluation included pain distribution, neurological symptoms and signs. MR evaluation included grades of disc degeneration, type of herniation, neural foramen compromise, nerve root compression, and miscellaneous findings. These MRI findings were tested for inter- and intraobserver variability. The MRI findings were then correlated with clinical symptoms and the level of disc prolapse as well as neurological signs and symptoms. Statistical analysis included the Kappa coefficient, Odd’s ratio, and logistic regression analysis. Results: There were no significant inter- or intraobserver variations for most of MRI findings (Kappa value more than 0.5) except for type of disc herniation which showed a interobserver variation of 0.46 (Kappa value). The clinical level of pain distribution correlated well with the MRI level (Kappa 0.8), but not all disc bulges produced symptoms. Central bulges and disc protrusions with thecal sac compression were mostly asymptomatic, while centrolateral protrusions and extrusions with neural foramen compromise correlated well with the dermatomal distribution of pain. Root compression observed in MRI did not produce neurological symptoms or deficits in all patients but when deficits were present, they correlated well with the presence of root compression in MRI. Multiple level disc herniations with foramen compromise were strongly associated with the presence of neurological signs. Conclusions: The presence of centrolateral protrusion or extrusion with gross foramen compromise correlates with clinical signs and symptoms very well, while central bulges and disc protrusions correlate poorly with clinical signs and symptoms. The presence of neural foramen compromise is more important in determining the clinical signs and symptoms while type of disc herniation (bulge, protrusion, or extrusion) correlates poorly with clinical signs and symptoms. PMID:20697478

  11. Cigarette smoking in a student sample: neurocognitive and clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    Dinn, Wayne M; Aycicegi, Ayse; Harris, Catherine L

    2004-01-01

    Why do adolescents begin to smoke in the face of profound health risks and aggressive antismoking campaigns? The present study tested predictions based on two theoretical models of tobacco use in young adults: (1) the self-medication model; and (2) the orbitofrontal/disinhibition model. Investigators speculated that a significant number of smokers were self-medicating since nicotine possesses mood-elevating and hedonic properties. The self-medication model predicts that smokers will demonstrate increased rates of psychopathology relative to nonsmokers. Similarly, researchers have suggested that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) employ nicotine to enhance cognitive function. The ADHD/self-medication model predicts that smokers will perform poorly on tests of executive function and report a greater number of ADHD symptoms. A considerable body of research indicates that tobacco use is associated with several related personality traits including extraversion, impulsivity, risk taking, sensation seeking, novelty seeking, and antisocial personality features. Antisocial behavior and related personality traits as well as tobacco use may reflect, in part, a failure to effectively employ reward and punishment cues to guide behavior. This failure may reflect orbitofrontal dysfunction. The orbitofrontal/disinhibition model predicts that smokers will perform poorly on neurocognitive tasks considered sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction and will obtain significantly higher scores on measures of behavioral disinhibition and antisocial personality relative to nonsmokers. To test these predictions, we administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, clinical scales, and personality questionnaires to university student smokers and nonsmokers. Results did not support the self-medication model or the ADHD/self-medication model; however, findings were consistent with the orbitofrontal/disinhibition model. PMID:14667424

  12. Social Cognition in Psychosis: Multidimensional Structure, Clinical Correlates, and Relationship With Functional Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Francesco; Horan, William P.; Kern, Robert S.; Green, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Social cognitive impairments are common, detectable across a wide range of tasks, and appear to play a key role in explaining poor outcome in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the underlying factor structure of social cognition in people with psychotic disorders due to a lack of exploratory factor analyses using a relatively comprehensive social cognitive assessment battery. In a sample of 85 outpatients with psychosis, we examined the factor structure and clinical/functional correlates of eight indexes derived from five social cognition tasks that span the domains of emotional processing, social perception, attributional style, and Theory of Mind. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors with relatively low inter-correlations that explained a total of 54% of the variance: (1) Hostile attributional style, (2) Lower-level social cue detection, and (3) Higher-level inferential and regulatory processes. None of the factors showed significant correlations with negative symptoms. Factor 1 significantly correlated with clinical symptoms (positive, depression-anxiety, agitation) but not functional outcome, whereas Factors 2 and 3 significantly correlated with functional outcome (functional capacity and real-world social and work functioning) but not clinical symptoms. Furthermore, Factor 2 accounted for unique incremental variance in functional capacity, above and beyond non-social neurocognition (measured with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery) and negative symptoms. Results suggest that multiple separable dimensions of social cognition can be identified in psychosis, and these factors show distinct patterns of correlation with clinical features and functional outcome. PMID:21112743

  13. [Correlations of clinical symptoms in the structure of mental pathology in combat veterans].

    PubMed

    Kolov, S A

    2010-01-01

    Correlations of psychopathological symptoms - depression, depersonalization, trait and state anxiety have been studied in 371 combatants. The clinical pattern of mental disorders goes beyond the conception of posttraumatic stress disorder, including the described disorders. The correlation analysis has demonstrated that these disorders proved to be not only comorbid, or facultative, but are the obligatory components of mental disorders in the remote period of combat trauma. The data obtained are of great importance for a more accurate clinical analysis of mental status in these patients and for taking medical and psychocorrectional measures. PMID:20559270

  14. Neuroendocrine differentiated breast carcinoma: imaging features correlated with clinical and histopathological findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isil Günhan-Bilgen; Osman Zekioglu; Esin Emin Ustün; Aysenur Memis; Yildiz Erhan

    2003-01-01

    .   The aim of this study was to describe the imaging features of neuroendocrine differentiated breast carcinoma (NEDBC) and\\u000a to correlate the radiological findings with the clinical and histopathological findings. A retrospective review of the mammograms\\u000a of 1845 histopathologically proven breast cancer cases revealed five NEDBC. The clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings\\u000a were analyzed. On mammography, a high-density mass was

  15. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Deliberate Self-Harm among a Community Sample of Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerutti, R.; Manca, M.; Presaghi, F.; Gratz, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the rates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) behavior among an Italian adolescent sample, as well as to explore its clinical correlates. On a sample of 234 adolescents in Italian secondary schools (Mean age = 16.47; SD = 1.7) were assessed the DSH as well as externalizing symptoms (including both conduct…

  16. Rage Attacks in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Jones, Anna M.; Lack, Caleb W.; Ale, Chelsea M.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Lewin, Adam B.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rage attacks have been documented in youth with varied psychiatric disorders, but few data have been reported on the clinical characteristics and correlates of rage attacks among children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Participants were 86 children (ages 6-16 years) with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Patients and their…

  17. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity,…

  18. Spinal epidural abscess with gadolinium-enhanced MRI: serial follow-up studies and clinical correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Sadato; Y. Numaguchi; D. Rigamonti; T. Kodama; E. Nussbaum; S. Sato; M. Rothman

    1994-01-01

    We reviewed serial MRI with and without gadolinium-DTPA in eight patients with spinal epidural abscess and correlated the findings and the clinical manifestations. In four patients, diffuse abscesses spanned four vertebral bodies or more; the others had focal abscesses associated with osteomyelitis and\\/or diskitis. In three of the four patients with diffuse abscesses, MRI (NCMRI) showed diffuse encasement of the

  19. Atherosclerosis in angiographically “normal” coronary artery reference segments: An intravascular ultrasound study with clinical correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary S. Mintz; Jack A. Painter; Augusto D. Pichard; Kenneth M. Kent; Lowell F. Satler; Jeffrey J. Popma; Ya Chien Chuang; Theresa A. Bucher; Lisa E. Sokolowicz; Martin B. Leon

    1995-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the magnitude, patterns and clinical correlates of atherosclerosis in angiographically “normal” reference segments in patients undergoing transcatheter therapy for symptomatic coronary artery disease.Background. Pathologic studies indicate that the extent of coronary atherosclerosis is underestimated by visual analysis of angiographically normal coronary artery segments. Intravascular ultrasound allows detailed, high quality cross-sectional imaging of the coronary arteries in

  20. The Correlation of Learning Styles with Student Performance In Academic and Clinical Course Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, M. Jo; Trickey, Becki A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine any correlation between learning styles and performance in the academic and clinical course work of occupational therapy students at the Medical University of South Carolina. (Availability: RAM Associates LTD., P.O. Box N, Laurel, MD 20707) (SSH)

  1. Normalized Movement Quality Measures for Therapeutic Robots Strongly Correlate With Clinical Motor Impairment Measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozkan Celik; Marcia K. O'Malley; Corwin Boake; Harvey S. Levin; Nuray Yozbatiran; Timothy A. Reistetter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the correlations between four clinical measures (Fugl-Meyer upper extremity scale, Motor Activity Log, Action Research Arm Test, and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test) and four robotic measures (smoothness of movement, trajectory error, average number of target hits per minute, and mean tangential speed), used to assess motor recovery. Data were gathered as part of a hybrid

  2. Clinical deficits correlate with regional cerebral atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Cordato; A. J. Duggins; G. M. Halliday; J. G. L. Morris; C. Pantelis

    2005-01-01

    Summary Most cerebral imaging studies of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) have noted subtle atrophy, although the full extent of atrophy and any correlates to clinical features have not been determined. We used voxel-based morphometry analysis of grey matter, white matter and CSF on MRI brain scans to map the statistical probability of regional tissue atrophy in 21 patients

  3. Mental Health and Clinical Correlates in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Derbyshire, Katherine; Schreiber, Liana R. N.; Lust, Katherine; Christenson, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence of mental health disorders and their clinical correlates in a university sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) students. Participants: College students at a large public university. Methods: An anonymous, voluntary survey was distributed via random e-mail generation to university students…

  4. Changes in the Neuropsychological Correlates of Clinical Dimensions between the Acute and Stable Phase of Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillem, F.; Ganeva, E.; Pampoulova, T.; Stip, E.; Lalonde, P.; Sasseville, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the neuropsychological correlates of the symptom dimensions of schizophrenia vary with the clinical state in patients followed from the acute to stable the phase of the illness. Fifteen patients were assessed for symptoms (SAPS-SANS) and undergone a complete neuropsychological assessment at two…

  5. Do Workshops in Evidence-Based Practice Equip Participants to Identify and Answer Questions Requiring Consideration of Clinical Research? A Diagnostic Skill Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…

  6. Calprotectin in gingival crevicular fluid correlates with clinical and biochemical markers of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Kido, J; Nakamura, T; Kido, R; Ohishi, K; Yamauchi, N; Kataoka, M; Nagata, T

    1999-10-01

    Clinical and biochemical markers of periodontal disease have been used for precise objective diagnosis of periodontal inflammation. Interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inflammatory factors, levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with periodontal disease are elevated and have been studied as biochemical markers. The levels of calprotectin, a leukocyte protein, in body fluids of patients with some inflammatory diseases are raised. Recently, we detected calprotectin in GCF and its concentrations in periodontal pockets were higher than those in healthy gingival crevices. In this study, we investigated the correlations between GCF calprotectin levels and clinical indicators (probing depth and bleeding on probing, BOP), and the IL-1beta or PGE2 levels in GCE Probing depth and BOP at 130 sites of 110 subjects with periodontal or other oral diseases were examined, then GCF samples were collected and their calprotectin, IL-1beta and PGE2 were determined by ELISA. The calprotectin level correlated positively with the probing depth and was significantly higher at BOP-positive than BOP-negative sites. There were significant, positive correlations between the calprotectin and IL-1beta or PGE2 concentrations. These results indicate that the calprotectin level in GCF correlates well with clinical and biochemical markers of periodontal disease and suggest that calprotectin may be useful for evaluating the extent of periodontal inflammation. PMID:10522776

  7. Is intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility correlated to clinical phenotypes and sex in patients with COPD?

    PubMed Central

    Camiciottoli, Gianna; Diciotti, Stefano; Bigazzi, Francesca; Lombardo, Simone; Bartolucci, Maurizio; Paoletti, Matteo; Mascalchi, Mario; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) develops various degree of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility. We studied whether the magnitude of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility could be different across clinical phenotypes and sex in COPD. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility measured at paired inspiratory–expiratory low dose computed tomography (CT) and its correlation with clinical, functional, and CT-densitometric data were investigated in 69 patients with COPD according to their predominant conductive airway or emphysema phenotypes and according to sex. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was higher in patients with predominant conductive airway disease (n=28) and in females (n=27). Women with a predominant conductive airway phenotype (n=10) showed a significantly greater degree of collapsibility than women with predominant emphysema (28.9%±4% versus 11.6%±2%; P<0.001). Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was directly correlated with inspiratory–expiratory volume variation at CT and with forced expiratory volume (1 second), and inversely correlated with reduced CT lung density and functional residual capacity. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was not correlated with cough and wheezing; however, intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility and clinical phenotypes of COPD are closely correlated. In patients with a predominant emphysematous phenotype, a reduced collapsibility may reflect the mechanical properties of the stiff hyperinflated emphysematous lung. The high collapsibility in patients with predominant airway disease, mild airway obstruction, and in women with this phenotype may reflect chronic airway inflammation. The lack of relationship with such symptoms as wheezing, cough, and dyspnea could indicate that intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility itself should be considered neither an abnormal feature of COPD nor a relevant clinical finding. PMID:25960647

  8. Renal diffusion-weighted imaging in diabetic nephropathy: correlation with clinical stages of disease

    PubMed Central

    Çakmak, P?nar; Ya?c?, Ahmet Baki; Dursun, Belda; Herek, Duygu; Fenkçi, Semin Melahat

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to assess the correlation between renal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values measured by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the clinical stages of diabetic nephropathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS DWI (b value, 0 and 600 s/mm2) was performed in 78 patients with clinically confirmed diabetic nephropathy (study group) and 22 volunteers without diabetes mellitus or any renal disease (control group). The mean ADCs were calculated from multiple region-of-interest circles positioned in the renal cortex. Diabetic nephropathy was clinically categorized into five stages based on the values of urinary albumin excretion and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). RESULTS Mean renal ADC values of patients with stage 3 or 4 disease were significantly lower than those in patients with stage 1 or 2 disease and the control group (P < 0.001). ADC values of patients with stage 5 disease were significantly lower than those in patients with stage 4 (P = 0.003), stage 3 (P = 0.020), stages 2 and 1, and the control group (P < 0.001). Significant correlations were found between mean renal ADC values and clinical stages of diabetic nephropathy (r=?0.751, P < 0.001), between mean renal ADC values and estimated GFR values (r=0.642, P < 0.001), and between mean renal ADC values and urinary albumin excretion (r=?0.419, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Renal ADC values show a significant correlation with clinical stages of diabetic nephropathy. As a relatively simple and noninvasive tool without contrast media administration, renal quantitative DWI may potentially play a role in making clinical decisions in the follow-up of diabetic patients. PMID:25010370

  9. Establishing in vitro to clinical correlations in the evaluation of cardiovascular safety pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Chain, A S Y; Sturkenboom, M C J M; Danhof, M; Della Pasqua, O E

    2013-09-01

    Preclinical studies are vital in establishing the efficacy and safety of a new chemical entity (NCE) in humans. To deliver meaningful information, experiments have to be well defined and provide outcome that is relevant and translatable to humans. This review briefly surveys the various preclinical experiments that are frequently conducted to assess drug effects on cardiac conductivity in early drug development. We examine the different approaches used to establish correlations between non-clinical and clinical settings and discuss their value in the evaluation of cardiovascular risk. PMID:24050134

  10. [Cytomegalovirus colitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Histopathologic, endoscopic, and clinical correlation].

    PubMed

    Reyes, E; Gamboa-Domínguez, A

    1993-01-01

    We describe the frequency of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in colon and rectum biopsies obtained endoscopically in patients with AIDS. In 44 of 199 biopsies, CMV was the only opportunistic infection. Cytomegaly, intracytoplasmic inclusions, and vasculitis with endothelial CMV-cytopathic damage were the histological changes that prompted the diagnosis. CMV-infected cells were located primary in the stromal and endothelial cells. The vascular damage was observed only in submucosal vessels. Histological findings were correlated with the endoscopic mucosal appearance and with the clinical symptoms, founding no significative correlation. PMID:8165398

  11. HIV/AIDS Information Needs of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Patients: Content Analysis of Questions Asked during Prevention Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Cain, Demetria; Knecht, Joanna; Hill, Justin

    2008-01-01

    Basic factual information about disease is the cornerstone of health promotion and disease prevention interventions. Previous studies have shown that content analysis of the questions asked of service providers can elucidate the information needs of service consumers. Questions asked by individuals at known high risk for HIV infection have not…

  12. [The use of canonical correlation analysis for the evaluation of correlation strength between clinical and biological parameters].

    PubMed

    Brusov, O S; Koliaskina, G I; Kaleda, V G; Sekirina, T P; Kushner, S G; Vasil'eva, E F

    2010-01-01

    We studied correlations between factors of inherent immunity and the effectiveness of therapy in patients with endogenous psychosis using the method of canonical correlations. There were strong significant (canonical R>0,8; p=0,02) positive correlations between the therapeutic effectiveness of neuroleptics (haloperidol and clozapine) and values of factors of inherent immunity in the group of 34 men with schizophrenia, aged from 16 to 34 years, with the first episode of psychosis. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed by the percentage reduction of total scores on the PANSS scale or scores on PANSS subscales (positive, negative and general psychopathology) at the beginning and the end (after 60 days) of the treatment. Initial parameters of factors of inherent immunity (levels of gamma-interferon production by T-lymphocytes, proportion of phagocytosing neutrophils and monocytes, and cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes - natural killers) contributed to 67,3%, or more than two thirds, of the variance of treatment effects. The contribution of inherent immunity factors was determined mainly by their similar effects on the reduction of positive and general psychopathological symptoms, with the minimal effect on the reduction of negative symptoms. The maximum correlation was found for weighting coefficients for inherent immunity factors estimated as 0,567 for the proportion of phagocytosing neutrophils and monocytes; 0,518 - for the levels of gamma-interferon production by T-lymphocytes and 0,334 - for cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes - natural killers. The authors suggest that the reduction of activity of the cell branch of inherent immunity develops before the disease manifestation. It creates conditions for the activation of latently persistent infections (the cytomegalovirus infection, in our case) in a patient's organism, with the formation of therapeutic resistance. The method described may be widely used in clinical and biological psychiatry and neurology. PMID:20436432

  13. An empirical study of psychosocial and clinical correlates of delusional disorder: the DELIREMP study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique de Portugal; Nieves González; Míriam Vilaplana; Josep M. Haro; Judit Usall; Jorge A. Cervilla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We aim to describe psychosocial and clinical correlates of DD and its types. This approach is important because most knowledge on DD does not come from empirical data collected using a validated systematic research method. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 86 patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for DD as established using the SCID-I. Variables were

  14. Postoperative follow-up of pituitary adenomas after trans-sphenoidal resection: MRI and clinical correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Rodríguez; B. Mateos; R. de la Pedraja; R. Villoria; J. I. Hernando; A. Pastor; I. Pomposo; J. Aurrecoechea

    1996-01-01

    Our purpose was to correlate the morphological changes seen on MRI studies of the sellar region after trans-sphenoidal resection\\u000a of pituitary adenomas with clinical and hormonal studies. Between January 1993 and March 1994, 16 patients with a pituitary\\u000a adenoma (9 macroadenomas and 7 microadenomas) were subjected to trans-sphenoidal resection and included in a prospective study.\\u000a The protocol consisted of MRI,

  15. Serologic features of primary Sjögren’s syndrome: clinical and prognostic correlation

    PubMed Central

    García-Carrasco, Mario; Mendoza-Pinto, Claudia; Jiménez-Hernández, César; Jiménez-Hernández, Mario; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo; Riebeling, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory systemic autoimmune disease. The disease spectrum extends from sicca syndrome to systemic involvement and extraglandular manifestations, and SS may be associated with malignancies, especially non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Patients with SS present a broad spectrum of serologic features. Certain serological findings are highly correlated with specific clinical features, and can be used as prognostic markers. PMID:23525186

  16. Acute Methotrexate Neurotoxicity: Findings on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Correlation with Clinical Outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Rollins; Naomi Winick; Robert Bash; Timothy Booth

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a common malignancy of childhood treated with methotrexate (MTX), which is associated with acute neurotoxicity. We evaluated diffusion-weighted (DW) and conventional MR images in children with ALL and acute MTX-induced neurotoxicity, with clinical correlation. METHODS: Five patients aged 12-15 years underwent fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T2-weighted fast spin-echo and gradient-echo, T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced

  17. Demonstration of correlations between clinical and physical image quality measures in chest and lumbar spine screen-film radiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M SANDBORG; A TINGBERG; B LANHEDE; A ALMEN; P SUND; S KHEDDACHE; J BESJAKOV; S MATTSSON; G ALM CARLSSON

    2001-01-01

    The ability to predict clinical image quality from physical measures is useful for optimization in diagnostic radiology. In this work, clinical and physical assessments of image quality are compared and correlations between the two are derived. Clinical assessment has been made by a group of expert radiologists who evaluated fulfilment of the European image criteria for chest and lumbar spine

  18. Clinical Correlates of Awareness for Balance, Function, and Memory: Evidence for the Modality Specificity of Awareness

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Megan E.; Crossley, Margaret; Morgan, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Awareness in dementia is increasingly recognized not only as multifactorial, but also as domain specific. We demonstrate differential clinical correlates for awareness of daily function, awareness of memory, and the novel exploration of awareness of balance. Awareness of function was higher for participants with mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and non-aMCI) than for those with dementia (due to Alzheimer disease; AD and non-AD), whereas awareness of memory was higher for both non-aMCI and non-AD dementia patients than for those with aMCI or AD. Balance awareness did not differ based on diagnostic subgroup. Awareness of function was associated with instrumental activities of daily living and caregiver burden. In contrast, awareness of balance was associated with fall history, balance confidence, and instrumental activities of daily living. Clinical correlates of awareness of memory depended on diagnostic group: associations held with neuropsychological variables for non-AD dementia, but for patients with AD dementia, depression and instrumental activities of daily living were clinical correlates of memory awareness. Together, these data provide support for the hypothesis that awareness and dementia are not unitary and are, instead, modality specific. PMID:24551452

  19. Sensory phenomena: clinical correlates and impact on quality of life in adult patients with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Eleanor; Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio

    2013-10-30

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by multiple tics, with frequent behavioural co-morbidity. Sensory phenomena (SP) are unpleasant sensations which provide involuntary urges to tic in patients with TS. While SP have a central role in tic expression, little is known about their clinical correlates or association with health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in TS. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 72 adult outpatients with TS, recruited at a specialist clinic. All participants completed a comprehensive battery of psychometric measures, including the Premonitory Urges for Tics Scale (PUTS) to assess SP and a disease-specific quality of life scale (GTS-QOL) to assess HR-QOL. SP were very common (97.2% of patients), with a median PUTS total score of 28/40. Bivariate analyses showed that PUTS scores were most significantly correlated with self-report measures of vocal tic severity and compulsivity. PUTS scores were also significantly correlated with GTS-QOL scores, most notably with the psychological subscale. SP are frequently reported by adults with TS, are associated with perceived tic severity and compulsivity, and can significantly affect psychological well-being. Standardised measurement of SP should be incorporated into routine assessment of patients with TS to optimise their clinical management. PMID:23684051

  20. Correlation between clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with temporomandibular joint internal derangement

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young-Wook; Park, Sung-Hoon; On, Sung-Woon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to clarify which findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are good predicators of pain and mouth opening limitation in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement (ID). Materials and Methods Clinical examinations for pain and mouth opening limitation were conducted for suspected TMJ ID. MRI scans were taken within a week of clinical examinations. On the oblique-sagittal plane image, readings were obtained in terms of the functional aspect of disc position, degree of displacement, disc deformity, joint effusion, and osteoarthrosis. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the predictors of pain and mouth opening limitation. Results A total of 48 patients (96 TMJs) were studied, including 39 female patients and 9 male patients whose ages ranged from 10 to 65 years. The resultant data showed significant correlations between pain and the MR imaging of the degree of disc displacement (P<0.05). The probability of there being pain in moderate to significant cases was 9.69 times higher than in normal cases. No significant correlation was found between mouth opening limitation and MRI findings. Conclusion We identified a significant correlation between clinical symptoms and MRI findings of ID. The degree of anterior disc displacement may be useful for predicting pain in patients with TMJ ID. PMID:26131429

  1. Correlation between clinical scoring of allergic patch test reactions and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, Thilo; Moussa, Georg; Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Orlikov, Alexei; Altmeyer, Peter; Hoffmann, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques might be of particular diagnostic value for studying and monitoring cutaneous inflammatory conditions such as contact dermatitis. We evaluate acute allergic contact dermatitis (AACD) by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and correlate the clinical grading of patch test reactions with the findings obtained from OCT. Twenty positive patch test reactions (+, n = 6; ++, n = 7; +++, n = 7) are investigated using a conventional OCT scanner. In comparison to the control sites, OCT of AACD showed pronounced skin folds, thickened and/or disrupted entrance signals, and a significant increase in epidermal thickness. Moreover, clearly demarcated signal-free cavities within the epidermis and considerable reduction of dermal reflectivity are demonstrated by OCT. Notably, the latter findings strongly correlate with the clinical patch test grading. OCT may be a useful tool for visualization of micromorphological features of AACD. However, before OCT can be employed as an objective parameter in grading severity of patch test reactions, larger studies are required that correlate clinical patch test readings and OCT findings with histopathology. PMID:16409095

  2. Clinical Characteristics and Genotype-Phenotype Correlation of Korean Patients with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ju Sun; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Jong-Won; Sung, Duk Hyun; Kim, Byoung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked motor neuron disease characterized by proximal muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, and fasciculation. Although SBMA is not uncommon in Korea, there is only one study reporting clinical characteristics and genotype-phenotype correlation in Korean patients. Materials and Methods In this study, age at the onset of symptoms, the score of severity assessed by impairment of activities of daily living milestones, and rate of disease progression, and their correlations with the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, as well as possible correlations among clinical characteristics, were analyzed in 40 SBMA patients. Results The median ages at onset and at diagnosis were 44.5 and 52.5 years, respectively, and median interval between onset and diagnosis and median rate of disease progression were 5.0 years and 0.23 score/year, respectively. The median number of CAG repeats in the AR gene was 44 and the number of CAG repeats showed a significant inverse correlation with the age at onset of symptoms (r=-0.407, p=0.009). In addition, patients with early symptom onset had slower rate of disease progression. Conclusion As a report with the largest and recent Korean cohort, this study demonstrates clinical features of Korean patients with SBMA and reaffirms the inverse correlation between the age at disease onset and the number of CAG repeats. Interestingly, this study shows a possibility that the rate of disease progression may be influenced by the age at onset of symptoms. PMID:26069122

  3. NCI Workshop Report: Clinical and Computational Requirements for Correlating Imaging Phenotypes with Genomics Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Colen, Rivka; Foster, Ian; Gatenby, Robert; Giger, Mary Ellen; Gillies, Robert; Gutman, David; Heller, Matthew; Jain, Rajan; Madabhushi, Anant; Madhavan, Subha; Napel, Sandy; Rao, Arvind; Saltz, Joel; Tatum, James; Verhaak, Roeland; Whitman, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Imaging Program organized two related workshops on June 26–27, 2013, entitled “Correlating Imaging Phenotypes with Genomics Signatures Research” and “Scalable Computational Resources as Required for Imaging-Genomics Decision Support Systems.” The first workshop focused on clinical and scientific requirements, exploring our knowledge of phenotypic characteristics of cancer biological properties to determine whether the field is sufficiently advanced to correlate with imaging phenotypes that underpin genomics and clinical outcomes, and exploring new scientific methods to extract phenotypic features from medical images and relate them to genomics analyses. The second workshop focused on computational methods that explore informatics and computational requirements to extract phenotypic features from medical images and relate them to genomics analyses and improve the accessibility and speed of dissemination of existing NIH resources. These workshops linked clinical and scientific requirements of currently known phenotypic and genotypic cancer biology characteristics with imaging phenotypes that underpin genomics and clinical outcomes. The group generated a set of recommendations to NCI leadership and the research community that encourage and support development of the emerging radiogenomics research field to address short-and longer-term goals in cancer research. PMID:25389451

  4. Vestibular Performance During High-Acceleration Stimuli Correlates with Clinical Decline in SCA6.

    PubMed

    Huh, Young Eun; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Park, Seong-Ho; Jeon, Beom Seok; Kim, Jong-Min; Cho, Jin Whan; Zee, David S

    2015-06-01

    In spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6), the vestibular dysfunction and its correlation with other clinical parameters require further exploration. We determined vestibular responses over a broad range of stimulus acceleration in 11 patients with SCA6 (six men, age range=33-72 years, mean age±SD=59±12 years) using bithermal caloric irrigations, rotary chair, and head impulse tests. Correlations were also pursued among disability scores, as measured using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale, disease duration, age at onset, cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat length, and the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). In response to relatively low-acceleration, low-frequency rotational and bithermal caloric stimuli, the VOR gains were normal or increased regardless of the severity of disease. On the other hand, with relatively high-acceleration, high-frequency head impulses, there was a relative increase in gain in the mildly affected patients and a decrease in gain in the more severely affected patients and gains were negatively correlated with the severity of disease (Spearman correlation, R=-0.927, p<0.001). Selective decrease of the vestibular responses during high-acceleration, high-frequency stimuli may be ascribed to degeneration of either the flocculus or vestibular nuclei. The performance of the VOR during high-acceleration, high-frequency head impulses may be a quantitative indicator of clinical decline in SCA6. PMID:25624155

  5. Clinical Correlates of Apathy in Patients Recently Diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease: The ANIMO Study

    PubMed Central

    Cubo, Esther; Benito-León, Julián; Coronell, Carlos; Armesto, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Objective Little is known about apathy in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). We determined the clinical correlates of apathy in a large representative sample of patients recently diagnosed with PD (ANIMO study). Methods PD patients, diagnosed within 2 years of inclusion, were recruited in 102 outpatient clinics situated in 82 populations throughout Spain. Apathy was quantified using the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS). Clinical comparisons and correlations were performed using nonparametric tests. Regression analyses were used to test the association of clinical variables with apathy. Results We recruited 557 PD patients (60.3% men) with a mean age of 68.8 ± 9.7 years, and UPDRS motor score of 21.1 ± 10.8. Apathy only was diagnosed in 186 (33.4%), and apathy and depression in 215 patients (38.6%). Patients with higher comorbidity (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.01?1.20, p = 0.001), motor impairment (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03?1.10, p < 0.0001), and lower education (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.21?;3.85, p = 0.009) had higher odds of having apathy, in contrast to patients living in a rural environment (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.32–0.85, p = 0.01), and left predominant PD motor laterality (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.13–0.88, p = 0.01). LARS scores were significantly correlated with UPDRS motor scores (rs = 0.44, p < 0.001), predominantly with axial score (rs = 0.43, p < 0.001). Conclusions In PD, apathy is a very common and disabling nonmotor symptom separable from depression. Patients living in a rural environment, with lower comorbidity and motor impairment, higher education background, and left predominant PD motor laterality are at lower risk of suffering from apathy. PMID:22236943

  6. Clinical, radiological and molecular diagnosis correlation in serum samples from patients with osteoarticular tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Martínez-Elizondo, Olga; del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo; González-Bonilla, César

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in serum samples, in the diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis (OTB) in a setting where only clinical and imaging diagnoses determine the treatment. Methods A total of 44 consecutive serum specimens were collected from clinically suspected OTB patients, based on clinical and radiological [X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography] features. They were screened by in-house nested PCR. In addition, a few specimens were examined by Gram stain, acid-fast bacilli stain, histopathology and routine bacterial culture. A total of 39 specimens were collected from patients suffering from other bone diseases of nontuberculous origin and included as negative controls. Results Of the 44 clinically suspected OTB patients, in-house nested PCR was positive in 40 (91%) cases; PCR was negative in 38 (97%) negative controls. Sensitivity and specificity of our in-house nested PCR was 90.9% and 97.4%, respectively. The PCR report was available within 48 h. It was possible to standardize serum PCR technique and in positive cases, a good correlation was observed in terms of an adequate treatment response. Conclusions Nested PCR in serum samples is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific modality for OTB detection. PCR should be performed in addition to clinical evaluation, imaging studies, acid-fast bacilli staining, culture and histopathology diagnosis, if possible. PMID:25183281

  7. question_1411972022 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

  8. question_1411972090 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

  9. Sex-Specific Clinical Correlates of Hoarding in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Jack F.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Pinto, Anthony; Murphy, Dennis L.; Piacentini, John; Rauch, Scott L.; Fyer, Abby J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Knowles, James A.; McCracken, James T.; Cullen, Bernadette; Riddle, Mark A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Pauls, David L.; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Pulver, Ann E.; Nestadt, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about whether the clinical correlates of hoarding behavior are different in men and women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the current study, we evaluated the association of hoarding with categories of obsessions and compulsions, psychiatric disorders, personality dimensions, and other clinical characteristics separately in 151 men and 358 women with OCD who were examined during the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study. We found that, among men but not women, hoarding was associated with aggressive, sexual, and religious obsessions and checking compulsions. In men, hoarding was associated with generalized anxiety disorder and tics whereas, among women, hoarding was associated with social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, nail biting, and skin picking. In women but not men, hoarding was associated with schizotypal and dependent personality disorder dimensions, and with low conscientiousness. These findings indicate that specific clinical correlates of hoarding in OCD are different in men and women and may reflect sex-specific differences in the course, expression, and/or etiology of hoarding behavior in OCD. PMID:18692168

  10. Clinical Correlates of NRAS and BRAF Mutations in Primary Human Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ellerhorst, Julie A.; Greene, Victoria R.; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Warneke, Carla L.; Johnson, Marcella M.; Cooke, Carolyn P.; Wang, Li-E; Prieto, Victor G.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Wei, Qingyi; Grimm, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose NRAS and BRAF mutations are common in cutaneous melanomas, although rarely detected mutually in the same tumor. Distinct clinical correlates of these mutations have not been described, despite in vitro data suggesting enhanced oncogenic effects. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that primary human cutaneous melanomas harboring mutations in NRAS or BRAF display a more aggressive clinical phenotype than tumors wild type at both loci. Experimental Design Microdissection of 223 primary melanomas was carried out, followed by determination of the NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Genotypic findings were correlated with features known to influence tumor behavior, including age, gender, Breslow depth, Clark level, mitotic rate, the presence of ulceration, and AJCC staging. Results Breslow depth and Clark level varied significantly among the genotypes, with NRAS mutants showing the deepest levels and wild type tumors the least depth. Ulceration also differed significantly among the genotypes, with BRAF mutants demonstrating the highest rate. Additionally, tumors with mutated NRAS were more likely to be located on the extremities. Patients whose tumors carried either mutation presented with more advanced AJCC stages compared to patients with wild type tumors, and specifically, were more likely to have Stage III disease at diagnosis. Overall survival did not differ among the three groups. Conclusions Distinct clinical phenotypes exist for melanomas bearing NRAS and BRAF mutations, whether considered together or separately, and are associated with features known to predict aggressive tumor behavior. The impact of these mutations is most evident at earlier stages of disease progression. PMID:20975100

  11. Mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells correlates with the clinical course of hantavirus disease.

    PubMed

    Krautkrämer, Ellen; Grouls, Stephan; Hettwer, David; Rafat, Neysan; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Zeier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Infections with hemorrhagic fever viruses are characterized by increased permeability leading to capillary leakage. Hantavirus infection is associated with endothelial dysfunction, and the clinical course is related to the degree of vascular injury. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) play a pivotal role in the repair of the damaged endothelium. Therefore, we analyzed the number of cEPCs and their mobilizing growth factors in patients suffering from hantavirus disease induced by infection with Puumala virus. The numbers of EPCs of 36 hantavirus-infected patients and age- and gender-matched healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry. Concentrations of cEPC-mobilizing growth factors in plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Laboratory parameters were correlated with the number of cEPCs. In patients infected with hantavirus, the number of cEPCs was significantly higher than that in healthy controls. Levels of mobilizing cytokines were upregulated in patients, and the mobilization of cEPCs is paralleled with the normalization of clinical parameters. Moreover, higher levels of cEPCs correlated with higher serum albumin levels and platelet concentrations. Our data indicate that cEPCs may play a role in the repair of hantavirus-induced endothelial damage, thereby influencing the clinical course and the severity of symptoms. PMID:24155401

  12. Clinical correlations with chemosensitivities measured in a rapid thymidine incorporation assay

    SciTech Connect

    Sondak, V.K.; Bertelsen, C.A.; Tanigawa, N.; Hildebrand-Zanki, S.U.; Morton, D.L.; Korn, E.L.; Kern, D.H.

    1984-04-01

    A rapid assay for in vitro chemosensitivity testing measuring (3H)thymidine incorporation has been developed. Results of this assay correlate highly with chemosensitivities determined by the soft-agar clonogenic assay. A correlative study was carried out on 219 solid tumor specimens to assess the ability of the rapid assay to predict clinical response to antineoplastic therapy. One hundred forty-two of 219 tumors (65%) yielded chemosensitivity data. Of these, 33 were evaluable for in vitro-in vivo correlations. In vitro sensitivity (greater than or equal to 80% inhibition of thymidine uptake) was associated with clinical response in 6 of 13 patients. In vitro resistance was associated with progressive disease in 20 of 20 patients. The rapid assay offers several advantages over the soft-agar clonogenic assay, including higher success rate, avoidance of clumping artifact, shorter time course (5 days), and very low false-negative rate. Further refinement may be necessary, but the rapid assay appears to have potential for individualizing solid tumor chemotherapy.

  13. Clinical and cognitive correlates of the proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures in chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Szulc, Agata; Gali?ska-Skok, Beata; Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Konarzewska, Beata; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Hykiel, Rafa?; Walecki, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) allows for examining brain functions in vivo in schizophrenic patients. Correlations between N-acetylaspartate (NAA) level in the frontal lobe and cognitive functions and clinical symptoms have been observed. The aim of the present study was evaluation of relationship between clinical symptoms, cognitive outcomes and brain function in 1H MRS measures in schizophrenic patients. Material/Methods The study included a group of 47 patients with chronic schizophrenia. Patients were assessed by means of PANSS, CGI, and a battery of cognitive tests: WCST, TMT, and verbal fluency test. MRI and MRS procedures were performed. Regions of interest were located in the left frontal lobe, temporal lobe and thalamus. Metabolite (NAA, choline, myoinositol and Glx complex) ratios to creatine were calculated. Results We observed a significant negative correlation between myoinositol level in the frontal lobe and WSCT test performance. These data were confirmed by further analysis, which showed a significant correlation between WCST outcome, negative symptoms score, education level and myoinositol ratio in the frontal lobe. When analyzing negative symptoms as independent variables, the analysis of regression revealed a significant relationship between negative symptoms score and verbal fluency score, together with choline level in the thalamus. Conclusions The above data seem to confirm a significant role of the thalamus – a “transmission station” involved in connections with the prefrontal cortex – for psychopathology development (especially negative) in schizophrenia. Moreover, our results suggest that a neurodegenerative process may be involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:22648255

  14. The Depressive Experiences Questionnaire: validity and psychological correlates in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Riley, W T; McCranie, E W

    1990-01-01

    This study sought to compare the original and revised scoring systems of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) and to assess the construct validity of the Dependent and Self-Critical subscales of the DEQ in a clinically depressed sample. Subjects were 103 depressed inpatients who completed the DEQ, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hopelessness Scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ), the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS), and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The original and revised scoring systems of the DEQ evidenced good concurrent validity for each factor scale, but the revised system did not sufficiently discriminate dependent and self-critical dimensions. Using the original scoring system, self-criticism was significantly and positively related to severity of depression, whereas dependency was not, particularly for males. Factor analysis of the DEQ scales and the other scales used in this study supported the dependent and self-critical dimensions. For men, the correlation of the DEQ with the MMPI scales indicated that self-criticism was associated with psychotic symptoms, hostility/conflict, and a distress/exaggerated response set, whereas dependency did not correlate significantly with any MMPI scales. Females, however, did not exhibit a differential pattern of correlations between either the Dependency or the Self-Criticism scales and the MMPI. These findings suggest possible gender differences in the clinical characteristics of male and female dependent and self-critical depressive subtypes. PMID:2348339

  15. Normalized movement quality measures for therapeutic robots strongly correlate with clinical motor impairment measures.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ozkan; O'Malley, Marcia K; Boake, Corwin; Levin, Harvey S; Yozbatiran, Nuray; Reistetter, Timothy A

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we analyze the correlations between four clinical measures (Fugl-Meyer upper extremity scale, Motor Activity Log, Action Research Arm Test, and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test) and four robotic measures (smoothness of movement, trajectory error, average number of target hits per minute, and mean tangential speed), used to assess motor recovery. Data were gathered as part of a hybrid robotic and traditional upper extremity rehabilitation program for nine stroke patients. Smoothness of movement and trajectory error, temporally and spatially normalized measures of movement quality defined for point-to-point movements, were found to have significant moderate to strong correlations with all four of the clinical measures. The strong correlations suggest that smoothness of movement and trajectory error may be used to compare outcomes of different rehabilitation protocols and devices effectively, provide improved resolution for tracking patient progress compared to only pre- and post-treatment measurements, enable accurate adaptation of therapy based on patient progress, and deliver immediate and useful feedback to the patient and therapist. PMID:20388607

  16. A Brief Measure of Worry Severity (BMWS): personality and clinical correlates of severe worriers.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, Gemma L; Parker, Gordon B; Mitchell, Philip B; Malhi, Gin S; Wilhelm, Kay A; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the development of a brief and valid self-report measure to assess severe and dysfunctional worry (the Brief Measure of Worry Severity or BMWS). Using three independent subject groups (clinical and non-clinical), the measure was used to examine the differential severity of worry in depression and anxiety and to examine the clinical and personality correlates of severe worriers. Preliminary psychometric evaluation revealed that the BMWS possesses good construct and clinical discriminant validity. Subjects reporting greater worry severity tended to be more "introverted" and "obsessional," but less "agreeable" and "conscientious." Subjects with depression only, reported less problems with worrying compared to those with co-morbid anxiety disorders. However, among the anxiety disorders, severe and dysfunctional worry was not exclusively experienced by subjects with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This study suggests that pathological worry is not only relevant for patients with GAD, but may be an equally detrimental cognitive activity for patients with panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:16243636

  17. Molecular Subtypes of Uterine Leiomyosarcoma and Correlation with Clinical Outcome12

    PubMed Central

    Barlin, Joyce N.; Zhou, Qin C.; Leitao, Mario M.; Bisogna, Maria; Olvera, Narciso; Shih, Karin K.; Jacobsen, Anders; Schultz, Nikolaus; Tap, William D.; Hensley, Martee L.; Schwartz, Gary K.; Boyd, Jeff; Qin, Li-Xuan; Levine, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular etiology of uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is poorly understood, which accounts for the wide disparity in outcomes among women with this disease. We examined and compared the molecular profiles of ULMS and normal myometrium (NL) to identify clinically relevant molecular subtypes. Discovery cases included 29 NL and 23 ULMS specimens. RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix U133A 2.0 transcription microarrays. Differentially expressed genes and pathways were identified using standard methods. Fourteen NL and 44 ULMS independent archival samples were used for external validation. Molecular subgroups were correlated with clinical outcome. Pathway analyses of differentially expressed genes between ULMS and NL samples identified overrepresentation of cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, and genomic integrity. External validation confirmed differential expression in 31 genes (P < 4.4 × 10? 4, Bonferroni corrected), with 84% of the overexpressed genes, including CDC7, CDC20, GTSE1, CCNA2, CCNB1, and CCNB2, participating in cell cycle regulation. Unsupervised clustering of ULMS identified two clades that were reproducibly associated with progression-free (median, 4.0 vs 26.0 months; P = .02; HR, 0.33) and overall (median, 18.2 vs 77.2 months; P = .04; HR, 0.33) survival. Cell cycle genes play a key role in ULMS sarcomagenesis, providing opportunities for therapeutic targeting. Reproducible molecular subtypes associated with clinical outcome may permit individualized adjuvant treatment after clinical trial validation. PMID:25748237

  18. Correlation between fracture properties and clinical performance of composite resins in Class IV cavities.

    PubMed

    Tyas, M J

    1990-02-01

    One hundred and two Class IV cavities were restored randomly with four composite resins. The restorations were assessed at six months, one year, two years and three years for surface chipping, bulk fracture and incisal wear. The data were correlated with various mechanical properties of the materials. A significant correlation was found between surface chipping/bulk fracture and fracture toughness (P = 0.002), elastic modulus (P = 0.006) and tensile strength (P = 0.045). There was a trend towards an association between incisal wear and both elastic modulus and inherent flaw size. Fracture toughness may be a useful indicator of the clinical performance of composites in Class IV cavities. PMID:2322172

  19. Clinical correlates of decreased anteroposterior metabolic gradients in positron emission tomography (PET) of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    DeLisi, L.E.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Holcomb, H.H.; Dowling-Zimmerman, S.; Pickar, D.; Boronow, J.; Morihisa, J.M.; van Kammen, D.P.; Carpenter, W.; Kessler, R.

    1985-01-01

    The finding in schizophrenic patients of a reversal of the normal frontal to posterior pattern of brain metabolic activity with positron emission tomography (PET) is of interest, but its relevance to psychopathology is unknown. Using PET, the authors studied 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Although eight of the 21 patients and only one of the control subjects showed a relatively lower anteroposterior metabolic gradient, no clinical correlates of this finding were noted. In addition, cerebral atrophy, as determined by CAT scan, was not associated with this aberrant metabolic pattern.

  20. Correlating preclinical animal studies and human clinical trials of a multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Eliasof, Scott; Lazarus, Douglas; Peters, Christian G; Case, Roy I; Cole, Roderic O; Hwang, Jungyeon; Schluep, Thomas; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Han, Han; Wiley, Devin T; Zuckerman, Jonathan E; Davis, Mark E

    2013-09-10

    Nanoparticles are currently being investigated in a number of human clinical trials. As information on how nanoparticles function in humans is difficult to obtain, animal studies that can be correlative to human behavior are needed to provide guidance for human clinical trials. Here, we report correlative studies on animals and humans for CRLX101, a 20- to 30-nm-diameter, multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle containing camptothecin (CPT). CRLX101 is currently in phase 2 clinical trials, and human data from several of the clinical investigations are compared with results from multispecies animal studies. The pharmacokinetics of polymer-conjugated CPT (indicative of the CRLX101 nanoparticles) in mice, rats, dogs, and humans reveal that the area under the curve scales linearly with milligrams of CPT per square meter for all species. Plasma concentrations of unconjugated CPT released from CRLX101 in animals and humans are consistent with each other after accounting for differences in serum albumin binding of CPT. Urinary excretion of polymer-conjugated CPT occurs primarily within the initial 24 h after dosing in animals and humans. The urinary excretion dynamics of polymer-conjugated and unconjugated CPT appear similar between animals and humans. CRLX101 accumulates into solid tumors and releases CPT over a period of several days to give inhibition of its target in animal xenograft models of cancer and in the tumors of humans. Taken in total, the evidence provided from animal models on the CRLX101 mechanism of action suggests that the behavior of CRLX101 in animals is translatable to humans. PMID:23980155

  1. Correlating preclinical animal studies and human clinical trials of a multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Eliasof, Scott; Lazarus, Douglas; Peters, Christian G.; Case, Roy I.; Cole, Roderic O.; Hwang, Jungyeon; Schluep, Thomas; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Han, Han; Wiley, Devin T.; Zuckerman, Jonathan E.; Davis, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles are currently being investigated in a number of human clinical trials. As information on how nanoparticles function in humans is difficult to obtain, animal studies that can be correlative to human behavior are needed to provide guidance for human clinical trials. Here, we report correlative studies on animals and humans for CRLX101, a 20- to 30-nm-diameter, multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle containing camptothecin (CPT). CRLX101 is currently in phase 2 clinical trials, and human data from several of the clinical investigations are compared with results from multispecies animal studies. The pharmacokinetics of polymer-conjugated CPT (indicative of the CRLX101 nanoparticles) in mice, rats, dogs, and humans reveal that the area under the curve scales linearly with milligrams of CPT per square meter for all species. Plasma concentrations of unconjugated CPT released from CRLX101 in animals and humans are consistent with each other after accounting for differences in serum albumin binding of CPT. Urinary excretion of polymer-conjugated CPT occurs primarily within the initial 24 h after dosing in animals and humans. The urinary excretion dynamics of polymer-conjugated and unconjugated CPT appear similar between animals and humans. CRLX101 accumulates into solid tumors and releases CPT over a period of several days to give inhibition of its target in animal xenograft models of cancer and in the tumors of humans. Taken in total, the evidence provided from animal models on the CRLX101 mechanism of action suggests that the behavior of CRLX101 in animals is translatable to humans. PMID:23980155

  2. Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7: Clinical Course, Phenotype-Genotype Correlations, and Neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Laura C.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Vangel, Mark G.; Weigel-DiFranco, Carol; Berson, Eliot L.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 is a neurodegenerative polyglutamine disease characterized by ataxia and retinal degeneration. The longitudinal course is unknown, and relationships between repeat expansion, clinical manifestations, and neuropathology remain uncertain. METHODS We followed 16 affected individuals of a 61-member kindred over 27 years with electroretinograms, neurological examinations including the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale, neuroimaging in 5, and autopsy in 4 cases. RESULTS We identified 4 stages of the illness. Stage 0; gene positive but phenotypically silent. Stage 1; no symptoms, but hyperreflexia and/or abnormal electroretinograms. Stage 2; symptoms and signs progress modestly. Stage 3; rapid clinical progression. CAG repeat length correlated inversely with age of onset of visual or motor signs (r=-0.74, p=0.002). Stage 3 rate of progression did not differ between cases (p=0.18). Electroretinograms correlated with Brief Ataxia Rating Scale score and were a biomarker of disease onset and progression. All symptomatic patients developed gait ataxia, extremity dysmetria, dysarthria, dysrhythmia, and oculomotor abnormalities. Funduscopy revealed pale optic discs and pigmentary disturbances. Visual acuity declined to blindness in those with longer CAG expansions. Hyperreflexia was present from Stage 1 onwards. Restless legs syndrome and sensory impairment were common. Neuropathological hallmarks were neuronal loss in cerebellar cortex, deep cerebellar nuclei, inferior olive, and anterior horns of the spinal cord, and axonal loss in spinocerebellar tracts, dorsal nerve roots and posterior columns. Retinal pathology included photoreceptor degeneration and disruption of retinal pigment epithelium. DISCUSSION Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 evolves through 4 clinical stages; neuropathological findings underlie the clinical presentation; electroretinograms are a potential biomarker of disease progression. PMID:22915085

  3. Oxidative Stress Correlates with Headache Symptoms in Fibromyalgia: Coenzyme Q10 Effect on Clinical Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Mario D.; Cano-García, Francisco Javier; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; De Miguel, Manuel; Sánchez-Alcázar, José Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome with unknown etiology and a wide spectrum of symptoms such as allodynia, debilitating fatigue, joint stiffness and migraine. Recent studies have shown some evidences demonstrating that oxidative stress is associated to clinical symptoms in FM of fibromyalgia. We examined oxidative stress and bioenergetic status in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and its association to headache symptoms in FM patients. The effects of oral coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on biochemical markers and clinical improvement were also evaluated. Methods We studied 20 FM patients and 15 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), visual analogues scales (VAS), and the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring CoQ10, catalase and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in BMCs. Bioenergetic status was assessed by measuring ATP levels in BMCs. Results We found decreased CoQ10, catalase and ATP levels in BMCs from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively) We also found increased level of LPO in BMCs from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.001). Significant negative correlations between CoQ10 or catalase levels in BMCs and headache parameters were observed (r?=??0.59, P<0.05; r?=??0.68, P<0.05, respectively). Furthermore, LPO levels showed a significant positive correlation with HIT-6 (r?=?0.33, P<0.05). Oral CoQ10 supplementation restored biochemical parameters and induced a significant improvement in clinical and headache symptoms (P<0.001). Discussion The results of this study suggest a role for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the headache symptoms associated with FM. CoQ10 supplementation should be examined in a larger placebo controlled trial as a possible treatment in FM. PMID:22532869

  4. Clinical factors correlated with the success rate of miniscrews in orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Topouzelis, Nikolaos; Tsaousoglou, Phoebus

    2012-01-01

    Miniscrews offer a reliable alternative for anchorage during orthodontic treatment, particularly for non-cooperative patients or periodontal patients with alveolar bone loss. The study aims at assessing the correlation of various clinical indicators with the success or failure of miniscrews used for anchorage during orthodontic treatment. Thirty-four consecutive patients with a cumulative total of 82 miniscrews implanted participated in the study. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to assess the correlation of various factors with success rates. The miniscrew was considered the unit of analysis clustered within site and within patient. The overall success rate of miniscrews was 90.2%. For every additional miniscrew used in a patient's oral cavity, the success rate was reduced by 67%. Retromandibular triangle and palatal placement and in movable mucosa resulted in lower success rate. The miniscrew length and diameter were found to correlate with success rates. Orthodontic force applied on miniscrews for uprighting purposes showed a lower success rate than that used for retraction. This study revealed that miniscrews present high success rates. The number of miniscrews used per patient, the miniscrew site placement, the soft tissue type of placement, the miniscrew length and diameter as well as the orthodontic force applied on the miniscrew showed significant correlation with success rates. PMID:22241373

  5. question_1410159378 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Looking at cell to cell differences within a tumor bed, contributed by either DNA mutations, epigenetic or post-translational modifications (PTM) or miRNA mediated control switches or even a combination of all these, the question rise how to best design a personalized drug trial?

