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Sample records for corrosion test summary

  1. Summary of the WIPP materials interface interactions test: Metal corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, N.R.; Molecke, M.A.

    1992-12-31

    Several series of in situ, high-level and transuranic waste form-leaching and waste form-engineered barrier materials interactions tests were conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility, near Carlsbad, New Mexico, in the USA. This multi-national effort, the WIPP Materials Interface Interactions Tests (MIIT), involves the underground testing of about 2000 (nonradioactive) waste form, metal, and geologic samples in the bedded salt at the WIPP. This test program started on July 22, 1986 and has achieved its projected five-year lifetime. All in situ samples have been retrieved and sent to multiple laboratories for posttest analyses. Most of the analyses on metal samples have been completed and the results are summarized in this paper. The tested metal alloys proposed for waste canister or overpack use included titanium alloys (grade-2 and grade-12), Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, austenitic stainless steels (304L, 316, and NS 24/AISI 309), carbon steels (Belgian C and ASTM A216/WCA), copper, and lead. After five-years of test exposure immersed in WIPP brine A and/or salt at about 90{degree}C, the corrosion-resistant materials (Ti; Inconel, Hastelloy) exhibited very little corrosion. The austenitic stainless steels suffered pitting, crevice corrosion, and some evidence of stress corrosion cracking. The carbon steels, copper, and lead exhibited both extensive general and localized attack. Details of the test, analyses, and results obtained will be discussed.

  2. Summary of the WIPP materials interface interactions test: Metal corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, N.R.; Molecke, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Several series of in situ, high-level and transuranic waste form-leaching and waste form-engineered barrier materials interactions tests were conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility, near Carlsbad, New Mexico, in the USA. This multi-national effort, the WIPP Materials Interface Interactions Tests (MIIT), involves the underground testing of about 2000 (nonradioactive) waste form, metal, and geologic samples in the bedded salt at the WIPP. This test program started on July 22, 1986 and has achieved its projected five-year lifetime. All in situ samples have been retrieved and sent to multiple laboratories for posttest analyses. Most of the analyses on metal samples have been completed and the results are summarized in this paper. The tested metal alloys proposed for waste canister or overpack use included titanium alloys (grade-2 and grade-12), Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, austenitic stainless steels (304L, 316, and NS 24/AISI 309), carbon steels (Belgian C and ASTM A216/WCA), copper, and lead. After five-years of test exposure immersed in WIPP brine A and/or salt at about 90[degree]C, the corrosion-resistant materials (Ti; Inconel, Hastelloy) exhibited very little corrosion. The austenitic stainless steels suffered pitting, crevice corrosion, and some evidence of stress corrosion cracking. The carbon steels, copper, and lead exhibited both extensive general and localized attack. Details of the test, analyses, and results obtained will be discussed.

  3. Microbiologically influenced corrosion testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kearns, J.R.; Little, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    This symposium was held November 16--17, 1992 in Miami, Florida. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for state-of-the-art information on the effects of microorganisms on the corrosion of metals. Many industrial needs in the area of microbial influenced corrosion testing are identified in the presentations along with latest laboratory and field testing techniques. Strategies to monitor and control corrosion and biofouling in water distribution systems, underground pipelines, buildings, and marine vessels are discussed. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  4. Corrosion testing using isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1995-12-05

    A method is described for determining the corrosion behavior of a material with respect to a medium in contact with the material by: implanting a substantially chemically inert gas in a matrix so that corrosion experienced by the material causes the inert gas to enter the medium; placing the medium in contact with the material; and measuring the amount of inert gas which enters the medium. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested is described composed of: a body of the material, which body has a surface to be contacted by the medium; and a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the body to a depth below the surface. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested is described composed of: a substrate of material which is easily corroded by the medium, the substrate having a surface; a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the substrate; and a sheet of the material whose resistance to corrosion is to be tested, the sheet being disposed against the surface of the substrate and having a defined thickness. 3 figs.

  5. Corrosion testing using isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Hohorst, Frederick A.

    1995-12-05

    A method for determining the corrosion behavior of a material with respect to a medium in contact with the material by: implanting a substantially chemically inert gas in a matrix so that corrosion experienced by the material causes the inert gas to enter the medium; placing the medium in contact with the material; and measuring the amount of inert gas which enters the medium. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested, composed of: a body of the material, which body has a surface to be contacted by the medium; and a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the body to a depth below the surface. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested, composed of: a substrate of material which is easily corroded by the medium, the substrate having a surface; a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the substrate; and a sheet of the material whose resistance to corrosion is to be tested, the sheet being disposed against the surface of the substrate and having a defined thickness.

  6. Stress Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Advanced testing of structural materials was developed by Lewis Research Center and Langley Research Center working with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Under contract, Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) conducted a study for evaluating stress corrosion cracking, and recommended the "breaking load" method which determines fracture strengths as well as measuring environmental degradation. Alcoa and Langley plan to submit the procedure to ASTM as a new testing method.

  7. Accelerated Stress-Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Test procedures for accelerated stress-corrosion testing of high-strength aluminum alloys faster and provide more quantitative information than traditional pass/fail tests. Method uses data from tests on specimen sets exposed to corrosive environment at several levels of applied static tensile stress for selected exposure times then subsequently tensile tested to failure. Method potentially applicable to other degrading phenomena (such as fatigue, corrosion fatigue, fretting, wear, and creep) that promote development and growth of cracklike flaws within material.

  8. Mobile evaporator corrosion test results

    SciTech Connect

    Rozeveld, A.; Chamberlain, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80{degrees}C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either {open_quotes}satisfactory{close_quotes} (2-20 mpy) or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} (<2 mpy) corrosion resistance as defined by National Association of Corrosion Engineers. However, many of the alloys experienced intergranular corrosion in the nitric acid test solution, which could indicate a susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in this environment.

  9. Atlas 5013 tank corrosion test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, W. M.; Girton, L. D.; Treadway, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    The type and cause of corrosion in spot welded joints were determined by X-ray and chemical analysis. Fatigue and static tests showed the degree of degradation of mechanical properties. The corrosion inhibiting effectiveness of WD-40 compound and required renewal period by exposing typical joint specimens were examined.

  10. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE EXPERT PANEL OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE MEETING ON DOUBLE-SHELL TANK CORROSION MONITORING AND TESTING HELD AUGUST 4-5 2008

    SciTech Connect

    BOOMER KD

    2009-01-08

    The Expert Panel Oversight Committee (EPOC) on Double-Shell Tank Corrosion Monitoring and Testing has been overseeing the Fiscal Year FY 2008 experimental program being performed at CC Technologies (CCT) to optimize the chemistry control for corrosion limits in Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs). The EPOC met at the M & D Professional Services Conference Facility on August 4 and 5, 2008 to discuss various aspects of that responsibility including FY 2009 planning. Formal presentations were made to update the EPOC on the these subjects.

  11. Method For Testing Properties Of Corrosive Lubricants

    DOEpatents

    Ohi, James; De La Cruz, Jose L.; Lacey, Paul I.

    2006-01-03

    A method of testing corrosive lubricating media using a wear testing apparatus without a mechanical seal. The wear testing apparatus and methods are effective for testing volatile corrosive lubricating media under pressure and at high temperatures.

  12. Corrosion probe. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    Over 253 million liters of high-level waste (HLW) generated from plutonium production is stored in mild steel tanks at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Corrosion monitoring of double-shell storage tanks (DSTs) is currently performed at Hanford using a combination of process knowledge and tank waste sampling and analysis. Available technologies for corrosion monitoring have progressed to a point where it is feasible to monitor and control corrosion by on-line monitoring of the corrosion process and direct addition of corrosion inhibitors. The electrochemical noise (EN) technique deploys EN-based corrosion monitoring probes into storage tanks. This system is specifically designed to measure corrosion rates and detect changes in waste chemistry that trigger the onset of pitting and cracking. These on-line probes can determine whether additional corrosion inhibitor is required and, if so, provide information on an effective end point to the corrosion inhibitor addition procedure. This report describes the technology, its performance, its application, costs, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  13. Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: HD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

  14. Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Copp, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: RD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

  15. Failure Prevention by Short Time Corrosion Tests

    SciTech Connect

    MICKALONIS, JOHN

    2005-05-01

    Short time corrosion testing of perforated sheets and wire meshes fabricated from Type 304L stainless steel, Alloy 600 and C276 showed that 304L stainless steel perforated sheet should perform well as the material of construction for dissolver baskets. The baskets will be exposed to hot nitric acid solutions and are limited life components. The corrosion rates of the other alloys and of wire meshes were too high for useful extended service. Test results also indicated that corrosion of the dissolver should drop quickly during the dissolutions due to the inhibiting effects of the corrosion products produced by the dissolution processes.

  16. Electrochemical corrosion testing of metal waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Peterson, J. J.; Katyal, H. K.; Keiser, D. D.; Hilton, B. A.

    1999-12-14

    Electrochemical corrosion tests have been conducted on simulated stainless steel-zirconium (SS-Zr) metal waste form (MWF) samples. The uniform aqueous corrosion behavior of the samples in various test solutions was measured by the polarization resistance technique. The data show that the MWF corrosion rates are very low in groundwaters representative of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Galvanic corrosion measurements were also conducted on MWF samples that were coupled to an alloy that has been proposed for the inner lining of the high-level nuclear waste container. The experiments show that the steady-state galvanic corrosion currents are small. Galvanic corrosion will, hence, not be an important mechanism of radionuclide release from the MWF alloys.

  17. GIRAFFE test results summary

    SciTech Connect

    Yokobori, S.; Arai, K.; Oikawa, H.

    1996-03-01

    A passive system can provide engineered safety features enhancing safety system reliability and plant simplicity. Toshiba has conducted the test Program to demonstrate the feasibility of the SBWR passive safety system using a full-height, integral system test facility GIRAFFE. The test facility GIRAFFE models the SBWR in full height to correctly present the gravity driving head forces with a 1/400 volume scale. The GIRAFFE test Program includes the certification tests of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) to remove the post-accident decay heat and the gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) to replenish the reactor coolant inventory during a LOCA. The test results have confirmed the PCCS and GDCS design and in addition, have demonstrated the operation of the pCCS with the presence of a lighter-than-steam noncondensable as well as with the presence of a heavier-than-steam, noncondensable. The GIRAFFE test Program has also provided the database to qualify a best estimate thermal-hydraulic computer code TRAC. The post test analysis results have shown that TRAC can accurately predict the PCCS heat removal Performance and the containment pressure response to a LOCA. This paper summarizes the GIRAFFE test results to investigate post-LOCA PCCS heat removal performance and post-test analysis using TRAC.