  6. question_1411052731 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    This question is epidemiologic but prevention is better than cure. Since both ovarian low and high grade serous carcinomas originate from the distal fallopian tube, wouldn’t (large- scale) snipping of the fimbrial end of both tubes at the time of tubectomy (with informed consent) prevent the majority of serous carcinomas developing over time?

  7. Correlation between Clinical Diagnosis and Colonoscopic Findings of Patients Presented with Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Bhuiyan, M H; Ferdaus, A M; Mahmud, R

    2015-04-01

    Lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a frequently encountered problem in general medical practice. This bleeding comes from a site distal to ligament of Treitz. But it may also come from upper gastrointestinal tract when it is massive and pass through the stool. This study was intended to explore the causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding and correlating them with their colonoscopic findings. This study was cross-sectional prospective. Sample was taken purposively. Out of 200 patients which were selected for the study, 122(61%) were male and 78(39%) were female with a male to female ratio of 5:3. The ages of the patients were ranging from 5 to 80 years with the mean age of 41.9±15.0 years; maximum 38(19%) patients were in 51 to 60 years. All patients were presented with per rectal bleeding & underwent colonoscopy & maximum 57(28.5%) patients were diagnosed as hemorrhoids, followed by colorectal cancer in 55(27.5%) cases. In 10(5%) cases of haemorrhoids 2nd pathology was found associated with it. In 32(16%) cases colonoscopic findings were normal. It was concluded that the most common cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding was hemorrhoids followed by colorectal cancer. But several cases of colon cancer were misdiagnosed clinically as colitis. So clinical diagnosis should be correlated & confirmed by colonoscopy and biopsy. PMID:26007248

  8. HbF in HbE/?-thalassemia: A clinical and laboratory correlation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wai Feng; Muniandi, Logeswaran; George, Elizabeth; Sathar, Jameela; Teh, Lai Kuan; Lai, Mei I

    2015-07-01

    Introduction Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is the predominant hemoglobin in red cells during fetal life. Just after birth, the level of HbF decreases gradually to <1%, and is replaced mainly by adult hemoglobin (HbA) (?97%). However, higher HbF levels could be associated with HbE/?-thalassemia, a complex thalassemia intermedia with a diverse clinical severity ranging from mild-to-severe anemia. This study investigates the correlation of HbF level with the clinical and laboratory data of HbE/?-thalassemia individuals. Methods Peripheral blood samples from 30 HbE/?-thalassemia subjects were subjected to a full blood count, genomic as well as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction gene expression studies. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0. Results HbF levels were influenced by age, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), HbA, ?-globin, and ?/?-globin expressions. Discussion HbF production is affected by the ?/?-globin chain imbalance due to the lack of ?-globin gene expression as well as inversely correlates to the amount of functional hemoglobin available in the cells. PMID:25243862

  9. Correlation between Blood Activin Levels and Clinical Parameters of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui; Wu, Michael; Chen, Yi; Allan, Carolyn A.; Phillips, David J.; Hedger, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Activins A and B, and their binding protein, follistatin, regulate glucose metabolism and inflammation. Consequently, their role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) was examined. Methods. Blood was taken from fasted participants (34 males; 58 females; 50–75 years) with diabetes or during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Clinical parameters were assessed, and blood assayed for activins, follistatin, and C-reactive protein. Results. Serum levels of activin A (93.3 ± 27.0?pg/mL, mean ± SD), B (81.8 ± 30.8?pg/mL), or follistatin (6.52 ± 3.15?ng/mL) were not different (P > 0.05) between subjects with normal OGTT (n = 39), impaired glucose tolerance and/or fasting glucose (n = 17), or T2D (n = 36). However, activin A and/or activin B were positively correlated with parameters of insulin resistance and T2D, including fasting glucose (P < 0.001), fasting insulin (P = 0.02), glycated hemoglobin (P = 0.003), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; P < 0.001). Follistatin was positively correlated with HOMA-IR alone (P = 0.01). Conclusions. These data indicate that serum measurements of activin A, B, or follistatin cannot discriminate risk for T2D in individual patients, but the activins display a positive relationship with clinical parameters of the disease. PMID:23304117

  10. Evaluation of loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability in human pterygium: clinical correlations

    PubMed Central

    Detorakis, E; Sourvinos, G; Tsamparlakis, J; Spandidos, D

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the incidence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MI) in pterygia and their possible correlation with clinical variables.?METHODS—50 pterygia, blood, and conjunctival specimens were obtained. A personal and family history was recorded for each patient. Amplification of 15 microsatellite markers at regions 17p, 17q, 13q, 9p, and 9q was performed using the polymerase chain reaction. The electrophoretic pattern of DNA from pterygia was compared with the respective pattern from blood and conjunctiva.?RESULTS—LOH incidence was the highest at 9p (48%), followed by 17q (42%). Only three cases displayed MI. LOH incidence at individual markers was positively correlated with recurrence (D9S59, p=0.11 and D9S270, p=0.16), family history of neoplasia (D13S175, p=0.09), altitude of present residence ( D9S112, p=0.1), duration of the existence of pterygium (D9S144, p=0.06), and inversely correlated with age (D9S59, p=0.09). Concerning chromosome arms, LOH was positively correlated with the altitude of present residence (13q and 17p, p=0.03) and duration of the existence of pterygium (13q and 17p, p=0.09).?CONCLUSIONS—LOH is a common event whereas MI is a very uncommon one at the examined markers in pterygium, indicating the presence of putative tumour suppressor genes implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of the disease. The fact that LOH at 9q31-33 was more frequent in recurrent pterygia and also correlated with known risk factors such as young age and high altitude of residence, implies a possible predictive value of this finding for postoperative recurrence.?? Keywords: heterozygosity; microsatellite instability; pterygium PMID:9924343

  11. Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: Clinical Correlates and CBT Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, H M; Lester, K J; Jassi, A; Heyman, I; Krebs, G

    2015-07-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and impact of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a paediatric specialist OCD-clinic sample (N?=?295; Mean?=?15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n?=?261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n?=?127) measures of depression. The impact of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N?=?100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps?

  12. Molecular analysis of sarcoidosis lymph nodes for microorganisms: a case–control study with clinical correlates

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Lary A; Smith, Prudence; SenGupta, Dhruba J; Prentice, Jennifer L; Sandin, Ramon L

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is an incurable, chronic granulomatous disease primarily involving the lungs and lymph nodes of unknown aetiology, treated with non-specific anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive drugs. Persistently symptomatic patients worsen with a disabling, potentially fatal clinical course. To determine a possible infectious cause, we correlated in a case-control study the clinical information with the presence of bacterial DNA in sarcoidosis mediastinal lymph nodes compared with control lymph nodes resected during cancer surgery. Methods We retrospectively studied formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, mediastinal lymph nodes from 30 patients with sarcoidosis and 30 control patients with lung cancer. Nucleic acids were extracted from nodes, evaluated by ribosomal RNA PCR for bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA and the results were sequenced and compared with a bacterial sequence library. Clinical information was correlated. Results 11/30 (36.7%) of lymph nodes from patients with sarcoidosis had detectable bacterial DNA, significantly more than control patient lymph nodes (2/30, 6.7%), p=0.00516. At presentation, 19/30 (63.3%) patients with sarcoidosis were symptomatic including all patients with detectable bacterial DNA. Radiographically, there were 18 stage I and 12 stage II patients. All stage II patients were symptomatic and 75% had PCR-detectable bacteria. After a mean follow-up of 52.8±32.8?months, all patients with PCR-detectable bacteria in this series were persistently symptomatic requiring treatment. Discussion 36.6% of patients with sarcoidosis had detectable bacterial DNA on presentation, all of these patients were quite symptomatic and most were radiographically advanced stage II. These findings suggest that bacterial DNA-positive, symptomatic patients have more aggressive sarcoidosis that persists long term and might benefit from antimicrobial treatment directed against this presumed chronic granulomatous infection. PMID:24366580

  13. Correlation of ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor expression with clinical features in human pituitary adenomas

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JUNWEN; GUO, SONGBO; HAN, LIN; FANG, MINGBO; WANG, LEI; BARTSCH, JÖRG W.; LI, JUN

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, as a brain-gut peptide, has growth hormone (GH)-releasing and appetite-inducing activities and a widespread tissue distribution. Furthermore, ghrelin is an endogenous ligand of the GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR), and both ghrelin and GHSR are expressed in the pituitary; however, the data regarding the expression of ghrelin and GHSR in pituitary adenomas are divergent and conflicting. In the present study, therefore, the expression of ghrelin and GHSR was examined in the full spectrum of human pituitary adenoma subtypes (n=34) and in normal pituitary tissue (n=3). The mRNA and protein expression levels were quantified using a competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting and the correlation of the results with the clinical parameters was assessed. mRNA and protein expression of ghrelin and GHSR was detected in all samples with the highest mean level in GH adenomas, a moderate level in clinically non-functioning adenomas and the lowest level in adrenocorticotropin adenomas. A significant correlation between the ghrelin and GHSR mRNA expression levels was observed in the GH adenomas (n=12) (r=0.8435, P=0.0006). The ghrelin mRNA expression level in the GH adenomas correlated positively with the basic serum GH level (n=12) (r=0.6488, P=0.0225). Furthermore, the mean level of ghrelin mRNA expression was significantly higher in invasive adenomas than in noninvasive adenomas (P<0.01). Collectively, the results of the study provided evidence that ghrelin and GHSR are expressed in the various subtypes of pituitary adenoma, with specific overexpression in GH adenomas. The study suggests that the binding of ghrelin to GHSR promotes the secretion of GH and plays an important role in the development of GH adenomas via autocrine and/or paracrine effects.

  14. Correlation between nasal airflow characteristics and clinical relevance of nasal septal deviation to nasal airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Heo, Go Eun; Seo, Anna; Na, Yang; Chung, Seung-Kyu

    2014-02-01

    Since the imbalance of the nasal cavities due to nasal septal deviation (NSD) is a commonly observed anatomic variation in healthy adults, clinicians must often decide whether or not it is clinically relevant to the symptoms of nasal airway obstruction (NAO). Main reason for this is a lack of data correlating the symptoms of NAO with objective findings. The aim of our study is to find the correlation between fluid dynamic parameters and the anatomy of nasal cavity with NSD by numerical simulation. We generated 6 computational models of nasal cavities with NSD were created from computed tomographic images: 3 symptomatic patients with NAO and 3 asymptomatic patients. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate steady inspiratory airflows in each nasal cavity model and compare the fluid dynamic properties of each. In the symptomatic cases, the pressure drop from the naris to the end of the septum was larger, and more uneven flow partitioning was observed. Local maximum velocity and wall shear stress were higher in the symptomatic group than in the asymptomatic group. The symptoms of NAO seem to be related more to the nasal resistance from the naris to the end of the septum than to the total nasal resistance from naris to nasopharynx. Factors correlated with NAO by CFD can be used as elements in patient-specific objective diagnostic tools for NAO in the presence of NSD. PMID:24361464

  15. Microglial Activation Correlates with Disease Progression and Upper Motor Neuron Clinical Symptoms in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brettschneider, Johannes; Toledo, Jon B.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated clinicopathological correlates of upper motor neuron (UMN) damage in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and analyzed if the presence of the C9ORF72 repeat expansion was associated with alterations in microglial inflammatory activity. Methods Microglial pathology was assessed by IHC with 2 different antibodies (CD68, Iba1), myelin loss by Kluver-Barrera staining and myelin basic protein (MBP) IHC, and axonal loss by neurofilament protein (TA51) IHC, performed on 59 autopsy cases of ALS including 9 cases with C9ORF72 repeat expansion. Results Microglial pathology as depicted by CD68 and Iba1 was significantly more extensive in the corticospinal tract (CST) of ALS cases with a rapid progression of disease. Cases with C9ORF72 repeat expansion showed more extensive microglial pathology in the medulla and motor cortex which persisted after adjusting for disease duration in a logistic regression model. Higher scores on the clinical UMN scale correlated with increasing microglial pathology in the cervical CST. TDP-43 pathology was more extensive in the motor cortex of cases with rapid progression of disease. Conclusions This study demonstrates that microglial pathology in the CST of ALS correlates with disease progression and is linked to severity of UMN deficits. PMID:22720079

  16. [Use of correlation analysis of clinical and laboratory data in the treatment of patients with chronic suppurative maxillary sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, E A; Lisovets, V T

    1990-01-01

    In order to objectivize clinical and laboratory data, we applied P. V. Terentyev's method of correlation analysis as modified by A. N. Zosimov when examining 60 adolescents with chronic purulent maxillary sinusitis. This approach was necessary to choose an adequate method for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy. Analysis of correlations between clinical parameters, blood profile and immune data demonstrated different relationships before and after therapy. The mathematical and graphical models proposed make it possible to evaluate objectively each type of treatment, the results being in agreement with clinical observations. These models can help predict the course of disease. PMID:2075678

  17. Injury to the Preterm Brain and Cerebral Palsy: Clinical Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms, Unanswered Questions, and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Michael A.; Kostova, Felina V.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Johnston, Michael V.; Brunstrom, Jan E.; Hagberg, Henrik; Maria, Bernard L.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy will affect nearly 10% of the 60,000 very-low-birth-weight infants born in the United States in the next year, and an even greater percentage will display some form of permanent neurological impairment resulting from injury to the preterm brain. The 2008 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, held in conjunction with the 37th annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to define current knowledge and to develop specific aims for future clinical, translational, and fundamental science. A complex interplay of both destructive and developmental forces is responsible for injury to the preterm brain. Advances in imaging and histology have implicated a variety of cell types, though pre-oligodendrocyte injury remains the focus. Research into different mechanisms of injury is facilitating new neuroprotective and rehabilitative interventions. A cooperative effort is necessary to translate basic research findings into clinically effective therapies and better care for these children. PMID:19745084

  18. Correlation between fundamental binding forces and clinical prognosis of Staphylococcus aureus infections of medical implants

    SciTech Connect

    Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Fowler, Vance; Lower, Brian H.; Vellano, Francis P.; Alexander, Emily; Reller, L. Barth; Corey, G. Ralph; Lower, Steven

    2007-02-01

    Implanted medical devices (e.g., prosthetic heart valves, permanent pacemakers) significantly improve the quality of life for many humans. However, a common clinical observation is that such devices become colonized with potentially life-threatening Staphylococcus aureus biofilms, which are difficult to combat with host defenses or antibiotics. This study attempts to draw a correlation between the clinical outcome of patients with implanted cardiac devices and the fundamental binding forces ultimately responsible for the initiation of an S. aureus biofilm in-situ. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure forces between a fibronectin-coated probe (simulating a prosthetic implant) and 15 different strains of S. aureus isolated from either patients with infected cardiac devices (invasive population) or healthy human subjects (control population). The fibronectin-coated probe was repeatedly brought into and out of contact with a bacterium’s surface, “fishing” for a reaction with the cell’s fibronectin-binding proteins. More than 40,000 force profiles were measured on 5-10 different cells for each of the 15 clinical strains. A unique force-signature was observed for a binding event between the fibronectin-coated probe and the bacteria. When grouped by the frequency of this force-signature, there was a strong distinction (p=0.01) between the invasive and control populations of S. aureus. This discovery suggests that biofilm forming bacteria may be classified according to their “force taxonomy”, which could have a positive effect on health care as it bridges the long-standing disconnect between macroscopic, clinical investigations and nanometer-scale forces ultimately responsible for a bond between S. aureus and the surface of a prosthetic device.

  19. Correlation between Circulating Fungal Biomarkers and Clinical Outcome in Invasive Aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Neofytos, Dionysios; Railkar, Radha; Mullane, Kathleen M; Fredricks, David N; Granwehr, Bruno; Marr, Kieren A; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Maertens, Johan; Fox, Rebecca; Douglas, Cameron; Iannone, Robert; Kauh, Eunkyung; Shire, Norah

    2015-01-01

    Objective means are needed to predict and assess clinical response in patients treated for invasive aspergillosis (IA). We examined whether early changes in serum galactomannan (GM) and/or ?-D-glucan (BDG) can predict clinical outcomes. Patients with proven or probable IA were prospectively enrolled, and serial GM and BDG levels and GM optical density indices (GMI) were calculated twice weekly for 6 weeks following initiation of standard-of-care antifungal therapy. Changes in these biomarkers during the first 2 and 6 weeks of treatment were analyzed for associations with clinical response and survival at weeks 6 and 12. Among 47 patients with IA, 53.2% (25/47) and 65.9% (27/41) had clinical response by weeks 6 and 12, respectively. Changes in biomarkers during the first 2 weeks were associated with clinical response at 6 weeks (GMI, P = 0.03) and 12 weeks (GM+BDG composite, P = 0.05; GM, P = 0.04; GMI, P = 0.02). Changes in biomarkers during the first 6 weeks were also associated with clinical response at 6 weeks (GM, P = 0.05; GMI, P = 0.03) and 12 weeks (BDG+GM, P = 0.02; GM, P = 0.02; GMI, P = 0.01). Overall survival rates at 6 weeks and 12 weeks were 87.2% (41/47) and 79.1% (34/43), respectively. Decreasing biomarkers in the first 2 weeks were associated with survival at 6 weeks (BDG+GM, P = 0.03; BDG, P = 0.01; GM, P = 0.03) and at 12 weeks (BDG+GM, P = 0.01; BDG, P = 0.03; GM, P = 0.01; GMI, P = 0.007). Similar correlations occurred for biomarkers measured over 6 weeks. Patients with negative baseline GMI and/or persistently negative GMI during the first 2 weeks were more likely to have CR and survival. These results suggest that changes of biomarkers may be informative to predict and/or assess response to therapy and survival in patients treated for IA. PMID:26107507

  20. Correlation between Circulating Fungal Biomarkers and Clinical Outcome in Invasive Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Neofytos, Dionysios; Railkar, Radha; Mullane, Kathleen M.; Fredricks, David N.; Granwehr, Bruno; Marr, Kieren A.; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Maertens, Johan; Fox, Rebecca; Douglas, Cameron; Iannone, Robert; Kauh, Eunkyung; Shire, Norah

    2015-01-01

    Objective means are needed to predict and assess clinical response in patients treated for invasive aspergillosis (IA). We examined whether early changes in serum galactomannan (GM) and/or ?-D-glucan (BDG) can predict clinical outcomes. Patients with proven or probable IA were prospectively enrolled, and serial GM and BDG levels and GM optical density indices (GMI) were calculated twice weekly for 6 weeks following initiation of standard-of-care antifungal therapy. Changes in these biomarkers during the first 2 and 6 weeks of treatment were analyzed for associations with clinical response and survival at weeks 6 and 12. Among 47 patients with IA, 53.2% (25/47) and 65.9% (27/41) had clinical response by weeks 6 and 12, respectively. Changes in biomarkers during the first 2 weeks were associated with clinical response at 6 weeks (GMI, P = 0.03) and 12 weeks (GM+BDG composite, P = 0.05; GM, P = 0.04; GMI, P = 0.02). Changes in biomarkers during the first 6 weeks were also associated with clinical response at 6 weeks (GM, P = 0.05; GMI, P = 0.03) and 12 weeks (BDG+GM, P = 0.02; GM, P = 0.02; GMI, P = 0.01). Overall survival rates at 6 weeks and 12 weeks were 87.2% (41/47) and 79.1% (34/43), respectively. Decreasing biomarkers in the first 2 weeks were associated with survival at 6 weeks (BDG+GM, P = 0.03; BDG, P = 0.01; GM, P = 0.03) and at 12 weeks (BDG+GM, P = 0.01; BDG, P = 0.03; GM, P = 0.01; GMI, P = 0.007). Similar correlations occurred for biomarkers measured over 6 weeks. Patients with negative baseline GMI and/or persistently negative GMI during the first 2 weeks were more likely to have CR and survival. These results suggest that changes of biomarkers may be informative to predict and/or assess response to therapy and survival in patients treated for IA. PMID:26107507

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology in Adulthood as a Clinical Correlate of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Mathew W.

    The mental health community has become increasingly aware of the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A recent national survey found that 16% of adult males and 27% of adult females had experienced some type of CSA. This paper reviews the empirical literature in an attempt to answer the following questions: (1) Is CSA correlated with the…

  2. The phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Sulkowski, Michael L; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B; Arnold, Elysse B; Mutch, P Jane; Jones, Anna M; Murphy, Tanya K

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity, functional impairment, and behavioral and emotional problems. Approximately 11 % of youth displayed suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Children with autism were more likely to have suicidal thoughts and behaviors whereas children with Asperger's disorder were less likely. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were associated with the presence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, results suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are common in youth with ASD, and may be related to depression and trauma. PMID:23446993

  3. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N=102; range=7–16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity, functional impairment, and behavioral and emotional problems. Approximately 11% of youth displayed suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Children with autism were more likely to have suicidal thoughts and behaviors whereas children with Asperger’s disorder were less likely. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were associated with the presence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, results suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are common in youth with ASD, and may be related to depression and trauma. PMID:23446993

  4. Novel SCN9A Mutations Underlying Extreme Pain Phenotypes: Unexpected Electrophysiological and Clinical Phenotype Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Edward C.; Habib, Abdella M.; Cox, James J.; Nicholas, Adeline K.; Gribble, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of NaV1.7 (encoded by SCN9A) in the regulation of pain sensing is exemplified by the heterogeneity of clinical phenotypes associated with its mutation. Gain-of-function mutations are typically pain-causing and have been associated with inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). IEM is usually caused by enhanced NaV1.7 channel activation, whereas mutations that alter steady-state fast inactivation often lead to PEPD. In contrast, nonfunctional mutations in SCN9A are known to underlie congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP). Although well documented, the correlation between SCN9A genotypes and clinical phenotypes is still unclear. Here we report three families with novel SCN9A mutations. In a multiaffected dominant family with IEM, we found the heterozygous change L245 V. Electrophysiological characterization showed that this mutation did not affect channel activation but instead resulted in incomplete fast inactivation and a small hyperpolarizing shift in steady-state slow inactivation, characteristics more commonly associated with PEPD. In two compound heterozygous CIP patients, we found mutations that still retained functionality of the channels, with two C-terminal mutations (W1775R and L1831X) exhibiting a depolarizing shift in channel activation. Two mutations (A1236E and L1831X) resulted in a hyperpolarizing shift in steady-state fast inactivation. To our knowledge, these are the first descriptions of mutations with some retained channel function causing CIP. This study emphasizes the complex genotype–phenotype correlations that exist for SCN9A and highlights the C-terminal cytoplasmic region of NaV1.7 as a critical region for channel function, potentially facilitating analgesic drug development studies. PMID:25995458

  5. Correlations between endoscopic and clinical disease activity indices in intestinal Behcet's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Youn Nam; Jang, Hui Won; Jeon, Han Ho; Jung, Eun Suk; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Nam, Chung Mo; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To develop a novel endoscopic severity model of intestinal Behcet's disease (BD) and to evaluate its feasibility by comparing it with the actual disease activity index for intestinal Behcet's disease (DAIBD). METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 167 intestinal BD patients between March 1986 and April 2011. We also investigated the endoscopic parameters including ulcer locations, distribution, number, depth, shape, size and margin to identify independent factors associated with DAIBD. An endoscopic severity model was developed using significant colonoscopic variables identified by multivariate regression analysis and its correlation with the DAIBD was evaluated. To determine factors related to the discrepancy between endoscopic severity and clinical activity, clinical characteristics and laboratory markers of the patients were analyzed. RESULTS: A multivariate regression analysis revealed that the number of intestinal ulcers (? 2, P = 0.031) and volcanoshaped ulcers (P = 0.001) were predictive factors for the DAIBD. An endoscopic severity model (Y) was developed based on selected endoscopic variables as follows: Y = 47.44 + 9.04 × non-Ileocecal area + 11.85 × ? 2 of intestinal ulcers + 5.03 × shallow ulcers + 12.76 × deep ulcers + 4.47 × geographic-shaped ulcers + 26.93 × volcano-shaped ulcers + 8.65 × ? 20 mm of intestinal ulcers. However, endoscopic parameters used in the multivariate analysis explained only 18.9% of the DAIBD variance. Patients with severe DAIBD scores but with moderately predicted disease activity by the endoscopic severity model had more symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (21.4% vs 4.9%, P = 0.026) and a lower rate of corticosteroid use (50.0% vs 75.6%, P = 0.016) than those with severe DAIBD scores and accurately predicted disease by the model. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the number of intestinal ulcers and volcano-shaped ulcers were predictive factors for severe DAIBD scores. However, the correlation between endoscopic severity and DAIBD (r = 0.434) was weak. PMID:23155319

  6. Response rate of catatonia to electroconvulsive therapy and its clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    Raveendranathan, Dhanya; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Reddi, Senthil V

    2012-08-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an important treatment for catatonia. We aimed to study the response rate of catatonia treated with ECT and its clinical correlates in a large sample of inpatients. The ECT parameters of all patients (n = 63) admitted with catatonia between the months of January and December 2007 were examined. The number of ECTs administered, seizure threshold, failure to achieve adequate seizures and clinical signs pertaining to catatonia were analyzed. Response was considered as complete resolution of catatonic symptoms with Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) score becoming zero. ECT was mostly started after failed lorazepam treatment except in 6 patients where ECT was the first choice. Patients who responded in 4 ECT sessions were considered fast responders (mean session number for response is 4 sessions) and response with 5 or more ECTs was considered slow response. Fast responders had significantly lower duration of catatonia (19.67 ± 21.66 days, P = 0.02) and higher BFCRS score at presentation (17.25 ± 6.21, P = 0.03). Presence of waxy flexibility and gegenhalten (22.60% vs. 0%, P = 0.01) predicted faster response, whereas presence of echophenomena (3.2% vs. 24.0%) predicted slow response. The response rate to catatonia appears to be associated with the severity and duration of catatonia, and the presence of certain catatonic signs. PMID:22207031

  7. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n?=?763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes. PMID:25070945

  8. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of Corneal Nerves: Analysis and Clinical Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Cruzat, Andrea; Pavan-Langston, Deborah; Hamrah, Pedram

    2011-01-01

    Corneal confocal microscopy is a growing technique for the study of the cornea at the cellular level, providing images comparable to ex vivo histochemical methods. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) has an enormous potential, being a noninvasive procedure that images the living cornea, to study both its physiological and pathological states. Corneal nerves are of great interest to clinicians and scientists due to their important roles in regulating corneal sensation, epithelial integrity, proliferation, wound healing, and for their protective functions. IVCM enables the noninvasive examination of corneal nerves, allowing the study of nerve alterations in different ocular diseases, after corneal surgery, and in systemic diseases. To date, the correlation of sub-basal corneal nerves and their function has been studied in normal eyes, keratoconus, dry eye, contact lens wearers, and in neurotrophic keratopathy, among others. Further, the effect of corneal surgery on nerves has been studied, demonstrating the regenerative capacity of corneal nerves and the recovery of sensation. Moreover, IVCM has been applied in the diagnosis of peripheral diabetic neuropathy and the assessment of progression in this systemic disease. The purpose of this review is to describe the principles, applications, and clinical correlation of IVCM in the study of corneal nerves in different ocular and systemic diseases. PMID:21090996

  9. Correlates of Intimate Partner Psychological Aggression Perpetration in a Clinical Sample of Alcoholic Men

    PubMed Central

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Taft, Casey T.; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-LaMarca, Susan; Murphy, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This study longitudinally examined correlates of intimate partner psychological aggression in a sample of 178 men seeking treatment for alcoholism and their partners, building on a previous investigation examining correlates of intimate partner physical aggression (Taft et al., 2010). The men were largely Caucasian; average age was 41.0 years. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed distal and proximal predictors of psychological aggression perpetration. Distal factors, assessed at baseline, included initial alcohol problem severity, beliefs about alcohol, and antisocial personality characteristics. Proximal factors, assessed at baseline and at follow-ups 6 and 12 months later, included alcohol and drug use, relationship adjustment, and anger. Psychological aggression was assessed at all three time points. Findings showed that both groups of variables were associated with psychological aggression perpetration. Beliefs that drinking causes relationship problems and variables related to alcohol consumption exhibited the strongest associations with psychological aggression. The findings are consistent with theoretical models that emphasize both distal and proximal effects of drinking on intimate partner aggression. Implications for clinical interventions and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22409160

  10. Preschool Anxiety Disorders: Comprehensive Assessment of Clinical, Demographic, Temperamental, Familial, and Life Stress Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Tolep, Marissa R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret; Traditi, Jennifer; Rose, Suzanne; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlates of preschoolers’ anxiety disorders using a comprehensive, multi-method design. Participants included a community sample of 541 three-year-old children, of whom 106 (19.6%) met criteria for at least one anxiety disorder. Child and parental psychopathology and life stress were assessed with clinical interviews. Child temperament and parenting behavior were assessed with laboratory observations. Mothers and fathers reported on their parenting styles. Compared to preschoolers with no anxiety disorder, preschoolers with an anxiety disorder were more likely to meet criteria for comorbid depressive and oppositional defiant disorders and to exhibit greater temperamental behavioral inhibition and lower positive affectivity, and more sleep problems. Children with anxiety disorders also experienced more stressful life events in the previous six months, and their mothers had a higher rate of current anxiety disorders. Compared to children with other anxiety disorders, children with only specific phobia exhibited a somewhat different pattern of associations than children with other anxiety disorders. Overall, the findings suggest that many of the correlates observed in older youth with anxiety disorders are also observed in preschoolers. PMID:23368788

  11. Thompson calf squeezing test: clinical and ultrasound correlations in the follow up of Achille's tenorraphy.

    PubMed

    Leigheb, M; Conte, P; Neri, P; Zorzolo, I; Martinelli, D; Martino, F; Carriero, A; Grassi, F

    2014-01-01

    In the follow up of Achille's tenorraphy, negativization of Thompson calf queezing test is not always omogeneous and absolute. Aim of the paper is to correlate Thompson test to different anatomical-ultrasound and functional parameters. We investigated clinically and by ultrasound 61 patients operated on of Achille's tenorraphy at Novara Hospital with follow-up of 10 to 46 months. Negative controls were contralateral tendons. We excluded patients with previous and/or contralateral Achille's tendon ruptures, those operated after 7 days, diabetics or with autoimmune diseases, if used topic steroids, < 18 years, those rejecting the study. Measured parameters were: age, gender, height, weight, side, open vs percutaneous approach, time from operation, neutral angle and range of motion of the ankle, maximal circumference of the leg, Single Heel Rise Test, Visual-Analogue-Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS FA) score; with ultrasound: length of tendons, mio-tendinous U.S.-structure, dynamic diastasis of tendon scar, tendon sliding. Thompson test is positive if no plantar-flexion of the foot occurs at calf squeezing, negative if plantar-flexion is normal (75% patients) and intermediate if reduced or slight reactive (25%).We found correlation of Thompson test with age (p<0,05) and with tendon length (p>0,05), being intermediate tests more represented in older patients and in those with longer healed tendons. In conclusion post-operative negativization of Thompson test can be incomplete as observed in older patients and in those healed with elongated tendon. PMID:25409728

  12. Domains and correlates of clinical balance impairment associated with Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jesse V; Boyd, James T; Hogarth, Penelope; Horak, Fay B

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to (a) determine the domains of clinical balance impairments associated with Huntington's disease (HD), and (b) evaluate associations between balance test scores and other disease-related impairments. Eighteen subjects with genetically definite HD and 17 age-matched control subjects were evaluated on the Mini-BESTest for their clinical balance impairments as well as the Unified HD Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor and total functional capacity scales, Activity-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale-short form, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Results showed that subjects with HD exhibited significantly lower total Mini-BESTest scores than subjects without HD (mean (95% CI)=76 (64-87)% with HD, 98 (96-99)% without HD; p=0.0011). Mini-BESTest item scores were significantly lower for subjects with HD on one-leg stance, postural responses, standing with eyes closed on foam, and dual-task timed up-and-go. Mini-BESTest scores significantly correlated with UHDRS motor (r(2)=0.68; p=0.00003) and total functional capacity (r(2)=0.75; p=0.000006) scores as well as with scores on the ABC short form (r(2)=0.45; p=0.0024), SDMT (r(2)=0.42; p=0.0036), and MoCA (r(2)=0.23; p=0.046) assessments. This study, therefore, demonstrates that balance impairments associated with HD span domains of anticipatory postural adjustments, postural responses, stance in challenging sensory conditions, and gait. Although preliminary, clinical balance impairment appears to be an efficient proxy evaluation of multiple HD-related factors due to associations with functional capacity, other motor impairments, balance confidence, and cognitive abilities. PMID:25797790

  13. Evidence-based practice, step by step: asking the clinical question: a key step in evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, Susan B; Fineout-Overholt, Ellen; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Williamson, Kathleen M

    2010-03-01

    This is the third article in a series from the Arizona State University College of Nursing and Health Innovation's Center for the Advancement of Evidence-Based Practice. Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a problem-solving approach to the delivery of health care that integrates the best evidence from studies and patient care data with clinician expertise and patient preferences and values. When delivered in a context of caring and in a supportive organizational culture, the highest quality of care and best patient outcomes can be achieved.The purpose of this series is to give nurses the knowledge and skills they need to implement EBP consistently, one step at a time. Articles will appear every two months to allow you time to incorporate information as you work toward implementing EBP at your institution. Also, we've scheduled "Ask the Authors" call-ins every few months to provide a direct line to the experts to help you resolve questions. Details about how to participate in the next call will be published with May's Evidence-Based Practice, Step by Step. PMID:20179464

  14. question_1309956298 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Cell culture, the propagation of cells in artificial environment conducive to growth, has become one of the major tools in life sciences. Human cells grown in laboratory, subjected to various (single or multiple) perturbations, are serving well in elucidating physico-biochemical mechanisms of response in investigations of physiology and biochemistry. In addition, cell strains and cell lines have extensively been used to identify molecular markers of disease, and recent advances in cell culture have facilitated propagating stem cells for clinical and research purposes.

  15. Longitudinal Tracking of Left Atrial Diameter over the Adult Life Course: Clinical Correlates in the Community

    PubMed Central

    McManus, David D.; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Zachariah, Justin; Aragam, Jayashri; Larson, Martin G.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased left atrial diameter (LAD) is associated with elevated risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and cardiovascular disease. Information is limited regarding the short- or long-term correlates of LAD. Methods and Results We evaluated clinical correlates of LAD over a 16-year period in 4,403 Framingham Study participants (mean age 45 years, 52% women; median observations/participant=3) using multi-level modeling. We related age, sex, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), diabetes and anti-hypertensive treatment to LAD. Sex-specific growth curves for LAD were estimated for individuals with low, intermediate and high risk factor burden. We also related risk factors to changes in LAD over a 4-year period in 3,365 participants. Age, male sex (+3.83 mm compared to women), greater BMI, higher systolic BP (0.24 mm per 10 mmHg increment), and anti-hypertensive treatment (+0.54 mm) were associated positively with LAD (p<0.001). Men had a greater increase in LAD with BMI than women (+2.02 vs. +1.77 mm in women, per 5-unit increment) and individuals on anti-hypertensive treatment experienced a greater increase in LAD with age (0.95 vs. 0.63 mm per 10–year age increment). Overall, greater risk factor burden was positively associated with LAD. These risk factors were also associated positively with 4-year change in LAD (p<0.001). Conclusions Our longitudinal study of a large community-based sample identified higher BP and greater BMI as key modifiable correlates of LAD, suggesting that maintaining optimal levels of these risk factors over the life course may prevent atrial remodeling and AF. PMID:20100973

  16. Clinical, Functional, and Intertask Correlations of Measures Developed by the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    of patients with schizophrenia (>100) and healthy controls (>73) at 5 sites across the United States. In both Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia Consortium James M. Gold*,1 , Deanna@mprc.umaryland.edu The goal of the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia

  17. Baseline OCT Measurements in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial, Part II: Correlations and Relationship to Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The accepted method to evaluate and monitor papilledema, Frisén grading, uses an ordinal approach based on descriptive features. Part I showed that spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a clinical trial setting provides reliable measurement of the effects of papilledema on the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary retina, particularly if a 3-D segmentation method is used for analysis.1 We evaluated how OCT parameters are interrelated and how they correlate with vision and other clinical features in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) patients. Methods. A total of 126 subjects in the IIH Treatment Trial (IIHTT) OCT substudy had Cirrus SD-OCT optic disc and macula scans analyzed by using a 3-D segmentation algorithm to derive retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, total retinal thickness (TRT), retinal ganglion cell layer plus inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness, and ONH volume. The SD-OCT parameter values were correlated with high- and low-contrast acuity, perimetric mean deviation, Frisén grading, and IIH features. Results. At study entry, the average RNFL thickness, TRT, and ONH volume showed significant strong correlations (r ? 0.90) with each other. The same OCT parameters showed a strong (r > 0.76) correlation with Frisén grade and a mild (r > 0.24), but significant, correlation with lumbar puncture opening pressure. For all eyes at baseline, neither visual acuity (high or low contrast) nor mean deviation correlated with any OCT measure of swelling or GCL+IPL thickness. Conclusions. In newly diagnosed IIH, OCT demonstrated alterations of the peripapillary retina and ONH correlate with Frisén grading of papilledema. At presentation, OCT measures of papilledema, in patients with newly diagnosed IIH and mild vision loss, do not correlate with clinical features or visual dysfunction. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01003639.) PMID:25370513

  18. Health-related quality of life in patients with dual diagnosis: clinical correlates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the studies published so far have found an affectation in the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in both psychiatric and substance use dependence disorders, very few studies have applied HRQOL as an assessment measure in patients suffering both comorbid conditions, or Dual Diagnosis. The aim of the current study was to assess HRQOL in a group of patients with Dual Diagnosis compared to two other non-comorbid groups and to determine what clinical factors are related to HRQOL. Methods Cross-sectional assessment of three experimental groups was made through the Short Form – 36 Item Health Survey (SF-36). The sample consisted of a group with Dual Diagnosis (DD; N?=?35), one with Severe Mental Illness alone (SMI; N?=?35) and another one with Substance Use Dependence alone (SUD; N?=?35). The sample was composed only by males. To assess the clinical correlates of SF-36 HRQOL, lineal regression analyses were carried out. Results The DD group showed lower scores in most of the subscales, and in the mental health domain. The group with SUD showed in general a better state in the HRQOL while the group with SMI held an intermediate position with respect to the other two groups. Daily medication, suicidal attempts and daily number of coffees were significantly associated to HRQOL, especially in the DD group. Conclusions The DD group showed lower self-reported mental health quality of life. Assessment of HRQOL in dual patients allows to identify specific needs in this population, and may help to establish therapeutic goals to improve interventions. PMID:22950596

  19. Histopathological correlations of appendectomies: a clinical audit of a single center

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis is a common presentation in surgical assessment units and appendectomy accounts for a large number of emergency operations in the UK. Histopathological examination of the appendectomy specimens are routinely carried out. The aim of this study is to correlate the histological findings of appendectomy specimens with the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of 238 appendectomies carried out in a single UK center between January and December 2013. The Histopathology reports of appendectomy specimens were retrieved. Results A total of 238 appendectomies were performed during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 32 years (range, 7-81 years). Adult patients (>16 years) represented 79.4% of the study population. The female sex accounted for 46.6% of all the patients. Of the 238 resected appendix, 211 (88.7%) had histopathology findings consistent with appendicitis. Approximately 1.7% of the 238 specimens were abnormal pathologies other than inflammation of the appendix. The negative appendectomy (normal appendix on histology) rate was 11.3%. The female sex accounted for 59.1% of the negative appendectomies. Adults (>16 years) represented 77.8% of the negative appendectomies. Conclusions The observed high rates of negative appendectomy in the female sex can be reduced by utilizing combined clinical assessment and diagnostic imaging modalities. The findings of abnormal pathologies on histopathological examination of the appendix which could potentially impact on the management of the patients justify the current practice of routine histopathological examination of resected appendix.

  20. Clinical correlates of childhood trauma and dissociative phenomena in patients with severe psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt Zincir, Selma; Yanarta?, Omer; Zincir, Serkan; Semiz, Umit Ba?ar

    2014-12-01

    In this present study, we aim to investigate the possibility of a link between psychotic disorders and traumatic experiences in a group of female patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders by comparing childhood trauma exposure with a group of non-psychotic psychiatric disorder attending the same pschiatric clinic. Secondary purpose of this study is to examine the clinical correlates of trauma exposure, dissociative phenomena and psychiatric symptomatology between these two group of patients. Two psychiatric sample groups, those with psychotic disorders-mostly schizophrenic-(n = 54), and those with a non-psychotic severe psychiatric disorders (n = 24), were recruited. Data were collected for demographic, psychiatric and trauma histories and psychiatric symptomatology for all patients. In this study, high prevalance rates of childhood traumatic experiences and dissociative phenomena were found in both groups. Total scores of childhood trauma questionnaire in favor of the non-psychotic group were found to be close to significance (p = 0.052). DES scores of non-psychotic group were also higher although not statistically significant. 54.2 % of nonpsychotic cases had DES scores >20 on the other hand, that percentage of psychotic cases were found to be as 38.9 %. Furthermore, psychiatric patients who have suffered childhood traumatic experiences are far more likely to try to kill themselves than psychiatric patients who have not experienced such abuse. The high rates of childhood traumatic events in our present samples of both schizophrenia-spectrum patients and nonpsychotic patients confirm the need for clinicans to take trauma histories routinely. PMID:24942906

  1. Pancreatic signal intensity on T1-weighted fat saturation MR images: clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Winston, C B; Mitchell, D G; Outwater, E K; Ehrlich, S M

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether signal intensity (SI) of the pancreas that was less than that of liver on T1-weighted fat-suppressed (T1FS) magnetic resonance (MR) images could be used to help predict the presence of pancreatic disease, three blinded independent observers graded pancreatic SI relative to liver and/or renal cortex in 89 patients on T1FS images. Results were correlated with patient age and diagnosis. Among the 47 patients with a clinically normal pancreas, pancreatic SI was higher than that of liver in 42 and equal to that of liver in the rest, none of whom had evidence of fatty pancreas. These five patients had a mean age of 71 years, compared with 55 years for patients whose pancreas was more intense than liver (P = .02). Of the 42 patients with a clinically abnormal pancreas, only eight had pancreatic SI higher than that of liver. The positive predictive value for normal pancreas of an SI higher than that of liver was 84% and the positive predictive value for abnormal pancreas of an SI less than or equal to that of liver was 88%, with an overall accuracy of 86%. If normal pancreatic SI is defined as higher than that of liver for patients younger than 60 years and as equal to or higher than that of liver for patients older than 60 years, the positive predictive value of normal SI becomes 76%, the positive predictive value of decreased SI becomes 100%, and the overall accuracy becomes 83%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7633102

  2. Clinical correlates of enlarged prostate size in subjects with sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Gacci, Mauro; Maseroli, Elisa; Rastrelli, Giulia; Vignozzi, Linda; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Digito-rectal examination (DRE) of the prostate provides useful information on the state of prostate growth and on the presence of suspected peripheral nodules. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and biochemical correlates of finding an enlarged prostate size at DRE in subjects with sexual dysfunction (SD). A consecutive series of 2379 patients was retrospectively studied. The analysis was focused on a subset of subjects (n = 1823; mean age 54.7 ± 11.4) selected for being free from overt prostatic diseases. Several parameters were investigated. After adjusting for confounders, the presence of an enlarged prostate size at DRE was associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome (HR = 1.346 (1.129-1.759); P = 0.030), type 2 diabetes mellitus (HR = 1.489 (1.120-1.980); P = 0.006), increased LDL cholesterol (>100 mg dl-1 ; HR = 1.354 (1.018-1.801); P = 0.037) and increased mean blood pressure (BP) values (HR = 1.017 (1.007-1.027) for each mmHg increment; P = 0.001). Accordingly, enlarged prostate size was also associated with a higher risk of arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED), as well as with other andrological conditions, such as varicocele and premature ejaculation (PE). PSA levels were significantly higher in subjects with enlarged prostate size when compared to the rest of the sample (HR = 3.318 (2.304; 4.799) for each log unit increment in PSA levels; P < 0.0001). Arteriogenic ED, according to different criteria, was also associated with increased PSA levels. In conclusion, our data support the need to examine prostate size either by clinical (DRE) or biochemical (PSA) inspection in subjects with SD, in order to have insights into the nature of the SD and the metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) background of the patient. PMID:24830688

  3. Clinical correlates of enlarged prostate size in subjects with sexual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Giovanni; Gacci, Mauro; Maseroli, Elisa; Rastrelli, Giulia; Vignozzi, Linda; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Digito-rectal examination (DRE) of the prostate provides useful information on the state of prostate growth and on the presence of suspected peripheral nodules. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and biochemical correlates of finding an enlarged prostate size at DRE in subjects with sexual dysfunction (SD). A consecutive series of 2379 patients was retrospectively studied. The analysis was focused on a subset of subjects (n = 1823; mean age 54.7 ± 11.4) selected for being free from overt prostatic diseases. Several parameters were investigated. After adjusting for confounders, the presence of an enlarged prostate size at DRE was associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome (HR = 1.346 (1.129–1.759); P = 0.030), type 2 diabetes mellitus (HR = 1.489 (1.120–1.980); P = 0.006), increased LDL cholesterol (>100 mg dl?1; HR = 1.354 (1.018–1.801); P = 0.037) and increased mean blood pressure (BP) values (HR = 1.017 (1.007–1.027) for each mmHg increment; P = 0.001). Accordingly, enlarged prostate size was also associated with a higher risk of arteriogenic erectile dysfunction (ED), as well as with other andrological conditions, such as varicocele and premature ejaculation (PE). PSA levels were significantly higher in subjects with enlarged prostate size when compared to the rest of the sample (HR = 3.318 (2.304; 4.799) for each log unit increment in PSA levels; P < 0.0001). Arteriogenic ED, according to different criteria, was also associated with increased PSA levels. In conclusion, our data support the need to examine prostate size either by clinical (DRE) or biochemical (PSA) inspection in subjects with SD, in order to have insights into the nature of the SD and the metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) background of the patient. PMID:24830688

  4. HLA-Associated Clinical Progression Correlates with Epitope Reversion Rates in Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Duda, A.; Lee-Turner, L.; Fox, J.; Robinson, N.; Dustan, S.; Kaye, S.; Fryer, H.; Carrington, M.; McClure, M.; Mclean, A. R.; Fidler, S.; Weber, J.; Phillips, R. E.; Frater, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can evade immunity shortly after transmission to a new host but the clinical significance of this early viral adaptation in HIV infection is not clear. We present an analysis of sequence variation from a longitudinal cohort study of HIV adaptation in 189 acute seroconverters followed for up to 3 years. We measured the rates of variation within well-defined epitopes to determine associations with the HLA-linked hazard of disease progression. We found early reversion across both the gag and pol genes, with a 10-fold faster rate of escape in gag (2.2 versus 0.27 forward mutations/1,000 amino acid sites). For most epitopes (23/34), variation in the HLA-matched and HLA-unmatched controls was similar. For a minority of epitopes (8/34, and generally associated with HLA class I alleles that confer clinical benefit), new variants appeared early and consistently over the first 3 years of infection. Reversion occurred early at a rate which was HLA-dependent and correlated with the HLA class 1-associated relative hazard of disease progression and death (P = 0.0008), reinforcing the association between strong cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses, viral fitness, and disease status. These data provide a comprehensive overview of viral adaptation in the first 3 years of infection. Our findings of HLA-dependent reversion suggest that costs are borne by some escape variants which may benefit the host, a finding contrary to a simple immune evasion paradigm. These epitopes, which are both strongly and frequently recognized, and for which escape involves a high cost to the virus, have the potential to optimize vaccine design. PMID:19019964

  5. Salivary Inflammatory Mediator Profiling and Correlation to Clinical Disease Markers in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Diana M.; Wexler, Philip J.; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Mitchell, Patricia; Feldman, James A.; Walt, David R.; Peng, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale There is a need for a readily available, non-invasive source of biomarkers that predict poor asthma control. Objectives We sought to determine if there is an association between the salivary inflammatory profile and disease control in children and adults with asthma. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we collected demographic and clinical information from two independent populations at different sites, resulting in convenience samples of 58 pediatric and 122 adult urban asthmatics. Control was assessed by symptom questionnaire (children) and by Asthma Control Questionnaire and current exacerbation (adults). Saliva was collected in all subjects. We applied principal component analysis to a 10-plex panel of relevant inflammatory markers to characterize marker profiles and determined if profiles were associated with asthma control. Results There were similar, strong correlations amongst biologically related markers in both populations: eosinophil-related: eotaxin-1/CCL11, RANTES/CCL5, and IL-5 (p<.001); myeloid/innate: IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1/CCL2, and IL-8/CXCL8 (p<.001). The first three principal components captured ?74% of variability across all ten analytes in both populations. In adults, the Principal Component 1 score, broadly reflective of all markers, but with greater weight given to myeloid/innate markers, was associated with Asthma Control Questionnaire score and exacerbation. The Principal Component 3 score, reflective of IP-10/CXCL10, was associated with current exacerbation. In children, the Principal Component 1, 2, and 3 scores were associated with recent asthma symptoms. The Principal Component 2 score, reflective of higher eosinophil markers, was inversely correlated with symptoms. The Principal Component 3 score was positively associated with all symptom outcomes. Conclusion The salivary inflammatory profile is associated with disease control in children and adults with asthma. PMID:24409298

  6. Correlation of thermal and mechanical effects of the holmium laser for various clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimbergen, Matthijs C. M.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.; van Swol, Christiaan F. P.