  18. The Test Validation Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Richard I.; Bowden, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Common rates employed in classificatory testing are the true positive rate (TPR), false positive rate (FPR), positive predictive power (PPP), and negative predictive power (NPP). FPR and TPR are estimated from research samples representing populations to be distinguished by classificatory testing. PPP and NPP are used by clinicians to classify…

  19. A corrosion database system for exposure tests

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kato, Chuichi; Nogami, Atsushi; Matsuoka, Ai

    1997-12-31

    A computerized corrosion database system for exposure tests has been designed and developed. This system was developed to help researchers carry out each experimental procedure in exposure tests. The system includes a function to manage not only the experimental data but also the timetable of exposure tests and the environmental factors of exposure sites. An easily used graphical user interface (GUI) and graph plot software are provided for users to help analyze exposure test results from various viewpoints. The data accumulated in this system are measurements of past exposure tests and exposure tests in progress. The analyses of past exposure tests using the present database system resulted in several ideas on atmospheric corrosion different from the conventional ideas on atmospheric corrosion. If the data of exposure tests in progress are compared with past data, the relationships between atmospheric corrosion and environmental factors will be more clarified.

  20. Fabrication and testing of corrosion resistant coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, D.P.; McLaughlin, J.C.; Riester, L.

    1991-01-01

    The susceptibility of SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub n} to sodium corrosion mandates that corrosion resistant coatings be developed to protect silicon-based turbine engine components. Materials with good corrosion resistance and thermal expansions that nearly match SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} have been identified. Corrosion testing of hot-pressed pellets of these compounds has identified the most promising materials. Development of chemical vapor deposition system to apply these materials has been initiated. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Nuclear testing: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Drell, S.; Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.

    1995-08-01

    The authors have examined the experimental and analytic bases for understanding the performance of each of the weapon types that are currently planned to remain in the US enduring nuclear stockpile. They have also examined whether continued underground tests at various nuclear yield thresholds would add significantly to the confidence in this stockpile in the years ahead. The starting point for this examination was a detailed review of past experience in developing and testing modern nuclear weapons, their certification and recertification processes, their performance margins, and evidence of aging or other trends over time for each weapon type in the enduring stockpile. The findings, as summarized in Conclusions 1 through 6, are consistent with US agreement to enter into a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) of unending duration, that includes a standard ``supreme national interest`` clause. Recognizing that the challenge of maintaining an effective nuclear stockpile for an indefinite period without benefit of underground tests is an important and also a new one, the US should affirm its readiness to invoke the supreme national interest clause should the need arise as a result of unanticipated technical problems in the enduring stockpile.

  2. Corrosion testing in flash tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.J.; Stead, N.J.

    1999-07-01

    As kraft pulp mills adopt modified cooking processes, an increasing amount of corrosion of carbon steel digester systems is being encountered. Many mills have had severe corrosion in the flash tanks, in particular, the first ({number{underscore}sign}1) flash tank. The work described in this report was aimed at characterizing the corrosion. Coupons of carbon steel, several stainless steels and titanium were exposed at two mills. At mill A, identical sets of coupons were exposed in the {number{underscore}sign}1 and {number{underscore}sign}2 flash tank. At mill B, three identical sets of coupons were placed in flash tank {number{underscore}sign}1. The results of the exposures showed that both carbon steel and titanium suffered high rates of general corrosion, while the stainless steels suffered varying degrees of localized attack. The ranking of the resistance of corrosion in the flash tank was the same ranking as would be expected in a reducing acid environment. In the light of the coupon results, organic acids is concluded to be the most likely cause of corrosion of the flash tanks.

  3. Electrochemical corrosion testing: An effective tool for corrosion inhibitor evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, L.S.; Van de Ven, P.; Mowlem, J.K.

    1996-10-01

    Corrosivity of an Antifreeze/Coolant can lead to localized attacks which are a major cause for metal failure. To prevent this phenomenon, specific corrosion inhibitors are used to protect the different metals in service. This paper will discuss the electrochemical principles behind corrosion, Realized corrosion and corrosion inhibition. It will also discuss electrochemical techniques which allow for the evaluation of these inhibitors.

  4. Corrosion tests in Hawaiian geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen-Basse, J.; Lam, Kam-Fai

    1984-01-01

    Exposure tests were conductd in binary geothermal brine on the island of Hawaii. The steam which flashes from the high pressure, high temperature water as it is brought to ambient pressure contains substantial amounts of H{sub 2}S. In the absence of oxygen this steam is only moderately aggressive but in the aerated state it is highly aggressive to carbon steels and copper alloys. The liquid after flasing is intermediately aggressive. The Hawaiian fluid is unique in chemistry and corrosion behavior; its corrosiveness is relatively mild for a geothermal fluid falling close to the Iceland-type resources. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2003-08-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a reasonably high alkali content, thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was well within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that the aggressive alkali-iron-trisulfate constituent was present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section C, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. The analysis of Test Section C followed much the same protocol that was employed in the assessment of Test Section A. Again, the focus was on determining and documenting the relative corrosion rates of the candidate materials. The detailed results of the investigation are included in this report as a series of twelve appendices. Each appendix is devoted to the performance of one of the candidate alloys. The table below summarizes metal loss rate for the worst case sample of each of the candidate materials for both Test Sections A and C

  6. Corrosion tests in the Marchwood geothermal borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. F.

    1982-03-01

    Corrosion tests in the high salinity brine produced during a production test at the Marchwood borehole. These tests were intended to obtain preliminary information on the corrosion of a range of metals and alloys most likely to be used for downhole service, heat exchangers and associated equipment, if hot water from this aquifer is used to provide a long-term energy source. Specimens of appropriate candidate materials were exposed to flowing brine in the surface pipework and also downhole at a depth of 663 m. The brine was pumped to the surface by a multi-stage electric submersible pump. The downhole specimens, which were installed with the pump, were exposed for a period of 83 days. The surface specimens were exposed during the well production test for 33.3 days. The product brine was around three times sea water concentration, at a temperature of 72 C and pH 6.2.

  7. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  8. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  9. 49 CFR 192.469 - External corrosion control: Test stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: Test stations. 192.469... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.469 External corrosion control: Test stations. Each pipeline under cathodic...

  10. 49 CFR 192.469 - External corrosion control: Test stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: Test stations. 192.469... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.469 External corrosion control: Test stations. Each pipeline under cathodic...

  11. 49 CFR 192.469 - External corrosion control: Test stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: Test stations. 192.469... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.469 External corrosion control: Test stations. Each pipeline under cathodic...

  12. 49 CFR 192.469 - External corrosion control: Test stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: Test stations. 192.469... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.469 External corrosion control: Test stations. Each pipeline under cathodic...

  13. 49 CFR 192.469 - External corrosion control: Test stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Test stations. 192.469... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.469 External corrosion control: Test stations. Each pipeline under cathodic...

  14. CORROSION TESTING IN SIMULATED TANK SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.

    2010-12-09

    Three simulated waste solutions representing wastes from tanks SY-102 (high nitrate, modified to exceed guidance limits), AN-107, and AY-102 were supplied by PNNL. Out of the three solutions tested, both optical and electrochemical results show that carbon steel samples corroded much faster in SY-102 (high nitrate) than in the other two solutions with lower ratios of nitrate to nitrite. The effect of the surface preparation was not as strong as the effect of solution chemistry. In areas with pristine mill-scale surface, no corrosion occurred even in the SY-102 (high nitrate) solution, however, corrosion occurred in the areas where the mill-scale was damaged or flaked off due to machining. Localized corrosion in the form of pitting in the vapor space of tank walls is an ongoing challenge to overcome in maintaining the structural integrity of the liquid waste tanks at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. It has been shown that the liquid waste condensate chemistry influences the amount of corrosion that occurs along the walls of the storage tanks. To minimize pitting corrosion, an effort is underway to gain an understanding of the pitting response in various simulated waste solutions. Electrochemical testing has been used as an accelerated tool in the investigation of pitting corrosion. While significant effort has been undertaken to evaluate the pitting susceptibility of carbon steel in various simulated waste solutions, additional effort is needed to evaluate the effect of liquid waste supernates from six Hanford Site tanks (AY-101, AY-102, AN-102, AN-107, SY-102 (high Cl{sup -}), and SY-102 (high nitrate)) on carbon steel. Solutions were formulated at PNNL to replicate tank conditions, and in the case of SY-102, exceed Cl{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} conditions, respectively, to provide a contrast between in and out of specification limits. The majority of previous testing has been performed on pristine polished samples. To evaluate the actual tank carbon steel

  15. Alternative Neutron Detection Testing Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-04-08

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. Most currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large area neutron detector. This type of neutron detector is used in the TSA and other RPMs installed in international locations and in the Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation RPMs deployed primarily for domestic applications. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated wavelength-shifting plastic fibers. Reported here is a summary of the testing carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on these technologies to date, as well as measurements on 3He tubes at various pressures. Details on these measurements are available in the referenced reports. Sponsors of these tests include the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory funds.

  16. Accelerated Test Method for Corrosion Protective Coatings Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Calle, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a new accelerated corrosion test method that predicts the long-term corrosion protection performance of spaceport structure coatings as accurately and reliably as current long-term atmospheric exposure tests. This new accelerated test method will shorten the time needed to evaluate the corrosion protection performance of coatings for NASA's critical ground support structures. Lifetime prediction for spaceport structure coatings has a 5-year qualification cycle using atmospheric exposure. Current accelerated corrosion tests often provide false positives and negatives for coating performance, do not correlate to atmospheric corrosion exposure results, and do not correlate with atmospheric exposure timescales for lifetime prediction.

  17. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    DOEpatents

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  18. Summary of Glue Tests 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, D.; /Fermilab

    1993-01-07

    I have reported most of the results of my adhesive testing to members of the VLPC design team at one time or another, usually verbally, but I am wnnng this summary as an easy reference to the results I obtained. The adhesives I tested were for two primary purposes. The first was adhering optical fibers to Torlon 7130; the other was for securing an aluminum nitride substrate to the same material. I have not had access to a scanning electron microscope and someone with the knowledge to determine actual failure mechanisms, so the deductions I have made about why some adhesives have worked well at low temperatures for some purposes and not for other applications while a different material never worked and another always worked are partially speculation. They should be taken merely at face value with no particular results 'carved in stone' so to speak. The first aspect of my testing was adhesion of optical fiber to torlon. Knowing that this is a very important joint, I tested a variety of glues of two primary types: acrylic and W cure. W cure adhesives are known to possess reasonably good properties at low temperatures and are quite convenient to use as long as a W source is available. The W cure adhesives I tested were: Loctite Utak 376 and also 7EN484(?), Master Bond 1 Component W 15-7, and Norland optical adhesive 61. I found them quite easy to use, and they were packaged in a way in which they were not likely to cause a mess. Lab 6 e Perimenters generally used the Loctite 376 optical cure adhesive in their research into connecting scintillating fibers to the standard type. The acrylics I tested were Loctite Speed Bonder 324 and Permabond Quick Bond 610. These worked reasonably well, but they require a considerably longer set time than the W cure adhesives and are more complicated to use. (5 minutes set time or so for the acrylics versus about 30 seconds for the W. The Loctite must have the activator applied about 5 minutes prior to the adhesive application and the