    1998-05-01

    The Holmium laser has become established in orthopedic surgery and urology due to its unique combination of mechanical and thermal properties induced by explosive vapor bubbles. In a specialized setup, real-time high-speed and thermal images of dynamic vapor bubbles and thermal relaxation at a water tissue interface were obtained simultaneously. The thermal effects in the tissue model were correlated to the characteristics of the bubbles dependent on pulse energy (0.2 - 4 J), pulse repetition frequency (5 - 40 Hz), distance and angle of fiber delivery system (diameter 365 micrometer) to the tissue surface. Up to a fiber-to-tissue distance of 50% of the radius of the bubble, only a superficial tissue layer was heated. During bubble implosion, the tissue surface was attracted to the fiber, ripping of irregularities, and was effectively cooled by turbulence. In case of hard tissues, the bubble detached from the fiber imploding towards the hard surface. At closer distances (less than 50% of bubble radius), the tissue itself was vaporized resulting in mechanical damage and thermal relaxation into the tissue, especially above repetition rates of 5 Hz. There is a strong correlation between the path length of the free beam within the bubble and the degree of mechanical and thermal damage in the tissue directly irradiated by this beam. During clinical applications the surgeon should be aware of the size of the vapor bubble in relation to the distance and angle with the tissue for safe optimal use of the mechanical and thermal properties of the Holmium laser.

  7. Clinical Correlates to Laboratory Measures for use in Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Prediction Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Khoury, Jane; Succop, Paul; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prospective measures of high knee abduction moment during landing identify female athletes at high risk for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Biomechanical laboratory measurements predict high knee abduction moment landing mechanics with high sensitivity (85%) and specificity (93%). The purpose of this study was to identify correlates to laboratory-based predictors of high knee abduction moment for use in a clinic-based anterior cruciate ligament injury risk prediction algorithm. The hypothesis was that clinically obtainable correlates derived from the highly predictive laboratory-based models would demonstrate high accuracy to determine high knee abduction moment status. Methods Female basketball and soccer players (N=744) were tested for anthropometrics, strength and landing biomechanics. Pearson correlation was used to identify clinically feasible correlates and logistic regression to obtain optimal models for high knee abduction moment prediction. Findings Clinical correlates to laboratory-based measures were identified and predicted high knee abduction moment status with 73% sensitivity and 70% specificity. The clinic-based prediction algorithm, including (Odds Ratio: 95% confidence interval) knee valgus motion (1.43:1.30–1.59 cm), knee flexion range of motion (.98:0.96–1.01 deg), body mass (1.04:1.02–1.06 kg), tibia length (1.38:1.25–1.52 cm) and quadriceps to hamstring ratio (1.70:1.06–2.70) predicted high knee abduction moment status with C statistic 0.81. Interpretation The combined correlates of increased knee valgus motion, knee flexion range of motion, body mass, tibia length and quadriceps to hamstrings ratio predict high knee abduction moment status in female athletes with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:20554101

  8. Assessing metacognition during a cognitive task: impact of "on-line" metacognitive questions on neuropsychological performances in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Quiles, C; Verdoux, H; Prouteau, A

    2014-05-01

    Whereas metacognition is of great interest for neuropsychological practice, little is known about the impact of metacognitive questions during a neuropsychological assessment. This study explored the impact of measuring "on-line" metacognitive processes on neuropsychological performances in a non-clinical population. Participants were randomly assigned to a "standard" or a "metacognitive" neuropsychological test procedure. The "standard" procedure assessed executive functions (Modified Card Sorting Test), episodic memory ("Rappel libre Rappel indicé" 16), working memory (digit span test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III) and social cognition (Faces Test). In the "metacognitive" procedure, two questions were added after each item of these tests to evaluate "on-line" metacognitive monitoring and control. Working memory performances were better and episodic memory performances lower in the "metacognitive" versus the "standard" procedure. No significant difference was found concerning executive functioning or social cognition. The assessment of "on-line" metacognition might improve working memory performances by enhancing concentration, and might impair episodic memory performances by acting as a distractor. These findings may have implications for the development of cognitive remediation programs. PMID:24867441

  9. Comparison of Adherence Monitoring Tools and Correlation to Virologic Failure in a Pediatric HIV Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Intasan, Jintana; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Apornpong, Tanakorn; Kerr, Stephen; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is no consensus on a gold standard for monitoring adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared different adherence monitoring tools in predicting virologic failure as part of a clinical trial. HIV-infected Thai and Cambodian children aged 1–12 years (N=207) were randomized to immediate-ART or deferred-ART until CD4% <15%. Virologic failure (VF) was defined as HIV-RNA >1000 copies/mL after ?6 months of ART. Adherence monitoring tools were: (1) announced pill count, (2) PACTG adherence questionnaire (form completed by caregivers), and (3) child self-report (self-reporting from children or caregivers to direct questioning by investigators during the clinic visit) of any missed doses in the last 3 days and in the period since the last visit. The Kappa statistic was used to describe agreement between each tool. The median age at ART initiation was 7 years with median CD4% 17% and HIV-RNA 5.0?log10copies/mL and 92% received zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine. Over 144 weeks, 13% had VF. Mean adherence by announced pill count before VF in VF children was 92% compared to 98% in children without VF (p=0.03). Kappa statistics indicated slight to fair agreement between tools. In multivariate analysis adjusting for gender, treatment arm ethnicity and caregiver education, significant predictors of VF were poor adherence by announced pill count (OR 4.56; 95%CI 1.78–11.69), reporting any barrier to adherence in the PACTG adherence questionnaire (OR 7.08; 95%CI 2.42–20.73), and reporting a missed dose in the 24 weeks since the last HIV-RNA assessment (OR 8.64; 95%CI 1.96–38.04). In conclusion, we recommend the child self-report of any missed doses since last visit for use in HIV research and in routine care settings, because it is easy and quick to administer and a strong association with development of VF. PMID:24901463

  10. Correlation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson-Cook, C.

    The applets, created by Virginia Tech's Department of Statistics, allow you to see how different bivariate data look under different correlation structures. The "Movie" applet either creates data for a particular correlation or animates a multitude data sets ranging correlations from -1 to 1. The "Creation" applet allows the user to create a data set by adding or deleting points from the screen.

  11. SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS General Questions

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS General Questions Tell me a little about yourself / describe yourself to Binghamton? Behavioral Questions Do you anticipate problems or do you react to them? How do you go about? What are some important values that you live by? Creative Questions What does success mean to you

  12. Mutational patterns in the breast cancer mitochondrial genome, with clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sarah; LaFramboise, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in human cancer has long been recognized, but their functional significance has remained obscure. Debate persists as to whether the mutations help drive the tumor, or are bystander events. Here, we analyze next-generation mtDNA sequence data from 99 breast cancer patients. High depth coverage enables detection of even low-level heteroplasmic variants, and data from matched normal tissue allow us to distinguish between shifts in heteroplasmy and acquired mutations. Somatic mtDNA mutations are found in 73 (73.7%) of patient tumors, and dramatic shifts from the initial germline allele proportions are observed for many heteroplasmies. Clustering of somatic mutations in promoter and replication regions, and also in genes coding for electron transport chain complex I, suggest selection for mutations affecting critical mitochondrial processes. Furthermore, statistical tests for Darwinian selection reveal evidence for positive and relaxed negative selection for somatic missense mutations. We also observe a dramatic decrease in per-cell mtDNA content in tumor tissues, as well as a surprising positive correlation between somatic mtDNA mutational burden and patient survival. Taken together, our results support the view that somatic mtDNA mutations are not solely bystander events, but have significance in cancer from both biological and clinical perspectives. We also anticipate that the catalog of heteroplasmies and somatic mutations presented here will serve as a reference for future studies of cancer mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24442641

  13. Serology of Lupus Erythematosus: Correlation between Immunopathological Features and Clinical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, Emanuele; Drosera, Massimo; Gasparini, Giulia; Parodi, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the aberrant production of a broad and heterogenous group of autoantibodies. Even though the presence of autoantibodies in SLE has been known, for more than 60 years, still nowadays a great effort is being made to understand the pathogenetic, diagnostic, and prognostic meaning of such autoantibodies. Antibodies to ds-DNA are useful for the diagnosis of SLE, to monitor the disease activity, and correlate with renal and central nervous involvements. Anti-Sm antibodies are highly specific for SLE. Anti-nucleosome antibodies are an excellent marker for SLE and good predictors of flares in quiescent lupus. Anti-histone antibodies characterize drug-induced lupus, while anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies are associated with neonatal lupus erythematosus and photosensitivity. Anti-ribosomal P antibodies play a role in neuropsychiatric lupus, but their association with clinical manifestations is still unclear. Anti-phospholipid antibodies are associated with the anti-phospholipid syndrome, cerebral vascular disease, and neuropsychiatric lupus. Anti-C1q antibodies amplify glomerular injury, and the elevation of their titers may predict renal flares. Anti-RNP antibodies are a marker of Sharp's syndrome but can be found in SLE as well. Anti-PCNA antibodies are present in 5-10% of SLE patients especially those with arthritis and hypocomplementemia. PMID:24649358

  14. High phosphohistone h3 expression correlates with adverse clinical, biological, and pathological factors in neuroblastomas.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Pramila; Taylor, Scott; Miller, Elizabeth; Sowa-Avugrah, Emile; May, Margaret T

    2015-06-01

    Phosphohistone H3 (pHH3), a biomarker of the late G2- and M-phase of the cell cycle, provides a powerful indication of the proliferative state of many cancers. We investigated the prognostic significance of pHH3 by immunostaining 80 neuroblastomas and counting the average number of strongly stained nuclei and mitotic figures. The median and 75th percentile pHH3 proliferation indices (PIs) were 0.54% and 1.06% (range, 0.01% to 2.23%) respectively. pHH3 expression was significantly higher in neuroblastomas from patients with adverse clinical characteristics, all unfavorable pathological factors including high mitosis karyorrhexis index (MKI), and adverse biological factors including MYCN oncogene amplification. High pHH3-PIs, at 1% threshold, were significantly associated with a shorter overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) in the univariable Cox regression analyses. In the multivariable models, high pHH3 counts were significantly associated with worse OS after adjustment for age but were not independent of either high MKI or MYCN amplification. In children less than 18 months of age, high MKIs and high PHH3-PIs were associated with significantly worse OS and EFS. In conclusion, high pHH3 expression correlates strongly with high MKI and MYCN amplification and indicates poor prognosis in neuroblastomas. PMID:25711230

  15. Correlates of Occupational Disability in a Clinical Sample of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mancebo, Maria C.; Greenberg, Benjamin; E.Grant, Jon; Pinto, Anthony; Eisen, Jane L.; Dyck, Ingrid; Rasmussen, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine correlates of occupational disability in a large, clinical sample of individuals with a primary diagnosis of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Methods 238 individuals with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD were interviewed at intake into an observational study of the course of OCD. Primary was defined as the diagnosis that the patient identified as the most problematic lifetime. Results At the time of interview, 38% of the sample reported being unable to work due to psychopathology. OCD with occupational disability was associated with greater functional impairment in completing household duties, social functioning, and quality of life. Few differences in treatments received were found among individuals with and without occupational disability. Although number of years on psychotropic medications was similar among the two groups, those with disability had been on a greater number of serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) lifetime. Half of individuals with occupational disability had entered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) at some point but only one-third had received at least 13 sessions. Regression analyses revealed that OCD severity was the most powerful predictor of occupational disability, followed by depression severity, and presence of a lifetime substance use disorder. Conclusions A substantial proportion of individuals in our sample were unable to work. CBT treatment was underutilized and reasons for this remain unclear. Comorbid depression and substance use present additional risk factors for disability. Further advances in biological and psychosocial treatments are needed to improve functioning and the overall prognosis of the disorder. PMID:18063040

  16. Neurobehavior inventory: correlation with clinical aspects and quality of life in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tedrus, Glória Maria Almeida Souza; Fonseca, Lineu Corrêa; Carvalho, Rachel Marin

    2013-08-01

    Fifty-five adult patients with epilepsy were evaluated, and the Neurobehavior Inventory (NBI) was administered. The relationship between the NBI data and clinical aspects and quality of life (QoL) was studied. The total NBI score was 58 ± 18.2. The domains with the highest scores were "religious conviction", "orderliness", and "sense of personal destiny". There was a significant difference in "hatred and revenge" and "religious conviction" according to the epileptic syndrome. The "physical well-being" score was higher for patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with right hippocampal sclerosis than for left sclerosis (2.77 ± 1.6 × 1.57 ± 0.5, respectively, p = 0.002). The total NBI score was higher in patients with psychiatric comorbidities and with depression according to the Hamilton Depression Scale and was negatively correlated with the "emotional well-being" QOLIE score (-0.398, p = 0.005). The NBI findings showed that behavioral changes can be present in various epilepsies and that there is a complex bidirectional neurobiological relationship between epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidity, sustained by common physiopathological mechanisms. PMID:23770631

  17. Correlation between clinical features and circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Nadali, G; Vinante, F; Rigo, A; Tecchio, C; Morosato, L; Zanolin, E; Perona, G; Chilosi, M; Pizzolo, G

    1995-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as a marker of disease activity in Hodgkin's disease. In the present study we investigated serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 at diagnosis in 104 patients with Hodgkin's disease and in 77 of these patients following the achievement of complete remission (within 12 months of diagnosis). Mean serum levels at diagnosis were significantly higher in patients than in controls (P < 0.0001) and were related to advanced stages of disease (P = < 0.0001), presence of "B" symptoms (P < 0.0001), abnormality of laboratory indexes (P < 0.0001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate values (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001) and serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (r = 0.51, P < 0.0001). Mean values in complete remission were significantly lower than at diagnosis (P = 0.003). Lower mean values at diagnosis were detected in 30 patients with advanced disease who attained complete remission, compared with 6 patients who failed to attain complete remission with standard treatment. We conclude that in Hodgkin's disease, high serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 are detectable at presentation and strictly correlate with some clinical features. Response to treatment is paralleled by reduced serum levels. Larger prospective studies are needed to evaluate the possible prognostic significance of serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 at diagnosis. PMID:7663010

  18. Molecular-clinical correlations in males with an expanded FMR1 mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Merenstein, S.A.; Sobesky, W.E.; Tran, H.X. [Children`s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others] [Children`s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States); and others

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by an expansion of a CGG repeat in the FMR1 gene. The CGG repeat number of the FMR1 mutation and the percentage of cells with methylation of the gene were studied in 218 male patients. Physical and cognitive measurements were also performed. Patients were divided into three groups; those with full mutation and complete methylation (n = 160), those with full mutation and partial methylation (n = 12), and those with a mosaic pattern (n = 46). Statistical comparisons were made between males with the fully methylated full mutation and those with a mosaic pattern. Males having full mutation with complete methylation had the lowest IQ scores and greatest physical involvement. These significant differences were seen only in ages after puberty. CGG repeat length did not correlate with IQ or the physical index score in any group. These findings suggest that a partial production of FMR1 protein may predict milder clinical involvement in some males with fragile X syndrome. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Serology of Lupus Erythematosus: Correlation between Immunopathological Features and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Cozzani, Emanuele; Drosera, Massimo; Parodi, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the aberrant production of a broad and heterogenous group of autoantibodies. Even though the presence of autoantibodies in SLE has been known, for more than 60 years, still nowadays a great effort is being made to understand the pathogenetic, diagnostic, and prognostic meaning of such autoantibodies. Antibodies to ds-DNA are useful for the diagnosis of SLE, to monitor the disease activity, and correlate with renal and central nervous involvements. Anti-Sm antibodies are highly specific for SLE. Anti-nucleosome antibodies are an excellent marker for SLE and good predictors of flares in quiescent lupus. Anti-histone antibodies characterize drug-induced lupus, while anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies are associated with neonatal lupus erythematosus and photosensitivity. Anti-ribosomal P antibodies play a role in neuropsychiatric lupus, but their association with clinical manifestations is still unclear. Anti-phospholipid antibodies are associated with the anti-phospholipid syndrome, cerebral vascular disease, and neuropsychiatric lupus. Anti-C1q antibodies amplify glomerular injury, and the elevation of their titers may predict renal flares. Anti-RNP antibodies are a marker of Sharp's syndrome but can be found in SLE as well. Anti-PCNA antibodies are present in 5–10% of SLE patients especially those with arthritis and hypocomplementemia. PMID:24649358

  20. Correlation of patient questionnaire responses and physician history in grading clinical outcome following hip and knee arthroplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J. McGrory; Bernard F. Morrey; James A. Rand; Duane M. Ilstrup

    1996-01-01

    Questionnaires are commonly used in orthopaedic outcome studies. This study sought to determine if responses to a simple standardized questionnaire correlated with responses obtained during a physician interview in evaluation of clinical outcome following hip and knee arthroplasty. One hundred sixty-two patients with 201 hip and knee arthroplasties were asked to fill out a questionnaire prior to returning for routine

  1. Clinical Correlates of ADHD in Females: Findings From a Large Group of Girls Ascertained From Pediatric and Psychiatric Referral Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH BIEDERMAN; STEPHEN V. FARAONE; ERIC MICK; SARAH WILLIAMSON; TIMOTHY E. WILENS; THOMAS J. SPENCER; WENDY WEBER; JENNIFER JETTON; ILANA KRAUS; JIM PERT; BARRY ZALLEN

    1999-01-01

    ObjectiveThe scientific literature about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based almost exclusively on male subjects, and girls with ADHD may be underidentified and undertreated. The aim of this study was to examine clinical correlates of ADHD in females using comprehensive assessments in multiple domains of functioning.

  2. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of the Olfactory System in Kallmann Syndrome: Correlation with a Clinical Smell Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Koenigkam-Santos; Antonio Carlos Santos; Beatriz R. Versiani; Paula Rejane B. Diniz; Jorge Elias Junior; Margaret de Castro

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To measure olfactory bulbs and sulci using dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and specific measurement tools in Kallmann syndrome (KS) patients with a well-established genotype and phenotype, as well as correlate MRI findings with a clinical smell test. Methods: MRI was performed in 21 patients with KS and 16 healthy volunteers; olfactory dysfunction was assessed using the Smell

  3. Correlation Between Fibroscan, Liver Biopsy, and Clinical Liver Function in Patients With Hepatitis C Virus Infection After Renal Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Muñoz; E. Ramírez; I. Fernandez; A. Martin; M. Romero; E. Romero; B. Dominguez-Gil; A. Hernandez; E. Morales; A. Andres; G. Castellano; J. M. Morales

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most important liver disease (LD) after renal transplantation. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis and follow-up of LD. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the correlation between values of Fibroscan (EchoSens, Paris, France), a new noninvasive method to assess liver fibrosis, liver biopsy, and clinical data among

  4. Emotional Lability in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Clinical Correlates and Familial Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobanski, Esther; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Chen, Wai; Franke, Barbara; Holtmann, Martin; Krumm, Bertram; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Stringaris, Argyris; Taylor, Eric; Anney, Richard; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence, severity and clinical correlates of emotional lability (EL) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to examine factors contributing to EL and familiality of EL in youth with ADHD. Methods: One thousand, one hundred and eighty-six children with ADHD…

  5. Clinical and pathological correlates of severity classifications in trigger fingers based on computer-aided image analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The treatment of trigger finger so far has heavily relied on clinicians’ evaluations for the severity of patients’ symptoms and the functionality of affected fingers. However, there is still a lack of pathological evidence supporting the criteria of clinical evaluations. This study’s aim was to correlate clinical classification and pathological changes for trigger finger based on the tissue abnormality observed from microscopic images. Methods Tissue samples were acquired, and microscopic images were randomly selected and then graded by three pathologists and two physicians, respectively. Moreover, the acquired images were automatically analyzed to derive two quantitative parameters, the size ratio of the abnormal tissue region and the number ratio of the abnormal nuclei, which can reflect tissue abnormality caused by trigger finger. A self-developed image analysis system was used to avoid human subjectivity during the quantification process. Finally, correlations between the quantitative image parameters, pathological grading, and clinical severity classification were assessed. Results One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant correlations between the image quantification and pathological grading as well as between the image quantification and clinical severity classification. The Cohen’s kappa coefficient test also depicted good consistency between pathological grading and clinical severity classification. Conclusions The criteria of clinical classification were found to be highly associated with the pathological changes of affected tissues. The correlations serve as explicit evidence supporting clinicians in making a treatment strategy of trigger finger. In addition, our proposed computer-aided image analysis system was considered to be a promising and objective approach to determining trigger finger severity at the microscopic level. PMID:25055721

  6. Disease quantification in dermatology: in vivo near-infrared spectroscopy measures correlate strongly with the clinical assessment of psoriasis severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Tanja Maria; Kamp, Søren; Jemec, Gregor B. E.

    2013-03-01

    Accurate documentation of disease severity is a prerequisite for clinical research and the practice of evidence-based medicine. The quantification of skin diseases such as psoriasis currently relies heavily on clinical scores. Although these clinical scoring methods are well established and very useful in quantifying disease severity, they require an extensive clinical experience and carry a risk of subjectivity. We explore the opportunity to use in vivo near-infrared (NIR) spectra as an objective and noninvasive method for local disease severity assessment in 31 psoriasis patients in whom selected plaques were scored clinically. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was used to analyze and predict the severity scores on the NIR spectra of psoriatic and uninvolved skin. The correlation between predicted and clinically assigned scores was R=0.94 (RMSE=0.96), suggesting that in vivo NIR provides accurate clinical quantification of psoriatic plaques. Hence, NIR may be a practical solution to clinical severity assessment of psoriasis, providing a continuous, linear, numerical value of severity.

  7. Disease quantification in dermatology: in vivo near-infrared spectroscopy measures correlate strongly with the clinical assessment of psoriasis severity.

    PubMed

    Greve, Tanja Maria; Kamp, Søren; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2013-03-01

    Accurate documentation of disease severity is a prerequisite for clinical research and the practice of evidence-based medicine. The quantification of skin diseases such as psoriasis currently relies heavily on clinical scores. Although these clinical scoring methods are well established and very useful in quantifying disease severity, they require an extensive clinical experience and carry a risk of subjectivity. We explore the opportunity to use in vivo near-infrared (NIR) spectra as an objective and noninvasive method for local disease severity assessment in 31 psoriasis patients in whom selected plaques were scored clinically. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was used to analyze and predict the severity scores on the NIR spectra of psoriatic and uninvolved skin. The correlation between predicted and clinically assigned scores was R=0.94 (RMSE=0.96), suggesting that in vivo NIR provides accurate clinical quantification of psoriatic plaques. Hence, NIR may be a practical solution to clinical severity assessment of psoriasis, providing a continuous, linear, numerical value of severity. PMID:23508704

  8. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  9. MicroRNA expression patterns in adrenocortical carcinoma variants and clinical pathologic correlations.

    PubMed

    Duregon, Eleonora; Rapa, Ida; Votta, Arianna; Giorcelli, Jessica; Daffara, Fulvia; Terzolo, Massimo; Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Volante, Marco; Papotti, Mauro

    2014-08-01

    Several microRNAs (miRNAs) were shown to be deregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) as compared with adenoma, but a detailed assessment of their expression in its histologic variants and correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics has not been performed, so far. Our aim was to assess the expression of 5 selected miRNAs (IGF2 gene-related miR-483-3p and 5p and hypoxia-induced miR-210, miR-195, and miR-1974) in a series of 51 ACCs (35 classical, 6 myxoid, and 10 oncocytic) as compared with clinical and pathologic features and immunohistochemical expression of prognostic markers, including steroidogenic factor 1, p53, ?-catenin, and glucose transporter 1. Oncocytic carcinomas had a reduced expression of miR-483-3p (P = .0325), miR-483-5p (P = .0175), and miR-210 (P = .0366), as compared with other histotypes. Overexpression of miR-210 was associated with the presence of necrosis (P = .0035), high Ki-67 index (P = .0013), and high glucose transporter 1 expression (P = .0043), whereas an inverse correlation with mitotic rate was observed in cases with high miR-493-3p (P = .0191) and miR-1974 (P = .0017) expression. High miR-1974 was also associated with low Ki-67 (P = .0312) and European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors stage (P = .0082) and negative p53 (P = .0013). At univariate analysis myxoid/classic histotype (P = .026), high miR-210 (P = .0465), high steroidogenic factor 1 protein (P = .0017), high Ki-67 (P = .0066), and high mitotic index (P = .0006) were significantly associated the shorter overall survival, the latter being the sole independent prognostic factor at multivariate analysis (P = .017). In conclusion, (a) miR-483-3p, miR-483-5p, and miR-210 are differentially expressed in ACC variants, and (b) high miR-210 is associated with clinicopathologic parameters of aggressiveness and a poor prognosis. PMID:24890943

  10. Deficient conditioned pain modulation after spinal cord injury correlates with clinical spontaneous pain measures.

    PubMed

    Albu, Sergiu; Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Avila-Martin, Gerardo; Taylor, Julian

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of endogenous pain modulation dysfunction to clinical and sensory measures of neuropathic pain (NP) has not been fully explored. Habituation, temporal summation, and heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulus-induced modulation of tonic heat pain intensity were examined in healthy noninjured subjects (n = 10), and above the level of spinal cord injury (SCI) in individuals without (SCI-noNP, n = 10) and with NP (SCI-NP, n = 10). Thermoalgesic thresholds, Cz/AFz contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs), and phasic or tonic (30 seconds) heat pain intensity were assessed within the C6 dermatome. Although habituation to tonic heat pain intensity (0-10) was reported by the noninjured (10 s: 3.5 ± 0.3 vs 30 s: 2.2 ± 0.5 numerical rating scale; P = 0.003), loss of habituation was identified in both the SCI-noNP (3.8 ± 0.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.5) and SCI-NP group (4.2 ± 0.4 vs 4.9 ± 0.8). Significant temporal summation of tonic heat pain intensity was not observed in the 3 groups. Inhibition of tonic heat pain intensity induced by heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulus was identified in the noninjured (-29.7% ± 9.7%) and SCI-noNP groups (-19.6% ± 7.0%), but not in subjects with SCI-NP (+1.1% ± 8.0%; P < 0.05). Additionally, the mean conditioned pain modulation response correlated positively with Cz/AFz CHEP amplitude (? = 0.8; P = 0.015) and evoked heat pain intensity (? = 0.8; P = 0.007) in the SCI-NP group. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the mean conditioned pain modulation (R = 0.72) correlated with pain severity and pressing spontaneous pain in the SCI-NP group. Comprehensive assessment of sensory dysfunction above the level of injury with tonic thermal test and conditioning stimuli revealed less-efficient endogenous pain modulation in subjects with SCI-NP. PMID:25599447

  11. Clinical and Radiographic Correlates of Hypoxemia and Oxygen Therapy in the COPDGene Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Jacobson, Francine L.; Washko, George R.; Casaburi, Richard; Make, Barry J.; Crapo, James D.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Hersh, Craig P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Severe hypoxemia is a major complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Long term oxygen therapy is beneficial in hypoxemic COPD patients. However, the clinical and radiographic predictors of hypoxemia and the use of oxygen therapy are not well described. This study aimed to find the correlates of resting hypoxemia and the pattern of oxygen use in moderate to severe COPD patients. Methods Subjects with GOLD stage II or higher COPD from the first 2500 COPDGene subjects were included in this analysis. All subjects were current or ex-smokers between ages 45 and 80. Severe resting hypoxemia was defined as room air oxygen saturation (SpO2) ? 88%. Use of supplemental oxygen therapy was determined by questionnaire. Results Eighty-two of 1060 COPD subjects (7.7%) had severe resting hypoxemia. Twenty-one of the 82 (25.6%) were not using continuous supplemental oxygen. Female sex, higher BMI, lower FEV1, and enrollment in Denver were independent risk factors for hypoxemia; emphysema severity on quantitative chest CT scan did not predict hypoxemia. 132 of 971(13.6%) subjects without severe resting hypoxemia were using continuous supplemental oxygen. In non-hypoxemic oxygen users, Denver recruitment, higher BMI, lower FEV1, and more severe dyspnea were associated with the use of continuous oxygen. Conclusions A large number of COPD patients without severe hypoxemia were using supplemental oxygen therapy and the pattern of oxygen use was affected by factors other than resting SpO2 and emphysema severity. Longitudinal data will be required to reveal the effects of oxygen therapy in this subgroup. PMID:21396809

  12. School-Located Vaccination Clinics for Adolescents: Correlates of Acceptance Among Parents.

    PubMed

    Gargano, Lisa M; Weiss, Paul; Underwood, Natasha L; Seib, Katherine; Sales, Jessica M; Vogt, Tara M; Rask, Kimberly; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M

    2015-08-01

    Four vaccines are recommended by The Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices for adolescents: tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap), meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4), human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV), and annual seasonal influenza vaccine. However, coverage among adolescents is suboptimal. School-located vaccination clinics (SLVCs) offer vaccines to students at school, increasing access. This study seeks to determine the relationship between attitudes of parents of middle- and high-school students and acceptance of SLVCs for all four adolescent recommended vaccines. We conducted a telephone and web-based survey among parents of students enrolled in six middle and five high schools in Georgia. Analyses were conducted to examine associations between parental attitudes and willingness to allow their child to be vaccinated at school. Tdap and influenza vaccine had the highest rates of parental SLVC acceptance while HPV vaccine had the lowest. Parents who accepted SLVCs had higher perceived severity of influenza, meningococcal, and HPV illnesses compared to parents who did not accept SLVC. Intention to vaccinate was associated with SLVC acceptance for Tdap [Adjusted OR (AOR) 7.38; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.44-22.31], MCV4 (AOR 2.97; 95 % CI 1.67-5.28), and HPV vaccines (AOR 7.61; 95 % CI 3.43-16.89). Social norms were associated with acceptance of SLVCs for influenza vaccine (AOR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.12-1.84). These findings suggest parents of adolescents are generally supportive of SLVCs for recommended adolescent vaccines. Perceived severity of illness and intention to get their adolescent vaccinated were the most consistent correlates of parental SLVC acceptance for all vaccines. Future SLVC planning should focus on perceptions of disease severity and benefits of vaccination. PMID:25528325

  13. Oxidative Stress and Erythrocyte Membrane Alterations in Children with Autism: Correlation with Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Visconti, Paola; Bolotta, Alessandra; Ferreri, Carla; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Malisardi, Gemma; Manfredini, Stefano; Marini, Marina; Nanetti, Laura; Pipitone, Emanuela; Raffaelli, Francesca; Resca, Federica; Mazzanti, Laura

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but the literature reports somewhat contradictory results. To further investigate the issue, we evaluated a high number of peripheral oxidative stress parameters, and some related issues such as erythrocyte membrane functional features and lipid composition. Twenty-one autistic children (Au) aged 5 to 12 years, were gender and age-matched with 20 typically developing children (TD). Erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, urinary isoprostane and hexanoyl-lysine adduct levels were elevated in Au, thus confirming the occurrence of an imbalance of the redox status of Au, whilst other oxidative stress markers or associated parameters (urinary 8-oxo-dG, plasma radical absorbance capacity and carbonyl groups, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities) were unchanged. A very significant reduction of Na+/K+-ATPase activity (?66%, p<0.0001), a reduction of erythrocyte membrane fluidity and alteration in erythrocyte fatty acid membrane profile (increase in monounsaturated fatty acids, decrease in EPA and DHA-?3 with a consequent increase in ?6/?3 ratio) were found in Au compared to TD, without change in membrane sialic acid content. Some Au clinical features appear to be correlated with these findings; in particular, hyperactivity score appears to be related with some parameters of the lipidomic profile and membrane fluidity. Oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane alterations may play a role in the pathogenesis of ASD and prompt the development of palliative therapeutic protocols. Moreover, the marked decrease in NKA could be potentially utilized as a peripheral biomarker of ASD. PMID:23840462

  14. Meta-analysis of clinical correlates of acute mortality in takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuljit; Carson, Kristin; Shah, Ranjit; Sawhney, Gagandeep; Singh, Balwinder; Parsaik, Ajay; Gilutz, Harel; Usmani, Zafar; Horowitz, John

    2014-04-15

    The incidence and clinical correlates of acute in-hospital mortality of takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) are not clear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to consolidate the current evidence on acute mortality in TTC. We then assessed the impact of "secondary" TTC, male gender, advancing age, and catecholamine use on mortality. A comprehensive search of 4 major databases (EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar) was performed from their inception to the first week of July 2013. We included original research studies, recruiting ?10 participants, published in English language, and those that reported data on mortality and cause of death in patients with TTC. Of 382 citations, 37 studies (2,120 patients with TTC) from 11 different countries were included in the analyses. The mean age of the cohort was 68 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 67 to 69) with female predominance (87%). The in-hospital mortality rate among patients with TTC was 4.5% (95% CI 3.1 to 6.2, I2=60.8%). Among all deaths, 38% were directly related to TTC complications and rest to underlying noncardiac conditions. Male gender was associated with higher TTC mortality rate (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 to 4.6, p=0.0008, I2=0%) so was "secondary" TTC (risk difference -0.11, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.04, p=0.003, I2=84%). The mean age of patients dying tended to be greater than that in the whole cohort (72±7 vs 65±7 years). In conclusion, TTC is not as benign as once thought. To reduce the mortality rate, greater efforts need to be directed to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of "secondary" TTC. PMID:24685327

  15. Self-Cannulation for Haemodialysis: Patient Attributes, Clinical Correlates and Self-Cannulation Predilection Models

    PubMed Central

    Jayanti, Anuradha; Foden, Philip; Wearden, Alison; Morris, Julie; Brenchley, Paul; Mitra, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives With emerging evidence in support of home haemodialysis (HHD), patient factors which determine uptake of the modality need to be better understood. Self-cannulation (SC) is a major step towards enabling self-care ‘in-centre’ and at home and remains the foremost barrier to its uptake. Human factors governing this aspect of HD practice are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to better understand self-cannulation preferences and factors which define them in end stage renal disease (ESRD). Design In this multicentre study, 508 of 535 patients from predialysis (Group A: n = 222), in-centre (Group B: n = 213), and home HD (Group C: n = 100) responded to a questionnaire with 3 self-cannulation questions. Simultaneously, data on clinical, cognitive and psychosocial variables were ascertained. The primary outcome measure was ‘perceived ability to self-cannulate AV access’. Predictive models were developed using logistic regression analysis. Results 36.6% of predialysis patients (A) and 29.1% of the ‘in-centre’ haemodialysis patients (B) felt able to consider SC for HD. Technical-skills related apprehension was highest in Group B (14.4%) patients. Response to routine venepuncture and the types of SC concerns were significant predictors of perceived ability to self-cannulate. There was no significant difference in concern for pain across the groups. In multivariable regression analysis, age, education level, 3MS score, hypoalbuminemia in Groups B & C and additionally, attitude to routine phlebotomy and the nature of specific concern for self-cannulation in Groups A, B and C, are significant predictors of SC preference. The unadjusted c-statistics of models 1 (derived from Group A and validated on A) and 2 (derived from B+C and validated on B), are 0.76(95% CI 0.69, 0.83) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.74, 0.87) respectively. Conclusions There is high prevalence of perceived ability to self-cannulate. Modifiable SC concerns exist in ESRD. The use of predictive models to objectively define and target education and training strategies could potentially impact on HD self-management and future uptake of home HD. PMID:25992775

  16. Clinical Correlates of Tourette's Disorder Across Cultures: A Comparative Study Between the United Arab Emirates and the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Valsamma; Robertson, Mary M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective: Tourette's disorder is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal (phonic) tics. While the disorder has been researched extensively in the Western populations, the clinical correlates and associated features are less well known in other populations and cultures. This study examines the presentation and clinical correlates of Tourette's disorder in 2 distinct populations, namely the United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates. Method: A consecutive series of 35 Tourette's disorder patients of Arab descent recruited from 2001 to 2005 from the Child Psychiatry clinics in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), were compared with 35 age- and gender-matched white Tourette's disorder patients attending the Tourette Clinic at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom, from December 2004 to December 2005. Results: Rates of occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were similar in the 2 cohorts. Coprolalia was higher in the U.K. cohort and was noted to correlate with the severity of Tourette's disorder. Comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder were also higher in the U.K. cohort (54.3% [N = 19] and 20.0% [N = 7], respectively) as compared to the U.A.E. cohort (11.4% [N = 4] and 5.7% [N = 2], respectively) but were not linked to any other clinical feature or severity of Tourette's disorder. Conclusion: The findings illustrate the similarity in the core clinical symptoms between the 2 populations, thus emphasizing the underlying biological and genetic basis of these symptoms. However, our finding of higher occurrence of behavioral symptoms in the Western sample has implications for our understanding of the phenotypic presentation of Tourette's disorder as well as the management. PMID:18458733

  17. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and its clinical correlates in a VA primary care behavioral health clinic.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Megan M; Zhang, Jinxin; Phillips, Katharine A

    2015-07-30

    We examined the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in a Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care behavioral health clinic. Of 100 Veterans, 11% (95% CI=6.3-18.6%) had current BDD and 12% (95% CI=7.0-19.8%) had lifetime BDD. However, only 8.3% of these Veterans had been diagnosed with BDD. BDD was significantly associated with a substantially elevated rate of suicide attempts, major depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This severe disorder appears to be underdiagnosed in VA settings. PMID:25935375

  18. Correlates of Stress and Coping among Jordanian Nursing Students during Clinical Practice in Psychiatric/Mental Health Course.

    PubMed

    Alzayyat, Abdulkarim; Al-Gamal, Ekhlas

    2014-10-13

    Training in psychiatric settings is stressful for nursing students. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations between the students' characteristics, their stress degrees, stressors and types of coping strategies they experience during training in psychiatric course. A descriptive, correlational, longitudinal design was used. Sixty-five undergraduate nursing students were recruited randomly from five Jordanian universities. Self-report questionnaires were administered at the second semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. The findings showed that students who utilized avoidance or transference strategies reported high stress degrees. Moreover, the results showed that those students who were in the fourth year, with a low family income, who avoid extracurricular activities, with a low academic grade or who registered in other clinical course(s) reported high stress degrees. These findings present a worthy data for the clinical instructors that facilitate students training in psychiatric settings and promote their psychosocial well-being. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25308304

  19. Questions to Ask My Healthcare Team

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Clinical Trials New Directions in Lung Cancer Side Effect Management Questions to Ask My Healthcare Team Support & Resources ... Clinical Trials New Directions in Lung Cancer Side Effect Management Questions to Ask My Healthcare Team Support & Resources ...

  20. MR assessment of red marrow distribution and composition in the proximal femur: correlation with clinical and laboratory parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Vande Berg; Frederic E. Lecouvet; Philippe Moysan; Baudouin Maldague; Jacques Jamart; Jacques Malghem

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To correlate the MR appearance of the proximal femur marrow with clinical and blood parameters. Design and patients. The proportion of the femoral neck surface area occupied by red marrow was determined on T1-weighted magnetic resonance\\u000a (MR) images of the hip in a series of 120 subjects, aged from 15 to 75 years, with ten females and ten males

  1. G M1 -gangliosidosis: Accumulation of ganglioside G M1 in cultured skin fibroblasts and correlation with clinical types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiyuki Suzuki; Norimasa Nakamura; Kazuko Fukuoka

    1978-01-01

    Uptake of radioactivity from 14C-galactose into gangliosides by cultured skin fibroblasts was studied. GM3 was the major ganglioside in control human fibroblasts. An increase of GM1 was demonstrated in GM1-gangliosidosis fibroblasts. The degree of GM1 accumulation was correlated with the clinical types of this disease. The fibroblasts from an infantile-type patient showed a marked increase of GM1. In late-onset types

  2. Peripheral T-lymphocyte subpopulations in different clinical stages of chronic HBV infection correlate with HBV load

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing You; Lin Zhuang; Yi-Feng Zhang; Hong-Ying Chen; Hutcha Sriplung; Alan Geater; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Teerha Piratvisuth; Edward McNeil; Lan Yu; Bao-Zhang Tang; Jun-Hua Huang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the peripheral T-cell subpopulation profiles and their correlation with hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in different clinical stages of chronic HBV infection. METHODS: A total of 422 patients with chronic HBV infection were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into three stages: immune-tolerant stage, immune active stage, and immune-inactive carrier stage. Composition of peripheral T-cell

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Cerebral Cortical Atrophy and Correlation With Clinical Severity in Unilateral Sturge-Weber Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Kelley; Laura A. Hatfield; Doris D. M. Lin; Anne M. Comi

    2005-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a neurocutaneous disorder with vascular malformations of the skin, brain, and eye. The objective of this study was to determine whether cortical atrophy in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome correlates with clinical severity. Eighteen subjects (age 4 months—35 years) with unilateral Sturge-Weber syndrome received a neurologic examination and submitted previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) films. A blinded investigator

  4. Do radiation-induced bystander effects correlate to the intrinsic radiosensitivity of individuals and have clinical significance?

    PubMed

    Howe, Orla; O'Sullivan, Jacintha; Nolan, Blathnaid; Vaughan, Joe; Gorman, Sheeona; Clarke, Colin; McClean, Brendan; Lyng, Fiona M

    2009-05-01

    It is well known that patients can vary in their normal tissue response to radiotherapy, and this can be problematic. As a result, radiobiologists have been using in vitro models to assess variation in response and elucidate the genetic determinants of this variation. However, the clinical relevance of these models is currently unknown. In this study, blood samples from healthy controls (n = 20) and colorectal carcinoma patients (n = 60) were cultured in vitro to assess two radiobiological end points in parallel: intrinsic radiosensitivity assayed by chromosomal aberrations (G(2) scores) and radiation-induced bystander effects assayed by viability testing. Increased intrinsic radiosensitivity was observed in colorectal carcinoma donors (55%) compared to the healthy donors (5%) (P < 0.005). Similarly, more pronounced radiation-induced bystander effects were observed in the colorectal carcinoma donors compared to the healthy donors after 24 h exposure but not after 96 h exposure to donor irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) (P < 0.05). All scores were tested for correlation with the age, sex and clinical stage of the colorectal carcinoma patients. The only statistically significant correlation was found in samples from severe Dukes D patients (P < 0.005), which had low/radioresistant G(2) scores. No correlation was found between radiation-induced intrinsic sensitivity and bystander effects, which suggests that they may have separate underlying molecular mechanisms, but they both show clinical relevance in individual patient samples. PMID:19580487

  5. Treatment Effectiveness and Its Correlates in a Marriage and Family Therapy Training Clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Ward; Eric E. McCollum

    2005-01-01

    While a significant amount of attention has been paid to the efficacy of marriage and family therapy (MFT), research on the effectiveness of MFT is lacking. Furthermore, university training clinics are an underutilized, yet excellent resource for collecting effectiveness research data. This study examined the effectiveness of therapy provided at an MFT university training clinic, by examining therapists' ratings of

  6. Correlations between Morphological, Molecular Biological, and Physiological Characteristics in Clinical and Nonclinical Isolates of Acanthamoeba spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JULIA WALOCHNIK; ANDREAS OBWALLER; HORST ASPOCK

    2000-01-01

    Eleven Acanthamoeba isolates, obtained from Acanthamoeba keratitis patients, from contact lens cases of non-Acanthamoeba keratitis patients, from asymptomatic individuals, from necrotic tissue, and from tap water and two reference strains were investigated by morphological, molecular biological, and physiological means in order to discriminate clinically relevant and nonrelevant isolates. All clinically relevant isolates showed Acanthamoeba sp. group II morphology. 18S ribosomal

  7. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derrick M Silove; Claire L Marnane; Renate Wagner; Vijaya L Manicavasagar; Susan Rees

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. METHODS: Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured

  8. Empirical Correlates and Expanded Interpretation of the MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scale 3 (Cynicism)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Paul B.; Kelso, Kristy M.; McCord, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The recent release of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) has received much attention from the clinical psychology community. Particular concerns have focused on Restructured Clinical Scale 3 (RC3; Cynicism). This article briefly reviews the major criticisms and responses regarding the restructuring of…

  9. Questioning as a teaching tool.

    PubMed

    Long, Michele; Blankenburg, Rebecca; Butani, Lavjay

    2015-03-01

    The Dreyfus and Bloom frameworks can help the great clinical teacher craft questions that are learner-centric and appropriately challenging.Employing strategies to ask the right questions in the right way can further add to the effectiveness of using questions as a valuable teaching,learning, and assessment tool. PMID:25647682

  10. Genetic correlations of clinical mastitis and feet and legs problems with milk yield and type traits in Dutch Black and White dairy cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Groen; I. Hellinga; J. K. Oldenbroek

    1994-01-01

    Direct selection for decreased disease incidence is difficult given low hsuperscript 2s and the absence of disease recording. Genetic correlations between diseases and type traits indicate possibilities for indirect selection; however, correlations often include experimentally instead of routinely scored type traits. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations of clinical mastitis and feet and legs problems with

  11. Interleukin-1? level in peri-implant crevicular fluid and its correlation with the clinical and radiographic parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kajale, Aniruddha M.; Mehta, Dhoom S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Assessing only the clinical and radiographic parameters for evaluation of dental implants may not be enough as they often reflect extensive inflammatory changes in the periodontal tissues. As peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) can give us a more prompt and objective measure of the disease activity, the purpose of this case series is to assess the peri-implant health status of single tooth dental implants not only clinically and radiographically but also biochemically. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients were subjected to dental implants at single edentulous sites using a conventional surgical approach. At baseline, 6 months, and 12 months after implant placement, the clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded. Additionally, IL-1? in PICF was estimated using the ELISA kit at 6th and 12th month. Results: The clinical and radiographic parameters differed significantly around the implants at different time intervals with IL-1? levels showing highly significant differences between 6 months (31.79 ± 12.26 pg/?l) and 12 months (113.09 ± 51.11 pg/?l). However, Spearman's correlation coefficient showed no correlation with the clinical and radiographic parameters. Interpretation and Conclusion: Assessment of the various parameters confirmed that all the implants had a healthy peri-implant status. Although the levels of IL-1? in PICF were elevated at the 12th month, they were well within the healthy range as observed by previous studies. This indicates that IL-1?, a biochemical marker, can be used as an adjunct to clinical and radiographic parameters in the assessment of EARLY inflammatory changes around implants. PMID:24872632

  12. Host and Viral Genetic Correlates of Clinical Definitions of HIV1 Disease Progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Concepción Casado; Sara Colombo; Andri Rauch; Raquel Martínez; Huldrych F. Günthard; Soledad Garcia; Carmen Rodríguez; Jorge Del Romero; Amalio Telenti; Cecilio López-Galíndez; Jean-Pierre Vartanian

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundVarious patterns of HIV-1 disease progression are described in clinical practice and in research. There is a need to assess the specificity of commonly used definitions of long term non-progressor (LTNP) elite controllers (LTNP-EC), viremic controllers (LTNP-VC), and viremic non controllers (LTNP-NC), as well as of chronic progressors (P) and rapid progressors (RP).Methodology and Principal FindingsWe re-evaluated the HIV-1 clinical

  13. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Correlates among Female Attendees of Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiaoqin; Pan, Xiaohong; Cai, Gaofeng; Yan, Jiezhe; Xu, Yun; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    This study is to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and its risk factors among the female attendees of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Zhejiang Province, China. A self-administered questionnaire survey of a cross-sectional design was administered to attendees at four STD clinics in 2007. Of the 313 female STD clinic attendees, 42.5% reported that they had at least one unintended pregnancy; the induced abortion rate was 39.0%. Over their lifetime, 12.1% responded “use condoms always/often” and 5.4% “always/often used oral contraceptives.” The risk factors for the unintended pregnancy identified by the multivariate analysis were as follows: being married, experience of nonconsensual sex, and a history of STD, having two and over two sexual partners. Unintended pregnancies and induced abortion by female STD clinic attendees have reached an alarming prevalence. Doctors at STD clinics should attach importance not only to the STD problem of the female attendees, but also to the unintended pregnancy and the associated factors. Targeted contraceptive counseling and intervention should be promoted at STD clinics as a strategy to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the reproductive health services in China. PMID:23841063

  14. Fermi questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Karen

    1999-05-01

    This column contains problems and solutions for the general category of questions known as "Fermi" questions. Forcing the students to use their ability to estimate, giving answers in terms of order-of-magnitude, is not only a challenge for a competition, but a teaching strategy to use in the classroom to develop self-confidence and the ability to analyze answers as to whether or not they make sense, as opposed to relying on the "precision" of a calculator value.

  15. Host and Viral Genetic Correlates of Clinical Definitions of HIV-1 Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Andri; Martínez, Raquel; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Garcia, Soledad; Rodríguez, Carmen; del Romero, Jorge; Telenti, Amalio; López-Galíndez, Cecilio

    2010-01-01

    Background Various patterns of HIV-1 disease progression are described in clinical practice and in research. There is a need to assess the specificity of commonly used definitions of long term non-progressor (LTNP) elite controllers (LTNP-EC), viremic controllers (LTNP-VC), and viremic non controllers (LTNP-NC), as well as of chronic progressors (P) and rapid progressors (RP). Methodology and Principal Findings We re-evaluated the HIV-1 clinical definitions, summarized in Table 1, using the information provided by a selected number of host genetic markers and viral factors. There is a continuous decrease of protective factors and an accumulation of risk factors from LTNP-EC to RP. Statistical differences in frequency of protective HLA-B alleles (p-0.01), HLA-C rs9264942 (p-0.06), and protective CCR5/CCR2 haplotypes (p-0.02) across groups, and the presence of viruses with an ancestral genotype in the “viral dating” (i.e., nucleotide sequences with low viral divergence from the most recent common ancestor) support the differences among principal clinical groups of HIV-1 infected individuals. Conclusions A combination of host genetic and viral factors supports current clinical definitions that discriminate among patterns of HIV-1 progression. The study also emphasizes the need to apply a standardized and accepted set of clinical definitions for the purpose of disease stratification and research. PMID:20552027

  16. Physical activities and correlates of clinical nurses in Taipei municipal hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuh-Shwu; Huang, Yi-Ching; Kao, Yu-Hsiu

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical activity profiles of clinical nurses in Taipei municipal hospitals. This study also explored the factors that influence physical activity, including personal background and social psychological factors. A total of 400 Taipei municipal hospital clinical nurses were selected using a randomized procedure to participate in a 3-day physical activity record assignment and fill in a structured questionnaire. Study results indicate that energy expenditure for clinical nurses on working days are higher than that on non-working days. Non-working days of clinical nurses are characterized by a lack of physical activity. Nurses who were required to take turns working in three shift rotation cycles, those with education at the junior college level or below, and those who were married tended to spend more energy on physical activity. Social psychological factors affecting the physical activities of clinical nurses include mainly exercise self-efficacy. Heavy work loading, poor health conditions, laziness, and lack of time tended to lower exercise self-efficacy. On non-working days, perceived barriers to exercise are the main issue area affecting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Nurses with greater perceived barriers to exercise spend less energy on physical activity. The main influencing factors for perceived barriers to exercise include laziness and lack of time. PMID:16372239

  17. Neuroradiologic correlates of clinical disability and progression in the X-Linked leukodystrophy Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease

    PubMed Central

    Laukka, Jeremy J.; Stanley, Jeffrey A.; Garbern, James Y.; Trepanier, Angela; Hobson, Grace; Lafleur, Tori; Gow, Alexander; Kamholz, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether quantitative measure of magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with the inherited leukodystrophy, Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease (PMD) correlates with clinical severity or progression. Methods In our current work we have analyzed the clinical phenotypes and MRI scans of 51 male patients with PMD and 10 female carriers for whom the PLP1 genotype had been determined. In addition, we developed a 32-point functional disability scoring (FDS) system for PMD, and validated it for inter-rater reliability. Using conventional T1- and T2-weighted MRI images of the whole brain, we measured white matter and total brain volume (WMV and TBV), inter-caudate ratio (ICR), and corpus callosum area. Results There was a significant positive correlation of FDS with white matter fraction (WMV/TBV) and corpus callosum area. Also, when applying a median split based on FDS, patients with lower FDS showed reduced white matter fraction and corpus callosum area, and increased ICR compared to patients with relatively higher FDS, regardless of age. Conclusion Although this patient population is heterogeneous, with multiple genetic and molecular mechanisms causing PMD, these data imply that white matter atrophy is a major pathological determinant of the clinical disability in most patients. Development of reliable non-invasive quantitative biomarkers of disease activity would be useful not only for following the natural history of the disease, but also raising the potential for evaluating future therapies. PMID:24139698

  18. The quantification of dynamic FET PET imaging and correlation with the clinical outcome in patients with glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Frank; Ehmer, Julia; Piroth, Marc D; Eble, Michael J; Coenen, Heinz H; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Schaefer, Wolfgang M; Buell, Ulrich; Boy, Christian

    2009-09-21

    The PET tracer O-(2-[18F]Fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) has been shown to be valuable for different roles in the management of brain tumours. The aim of this study was to evaluate several quantitative measures of dynamic FET PET imaging in patients with resected glioblastoma. We evaluated dynamic FET PET in nine patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma. Following FET PET, all subjects had radiation and chemotherapy. Tumour ROIs were defined by a threshold-based region-growing algorithm. We compared several standard measures of tumour uptake and uptake kinetics: SUV, SUV/background, distribution volume ratio (DVR), weighted frame differences and compartment model parameters. These measures were correlated with disease-free and overall survival, and analysed for statistical significance. We found that several measures allowed robust quantification. SUV and distribution volume did not correlate with clinical outcome. Measures that are based on a background region (SUV/BG, Logan-DVR) highly correlated with disease-free survival (r = -0.95, p < 0.0001), but not overall survival. Some advanced measures also showed a prognostic value but no improvement over the simpler methods. We conclude that FET PET probably has a prognostic value in patients with resected glioblastoma. The ratio of SUV to background may provide a simple and valuable predictive measure of the clinical outcome. Further studies are needed to confirm these explorative results. PMID:19717889

  19. Clinical correlates of sex steroids and gonadotropins in men over the late adulthood : the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Haring, Robin; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Coviello, Andrea; Sullivan, Lisa; Bhasin, Shalender; Wallaschofski, Henri; Murabito, Joanne M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Low serum concentrations of sex steroids and gonadotropins in men have been associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and mortality, but the clinical correlates of these hormones in men over the late adulthood are less clearly understood. Methods We analyzed up to five serial measurements of total testosterone (TT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and total estradiol (EST) in older men in the original cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to determine the short- (2-years; 1,165 person-observations in 528 individuals) and long-term (up to 10-years follow-up; 2,520 person-observations in 835 individuals with mean baseline age: 71.2 years) clinical correlates of these sex steroids and gonadotropins using multilevel modelling and Generalized Estimating Equations. Results Age, body mass index, and pre-existing type 2 diabetes were inversely related to long-term TT concentrations, whereas higher systolic blood pressure showed a positive association. Furthermore, age and pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) were inversely and HDL cholesterol concentrations positively associated with long-term DHEAS concentrations. Analyses of short-term changes revealed age was inversely related to DHEAS, but positively related to FSH and LH concentrations. Conclusion Our community-based study identified modifiable correlates of decreasing TT and DHEAS concentrations in elderly men, suggesting that maintenance of a low CVD risk factor burden may mitigate the age-related decline of these hormones over the late adulthood. PMID:22640232

  20. Body dysmorphic disorder in psychiatric outpatients: recognition, prevalence, comorbidity, demographic, and clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Mattia, J I

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), based on structured and unstructured clinical interviews, was compared in two samples of psychiatric outpatients drawn from the same practice setting. In the first sample, 500 patients were diagnosed according to a routine, unstructured clinical interview. In the second sample, 500 subjects were diagnosed according to information obtained by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). No patient was diagnosed with BDD in the clinical sample, whereas 16 (3.2%) patients were diagnosed with BDD in the SCID sample. Compared with patients without BDD, patients with BDD received significantly more current axis I diagnoses, and were more likely to be diagnosed with current obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia. Both groups were diagnosed with major depression at similar rates. Patients with BDD, versus those without, tended to be sicker and more functionally impaired. It appears that BDD is an infrequent disorder in an outpatient setting, which is rarely recognized when clinicians conduct their routine diagnostic interview. Although it was not usually a patient's principal reason for seeking treatment, the majority of patients with BDD in this sample wanted their treatment to address these symptoms. PMID:9777278

  1. Neurocognitive, clinical and functional correlates of subjective quality of life in Asian outpatients with schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Puay San Woon; Ming Ying Chia; Wai Yen Chan; Kang Sim

    2010-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) impairment is evident in patients with schizophrenia and is increasingly recognised as an important evaluation criterion of treatment outcome. Hence, this study aimed to identify the neurocognitive, clinical and functional parameters associated with subjective QOL in patients with schizophrenia within an Asian context, and specifically in an outpatient setting. This study was conducted on 83 outpatients

  2. Latent structure of EEG sleep variables in depressed and control subjects: descriptions and clinical correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Buysse; Martica Hall; Xin M. Tu; Stephanie Land; Patricia R. Houck; Christine R. Cherry; David J. Kupfer; Ellen Frank

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the latent structure of multiple EEG sleep variables in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and in healthy control subjects and to examine associations between sleep factors and clinical variables. Subjects included 109 women with MDD and 54 healthy control women. EEG sleep data were collected prior to any treatment. Principal components analysis

  3. Toxoplasma encephalitis in Haitian adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinical-pathologic-CT correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. D. Post; J. C. Chan; G. T. Hensley; T. A. Hoffman; L. B. Moskowitz; S. Lippmann

    1983-01-01

    The clinical data, histologic findings, and computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in eight adult Haitians with toxoplasma encephalitis were analyzed retrospectively. Diagnosis was established by identification of Toxoplasma gondii on autopsy in five and brain biopsy in three specimens and subsequently confirmed by the immunoperoxidase method. All these patiens, six of whom had been in the United States for 24 months

  4. Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range…

  5. Clinical Characteristics, Precipitating Stressors, and Correlates of Lethality among Suicide Attempters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-Wen Wu; Yi-Jen Su; Chih-Ken Chen

    Background: Given that suicide attempt is a major risk factor for suicide completion, this study investigated the clinical features, precipitating stressors, and the corre- lates of lethality in suicide attempters. Methods: The sample comprised 357 people who had attempted suicide and had been sent to the emergency room in a general hospital from November 2002 to June 2005. Data collection

  6. Clinical Correlates and Prognostic Significance of the Ventilatory Response to Exercise in Chronic Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuan Peng Chua; Piotr Ponikowski; Derek Harrington; Stefan D Anker; Katharine Webb-Peploe; Andrew L Clark; Philip A Poole-Wilson; Andrew J. S Coats

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with chronic heart failure and an increased ventilatory response to exercise and to examine the prognostic usefulness of this response.Background. The ventilatory response to exercise is increased in many patients with chronic heart failure and may be characterized by the regression slope relating minute ventilation to carbon dioxide output

  7. CNS involvement in acute organophosphate poisoning: Specific pattern of toxicity, clinical correlates and antidotal treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Finkelstein; U. Taitelman; A. Biegon

    1988-01-01

    The present review was designed to integrate both experimental and clinical data and to focus on the problems of management of severe cases of acute organophosphate poisoning, which always show CNS involvement. AChE activity, in discrete regions of the human brain, was studied by quantitative histochemistry of 40 ? thick sections. The regional effects of AchE inhibition by organophosphates was

  8. A Comparative Study of Clinical Correlates in Schizophrenia with Onset in Childhood, Adolescence and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Parthasarathy; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil; Gupta, Nitin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare disorder. Comparative data on the effect of differential age of onset on clinical profile in schizophrenia are very few. Method: Subjects with COS (n = 15), adolescence onset schizophrenia (AdOS, n = 20) and adulthood onset schizophrenia (AOS, n = 20) were compared on socio-demographic,…

  9. Clinical and functional assessment of dysautonomia and its correlation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska-Pniewska, Beata; Gawel, Malgorzata; Szmidt-Salkowska, Elzbieta; Kepczynska, Katarzyna; Nojszewska, Monika

    2012-12-01

    The aims were to assess dysautonomia in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), clinically and electrophysiologically, using sympathetic skin response (SSR) test and R-R interval variation (RRIV) test and to analyze the relationship between symptoms of dysautonomia and SSR/RRIV results. A tota of 54 patients with AD and 37 controls were evaluated using Autonomic Symptoms Questionnaire and SSR/RRIV test. Clinical dysautonomia was observed in 66% of patients (eg, orthostatic hypotension in 34.5%, constipation in 17.2%, urinary incontinence in 13.8%). The SSR test was abnormal in 26%, but the RRIV test was abnormal in 97.7% of cases; there was significant difference in RRIV test results between AD and controls (R mean 8.05% and 14.6%, respectively). In AD, clinical dysautonomia occurs at a various degree, and the abnormal SSR and RRIV test results were not always related to the presence of clinical dysautonomia; this observation points that the tests could be used as a useful tool in the assessment of subclinical dysautonomia. PMID:23007287

  10. Preoperative radiochemotherapy in locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer: regional radiofrequency hyperthermia correlates with clinical parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Rau; P Wust; W Tilly; J Gellermann; C Harder; H Riess; V Budach; R Felix; P. M Schlag

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) is a widely used means of treatment for patients suffering from primary, locally advanced, or recurrent rectal cancer. We evaluated the efficacy of treatment due to additional application of regional hyperthermia (HRCT) to this conventional therapy regime in a Phase II study, employing the annular phased-array system BSD-2000 (SIGMA-60 applicator). The clinical results of the trial

  11. On Discovering the Correlated Relationship between Static and Dynamic Data in Clinical

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    (AAI), University of Technology, Sydney, Australia 2 Hugh Williamson Gait Analysis Laboratory impairment. Clinical gait analysis (CGA) is a practical technique and procedure for identifying the under this process has been qualitatively carried out by gait analysis experts, based mainly on their experience

  12. Anti-lactoferrin antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: isotypes and clinical correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Domenico Caccavo; Amelia Rigon; Antonio Picardi; Sara Galluzzo; Marta Vadacca; Giovanni Maria Ferri; Antonio Amoroso; Antonella Afeltra

    2005-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional iron-binding protein present in several mucosal secretions as well as in secondary granules of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Anti-LF antibodies, which belong to antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), have been described in several immunomediated diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with conflicting results regarding either their prevalence or clinical associations. We studied the prevalence and isotype distribution

  13. Annual Research Review: Attachment Disorders in Early Childhood--Clinical Presentation, Causes, Correlates, and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Gleason, Mary Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background: Though noted in the clinical literature for more than 50 years, attachment disorders have been studied systematically only recently. In part because of the ubiquity of attachments in humans, determining when aberrant behavior is best explained as an attachment disorder as opposed to insecure attachment has led to some confusion. In…

  14. The Sturge-Weber syndrome: correlation between the clinical status and radiological CT and MRI findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Martí-Bonmatí; F. Menor; F. Mulas

    1993-01-01

    In the Sturge-Weber syndrome facial venous and leptomeningeal angiomas are associated. We studied 14 consecutive cases with clinical and radiological evaluations [computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)]. Radiological studies demonstrated the extent and patency of the leptomeningeal angiomatous malformation, the degree of parenchymal atrophy, the presumed ischemic changes affecting the gray and white matter, the presence and extent

  15. Psychological and Organizational Correlates of Career Patterns in Clinical Laboratory Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeswald, Thomas Anthony

    The purpose of the project was to provide research data concerning attitudes and satisfactions of present clinical laboratory employees which would be helpful in planning future recruitment and retention efforts. Questionnaires requesting information regarding the personal and work histories, work attitudes, career plans, and need satisfaction of…

  16. The inflammatory phenotype of the fibrous plate is distinct from the liver and correlates with clinical outcome in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Arva, Nicoleta C; Russo, Pierre A; Erlichman, Jessi; Hancock, Wayne W; Haber, Barbara A; Bhatti, Tricia R

    2015-03-01

    Biliary atresia is an inflammatory cholangiopathy of still undetermined etiology. Correlations between histologic findings and clinical outcome in this disease have largely been based on evaluation of liver parenchyma. This study aimed to characterize the pattern of inflammation within the biliary remnant and identify associations between the type and degree of inflammation and clinical outcome as reflected by the transplant-free interval. The inflammation within the fibrous plates and livers of 41 patients with biliary atresia was characterized using immunohistochemical markers and the cell populations were digitally quantified. The type and quantity of cells within the infiltrate were then correlated with length of time from Kasai portoenterostomy until transplant. Histologic and immunohistochemical features of the biliary remnant allowed stratification of patients into "inflammatory plate" and "fibrotic plate" groups. Overall there was no significant difference in transplant-free interval between the two cohorts; however, there was a trend towards a longer time to transplant among patients in the "fibrotic plate" group. In addition, the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate in the fibrous plate was distinctly different from that present in the liver and only the characteristics of the inflammation in the fibrous plate, in particular the number of Foxp3+ T regulatory lymphocytes correlated with clinical outcome. The results of this study support the view of the extra-hepatic biliary tree as the primary site of injury in BA with the changes seen in the liver as secondary manifestations of outflow obstruction. The association between specific inflammatory cell subtypes within the fibrous plate and the length of transplant-free interval also supports the role of the immune system in the initial process of bile duct damage in biliary atresia. PMID:25624184

  17. Some youths have a gloomy side: correlates of the dark triad personality traits in non-clinical adolescents.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Timmermans, Anke

    2013-10-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the Dark Triad personality traits and their correlates in non-clinical youths aged 12-18 years (N = 117). Child- and parent-report data were obtained on Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy as well as on Big Five personality factors and symptoms of aggression and delinquency. Results indicated that especially Machiavellianism and psychopathy were in a theoretically meaningful way related to Big Five factors: that is, both traits were associated with lower levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness/intellect, and higher levels of emotional instability. Further, Machiavellianism and psychopathy also emerged as significant and unique correlates of symptoms of aggression and delinquency, which further underlines the importance of these Dark Triad traits in the pathogenesis of disruptive behavior problems in youths. PMID:23334267

  18. Anatomical correlates of visual and tactile extinction in humans: a clinical CT scan study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Vallar; M L Rusconi; L Bignamini; G Geminiani; D Perani

    1994-01-01

    The anatomical correlates of tactile and visual extinction with double simultaneous stimulation were investigated in a series of 159 patients with right brain damage caused by stroke. Forty six patients showed extinction (22 tactile, 14 visual, 10 tactile and visual). Over 50% of the patients with extinction had deep lesions, which were found in about 25% of the patients with

  19. Cerebral Dysfunctions Related to Perinatal Organic Damage: Clinical-Neuropathologic Correlations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towbin, Abraham

    1978-01-01

    Recent neuropathology studies identify hypoxia as the main cause of perinatal cerebral damage. Cerebral lesions present at birth, with transition to chronic scar lesions, are correlated to mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and minimal brain dysfunction. Gestation age and severity of hypoxic exposure essentially determine the cerebral…

  20. Serum uric acid levels and their correlation with clinical and cerebrospinal fluid parameters in patients with neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caiyan; Xu, Yan; Cui, Liying; Wang, Jianming; Peng, Bin; Zhong, Lizhen; Chen, Xingwang

    2013-02-01

    Although uric acid (UA) concentration has been considered a surrogate marker for monitoring the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS), less is known about the relationship between UA and the progression of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). We therefore investigated the correlations between serum UA concentrations and the clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters in patients with NMO. Factors assessed in patients with NMO included gender, disease duration, disease disability, CSF white blood cell (WBC) counts, oligoclonal bands (OB), 24 hour immunoglobulin (Ig)G index, and myelin basic protein (MBP) concentration. Mean serum UA concentrations were compared in patients with NMO and in a control group of patients with cerebral infarction (CI). We found that mean serum UA concentrations were significantly lower in patients with NMO compared to those with CI (206.81 compared to 274.00 ?mol/L, p=0.00). Serum UA concentration was correlated directly with NMO duration (p=0.013) and was inversely correlated with the Expanded Disability Status Scale score (p=0.021). Patients with NMO with lower serum UA concentrations tended to be positive for OB, to have higher CSF protein and MBP concentrations, and to have higher WBC counts and 24 hour IgG index, but no correlation was statistically significant. UA may be a useful surrogate marker for monitoring NMO activity. PMID:23164828

  1. The three-dimensional easy morphological (3-DEMO) classification of scoliosis – Part III, correlation with clinical classification and parameters

    PubMed Central

    Negrini, Stefano; Negrini, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Background In the first part of this study we proposed a new classification approach for spinal deformities (3-DEMO classification). To be valid, a classification needs to describe adequately the phenomenon considered (construct validity): a way to verify this issue is comparison with already existing classifications (concurrent and criterion validity). Aim To compare the 3-DEMO classification and the numerical results of its classificatory parameters with the existing clinical classifications and the Cobb degrees on the frontal and sagittal planes respectively. Methods 118 subjects (96 females) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (age 15.9 ± 3.1, 37.4 ± 12.5° Cobb) have been classified according to 3-DEMO, SRS-Ponseti, King and Lenke classifications as well as according to sagittal configuration. For all patients we computed the values of the 3-DEMO parameters and the classical Cobb degrees measurements in the frontal and sagittal planes. Statistical analysis comprised Chi Square and Regression analysis, including a multivariate stepwise regression. Results Three of the four 3-DEMO parameters (Direction, Sagittal and Frontal Shift) correlated with SRS-Ponseti, King and sagittal configuration classifications, but not with Lenke's one. Feeble correlations have been found among numerical parameters, while the stepwise regression allowed us to develop almost satisfactory models to obtain 3-DEMO parameters from classical Cobb degrees measurements. Discussion These results support the hypothesis of a possible clinical significance of the 3-DEMO classification, even if follow-up studies are needed to better understand these possible correlations and ultimately the classification usefulness. The most interesting 3D parameters appear to be Direction and mainly Phase, the latter being not at all correlated with currently existing classifications. Nevertheless, Shift cannot be easily appreciated on classical frontal and sagittal radiographs, even if it could presumably be calculated. PMID:17371597

  2. HLA antigens in Spanish type 1 diabetic population. Correlations with clinical, biological and autoimmune markers.

    PubMed

    Goday, A; Motaña, E; Ercilla, G; Fernandez, J; Gomis, R; Vilardell, E

    1990-01-01

    The HLA haplotype and its relationships with clinical, biological and immunological parameters were analyzed in a group of 87 Spanish type 1 diabetic patients at the clinical onset of the disease. The frequency of HLA-B18, DR3 and DR4 antigens was significantly increased whereas DR2, DR5 and DR7 were decreased in comparison with 189 healthy unrelated controls without family history of diabetes. DR3 showed a maximum relative risk for diabetes (5.5) whereas DR4 had a lower one (4.0). HLA-DR4 patients were younger at the time of diagnosis than DR4 negative (16.7 vs 21.4 years). We found no statistically significant relationship between HLA antigens and the other variables studied including the presence of islet cell antibodies, complement fixing islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies, organ-specific antibodies, fasting and maximal glucagon stimulated C-peptide levels, initial glycemia and glycosylated hemoglobin. PMID:2075784

  3. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy biomarkers in term perinatal asphyxial encephalopathy: from neuropathological correlates to future clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Nicola J; Thayyil, Sudhin; Cady, Ernest B; Raivich, Gennadij

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal brain injury remains a devastating condition, with poor outcomes despite the institution of an effective neuroprotective strategy of therapeutic hypothermia. There is an urgent need to develop additional neuroprotective strategies and to tailor our clinical predictive ability for families and their infants. Such goals could be more readily achieved if reliable early clinical indicators or biomarkers existed. This review will explore the relation between magnetic resonance (MR) imaging biomarkers and the degree of brain pathology observed in our translational piglet model of perinatal asphyxia. We also suggest biomarker relevance at a cellular level. The review will describe the development needed to optimize and simplify the use of biomarkers to speed up future trials of neuroprotection. PMID:25055862

  4. Clinical relevance of phenotype/genotype correlations in the diagnosis and therapy of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Parenti, G; Zampetti, B; Rapizzi, E; Ercolino, T; Giachè, V; Fucci, R; Mannelli, M

    2013-06-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are tumors arising from neural crest-derived cells. They can be sympathetic in origin, catecholamine secreting and located in the abdomen or chest, or parasympathetic, generally non-secreting and located in the head and neck region. It is well established that about 35% of them are genetically determined. Germ-line mutations in one of the 10 so far known susceptibility genes is especially suspected when the tumors are diagnosed in young patients, multiple or recurrent or associated with additional lesions typical of syndromic clinical pictures such as von Hippel-Lindau, Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2 or Neurofibromatosis type 1. Tumor genetic profile determines the type and pattern of catecholamine release, the clinical presentation, the risk of malignancy and may influence the choice of the radiotracers used in functional imaging, the type of surgical procedures as well as the type of medical therapy in the treatment of metastatic disease. PMID:23822988

  5. Clinical and cognitive correlates of depressive symptoms among youth with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Peris, Tara S; Bergman, R Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range of depressive symptoms, with 21% scoring at or above the clinical cutoff on the self-report measure of depression. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of cognitive distortions assessed on measures of insight, perceived control, competence, and contingencies. Depressive symptoms were also linked to older age and more severe OCD. Low perceived control and self-competence and high OCD severity independently predicted depression scores. PMID:20706915

  6. Cigarette Smoking and Drinking Water Source: Correlation with Clinical Features and Pathology of Superficial Bladder Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Serretta; Vincenzo Altieri; Giuseppe Morgia; Rosalinda Allegro; Antonina Ruggirello; Alessandra Di Lallo; Giuseppe Carrieri; Darvinio Melloni

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Water source and cigarette smoking are related to clinical characteristics and pathology of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Methods: Tumor number, dimension, G-grade, T-stage, recurrences, cigarette smoking and water supply were recorded in patients harboring Ta–T1 G1–3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Results: Of 577 patients, 61% had multiple and 36% recurrent tumors. Two hundred and

  7. An introduction to the clinical correlates of disrupted slow-wave sleep.

    PubMed

    Roth, Thomas; Benca, Ruth M; Erman, Milton

    2010-04-01

    Chronic sleep deficits have been shown to lead to problems with cognition and memory, and evidence supports an association between deficits in slow-wave sleep and a variety of clinical and psychiatric disorders. Improving sleep architecture through an increase in slow-wave sleep, with or without increases in total time asleep, may lead to improvements in these associated disorders. Further research and the development of novel sleep therapies, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic, are needed. PMID:20409443

  8. Right-to-Left Shunt in CADASIL Patients Prevalence and Correlation With Clinical and MRI Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enza Zicari; Rossana Tassi; Maria L. Stromillo; Michele Pellegrini; Silvia Bianchi; Gabriele Cevenini; Massimo Gistri; Nicola De Stefano; Antonio Federico; Maria T. Dotti

    Background and Purpose—A high prevalence of right-to-left shunt (RLS) was described in a family of patients with CADASIL, a rare cerebral arteriopathy attributable to Notch3 gene mutations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of RLS in patients with CADASIL and possible relation to clinical phenotype and cerebral MRI lesion load. Methods—Twenty-three CADASIL patients underwent Transcranial Doppler

  9. Hemophilus influenzae pneumonia in the adult: radiographic appearance with clinical correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlberg, J.; Haggar, A.M.; Saravolatz, L.; Beute, G.H.; Popovich, J.

    1984-04-01

    Hemophilus influenzae septicemia is an important cause of life-threatening pneumonia in an immunocompromised patient. Eleven cases proved by blood culture were analyzed. Multilobar involvement with lobar or segmental consolidation pleural effusion were common radiographic findings, but there were no signs of lobar expansion, bulging fissures, or cavitation. In general, predisposing factors such as alcoholism and chemotherapy place patients at risk. Radiographic response to therapy is variable but often lags behind clinical improvement.

  10. Clinical and psychological correlates of health-related quality of life in obese patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edoardo Mannucci; Maria L Petroni; Nicola Villanova; Carlo M Rotella; Giovanni Apolone; Giulio Marchesini

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is poor in obese subjects and is a relevant outcome in intervention studies. We aimed to determine factors associated with poor HRQL in obese patients seeking weight loss in medical units, outside specific research projects. METHODS: HRQL, together with a number of demographic and clinical parameters, was studied with generic (SF-36, PGWB) and disease-specific

  11. Clinical Correlation between Placido, Scheimpflug and LED Color Reflection Topographies in Imaging of a Scarred Cornea.

    PubMed

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Asimellis, George

    2014-09-01

    This case report aims to evaluate safety, efficacy and feasibility of anterior surface imaging by a novel point-source reflection topographer, in comparison to four other corneal imaging modalities. A 17-year-old female patient, clinically diagnosed with chronic herpetic keratitis in her left eye was imaged by a novel multicolored-spot reflection topography system. We comparatively investigated elevation and curvature maps between the novel topographer and established Placido disk topography and Scheimpflug tomography systems. Pachymetry maps were compared between the Scheimpflug system and anterior-segment optical coherence tomography system. The Placido system failed to properly register the abnormal anterior surface due to incomplete mire registration, while the Scheimpflug topometry device imaged the anterior surface properly, but not the posterior (due to media opacity), and thus pachymetry was highly irregular and erroneous in this case. Imaging of corneas infected with herpes simplex virus keratitis has been rare; we have not identified any such documentation in the peer review literature in the last 10 years. This novel multicolored-spot reflection topography imaging may offer successful corneal imaging in cases where established clinical topography systems may fail to produce accurate reconstruction of the corneal shape. This is an important case demonstrating exceptional clinical feasibility in such rare cases offered by a newly introduced technology in ophthalmic imaging. PMID:25408671

  12. EARLY ADVERSITY IN CHRONIC DEPRESSION: CLINICAL CORRELATES AND RESPONSE TO PHARMACOTHERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Daniel N.; Arnow, Bruce A.; Barkin, Jennifer L.; Dowling, Frank; Kocsis, James H.; Leon, Andrew C.; Manber, Rachel; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence suggesting that early adversity may be a marker for a distinct pathway to major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined associations between childhood adversity and a broad variety of clinical characteristics and response to pharmacotherapy in a large sample of patients with chronic forms of MDD. Methods Subjects included 808 patients with chronic forms of MDD (chronic MDD, double depression, or recurrent MDD with incomplete recovery between episodes and a total continuous duration of >2 years) who were enrolled in a 12-week open-label trial of algorithm-guided pharmacotherapy. Baseline assessments included a semi-structured diagnostic interview, and clinician- and self-rated measures of depressive symptoms, social functioning, depressotypic cognitions, and personality traits, and childhood adversity. Patients were re-evaluated every 2 weeks. Results A longer duration of illness; earlier onset; greater number of episodes, symptom severity, self-rated functional impairment, suicidality, and comorbid anxiety disorder; and higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes and self-criticism were each associated with multiple forms of childhood adversity. A history of maternal overcontrol, paternal abuse, paternal indifference, sexual abuse, and an index of clinically significant abuse each predicted a lower probability of remission. Among patients completing the 12-week trial, 32% with a history of clinically significant abuse, compared to 44% without such a history, achieved remission. Conclusions These findings indicate that a history of childhood adversity is associated with an especially chronic form of MDD that is less responsive to antidepressant pharmacotherapy. PMID:19434623

  13. Clinical Correlation between Placido, Scheimpflug and LED Color Reflection Topographies in Imaging of a Scarred Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Asimellis, George

    2014-01-01

    This case report aims to evaluate safety, efficacy and feasibility of anterior surface imaging by a novel point-source reflection topographer, in comparison to four other corneal imaging modalities. A 17-year-old female patient, clinically diagnosed with chronic herpetic keratitis in her left eye was imaged by a novel multicolored-spot reflection topography system. We comparatively investigated elevation and curvature maps between the novel topographer and established Placido disk topography and Scheimpflug tomography systems. Pachymetry maps were compared between the Scheimpflug system and anterior-segment optical coherence tomography system. The Placido system failed to properly register the abnormal anterior surface due to incomplete mire registration, while the Scheimpflug topometry device imaged the anterior surface properly, but not the posterior (due to media opacity), and thus pachymetry was highly irregular and erroneous in this case. Imaging of corneas infected with herpes simplex virus keratitis has been rare; we have not identified any such documentation in the peer review literature in the last 10 years. This novel multicolored-spot reflection topography imaging may offer successful corneal imaging in cases where established clinical topography systems may fail to produce accurate reconstruction of the corneal shape. This is an important case demonstrating exceptional clinical feasibility in such rare cases offered by a newly introduced technology in ophthalmic imaging. PMID:25408671

  14. Correlations between statistical models of robotically collected kinematics and clinical measures of upper extremity function.

    PubMed

    Rohafza, Maryam; Fluet, Gerard G; Qiu, Qinyin; Adamovich, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    One of the obstacles in the development of rehabilitation robotics has been inadequacy in the measurement of treatment effects due to interventions. A measurement tool that will efficiently produce a large reliable sample of measurements collected during a single session that can also produce a rich set of data which reflects a subject's ability to perform meaningful functional activities has not been developed. This paper presents three linear regression models generated from seven kinematic measures collected during the performance of virtually simulated rehabilitation activities that were integrated with haptic robots by 19 persons with upper extremity hemiparesis due to chronic stroke. One of these models demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the subjects' scores on the Jebsen Test of Hand Function (JTHF), a battery of six standardized upper extremity functional activities. The second and third models demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the subjects' change scores on the JTHF. PMID:23366834

  15. "The" Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the suggestions found in Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," in the light of a possible U.S. Government's Interagency Language Roundtable receptive skills proficiency test which must supply the answer to the question of how well an individual can understand a particular language.…

  16. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  17. CYP24A1 Expression Inversely Correlates with Melanoma Progression: Clinic-Pathological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bro?yna, Anna A.; Jochymski, Cezary; Janjetovic, Zorica; Jó?wicki, Wojciech; Tuckey, Robert C.; Slominski, Andrzej T.

    2014-01-01

    The major role of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) is to maintain 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) homeostasis. Recently, it has been discovered that CYP24A1 also catalyses the hydroxylation of 20(OH)D3, producing dihydroxy-derivatives that show very effective antitumorigenic activities. Previously we showed a negative correlation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and CYP27B1 expression with progression, aggressiveness and overall or disease-free survivals of skin melanomas. Therefore, we analyzed CYP24A1 expression in relation to clinicopathomorphological features of nevi, skin melanomas and metastases. In melanocytic tumors, the level of CYP24A1 was higher than in the normal epidermis. The statistically highest mean CYP24A1 level was found in nevi and early stage melanomas. With melanoma progression, CYP24A1 levels decreased and in advanced stages were comparable to the normal epidermis and metastases. Furthermore, the CYP24A1 expression positively correlated with VDR and CYP27B1, and negatively correlated with mitotic activity. Lower CYP24A1 levels correlated with the presence of ulceration, necrosis, nodular type and amelanotic phenotypes. Moreover, a lack of detectable CYP24A1 expression was related to shorter overall and disease-free survival. In conclusion, the local vitamin D endocrine system affects melanoma behavior and an elevated level of CYP24A1 appears to have an important impact on the formation of melanocytic nevi and melanomagenesis, or progression, at early stages of tumor development. PMID:25334067

  18. Correlation of mutational analysis to clinical features in Taiwanese patients with Gilbert's syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-Y. Hsieh; Y.-H. Wu; D.-Y. Lin; C.-M. Chu; M. Wu; Y.-F. Liaw

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Mutations in the promoter as well as in the coding region of the bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase gene (UGT1A1) have been found to be associated with Gilbert's syndrome. However, the genetic basis of Gilbert's syndrome in our population and correlation of these mutations to fasting serum bilirubin levels in patients with Gilbert's syndrome remain to be clarified.METHODS:We applied polymerase chain reaction–based direct-sequencing

  19. Oncogene expression in primary myelodysplasia: correlation with haematological, karyotypic, and clinical progression.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, R. M.; Pringle, J. H.; Knight, S. C.; Lauder, I.; Potter, A.; Jagger, C.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To see if the relative expressions of proto-oncogenes that are increased in acute myeloid leukaemia are raised in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and to see if they increase with progression to leukaemia. To note if there is a correlation between morphology, karyotype, and these proto-oncogene expressions and if any one proto-oncogene can predict prognosis. METHOD: Bone marrow from 130 patients was analysed at six monthly intervals over two years for relative mRNA expression of seven oncogenes, karyotype, and morphology. The technique used slot blot hybridisation and densitometric analysis. The results were compared with 14 surgical controls and 30 people with vitamin deficiency anaemia. RESULTS: Six of seven oncogenes showed increased expression which progressed with time, but did not correlate with morphological or karyotypic changes. Expression of four of the seven oncogenes was increased in megaloblastic and iron deficiency anaemia. C-mos showed differences among the five morphological subgroups; it correlated with abnormal location (p = 0.025) and seemed to influence prognosis. CONCLUSION: Increased proto-oncogenes reflect the overall marrow perturbation in MDS. C-mos may reflect persistence of monocyte pathway which confirms marrow stability. PMID:1577972

  20. Perturbations of the endocannabinoid system in mantle cell lymphoma: correlations to clinical and pathological features

    PubMed Central

    Wasik, Agata M.; Nygren, Lina; Almestrand, Stefan; Zong, Fang; Flygare, Jenny; Wennerholm, Stefanie Baumgartner; Saft, Leonie; Andersson, Patrik; Kimby, Eva; Wahlin, Björn E.; Christensson, Birger; Sander, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The cannabinoid receptors are upregulated in many types of cancers, including mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and have been suggested to constitute novel therapeutic targets. The expression pattern of the key members of the endocannabinoid system was analyzed in a well-characterized MCL patient cohort and correlated to biological features. 107 tumor tissues were analyzed for the mRNA levels of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CNR1 and CNR2) and the two main enzymes regulating the endocannabinoid anandamide levels in tissue: NAPEPLD and FAAH (participating in synthesis and degradation, respectively). NAPEPLD, CNR1 and CNR2 were overexpressed while FAAH expression was reduced in MCL compared to non-malignant B-cells. Both low CNR1 and high FAAH levels correlated with lymphocytosis (p=0.016 and p=0.022, respectively) and with leukocytosis (p=0.0018 and p=0.047). Weak to moderate CNR1 levels were a feature of SOX11 negative MCL (p=0.006). Both high CNR2 and high FAAH levels correlated to anemia (p=0.0006 and p=0.038, respectively). In conclusion, the relative expression of the anandamide synthesizing and metabolizing enzymes in MCL is heavily perturbed. This finding, together with high expression of cannabinoid receptors, could favor enhanced anandamide signaling and suggest that targeting the endocannabinoid system might be considered as part of lymphoma therapy. PMID:25594062

  1. The Clinical and Occupational Correlates of Work Productivity Loss Among Employed Patients With Depression

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Debra; Adler, David A.; Chang, Hong; Berndt, Ernst R.; Irish, Julie T.; Lapitsky, Leueen; Hood, Maggie Y.; Reed, John; Rogers, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Employers who are developing strategies to reduce health-related productivity loss may benefit from aiming their interventions at the employees who need them most. We determined whether depression’s negative productivity impact varied with the type of work employees performed. Subjects (246 with depression and 143 controls) answered the Work Limitations Questionnaire and additional work questions. Occupational requirements were measured objectively. In multiple regression analyses, productivity was most influenced by depression severity (P < 0.01 in 5/5 models). However, certain occupations also significantly increased employee vulnerability to productivity loss. Losses increased when employees had occupations requiring proficiency in decision-making and communication and/or frequent customer contact (P < 0.05 in 3/5 models). The Work Limitations Questionnaire can help employers to reduce productivity loss by identifying health and productivity improvement priorities. PMID:15194895

  2. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis--a single institute experience: pathologic findings and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Song, Joo Y; Pittaluga, Stefania; Dunleavy, Kieron; Grant, Nicole; White, Therese; Jiang, Liuyan; Davies-Hill, Theresa; Raffeld, Mark; Wilson, Wyndham H; Jaffe, Elaine S

    2015-02-01

    Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare angiocentric and angiodestructive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. It is hypothesized that these patients have dysregulated immune surveillance of EBV. We reviewed the biopsies of 55 patients with LYG who were referred for a prospective trial at the National Cancer Institute (1995 to 2010) and evaluated the histologic, immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and molecular findings of these biopsies in conjunction with clinical information. Grading of the lesions was based on morphologic features and the number of EBV-positive B cells. The median age was 46 years (M:F 2.2:1). Clinically, all patients had lung involvement (100%), with the next most common site being the central nervous system (38%). No patient had nodal or bone marrow disease. All patients had past EBV exposure by serology but with a low median EBV viral load. We reviewed 122 biopsies; the most common site was lung (73%), followed by skin/subcutaneous tissue (17%); other sites included kidney, nasal cavity, gastrointestinal tract, conjunctiva, liver, and adrenal gland. Histologically, the lesions showed angiocentricity, were rich in T cells, had large atypical B cells, and were positive for EBV. Grading was performed predominantly on the lung biopsy at diagnosis; they were distributed as follows: LYG grade 1 (30%), grade 2 (22%), and grade 3 (48%). Necrosis was seen in all grades, with a greater degree in high-grade lesions. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement studies were performed, and a higher percentage of clonal rearrangements were seen in LYG grade 2 (50%) and grade 3 (69%) as compared with grade 1 (8%). LYG is a distinct entity that can usually be differentiated from other EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders on the basis of the combination of clinical presentation, histology, and EBV studies. Grading of these lesions is important because it dictates the treatment choice. PMID:25321327

  3. Inflammatory infiltration into placentas of Neospora caninum challenged cattle correlates with clinical outcome of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cantón, Germán J; Katzer, Frank; Maley, Stephen W; Bartley, Paul M; Benavides-Silván, Julio; Palarea-Albaladejo, Javier; Pang, Yvonne; Smith, Sionagh H; Rocchi, Mara S; Buxton, David; Innes, Elisabeth A; Chianini, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Neospora caninum stimulates host cell-mediated immune responses, which may be responsible for placental damage leading to bovine abortion. The aim of this study was to compare immune responses in the bovine placenta, following experimental infection in different stages of pregnancy. Placentomes were examined by immunohistochemistry and inflammation in early gestation was generally moderate to severe, particularly in the placentas carrying non-viable foetuses, whereas it was milder in later stages, mainly characterised by the presence of CD3+, CD4+ and ?? T-cells. This distinctive cellular immune response may explain the milder clinical outcome observed when animals are infected in later gestation. PMID:24484200

  4. Infratentorial Strokes for Posterior Circulation Folks: Clinical Correlations for Current Translational Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lekic, Tim; Krafft, Paul R.; Coats, Jacqueline S.; Obenaus, Andre; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 20 percent of all strokes will occur in the Infratentorial brain. This is within the vascular territory of the posterior vascular circulation. Very few clinical specifics are known about the therapeutic needs of this patient sub-population. Most evidence-based practices are founded from research about the treatment of anterior circulatory stroke. As a consequence, little is known about how stroke in the Infratentorial brain region would require a different approach. We characterized the neurovascular features of Infratentorial stroke, pathophysiological responses, and experimental models for further translational study. PMID:23060944

  5. Physical activity level and its clinical correlates in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Decreased physical activity is associated with higher mortality in subjects with COPD. The aim of this study was to assess clinical characteristics and physical activity levels (PALs) in subjects with COPD. Methods Seventy-three subjects with COPD (67?±?7 yrs, 44 female) with one-second forced expiratory volume percentage (FEV1%) predicted values of 43?±?16 were included. The ratio of total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) was used to define the physical activity level (PAL) (PAL?=?TEE/RMR). TEE was assessed with an activity monitor (ActiReg), and RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry. Walking speed (measured over 30-meters), maximal quadriceps muscle strength, fat-free mass and systemic inflammation were measured as clinical characteristics. Hierarchical linear regression was applied to investigate the explanatory values of the clinical correlates to PAL. Results The mean PAL was 1.47?±?0.19, and 92% of subjects were classified as physically very inactive or sedentary. The walking speed was 1.02?±?0.23 m/s, the quadriceps strength was 31.3?±?11.2 kg, and the fat-free mass index (FFMI) was 15.7?±?2.3 kg/m2, identifying 42% of subjects as slow walkers, 21% as muscle-weak and 49% as FFM-depleted. The regression model explained 45.5% (p?correlates of physical activity. Further explorations of the longitudinal effects of the factors characterizing the most inactive subjects are warranted. PMID:24237876

  6. Thermographic and clinical correlation of myofascial trigger points in the masticatory muscles

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, D S; Brioschi, M L; Arita, E S

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to identify and correlate myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the masticatory muscles, using thermography and algometry. Methods 26 female volunteers were recruited. The surface facial area over the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles was divided into 15 subareas on each side (n = 780). This investigation consisted of three steps. The first step involved thermographic facial examination, using lateral views. The second step involved the pressure pain threshold (PPT), marking the MTP pattern areas for referred pain (n = 131) and local pain (n = 282) with a coloured pencil, and a photograph of the lateral face with the head in the same position as the infrared imaging. The last step was the fusion of these two images, using dedicated software (Reporter® 8.5—SP3 Professional Edition and QuickReport® 1.2, FLIR Systems, Wilsonville, OR); and the calculation of the temperature of each point. Results PPT levels measured at the points of referred pain in MTPs (1.28 ± 0.45 kgf) were significantly lower than the points of local pain in MTPs (1.73 ± 0.59 kgf; p < 0.05). Infrared imaging indicated differences between referred and local pain in MTPs of 0.5 °C (p < 0.05). Analysis of the correlation between the PPT and infrared imaging was done using the Spearman non-parametric method, in which the correlations were positive and moderate (0.4 ? r < 0.7). The sensitivity and specificity in MTPs were 62.5% and 71.3%, respectively, for referred pain, and 43.6% and 60.6%, respectively, for local pain. Conclusion Infrared imaging measurements can provide a useful, non-invasive and non-ionizing examination for diagnosis of MTPs in masticatory muscles. PMID:23166359

  7. Machine-Based Morphologic Analysis of Glioblastoma Using Whole-Slide Pathology Images Uncovers Clinically Relevant Molecular Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jun; Cooper, Lee A. D.; Wang, Fusheng; Gao, Jingjing; Teodoro, George; Scarpace, Lisa; Mikkelsen, Tom; Schniederjan, Matthew J.; Moreno, Carlos S.; Saltz, Joel H.; Brat, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathologic review of tumor morphology in histologic sections is the traditional method for cancer classification and grading, yet human review has limitations that can result in low reproducibility and inter-observer agreement. Computerized image analysis can partially overcome these shortcomings due to its capacity to quantitatively and reproducibly measure histologic structures on a large-scale. In this paper, we present an end-to-end image analysis and data integration pipeline for large-scale morphologic analysis of pathology images and demonstrate the ability to correlate phenotypic groups with molecular data and clinical outcomes. We demonstrate our method in the context of glioblastoma (GBM), with specific focus on the degree of the oligodendroglioma component. Over 200 million nuclei in digitized pathology slides from 117 GBMs in the Cancer Genome Atlas were quantitatively analyzed, followed by multiplatform correlation of nuclear features with molecular and clinical data. For each nucleus, a Nuclear Score (NS) was calculated based on the degree of oligodendroglioma appearance, using a regression model trained from the optimal feature set. Using the frequencies of neoplastic nuclei in low and high NS intervals, we were able to cluster patients into three well-separated disease groups that contained low, medium, or high Oligodendroglioma Component (OC). We showed that machine-based classification of GBMs with high oligodendroglioma component uncovered a set of tumors with strong associations with PDGFRA amplification, proneural transcriptional class, and expression of the oligodendrocyte signature genes MBP, HOXD1, PLP1, MOBP and PDGFRA. Quantitative morphologic features within the GBMs that correlated most strongly with oligodendrocyte gene expression were high nuclear circularity and low eccentricity. These findings highlight the potential of high throughput morphologic analysis to complement and inform human-based pathologic review. PMID:24236209

  8. Norfloxacin in prostatitis: correlation between HPLC tissue concentrations and clinical results.

    PubMed

    Bologna, M; Vaggi, L; Flammini, D; Carlucci, G; Forchetti, C M

    1985-01-01

    Prostatic infections are difficult both to diagnose and to treat and have negative influences on the fertility of the patient. Norfloxacin, a new quinolone antibacterial agent particularly active in urinary tract infections, gave excellent results (400 mg every 12 h for 10 days) in the treatment of chronic-relapsing prostatitis in a group of 20 patients. An 85% success rate was recorded at the end of a follow-up period of 30 days without any undesired effects. This clinical study was paralleled by a pharmacokinetic evaluation of the serum, urine and prostatic tissue concentrations attained by the drug, measured by an HPLC assay on biological fluids and tissue extracts from surgical specimens of 15 patients suffering from benign prostatic hypertrophy and given two 400 mg doses of norfloxacin in the 12 h preceding prostatectomy. The average tissue concentrations (1 microgram/gm), as compared with the MIC90 of the drug for the pathogens sustaining prostatic infections, appear quite sufficient to control the bacterial foci responsible for the chronic-relapsing course of prostatitis and easily account for the clinical success rate. PMID:3836122

  9. Distinct lymphocytes subsets in IgM-related neuropathy: clinical-immunological correlations.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Raffaele; Sabatelli, Mario; Del Grande, Alessandra; Bisogni, Giulia; Damato, Valentina; Plantone, Domenico; Marti, Alessandro; Frisullo, Giovanni; Romano, Angela; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Luigetti, Marco

    2015-02-01

    IgM-related neuropathy generally presents as a late-onset demyelinating polyneuropathy with predominant sensory loss and ataxia. However, we recently reported the clinical, neurophysiological and pathological findings from our cohort and identified in about a third of patients an atypical phenotype. We analyzed by flow cytometry the different lymphocytes subsets in the peripheral blood of patients affected by IgM-related neuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and healthy subjects, to investigate whether different immunological patterns may differentiate the classical phenotype from atypical forms. IFN-gamma producing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing T-bet (T-helper type 1, Th1) were increased in CIDP patients. The percentage of circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IL-10 as well as the percentage of CD19+ cells expressing Blimp-1 were higher in patients with IgM-neuropathy. We did not find any significant differences in the different lymphocytes subsets in the IgM-related neuropathy between patients with classical and atypical phenotype. Th1 cells are increased in CIDP patients while a T helper type 2-phenotype seems to prevail in patients with IgM-neuropathy. Further studies involving a larger patient population are needed to evaluate if different lymphocytes subset may be involved in different clinical phenotypes of IgM-related neuropathy. PMID:25192662

  10. Report of three cases of Alzheimer's disease with focal motor symptoms: clinical correlates of neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Shimoda, K; Higashima, M; Nakano, H; Miyazu, K; Hayashi, M; Tabata, O; Koshino, Y

    2000-07-01

    We report clinical and neuroimaging findings for three patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) with focal motor symptoms. These patients initially showed cognitive deficits and subsequently featured myoclonus and awkward movements in the unilateral upper limb while progressing to paresis. Paresis was noted in the unilateral upper limb. All patients held the unilateral arm flexed at the wrist and elbow, closely adducted to the body and the hand fisted and pronated. No signs of cerebellar ataxia, sensory disturbance or long tract signs were observed, nor any of the initial non-cognitive behavioural changes typical of frontotemporal dementia. EEGs of these patients showed marked slowing of basic activity without epileptic discharges. MRIs showed progressive brain atrophy in the contralateral frontoparietal lobes as well as the hippocampal formation. Cases 2 and 3 featured extensive long T2 lesions on MRI. 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT revealed blood flow hypoperfusion in the corresponding regions. The cerebellum and brain stem showed neither morphological abnormalities nor blood flow hypoperfusion. On the basis of these clinical and neuroimaging observations, the focal motor symptoms were attributed to contralateral frontoparietal cortical atrophy with or without white matter lesion. PMID:12607227

  11. Nonclinical hair-pulling: affective correlates and comparison with clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Stanley, M A; Borden, J W; Mouton, S G; Breckenridge, J K

    1995-02-01

    The purposes of the current study were to examine the affective states associated with hair-pulling in a nonclinical sample and to compare levels of general psychopathology in nonclinical hair-pullers and clinic patients with trichotillomania (TM) or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Subjects included 66 college undergraduates who engaged in hair-pulling unrelated to grooming, 18 patients with TM and 29 patients with OCD. Dimensional (but not categorical) ratings of affective experiences in the nonclinical sample indicated that hair-pulling was associated with decreases in tension, boredom, anger and sadness. Further, the relationship between emotional experiences before and after hair-pulling was more salient than the pre-during relationship conceptualized as central in current diagnostic criteria for TM. Comparisons of psychopathology in nonclinical and clinical samples failed to support a continuum notion of increasing symptomatology in nonclinical pullers, TM patients and individuals with OCD. Some evidence of increased pathology in nonclinical pullers relative to TM patients was obtained, as was further support for a distinction between TM and OCD. Implications of this investigation for conceptualization of TM are discussed. PMID:7887876

  12. Psoriatic arthritis: clinical improvement and correlation with hormone axes in etanercept-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Atzeni, Fabiola; Straub, Rainer H; Cutolo, Maurizio; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2010-04-01

    In a chronic inflammatory disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is altered in three ways: (1) the inflammation-related spontaneous and stimulated secretion of cortisol is inadequate; (2) the inflammation-related secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is low; and (3) the levels of adrenal androgens decrease. In patients with RA, long-term therapy with anti-TNF therapy sensitizes the pituitary gland and improves adrenal androgen secretion. We have recently found that the mean serum levels of ACTH, cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), and androstenedione (ASD) in 11 prednisolone-naïve patients with psoriatic arthritis did not markedly change during 12 weeks of etanercept treatment, nor did the serum cortisol/ACTH ratio. However, the greater increase in serum cortisol in comparison with serum 17OHP or ASD was related to clinical improvement, which indicates that the improvement was more related to the higher cortisol levels. PMID:20398026

  13. [Diagnostic recognition of nucleus pulposus prolapse in light of clinical and radiologic correlations].