  19. Electrochemical Corrosion Testing of Neutron Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tedd Lister; Ron Mizia; Arnold Erickson; Tammy Trowbridge

    2007-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of crevice-corrosion tests for six alloys in solutions representative of ionic compositions inside the Yucca Mountain waste package should a breech occur. The alloys in these tests are Neutronit A978a (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled), Neutrosorb Plus 304B4 Grade Ab (powder metallurgy, hot rolled), Neutrosorb Plus 304B5 Grade Ab (powder metallurgy, hot rolled), Neutrosorb Plus 304B6 Grade Ab (powder metallurgy, hot rolled), Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy2 (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled), and Alloy 22 (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled).

  20. Development of an artificial climatic complex accelerated corrosion tester and investigation of complex accelerated corrosion test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Li, M.; Sun, Z. )

    1999-05-01

    During recent decades, accelerated corrosion test equipment and methods simulating atmospheric corrosion have been developed to incorporate the many factors involved in complex accelerated corrosion. A new accelerated corrosion tester was developed to simulate various kinds of atmospheric corrosion environments. The equipment can be used to simulate various types of atmospheric corrosion environments with up to eight factors and can be used to carry out 18 kinds of standard corrosion and environmental tasks.

  1. Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerone C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of metal-based structures has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites to determine corrosion resistance in marine environments. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions of the corrosive environment. Their success for correlation to atmospheric exposure is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated laboratory testing, which often focuses on the electrochemical reactions that occur during corrosion conditions, has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long term service life of a metal despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard and their use is imperative, a method that correlates timescales from atmospheric exposure to accelerated testing would be very valuable. This work uses surface chemistry to interpret the chemical changes occurring on low carbon steel during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions with the objective of finding a correlation between its accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The current results of correlating data from marine atmospheric exposure conditions at the Kennedy Space Center beachside corrosion test site, alternating seawater spray, and immersion in typical electrochemical laboratory conditions, will be presented. Key words: atmospheric exposure, accelerated corrosion testing, alternating seawater spray, marine, correlation, seawater, carbon steel, long-term corrosion performance prediction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  2. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2007-12-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that

  3. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D K

    2003-04-22

    The "Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program" is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy's Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles' Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.

  4. Long Term Corrosion/Degradation Test Six Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Adler Flitton; C. W. Bishop; M. E. Delwiche; T. S. Yoder

    2004-09-01

    The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains neutron-activated metals from non-fuel, nuclear reactor core components. The Long-Term Corrosion/Degradation (LTCD) Test is designed to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements to the environment. The test is using two proven, industry-standard methods—direct corrosion testing using metal coupons, and monitored corrosion testing using electrical/resistance probes—to determine corrosion rates for various metal alloys generally representing the metals of interest buried at the SDA, including Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, Beryllium S200F, Aluminum 6061, Zircaloy-4, low-carbon steel, and Ferralium 255. In the direct testing, metal coupons are retrieved for corrosion evaluation after having been buried in SDA backfill soil and exposed to natural SDA environmental conditions for times ranging from one year to as many as 32 years, depending on research needs and funding availability. In the monitored testing, electrical/resistance probes buried in SDA backfill soil will provide corrosion data for the duration of the test or until the probes fail. This report provides an update describing the current status of the test and documents results to date. Data from the one-year and three-year results are also included, for comparison and evaluation of trends. In the six-year results, most metals being tested showed extremely low measurable rates of general corrosion. For Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, and Ferralium 255, corrosion rates fell in the range of “no reportable” to 0.0002 mils per year (MPY). Corrosion rates for Zircaloy-4 ranged from no measurable corrosion to 0.0001 MPY. These rates are two orders of magnitude lower than those specified in

  5. A study on corrosion test methods for automotive steel sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Miyoshi, Y.; Kitayama, M.; Ito, Y.; Koyahara, H.

    1984-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of an automobile body caused by de-icing salt was classified into various corrosion phenomena, of which paint exfoliation and perforation were studied fundamentally. There are 2 types of paint exfoliation. One is paint adhesion, where underfilm corrosion plays a decisive role. Another is wet adhesion, where water immersion through the paint film into the paint/substrate interface is important. Perforation corrosion can be simulated by corrosion test using lapped panel specimens. CCT conditions which should be applied for all exposure tests were determined on the basis of experimental data.

  6. 49 CFR 192.471 - External corrosion control: Test leads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: Test leads. 192.471... Control § 192.471 External corrosion control: Test leads. (a) Each test lead wire must be connected to the pipeline so as to remain mechanically secure and electrically conductive. (b) Each test lead wire must...

  7. 49 CFR 192.471 - External corrosion control: Test leads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: Test leads. 192.471... Control § 192.471 External corrosion control: Test leads. (a) Each test lead wire must be connected to the pipeline so as to remain mechanically secure and electrically conductive. (b) Each test lead wire must...

  8. 49 CFR 192.471 - External corrosion control: Test leads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: Test leads. 192.471... Control § 192.471 External corrosion control: Test leads. (a) Each test lead wire must be connected to the pipeline so as to remain mechanically secure and electrically conductive. (b) Each test lead wire must...

  9. 49 CFR 192.471 - External corrosion control: Test leads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: Test leads. 192.471... Control § 192.471 External corrosion control: Test leads. (a) Each test lead wire must be connected to the pipeline so as to remain mechanically secure and electrically conductive. (b) Each test lead wire must...

  10. 49 CFR 192.471 - External corrosion control: Test leads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Test leads. 192.471... Control § 192.471 External corrosion control: Test leads. (a) Each test lead wire must be connected to the pipeline so as to remain mechanically secure and electrically conductive. (b) Each test lead wire must...

  11. NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF CORROSION UNDER COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface corrosion on aluminum aircraft skins, nears joints and around fasteners is often an indicator of buried structural corrosion and cracking. Aircraft paints are routinely removed to reveal the presence of corrosion on the surface of metal structures, and the aircraft is su...

  12. The iron powder test for naphthenic acid corrosion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, J.L.; Yepez, O.; Specht, M.I.; Lorenzo, R.

    1999-11-01

    In the course of an ongoing investigation into the phenomenon of naphthenic acid corrosion, a new test method has evolved and is currently being further developed to substitute the total acid number (TAN or neutralization number) as an indicator for naphthenic acid corrosion potential. It can also be used to complement conventional autoclave corrosion tests in high temperature environments, which are based on weight loss of steel coupons. In this new method an oil sample reacts with pure iron powder within an autoclave heated to the testing temperature. The result is based on the amount of dissolved iron found in the oil sample. The oil sample can dissolve an amount of iron for a given time at a given temperature, depending on the naphthenic acid corrosion, since these acids react with iron to produce oil soluble iron naphthenates. This paper describes the method, compares it with conventional crude corrosiveness testing, and proposes it as a new way of measuring naphthenic acid corrosion potential.

  13. Acceptance Test Plan for Fourth-Generation Corrosion Monitoring Cabinet

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-10-23

    This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the third-generation corrosion monitoring cabinet (Hiline Engineering Part No.0004-CHM-072-C01). This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer of the cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinet. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation.

  14. Corrosion of spent Advanced Test Reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.B.; Croson, M.L.

    1994-11-01

    The results of a study of the condition of spent nuclear fuel elements from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) currently being stored underwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are presented. This study was motivated by a need to estimate the corrosion behavior of dried, spent ATR fuel elements during dry storage for periods up to 50 years. The study indicated that the condition of spent ATR fuel elements currently stored underwater at the INEL is not very well known. Based on the limited data and observed corrosion behavior in the reactor and in underwater storage, it was concluded that many of the fuel elements currently stored under water in the facility called ICPP-603 FSF are in a degraded condition, and it is probable that many have breached cladding. The anticipated dehydration behavior of corroded spent ATR fuel elements was also studied, and a list of issues to be addressed by fuel element characterization before and after forced drying of the fuel elements and during dry storage is presented.

  15. Synthetic seawater as stress-corrosion test medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    Seawater minimizes pitting corrosion of aluminum-alloy test samples. Of three corrosion-inhibiting methods evaluated using (a) chromate inhibitors in saltwater, (b) surface treating sample via anodizing or alodine treatment, and (c) synthetic seawater, synthetic seawater was most effective test medium, since it is more uniform than fresh seawater.

  16. An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Coston, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory test method that is only mildly corrosive to aluminum and discriminating for use in classifying the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys is presented along with the method used in evaluating the media selected for testing. The proposed medium is easier to prepare and less expensive than substitute ocean water.

  17. Selectable-Tip Corrosion-Testing Electrochemical Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomness, Janice; Hintze, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The figure depicts aspects of an electrochemical cell for pitting- corrosion tests of material specimens. The cell is designed to generate a region of corrosion having a pit diameter determined by the diameter of a selectable tip. The average depth of corrosion is controlled by controlling the total electric charge passing through the cell in a test. The cell is also designed to produce minimal artifacts associated with crevice corrosion. There are three selectable tips, having diameters of 0.1 in. (0.254 cm), 0.3 in. (0.762 cm), and 0.6 in. (1.524 cm), respectively.

  18. Prestressed concrete pipe corrosion research: A summary of a decade of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.C.; Mathew, I.; Sheng, Q.

    1996-11-01

    Prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP) is used in water and waste water systems that serve virtually every major city in North America. Although not required in most conditions, various methods area available to effectively provide corrosion resistance. Recommendations for corrosion control in various environments are provided by several associations, manufacturers, and corrosion engineering firms. They include supplemental coatings, latex addition to mortar, and cathodic protection. The data, results, and reasoning to support the recommendations are often not available in the literature. This paper provides a summary of research performed during the past decade on mortar coating and prestressing wire. It includes information on reduction of chloride penetration by mortar mix design and addition of latex, chloride diffusion through the mortar coating, chloride content required to cause corrosion of the prestressing wire, inhibition of corrosion by lubricants present on prestressing wire, practicality of using organically-coated prestressing wire, inhibition of corrosion by lubricants present on prestressing wire, practicality of using organically-coated prestressing wire, corrosion prevention properties of steel in mortar subjected to stray current, usefulness of potential monitoring techniques, supplemental protection using barrier coatings, cathodic protection requirements, and hydrogen embrittlement concerns.