    PubMed

    Bryc, S; Zelazny, S; Losicki, M; Orzeda?a, E; Wo?nica, J

    1990-01-01

    The authors compared the agreement between clinical, radiological and surgical diagnoses in 33 cases of nucleus pulposus prolapse. A complete agreement of diagnoses was obtained in 88% of cases. The mechanism and incidence of different signs and their importance for the diagnosis of nucleus pulposus prolapse are discussed. It should be stressed that the compression of nerve roots recognized on radiculography is not pathognomonic sign of prolapse and may be due to such processes as development of marginal osteophytes in the degenerative disc disease, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of radicular processes or necks of vertebral arches. In the light of own experiences and data from the literature the authors consider radiculography with Amipaque and computer tomography as the method of choice in cases with suspected disc herniation in the lumbar region. PMID:1670028

  14. Correlation of Real Time PCR Cycle Threshold Cut-Off with Bordetella pertussis Clinical Severity

    PubMed Central

    Bolotin, Shelly; Deeks, Shelley L.; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Rilkoff, Heather; Dang, Vica; Walton, Ryan; Hashim, Ahmed; Farrell, David; Crowcroft, Natasha S.

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis testing performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is interpreted based on a cycle threshold (Ct) value. At Public Health Ontario Laboratories (PHOL), a Ct value <36 is reported as positive, and Ct values ?36 and <40 are reported as indeterminate. PHOL reported indeterminate results to physicians and public health units until May 2012, after which these results were only reported to physicians. We investigated the association between Ct value and disease symptom and severity to examine the significance of indeterminate results clinically, epidemiologically and for public health reporting. B. pertussis positive and indeterminate RT-PCR results were linked to pertussis cases reported in the provincial Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), using deterministic linkage. Patients with positive RT-PCR results had a lower median age of 10.8 years compared to 12.0 years for patients with indeterminate results (p = 0.24). Hospitalized patients had significantly lower Ct values than non-hospitalized patients (median Ct values of 20.7 vs. 31.6, p<0.001). The proportion of patients reporting the most indicative symptoms of pertussis did not differ between patients with positive vs. indeterminate RT-PCR results. Taking the most indicative symptoms of pertussis as the gold-standard, the positive predictive value of the RT-PCR test was 68.1%. RT-PCR test results should be interpreted in the context of the clinical symptoms, age, vaccination status, prevalence, and other factors. Further information on interpretation of indeterminate RT-PCR results may be needed, and the utility of reporting to public health practitioners should be re-evaluated. PMID:26186564

  15. Heart rate variability in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy correlation with clinical and prognostic features.

    PubMed

    Folino, Antonio Franco; Buja, Gianfranco; Bauce, Barbara; Thiene, Gaetano; dalla Volta, Sergio; Nava, Andrea

    2002-09-01

    The identification of subjects with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) at higher risk for sudden death is an unresolved issue. An influence of the autonomic activity on the genesis of ventricular arrhythmias was postulated. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis provides a useful method to measure autonomic activity, and is a predictor of increased risk of death after myocardial infarction. For these reasons, the aim of the study was to evaluate HRV and its correlations with ventricular arrhythmias, heart function, and prognostic outcome in patients with ARVC. The study included 46 patients with ARVC who were not taking antiarrhythmic medications. The diagnosis was made by ECG, echocardiography, angiography, and endomyocardial biopsy. Exercise stress test and Holter monitoring were obtained in all patients. Time-domain analysis of HRV was expressed as the standard deviation of all normal to normal NN intervals (SDNN) detected during 24-hour Holter monitoring. Thirty healthy subjects represented a control group for HRV analysis. The mean follow-up was 10.8 +/- 1.86 years. SDNN was reduced in patients with ARVC in comparison with the control group (151 +/- 36 vs 176 +/- 34, P = 0.00042). Moreover, there was a significant correlation of this index with the age of the patients (r = - 0.59, P < 0.001), with the left (r = 0.44, P = 0.002) and right (r = 0.47, P = 0.001) ventricle ejection fraction, with the right ventricular end diastolic volume (r = - 0.62, P < 0.001), and with the ventricular arrhythmias, detected during the same Holter record used for HRV analysis (patients with isolated ventricular ectopic beats < 1,000/24 hours, 184 +/- 34; patients with isolated ventricular ectopic beats > 1,000/24 hours and/or couplets, 156 +/- 25; patients with repetitive ventricular ectopic beats (> or = 3) and/or ventricular tachycardia, 129 +/- 25; P < 0.001). During follow-up two patients showed a transient but significant reduction of SDNN and a concomitant increase of the arrhythmic events. In eight patients an episode of sustained ventricular tachycardia occurred, but the mean SDNN of this subgroup did not differ from the mean value of the remaining patients (152 +/- 15 vs 150 +/- 39; P = NS). Only one subject died after heart transplantation during follow-up (case censored). Time-domain analysis of HRV seems to be a useful method to assess the autonomic influences in ARVC. A reduction of vagal influences correlates with the extent of the disease. The significant correlation between SDNN and ventricular arrhythmias confirmed the influences of autonomic activity in the modulation of the electrical instability in ARVC patients. However, SDNN was not predictive of spontaneous episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia. PMID:12380762

  16. Prediction scores do not correlate with clinically adjudicated categories of pulmonary embolism in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Katsios, CM; Donadini, M; Meade, M; Mehta, S; Hall, R; Granton, J; Kutsiogiannis, J; Dodek, P; Heels-Ansdell, D; McIntyre, L; Vlahakis, N; Muscedere, J; Friedrich, J; Fowler, R; Skrobik, Y; Albert, M; Cox, M; Klinger, J; Nates, J; Bersten, A; Doig, C; Zytaruk, N; Crowther, M; Cook, DJ

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prediction scores for pretest probability of pulmonary embolism (PE) validated in outpatient settings are occasionally used in the intensive care unit (ICU). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation of Geneva and Wells scores with adjudicated categories of PE in ICU patients. METHODS: In a randomized trial of thromboprophylaxis, patients with suspected PE were adjudicated as possible, probable or definite PE. Data were then retrospectively abstracted for the Geneva Diagnostic PE score, Wells, Modified Wells and Simplified Wells Diagnostic scores. The chance-corrected agreement between adjudicated categories and each score was calculated. ANOVA was used to compare values across the three adjudicated PE categories. RESULTS: Among 70 patients with suspected PE, agreement was poor between adjudicated categories and Geneva pretest probabilities (kappa 0.01 [95% CI ?0.0643 to 0.0941]) or Wells pretest probabilities (kappa ?0.03 [95% CI ?0.1462 to 0.0914]). Among four possible, 16 probable and 50 definite PEs, there were no significant differences in Geneva scores (possible = 4.0, probable = 4.7, definite = 4.5; P=0.90), Wells scores (possible = 2.8, probable = 4.9, definite = 4.1; P=0.37), Modified Wells (possible = 2.0, probable = 3.4, definite = 2.9; P=0.34) or Simplified Wells (possible = 1.8, probable = 2.8, definite = 2.4; P=0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Pretest probability scores developed outside the ICU do not correlate with adjudicated PE categories in critically ill patients. Research is needed to develop prediction scores for this population. PMID:24083302

  17. Questions Submitted Online — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

  18. C-shaped Incision for Far-Lateral Suboccipital Approach: Anatomical Study and Clinical Correlation.

    PubMed

    Lau, Tsz; Reintjes, Stephen; Olivera, Raul; van Loveren, Harry R; Agazzi, Siviero

    2015-03-01

    Background?The standard incision for far-lateral suboccipital approaches has been the classic "reverse hockey stick." Although that incision provides ample exposure, concern has been raised that excessive muscle dissection and skin elevation might lead to accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) under the flap with increased risk of CSF leak. We hypothesize that the C-shaped incision can minimize the amount of muscle dissection and provide optimal exposure and surgical outcomes. Objective?To describe the anatomical dissection for the C-shaped incision and clinical application of the C-shaped incision for the far-lateral approach. Methods?A retrospective analysis of all the patients operated on at our center using this approach for the treatment of aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) from 2005 to 2011. Results of clinical and operative outcome are evaluated. Surgical techniques are described in detail. Cadaveric dissections using the C-shaped incision were performed to assess the exposure of the far-lateral suboccipital area. Results?Eleven consecutive patients who had undergone this procedure were selected. All patients underwent clipping of PICA aneurysms. Nine patients (82%) presented with ruptured aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. All of them underwent suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy. The dura mater was closed in a watertight fashion in 10 patients (91%). No CSF leak or pseudomeningocele were reported. In nine SAH patients, two (22%) had postoperative dysphagia and required long-term percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. One patient (11%) had chronic respiratory failure and required a tracheostomy. Three patients (33%) developed hydrocephalus and required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Conclusions?The C-shaped incision is a valid alternative to the classic reverse hockey-stick incision to gain exposure for far-lateral craniotomies. Knowing the anatomy and dissection techniques can provide an easy and safe route to address anterior lateral cranial-cervical lesions. Our results suggest the C-shaped incision is reliable in preventing CSF leak and the formation of pseudomeningocele. PMID:25844297

  19. Clinical correlates of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G in systemic sclerosis(1).

    PubMed

    Favoino, E; Favia, I E; Vettori, S; Vicenti, C; Prete, M; Valentini, G; Perosa, F

    2015-07-01

    Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G has a tolerogenic function and could play a role in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases, including systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study was to evaluate HLA-G serum expression (sHLA-G) and the HLA-G gene 14 base pairs (bp) insertion/deletion (del(-) /del(+) ) polymorphism in patients with Ssc, to search for possible associations with clinical and laboratory variables. sHLA-G was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera from 77 patients with SSc and 32 healthy donors (HD); the 14 bp del(-) /del(+) polymorphism was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) genomic DNA. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis identified the HLA-G cut-off that best discriminated dichotomized clinical and serological variables, that was subsequently employed to subdivide SSc patients into HLA-G high (HLA-G(+) ) and low (HLA-G(-) ) profile groups. sHLA-G were not statistically different between SSc patients and HD, nor between distinct SSc autoantibody subsets. Subdividing SSc patients by HLA-G positivity or negativity yielded significant differences for the modified Rodnan skin score (mRss) (P = 0·032), 'general' (P = 0·031) and 'kidney' (P = 0·028) Medsger severity scores (MSS) and disease activity index, and especially ? heart/lung (P = 0·005). A worse 'general' MSS (P = 0·002) and ? heart/lung (P = 0·011) were more frequent in the low sHLA-G group. These two variables and mRss were associated with sHLA-G levels at logistic regression analysis. Treatment had no influence on sHLA-G. Moreover, a higher frequency of scleredema was detected in the del(+) /del(+) than the del(-) /del(+) group (P = 0.04). These data suggest modulatory effects of sHLA-G on SSc. Prospective studies are needed to investigate a role in predicting the disease course. PMID:25847615

  20. Clinical Correlates of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) in an Outpatient Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    García-Nieto, Rebeca; Carballo, Juan J; Díaz de Neira Hernando, Mónica; de León-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents is a major public health concern. The first goal of our study was to describe the characteristics and functions of NSSI and NSSI thoughts in an adolescent outpatient sample. The second goal was to examine which clinical factors discriminate between these two groups of patients. A group of 267 subjects was recruited from the Adolescent Outpatient Psychiatric Services, Jiménez Díaz Foundation (Madrid, Spain) from November 2011 to October 2012. All participants were administered the Spanish version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI). A total of 21.7% of patients reported having engaged in NSSI at least once in their lifetime. The most strongly endorsed function for NSSI was automatic negative reinforcement. In comparison with patients in the NSSI Thoughts group and the control group, patients in the NSSI group scored higher in Internalization of Anger and in all the scales comprising the Children's Depression Inventory. Our findings on the prevalence and functions of NSSI are consistent with the literature. NSSI was mainly performed for emotion regulation purposes; specifically, NSSI seems to be used to cope with anger and depression. In addition, internalization of anger might play a significant role in the maintenance of this behavior. PMID:25257184

  1. Romidepsin in peripheral and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: mechanistic implications from clinical and correlative data.

    PubMed

    Bates, Susan E; Eisch, Robin; Ling, Alexander; Rosing, Douglas; Turner, Maria; Pittaluga, Stefania; Prince, H Miles; Kirschbaum, Mark H; Allen, Steven L; Zain, Jasmine; Geskin, Larisa J; Joske, David; Popplewell, Leslie; Cowen, Edward W; Jaffe, Elaine S; Nichols, Jean; Kennedy, Sally; Steinberg, Seth M; Liewehr, David J; Showe, Louise C; Steakley, Caryn; Wright, John; Fojo, Tito; Litman, Thomas; Piekarz, Richard L

    2015-07-01

    Romidepsin is an epigenetic agent approved for the treatment of patients with cutaneous or peripheral T-cell lymphoma (CTCL and PTCL). Here we report data in all patients treated on the National Cancer Institute 1312 trial, demonstrating long-term disease control and the ability to retreat patients relapsing off-therapy. In all, 84 patients with CTCL and 47 with PTCL were enrolled. Responses occurred early, were clinically meaningful and of very long duration in some cases. Notably, patients with PTCL receiving romidepsin as third-line therapy or later had a comparable response rate (32%) of similar duration as the total population (38%). Eight patients had treatment breaks of 3·5 months to 10 years; in four of six patients, re-initiation of treatment led to clear benefit. Safety data show slightly greater haematological and constitutional toxicity in PTCL. cDNA microarray studies show unique individual gene expression profiles, minimal overlap between patients, and both induction and repression of gene expression that reversed within 24 h. These data argue against cell death occurring as a result of an epigenetics-mediated gene induction programme. Together this work supports the safety and activity of romidepsin in T-cell lymphoma, but suggests a complex mechanism of action. PMID:25891346

  2. Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism. A Correlative Study of the Clinical, Scan, and Angiographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Poulose, Kattadiyil P.; Reba, Richard C.; Gilday, David L.; Deland, Frank H.; Wagner, Henry N.

    1970-01-01

    Seventy-one patients with suspected pulmonary embolism had both pulmonary scans and angiograms. Clinically it was impossible to predict the absence or presence of subsequent angiographic evidence of pulmonary embolism in the individual patient. In 24 patients the scans showed defects that were believed to indicate a high probability of pulmonary embolism—namely, perfusion defects that corresponded to specific anatomical segments of the lung together with normal chest radiographs or radiographs suggestive of pulmonary embolism. Specific angiographic evidence of pulmonary embolism was found in 18 (75%) of these patients. Diffuse, patchy, and non-segmental perfusion defects were seen in 28 patients. Only seven (25%) of this group had angiographic abnormalities specific for embolism. In 12 patients with normal lung scans none showed subsequent evidence of embolism by angiography. It is concluded firstly that lung scanning is a sensitive screening procedure for pulmonary embolism and, secondly, that segmental perfusion defects are highly suggestive of pulmonary embolism. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1bFig. 1cFig. 1dFig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 2c PMID:5428778

  3. Clinical utility of residual latency in ulnar neuropathy at elbow: Is there any correlation?

    PubMed Central

    Khosrawi, Saeid; Dehghan, Farnaz; Shaygannejad, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Residual latency is the time difference between measured and predicted distal conduction time. We investigated ulnar nerve residual latency in patients with ulnar neuropathy at elbow for the possibility of its clinical utility. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study and based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, ulnar nerve residual latency was calculated by using standard settings in 63 hands of patients who had signs and symptoms suggesting ulnar neuropathy at elbow and 94 healthy hands as the control group. Results: Mean ulnar nerve residual latency for case and control groups were 1.82 ± 0.45 and 1.59 ± 0.54 ms, respectively, which showed a statistically significant difference (P = 0.01). There was no significant difference in mean ulnar nerve residual latency between males and females and also between right and left hands (P > 0.05). By considering different cut-off points, the sensitivity and specificity of a residual latency of 2.86 ms were 70% and 56%, respectively. Conclusion: Ulnar nerve residual latency may reflect the effects of an axonal injury at elbow on distal ulnar motor fibers. So, its measurement may help in the diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at elbow. PMID:25709986

  4. Infections with VIM-1 Metallo-?-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacter cloacae and Their Correlation with Clinical Outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Marco; Mezzatesta, Maria Lina; Perilli, Mariagrazia; Forcella, Chiara; Giordano, Alessandra; Cafiso, Viviana; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Stefani, Stefania; Venditti, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the incidence and clinical significance of metallo-?-lactamases among Enterobacter strains isolated from patients with nosocomial infections. We prospectively collected data on patients with Enterobacter infection during a 13-month period. All of the strains were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility, the presence and expression of metallo-?-lactamases, and clonality. Of 29 infections (11 involving the urinary tract, 7 pneumonias, 3 skin/soft tissue infections, 3 intra-abdominal infections, 3 bacteremias, and 2 other infections), 7 (24%) were caused by Enterobacter cloacae strains harboring a blaVIM-1 gene associated or not with a blaSHV12 gene. Infections caused by VIM-1-producing strains were more frequently associated with a recent prior hospitalization (P = 0.006), cirrhosis (P = 0.03), relapse of infection (P < 0.001), and more prolonged duration of antibiotic therapy (P = 0.01) than were other infections. All of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem and had blaVIM-1 preceded by a weak P1 promoter and inactivated P2 promoters. Most VIM-1-producing Enterobacter isolates belonged to a main clone, but four different clones were found. Multiclonal VIM-1-producing E. cloacae infections are difficult to diagnose due to an apparent susceptibility to various beta-lactams, including carbapenems, and are associated with a high relapse rate and a more prolonged duration of antibiotic therapy. PMID:19741074

  5. Epilepsy in Prader-Willi syndrome: clinical characteristics and correlation to genotype.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Martina; Maski, Kiran P; Chatterjee, Madhumouli; Heshmati, Arezou; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy; Tan, Wen-Hann; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2010-11-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genomic imprinting disease secondary to the loss of a functional paternal copy of 15q11-q13. Unlike its related imprinting disorder, Angelman syndrome, PWS has not been regarded as a risk factor for epilepsy. A retrospective analysis of 92 patients with PWS identified 24 (26%) with seizures. Twenty-two of these (92%) were affected by focal epilepsy and only two (8%) had generalized epilepsy. The most common seizure type was staring spells (67%). Correlation to genotype analysis showed deletions were more common in patients with epilepsy than in patients without epilepsy. The epilepsy syndromes were easy to control with a single antiepileptic drug in most cases. Three patients (11%) had had febrile seizures. These findings suggest that PWS may be a risk factor for epilepsy, which can manifest with focal features. Patients with PWS with a deletion genotype showed a trend toward developing seizures compared with patients with other genotypes in our series, even though this difference did not achieve statistical significance. PMID:20727826

  6. Coronary arterial anatomy in tetralogy of Fallot: morphological and clinical correlations

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Soukias, N; Carvalho, J; Ho, S

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To clarify the problems in angiographic diagnosis of major coronary arteries crossing the right ventricular outflow tract.?Design—A retrospective study with clinicomorphological correlations to ascertain any aberrant coronary arteries and variations in distribution of the normal right coronary arterial branches.?Setting—Tertiary referral centre.?Subjects—36 necropsy specimens together with the aortograms and surgical reports from 130 patients with tetralogy of Fallot.?Results—A preventricular branch was found in 19% of cases with tetralogy of Fallot, but in none of 13 normal hearts. Aberrant origin of the anterior interventricular coronary artery was found in 14% of the specimens. The combination of "laid back" and straight lateral views, when reviewed retrospectively, identified this anomaly correctly in nine of 16 patients, with these findings confirmed at surgery in seven patients. A major branch initially thought to cross the outflow tract was shown retrospectively to be an infundibular artery in six, with surgical confirmation in four. It was a preventricular branch in another patient.?Conclusions—Using the laid back view alone, infundibular and preventricular branches may be mistaken for a major aberrant artery. A combination of laid back and straight lateral views is needed to avoid false positive diagnosis.?? Keywords: angiography;  congenital heart defects;  tetralogy of Fallot;  paediatric cardiology PMID:9813566

  7. Humoral Immunity to Smallpox Vaccines and Monkeypox Virus Challenge: Proteomic Assessment and Clinical Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Keckler, M. S.; Patel, N.; Davies, D. H.; Felgner, P.; Damon, I. K.; Karem, K. L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the eradication of smallpox, orthopoxviruses (OPV) remain public health concerns. Efforts to develop new therapeutics and vaccines for smallpox continue through their evaluation in animal models despite limited understanding of the specific correlates of protective immunity. Recent monkeypox virus challenge studies have established the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a model of human systemic OPV infections. In this study, we assess the induction of humoral immunity in humans and prairie dogs receiving Dryvax, Acam2000, or Imvamune vaccine and characterize the proteomic profile of immune recognition using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), neutralization assays, and protein microarrays. We confirm anticipated similarities of antigenic protein targets of smallpox vaccine-induced responses in humans and prairie dogs and identify several differences. Subsequent monkeypox virus intranasal infection of vaccinated prairie dogs resulted in a significant boost in humoral immunity characterized by a shift in reactivity of increased intensity to a broader range of OPV proteins. This work provides evidence of similarities between the vaccine responses in prairie dogs and humans that enhance the value of the prairie dog model system as an OPV vaccination model and offers novel findings that form a framework for examining the humoral immune response induced by systemic orthopoxvirus infection. PMID:23135728

  8. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccines and monkeypox virus challenge: proteomic assessment and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Townsend, M B; Keckler, M S; Patel, N; Davies, D H; Felgner, P; Damon, I K; Karem, K L

    2013-01-01

    Despite the eradication of smallpox, orthopoxviruses (OPV) remain public health concerns. Efforts to develop new therapeutics and vaccines for smallpox continue through their evaluation in animal models despite limited understanding of the specific correlates of protective immunity. Recent monkeypox virus challenge studies have established the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a model of human systemic OPV infections. In this study, we assess the induction of humoral immunity in humans and prairie dogs receiving Dryvax, Acam2000, or Imvamune vaccine and characterize the proteomic profile of immune recognition using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), neutralization assays, and protein microarrays. We confirm anticipated similarities of antigenic protein targets of smallpox vaccine-induced responses in humans and prairie dogs and identify several differences. Subsequent monkeypox virus intranasal infection of vaccinated prairie dogs resulted in a significant boost in humoral immunity characterized by a shift in reactivity of increased intensity to a broader range of OPV proteins. This work provides evidence of similarities between the vaccine responses in prairie dogs and humans that enhance the value of the prairie dog model system as an OPV vaccination model and offers novel findings that form a framework for examining the humoral immune response induced by systemic orthopoxvirus infection. PMID:23135728

  9. Correlation between the expression of integrins in prostate cancer and clinical outcome in 1284 patients.

    PubMed

    Heß, Katharina; Böger, Christine; Behrens, Hans-Michael; Röcken, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of a panel of integrins in prostate cancer in order to explore their potential for tumor biology. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 1284 prostate cancer patients were retrieved from the archive of the Department of Pathology. Immunostaining was done with rabbit monoclonal antibodies directed against ?v?3, ?v?5, ?v?6, ?v?8, ?3, and ?v-pan. Staining results were correlated with clinicopathologic patient characteristics and patient survival. Immunostaining of tumor cells performed on whole tissue sections of 52 patients was sparse for ?v?3, ?v?6, and ?v?8, and more prevalent for ?v?5 and ?v-pan. ?v?5, ?v?8, and ?v-pan were selected for further analyses in tissue microarrays representing the entire study cohort. ?v?8 staining was generally observed in peripheral nerves. ?v?5 and ?v-pan provided strong evidence for the differential expression of these integrins in prostate cancer. The expression was variable with regard to the histoanatomical/cytoanatomical localization, cell type, intensity of immunolabeling, and Gleason pattern. ?v?5 and ?v-pan are differentially expressed in prostate cancer, and the differentiation of prostate cancer seems to influence integrin expression and subcellular distribution. PMID:25305804

  10. Correlations between cerebral blood flow variations and clinical parameters in temporal lobe epilepsy: an interictal study.

    PubMed Central

    Valmier, J; Touchon, J; Daures, P; Zanca, M; Baldy-Moulinier, M

    1987-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements were determined by the intravenous Xenon 133 technique in 80 patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy. All the patients had a normal CT scan. Three subgroups were differentiated, according to EEG and all-night polygraphic recordings: temporal lobe epilepsy with left (N = 25) or right (N = 25) EEG epileptic abnormalities and temporal lobe epilepsy with EEG abnormalities in both temporal regions with asynchronous occurrence (n = 30). In comparison with a control group (n = 20), there was (1) a marked reduction of blood flow in the temporal region corresponding to the site of the epileptic focus and (2) a reduction in blood flow in distant brain areas and the contralateral hemisphere. The rCBF decrease was highly correlated (p less than 0.001) with the disease severity (taking into account the complex partial seizure frequency and the number of secondary generalised seizures). Differences were found in the rCBF decrease between left and right temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:3681308

  11. Magnetic resonance microneurography of rabbit sciatic nerve on a 1.5-T clinical MR system correlated with gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Wang, Hua-Qiao; Zhou, Cui-Ping; Liang, Bi-Ling

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) microneurography of the rabbit sciatic nerve on a 1.5-T clinical MR system by correlation with the gross anatomy. The 3D T2-weighted imaging (3D-T2WI), 3D T2-weighted imaging plus spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (SPIR), and T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) of the sciatic nerve in ten rabbits were performed on a 1.5-T MR system. The radiological anatomy of the sciatic nerve was observed and correlated with the gross anatomy. The anterior-posterior diameter of the sciatic nerve trunk was measured on 3D T2WI and on gross anatomy. The T1 and T2 relaxation times were also measured with multiecho spin echo and mixed sequence, respectively. The tibial nerve and peroneal nerve in the sciatic nerve trunk in all ten rabbits could be clearly displayed on T2WI and T2WI. The fine branches of the gastrocnemius nerve, posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, and the posterior gluteal nerve could be clearly depicted on T2WI. The T1 and T2 relaxation times of the sciatic nerves were 915 and 40 ms, respectively. The anterior-posterior diameter of sciatic nerve trunk was measured grossly, and on T2WI was 3.17 +/- 0.21 mm and 3.15 +/- 0.19 mm, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (t = 0.768, P = 0.462). With the 1.5-T clinical MR system, the microneurography of the sciatic nerve could be revisualized, and the finer structure of the sciatic nerve trunk could be clearly and accurately delineated. PMID:17994593

  12. The Autopsy as a Performance Measurement Tool— Diagnostic Discrepancies and Unresolved Clinical Questions A College of American Pathologists Q-Probes Study of 2479 Autopsies From 248 Institutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Zarbo; Peter B. Baker; Peter J. Howanitz

    identify pathology to account for clinical signs or symp- toms (28.0%); (2) establish the cause of death (21.0%); and (3) confirm a clinical diagnosis (19.0%). At least one major unexpected disease finding that contributed to the patient's death was discovered in 39.7% of the total num- ber of autopsies. There were no differences in the per- centages of autopsies with

  13. Inflamed temporal artery: histologic findings in 354 biopsies, with clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Alberto; Muratore, Francesco; Boiardi, Luigi; Restuccia, Giovanna; Pipitone, Nicolò; Pazzola, Giulia; Tagliavini, Elena; Ragazzi, Moira; Rossi, Giulio; Salvarani, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    We reviewed 888 temporal artery biopsies (TAB) performed in 871 patients in a single institution from January 1986 to December 2013. Forty-four biopsies (4.9%) were inadequate, 490 (55.2%) were devoid of inflammation and were considered negative, and 354 (39.9%) showed inflammation and were considered positive. On the basis of the localization of the inflammation, positive TABs were further classified into 4 categories: small vessel vasculitis (SVV), in which inflammation was limited to small periadventitial vessels devoid of muscular coat, with sparing of the temporal artery (32 cases, 9% of the positive biopsies); vasa vasorum vasculitis (VVV), in which inflammation was limited to the adventitial vasa vasorum (23 cases, 6.5% of the positive biopsies); inflammation limited to adventitia (ILA), in which inflammation extended from a strictly perivascular localization to the surrounding adventitia, without medial involvement (25 cases, 7% of the positive biopsies); and transmural inflammation (TMI), in which inflammation crossed the external elastic lamina and extended to the media (274 cases, 77.5% of the positive biopsies). In TMI, inflammation was generally more prominent between media and adventitia and mostly consisted of T lymphocytes and macrophages, with occasionally a significant number of plasma cells. Numerous eosinophils or neutrophils (with or without leucocytoclasia and suppurative necrosis), fibrinoid necrosis (limited to small branches of the temporal artery), and acute thrombosis were unusual, being present in 8%, 1.8%, 0.7%, and 9.5% of our biopsies with TMI, respectively. Giant cells, laminar necrosis, and calcifications prevailed along the internal elastic lamina and were present in 74.8%, 25.2%, and 20% of the biopsies with TMI, respectively. Among the 322 patients with positive TAB on whom we obtained clinical information, 317 had giant cell arteritis and 5 had a different disease: 3 (with SVV at histology) had ANCA-associated vasculitis, 1 (with SVV with amyloid deposits) had primary systemic amyloidosis, and 1 (with TMI limited to a small branch) had polyarteritis nodosa. In none of these cases the biopsy showed fibrinoid necrosis or significant numbers of eosinophils or neutrophils. Considering the 317 patients with giant cell arteritis, those with SVV and VVV compared with those with TMI had a significantly lower frequency of cranial manifestation (including headache, jaw claudication, and abnormalities of temporal arteries), lower serum levels of acute-phase reactants, and a reduced frequency of prednisone therapy at the time of TAB, of the "halo sign" at color duplex sonography of temporal arteries, and of systemic symptoms (for VVV). Polymyalgia rheumatica and blindness were equally represented in all patients groups, whereas there was a higher frequency of male sex and peripheral arthritis in patients with SVV. Patients with ILA were more similar to those with TMI, having a lower frequency of headache, of abnormalities of temporal arteries, and of a positive "halo sign" at color duplex sonography of temporal arteries. In conclusion, the histologic spectrum of inflammatory lesions that can be found in TAB is broad, and the differences have clinical implications. PMID:25216320

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a cytology-histology-human papillomavirus correlation in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross A; Waters, Lindsay L; Mody, Dina R; Tams, Kimberlee C

    2015-06-01

    Context .- Cervical cancer mortality has declined by 74% in the United States since the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test. Nevertheless, more than 12?000 US women annually develop cervical cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCa) remains the predominant cervical malignancy. Objective .- To evaluate screening techniques used in the detection of SqCa of the cervix and provide insights regarding which technique(s) is (are) most efficacious in our study population. Design .- We retrospectively reviewed all available cytologic, human papillomavirus (HPV), and histologic malignancy burden data from patients diagnosed with SqCa. The clinical data were collected from 2 geographically and socioeconomically diverse hospital systems. Cases in which identified patients had a Pap test with a negative result/unsatisfactory specimen within 5 years of SqCa tissue diagnosis were considered Pap test screening failures. Cases in which patients were diagnosed with HPV-negative SqCa were considered HPV screening failures. Results .- Eighty-eight cases (patients' ages ranging from 19 to 73 years) were identified. Of those, cytologic history was available for 64 cases present in our electronic medical history record. Three cases were cytology screening failures (one being an unsatisfactory specimen) and 3 cases were HPV screening failures (one being the cytologic unsatisfactory case). Although measuring sensitivity in practice has limitations, we calculated the SqCa detection sensitivity at 95.3% by Pap test alone and 97% when HPV DNA testing was incorporated. Conclusions .- Our results highlight the necessity of combining Pap and HPV testing. Although the number of cases identified is relatively small, our data suggest detection failures will decrease as the practice of combining HPV and Pap testing increases. PMID:26030246

  15. The questionably dry eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Mackie; D. V. Seal

    1981-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the recognition of the dry eye when the clinical diagnosis is in doubt and other external eye diseases may be present. Papillary conjunctivitis is common to the dry eye as well as other pathological conditions and confuses the diagnosis. We have correlated the factors involved in the assessment for dryness. We have shown that particulate

  16. Amplified fragment length polymorphism of Streptococcus suis strains correlates with their profile of virulence-associated genes and clinical background.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Thomas; Baums, Christoph G; Strommenger, Birgit; Beyerbach, Martin; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) typing was applied to 116 Streptococcus suis isolates with different clinical backgrounds (invasive/pneumonia/carrier/human) and with known profiles of virulence-associated genes (cps1, -2, -7 and -9, as well as mrp, epf and sly). A dendrogram was generated that allowed identification of two clusters (A and C) with different subclusters (A1, A2, C1 and C2) and two heterogeneous groups of strains (B and D). For comparison, three strains from each AFLP subcluster and group were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. The closest relationship and lowest diversity were found for patterns clustering within AFLP subcluster A1, which corresponded with sequence type (ST) complex 1. Strains within subcluster A1 were mainly invasive cps1 and mrp+ epf+ (or epf*) sly+ cps2+ strains of porcine or human origin. A new finding of this study was the clustering of invasive mrp* cps9 isolates within subcluster A2. MLST analysis suggested that A2 correlates with a single ST complex (ST87). In contrast to A1 and A2, subclusters C1 and C2 contained mainly pneumonia isolates of genotype cps7 or cps2 and epf- sly-. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that AFLP allows identification of clusters of S. suis strains with clinical relevance. PMID:17172524

  17. Deliberate self-harm behavior among Italian young adults: correlations with clinical and nonclinical dimensions of personality.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Rita; Presaghi, Fabio; Manca, Maura; Gratz, Kim L

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to explore rates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) behaviors and their psychological and psychopathological correlates within a sample of nonclinical young adults (N?=?365; 63% women; M age?=?23?±?4.06). Participants completed the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory and other self-report questionnaires assessing clinical (borderline personality, dissociative, and depersonalization traits) and nonclinical (body perception, behavioral inhibition and activation, cognitive emotional regulation, and the Big Five traits) dimensions of their personality. The rate of DSH in the present sample was 39%, comparable to that found in previous studies of young adults in other countries. Further, consistent with past research, DSH was found to be associated with clinical dimensions of personality pathology, including borderline personality and dissociative symptoms. Finally, results revealed an association between DSH and nonclinical dimensions of personality, including the behavioral activation dimension of fun-seeking, more negative body perception and lower body protection, the use of more nonadaptive cognitive strategies for regulating emotions, higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of emotional stability. This pattern of results is consistent with those found for other impulsive behaviors and impulse control disorders. PMID:22880968

  18. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for the DSM-5 of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Female Adolescents: Diagnostic and Clinical Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is included as conditions for further study in the DSM-5. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the proposed diagnostic criteria and the diagnostic and clinical correlates for the validity of a diagnostic entity. The authors investigated the characteristics of NSSI disorder and the proposed diagnostic criteria. A sample of 73 female inpatient adolescents and 37 nonclinical adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years) was recruited. Patients were classified into 4 groups (adolescents with NSSI disorder, adolescents with NSSI without impairment/distress, clinical controls without NSSI, and nonclinical controls). Adolescents were compared on self-reported psychopathology and diagnostic cooccurrences. Results indicate that adolescents with NSSI disorder have a higher level of impairment than adolescents with other mental disorders without NSSI. Most common comorbid diagnoses were major depression, social phobia, and PTSD. There was some overlap of adolescents with NSSI disorder and suicidal behaviour and borderline personality disorder, but there were also important differences. Results further suggest that the proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NSSI are useful and necessary. In conclusion, NSSI is a highly impairing disorder characterized by high comorbidity with various disorders, providing further evidence that NSSI should be a distinct diagnostic entity. PMID:24236273

  19. Daily Tobacco Smoking in Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers: Clinical Correlates and Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Odlaug, Brian L.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco smoking and pathological gambling (PG) frequently co-occur. Little is known, however, about the clinical correlates and co-occurring psychiatric disorders in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers with and without daily tobacco smoking. Methods Among a sample of 465 consecutive treatment-seeking subjects with current DSM-IV PG, those with daily tobacco smoking were compared to those without daily tobacco smoking on measures of gambling symptom severity (South Oaks Gambling Screen [SOGS] and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling [PG-YBOCS]), types of gambling, social and legal problems, and co-occurring disorders. Results Two hundred and nine (44.9%) of the 465 subjects with PG reported current daily tobacco smoking. Gamblers with daily tobacco smoking as compared to those without had higher SOGS scores, had more severe PG-YBOCS behavior scores, endorsed more DSM-IV PG criteria, lost more money gambling, and were more likely to engage in non-strategic gambling, and were less likely to have a co-occurring mood disorder. Gamblers with daily tobacco smoking and a current substance use disorder reported a greater percentage of income lost to gambling during the past year. Conclusions Daily tobacco smoking in PG is common and associated with multiple important clinical features including more severe gambling and financial problems. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers with daily tobacco smoking might need unique or enhanced treatment strategies. PMID:19690628

  20. Developing cross-correlation as a method for microvessel imaging using clinical intravascular optical coherence tomography systems

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Shiju; Adnan, Asif; Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Leahy, Martin; Adlam, David

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT) imaging systems have limited in-vivo flow imaging capability because of non-uniform catheter rotation and inadequate A-line scan density. Thus any flow-localisation method that seeks to identify sites of variation within the OCT image data-sets, whether that is in amplitude or phase, produces non-representative correlation (or variance) maps. In this study, both mean and the variation within a set of cross-correlation maps, for static OCT imaging was used to differentiate flow from nonflow regions. Variation was quantified by use of standard deviation. The advantage of this approach is its ability to image flow, even in the presence of motion artifacts. The ability of this technique to suppress noise and capture flow maps was demonstrated by imaging microflow in an ex-vivo porcine coronary artery model, by nailfold capillary imaging and in-vivo microvessel imaging from within the human coronary sinus. PMID:25798295

  1. Illness self-concept in Type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional view on clinical, demographic, and psychosocial correlates.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Weets, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the centrality of one's illness self-concept, or the degree to which chronic illness intrudes upon one's self, in a sample of 478 18-35-year-old patients with Type 1 diabetes. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that illness self-concept centrality was a one-dimensional construct, despite the fact that three constituting components (i.e. pervasiveness, directionality, and illness self-consciousness) have been forwarded. Further, important demographic and clinical correlates of illness self-concept were identified: women, unemployed individuals, individuals with a lower educational level, and patients with an insulin pump had a more central illness self-concept. Finally, a series of correlation and regression analyses indicated that, despite the fact that illness self-concept centrality was negatively related to emotional stability, self-esteem, and diabetes integration, and positively to perceived consequences of diabetes, illness self-concept had unique predictive value over and above these variables for problem areas in diabetes and depressive symptoms. Implications and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:24666256

  2. Does vitamin D status correlate with clinical and biochemical features of polycystic ovarysyndrome in high school girls?

    PubMed Central

    Ghadimi, Reza; Esmaeilzadeh, Sedighe; Firoozpour, Marmar; Ahmadi, Asal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOs) is increasing particularly among the female adolescents and young women. It has been hypothesized that disturbance in calcium and vitamin-D metabolism may affect the symptoms of this syndrome. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between vitamin-D and calcium with metabolic parameters and other characteristics of the PCOs. Methods: The study included 192 Iranian girls (16-20 years old), of whom 104 had PCOs and 88 were non-PCOs controls. Serum 25(OH) D and calcium level was measured. Anthropometric components, endocrine, metabolic components and insulin resistance were determined in PCOs subjects. Results: Mean 25 (OH) D was significantly lower in cases (9.7±4.8) than controls (12.3±11.9) but calcium level did not differ between the two groups (9.3±0.3 vs 9.4±0.4). No significant correlations were found between 25(OH) D levels and lipid profile, FBS, fasting insulin endocrine parameters such as testosterone, free testosterone, FSH, LH, and prolactin. Conclusion: Although hypovitamionos D was common is PCOs but did not correlate with clinical features or complications of obesity and insulin resistance PCO like severity of syndrome between vitamin-D deficiency and its severity with some features and complications of PCOs including obesity, insulin resistance. PMID:25489430

  3. A Network-Based Target Overlap Score for Characterizing Drug Combinations: High Correlation with Cancer Clinical Trial Results

    PubMed Central

    Ligeti, Balázs; Pénzváltó, Zsófia; Vera, Roberto; Gy?rffy, Balázs; Pongor, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Drug combinations are highly efficient in systemic treatment of complex multigene diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis and hypertension. Most currently used combinations were found in empirical ways, which limits the speed of discovery for new and more effective combinations. Therefore, there is a substantial need for efficient and fast computational methods. Here, we present a principle that is based on the assumption that perturbations generated by multiple pharmaceutical agents propagate through an interaction network and can cause unexpected amplification at targets not immediately affected by the original drugs. In order to capture this phenomenon, we introduce a novel Target Overlap Score (TOS) that is defined for two pharmaceutical agents as the number of jointly perturbed targets divided by the number of all targets potentially affected by the two agents. We show that this measure is correlated with the known effects of beneficial and deleterious drug combinations taken from the DCDB, TTD and Drugs.com databases. We demonstrate the utility of TOS by correlating the score to the outcome of recent clinical trials evaluating trastuzumab, an effective anticancer agent utilized in combination with anthracycline- and taxane- based systemic chemotherapy in HER2-receptor (erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2) positive breast cancer. PMID:26047322

  4. Subtelomeric 6p25 deletion/duplication: Report of a patient with new clinical findings and genotype-phenotype correlations.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Natália D; Svartman, Marta; Rodrigues, Tatiane C; Rosenberg, Carla; Valadares, Eugênia R

    2015-05-01

    The 6p terminal deletions are rare and present variability of clinical features, which increases the importance of reporting additional cases in order to better characterize genotype-phenotype correlations. We report a 12-year-old girl with a de novo deletion in 6p25.1-pter characterized by high-resolution karyotyping and FISH. Further analysis using oligonucleotide array-CGH revealed a 5.06 Mb 6p25.1-pter deletion associated with a contiguous 1 Mb 6p25.1 duplication. The patient presented normal growth, developmental delay, frontal bossing, severe hypertelorism, corectopia, wide and depressed nasal bridge, mild learning disability, hearing loss and diffuse leukopathy. Additionaly, she presented peculiar phenotypic features reported herein for the first time in 6p25 deletion syndrome: cerebrospinal fluid fistula and bones resembling those seen in 3-M syndrome. The distinctive phenotype of the 6p25 deletion syndrome has been mainly correlated with the FOXC1 and FOXF2 genes deletions, both related mainly to eye development. We also consider the SERPINB6 as a candidate for sensorineural hearing loss and TUBB2A as a candidate for our patient's skeletal features. In addition, as our patient had a duplication including NRN1, a gene related with neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, we suggest that this gene could be associated with her white matter abnormalities and neurocognitive phenotype. PMID:25817395

  5. Changes in lipopolysaccharide profile of Porphyromonas gingivalis clinical isolates correlate with changes in colony morphology and polymyxin B resistance.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Leonor; Hoare, Anilei; Soto, Cristopher; Bugueño, Isaac; Silva, Nora; Dutzan, Nicolás; Venegas, Darna; Salinas, Daniela; Pérez-Donoso, José Manuel; Gamonal, Jorge; Bravo, Denisse

    2015-06-01

    Virulence factors on the surface of Porphyromonas gingivalis constitute the first line of interaction with host cells and contribute to immune modulation and periodontitis progression. In order to characterize surface virulence factors present on P. gingivalis, we obtained clinical isolates from healthy and periodontitis subjects and compared them with reference strains. Colony morphology, aggregation in liquid medium, surface charge, membrane permeability to bactericidal compounds, novobiocin and polymyxin B resistance, capsule presence and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiles were evaluated. By comparing isolates from healthy and periodontitis subjects, differences in colony morphology and aggregation in liquid culture were found; the latter being similar to two reference strains. These differences were not a consequence of variations in bacterial surface charge. Furthermore, isolates also presented differences in polymyxin B and novobiocin resistance; isolates from healthy subjects were susceptible to polymyxin B and resistant to novobiocin and, in contrast, isolates from periodontitis subjects were resistant to polymyxin B and susceptible to novobiocin. These changes in antimicrobial resistance levels correlate with variations in LPS profiles, since -unlike periodontitis isolates-isolates from healthy samples synthesize LPS molecules lacking both O-antigen moieties and anionic polysaccharide. Additionally, this phenotype correlated with the absence of O-antigen ligase activity. Altogether, our results reveal novel variations on surface components of P. gingivalis isolates obtained from healthy and periodontitis subjects that could be associated with differences in bacterial virulence and periodontitis progression. PMID:25638398

  6. Clinical and cognitive correlates of employment among patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gainful employment is one major area of functioning which is becoming an important goal in psychiatric rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia. Studies in western countries are pointing to evidence that certain sociodemographic and clinical factors may contribute to employment outcomes in this group of people. However, the area is still largely unexplored in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to examine the sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive correlates of employment status among patients with Schizophrenia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. All participants who fulfilled the requirements of the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. Study instruments included a demographic data questionnaire, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Trail Making Tests, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Digit Span. Bivariate analyses were done using chi-square for categorical data and t-test for continuous data and multiple logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of employment status. Results A total of 95 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled into the study. Among the sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables studied marital status, educational level, mean scores of negative symptoms, Digit Span and RAVLT and Trail Making Tests were found to show significant association with employment status on bivariate analyses. However, when entered into a logistic regression model, only cognitive variables ie. Trail A and B, Digit Span and RAVLT were significant predictors of employment status. Conclusions The results from this study support the role of cognitive function, particularly, attention, working memory and executive functioning on attaining and maintaining employment in persons with schizophrenia as measured by the RAVLT, Digit Span and Trail Making Tests. These findings may act as preliminary evidence suggesting the importance of integrating cognitive rehabilitation in the psychosocial rehabilitation program for patients with schizophrenia in Malaysia. PMID:21624111

  7. Folate-related polymorphisms in gastrointestinal stromal tumours: susceptibility and correlation with tumour characteristics and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Sabrina; Ravegnini, Gloria; Nannini, Margherita; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Musti, Muriel; Pantaleo, Maria A; Fumagalli, Elena; Venturoli, Nicola; Palassini, Elena; Consolini, Nicola; Casali, Paolo G; Biasco, Guido; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2015-06-01

    The folate metabolism pathway has a crucial role in tumorigenesis as it supports numerous critical intracellular reactions, including DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Despite its importance, little is known about the influence of the folate pathway on gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), a rare tumour with an incidence ranging between 6 and 19.6 cases per million worldwide. The importance of folate metabolism led us to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in the genes coding folate-metabolising enzymes on GIST susceptibility, tumour characteristics and clinical outcome. We investigated a panel of 13 polymorphisms in 8 genes in 60 cases and 153 controls. The TS 6-bp deletion allele (formerly rs34489327, delTInsTTAAAG) was associated with reduced risk of GIST (OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.67, P=0.0032). Selected polymorphisms in patients stratified by age, gender, and other main molecular and clinical characteristics showed that few genotypes may show a likely correlation. We also observed a significant association between the RFC AA/AG genotype and time to progression (HR=0.107, 95% CI 0.014-0.82; P=0.032). Furthermore, we observed a tendency towards an association between the SHMT1 variant allele (TT, rs1979277) and early death (HR=4.53, 95% CI 0.77-26.58, P=0.087). Aware of the strengths and limitations of the study, these results suggest that polymorphisms may modify the risk of GIST and clinical outcome, pointing to the necessity for further investigations with information on folate plasma levels and a larger study population. PMID:25227144

  8. Psychiatric disorders and clinical correlates of suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital with suicidal behavior (SB) are considered to be especially at high risk of suicide. However, the number of studies that have addressed this patient population remains insufficient compared to that of studies on suicidal patients in emergency or medical settings. The purpose of this study is to seek features of a sample of newly admitted suicidal psychiatric patients in a metropolitan area of Japan. Method 155 suicidal patients consecutively admitted to a large psychiatric center during a 20-month period, admission styles of whom were mostly involuntary, were assessed using Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I CV and SCID-II) and SB-related psychiatric measures. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses and SB-related characteristics with gender and age were examined. Results The common DSM-IV axis I diagnoses were affective disorders 62%, anxiety disorders 56% and substance-related disorders 38%. 56% of the subjects were diagnosed as having borderline PD, and 87% of them, at least one type of personality disorder (PD). SB methods used prior to admission were self-cutting 41%, overdosing 32%, self-strangulation 15%, jumping from a height 12% and attempting traffic death 10%, the first two of which were frequent among young females. The median (range) of the total number of SBs in the lifetime history was 7 (1-141). Severity of depressive symptomatology, suicidal intent and other symptoms, proportions of the subjects who reported SB-preceding life events and life problems, and childhood and adolescent abuse were comparable to those of the previous studies conducted in medical or emergency service settings. Gender and age-relevant life-problems and life events were identified. Conclusions Features of the studied sample were the high prevalence of affective disorders, anxiety disorders and borderline PD, a variety of SB methods used prior to admission and frequent SB repetition in the lifetime history. Gender and age appeared to have an influence on SB method selection and SB-preceding processes. The findings have important implications for assessment and treatment of psychiatric suicidal patients. PMID:21144041

  9. Pregnancy Incidence and Correlates in a Clinical Trial Preparedness Study, North West Province South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chetty-Makkan, Candice M.; Fielding, Katherine; Feldblum, Paul J.; Price, Matt A.; Kruger, Petra; Makkan, Heeran; Charalambous, Salome; Latka, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Women in HIV prevention trials often must typically agree to avoid pregnancy. Regardless, some become pregnant. Screening tools predicting pregnancy risk could maximize trial safety and efficiency. Objectives We assessed incidence and correlates of pregnancy among women at high HIV risk. Methods We enrolled sexually-active, HIV-negative women into an observational cohort (2008–2011). At enrolment demographic, contraceptive, reproductive, pregnancy intention and behavioural data were collected. Women reported if one or both partners wanted or intended for the couple to become pregnant. We measured gender role beliefs using a locally validated eight-point index. We tested HIV and pregnancy, and inquired about sexually transmitted infection symptoms (STIs) at enrollment and monthly. HIV testing included behavioural counselling and condom provision, but did not specifically counsel women to avoid pregnancy. Cox proportional hazard modelling evaluated the associations with pregnancy. The multivariate model included the following variables “Recent pregnancy attempts”, “Gender Roles Beliefs”, ”Self-reported STIs” and “Age”. Results We screened 1068 women and excluded (24.6%, 263/1068) who did not report risk behaviour. Non-pregnant, non-sterilized women aged 18–35 (median?=?21 years) enrolled (n?=?438). Most women reported one partner (74.7%) and a prior live birth (84.6%). Median follow-up time was 6 months (range 0.7–15.5). Pregnancy incidence was 25.1 per 100 women-years (n?=?57 pregnancies). Conservative beliefs on gender roles (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.9), recent pregnancy attempts (aHR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1–3.4) and baseline self-reported STI (aHR 2.5; 95% CI 1.4–4.4) were associated with increased incident pregnancy. Report of no pregnancy intention was associated with lowered pregnancy risk (aHR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1–0.7). Conclusions We identified new and confirmed existing factors that can facilitate screening for pregnancy risk. PMID:24802651

  10. IL-7 and SCF Levels Inversely Correlate with T Cell Reconstitution and Clinical Outcomes after Cord Blood Transplantation in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Politikos, Ioannis; Kim, Haesook T.; Nikiforow, Sarah; Li, Lequn; Brown, Julia; Antin, Joseph H.; Cutler, Corey; Ballen, Karen; Ritz, Jerome; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.