  19. Corrosion testing of urea-formaldehyde foam insulating material

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, R.; Graviano, A.; Sheppard, K.

    1980-09-01

    Two tests of the corrosiveness of urea-formaldehyde (UF) foam insulating materials were compared. One test, the Timm test, had test coupons foamed in place. In the second, the Canadian test, blocks of foam already set were placed in contact with test coupons. The Timm test uses 10 gage thick coupons, while the Canadian test specifies 3 mil thick ones. Two samples of UF foam were tested by the Timm and the Canadian tests. The electrical-resistance probes showed that the corrosion rate against steel was initially quite high, of the order of 12 to 20 mpy (mils per year). After about 20 days, the rate was almost zero. In the Timm test, the corrosion rates of steel coupons were of the order to 0.5 to 2 mpy when averaged over the 28 or 56 day test period. The greater corrosion rate of the thick coupons in the Canadian test as well as poor reproducibility of the corrosion rates was attributed primarily to variations in the contact areas between the sample and the UF foam. The corrosion rates of galvanized steel coupons in the Canadian test in several cases exceeded the failure value. In the Timm test, the corrosion rates averaged over the whole test period were quite low. The corrosion rates of copper and aluminum in both tests were quite low. On the basis of the results of this study the following recommendations for a corrosion-test procedure for UF foam were made: two corrosion tests should be conducted, one for foam while curing and one after it has stabilized; the Timm test for corrosiveness while curing should be used, but for only 1 to 2 days; the test for corrosiveness after stabilizing should be of the accelerated type such as the Canadian one. To insure a constant-contact area, thicker coupons should be used; and the coupons for both tests should have a controlled part of the area not in contact with the foam to simulate field conditions.

  20. Fabrication of Test Tubes for Coal Ash Corrosion Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Judkins, R.R.; Sikka, V.K.; Swindeman, R.W.; Wright, I.G.

    1999-05-11

    This paper deals with the fabrication of tube sections of four alloys for incorporating into test sections to be assembled by Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) for installation at Ohio Edison Power, Niles Plant. The primary purpose of the installation was to determine the corrosion behavior of ten different alloys for flue gas corrosion. Ohio Edison Power, Niles Plant is burning an Ohio coal containing approximately 3.4% S (dry basis) and approximately 0.4% alkali which causes chronic coal ash corrosion of the unit�s superheater tubing. The 2.5-in.-OD x 0.4in.-wall x 6-in-long sections of four alloys {type 304H coated with Fe3Al alloy FAS [developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)], 310 + Ta, modified 800H, and Thermie alloy} were fabricated at ORNL. Each alloy tubing was characterized in terms of chemical analysis and microstructure. The machined tubes of each of the alloys were inspected and shipped on time for incorporation into the test loop fabricated at B&W. Among the alloys fabricated, Thermie was the hardest to extrude and machine.

  1. Corrosion Embrittlement of Duralumin II Accelerated Corrosion Tests and the Behavior of High-Strength Aluminum Alloys of Different Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawdon, Henry S

    1928-01-01

    The permanence, with respect to corrosion, of light aluminum alloy sheets of the duralumin type, that is, heat-treatable alloys containing Cu, Mg, Mn, and Si is discussed. Alloys of this type are subject to surface corrosion and corrosion of the interior by intercrystalline paths. Results are given of accelerated corrosion tests, tensile tests, the effect on corrosion of various alloying elements and heat treatments, electrical resistance measurements, and X-ray examinations.

  2. NASA's Beachside Corrosion Test Site and Current Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Control Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard W.; Calle, Luz Marina; Johnston, Frederick; Montgomery, Eliza L.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    NASA began corrosion studies at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term corrosion protective coatings for carbon steel. KSC's Beachside Corrosion Test Site (BCTS), which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring, environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acid ic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous studies have identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosive environment at the launch pad. This paper presents a historical overview of over 45 years of corrosion and coating evaluation studies and a description of the BCTS's current capabilities. Additionally, current research and testing programs involving chromium free coatings, environmentally friendly corrosion preventative compounds, and alternates to nitric acid passivation will be discussed.

  3. Double shell slurry low-temperature corrosion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Divine, J.R.; Bowen, W.M.; McPartland, S.A.; Elmore, R.P.; Engel, D.W.

    1983-09-01

    A series of year-long tests have been completed on potential double shell slurry (DSS) compositions at temperatures up to 100/sup 0/C. These tests have sought data on uniform corrosion, pitting, and stress-corrosion cracking. No indication of the latter two types of corrosion were observed within the test matrix. Corrosion rates after four months were generally below the 1 mpy (25 ..mu..m/y) design limit. By the end of twelve months all results were below this limit and, except for very concentrated mixtures, all were below 0.5 mpy. Prediction equations were generated from a model fitted to the data. The equations provide a rapid means of estimating the corrosion rate for proposed DSS compositions.