    2015-01-01

    Recovery of thymopoiesis is critical for immune reconstitution after HSCT. IL-7 and SCF are two major thymotropic cytokines. We investigated whether the kinetics of circulating levels of these cytokines might provide insight into the prolonged immunodeficiency after double umbilical cord blood transplantation (dUCBT) in adults. We examined plasma levels of IL-7 and SCF, T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle (TREC) levels and T cell subsets in 60 adult patients undergoing dUCBT. Median levels of IL-7 increased by more than 3-fold at 4 weeks and remained elevated through 100 days after dUCBT. SCF showed a less than 2-fold increase and more protracted elevation than IL-7. IL-7 levels inversely correlated with the reconstitution of various T cell subsets but not with TRECs. SCF levels inversely correlated with reconstitution of CD4+T cells, especially the naïve CD4+CD45RA+ subset, and with TRECs suggesting that SCF but not IL-7 had an effect on thymic regeneration. In Cox models, elevated levels of IL-7 and SCF were associated with higher non-relapse mortality (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01) and worse overall survival (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001). Elevated IL-7 but not SCF was also associated with development of GvHD (p = 0.03). Thus, IL-7 and SCF are elevated for a prolonged period after dUCBT and persistently high levels of these cytokines may correlate with worse clinical outcomes. PMID:26177551

  11. Single Cell Profiling Identifies Aberrant STAT5 Activation in Myeloid Malignancies with Specific Clinical and Biologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, Nikesh; Flores, Nikki J; Irish, Jonathan M; Simonds, Erin; Sakai, Debbie S.; Archambeault, Sophie; Diaz-Flores, Ernesto; Coram, Marc; Shannon, Kevin M; Nolan, Garry P; Loh, Mignon L

    2008-01-01

    Summary Progress in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of human myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) has led to guidelines incorporating genetic assays with histopathology during diagnosis. Advances in flow cytometry have made it possible to simultaneously measure cell type and signaling abnormalities arising as a consequence of genetic pathologies. Using flow cytometry, we observed a specific evoked STAT5 signaling signature in a subset of samples from patients suspected of having juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), an aggressive MPD with a challenging clinical presentation during active disease. This signature was a specific feature involving JAK-STAT signaling, suggesting a critical role of this pathway in the biological mechanism of this disorder and indicating potential targets for future therapies. Significance Recent advances have enabled simultaneous measurement of cell type and cell signals in primary populations using flow cytometry. This technique enables the question, "Can we track oncogenic cell populations from diagnosis through disease evolution via signaling?" Doing so in an era of using specific inhibitors against components of key signal transduction pathways will be necessary to assess treatment effects in human patients and adapt as cancer cells alter their signaling in response to these treatments. This work uses such an approach to follow patients over time and shows that disease status in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) -- at diagnosis, remission, relapse, and transformation -- is indicated by a subset of cells with an abnormal signaling profile. PMID:18835035

  12. Demographic and clinical factors correlating with high levels of psychological distress in HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Anita C; Light, Lucia; Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra; Rourke, Sean B; Wobeser, Wendy; Loutfy, Mona R

    2014-01-01

    The concept of psychological distress includes a range of emotional states with symptoms of depression and anxiety and has yet to be reported in HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada, who are known to live with contributing factors. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychological distress among women accessing HIV care participating in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). The K10 is a 10-item, five-level response scale. K10 values range from 10 to 50 with values less than or equal to 19 categorized as not clinically significant, scores between 20 and 24 as moderate levels, 25-29 as high, and 30-50 as very high psychological distress. Correlates of psychological distress were assessed using the Pearson's chi-square test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moderate, high, and very high levels of psychological distress were experienced by 16.9, 10.4, and 15.1% of the 337 women in our cohort, respectively, with 57.6% reporting none. Psychological distress levels greater than 19, correlated with being unemployed (vs. employed/student/retired; AOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.83), living in a household without their child/children (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.33-4.52), CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm(3) (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 0.89-4.80), and to a lesser degree an education of some college or less (vs. completed college or higher; AOR=1.71, 95% CI: 0.99-2.95). Age and ethnicity, a priori variables of interest, did not correlate with psychological distress. Findings suggest that socioeconomic factors which shape the demography of women living with HIV in Ontario, low CD4 counts, and losing the opportunity to care for their child/children has a significant relationship with psychological distress. Approaches to manage psychological distress should address and make considerations for the lived experiences of women since they can act as potential barriers to improving psychological well-being. PMID:24215281

  13. Judgments of Omitted BE and DO in Questions as Extended Finiteness Clinical Markers of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) to 15 Years: A Study of Growth and Asymptote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; Hoffman, Lesa; Wexler, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical grammar markers are needed for children with SLI older than 8 years. This study followed children who were previously studied on sentences with omitted finiteness to determine if affected children continue to perform at low levels and to examine possible predictors of low performance. This is the first longitudinal report of…

  14. Correlation between phq-9 score and physical activity level, risk factors and non-communicable diseases in patients in family medicine clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zivana Gavric; Anna Culafic; Brankica Markovic

    2011-01-01

    The work of physicians in primary health care is essential in prevention and early detection of health risk factors. To determine\\u000a the incidence of depression among patients in family medicine clinics, as well as the correlation between depression, risk\\u000a factors and NCDs, and to determine correlation between depression (PHQ-9 score) and the level of physical activity. The pilot\\u000a study was

  15. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tao; Hossain, Mahmud; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Izmirlian, Grant; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun; Leach, Robin; Thompson, Ian M.; Chan, Daniel W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srinivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2012-08-03

    Sandwich immunoassay is the standard technique used in clinical labs for quantifying protein biomarkers for disease detection, monitoring and therapeutic intervention. Albeit highly sensitive, the development of a specific immunoassay is rather time-consuming and associated with extremely high cost due to the requirement for paired immunoaffinity reagents of high specificity. Recently, mass spectrometry-based methods, specifically selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS), have been increasingly applied to measure low abundance biomarker candidates in tissue and biofluids, owing to high sensitivity and specificity, simplicity of assay configuration, and great multiplexing capability. In this study, we report for the first time the development of immunoaffinity depletion-based workflows and SRM-MS assays that enable sensitive and accurate quantification of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum without the requirement for specific PSA antibodies. With stable isotope dilution and external calibration, low ng/mL level detection of both total and free PSA was consistently achieved in both PSA-spiked female serum samples and actual patient serum samples. Moreover, comparison of the results obtained when SRM PSA assays and conventional immunoassays were applied to the same samples showed very good correlation (R2 values ranging from 0.90 to 0.99) in several independent clinical serum sample sets, including a set of 33 samples assayed in a blinded test. These results demonstrate that the workflows and SRM assays developed here provide an attractive alternative for reliably measuring total and free PSA in human blood. Furthermore, simultaneous measurement of free and total PSA and many other biomarkers can be performed in a single analysis using high-resolution liquid chromatographic separation coupled with SRM-MS.

  16. Atrial Fibrillation in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Prevalence, Clinical Correlations, and Mortality in a Large High?Risk Population

    PubMed Central

    Siontis, Konstantinos C.; Geske, Jeffrey B.; Ong, Kevin; Nishimura, Rick A.; Ommen, Steve R.; Gersh, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common sequela of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but evidence on its prevalence, risk factors, and effect on mortality is sparse. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of AF, identify clinical and echocardiographic correlates, and assess its effect on mortality in a large high?risk HCM population. Methods and Results We identified HCM patients who underwent evaluation at our institution from 1975 to 2012. AF was defined by known history (either chronic or paroxysmal), electrocardiogram, or Holter monitoring at index visit. We examined clinical and echocardiographic variables in association with AF. The effect of AF on overall and cause?specific mortality was evaluated with multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Of 3673 patients with HCM, 650 (18%) had AF. Patients with AF were older and more symptomatic (P<0.001). AF was less common among patients with obstructive HCM phenotype and was associated with larger left atria, higher E/e’ ratios, and worse cardiopulmonary exercise tolerance (all P values<0.001). During median (interquartile range) follow?up of 4.1 (0.2 to 10) years, 1069 (29%) patients died. Patients with AF had worse survival compared to those without AF (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis adjusted for established risk factors of mortality in HCM, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the effect of AF on overall mortality was 1.48 (1.27 to 1.71). AF did not have an effect on sudden or nonsudden cardiac death. Conclusions In this large referral HCM population, approximately 1 in 5 patients had AF. AF was a strong predictor of mortality, even after adjustment for established risk factors. PMID:24965028

  17. Correlation of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Densities in the Striata to the Clinical Abilities of Women with Rett Syndrome (RTT)

    PubMed Central

    BRAŠI?, JAMES ROBERT; BIBAT, GENILA; KUMAR, ANIL; ZHOU, YUN; HILTON, JOHN; YABLONSKI, MARYBETH E.; DOGAN, AHMET SEMIH; GUEVARA, MARIA RITA; STEPHANE, MASSOUD; JOHNSTON, MICHAEL; WONG, DEAN FOSTER; NAIDU, SAKKUBAI

    2012-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disability characterized by mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) located at the Xq28 region. The severity is modified in part by X chromosomal inactivation resulting in wide clinical variability. We hypothesized that the ability to perform the activities of daily living (ADL) is correlated with the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporters in the striata of women with RTT. The density of the vesicular acetylcholine transporters in the living human brain can be estimated by single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) after the administration of (?)-5-[123I]iodobenzovesamicol ([123I]IBVM). Twenty-four (24) hours following the intravenous injection of approximately 333 MBq (9 mCi) [123I]IBVM, four women with RTT and nine healthy adult volunteer control participants underwent SPECT brain scans for sixty (60) minutes. The Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Binding Site Index (VATBSI) (Kuhl et al., 1994), a measurement of the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporters, was estimated in the striatum and the reference structure, the cerebellum. The women with RTT were assessed for certain activities of daily living (ADL). Although striatal VATSBI was not significantly lower in RTT (5.2 ± 0.9) than in healthy adults (5.7 ± 1.6), RTT striatal VATSBI and ADL scores were linearly associated (ADL = 0.89*VATSBI + 4.5; R2=0.93; p<0.01), suggesting a correlation between the ability to perform ADL and the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporters in the striata of women with RTT. [123I]IBVM is a promising tool to characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms of RTT and other neurodevelopmental disabilities. PMID:22223404

  18. Quantification of parasite load in clinical samples of leishmaniasis patients: IL-10 level correlates with parasite load in visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sandeep; Kumar, Rajesh; Katara, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwor; Negi, Narender Singh; Ramesh, V; Salotra, Poonam

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and accurate method to detect and quantify Leishmania parasite is urgently needed to facilitate early diagnosis of leishmaniasis and monitoring of antileishmania therapy. In this study, real-time assay was applied to estimate parasite load in clinical samples of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) patients. The mean parasite load in blood of VL patients (n = 31) was 8,372 parasites/ml, while the mean parasite load in bone marrow aspirate (BMA) was 194,962 parasites/million nucleated cells (n = 12). Parasite load was undetectable after treatment with amphotericin B (n = 9) in VL, while a residual parasite burden was detected in 2 of 6 patients following treatment with sodium antimony gluconate. Further, circulating levels of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-2 were analysed in VL patients (n = 29) by Cytometric Bead Array to evaluate correlation with parasitic load. Interestingly, IL-10 levels correlated significantly with parasite load (r = 0.82, P<0.0001). The mean parasite load in dermal lesions of PKDL patients was 9,502 parasites/microg tissue DNA at pre-treatment stage (n = 25), with no detectable parasites after therapy (n = 5). Parasite burden was distinctly higher (P<0.0001) in nodular lesions (n = 12) (19,586 parasites/microg tissue DNA) compared to papular/macular lesions (n = 13, 193 parasites/microg tissue DNA). Further, chronic PKDL lesions showed significantly (P = 0.0166) higher parasite load in comparison with acute lesions. Results indicate that chronic, nodular cases constitute the major parasite reservoir for anthroponotic transmission. Our results establish that the high parasite load in VL is strongly correlated with a high level of IL-10, implicating IL-10 as a marker of disease severity. The assay is applicable for diagnosis as well as prognosis of both VL and PKDL, providing a simple molecular tool to monitor the efficacy of antileishmanial drugs or vaccines. PMID:20404924

  19. Correlation between Reversal of DNA Methylation and Clinical Symptoms in Psoriatic Epidermis Following Narrow-Band UVB Phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaolian; Nylander, Elisabet; Coates, Philip J; Fahraeus, Robin; Nylander, Karin

    2015-08-01

    Epigenetic modifications by DNA methylation are associated with a wide range of diseases. Previous studies in psoriasis have concentrated on epigenetic changes in immune cells or in total skin biopsies that include stromal-associated changes. In order to improve our understanding of the role of DNA methylation in psoriasis, we sought to obtain a comprehensive DNA methylation signature specific for the epidermal component of psoriasis and to analyze methylation changes during therapy. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of epidermal cells from 12 patients undergoing narrow-band UVB phototherapy and 12 corresponding healthy controls revealed a distinct DNA methylation pattern in psoriasis compared with controls. A total of 3,665 methylation variable positions (MVPs) were identified with an overall hypomethylation in psoriasis patient samples. DNA methylation pattern was reversed at the end of phototherapy in patients showing excellent clinical improvement. Only 7% of phototherapy-affected MVPs (150 out of 2,108) correlate with nearby gene expression. Enrichment of MVPs in enhancers indicates tissue-specific modulation of the transcriptional regulatory machinery in psoriasis. Our study identified key epigenetic events associated with psoriasis pathogenesis and helps understand the dynamic DNA methylation landscape in the human genome. PMID:25830654

  20. Plasma Adiponectin Levels Inversely Correlate to Clinical Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Macrovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangya; Gao, Shuming; Su, Na; Xu, Jinxiu; Fu, Dongxia

    2015-05-01

    It has been shown that adiponectin (APN) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) are inversely involved in the regulation of atherosclerosis formation. However, the clinical impact of APN and PAI-1 in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with macrovascular diseases (MVD) has not been investigated. In the present study, we found that plasma APN levels were significantly lower in T2DM patients than healthy donors, with a further decrease in T2DM patients with MVD. In contrast, plasma PAI-1 levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients than healthy donors, with a further increase in T2DM patients with MVD. We observed that plasma APN levels negatively correlated to values of BMI, FBG, FINS, TG, and PAI-1 in T2DM patients. In patients with MVD, plasma APN levels were negatively associated with values of BMI, SBP, FBG, FINS, TG, and PAI-1. By multiple stepwise regression analysis, we found that values of BMI, FCP, PAI-1, and FBG independently related to plasma levels of APN in T2DM patients with MVD. Taken together, our results indicate that APN might be a promising biomarker in patients with T2DM, especially in those with MVD. PMID:26116592

  1. Clinical observations on the effect of carotid artery occlusion on cerebral blood flow mapped by xenon computed tomography and its correlation with carotid artery back pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Steed; Marshall W. Webster; Egbert J DeVries; Charles A. Jungreis; Joseph A. Horton; Laligam Sehkar; Howard Yonas

    1990-01-01

    Xenon computed tomographic cerebral blood flow mapping was correlated with internal carotid artery stump pressures and clinical neurologic assessment during temporary internal carotid artery occlusion. One hundred fourteen patients with skull base tumors or intracranial aneurysms potentially requiring carotid resection or ligation underwent angiography, xenon CT cerebral blood flow mapping, and internal carotid artery blood pressure monitoring. The internal carotid

  2. Abnormal Ocular Enhancement in Sturge-Weber Syndrome: Correlation of Ocular MR and CT Findings with Clinical and Intracranial Imaging Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Griffiths; Mitra B. Boodram; Susan Blaser; Filiberto Altomare; J. Raymond Buncic; Alex V. Levin; Venita Jay; Derek Armstrong; Derek Harwood-Nash

    PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of abnormal ocular enhancement in children with Sturge- Weber syndrome as detected with MR imaging and CT and to correlate this with the clinical, fundoscopic, and intracranial imaging findings. METHODS: Fifteen children, 4 years old or younger, with Sturge-Weber syndrome were examined with enhanced CT and MR imaging. Eleven children had unilateral intracranial involvement and

  3. Clinical correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with symptom complex in prolapsed intervertebral disc disease: A cross-sectional double blind analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Jeetendra; Saini, Sumit; Singh, Rakhi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Low backache (LBA) is one of the most common problems and herniated lumbar disc is one of the most commonly diagnosed abnormalities associated with LBA. Disc herniation of the same size may be asymptomatic in one patient and can lead to severe nerve root compromise in another patient. Objective: To evaluate correlation between the clinical features of disc collapse and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding to determine the clinical importance of anatomical abnormalities identified by MRI technique. Summary: From January 2010 to January 2012, 75 otherwise healthy patients (43 males 32 females) between the age of 19 and 55 years (average age was 44.5 years) with low back pain and predominant complaint of root pain who presented to our clinic were included in the study. Materials and Methods: Proper screening was done to rule out previous spine affection and subjected to MRI. Results: The results were analyzed under four headings viz. disc herniation, disc degeneration, thecal sac deformation and neural foramen effacement. All patients had a visual analog score (VAS) score more than 6. The interrater correlation coefficient kappa was calculated to be k=0.51. There were total 44 patients with herniation, 25 patients had mild, one patient had moderate degree of thecal sac deformation, 21 patients had one or more levels of foraminal effacement by the herniated tissue, 100% of the patients had disc degeneration ranging from grade 1 to 3 at different levels; and 48 patients (64%) had radiculopathy, six (8%) patients had bilateral and others had ipsilateral affection. Conclusion: In our study, the correlation was made between clinical findings and MRI findings. It can safely be concluded that treating physician should put more emphasis on history, clinical examination, and make the inference by these and then should correlate the clinical findings with that of MRI to reach a final diagnosis. PMID:24381451

  4. The Utilization of a Clinical Decision Support System to Manage Adult Type 2 Diabetes: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faught, I. Charie

    2012-01-01

    While the Institute of Medicine (2001) has promoted health information technology to improve the process of care such as compliance with clinical practice guidelines and quicker access to clinical information, diagnostic tests, and treatment results, very little was known about how a clinical decision support system can contribute to diabetes…

  5. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Clinical correlation of dose to the pharyngo-esophageal axis and dysphagia

    SciTech Connect

    Fua, Tsien F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)]. E-mail: tsien-fei.fua@petermac.org; Corry, June [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Milner, Alvin D. [Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Cramb, Jim [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Walsham, Sue F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Peters, Lester J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to quantify the dose delivered to the pharyngo-esophageal axis using different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques for treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to correlate this with acute swallowing toxicity. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 28 patients treated with IMRT between February 2002 and August 2005: 20 with whole field IMRT (WF-IMRT) and 8 with IMRT fields junctioned with an anterior neck field with central shielding (j-IMRT). Dose to the pharyngo-esophageal axis was measured using dose-volume histograms. Acute swallowing toxicity was assessed by review of dysphagia grade during treatment and enteral feeding requirements. Results: The mean pharyngo-esophageal dose was 55.2 Gy in the WF-IMRT group and 27.2 Gy in the j-IMRT group, p < 0.001. Ninety-five percent (19/20) of the WF-IMRT group developed Grade 3 dysphagia compared with 62.5% (5/8) of the j-IMRT group, p = 0.06. Feeding tube duration was a median of 38 days for the WF-IMRT group compared with 6 days for the j-IMRT group, p = 0.04. Conclusions: Clinical vigilance must be maintained when introducing new technology to ensure that unanticipated adverse effects do not result. Although newer planning systems can reduce the dose to the pharyngo-esophageal axis with WF-IMRT, the j-IMRT technique is preferred at least in patients with no gross disease in the lower neck.

  6. Molecular-clinical correlations in a family with variable tissue mitochondrial DNA T8993G mutant load.

    PubMed

    Enns, Gregory M; Bai, Ren-Kui; Beck, Anita E; Wong, Lee-Jun

    2006-08-01

    Unlike many pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations, the T8993G mutation associated with Leigh syndrome (LS) and neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) typically shows little variation in mutant load between different tissue types. We describe the molecular and clinical findings in a family with variable disease severity and tissue T8993G mutant loads. Real-time ARMS qPCR testing showed that two brothers with features of NARP and LS had high mutant loads (>90%) in all tissues tested, similar to previously reported cases. Their sister, who has mild speech delay but attends normal school, was found to have a relatively high mutant load (mean 93%) in tissues derived from endoderm (buccal mucosa) and mesoderm (blood and skin fibroblasts). However, in tissue derived from ectoderm (hair bulbs), she carried a considerably lower proportion of mutant mtDNA. Because both surface ectoderm, which gives rise to outer epithelia and hair, and neuroectoderm, which gives rise to the central nervous system, are derived from ectoderm, it is tempting to speculate that the mutant load detected in the oligosymptomatic sister's hair bulbs is a reflection of the brain mutant load. We conclude that significant variation in tissue mutant load may occur in at least some individuals that harbor the T8993G mutation. This adds additional complexity to genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in such instances. Given the shared embryonic origin of hair bulbs and brain, we recommend performing hair bulb mtDNA analysis in asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic individuals that have high blood mutant loads in order to understand better the genotype-phenotype correlations related to the T8993G mutation. PMID:16546428

  7. Prevalence, clinical correlates, and functional impact of subaortic ventricular septal bulge (from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging).

    PubMed

    Canepa, Marco; Malti, Omar; David, Melissa; AlGhatrif, Majd; Strait, James B; Ameri, Pietro; Brunelli, Claudio; Lakatta, Edward G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Abraham, Theodore P

    2014-09-01

    A localized hypertrophy of the subaortic segment of the ventricular septum-ventricular septal bulge (VSB)-has been frequently described in series of elderly population, but its prevalence with age, clinical correlates, and impact on cardiac function and exercise capacity remain uncertain. We explored these associations in a cross-sectional sample without known cardiac disease from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. We randomly selected 700 participants (50% men, mean age 64 ± 15, range 26 to 95 years) and reviewed their echocardiograms. We identified 28 men and 21 women with VSB (7% overall prevalence). The prevalence of VSB significantly increased with age in both genders (p <0.0001). In multivariate logistic regression including hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors, only age displayed a significant independent association with VSB (OR 1.06 per year, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.10, p = 0.0001). After multiple adjustments, participants with VSB compared with those without had enhanced global left ventricular contractility (fractional shortening 41 ± 1.3 vs 38 ± 0.3%, p = 0.04; ejection fraction 71 ± 1.6 vs 67 ± 0.4%, p = 0.06; systolic velocity of the mitral annulus 8.4 ± 0.1 vs 8.9 ± 0.3, p = 0.06), and larger aortic root diameters (3.3 ± 0.06 vs 3.1 ± 0.02 cm, p = 0.02). In subgroup of participants who completed a maximal treadmill test (177 women and 196 men), those with VSB (19, 5.1%) had significantly lower peak oxygen consumption than their counterparts (19.6 ± 3.8 vs 22.9 ± 6.6 ml/kg/min, p = 0.03). However, this association was no longer significant after multiple adjustments. In conclusion, the presence of VSB is independently associated with older age and determines enhanced left ventricular contractility, without any evident impact on exercise capacity. PMID:25129067

  8. Hecht, Toby — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296761243 Hecht, Toby Pose a

  9. Qian, Yong — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1297533065 Qian, Yong Pose a

  10. Pagel, Mark — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1297191134 Pagel, Mark Pose a

  11. Griguer, Corinne — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1295994802 Griguer, Corinne Pose

  12. Review of clinical studies on dendritic cell-based vaccination of patients with malignant melanoma: assessment of correlation between clinical response and vaccine parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lotte Engell-Noerregaard; Troels Holz Hansen; Mads Hald Andersen; Per thor Straten; Inge Marie Svane

    2009-01-01

    During the past years numerous clinical trials have been carried out to assess the ability of dendritic cell (DC) based immunotherapy\\u000a to induce clinically relevant immune responses in patients with malignant diseases. A broad range of cancer types have been\\u000a targeted including malignant melanoma which in the disseminated stage have a very poor prognosis and only limited treatment\\u000a options with

  13. Measuring executive function in control subjects and TBI patients with question completion time (QCT).

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Yund, E William; Wyma, John M; Ruff, Ron; Herron, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Questionnaire completion is a complex task that places demands on cognitive functions subserving reading, introspective memory, decision-making, and motor control. Although computerized questionnaires and surveys are used with increasing frequency in clinical practice, few studies have examined question completion time (QCT), the time required to complete each question. Here, we analyzed QCTs in 172 control subjects and 31 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who completed two computerized questionnaires, the 17-question Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) and the 25-question Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). In control subjects, robust correlations were found between self-paced QCTs on the PCL and CFQ (r = 0.82). QCTs on individual questions correlated strongly with the number of words in the question, indicating the critical role of reading speed. QCTs increased significantly with age, and were reduced in females and in subjects with increased education and computer experience. QCT z-scores, corrected for age, education, computer use, and sex, correlated more strongly with each other than with the results of other cognitive tests. Patients with a history of severe TBI showed significantly delayed QCTs, but QCTs fell within the normal range in patients with a history of mild TBI. When questionnaires are used to gather relevant patient information, simultaneous QCT measures provide reliable and clinically sensitive measures of processing speed and executive function. PMID:26042021

  14. Measuring executive function in control subjects and TBI patients with question completion time (QCT)

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Yund, E. William; Wyma, John M.; Ruff, Ron; Herron, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Questionnaire completion is a complex task that places demands on cognitive functions subserving reading, introspective memory, decision-making, and motor control. Although computerized questionnaires and surveys are used with increasing frequency in clinical practice, few studies have examined question completion time (QCT), the time required to complete each question. Here, we analyzed QCTs in 172 control subjects and 31 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who completed two computerized questionnaires, the 17-question Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) and the 25-question Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). In control subjects, robust correlations were found between self-paced QCTs on the PCL and CFQ (r = 0.82). QCTs on individual questions correlated strongly with the number of words in the question, indicating the critical role of reading speed. QCTs increased significantly with age, and were reduced in females and in subjects with increased education and computer experience. QCT z-scores, corrected for age, education, computer use, and sex, correlated more strongly with each other than with the results of other cognitive tests. Patients with a history of severe TBI showed significantly delayed QCTs, but QCTs fell within the normal range in patients with a history of mild TBI. When questionnaires are used to gather relevant patient information, simultaneous QCT measures provide reliable and clinically sensitive measures of processing speed and executive function.

  15. Correlation of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression with clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer patients of different race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Koshiji, Minori; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Morimura, Keiichirou; Utsumi, Yasufumi; Aizawa, Michiko; Hoshino, Masami; Ohki, Shinji; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Costa, Max; Commes, Thérèse; Piquemal, David; Harris, Curtis C; Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) expression in prognosis and survival of colorectal cancer patients with different ethnic backgrounds. METHODS: Because NDRG1 is a downstream target of p53 and hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), we examined NDRG1 expression together with p53 and HIF-1? by immunohistochemistry. A total of 157 colorectal cancer specimens including 80 from Japanese patients and 77 from US patients were examined. The correlation between protein expression with clinicopathological features and survival after surgery was analyzed. RESULTS: NDRG1 protein was significantly increased in colorectal tumor compared with normal epithelium in both Japanese and US patient groups. Expression of NDRG1 protein was significantly correlated with lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, depth of invasion, histopathological type, and Dukes' stage in Japanese colorectal cancer patients. NDRG1 expression was correlated to histopathological type, Dukes' stage and HIF-1? expression in US-Caucasian patients but not in US-African American patients. Interestingly, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that NDRG1 expression correlated significantly with poorer survival in US-African American patients but not in other patient groups. However, in p53-positive US cases, NDRG1 positivity correlated significantly with better survival. In addition, NDRG1 expression also correlated significantly with improved survival in US patients with stages III and IV tumors without chemotherapy. In Japanese patients with stages II and III tumors, strong NDRG1 staining in p53-positive tumors correlated significantly with improved survival but negatively in patients without chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: NDRG1 expression was correlated with various clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer depending on the race/ethnicity of the patients. NDRG1 may serve as a biological basis for the disparity of clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer patients with different ethnic backgrounds. PMID:17569115

  16. Why "Who Is the Client?" Is the Wrong Ethical Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Mary Alice

    2014-01-01

    The familiar question "Who is the client?" elicits a singular answer. This may be appropriate as a clinical question, and it is sometimes necessary as a legal question or reimbursement question, but on ethical questions, the National Association of School Psychologists Ethics Code requires school psychologists to "think plural"…

  17. Beak and feather disease virus: correlation between viral load and clinical signs in wild Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), the most prevalent viral disease affecting psittacines, is caused by beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). This study assessed viral load using qPCR in a wild Cape parrot population affected by PBFD and compared it to overall physical condition based on clinical signs attributable to PBFD. A significant inverse correlation between viral load and overall physical condition was found, which confirmed that clinical signs may confidently be used to diagnose the relative severity of BFDV infections in wild populations. This is the first assessment of BFDV viral load in a wild psittacine population. PMID:25193072

  18. Clinical and Neuroimaging Correlates of Mild Cognitive Impairment in a Middle-Aged Community Sample: The Personality and Total Health through Life 60+ Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Kumar; Ruth A. Parslow; Anthony F. Jorm; Stephen J. Rosenman; Jerome Maller; Chantal Meslin; Kaarin J. Anstey; Helen Christensen; Perminder S. Sachdev

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at determining the clinical and structural brain magnetic resonance imaging correlates of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The data presented here are from the first wave of the longitudinal Personality and Total Health through Life 60+ project. 2,551 community-dwelling individuals in the age range of 60–64 years were recruited randomly through the electoral roll. They were screened

  19. Correlation of clinical and pathologic factors with rising prostate-specific antigen profiles after radical prostatectomy alone for clinically localized prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Kupelian; Jerald Katcher; Howard Levin; Craig Zippe; Eric Klein

    1996-01-01

    ObjectivesTo better identify factors affecting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level elevation after radical prostatectomy alone in men with clinical Stage T1–2 prostate cancer, we have reviewed our experience in the PSA era with 337 cases. The identification of these factors permits better understanding of the impact of case selection on treatment outcome in prostate cancer.

  20. Correlation of nodal mast cells with clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumour and a proposed classification system for the evaluation of node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, K M; Thamm, D H; Worley, D R; Kamstock, D A

    2014-11-01

    Lymph node metastasis in dogs with mast cell tumour has been reported as a negative prognostic indicator; however, no standardized histological criteria exist to define metastatic disease. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether different histological patterns of node-associated mast cells correlate with clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumour. A secondary goal was to propose a criteria-defined classification system for histological evaluation of lymph node metastasis. The Colorado State University Diagnostic Medicine Center database was searched for cases of canine mast cell tumours with reported lymph node metastasis or evidence of node-associated mast cells. Additional cases were obtained from a clinical trial involving sentinel lymph node mapping and node extirpation in dogs with mast cell neoplasia. Forty-one cases were identified for inclusion in the study. Demographic data, treatment and clinical outcome were collected for each case. Lymph nodes were classified according to a novel classification system (HN0-HN3) based on the number of, distribution of, and architectural disruption by, nodal mast cells. The findings of this study indicate that characterization of nodal mast cells as proposed by this novel classification system correlates with, and is prognostic for, clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumours. PMID:25172053

  1. The competency question.

    PubMed

    Ruthemeyer, M

    2000-01-01

    JCAHO mandates "processes that are designed to ensure that the competency of all staff members is assessed, maintained, demonstrated, and improved on an ongoing basis." However, it is difficult to collect aggregate data regarding staff competency patterns and trends. How many facilities have the time or energy to collect aggregate data, let alone statistically analyze it for patterns and trends? Not many in today's environment. I saw the need to create a test to evaluate staff competency at my facility, but soon realized I would have no way of knowing if the results were good or bad. The only way to judge the results would be to have a standardized test that was used by multiple facilities. As president of the Houston X-ray Quality Society, I brought the topic up at a meeting in 1995, and a committee was set up to work on the test. The result is two competency tests--one for staff radiographers and one for mammographers--which are currently used by 35 to 40 facilities, with approximately 1,000 technologists taking the test each year. The tests include practical questions that reflect the knowledge required to perform daily exams. Each test has five sections that assess different areas of competency. The scoring system allows technologists to fail one or more individual sections but still pass the test overall. Twenty to 30 percent of the questions are new each year. That gives us the ability to look for improvement on previous year's questions, and at the same time, avoid producing a static and ineffective test. There are 60 questions on the staff radiographer test and 65 questions on the mammographer test, which also includes clinical images. Facilities must sign an agreement that states that they cannot use the test as a disciplinary tool in the employee's evaluation, or in any other way against the technologist. As a profession, radiology administration not only has regulatory requirements to evaluate competency, but also a moral duty to insure that patients receive the best possible care. We should not cover up or ignore the blemishes that we all know exist. Instead, we should take them on, as professional and personal challenges to improve the competency of our staff. PMID:11151318

  2. Do clinicians use more question marks?

    PubMed Central

    Otte, Willem M; van’t Klooster, Maryse A; van Diessen, Eric; Leijten, Frans SS; Sander, Josemir W

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify the use of question marks in titles of published studies. Design and setting Literature review. Participants All Pubmed publications between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 with an available abstract. Papers were classified as being clinical when the search terms clin*, med* or patient* were found anywhere in the paper’s title, abstract or the journal’s name. Other papers were considered controls. As a verification, clinical journals were compared to non-clinical journals in two different approaches. Also, 50 highest impact journals were explored for publisher group dependent differences. Main outcome measure Total number of question marks in titles. Results A total of 368,362 papers were classified as clinical and 596,889 as controls. Clinical papers had question marks in 3.9% (95% confidence interval 3.8–4.0%) of titles and other papers in 2.3% (confidence interval 2.3–2.3%; p?clinical journals compared to non-clinical journals. Different percentages between four publisher groups were found (p?question marks in titles of clinical papers than in other papers. This could suggest that clinicians often have a question-driven approach to research and scientists in more fundamental research a hypothesis-driven approach. An alternative explanation is that clinicians like catchy titles. Publishing groups might have pro- and anti-question mark policies.

  3. Beware Answers with Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Answers to mathematical problems come in all forms and most come with a variety of questions. Students often forget to ask questions once they have found an answer. This paper suggests that students would always benefit by questioning answers.

  4. Circulating levels of miR-146a and IL-17 are significantly correlated with the clinical activity of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongfa; Guan, Meiping; Qin, Yan; Xie, Cuihua; Fu, Xiajun; Gao, Fang; Xue, Yaoming

    2014-11-28

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is a common autoimmune disease that is difficult to deal with due to limited clinical evaluation methods. Recently miR-146a and Interleukin-17 (IL-17) have been found to be involved in autoimmune disorders and correlated with disease activity. However, it is unclear whether they are involved in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation of circulating levels of miR-146a and IL-17 with clinical activity in GO patients. Fifty-seven study subjects were enrolled in four groups according to the corresponding criteria: active-GO, inactive-GO, Graves disease (GD) without ophthalmopathy, and healthy control group. The circulating levels of miR-146a and IL-17 were determined by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Serum IL-17 levels of GD, inactive-GO, and active-GO groups were all significantly higher than that of control (all P < 0.001). Active-GO group had significantly higher IL-17 level than inactive-GO and GD groups (P = 0.024 and P = 0.001, respectively). Active-GO and inactive-GO group had significantly lower miR-146a expressions than control (P < 0.05). Active-GO group had significantly lower miR-146a than inactive-GO group (P < 0.05). Serum levels of IL-17 and miR-146a were both significantly correlated with clinical activity score (CAS) in GO patients (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). There was a significant negative correlation of circulating miR-146a expression with serum IL-17 levels (P < 0.01). These findings indicated that circulating levels of miR-146a and IL-17 may be potential biomarkers of active GO, and may play a key role in the progression of GO. PMID:25100151

  5. Study Questions for Geophysics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Slaymaker

    This website hosts over fifty practice questions relating geophysics. Topics covered in these questions include gravity, earthquake waves and seismicity, Earth's structure, geochronology, anomalies, viscosity, and polar wandering.

  6. Rural Health Clinics Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resources are available to help RHCs maintain their primary care workforce? Several programs and grant programs help recruit ... NHSC) provides scholarships and loan repayment programs for primary care providers willing to work in areas that are ...

  7. Variation in cross-correlation as a discriminator for microvessel imaging using clinical intravascular optical coherence tomography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Shiju; Rousseau, Clément; Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Leahy, Martin; Adlam, David

    2014-03-01

    Cross-correlation of Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IV-OCT) images is affected by image distortion due to the non-uniform rotational velocity of the imaging catheter. It results in non-representative cross-correlation maps such that for a static scan, the coefficients fluctuate from high to low correlation values. The variation in cross-correlation at flow locations is muted, in comparison to stationary regions. In the present study, the variation of correlation values and its standard deviation (SD) is used to suppress the distortion related noise effects and to extract flow maps from static scan images. The standard deviation of the cross-correlation variation can distinguish flow locations from the surrounding tissue region. The advantage of this technique is its ability to identify slow flow, even Brownian flow, in the presence of motion artifacts. The SD mask used for generating flow maps, is optimized using tissue mimicking phantoms. Finally, the ability of this technique to suppress noise and capture flow maps is demonstrated by imaging microflow through excised porcine coronary artery wall and mucosa membrane imaging.

  8. Humoral response to catumaxomab correlates with clinical outcome: Results of the pivotal phase II/III study in patients with malignant ascites

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Marion G; Marmé, Frederik; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Lindhofer, Horst; Hennig, Michael; Spannagl, Rolf; Essing, Mirko M; Linke, Rolf; Seimetz, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The trifunctional antibody catumaxomab is a targeted immunotherapy for the intraperitoneal treatment of malignant ascites. In a Phase II/III trial in cancer patients (n = 258) with malignant ascites, catumaxomab showed a clear clinical benefit vs. paracentesis and had an acceptable safety profile. Human antimouse antibodies (HAMAs), which could be associated with beneficial humoral effects and prolonged survival, may develop against catumaxomab as it is a mouse/rat antibody. This post hoc analysis investigated whether there was a correlation between the detection of HAMAs 8 days after the fourth catumaxomab infusion and clinical outcome. HAMA-positive and HAMA-negative patients in the catumaxomab group and patients in the control group were analyzed separately for all three clinical outcome measures (puncture-free survival, time to next puncture and overall survival) and compared to each other. There was a strong correlation between humoral response and clinical outcome: patients who developed HAMAs after catumaxomab showed significant improvement in all three clinical outcome measures vs. HAMA-negative patients. In the overall population in HAMA-positive vs. HAMA-negative patients, median puncture-free survival was 64 vs. 27 days (p < 0.0001; HR 0.330), median time to next therapeutic puncture was 104 vs. 46 days (p = 0.0002; HR 0.307) and median overall survival was 129 vs. 64 days (p = 0.0003; HR 0.433). Similar differences between HAMA-positive and HAMA-negative patients were seen in the ovarian, nonovarian and gastric cancer subgroups. In conclusion, HAMA development may be a biomarker for catumaxomab response and patients who developed HAMAs sooner derived greater benefit from catumaxomab treatment. PMID:21702044

  9. Hashimoto encephalopathy: A study of the clinical profile, radiological and electrophysiological correlation in a Tertiary Care Center in South India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pattanagere Manjunatha Suryanarayana; Javali, Mahendra; Mahale, Rohan; Madhusudhan, Byadarahalli Kempegowda; Majeed, Anas Abdul; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) is a poorly understood and often misdiagnosed entity with variable clinical spectrum. There are many uncertainties that still remain about this condition and the pathological significance of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody. Objective: To characterize the clinical, laboratory and radiologic findings in patients with HE. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical features and diagnostic test data. Main Outcome Measures: Clinical features, laboratory, radiologic, electroencephalography (EEG) findings associated with HE and therapeutic outcome. Results: Thirteen consecutive patients were identified as having HE. The median age at onset was 48.5 years (range, 19–62 years). There was a female preponderance (76.9%). Clinical manifestations were cognitive impairment and behavioral changes in 10 (76.9%), sleep disturbance in 9 (69.2%), seizures in 6 (46.1%), headache in 4 (30.8%), psychosis or paranoia in 5 (38.5%), transient symptoms in 6 (46.1%), myoclonus in 4 (30.8%), ataxia or gait disorder in 4 (30.8%). The most frequent laboratory abnormalities were increased TPO (n = 13) in all cases, increased thyroid stimulating hormone levels (n = 6), and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (n = 5). The cerebrospinal fluid protein level was elevated in 8 of 9 patients (88.8%). Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were present in 2 patients (15.4%). EEG changes were seen in 7 patients (53.8%). All but two patients showed significant therapeutic benefit with steroids. Conclusions: HE has a wide range of clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings. All patients with an unexplained encephalopathy should be screened for this condition as treatment response is excellent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single center clinical series of HE from the Indian subcontinent.

  10. A comprehensive review of auditory verbal hallucinations: lifetime prevalence, correlates and mechanisms in healthy and clinical individuals

    PubMed Central

    de Leede-Smith, Saskia; Barkus, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span, as well as in various clinical groups. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnagogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy, and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s). This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency, and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example, the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the comparison of underlying factors and mechanisms that lead to the onset of AVH in both patient and non-clinical populations. PMID:23882203

  11. Secretin-receptor and secretin-receptor-variant expression in gastrinomas: Correlation with clinical and tumoral features and secretin and calcium provocative test results.

    PubMed Central

    Long, Scott H.; Berna, Marc J.; Thill, Michelle; Pace, Andrea; Pradhan, Tapas K.; Hoffmann, K. Martin; Serrano, Jose; Jensen, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    Context/Objectives The diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) requires secretin testing in 60%. Even with secretin the diagnosis may be difficult because variable responses occur and 6–30% have negative testing. The basis for variability or negative responses is unclear. It is unknown if the tumor density of secretin receptors or the presence of a secretin-receptor-variant, which can act as a dominant-negative, are important. The aim of this study was to investigate these possibilities. Patients/Methods Secretin-receptor and variant mRNA expression was determined in gastrinomas using real-time-PCR from 54 ZES patients. Results were correlated with Western blotting, secretin-receptor immunohistochemistry, with gastrin-provocative-test results and tumoral/clinical/laboratory features. Results Secretin-receptor mRNA was detectible in all gastrinomas but varied 132-fold with a mean of 0.89±0.12 molecules/?-actin. Secretin-receptor PCR results correlated closely with Western blotting (r=0.95,p<0.0001) and receptor-immunohistochemistry (p=0.0015, r=0.71). The variant was detected in all gastrinomas but levels varied 102-fold and were 72-fold lower than the total. Secretin-receptor levels correlated with variant levels, ?secretin, but not ?calcium and with tumor location, but not growth, extent or clinical responses. Variant levels did not correlate with the ?secretin. Detailed analysis provides no evidence variant expression modified the secretin-receptor response or accounted for negative tests. Conclusions Secretin-receptor and secretin-receptor-variant expression occur in all gastrinomas. Because the expression of the total but not variant correlated with the secretin results and no evidence for dominant negative activity of the variant was found, our results suggest the total-secretin-receptor density is an important determinant of the secretin test response. PMID:17711922

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy using mixed epithermal and thermal neutron beams in patients with malignant glioma-correlation between radiation dose and radiation injury and clinical outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Kageji, Teruyoshi [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan)]. E-mail: kageji@clin.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp; Nagahiro, Shinji [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Matsuzaki, Kazuhito [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Toi, Hiroyuki [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [Department of Neurosurgery, National Kagawa Children's Hospital, Kagawa (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Department of Research Reactor, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaragi (Japan)

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: To clarify the correlation between the radiation dose and clinical outcome of sodium borocaptate-based intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy in patients with malignant glioma. Methods and Materials: The first protocol (P1998, n = 8) prescribed a maximal gross tumor volume (GTV) dose of 15 Gy. In 2001, a dose-escalated protocol was introduced (P2001, n 11), which prescribed a maximal vascular volume dose of 15 Gy or, alternatively, a clinical target volume (CTV) dose of 18 Gy. Results: The GTV and CTV doses in P2001 were 1.1-1.3 times greater than those in P1998. The maximal vascular volume dose of those with acute radiation injury was 15.8 Gy. The mean GTV and CTV dose in long-term survivors with glioblastoma was 26.4 and 16.5 Gy, respectively. A statistically significant correlation between the GTV dose and median survival time was found. In the 11 glioblastoma patients in P2001, the median survival time was 19.5 months and 1- and 2-year survival rate was 60.6% and 37.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Dose escalation contributed to the improvement in clinical outcome. To avoid radiation injury, the maximal vascular volume dose should be <12 Gy. For long-term survival in patients with glioblastoma after boron neutron capture therapy, the optimal mean dose of the GTV and CTV was 26 and 16 Gy, respectively.

  13. High Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) Prevalence, Clinical Correlates and High Incidence among Recently HIV-1-Infected Subjects in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Mariana Dias; Ferreira, Suzete; Sauer, Mariana M.; Tomiyama, Helena; Giret, Maria Teresa Maidana; Pannuti, Cláudio S.; Diaz, Ricardo S.; Sabino, Ester C.; Kallas, Esper G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the etiological agent for Kaposi Sarcoma, which occurs especially in HIV-infected subjects. HHV-8 infection and its clinical correlates have not been well characterized in recently HIV-1-infected subjects, especially men who have sex with men (MSM). Methodology/ Principal Findings We assessed the HHV-8 seroprevalence, clinical correlates, and incidence after one year of follow-up in a cohort of 228 recently HIV-1-infected individuals, of whom 83.6% were MSM, using indirect immunofluorescence assay. The prevalence of HHV-8 infection at the time of cohort enrollment was 25.9% (59/228). In the univariate model, there were significant associations with male gender, black ethnicity, MSM practice, and previous hepatitis B virus and syphilis infections. In the multivariate model we could still demonstrate association with MSM, hepatitis B, and black ethnicity. No differences in mean CD4+ cell counts or HIV viral load according to HHV-8 status were found. In terms of incidence, there were 23/127 (18.1%) seroconversions in the cohort after 1 year. Conclusions HHV-8 is highly prevalent among recently HIV-1-infected subjects. Correlations with other sexually transmitted infections suggest common transmission routes. PMID:19479040

  14. Diagnostic role of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in evaluation of obstructive biliopathies and correlating it with final diagnosis and clinical profile of patients

    PubMed Central

    Parashari, Umesh Chandra; Khanduri, Sachin; Bhadury, Samarjit; Upadhyay, Deepika; Kishore, Kaushal

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objective: We assessed the utility of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) as a noninvasive diagnostic tool in patients with obstructive biliopathies. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 54 patients with clinically suspected biliary obstruction. MRCP in these patients was compared and correlated with final diagnosis and their clinical profile. Statistical Analysis: Sample profile was described in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and diagnostic accuracy. Pearson's Chi-square statistics was used to assess the strength of association between diagnostic accuracy of MRCP and final diagnosis. Results: Out of the 54 patients, 50 had biliary obstruction. The cause of biliary obstruction was finally identified on the basis of direct cholangiography/surgery/histopathology. In 52 of the 54 patients, MRCP agreed with final diagnosis in identifying the level of block. MRCP agreed with final diagnosis in identifying the cause of obstruction in 48 of the 54 patients (89%). Sensitivity of MRCP in identifying the level of obstruction in comparison with final diagnosis was 100%, while diagnostic accuracy of MRCP in identifying the level of obstruction in comparison with final diagnosis was 96.29%. The correlation between MRCP and final diagnosis in diagnosing cause of obstruction was 0.95 (Pearson's correlation coefficient, P = 0.017). Conclusion: MRCP is a safe ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast free modality which has the ability to display the biliary tree by combining the advantages of projectional and cross-sectional imaging. PMID:25810650

  15. Correlation of clinical features and findings on cranial magnetic resonance imaging with urinary myelin basic protein-like material in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, J N; Williams, P H; Layton, B A; McFarland, H F; Stone, L A; Smith, M E; Kachelhofer, R D; Bradley, E L; Burgard, S; Zhao, G

    1994-05-01

    Immunoreactive material that appears to be a peptide encompassing all or a portion of residues 80 to 89 of myelin basic protein is present in normal unconcentrated urine and is increased in certain patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Compared with normal controls, urines collected randomly from 158 MS patients or in a clinical research unit from 8 patients with MS had higher mean values of urinary MBP-like material (MBPLM). The level of MBPLM in urine showed no direct relationship to MBPLM in cerebrospinal fluid and did not correlate with clinical relapses of disease. In the other neurological disease control group (26 patients), some patients with other inflammatory diseases, but not stroke or early phase Guillain-Barré syndrome, also showed elevations. Among the subtypes of MS, those with secondary chronic progressive disease had the highest values. Urinary MBPLM showed no definite correlation with or effect of treatment with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants except that a lower level of urinary MBPLM showed a weak relationship with improvement following treatment with methylprednisolone/prednisone. In a serial study of 8 patients with unenhanced cranial magnetic resonance imaging and 20 patients with gadolinium-enhanced cranial magnetic resonance imaging, urinary MBPLM did not show a direct correlation with new or enhancing lesions. Urinary MBPLM does not parallel acute myelin damage but appears to reflect an ongoing process, possibly linked to attempted efforts at remyelination. PMID:7513981

  16. Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Lymphatic Filariasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) On ... develop clinical symptoms, despite the fact that the parasite damages the lymph system. A small percentage of ...

  17. Question the Author

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-16

    This web page describes the comprehension strategy of Question the Author (QtA), a strategy in which students pose questions while reading nonfiction text. Students pose questions about the author's purpose in including certain phrases or forms of information while reading. Sample questions are provided in a three-step instructional sequence. References are included.

  18. Drawing on Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Examines observations and research on question-answer interaction between client and therapist, and teacher and student. Discusses Patton's six-question instrument which provides categories of question options, with application for the art therapist. Argues that effective formulation of questions provides the clinician, educator, and researcher…

  19. Closing Panel Question & Answer

    E-print Network

    Moore, Paul A.

    N E X T #12;Closing Panel Question & Answer REDDIN SYMPOSIUM XXI CANADIAN STUDIES"Unsecure"World Question and Answer Inuit Rights and Responsibilities in the Changing North Question & Answer Environmental to translate science into public policy. 1 #12;Closing Panel Question & Answer REDDIN SYMPOSIUM XXI CANADIAN

  20. Who Asks the Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervey, Sheena

    2006-01-01

    From a very young age, children actively strive to make sense of their world through constant questioning. The ability to ask questions comes naturally for young children, but such natural inclination does not continue because it teachers who ask most of the questions. Sheena Hervey suggests that teaching students how to pose questions is a…

  1. Any Questions, Please?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, Howard R.

    1989-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses the use of questioning in the college classroom and its contribution to learning. Starting with a brief examination of the ways children question, discussions cover: (1) the effects of linguistic and socio-linguistic characteristics in questioning; (2) questions in psychotherapy, law, and opinion polling; (3) classroom…

  2. The Relationship between Trait, Expressive, and Familial Correlates of Emotion Regulation in a Clinical Sample of Anxious Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosper, Sarah E.; May, Jill Ehrenreich

    2011-01-01

    Although emotion and its regulation have been linked to children's general psychopathology, it has only recently been studied in relation to childhood anxiety disorders. In this study, the authors examine the relationship between various inputs of emotion regulation and anxiety in a clinical sample of youth. Participants (N = 112) were…

  3. Empirical Correlates of Low Scores on MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales in a Sample of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Tellegen, Auke; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors explored the meaning of low scores on the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical (RC) scales. Using responses of a sample of university students (N = 811), the authors examined whether low (T less than 39), within-normal-limits (T = 39-64), and high (T greater than 65) score levels on the RC scales are…

  4. Clinical, molecular, and genotype–phenotype correlation studies from 25 cases of oral–facial–digital syndrome type 1: a French and Belgian collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    Thauvin?Robinet, C; Cossée, M; Cormier?Daire, V; Van Maldergem, L; Toutain, A; Alembik, Y; Bieth, E; Layet, V; Parent, P; David, A; Goldenberg, A; Mortier, G; Héron, D; Sagot, P; Bouvier, A M; Huet, F; Cusin, V; Donzel, A; Devys, D; Teyssier, J R

    2006-01-01

    Oral–facial–digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) is characterised by an X linked dominant mode of inheritance with lethality in males. Clinical features include facial dysmorphism with oral, tooth, and distal abnormalities, polycystic kidney disease, and central nervous system malformations. Large interfamilial and intrafamilial clinical variability has been widely reported, and 18 distinct mutations have been previously reported within OFD1. A French and Belgian collaborative study collected 25 cases from 16 families. OFD1 was analysed using direct sequencing and phenotype–genotype correlation was performed using ?2 test. X inactivation studies were performed on blood lymphocytes. In 11 families, 11 novel mutations, including nine frameshift, one nonsense, and one missense mutation were identified, which spanned nine different exons. A combination of our results with previously reported cases showed that the majority of mutations (65.5%) was located in exons 3, 8, 9, 13, and 16. There was phenotype–genotype correlation between (a) polycystic kidney disease and splice mutations; (b) mental retardation and mutations located in exons 3, 8, 9, 13, and 16; and (c) tooth abnormalities and mutations located in coiled coil domains. Comparing the phenotype of the families with a pathogenic mutation to families with absence of OFD1 mutation, polycystic kidneys and short stature were significantly more frequent in the group with no OFD1 mutation, whereas lingual hamartomas were significantly more frequent in the group with OFD1 mutation. Finally, an X inactivation study showed non?random X inactivation in a third of the samples. Differential X inactivation between mothers and daughters in two families with high intrafamilial variability was of particular interest. Slight phenotype–genotype correlations were established, and X inactivation study showed that skewed X inactivation could be partially involved in the pathogenesis of intrafamilial clinical variability. PMID:16397067

  5. Correlation between clinical severity of central nervous system (CNS) lupus and findings on single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images of the brain; preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, I.E.; Zeit, R.M.; Von Feldt, J.M. [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE) commonly causes significant neuropsychiatric disorders. The purpose of this study was to review the brain SPECT studies of SLE patients with clinical evidence of CNS involvement and determine whether there is a correlation between the findings on SPECT images and the clinical manifestations of this serious phase of the disease. We enrolled 19 SLE patients and 12 normal controls in this study. The level of each patient`s disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), an established method of scoring disease severity which is heavily weighted toward neuropsychiatric symptomatology, for 15 of the 19 SLE patients. The SLEDAI was calculated within a 10 day window of the date when the SPECT scan was obtained. SPECT scans were performed 30 minutes following the intravenous administration of 99mTc-HMPAO. Results are discussed.

  6. Questions in reference interviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn Domas White

    1998-01-01

    This article characterises the questioning behaviour in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behaviour in other types of interviews\\/settings. With one exception, the unit of analysis is the question (N=610), not the interview. The author uses A.C. Graesser‘s typology of questions to analyse type of question and M.D. White’s typology of information

  7. Correlation between triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 and clinical disease activity in Chinese patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shulan; Luo, Jing; Shen, Bingbing; Li, Lijun; Hu, Chaojun; Li, Ping; Deng, Chuiwen; Zhang, Fengchun; Qian, Jiaming; Li, Yongzhe

    2015-01-01

    The need for reliable biomarkers for monitoring disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is increasing. This study aimed at characterizing the correlation between serum sTREM-1 levels and diseases activity in Chinese patients with UC. Consecutive 76 patients with UC and 20 healthy subjects were prospectively enrolled. The disease activity of UC was assessed according to Mayo Score. Expression levels of TREM-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum sTREM-1 levels were evaluated at the time when the disease activity was determined. Other laboratory parameters, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also determined. Both TREM-1 expression levels in PBMCs and serum sTREM-1 levels from patients with UC were significantly increased compared to healthy subjects. In addition, the levels of TREM-1 expression and serum sTREM-1 were significantly elevated in UC patients with moderate or severe disease compared to the patients with quiescent or mild disease. More importantly, both levels of TREM-1 expression in PBMCs and serum sTREM-1 levels were significantly correlated with disease activity. The correlation between sTREM-1 and disease activity was higher than the correlations between CRP and disease activity or ESR and disease activity. Our findings suggest that serum sTREM-1 could be a potential serum biomarker for monitoring disease activity in Chinese patients with UC, and could be a promising surrogate for CRP and ESR. PMID:25932145

  8. A comparison of nerve conduction velocities and current perception thresholds as correlates of clinical severity of diabetic sensory neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M S Rendell; J J Katims; R Richter; F Rowland

    1989-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) are the standard measurements used to confirm the presence or absence of diabetic neuropathy. NCVs were contrasted with the newer technique of measurement of alternating current perception thresholds (CPTs) in assessing the quantitative level of correlation with severity of diabetic sensory neuropathy. A very detailed, scored neurological history (symptoms) and physical examination, emphasising sensory assessment, was

  9. Correlation between creatinine clearance and Helicobacter pylori infection eradication with sequential and triple therapeutic regimens: A randomised clinical trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammadreza Seyyedmajidi; Kianoosh Falaknazi; Dariush Mirsattari; Homayoun Zojaji; Mohammad Roshani; Farhad Lahmi; Peyman Gooran Orimi; Maryam Hadizadeh; Mohammadreza Zali

    2011-01-01

    Background and study aimsUraemic patients show susceptibility to gastrointestinal mucosal lesions and colonisation by Helicobacter pylori (HP). Antibiotic resistance constitutes a problem in treatment and bismuth preparations are toxic in uraemic patients. This study aimed to assess the correlation between creatinine clearance (CrCl) and eradication of HP infection with new sequential and standard triple therapeutic regimens.

  10. Leucocyte complement receptor 1 (CR1/CD35) transcript and its correlation with the clinical disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Anand, D; Kumar, U; Kanjilal, M; Kaur, S; Das, N

    2014-01-01

    In view of the exaggerated complement activation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and significance of complement receptor 1 (CR1/CD35) as a complement regulatory protein (CRP), we aimed to determine the leucocyte-complement receptor 1 (L-CR1) transcript levels and the relationship of this protein with the clinical disease activity of RA patients. Sixty-six controls and 45 RA patients were enrolled. L-CR1 transcript levels were correlated with the levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC), C3, C4 and C3d in controls and patients and with disease activity score 28 (DAS28) in patients only. CIC levels were determined by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, C3 and C4 levels by nephlometry and C3d levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Eleven patients were recruited for follow-up of L-CR1 and DAS28 levels at weeks 0, 12 and 24. Appropriate statistical methods were used for the data analysis. L-CR1 (P?correlated negatively with DAS28, CIC and C3d. DAS28 correlated positively with levels of CIC, C3 and C3d. Levels of CIC correlated positively with C3 and C3d. Levels of C3 correlated positively with C3d in patients and with C4 in both controls and patients. Levels of L-CR1 increased with decline in DAS28 scores in follow-up patients. Observations were statistically significant. Lower levels of L-CR1 transcript in patients compared to controls, their correlations with the levels of CIC, C3d and DAS28 at different time-points in RA patients suggest CR1 as a potential disease marker for RA. PMID:24433281

  11. Cortical dysplasias, and corpus callosum and posterior fossa abnormalities: correlation of clinical findings with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics.

    PubMed

    Caksen, Hüseyin; K?z?ly?ld?z, Baran Serdar; Avcu, Serhat

    2014-04-01

    This study examined clinical findings and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in 114 patients with cortical dysplasia and corpus callosum and posterior fossa abnormalities to determine the clinical findings with the extent of the lesions on MRI. The age of patients was between 1 day and 15 years. Group 1 included 74 patients with corpus callosum abnormalities and/or cortical dysplasias and group 2 included 40 patients with posterior fossa abnormalities, which were isolated and/or associated with cortical dysplasia and/or corpus callosum abnormalities. Although associated congenital abnormality apart from central nervous system abnormalities, syndrome, or systemic disorder were more common in group 2 than group 1 patients (P < .05), we did not find a difference between the groups for psychomotor retardation and epilepsy (P > .05). PMID:23589375

  12. Embryological Basis and Clinical Correlation of the Rare Congenital Anomaly of the Human Gall Bladder: - “The Diverticulum” - A Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Rajguru, Jaba; Jain, Shilpi; Khare, Satyam; Fulzele, Ratna R; Ghai, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diverticulum of the human gall bladder is an important but distinct anatomical entity with significant clinical implications. It is one of the rarest congenital anomalies of the gall bladder being rarely discussed in literature. This article details the morphology of the diverticula found, along with the embryological basis and clinical significance of this important anatomical and clinical entity. Aim: To study the diverticula found, with respect to their morphology, and ascertain whether they were of congenital or acquired variety. Setting and Designs: The present study is a retrospective study carried on hundred cadavers during undergraduate dissection, in the Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, and Department of Anatomy, Subharti Medical College , Meerut during a four year period i.e. 2008-2012 after obtaining necessary permission from institutional ethical committee. Material and Methods: Hundred gall bladder specimens collected from 10% formalin fixed cadavers were studied in detail with regard to their number, position, shapes dimensions and histology. Results: Nine, congenital (true) diverticula were found in one hundred gall bladder specimens. The diverticula were of various shapes and dimensions. They formed pouches on the luminal surface of the gall bladder. Diagnosis of congenital diverticulum was confirmed by histology. Conclusion: In this cadaveric study, solitary diverticulum was found in nine (9%) specimens out of one hundred specimens. Association of diverticulum with non-specific prolonged ailments, acalculus cholecystitis, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, recurrent cholangitis and carcinoma of gallbladder has been reported in literature. This important anatomical as well as clinical entity poses challenges for radiologists and laparoscopic surgeons during interventional procedures and also should be differentiated from other types of congenital anomalies and pathological states of gall bladder. PMID:24298450

  13. Clinical correlation of maximal urinary flow rate and plasma doxazosin concentrations in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Fawzy; Vijay Vashi; Menger Chung; Norma Dias; Michael Gaffney

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the relationship among doxazosin dose, plasma concentration, and clinical response in 248 hypertensive men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a 16-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.Methods. After a 2-week placebo run-in period, patients were randomized to treatment with either doxazosin (titrated to doses of 2, 4, 8, or 12 mg once daily) or placebo. After 6, 10, and

  14. Neuroimaging evaluation of non-accidental head trauma with correlation to clinical outcomes: A review of 57 cases

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Bradley R.; Petrou, Myria; Lin, Doris; Thurnher, Majda M.; Carlson, Martha D; Strouse, Peter J.; Sundgren, Pia C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the clinical presentation and CT and MRI findings in patients with high clinical suspicion of non-accidental trauma (NAT); to examine associations between imaging findings and neurological long-term outcome in abused children. Patients and Methods A retrospective review of 57 cases of non-accidental trauma (NAT) from a single institution was performed. Neuroimaging studies (CT and MRI) were reviewed by a senior neuroradiologist, a neuroradiology fellow and a radiology resident. Clinical history and physical findings including retinal examination, imaging and follow-up assessment documents were reviewed. Results Mean time between arrival that CT and MRI imaging was 2.9 hours and 40.6 hours respectively. The most common clinical presentation (47%) was mental status changes. The most common neuroimaging finding was subdural hemorrhage, seen in 86% of patients. In 47 cases in which both MRI and CT was performed, there was one case of suspected non-accidental trauma missed on head CT. CT detected signs of global ischemia in all 11 of the patients that died (CT mean time performed after arrival = 1.1 hours). MRI detected additional signs of injury in patients who ended up with mild to moderate developmental delay. Conclusion CT was able to detect evidence of non-accidental head injury in 56 out of 57 abused children included in our cohort and predicted severe neurological injury and mortality. MRI was useful in detecting additional evidence of trauma which can be helpful in risk stratification for neurological outcomes as well as providing confirming evidence of repeated injury. PMID:19028392

  15. Formation of antibodies against infliximab and adalimumab strongly correlates with functional drug levels and clinical responses in rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. D. J. Radstake; M. Svenson; A. M. M. Eijsbouts; C. Enevold; K. Bendtzen

    2009-01-01

    Background:Tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) neutralising antibody constructs are increasingly being used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Objective:To determine potential differences in clinical responses, soluble drug levels and antibody formation between patients with RA receiving infliximab and adalimumab.Methods:69 patients with RA fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria and about to start treatment with infliximab or adalimumab, were enrolled consecutively.

  16. Clinical and cognitive correlates of employment among patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marhani Midin; Rosdinom Razali; Ruzanna ZamZam; Aaron Fernandez; Lim C Hum; Shamsul A Shah; Rozhan SM Radzi; Hazli Zakaria; Aishvarya Sinniah

    2011-01-01

    Background  Gainful employment is one major area of functioning which is becoming an important goal in psychiatric rehabilitation of patients\\u000a with schizophrenia. Studies in western countries are pointing to evidence that certain sociodemographic and clinical factors\\u000a may contribute to employment outcomes in this group of people. However, the area is still largely unexplored in Malaysia.\\u000a The aim of this study was

  17. Natural History and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Follow-up in 9 Sturge-Weber Syndrome Patients and Clinical Correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vrajesh Udani; Suresh Pujar; Pinki Munot; Shailendra Maheshwari; Nirad Mehta

    2007-01-01

    The natural history of Sturge-Weber Syndrome is variable where some patients have refractory epilepsy and persistent neurologic deficits while others do well. Also, evolution of MRI abnormalities is largely unknown. This long-term follow-up study tries to address these two issues. This retrospective and later prospective study followed 9 children with confirmed SWS. Clinical details of seizures, stroke-like episodes, neurologic and

  18. Airway mast cells and eosinophils correlate with clinical severity and airway hyperresponsiveness in corticosteroid-treated asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G Gibson; Nicholas Saltos; Trevor Borgas

    2000-01-01

    Background: The relationship between airway inflammation and asthma severity in corticosteroid-treated asthma is unclear. Objectives: Our purpose was to characterize the inflammatory cell profile of the airway lumen and epithelium in corticosteroid-treated asthma and to relate these findings to clinical and physiologic markers of asthma severity. Methods: Adults (n = 20) with asthma received standardized high-dose inhaled corticosteroid therapy with

  19. Severity and Patterns of Blood-Nerve Barrier Breakdown in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy: Correlations with Clinical Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Fumitaka; Sawai, Setsu; Sano, Yasuteru; Beppu, Minako; Misawa, Sonoko; Nishihara, Hideaki; Koga, Michiaki; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Kanda, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is currently classified into clinical subtypes, including typical and atypical forms (multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (MADSAM) and distal acquired demyelinating symmetric neuropathy (DADS)). The aim of this study was to elucidate the patterns and severity of breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) in each CIDP subtype. Methods We evaluated the effects of sera obtained from patients with typical CIDP, MADSAM and DADS and control subjects on the expression levels of tight junction proteins and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) value in human peripheral nerve microvascular endothelial cells (PnMECs). Results The sera obtained from the patients with the three clinical phenotypes of CIDP decreased the amount of claudin-5 protein levels and TEER values in the PnMECs. In addition, the sera obtained from typical CIDP patients more prominently reduced claudin-5 protein levels and TEER values in the PnMECs than did that obtained from the MADSAM and DADS patients. Furthermore, the severity of BNB disruption after exposure to the sera was associated with higher Hughes grade, lower MRC score, more pronounced slowing of motor nerve conduction in the median nerve and higher frequency of abnormal temporal dispersion. Conclusions Sera derived from typical CIDP patients destroy the BNB more severely than those from MADSAM or DADS patients. The extent of BNB disruption in the setting of CIDP is associated with clinical disability and demyelination in the nerve trunk. These observations may explain the phenotypical differences between CIDP subtypes. PMID:25105500

  20. Maple syrup urine disease: clinical, EEG, and plasma amino acid correlations with a theoretical mechanism of acute neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Korein, J; Sansaricq, C; Kalmijn, M; Honig, J; Lange, B

    1994-11-01

    Classical Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a disease of infancy which is an inherited disorder of metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). The BCAA are normally transaminated to branched-chain keto acids (BCKA). However, the enzyme required to metabolize the BCKA is deficient, resulting in elevation of both, the BCAA and the BCKA. One of the BCAA (isoleucine) produces a metabolite that causes the urine to smell like maple syrup. The elevations of the BCAA and BCKA are associated with an acute, critical neurotoxic condition often prior to the age of two weeks. The clinical state, the electroencephalogram-(EEG), and plasma BCAA levels were evaluated in 26 patients with classical and variant MSUD. Patients were seen from the time of diagnosis, often within a week after birth, and some were followed clinically for more than 20 years while on specific diet therapy. They were monitored by plasma BCAA (leucine, isoleucine and valine) levels and a total of 101 EEGs were performed during different phases of their illness. During periods of acute metabolic decompensation, there were marked clinical symptoms of neurotoxicity including opisthotonos, seizures, and coma with elevated BCAA plasma levels. The EEGs revealed spikes, polyspikes, spike-wave complexes, triphasic waves, severe slowing and bursts of periodic suppression. Occasionally paradoxical EEG arousal was noted while the patient was lethargic. During asymptomatic periods when the plasma BCAA were at low or normal levels, EEG abnormalities occurred in patients with and without residual neurological deficit. These observations included rolandic sharp waves (comb-like rhythm) which were observed in 7 of 15 patients less than two months of age. Additionally, paroxysmal spike and spike-wave response to photic stimuli were observed in 9 of 17 patients. Loading tests were performed on three patients. Clinical and EEG changes were most marked after leucine. Less dramatic EEG changes also occurred with the other two BCAA loads but without clinical manifestations. Elevation of the appropriate BCAA plasma level occurred after each load. These studies and a review of the literature suggest that one component of the pathophysiological mechanism for the acute neurotoxic effects in this disorder is related to a defect in glutamate, glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production. The BCAAs are transaminated to BCKAs. Further metabolism of the BCKAs are blocked because of enzyme deficiency required for decarboxylation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7744549

  1. Inter-individual differences in CpG methylation at D4Z4 correlate with clinical variability in FSHD1 and FSHD2.

    PubMed

    Lemmers, Richard J L F; Goeman, Jelle J; van der Vliet, Patrick J; van Nieuwenhuizen, Merlijn P; Balog, Judit; Vos-Versteeg, Marianne; Camano, Pilar; Ramos Arroyo, Maria Antonia; Jerico, Ivonne; Rogers, Mark T; Miller, Daniel G; Upadhyaya, Meena; Verschuuren, Jan J G M; Lopez de Munain Arregui, Adolfo; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Padberg, George W; Sacconi, Sabrina; Tawil, Rabi; Tapscott, Stephen J; Bakker, Bert; van der Maarel, Silvère M

    2015-02-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD: MIM#158900) is a common myopathy with marked but largely unexplained clinical inter- and intra-familial variability. It is caused by contractions of the D4Z4 repeat array on chromosome 4 to 1-10 units (FSHD1), or by mutations in the D4Z4-binding chromatin modifier SMCHD1 (FSHD2). Both situations lead to a partial opening of the D4Z4 chromatin structure and transcription of D4Z4-encoded polyadenylated DUX4 mRNA in muscle. We measured D4Z4 CpG methylation in control, FSHD1 and FSHD2 individuals and found a significant correlation with the D4Z4 repeat array size. After correction for repeat array size, we show that the variability in clinical severity in FSHD1 and FSHD2 individuals is dependent on individual differences in susceptibility to D4Z4 hypomethylation. In FSHD1, for individuals with D4Z4 repeat arrays of 1-6 units, the clinical severity mainly depends on the size of the D4Z4 repeat. However, in individuals with arrays of 7-10 units, the clinical severity also depends on other factors that regulate D4Z4 methylation because affected individuals, but not non-penetrant mutation carriers, have a greater reduction of D4Z4 CpG methylation than can be expected based on the size of the pathogenic D4Z4 repeat array. In FSHD2, this epigenetic susceptibility depends on the nature of the SMCHD1 mutation in combination with D4Z4 repeat array size with dominant negative mutations being more deleterious than haploinsufficiency mutations. Our study thus identifies an epigenetic basis for the striking variability in onset and disease progression that is considered a clinical hallmark of FSHD. PMID:25256356

  2. IDO1 and IDO2 Non-Synonymous Gene Variants: Correlation with Crohn's Disease Risk and Clinical Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanhao; Sayuk, Gregory S.; Li, Ellen; Ciorba, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Genetic polymorphisms can confer CD risk and influence disease phenotype. Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) is one of the most over-expressed genes in CD and mediates potent anti-inflammatory effects via tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway. We aimed to determine whether non-synonymous polymorphisms in IDO1 or IDO2 (a gene paralog) are important either as CD risk alleles or as modifiers of CD phenotype. Methods Utilizing a prospectively collected database, clinically phenotyped CD patients (n?=?734) and non-IBD controls (n?=?354) were genotyped for established IDO1 and IDO2 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and novel genetic variants elucidated in the literature. Allelic frequencies between CD and non-IBD controls were compared. Genotype-phenotype analysis was conducted. IDO1 enzyme activity was assessed by calculating the serum kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (K/T). Results IDO1 SNPs were rare (1.7% non-IBD vs 1.1% CD; p?=?NS) and not linked to Crohn's disease diagnosis in this population. IDO1 SNPs did however associate with a severe clinical course, presence of perianal disease, extraintestinal manifestations and a reduced serum K/T ratio during active disease suggesting lower IDO1 function. IDO2 minor allele variants were common and one of them, rs45003083, associated with reduced risk of Crohn's disease (p?=?0.025). No IDO2 SNPs associated with a particular Crohn's disease clinical phenotype. Conclusions This work highlights the functional importance of IDO enzymes in human Crohn's disease and establishes relative rates of IDO genetic variants in a US population. PMID:25541686

  3. Dimensions of Delusions in Major Depression: Socio-demographic and Clinical Correlates in an Unipolar-Bipolar Sample

    PubMed Central

    Zaninotto, Leonardo; Souery, Daniel; Calati, Raffaella; Camardese, Giovanni; Janiri, Luigi; Montgomery, Stuart; Kasper, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; De Ronchi, Diana; Mendlewicz, Julien; Serretti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aims at exploring associations between a continuous measure of distorted thought contents and a set of demographic and clinical features in a sample of unipolar/bipolar depressed patients. Methods Our sample included 1,833 depressed subjects. Severity of mood symptoms was assessed by the 21 items Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). The continuous outcome measure was represented by a delusion (DEL) factor, extracted from HAM-D items and including items: 2 (“Feelings of guilt”), 15 (“Hypochondriasis”), and 20 (“Paranoid symptoms”). Each socio-demographic and clinical variable was tested by a generalized linear model test, having depressive severity (HAM-D score–DEL score) as the covariate. Results A family history of major depressive disorder (MDD; p=0.0006), a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, type I ( p=0.0003), a comorbid general anxiety disorder (p<0.0001), and a higher number of manic episodes during lifetime (p<0.0001), were all associated to higher DEL scores. Conversely, an older age at onset (p<0.0001) and a longer duration of hospitalization for depression over lifetime (p=0.0003) had a negative impact over DEL scores. On secondary analyses, only the presence of psychotic features (p<0.0001) and depressive severity (p<0.0001) were found to be independently associated to higher DEL scores. Conclusion The retrospective design and a non validated continuous measure for distorted thought contents were the main limitations of our study. Excluding the presence of psychotic features and depressive severity, no socio-demographic or clinical variable was found to be associated to our continuous measure of distorted thinking in depression. PMID:25912537

  4. CCAT2, a novel long non-coding RNA in breast cancer: expression study and clinical correlations

    PubMed Central

    Look, Maxime P; Tudoran, Oana; Ivan, Cristina; Spizzo, Riccardo; Zhang, Xinna; de Weerd, Vanja; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Ling, Hui; Buiga, Rares; Pop, Victor; Irimie, Alexandru; Fodde, Riccardo; Bedrosian, Isabella; Martens, John WM; Foekens, John A; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Calin, George A

    2013-01-01

    The clinical outcome of BC patients receiving the same treatment is known to vary considerably and thus, there is a compelling need to identify novel biomarkers that can select the patients that would benefit most from a given therapy and can predict the clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of CCAT2, a novel long ncRNA recently characterized by our group and overlapping SNP rs6983267, in BC patients. We first evaluated by RT-qPCR and ISH the expression of CCAT2 in normal breast tissue and BC tissue and further analyzed CCAT2 expression in an independent set of 997 primary BC with regard to clinical, histological, pathological and other biological factors. Also, we explored the possibility of CCAT2 adding to the prognostic value of multivariate models that already included the traditional prognostic factors. Finally, we identified in in vitro models the impact of CCAT2 expression and SNP rs6983267 genotype on cell migration and chemoresistance. Our results revealed that although overexpressed in BCs in two out of three sets of patients, and having the highest expression in lymph node negative (LNN) disease, CCAT2 expression levels are informative solely for a subgroup of BC patients, namely for patients with LNP disease that have received adjuvant CMF chemotherapy. For this subgroup high levels of CCAT2 suggest the patients will not benefit from CMF containing adjuvant chemotherapy (shorter MFS and OS). Additionally, we found that CCAT2 upregulates cell migration and downregulates chemosensitivity to 5'FU in a rs6983267-independent manner. PMID:24077681

  5. Immunocompetent cells in malignant disease in man. II. Clinical and immunologic correlates in a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Algom, D.; Rapp, E.; Hamdy, H.; Keaney, M. A.; Hirte, W.; Klaassen, D. J.; Richter, M.

    1978-01-01

    The immunocompetence of the circulating lymphocytes of a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was evaluated before, during and after treatment. The immunologic features investigated were (a) the degree of blastogenic transformation induced by phytomitogens (phytohemagglutinin-M, concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen); (b) the formation of E, EA and EAC rosettes; and (c) antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Prior to treatment the subnormal in vitro responsiveness of the cells and the very low concentrations of circulating immunoglobulins suggested immunoincompetence. A gradual shift towards normal in vitro values was observed during treatment, which corresponded to the clinical improvement in the patient's condition. PMID:757385

  6. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)

  7. Formulating a Research Question

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Research Assistant (Danya International, Inc.)

    2003-08-12

    This tutorial discusses the conceptual development of a research goal, beginning with the formation of a research question. It also explains the links between a research question, specific aims, hypotheses, and long-term research goals.

  8. Using Socratic Questioning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dorothy Merritts

    Can it be, Ischomachus, that asking questions is teaching? I am just beginning to see what is behind all your questions. You lead me on by means of things I know, point to things that resemble them, and persuade ...

  9. EGFR and COX2 protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer and the correlation with clinical features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Li; Yongmei Liu; Huijiao Chen; Dianying Liao; Yali Shen; Feng Xu; Jin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Background  To evaluate the expression of EGFR and COX-2 and their correlation with prognosis in NSCLC\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The paraffin embedded tumor samples of 50 NSCLC patients receiving radical resection were analyzed immunohistochemically for\\u000a EGFR and COX-2 expression and their prognostic values were explored.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The positive rate of EGFR protein in NSCLC tumor cells was 46%, which was significantly higher than its expression

  10. Correlating animal and human phase Ia/Ib clinical data with CALAA-01, a targeted, polymer-based nanoparticle containing siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Jonathan E.; Gritli, Ismael; Tolcher, Anthony; Heidel, Jeremy D.; Lim, Dean; Morgan, Robert; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Ribas, Antoni; Davis, Mark E.; Yen, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based experimental therapeutics are currently being investigated in numerous human clinical trials. CALAA-01 is a targeted, polymer-based nanoparticle containing small interfering RNA (siRNA) and, to our knowledge, was the first RNA interference (RNAi)–based, experimental therapeutic to be administered to cancer patients. Here, we report the results from the initial phase I clinical trial where 24 patients with different cancers were treated with CALAA-01 and compare those results to data obtained from multispecies animal studies to provide a detailed example of translating this class of nanoparticles from animals to humans. The pharmacokinetics of CALAA-01 in mice, rats, monkeys, and humans show fast elimination and reveal that the maximum concentration obtained in the blood after i.v. administration correlates with body weight across all species. The safety profile of CALAA-01 in animals is similarly obtained in humans except that animal kidney toxicities are not observed in humans; this could be due to the use of a predosing hydration protocol used in the clinic. Taken in total, the animal models do appear to predict the behavior of CALAA-01 in humans. PMID:25049380

  11. Immunohistochemical determination of oestrogen receptor: comparison of different methods of assessment of staining and correlation with clinical outcome of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D. M.; Harris, W. H.; Smith, P.; Millis, R. R.; Rubens, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    Immunohistochemical staining for oestrogen receptor (ER) has been carried out using antibody ER ID5 on 170 women who received first-line tamoxifen treatment for evaluable metastatic breast cancer. ER status had been determined some years previously, using a ligand-binding cytosol assay. The adequacy of the tissue used for the cytosol assay was always checked by histology on an adjacent block and was deemed to be typical of the tumour overall as was the block used for immunohistochemistry. Six different methods were used to assess the degree of staining and comparisons were made to determine which method gave the most clinically relevant results. Clinical outcome was assessed both in terms of duration of response to tamoxifen determined by log-rank analysis and type of response using the chi-squared test. The ER immunohistochemical assay gave superior results compared with the cytosol assay, with all of the subjective methods of assessment of staining giving statistically significant correlations with clinical outcome. The additional contribution of progesterone receptor (PR) staining with antibody NCL PGR was also studied. Images Figure 1 PMID:8912543

  12. Subclassification of the “Grey Zone” of Thyroid Cytology; A Retrospective Descriptive Study with Clinical, Cytological, and Histological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Bonzanini, Mariella; Amadori, Pierluigi; Morelli, Luca; Fasanella, Silvia; Pertile, Riccardo; Mattiuzzi, Angela; Marini, Giorgio; Niccolini, Mauro; Tirone, Giuseppe; Rigamonti, Marco; Dalla Palma, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Undetermined thyroid cytology precludes any definitive distinction between malignant and benign lesions. Recently several classifications have been proposed to split this category into two or more cytological subcategories related to different malignancy risk rates. The current study was performed retrospectively to investigate the results obtained separating “undetermined” cytologic reports into two categories: “follicular lesion” (FL) and “atypia of undetermined significance” (AUS). Biochemical, clinical, and echographic features of each category were also retrospectively analyzed. Altogether, 316 undetermined fine-needle aspirated cytologies (FNACs) were reclassified as 74 FL and 242 AUS. Histological control leads to a diagnosis of carcinomas, adenomas, and nonneoplastic lesions, respectively, in 42.2%, 20%, and 37.8% of AUS and in 8.3%, 69.4%, and 22.2% of FL. Among biochemical, clinical, cytological, and echographic outcomes, altered thyroid autoantibodies, multiple versus single nodule, AUS versus FL, and presence of intranodular vascular flow were statistically significant to differentiate adenoma from carcinoma and from nonneoplastic lesions, whereas no significant differences were found between carcinomas and nonneoplastic lesions for these parameters. The results of this retrospective study show that undetermined FNAC category can further be subclassified in AUS and FL, the former showing higher malignancy rate. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our results. PMID:21760976

  13. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  14. Student Questioning Educational Outreach

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    of discussing why questioning is important, how research classes(like PUMA) differ from previous science classes still have about water filtration? What questions do you still have about Material Science? #12 average- 1.44 Question 3 average- .79 No lessons on Material Science, much information on water

  15. Improve Your Verbal Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogler, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Most teachers are well aware that verbal questioning can aid student learning. Asking questions can stimulate students to think about the content being studied; connect it to prior knowledge consider its meanings and implications; and explore its applications. A common problem with many teachers' use of verbal questioning is a lack of knowledge…

  16. Asking questions with focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi

    2001-05-01

    This study investigates how different interrogative meanings interact with focus in determining the overall F0 profile of a question. We recorded eight native speakers of Mandarin producing statements, yes-no questions with and without a question particle, wh questions, incredulous questions, and confirmation questions. In each sentence, either the initial, medial, final, or no word was focused. The tonal components of the sentences are all high, all rising, all low, or all falling. F0 contours were extracted by measuring every complete vocal period in the initial, medial, and final disyllabic words in each sentence. Preliminary results show that in both statements and questions, the pitch range of the focused words is expanded and that of the postfocus words suppressed (compressed and lowered). However, postfocus pitch-range suppression seems less extensive in questions than in statements, and in some question types than in others. Finally, an extra F0 rise is often observed in the final syllable of a question unless the syllable is the question particle which has the neutral tone. This is indicative of a high or rising boundary tone associated with the interrogative meaning, which seems to be superimposed on the tone of the sentence-final syllable. [Work supported by NIDCD DC03902.

  17. [Correlation of E2a-pbx1 expression level with clinical characteristics and early response to treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Li, Zhi-Gang; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Min-Yuan

    2008-06-01

    This study purposed to investigate the correlation of expression level of e2a-pbx1 (immunoglobulin enhancer binding factor-Pre-B leukemia) with clinical characteristics and early response to treatment in children patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The expression level of e2a-pbx1 at primary diagnosis in 45 children with ALL, and on day 33 after induction of remission in 23 children with ALL were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). The corelation of e2a-pbx1 expression level at primary diagnosis, MRD level with clinical characteristics and early response to treatment were all observed and explored. The expression level of e2a-pbx1 and clinical characteristics at primary diagnosis were compared between MRD negative and MRD positive patients. The results showed that the expression level of e2a-pbx1 was correlated with the blast percentage in peripheral blood at primary diagnosis. The MRD level at day 33 after induction of remission in 23 children were not related to the expression level of e2a-pbx1 at primary diagnosis and the clinical characteristics. The expression level of e2a-pbx1 at primary diagnosis in MRD positive patients was higher than that in MRD negative patients, while their age was significantly lower than that of patients with MRD negative. The blast percentage in peripheral blood at diagnosis of patients with presenting leukocyte count < 25 x 10(9)/L was significantly lower than that of patients with presenting leukocyte count >or= 25 x 10(9)/L, while the platelet count was higher. It is concluded that the expression level of e2a-pbx1 at primary diagnosis indicates the load of tumor in patients. In patients whose MRD were positive, the expression level of e2a-pbx1 at primary diagnosis is high and their age is young. The platelet count is low in the patients with high load of tumor at primary diagnosis. PMID:18549631

  18. Correlations between Drug Resistance of Beijing/W Lineage Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Sublineages: A 2009–2013 Prospective Study in Xinjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xian-hua; Ma, Ai-guo; Han, Xiu-xia; Gu, Xiao-ming; Fu, Li-ping; Li, Peng-gang; Li, Fen-yu; Wang, Qiu-zhen; Liang, Hui; Katar, Abudu; Wang, Li-jie

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Xinjiang is higher than in other regions of China, and Beijing/W lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the dominant strain of MTB in Xinjiang. However, information on multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB, particularly the correlation between MDR and the Beijing/W lineage and the correlation between drug resistance and the Beijing/W sublineage strains, is limited. Material/Methods We conducted a prospective study to describe the prevalence of MDR/XDR TB, Beijing/W lineage and sublineage strains in Xinjiang in China from 2009 to 2013. All MTB underwent drug susceptibility testing to the first- and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. The Beijing/W lineages and sublineages were detected by large-sequence polymorphisms with polymerase chain reaction. Results A total of 410 clinical isolates were identified. The overall percentage of MDR and XDR cases in Xinjiang was 13.2% (54/410) and 13.0% (7/54), respectively. Overall, 9.8% (14/143) of the Beijing lineage MTB were MDR patients, and 15.6% (40/257) of the Non-Beijing lineage MTB were MDR patients. In the 143 Beijing MTB lineages, 11.2% isolates were in sublineage 105, 15.4% isolates were in sublineage 207, 69.2% isolates were in sublineage 181, and 4.2% isolates were in sublineage 150. None of the isolates were detected in sublineage 142. Significant differences between the Beijing/W and non-Beijing/W strains were observed regarding INH and EMB resistance, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of the MDR TB in Xinjiang remains high and imposes challenges for TB control. Four Beijing/W sublineage isolates were observed in Xinjiang. There was no correlation between MDR and the Beijing/W lineage and no correlation between drug resistance and the Beijing/W sublineage strains. Surveillance of the clinical isolates of MTB is recommended to strengthen the identification of MDR/XDR TB and sublineages of the Beijing/W strains. PMID:25950148

  19. Relocation Frequently Asked Questions General Questions

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    Lagoyda, New Mexico Operations Business Manager and Allen Lewis. Skip can be reached at 575 to acquaint you with the relocation processes at the NRAO. This collection of frequently asked questions (FAQs for additional guidance. Contacts Who is my contact for arranging a household relocation? For Green Bank

  20. [Clinical correlation of anti-receptor antibody titer, sensitivity to curare and electromyographic changes in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis].

    PubMed

    Chen, S M

    1990-10-01

    Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) was studied in 39 rabbits which were repeatedly immunized with purified membrane-bound Torpedo (Nacine timilei) acetylcholine receptor (N-AchR). These rabbits invariably formed anti-AChR antibodies and some of them developed muscular weakness or flaccid paralysis. Pharmacological, physiological and ultrastructural studies showed that the pathological features of EAMG in rabbits closely resembled those of human myasthenia gravis. Antibody titer to AChR of the rabbit sera was determined with ELISA. In some of the rabbits, a rise in antibody Level occurred without appearance of weakness, while it is still likely that AChR antibody could be necessary for the induction of neuromuscular blockage. The sensitivity to curare was found to correlates closely with the severity of the disease. Typical electromyographic changes were found only in some of the EAMG rabbits with these studies. It was considered that anti-AChR concentration would not be the single pathological factor in EAMG. PMID:2282884

  1. High plasma levels of nitrogen oxides are associated with severe disease and correlate with rapid parasitological and clinical cure in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Kremsner, P G; Winkler, S; Wildling, E; Prada, J; Bienzle, U; Graninger, W; Nüssler, A K

    1996-01-01

    Plasma levels of nitrogen oxide (NO), neopterin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were compared in 3 groups of Gabonese patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria before and after therapy: adults with uncomplicated malaria, children with uncomplicated malaria, and children with severe malaria. Plasma levels of all 3 molecules were significantly higher in severe malaria than in uncomplicated malaria. High levels of neopterin and CRP during the acute phase of malaria significantly correlated with slow parasitological and clinical cure after therapy. In contrast, high NO plasma levels during the acute phase of malaria predicted accelerated cure. These findings provide further evidence for the protective role of NO in malaria. However, as NO levels were highest in severe disease, overproduction may be harmful for the patients. PMID:8730311

  2. A correlation study on diagnostic endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of lymph nodes with histological and clinical diagnoses, the UCLA Medical Center experience.

    PubMed

    Naini, Bita V; Apple, Sophia K; Presley, Michelle; Moatamed, Neda A

    2008-07-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound guided (EUS) FNA procedure has two aspects, the endoscopic sampling and the FNA interpretation. The two aspects of the procedure are performed in two different disciplines; gastroenterology (EUS) and pathology (FNA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV).Sixty-one EUS-FNA procedures of the lymph nodes were analyzed by correlating the FNA results with histological or clinical diagnoses. The lymph nodes were divided in five groups; mediastinal, gastrohepatic, peripancreatic, portal, and perirectal.The study showed a concordance of 92% in mediastinal, 80% in gastrohepatic, 81% in peripancreatic, 95% in portal, and 100% in perirectal lymph nodes with an overall sensitivity of 84%, specificity of 92%, PPV of 88%, and NPV of 89%. In conclusion, EUS-FNA offers an invaluable approach for diagnostic examination of the internal lymph nodes where percutaneous FNA is either difficult or impossible. impossible. PMID:18528891

  3. Syphilis and Its Correlates among Heterosexual Males Attending Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics – Observation from a Multicity Cohort in Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Hao, Chao; Jiang, Hui; Sun, Lin; Zhou, Jian-Bo; Yin, Yue-Ping; Tang, Weiming; Jiang, Ning; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Yang, Hai-Tao; Fu, Geng-Feng; Huan, Xi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of HIV and syphilis, incidence of syphilis and to identify the correlates of syphilis infection among heterosexual male attendees of sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics (MSC). Methods A cohort study of one-year duration was conducted in Yangzhou and Changzhou cities in Jiangsu province of China. The baseline survey commenced in June 2009, recruited 1225 consenting adult MSCs (609 in Yangzhou and 617 in Changzhou) through STI-clinic based convenience sampling. Results Baseline HIV and syphilis prevalence were 0.49% and 17.29% respectively. Syphilis incidence rate was 7.22 per 100 person-years (6.53 in Yangzhou and 7.76 in Changzhou) during the 6-month follow-up with retention fractions of 27.38% and 35.15% for Yangzhou and Changzhou respectively. Majority of the participants were middle-aged, high school educated, married, living with partners and non-migrants. Very few subjects reported recent and consistent condom-use with regular partners. Although considerable number of MSCs reported recent sexual exposure with female sex workers (FSW) and non-FSW casual partners, the proportion of reported condom use was very low during those exposures. In multivariate analyses higher age, having recent sex with FSWs and being HIV-positive were associated with higher syphilis sero-positivity while higher education was protective. In bivariate analyses, being married, divorced/widowed, official residency of the study cities and non-use of condom with regular partners predicted higher risk. Conclusions Considering the potential bridging role of MSCs between high and low-risk populations, effective intervention strategies among them targeting the correlates of syphilis infection are urgently called for in Jiangsu province of China. PMID:24743839

  4. Molecular and prognostic correlates of cytogenetic abnormalities in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: a Mayo Clinic-French Consortium Study.

    PubMed

    Wassie, Emnet A; Itzykson, Raphael; Lasho, Terra L; Kosmider, Olivier; Finke, Christy M; Hanson, Curtis A; Ketterling, Rhett P; Solary, Eric; Tefferi, Ayalew; Patnaik, Mrinal M

    2014-12-01

    Four hundred and nine patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were included in the international collaborative study (268 (66%) and 141 (34%) from Mayo clinic and French consortium respectively). Thirty percent displayed an abnormal karyotype, including; 72% sole, 16% two, and 11% complex abnormalities. The most common abnormalities included; +8 (23%), -Y (20%), -7/7q-(14%), 20q- (8%), +21 (8%), and der(3q) (8%). Patients with an abnormal karyotype were more likely to be elderly (P?=?0.03), be anemic (P?=?0.0009), have leukocytosis (P?=?0.02) with neutrophilia (P?=?0.03), demonstrate increased circulating immature myeloid cells (P?=?0.0003), peripheral blood blasts (P?

  5. Molecular interactions of plant oil components with stratum corneum lipids correlate with clinical measures of skin barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Mack Correa, Mary Catherine; Mao, Guangru; Saad, Peter; Flach, Carol R; Mendelsohn, Richard; Walters, Russel M

    2014-01-01

    Plant-derived oils consisting of triglycerides and small amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs) are commonly used in skincare regimens. FFAs are known to disrupt skin barrier function. The objective of this study was to mechanistically study the effects of FFAs, triglycerides and their mixtures on skin barrier function. The effects of oleic acid (OA), glyceryl trioleate (GT) and OA/GT mixtures on skin barrier were assessed in vivo through measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and fluorescein dye penetration before and after a single application. OA's effects on stratum corneum (SC) lipid order in vivo were measured with infrared spectroscopy through application of perdeuterated OA (OA-d34). Studies of the interaction of OA and GT with skin lipids included imaging the distribution of OA-d34 and GT ex vivo with IR microspectroscopy and thermodynamic analysis of mixtures in aqueous monolayers. The oil mixtures increased both TEWL and fluorescein penetration 24 h after a single application in an OA dose-dependent manner, with the highest increase from treatment with pure OA. OA-d34 penetrated into skin and disordered SC lipids. Furthermore, the ex vivo IR imaging studies showed that OA-d34 permeated to the dermal/epidermal junction while GT remained in the SC. The monolayer experiments showed preferential interspecies interactions between OA and SC lipids, while the mixing between GT and SC lipids was not thermodynamically preferred. The FFA component of plant oils may disrupt skin barrier function. The affinity between plant oil components and SC lipids likely determines the extent of their penetration and clinically measurable effects on skin barrier functions. PMID:24372651

  6. HMG-CoA reductase expression in primary colorectal cancer correlates with favourable clinicopathological characteristics and an improved clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between tumor-specific HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) expression and good prognosis has previously been demonstrated in breast and ovarian cancer. In this study, the expression, clinicopathological correlates and prognostic value of HMGCR expression in colorectal cancer was examined. Findings Immunohistochemical expression of HMGCR was assessed in tissue microarrays with primary tumours from 557 incident cases of colorectal cancer in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Pearson’s Chi Square test was applied to explore the associations between HMGCR expression and clinicopathological factors and other investigative biomarkers. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess the relationship between HMGCR expression and cancer-specific survival (CSS) according to negative vs positive HMGCR expression. A total number of 535 (96.0%) tumours were suitable for analysis, of which 61 (11.4%) were HMGCR negative. Positive cytoplasmic HMGCR expression was associated with distant metastasis-free disease at diagnosis (p = 0.002), lack of vascular invasion (p = 0.043), microsatellite-instability (p = 0.033), expression of cyclin D1 (p = <0.001) and p21 (p = <0.001). Positive HMGCR expression was significantly associated with a prolonged CSS in unadjusted Cox regression analysis in the entire cohort (HR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.20-2.66) and in Stage III-IV disease (HR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.09-2.68), but not after adjustment for established clinicopathological parameters. Conclusions Findings from this prospective cohort study demonstrate that HMGCR is differentially expressed in colorectal cancer and that positive expression is associated with favourable tumour characteristics and a prolonged survival in unadjusted analysis. The utility of HMGCR as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant or adjuvant statin treatment in colorectal cancer merits further study. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2115647072103464. PMID:24708688

  7. The clinical spectrum of renal osteodystrophy in 57 chronic hemodialysis patients: a correlation between biochemical parameters and bone pathology findings.

    PubMed

    Chazan, J A; Libbey, N P; London, M R; Pono, L; Abuelo, J G

    1991-02-01

    Fifty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients who had been on dialysis for an average of 77 months underwent bone biopsies and the pathologic findings were correlated with biochemical and demographic data. All but two had evidence of renal osteodystrophy, 23 with osteitis fibrosa (OF), 19 with osteomalacia and/or adynamic disease (OM/AD), and 15 with mixed osteodystrophy (MOD). Patients in each group were similar with regard to age, sex distribution, duration of dialysis, unstimulated serum aluminum, calcium and phosphorus. Patients with osteitis fibrosa (OF) had statistically higher DFO stimulated aluminum, alkaline phosphatase and PTHC levels than the other two groups although there was marked individual variation. The bone biopsies were also evaluated for the amount of aluminum deposited in the osteoid seam. All 23 of the patients with OF and 11 of the 15 patients with MOD had no, mild, or minimal aluminum deposition but 12 of the 19 patients with OM/AD had moderate to marked aluminum deposition. Patients with minimal to mild aluminum deposition were similar in age, duration of dialysis, sex distribution, unstimulated and DFO stimulated aluminum levels, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase to those with moderate to marked deposition but had significantly higher parathormone levels. All patients had been treated in a similar fashion regarding diet, oral phosphate binders and vitamin D; therefore, the observed differences in bone pathology were not readily explicable. However, patients who were found to have osteitis fibrosa and those with minimal to mild aluminum deposition had significantly higher parathormone levels when compared with patients in the other groups at the inception of dialysis. PMID:2019018

  8. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  9. Asking Effective Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 8-page monograph offers strategies for effective questioning that engages students and that deepens their conceptual understanding in mathematics. It suggests questions and prompts that help students progress through various stages of the problem solving process and that help teachers assess the thinking of students. The article describes the purposes of questions at different stages of a lesson and describes situations when it is appropriate to convey information to students. A list of references is included.

  10. Pharmacoclinical correlations in schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol decanoate: clinical evaluations, concentrations of plasma and red blood cell haloperidol and its reduced metabolite, and plasma homovanillic acid.

    PubMed

    Aymard, N; Viala, A; Stein, I; Caroli, F

    1995-11-01

    1. The aim of this open study was to determine whether a more rational therapeutic approach could be devised for psychotic patients (n = 11) treated for long periods with long-acting (LA) haloperidol. The mean multiplication factor for the transition from the oral formulation to the long-acting one was 12.8 (10.4, standard deviation), lower than the theoretically recommended factor of 20. 2. The best dose (mg/kg)-concentration correlations were found for haloperidol (HAL) and reduced HAL (RHAL) in the red blood cells (RBC) (representative of the free drug fraction) rather than in the plasma of patients that had attained the steady state (at the third cycle and afterwards) 3. Pharmacokinetic analyses were conducted at the same time as clinical evaluations, grading using the BPRS and determinations of plasma levels of total, free and conjugated homovanillic acid (HVA), a marker of central dopaminergic activity. 4. A between groups comparison at the steady state (patients (n = 20) with oral administration and the above patients (n = 11) with long-acting form of HAL), showed that the plasma and RBC RHAL/HAL ratios of long-acting HAL decreased significantly (p < 0,005) in comparison with oral administration, at least by half. 5. Plasma HVA values complete the information provided by plasma and more especially RBC HAL and RHAL levels. All these results taken together, as substantiated by the clinical assessment scales (BPRS), assure a better pharmacoclinical surveillance and can be predictive of a patient's response. PMID:8787036

  11. Cases of cryptosporidiosis co-infections in AIDS patients: a correlation between clinical presentation and GP60 subgenotype lineages from aged formalin-fixed stool samples

    PubMed Central

    DEL CHIERICO, F; ONORI, M; DI BELLA, S; BORDI, E; PETROSILLO, N; MENICHELLA, D; CACCIÒ, S M; CALLEA, F; PUTIGNANI, L

    2011-01-01

    Nine cases of cryptosporidiosis co-infections in AIDS patients were clinically categorised into severe (patients 1, 3, 8 and 9), moderate (patients 4 and 5) and mild (patients 2, 6 and 7). Formalin-fixed faecal specimens from these patients were treated to obtain high quality DNA competent for amplification and sequencing of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene. Sequence analysis revealed that one patient was infected with Cryptosporidium hominis whereas the remaining eight patients were infected with C. parvum. Interestingly, the patients showing severe cryptosporidiosis harboured two subtypes within the C. parvum allelic family IIc (IIcA5G3 and IIcA5G3R2), whereas patients with moderate or mild infections showed various subtypes of the C. parvum allelic family IIa (IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G2R1, IIaA17G3R1 and IIaA18G3R1). DNA extraction and genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. is a challenging task on formalin-fixed stool samples, whose diagnostic outcome is age-dependent. The method herein reported represents a step forward routine diagnosis and improves epidemiology of HIV-related clinical cases. Due to the need to elucidate genetic richness of Cryptosporidium human isolates, this approach represents a useful tool to correlate individual differences in symptoms to subgenotyping lineages. PMID:21929875

  12. MYH9-related disease: a novel prognostic model to predict the clinical evolution of the disease based on genotype-phenotype correlations.

    PubMed

    Pecci, Alessandro; Klersy, Catherine; Gresele, Paolo; Lee, Kieran J D; De Rocco, Daniela; Bozzi, Valeria; Russo, Giovanna; Heller, Paula G; Loffredo, Giuseppe; Ballmaier, Matthias; Fabris, Fabrizio; Beggiato, Eloise; Kahr, Walter H A; Pujol-Moix, Nuria; Platokouki, Helen; Van Geet, Christel; Noris, Patrizia; Yerram, Preethi; Hermans, Cedric; Gerber, Bernhard; Economou, Marina; De Groot, Marco; Zieger, Barbara; De Candia, Erica; Fraticelli, Vincenzo; Kersseboom, Rogier; Piccoli, Giorgina B; Zimmermann, Stefanie; Fierro, Tiziana; Glembotsky, Ana C; Vianello, Fabrizio; Zaninetti, Carlo; Nicchia, Elena; Güthner, Christiane; Baronci, Carlo; Seri, Marco; Knight, Peter J; Balduini, Carlo L; Savoia, Anna

    2014-02-01

    MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in the gene for nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA). MYH9-RD is characterized by a considerable variability in clinical evolution: patients present at birth with only thrombocytopenia, but some of them subsequently develop sensorineural deafness, cataract, and/or nephropathy often leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We searched for genotype-phenotype correlations in the largest series of consecutive MYH9-RD patients collected so far (255 cases from 121 families). Association of genotypes with noncongenital features was assessed by a generalized linear regression model. The analysis defined disease evolution associated to seven different MYH9 genotypes that are responsible for 85% of MYH9-RD cases. Mutations hitting residue R702 demonstrated a complete penetrance for early-onset ESRD and deafness. The p.D1424H substitution associated with high risk of developing all the noncongenital manifestations of disease. Mutations hitting a distinct hydrophobic seam in the NMMHC-IIA head domain or substitutions at R1165 associated with high risk of deafness but low risk of nephropathy or cataract. Patients with p.E1841K, p.D1424N, and C-terminal deletions had low risk of noncongenital defects. These findings are essential to patients' clinical management and genetic counseling and are discussed in view of molecular pathogenesis of MYH9-RD. PMID:24186861

  13. Role of Apoptosis in the Development of Uterine Leiomyoma: Analysis of Expression Patterns of Bcl-2 and Bax in Human Leiomyoma Tissue With Clinical Correlations.

    PubMed

    Csatlós, Éva; Máté, Szabolcs; Laky, Marcella; Rigó, János; Joó, József Gábor

    2015-07-01

    To describe gene expression patterns of the apoptotic regulatory genes Bcl and Bax in human uterine leiomyoma tissue. To investigate the relationship between alterations of gene expression patterns and several relevant clinical parameters. We obtained samples from 101 cases undergoing surgery for uterine leiomyoma for gene expression analysis of the Bcl-2 and Bax genes. Gene expression was quantified using RT-PCR technique. In the leiomyoma group, the Bcl-2 gene was significantly overexpressed compared with the control group although there was no such difference in the gene expression of Bax. Gene activity of Bcl-2 positively correlated with the tumor number in individual uterine leiomyoma cases. Although there was no significant correlation between the length of the cumulative lactation period before the development of uterine leiomyoma and Bcl-2 gene expression in the leiomyoma tissue, we observed a trend for a shorter cumulative lactation period to be associated with overexpression of the Bcl-2 gene. Overexpression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene appeared to be a factor in the development of uterine leiomyoma, whereas gene activity of the proapoptotic Bax gene did not seem to play a role in the process. PMID:25851703

  14. Ex Vivo Cytokine mRNA Levels Correlate with Changing Clinical Status of Ethiopian TB Patients and their Contacts Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Wassie, Liya; Demissie, Abebech; Aseffa, Abraham; Abebe, Markos; Yamuah, Lawrence; Tilahun, Hiwot; Petros, Beyene; Rook, Graham; Zumla, Alimuddin; Andersen, Peter; Doherty, T. Mark

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence which suggests that IL-4 plays a role in the pathogenesis of TB, but a general consensus on its role remains elusive. We have previously published data from a cohort of Ethiopian TB patients, their contacts, and community controls suggesting that enhanced IL-4 production is associated with infection with M. tuberculosis, rather than overt disease and that long-term protection in infected community controls is associated with co-production of the IL-4 antagonist IL-4d2, alongside elevated IL-4. Here, for the first time, we compare data on expression of IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-4?2 over time in TB patients and their household contacts. During the follow-up period, the TB patients completed therapy and ceased to display TB-like symptoms. This correlated with a decrease in the relative amount of IL-4 expressed. Over the same period, the clinical status of some of their contacts also changed, with a number developing TB-like symptoms or clinically apparent TB. IL-4 expression was disproportionately increased in this group. The findings support the hypothesis that elevated IL-4 production is generally associated with infection, but that TB disease is associated with a relatively increased expression of IL-4 compared to IFN-? and IL-4?2. However, the data also suggest that there are no clear-cut differences between groups: the immune response over time appears to include changes in the expression of IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-4?2, and it is the relative, not absolute levels of cytokine expression that are characteristic of clinical status. PMID:18231607

  15. Surgery for drug resistant partial epilepsy in children with focal cortical dysplasia: anatomical–clinical correlations and neurophysiological data in 10 patients

    PubMed Central

    Francione, S; Vigliano, P; Tassi, L; Cardinale, F; Mai, R; Lo, R; Munari, C

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To analyse a population of children with focal cortical dysplasia operated on for drug resistant partial epilepsy, with emphasis on clinical features, seizure semiology, interictal and ictal EEG and stereo EEG findings, histological and topographical characteristics of the lesions, extension and localisation of cerebral excision, and its postoperative effect on seizure frequency. Methods:10 patients were studied, aged between 26 months and 11 years (median 6 years). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities were unilobar (temporal 3, frontal 2), bilobar (2), or multilobar (1); the two patients with negative MRI suffered from frontal seizures. Presurgical diagnostic steps varied in complexity and invasiveness depending on the anatomical/electrical/clinical features of each patient. In four patients they included only scalp video EEG monitoring, and in six, also invasive recordings using stereotactically implanted intracerebral electrodes. Surgery consisted of corticectomy plus lesionectomy in all cases. Results:70% of the patients were seizure-free after a minimum postoperative follow up of 25 months. These included three patients with temporal lesions and four of seven patients with other lobar or multilobar extratemporal localisation. One patient had improvement in seizure control. Outcome was poor in multilobar patients, but a class Ia outcome was obtained in one case after partial lesionectomy associated with bilobar corticectomy. All patients showed developmental improvement. Conclusions:Analysis of the data in these patients allowed the production of an "anatomical-clinical concordance" list, which appeared to be correlated with the diagnostic steps performed. Carrying out a stereo EEG exploration in the most complex cases proved useful in defining the epileptogenic zone in extratemporal and multilobar epilepsies. Stereo EEG recordings facilitated a tailored resection of extralesional cortex. PMID:14617703

  16. FAST INdiCATE Trial protocol. Clinical efficacy of functional strength training for upper limb motor recovery early after stroke: Neural correlates and prognostic indicators

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Valerie M; Ward, Nick S; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; van Vliet, Paulette; Burridge, Jane; Hunter, Susan M; Lemon, Roger N; Rothwell, John; Weir, Christopher J; Wing, Alan; Walker, Andrew A; Kennedy, Niamh; Barton, Garry; Greenwood, Richard J; McConnachie, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Functional strength training in addition to conventional physical therapy could enhance upper limb recovery early after stroke more than movement performance therapy plus conventional physical therapy. Aims To determine (a) the relative clinical efficacy of conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training and conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy for upper limb recovery; (b) the neural correlates of response to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training and conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy; (c) whether any one or combination of baseline measures predict motor improvement in response to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training or conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy. Design Randomized, controlled, observer-blind trial. Study The sample will consist of 288 participants with upper limb paresis resulting from a stroke that occurred within the previous 60 days. All will be allocated to conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training or conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy. Functional strength training and movement performance therapy will be undertaken for up to 1·5 h/day, five-days/week for six-weeks. Outcomes and Analysis Measurements will be undertaken before randomization, six-weeks thereafter, and six-months after stroke. Primary efficacy outcome will be the Action Research Arm Test. Explanatory measurements will include voxel-wise estimates of brain activity during hand movement, brain white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy), and brain–muscle connectivity (e.g. latency of motor evoked potentials). The primary clinical efficacy analysis will compare treatment groups using a multilevel normal linear model adjusting for stratification variables and for which therapist administered the treatment. Effect of conventional physical therapy combined with functional strength training versus conventional physical therapy combined with movement performance therapy will be summarized using the adjusted mean difference and 95% confidence interval. To identify the neural correlates of improvement in both groups, we will investigate associations between change from baseline in clinical outcomes and each explanatory measure. To identify baseline measurements that independently predict motor improvement, we will develop a multiple regression model. PMID:24025033

  17. Absolute Quantitation of Met Using Mass Spectrometry for Clinical Application: Assay Precision, Stability, and Correlation with MET Gene Amplification in FFPE Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Daniel V. T.; Liao, Wei-Li; Thyparambil, Sheeno; Henderson, Les; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Lei; Rambo, Brittany; Hart, John; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Bengali, Kathleen; Uzzell, Jamar; Darfler, Marlene; Krizman, David B.; Cecchi, Fabiola; Bottaro, Donald P.; Karrison, Theodore; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Hembrough, Todd; Burrows, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of Met tyrosine kinase receptor is associated with poor prognosis. Overexpression, and particularly MET amplification, are predictive of response to Met-specific therapy in preclinical models. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is currently used to select for ‘high Met’ expressing tumors for Met inhibitor trials. IHC suffers from antibody non-specificity, lack of quantitative resolution, and, when quantifying multiple proteins, inefficient use of scarce tissue. Methods After describing the development of the Liquid-Tissue-Selected Reaction Monitoring-mass spectrometry (LT-SRM-MS) Met assay, we evaluated the expression level of Met in 130 FFPE gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) tissues. We assessed the correlation of SRM Met expression to IHC and mean MET gene copy number (GCN)/nucleus or MET/CEP7 ratio by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Proteomic mapping of recombinant Met identified 418TEFTTALQR426 as the optimal SRM peptide. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for this peptide were 150 and 200 amol/µg tumor protein, respectively. The assay demonstrated excellent precision and temporal stability of measurements in serial sections analyzed one year apart. Expression levels of 130 GEC tissues ranged (<150 amol/µg to 4669.5 amol/µg. High correlation was observed between SRM Met expression and both MET GCN and MET/CEP7 ratio as determined by FISH (n?=?30; R2?=?0.898). IHC did not correlate well with SRM (n?=?44; R2?=?0.537) nor FISH GCN (n?=?31; R2?=?0.509). A Met SRM level of ?1500 amol/µg was 100% sensitive (95% CI 0.69–1) and 100% specific (95% CI 0.92–1) for MET amplification. Conclusions The Met SRM assay measured the absolute Met levels in clinical tissues with high precision. Compared to IHC, SRM provided a quantitative and linear measurement of Met expression, reliably distinguishing between non-amplified and amplified MET tumors. These results demonstrate a novel clinical tool for efficient tumor expression profiling, potentially leading to better informed therapeutic decisions for patients with GEC. PMID:24983965

  18. Tau elevations in the brain extracellular space correlate with reduced amyloid-? levels and predict adverse clinical outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Magnoni, Sandra; Esparza, Thomas J; Conte, Valeria; Carbonara, Marco; Carrabba, Giorgio; Holtzman, David M; Zipfel, Greg J; Stocchetti, Nino; Brody, David L

    2012-04-01

    Axonal injury is believed to be a major determinant of adverse outcomes following traumatic brain injury. However, it has been difficult to assess acutely the severity of axonal injury in human traumatic brain injury patients. We hypothesized that microdialysis-based measurements of the brain extracellular fluid levels of tau and neurofilament light chain, two low molecular weight axonal proteins, could be helpful in this regard. To test this hypothesis, 100?kDa cut-off microdialysis catheters were placed in 16 patients with severe traumatic brain injury at two neurological/neurosurgical intensive care units. Tau levels in the microdialysis samples were highest early and fell over time in all patients. Initial tau levels were >3-fold higher in patients with microdialysis catheters placed in pericontusional regions than in patients in whom catheters were placed in normal-appearing right frontal lobe tissue (P?=?0.005). Tau levels and neurofilament light-chain levels were positively correlated (r?=?0.6, P?=?0.013). Neurofilament light-chain levels were also higher in patients with pericontusional catheters (P?=?0.04). Interestingly, initial tau levels were inversely correlated with initial amyloid-? levels measured in the same samples (r?=?-0.87, P?=?0.000023). This could be due to reduced synaptic activity in areas with substantial axonal injury, as amyloid-? release is closely coupled with synaptic activity. Importantly, high initial tau levels correlated with worse clinical outcomes, as assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 6 months after injury (r?=?-0.6, P?=?0.018). Taken together, our data add support for the hypothesis that axonal injury may be related to long-term impairments following traumatic brain injury. Microdialysis-based measurement of tau levels in the brain extracellular space may be a useful way to assess the severity of axonal injury acutely in the intensive care unit. Further studies with larger numbers of patients will be required to assess the reproducibility of these findings and to determine whether this approach provides added value when combined with clinical and radiological information. PMID:22116192

  19. Tau elevations in the brain extracellular space correlate with reduced amyloid-? levels and predict adverse clinical outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Magnoni, Sandra; Esparza, Thomas J.; Conte, Valeria; Carbonara, Marco; Carrabba, Giorgio; Holtzman, David M.; Zipfel, Greg J.; Stocchetti, Nino

    2012-01-01

    Axonal injury is believed to be a major determinant of adverse outcomes following traumatic brain injury. However, it has been difficult to assess acutely the severity of axonal injury in human traumatic brain injury patients. We hypothesized that microdialysis-based measurements of the brain extracellular fluid levels of tau and neurofilament light chain, two low molecular weight axonal proteins, could be helpful in this regard. To test this hypothesis, 100?kDa cut-off microdialysis catheters were placed in 16 patients with severe traumatic brain injury at two neurological/neurosurgical intensive care units. Tau levels in the microdialysis samples were highest early and fell over time in all patients. Initial tau levels were >3-fold higher in patients with microdialysis catheters placed in pericontusional regions than in patients in whom catheters were placed in normal-appearing right frontal lobe tissue (P?=?0.005). Tau levels and neurofilament light-chain levels were positively correlated (r?=?0.6, P?=?0.013). Neurofilament light-chain levels were also higher in patients with pericontusional catheters (P?=?0.04). Interestingly, initial tau levels were inversely correlated with initial amyloid-? levels measured in the same samples (r?=??0.87, P?=?0.000023). This could be due to reduced synaptic activity in areas with substantial axonal injury, as amyloid-? release is closely coupled with synaptic activity. Importantly, high initial tau levels correlated with worse clinical outcomes, as assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 6 months after injury (r?=??0.6, P?=?0.018). Taken together, our data add support for the hypothesis that axonal injury may be related to long-term impairments following traumatic brain injury. Microdialysis-based measurement of tau levels in the brain extracellular space may be a useful way to assess the severity of axonal injury acutely in the intensive care unit. Further studies with larger numbers of patients will be required to assess the reproducibility of these findings and to determine whether this approach provides added value when combined with clinical and radiological information. PMID:22116192

  20. Question #44 Free childcare

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    or were you a dependent or ward of the court?" Q: I am a single mom with one child and will get free day parents deceased, were you in foster care or were you a dependent or ward of the court?" Question #52 care or were you a dependent or ward of the court?" Question #53 Section 2 "As determined by a court

  1. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  2. It's about the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearwald, Ronald R.

    2011-01-01

    The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

  3. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  4. University Of Missouri: Sample Interview Questions Creating Interview Questions

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Jerry

    University Of Missouri: Sample Interview Questions Creating Interview Questions Position Title of Missouri Page 1 #12;University Of Missouri: Sample Interview Questions Common Competencies and Behavioral. _______________________________________ List 10 Questions you will ask candidates that related to your competencies: 1

  5. ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS Guidelines for Asking Good Questions

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Diane

    ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS Guidelines for Asking Good Questions: A good, substantive question are addressing. Providing this context helps both the person who is answering the question and helps the rest of the audience understand what you are talking about. #12;Guidelines for Answering Questions: Question and answer

  6. Knowledge and question asking.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez Molinero, Rafael; García-Madruga, Juan Antonio

    2011-02-01

    The ability and the motivation for question asking are, or should be, some of the most important aims of education. Unfortunately, students neither ask many questions, nor good ones. The present paper is about the capacity of secondary school pupils for asking questions and how this activity depends on prior knowledge. To examine this, we use texts containing different levels of information about a specific topic: biodiversity. We found a positive relationship between the amount of information provided and the number of questions asked about the texts, supporting the idea that more knowledgeable people ask more questions. Some students were warned that there would be an exam after the reading, and this led to a diminishing number of questions asked, and yet this still did not significantly improve their exam scores. In such a case, it seems that reading was more concerned with immediacy, hindering critical thinking and the dialog between their previous ideas and the new information. Thus, question asking seems to be influenced not only by the amount of knowledge, but also by the reader's attitude towards the information. PMID:21266138

  7. The Challenge Question

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

    Students are introduced to the "Walk the Line" challenge question. They write journal responses to the question and brainstorm what information they need to answer the question. Ideas are shared with the class (or in pairs and then to the class, if class size is large). Then students read an interview with an engineer to gain a professional perspective on linear data sets and best-fit lines. Students brainstorm for additional ideas and add them to the list. With the teacher's guidance, students organize the ideas into logical categories of needed knowledge.

  8. The Driving Question Board

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ayelet Weizman

    2008-11-01

    "It was helpful to keep track of questions we had at the beginning so we knew what we were trying to find out." With these words, a student described the value of using a Driving Question Board (DQB) in a project-based science (PBS) unit. This instructional tool is designed to support inquiry and project-based learning by organizing and focusing students' questions and linking them to content learning goals. The authors have used this tool in both physics and chemistry classes, but it can be used with any subject matter. This article describes the purpose and process of DQB.

  9. Infection frequency of Epstein-Barr virus in subgingival samples from patients with different periodontal status and its correlation with clinical parameters*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan-min; Yan, Jie; Chen, Li-li; Sun, Wei-lian; Gu, Zhi-yuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect the infection frequencies of different genotypes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in subgingival samples from chronic periodontitis (CP) patients, and to discuss the correlation between infection with EBV and clinical parameters. Methods: Nested-PCR assay was used to detect EBV-1 and EBV-2 in subgingival samples from 65 CP patients, 65 gingivitis patients and 24 periodontally healthy individuals. The amplicons were further identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) with endonucleases Afa I and Stu I. Clinical parameters mainly included bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL) in six sites of the dentition. Results: In CP patients, gingivitis and periodontally healthy individuals, the infection frequencies were 47.7%, 24.6% and 16.7% for EBV-1, and 15.4%, 7.7% and 0% for EBV-2, respectively. In 2 out of the 65 CP patients co-infection of EBV-1 and EBV-2 was found. The positive rate of EBV-1 in chronic periodontitis patients was higher than that in gingivitis patients (P=0.01) and periodontally healthy individuals (P=0.01). But no significant difference was shown in EBV-1 frequency between gingivitis patients and healthy individuals (P>0.05) or in EBV-2 frequency among the three groups (P>0.05). In CP patients, higher mean BOP value was found in EBV-1 or EBV-2 positive patients than that in EBV negative ones (P<0.01), but with no statistical difference in the mean PD or AL value between EBV positive and negative patients (P>0.05). After initial periodontal treatment, 12 out of the 21 EBV-1 positive CP patients did not show detectable EBV-1 in subgingival samples. Conclusion: nPCR plus RFLP analysis is a sensitive, specific and stable method to detect EBV-1 and EBV-2 in subgingival samples. Subgingival infection with EBV-1 is closely associated with chronic periodontitis. Infection of EBV in subgingival samples was correlated with BOP. PMID:17048301

  10. Transcranial motor evoked potential monitoring outcome in the high-risk brain and spine surgeries: Correlation of clinical and neurophysiological data – An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Poornima Amit

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the safety, feasibility and clinical value of transcranial motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring by electrical stimulation. Setting: Clinical neurophysiology department of tertiary reach hospital. Materials and Methods: MEP monitoring was attempted in 44 “high risk” patients. Intraoperative surgical, anesthesia and neurophysiological findings were documented prospectively. MEP monitoring results were correlated with motor outcome. Results: The success for reliable MEP recording from the lower limbs was 75%. Incidence of new permanent post-operative motor deficit was zero. Nearly, 76.5% of the cases (13 out of 17 cases) who showed unobtainable and unstable MEP outcome had lesion location in the spine as compared with 23.5% (4 out of 17 cases) that had lesion location in the brain. Chi-square test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between these two groups (P = 0.0020). Out of these 13 spine surgery cases, 8 (62%) were operated for deformity. Seven out of 12 (60%) patients less than 12 years of age had a poor MEP monitoring outcome suggesting that extremes of age and presence of a spine deformity may be associated with a lesser incidence of successful MEP monitoring. No complications related to the repetitive transcranial electrical stimulation for eliciting MEP were observed. Conclusion: MEP monitoring is safe. The protocol used in this study is simple, feasible for use and has a fairly high success rate form the lower limbs. Pediatric age group and spine lesions, particularly deformities have an adverse effect on stable MEP recording. PMID:24339590

  11. AgNOR quantity in needle biopsy specimens of prostatic adenocarcinomas: correlation with proliferation state, Gleason score, clinical stage, and DNA content

    PubMed Central

    Trerè, D; Zilbering, A; Dittus, D; Kim, P; Ginsberg, P C; Daskal, I

    1996-01-01

    Aims—To define the relation between the quantity of silver stained nucleolar organiser regions (AgNORs) and histological grade, clinical stage, DNA content, and MIB-1 immunostaining in needle biopsy specimens of prostatic adenocarcinomas. Methods—Histological grade was determined according to the Gleason system. AgNOR quantity, DNA content and MIB-1 immunostaining were evaluated by image cytometry on routine histological sections stained with silver, Feulgen reaction and MIB-1 antibody, respectively. Results—The mean AgNOR area increased with increasing Gleason score. A significant difference was found in the AgNOR values between low, intermediate and high grade tumours. Patients with clinically localised tumour (stages A and B) had lower AgNOR values than patients with advanced disease (stages C and D), but the difference in the mean AgNOR values between the two groups was not statistically significant. Non-diploid tumours had a significantly higher mean (SD) AgNOR area than diploid tumours (3.68 (1.04) ?m2v 2.73 (0.60) ?m2, respectively), while no significant difference was observed in the mean AgNOR values between aneuploid and tetraploid tumours (3.68 (1.04) ?m2v 3.70 (1.05) ?m2). When AgNOR and MIB-1-PI values were compared using linear regression analysis, a highly significant correlation was found. Conclusions—These data demonstrate that AgNOR quantity reflects the proliferative potential of prostatic adenocarcinomas, and is significantly related to histological grade and DNA content. The ease of application on routine sections, maintaining the morphological integrity of the tissue, the ability to evaluate selected histological areas of limited size and objective quantification by image cytometry make the AgNOR method particularly suitable for cell kinetic analysis in prostatic needle biopsy specimens. Images PMID:16696076

  12. Integrated study of 100 patients with Xp21 linked muscular dystrophy using clinical, genetic, immunochemical, and histopathological data. Part 2. Correlations within individual patients.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, L V; Johnson, M A; Bushby, K M; Gardner-Medwin, D; Curtis, A; Ginjaar, I B; den Dunnen, J T; Welch, J L; Butler, T J; Bakker, E

    1993-01-01

    This report is the second part of a trilogy from a multidisciplinary study which was undertaken to record the relationships between clinical severity and dystrophin gene and protein expression. The aim in part 2 was to correlate the effect of gene deletions on protein expression in individual patients with well defined clinical phenotypes. Among the DMD patients, most of the deletions/duplications disrupted the open reading frame, but three patients had in frame deletions. Some of the intermediate D/BMD patients had mutations which were frameshifting while others were in frame. All of the deletions/duplications in the BMD patients maintained the open reading frame and 25/26 deletions in typical BMD group 5 started with exon 45. The deletion of single exon 44 was the most common mutation in patients from groups 1 to 3. Dystrophin was detected in sections and blots from 58% of the DMD patients with a size that was compatible with synthesis from mRNA in which the reading frame had been restored. Certain deletions were particularly associated with the occurrence of limited dystrophin synthesis in DMD patients. For example, 9/11 DMD patients missing single exons had some detectable dystrophin labelling compared with 10/24 who had deletions affecting more than one exon. All patients missing single exon 44 or 45 had some dystrophin. Deletions starting or finishing with exons 3 or 51 (8/9) cases were usually associated with dystrophin synthesis whereas those starting or finishing with exons 46 or 52 (11/11) were not. Formal IQ assessments (verbal, performance, and full scores) were available for 47 patients. Mean IQ score among the DMD patients was 83 and no clear relationship was found between gene mutations and IQ. The mutations in patients with a particularly severe deficit of verbal IQ were spread throughout the gene. Images PMID:8411068

  13. The epidemiology and clinical correlates of HIV-1 co-receptor tropism in non-subtype B infections from India, Uganda and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The introduction of C-C chemokine receptor type-5 (CCR5) antagonists as antiretroviral therapy has led to the need to study HIV co-receptor tropism in different HIV-1 subtypes and geographical locations. This study was undertaken to evaluate HIV-1 co-receptor tropism in the developing world where non-B subtypes predominate, in order to assess the therapeutic and prophylactic potential of CCR5 antagonists in these regions. Methods HIV-1-infected patients were recruited into this prospective, cross-sectional, epidemiologic study from HIV clinics in South Africa, Uganda and India. Patients were infected with subtypes C (South Africa, India) or A or D (Uganda). HIV-1 subtype and co-receptor tropism were determined and analyzed with disease characteristics, including viral load and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts. Results CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 was detected in 96% of treatment-naïve (TN) and treatment-experienced (TE) patients in India, 71% of TE South African patients, and 86% (subtype A/A1) and 71% (subtype D) of TN and TE Ugandan patients. Dual/mixed-tropic HIV-1 was found in 4% of Indian, 25% of South African and 13% (subtype A/A1) and 29% (subtype D) of Ugandan patients. Prior antiretroviral treatment was associated with decreased R5 tropism; however, this decrease was less in subtype C from India (TE: 94%, TN: 97%) than in subtypes A (TE: 59%; TN: 91%) and D (TE: 30%; TN: 79%). R5 virus infection in all three subtypes correlated with higher CD4+ count. Conclusions R5 HIV-1 was predominant in TN individuals with HIV-1 subtypes C, A, and D and TE individuals with subtypes C and A. Higher CD4+ count correlated with R5 prevalence, while treatment experience was associated with increased non-R5 infection in all subtypes. PMID:22281097

  14. ClinicalAccess: A Clinical Decision Support Tool.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Karen; Vardell, Emily

    2015-01-01

    ClinicalAccess is a new clinical decision support tool that uses a question-and-answer format to mirror clinical decision-making strategies. The unique format of ClinicalAccess delivers concise, authoritative answers to more than 120,000 clinical questions. This column presents a review of the product, a sample search, and a comparison with other point-of-care search engines. PMID:25927513

  15. Asking gender questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Jonathan; Masters, Karen; Allen, James; Contenta, Filippo; Huckvale, Leo; Wilkins, Stephen; Zocchi, Alice

    2014-12-01

    Jonathan Pritchard, Karen Masters, James Allen, Filippo Contenta, Leo Huckvale, Stephen Wilkins and Alice Zocchi report on a survey of the gender of astronomers attending and asking questions at this year's UK National Astronomy Meeting.

  16. Questions about Biological Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...

  17. Cho, Hearn — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    This is an important question - many cancers such as multiple myeloma are characterized by genomic instability, with new cytogenetic abnormalities, deletions or mutations, and other genetic changes detected as disease progresses.

  18. Endocrine System Clicker Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    DDS/DO Elizabeth J Kavran (Ursuline College Biology)

    2009-05-01

    This is a set of clicker questions designed for first year nursing students in an Anatomy and Physiology course, used during the endocrine system. It can also be used for an undergraduate Physiology course.

  19. Provocative Questions Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Workshop August 2, 2011 UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Los Angeles, California Final Participant List Chair Edward Harlow, Ph.D Chair Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Harvard Medical

  20. Redefining the Fundamental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Margaret Ann

    2006-01-01

    Every researcher must make some fundamental questions. A researcher's questions should include the following: (1) What is the nature of the reality that I wish to study? (2) How will I know it? (3) What must I do to know it? (4) Who am I? (5) Where is God in this? and (6) For religious educators--How does my research lead to a world of peace and…

  1. Traditional eye medicine use by newly presenting ophthalmic patients to a teaching hospital in south-eastern Nigeria: socio-demographic and clinical correlates

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Boniface Ikenna; Chuka-Okosa, Chimdi Memnofu; Uche, Judith Nkechi

    2009-01-01

    Background This study set out to determine the incidence, socio-demographic, and clinical correlates of Traditional Eye Medicine (TEM) use in a population of newly presenting ophthalmic outpatients attending a tertiary eye care centre in south-eastern Nigeria. Methods In a comparative cross-sectional survey at the eye clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, between August 2004 - July 2006, all newly presenting ophthalmic outpatients were recruited. Participants' socio-demographic and clinical data and profile of TEM use were obtained from history and examination of each participant and entered into a pretested questionnaire and proforma. Participants were subsequently categorized into TEM- users and non-users; intra-group analysis yielded proportions, frequencies, and percentages while chi-square test was used for inter-group comparisons at P = 0.01, df = 1. Results Of the 2,542 (males, 48.1%; females, 51.9%) participants, 149 (5.9%) (males, 45%; females, 55%) used TEM for their current eye disease. The TEMs used were chemical substances (57.7%), plant products (37.7%), and animal products (4.7%). They were more often prescribed by non-traditional (66.4%) than traditional (36.9%) medicine practitioners. TEMs were used on account of vision loss (58.5%), ocular itching (25.4%) and eye discharge (3.8%). Reported efficacy from previous users (67.1%) and belief in potency (28.2%) were the main reasons for using TEM. Civil servants (20.1%), farmers (17.7%), and traders (14.1%) were the leading users of TEM. TEM use was significantly associated with younger age (p < 0.01), being married (p < 0.01), rural residence (p < 0.01), ocular anterior segment disease (p < 0.01), delayed presentation (p < 0.01), low presenting visual acuity (p < 0.01), and co-morbid chronic medical disease (p < 0.01), but not with gender (p = 0.157), and educational status (p = 0.115). Conclusion The incidence of TEM use among new ophthalmic outpatients at UNTH is low. The reasons for TEM use are amenable to positive change through enhanced delivery of promotive, preventive, and curative public eye care services. This has implications for eye care planners and implementers. To reverse the trend, we suggest strengthening of eye care programmes, even distribution of eye care resources, active collaboration with orthodox eye care providers and traditional medical practitioners, and intensification of research efforts into the pharmacology of TEMs. PMID:19852826

  2. To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.

    Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions

  3. Finding similar questions in large question and answer archives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiwoon Jeon; Joon Ho Lee

    2005-01-01

    There has recently been a significant increase in the number of community-based question and answer services on the Web where people answer other peoples' questions. These services rapidly build up large archives of questions and answers, and these archives are a valuable linguistic resource. One of the major tasks in a question and answer service is to find questions in

  4. Syndrome In Question*

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Ana Cláudia Mendes; Gaspardo, Daniela Barros Cortez; Cortez, Tatiana Mimura; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a male 40-year-old patient with established diagnosis of Behçet's disease which had evolved to recurrent bilateral auricular polychondritis crises. MAGIC syndrome (mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage) is rare and groups together patients with this clinical picture without necessarily fulfilling the clinical criteria for Behçet's disease or relapsing polychondritis, demonstrating an independent disorder. PMID:24626673

  5. Disentangling the Correlates of Drug Use in a Clinic and Community Sample: A Regression Analysis of the Associations between Drug Use, Years-of-School, Impulsivity, IQ, Working Memory, and Psychiatric Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gene M.; Dunn, Brian J.; Mignone, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Years-of-school is negatively correlated with illicit drug use. However, educational attainment is positively correlated with IQ and negatively correlated with impulsivity, two traits that are also correlated with drug use. Thus, the negative correlation between education and drug use may reflect the correlates of schooling, not schooling itself. To help disentangle these relations we obtained measures of working memory, simple memory, IQ, disposition (impulsivity and psychiatric status), years-of-school and frequency of illicit and licit drug use in methadone clinic and community drug users. We found strong zero-order correlations between all measures, including IQ, impulsivity, years-of-school, psychiatric symptoms, and drug use. However, multiple regression analyses revealed a different picture. The significant predictors of illicit drug use were gender, involvement in a methadone clinic, and years-of-school. That is, psychiatric symptoms, impulsivity, cognition, and IQ no longer predicted illicit drug use in the multiple regression analyses. Moreover, high risk subjects (low IQ and/or high impulsivity) who spent 14 or more years in school used stimulants and opiates less than did low risk subjects who had spent <14?years in school. Smoking and drinking had a different correlational structure. IQ and years-of-school predicted whether someone ever became a smoker, whereas impulsivity predicted the frequency of drinking bouts, but years-of-school did not. Many subjects reported no use of one or more drugs, resulting in a large number of “zeroes” in the data sets. Cragg’s Double-Hurdle regression method proved the best approach for dealing with this problem. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that years-of-school predicts lower levels of illicit drug use after controlling for IQ and impulsivity. This paper also highlights the advantages of Double-Hurdle regression methods for analyzing the correlates of drug use in community samples. PMID:25009508

  6. 18F-FDG PET of the hands with a dedicated high-resolution PEM system (arthro-PET): correlation with PET/CT, radiography and clinical parameters

    PubMed Central

    Mhlanga, Joyce C.; Carrino, John A.; Lodge, Martin; Wang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to prospectively determine the feasibility and compare the novel use of a positron emission mammography (PEM) scanner with standard PET/CT for evaluating hand osteoarthritis (OA) with 18F-FDG. Methods Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant prospective study in which 14 adults referred for oncological 18F-FDG PET/CT underwent dedicated hand PET/CT followed by arthro-PET using the PEM device. Hand radiographs were obtained and scored for the presence and severity of OA. Summed qualitative and quantitative joint glycolytic scores for each modality were compared with the findings on plain radiography and clinical features. Results Eight patients with clinical and/or radiographic evidence of OA comprised the OA group (mean age 73±7.7 years). Six patients served as the control group (53.7±9.3 years). Arthro-PET quantitative and qualitative joint glycolytic scores were highly correlated with PET/CT findings in the OA patients (r=0.86. p =0.007; r=0.94, p=0.001). Qualitative arthro-PET and PET/CT joint scores were significantly higher in the OA patients than in controls (38.7±6.6 vs. 32.2±0.4, p=0.02; 37.5±5.4 vs. 32.2±0.4, p=0.03, respectively). Quantitative arthro-PET and PET/CT maximum SUV-lean joint scores were higher in the OA patients, although they did not reach statistical significance (20.8±4.2 vs. 18±1.8, p= 0.13; 22.8±5.38 vs. 20.1±1.54, p=0.21). By definition, OA patients had higher radiographic joint scores than controls (30.9±31.3 vs. 0, p=0.03). Conclusion Hand imaging using a small field of view PEM system (arthro-PET) with FDG is feasible, performing comparably to PET/CT in assessing metabolic joint activity. Arthro-PET and PET/CT showed higher joint FDG uptake in OA. Further exploration of arthro-PET in arthritis management is warranted. PMID:25134669

  7. Copyright Some Key Questions

    E-print Network

    Ollivier-Gooch, Carl

    #12;#12;Copyright Matters! Some Key Questions and Answers for Teachers 2nd Edition, 2005 From the Authors The authors of Copyright Matters! are pleased to offer teachers this revised edition. It replaces the first edition published in 2000. Many changes have occurred in the area of copyright since that original

  8. Cosmic Questions Educator's Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    This educator's guide contains activities relating to the Cosmic Questions national traveling exhibit's theme, our place in space and time-and information about the exhibit. Although the guide complements a museum visit, activities can be used independently from the exhibit.

  9. Asking the Right Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Rob

    2011-01-01

    As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…

  10. De, Abhijit — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Looking at cell to cell differences within a tumor bed, contributed by either DNA mutations, epigenetic or post-translational modifications (PTM) or miRNA mediated control switches or even a combination of all these, the question rise how to best design a personalized drug trial?

  11. Any Questions? Please contact

    E-print Network

    Rubin, Yoram

    ! To Donate To purchase a package and/or item(s), email Jessica Tran at jesstran@berkeley.edu and includeAny Questions? Please contact Name: Jessica Tran Phone Number: 805-587-7753 Email: jesstran Competition Team Cal's Seismic Team educates students on earthquakedesign of high rise buildings. Students

  12. Name: Link Question

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    Name: Link Question: In patients with periodontal disease requiring dentures, what is the prognosis for the abutment teeth? Bottom Line: Some studies indicate that teeth with periodontal disease in periodontal disease when teeth are used as abutments in RPDs, however more studies are needed. PICO

  13. EFFECTIVELY ADDRESSING CONSUMER QUESTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions can be one of the toughest aspects of working in the egg industry. Consumers enjoy being informed about the products they purchase. The increased use of the internet by consumers can prove problematic due to the wealth of inaccurate information available on the interne...

  14. Eight Questions about Corruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) what is corruption; (2) which countries are the most corrupt; (3) what are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption; (4) what is the magnitude of corruption; (5) do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption; (6) can competition reduce corruption;( 7) why have there been so few

  15. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  16. QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-print Network

    QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ¥IS IT REAL? ¥IS IT IMPORTANT? ¥WHAT IS IT DUE TO? ¥HOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TRENDÕt a cure for global warming! Aerosols only last a short while in the atmosphere, they would have

  17. Researching Classroom Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lores Gonzalez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    The complexities of the modern society and interconnected world in which we live requires students who are able to problem solve and think critically. The research on which this article is based aims to explore how classroom questioning can help students guide their learning and model the spirit of inquiry to become lifelong learners. The research…

  18. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  19. Correlation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? (PPAR-?) and Retinoid X Receptor-? (RXR-?) expression with clinical risk factors in patients with advanced carotid atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Klonaris, Christos; Katsargyris, Athanasios; Kouraklis, Gregorios; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated Receptor-? (PPAR-?) and its nuclear partners, the Retinoid X Receptors (RXRs), have been recognized as crucial players in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to assess the clinical significance of PPAR-? and RXR-? expression in different cellular populations localized within advanced carotid atherosclerosis lesions. Material/Methods PPAR-? and RXR-? expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry ïn 134 carotid atherosclerotic plaques obtained from an equal number of patients that underwent endarterectomy procedure for vascular repair, and was correlated with patients’ medical history, risk factors and medication intake. Results Increased incidence of low PPAR-? expression in both macrophages and smooth muscle cells was noted in patients presenting coronary artery disease (p=0.032 and p=0.046, respectively). PPAR-? expression in smooth muscle cells was borderline down-regulated in symptomatic compared to asymptomatic patients (p=0.061), reaching statistical significance when analyzing groups of patients with specific cerebrovascular events; amaurosis fugax (p=0.008), amaurosis fugax/stroke (p=0.020) or amaurosis fugax/transient ischemic attack patients (p=0.028) compared to asymptomatic patients. Low RXR-? expression in macrophages was more frequently observed in hypertensive (p=0.048) and hyperlipidemic patients (p=0.049). Increased incidence of low RXR-? expression in smooth muscle cells was also noted in patients presenting advanced carotid stenosis grade (p=0.015). Conclusions PPAR-? and RXR-? expression down-regulation in macrophages and smooth muscle cells was associated with a more pronounced disease progression in patients with advanced carotid atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:21709632

  20. Cognitive impairments in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2 and 3 are positively correlated to the clinical severity of ataxia symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jianhua; Wu, Chuanjia; Lei, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study is to assess cognitive function in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2 and 3 (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3). Methods: We performed neuropsychological examinations on 8 SCA1 patients, 2 SCA2 patients, and 8 SCA3 patients, as well as 32 healthy subjects matching these patients in age, gender, nationality, and years of education. The neuropsychological examinations were focused on testing executive functions, visuo-spatial perception and verbal memory, attention, immediate and delayed recall, logical thinking function and orientation function. Results: SCA1 patients had significantly impaired executive function, visuo-spatial perception, and attention compared to healthy subjects. Cognitive disorders such as immediate and delayed recall, executive function and verbal memory were observed in SCA2 and SCA3 patients, while attention and visuo-spatial function were not affected. The severity of motor impairment was determined using the international cooperative ataxia rating scale, the scores of which ranged from 11 to 78. The number of patients with mild ataxia, moderate ataxia and severe ataxia was 3, 11, and 3, respectively, with the most severe ataxia occurring on a patient with SCA1. The scores of activities of daily living scale ranged from 20 to 66. Conclusions: Our results showed that mild executive dysfunction occurred in patients with SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3, and verbal fluency and word memory dysfunctions were detected in patients with SCA2 and SCA3. In addition, we found that the decreased logical thinking function and orientation function were observed in patients with SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3. The cognitive status was correlated with the clinical severity of ataxia symptoms rather than age, age of onset, years of education and the duration of disease. PMID:25664104

  1. Retention of Basic Sciences Knowledge at Clinical Years of Medical Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Lazi?, Elvira; Dujmovi?, Josip; Hren, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore the association between the knowledge of basic (physiology and biochemistry) and clinical sciences (internal medicine) among medical students, and determine the level of retained basic science knowledge at the fifth year of medical studies. Methods Medical students attending the second (n?=?145, response rate 60%) or the fifth year (n?=?176, response rate 73%) of medical studies at the Zagreb University School of Medicine in Croatia were given an anonymous knowledge test with 15 pairs of questions developed specifically for this purpose. Each pair consisted of a basic and clinical question, with the correct answer to the basic question explaining the physiological or biochemical background of the clinical question. Three pairs of questions were excluded from the analysis due to poor psychometric characteristics. Results We found statistically significant correlation between basic and clinical tests scores for both groups of students (r?=?0.47, P<0.001 for the second year and r?=?0.45, P<0.001 for the fifth year). 2?×?2 within-between measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction effect for knowledge test and study year (Wilks ??=?0.55, F1, 319?=?262.7, P<0.001; effect size?=?0.45), showing that fifth year students scored lower on the basic test than second year students but obtained higher scores on the clinical test. Conclusion The core basic science knowledge is lost during the clinical years of medical studies. Although remembering and understanding basic science concepts as a background of clinical statements at the clinical years does not directly affect clinical knowledge, there is a positive correlation between retained basic science concepts and clinical knowledge. PMID:17167861

  2. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... learn more about this topic. Do you recommend hypnosis? How well has it worked with frequency or ... the webpage of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH) you can find a practitioner close to ...

  3. An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

  4. A Clinical Ladder? Maybe!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Bueno, Dorothy J.

    1982-01-01

    The author introduces several critical questions to help nurse administrators evaluate whether a structured clinical ladder system is a good means of improving nurse recruitment and retention and increasing job satisfaction. Discusses salary, initial level placement, implementation, and maintenance. (CT)

  5. Types of Clinical Trials

    Cancer.gov

    Information about the several types of cancer clinical trials, including treatment trials, prevention trials, screening trials, supportive and palliative care trials. Each type of trial is designed to answer different research questions.

  6. Living in the question.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally. PMID:10557490

  7. The "Looting Question" Bibliography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provocatively subtitled "Web and Literary Resources on the Archaeological Politics of Private Collecting, Commercial Treasure Hunting, Looting, and 'Professional' Archaeology," this comprehensive online bibliography provides scholars and practitioners with resources related to the "looting question." The bibliography is organized by format type and focuses on North American materials. Hugh Jarvis, a doctoral candidate in Anthropology as well as a graduate student in Information and Library Studies at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo, has compiled this unique, frequently updated resource.

  8. Poultry Processing: Questions & Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... A / Poultry Processing: Questions and Answers Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  9. Automatically Classifying Question Types for Consumer Health Questions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health questions. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical question classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important question elements that improve question classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health question classification. PMID:25954411

  10. Improving Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

    2011-01-01

    A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

  11. Correlation between Serum Tryptase, Mast Cells Positive to Tryptase and Microvascular Density in Colo-Rectal Cancer Patients: Possible Biological-Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Ammendola, Michele; Sacco, Rosario; Sammarco, Giuseppe; Donato, Giuseppe; Montemurro, Severino; Ruggieri, Eustachio; Patruno, Rosa; Marech, Ilaria; Cariello, Marica; Vacca, Angelo; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Ranieri, Girolamo

    2014-01-01

    Background Tryptase is a serin protease stored and released from mast cells (MCs) that plays a role in tumour angiogenesis. In this study we aimed to evaluate serum tryptase levels in colo-rectal cancer (CRC) patients before (STLBS) and after (STLAS) radical surgical resection. We also evaluated mast cell density positive to tryptase (MCDPT) and microvascular density (MVD) in primary tumour tissue. Methods A series of 61 patients with stage B and C CRC (according to the Astler and Coller staging system) were selected. Serum blood samples were collected from patients one day before and one day after surgery. Tryptase levels were measured using the UniCAP Tryptase Fluoroenzymeimmunoassay (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden). Tumour sections were immunostained with a primary anti-tryptase antibody (clone AA1; Dako, Glostrup, Denmark) and an anti CD-34 antibody (QB-END 10; Bio-Optica Milan, Italy) by means of immunohistochemistry and then evaluated by image analysis methods. Results The mean ± s.d. STLBS and STLAS was 5.63±2.61 µg/L, and 3.39±1.47 µg/L respectively and a significant difference between mean levels was found: p?=?0.000 by t-test. The mean ± s.d. of MCDPT and MVD was 8.13±3.28 and 29.16±7.39 respectively. A strong correlation between STLBS and MVD (r?=?0.83, p?=?0.000); STLBS and MCDPT (r?=?0.60, p?=?0.003); and MCDPT and MVD (r?=?0.73; p?=?0.001) was found. Conclusion Results demonstrated higher STLBS in CRC patients, indicating an involvement of MC tryptase in CRC angiogenesis. Data also indicated lower STLAS, suggesting the release of tryptase from tumour-infiltrating MCs. Serum tryptase levels may therefore play a role as a novel bio-marker predictive of response to radical surgery. In this context tryptase inhibitors such as Gabexate and Nafamostat Mesilate might be evaluated in adjuvant clinical trials as a new anti-angiogenic approach. PMID:24915568

  12. Script Concordance Testing: More Cases or More Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard; Lambert, Carole; Carriere, Benoit; Van der Vleuten, C.

    2009-01-01

    Script concordance test (SCT) is a case based assessment format of clinical reasoning in which questions are nested into several cases. Recent results using Q4 format suggest that nested questions contribute more to reliability of measure than cases. The present study aims at documenting variance components associated with SCT cases and nested…

  13. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  14. Assessment and management of methotrexate hepatotoxicity in psoriasis patients: report from a consensus conference to evaluate current practice and identify key questions toward optimizing methotrexate use in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Barker, J; Horn, E J; Lebwohl, M; Warren, R B; Nast, A; Rosenberg, W; Smith, C

    2011-07-01

    Experts in psoriasis, hepatology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics convened to discuss the safety and monitoring of methotrexate with respect to hepatotoxicity when used in the treatment of psoriasis. Methotrexate is an efficacious and cost-effective treatment for psoriasis, but is associated with significant safety issues, particularly relating to hepatotoxicity. Current British, Dutch, German, EU and US guidelines for baseline evaluations, monitoring and prevention of hepatotoxicity in patients with psoriasis receiving methotrexate were evaluated. Liver safety monitoring is currently reliant upon multiple methods, including biopsy, serological tests for biomarkers such as type III procollagen amino terminal propeptide (PIIINP), and liver function tests based on liver enzymes. Monitoring of patients receiving long-term therapy is expected to be improved by the utilization of serum biomarkers currently in development such as the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) panel and other non-invasive tests of hepatic architecture, such as fibroelastography, microbubbles and magnetic resonance imaging. Appropriate studies to determine optimal dosing to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity, potentially utilizing pharmacogenetic principles, are clearly needed. Key questions for future research are identified including needs for optimal screening and monitoring, identification of appropriate biomarkers, assessment of relationships between dosing and safety, utility of liver biopsy, optimal dosing regimens (including route of administration), methods to measure methotrexate levels in blood, and use of methotrexate as a standardized active comparator in trials of experimental drugs used to treat psoriasis. PMID:21198946

  15. Trends in HIV & syphilis prevalence and correlates of HIV infection: results from cross-sectional surveys among women attending ante-natal clinics in Northern Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusufu Kumogola; Emma Slaymaker; Basia Zaba; Julius Mngara; Raphael Isingo; John Changalucha; Patrick Mwidunda; Daniel Kimaro; Mark Urassa

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel surveillance for HIV in ante-natal clinics (ANC) remains the primary method for collecting timely trend data on HIV prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa. We describe prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection and trends over time in HIV prevalence among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANC) in Magu district and Mwanza city, part of Mwanza region in Northern Tanzania.

  16. Improving Question Retrieval in Community Question Answering with Label Ranking

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Albert

    Improving Question Retrieval in Community Question Answering with Label Ranking Wei Wang, Baichuan Li Department of Computer Science and Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong Shatin, N@research.att.com Abstract-- Community question answering services (CQA), which provides a platform for people with diverse

  17. Internal Audit RFP 2013 Questions and Answers Question set 1

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    ;Internal Audit RFP 2013 ­ Questions and Answers b. High risk areas · Accounts Payable · Accounts Receivable) for the fiscal 2013 Internal Audit Plan? We will establish our own estimates based upon our risk assessmentInternal Audit RFP 2013 ­ Questions and Answers Question set 1: 1. What do you like about your

  18. Clinical Trials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This patient education program explains clinical trials and answers some frequently asked questions. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  19. Weber, Patti — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Cell culture, the propagation of cells in artificial environment conducive to growth, has become one of the major tools in life sciences. Human cells grown in laboratory, subjected to various (single or multiple) perturbations, are serving well in elucidating physico-biochemical mechanisms of response in investigations of physiology and biochemistry. In addition, cell strains and cell lines have extensively been used to identify molecular markers of disease, and recent advances in cell culture have facilitated propagating stem cells for clinical and research purposes.

  20. Gallery Walk Questions about Coastlines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about coastlines. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...