  4. Acceptance Test Report for Fourth Generation Hanford Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-10-23

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) will document the satisfactory operation of the corrosion probe cabinets destined for installation on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. This ATR will be performed by the manufacturer on each cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinets to be installed on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. One cabinet will be installed on each tank. Each cabinet will contain corrosion monitoring hardware to be connected to existing corrosion probes already installed in each tank. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation (input a known signal and see if the instrumentation records the proper value).

  5. Acceptance test plan for fourth generation Hanford corrosion monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-07-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the corrosion probe cabinets destined for installation on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer on each cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinets to be installed on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. One cabinet will be installed on each tank. Each cabinet will contain corrosion monitoring hardware to be connected to existing corrosion probes already installed in each tank. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation (input a known signal and see if the instrumentation records the proper value).

  6. In-situ corrosion sensor for coating, testing and screening

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.D.; Dacres, C.M.; Krebs, L.A.

    2000-02-01

    An in-situ corrosion censor facilitates coating development and screening by detecting the early stages of corrosion well before degradation is visible. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the sensor extends the use of this established laboratory technique from immersion only to different accelerated test conditions (such as salt fog or humidity) and ambient service environments. By enabling a direct quantitative comparison of the early stages of coating deterioration and substrate corrosion that occur in laboratory accelerated tests and service or field conditions, the laboratory tests can be validated and coatings screened more quickly.

  7. Undervehicle corrosion testing of zinc and zinc alloy coated steels

    SciTech Connect

    Neville, R.J.; de Souza, K.M.

    1986-12-01

    Undervehicle and on-vehicle coupon corrosion test programs are initiated by Dofasco Inc. in 1981, using two commercial trucks operated in the deicing salt/snow belt area of Southern Ontario, Canada. The purpose was to investigate the relative corrosion performance of numerous zinc and zinc alloy coated steels. Seventeen coated steels were tested. Results to date indicate that the hot dip coated steels with the thicker coatings are outperforming the electrolytic coated steels in both the unpainted and phosphated/cathodic primed conditions. Fully painted on-vehicle test coupons show minimal corrosion and little difference to date.

  8. Z-1 Prototype Space Suit Testing Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy J.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Space Suit team of the NASA-Johnson Space Center performed a series of test with the Z-1 prototype space suit in 2012. This paper discusses, at a summary level, the tests performed and results from those tests. The purpose of the tests were two -fold: 1) characterize the suit performance so that the data could be used in the downselection of components for the Z -2 Space Suit and 2) develop interfaces with the suitport and exploration vehicles through pressurized suit evaluations. Tests performed included isolated and functional range of motion data capture, Z-1 waist and hip testing, joint torque testing, CO2 washout testing, fit checks and subject familiarizations, an exploration vehicle aft deck and suitport controls interface evaluation, delta pressure suitport tests including pressurized suit don and doff, and gross mobility and suitport ingress and egress demonstrations in reduced gravity. Lessons learned specific to the Z -1 prototype and to suit testing techniques will be presented.

  9. Evaluation of corrosion testing techniques for selection of corrosion resistant alloys for sour gas service

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavsar, R.B.; Hibner, E.L.

    1996-08-01

    Slow strain rate (SSR) and C-ring stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests have historically been used to screen alloys for sour gas environments. The relevance of these testing techniques in predicting actual field corrosion behavior was evaluated for age-hardenable nickel base alloy 925 (UNS N09925) and alloy 718 (UNS N07718). While SSR testing provides an acceptable accelerated screening tool for ranking alloys in sour oil field environments, C-ring SCC testing ranks alloys higher in sour environments than SSR testing.

  10. Nevada Test Site Environmental Summary Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2006 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and its satellite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  11. Nevada Test Site Summary 2006 (Volume 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security-related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2006 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and its satellite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  12. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2007 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  13. Corrosion Testing of Brazed Space Station IATCS Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohlman, Matthew J.; Varisik, Jerry; Steele, John W.; Golden, Johnny L.; Boyce, William E.; Pedley, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Increased nickel concentrations in the IATCS coolant prompted a study of the corrosion rates of nickel-brazed heat exchangers in the system. The testing has shown that corrosion is occurring in a silicon-rich intermetallic phase in the braze filler of coldplates and heat exchangers as the result of a decrease in the coolant pH brought about by cabin carbon dioxide permeation through polymeric flexhoses. Similar corrosion is occurring in the EMU de-ionized water loop. Certain heat exchangers and coldplates have more silicon-rich phase because of their manufacturing method, and those units produce more nickel corrosion product. Silver biocide additions did not induce pitting corrosion at silver precipitate sites.

  14. Evaluation of annual corrosion tests for aggressive water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubová, V.; Ilavský, J.; Barloková, D.

    2011-12-01

    Internal corrosion has a significant effect on the useful life of pipes, the hydraulic conditions of a distribution system and the quality of the water transported. All water is corrosive under some conditions, and the level of this corrosion depends on the physical and chemical properties of the water and properties of the pipe material. Galvanic treatment is an innovation for protecting against corrosion, and this method is also suitable for removal of water stone too. This method consists of the electrogalvanic principle, which is generated by the flowing of water between a zinc anode and the cupro-alloy cover of a column. This article presents experimental corrosion tests at water resource Pernek (This water resource-well marked as HL-1 is close to the Pernek of village), where the device is operating based on this principle.

  15. [Stress-corrosion test of TIG welded CP-Ti].

    PubMed

    Li, H; Wang, Y; Zhou, Z; Meng, X; Liang, Q; Zhang, X; Zhao, Y

    2000-12-01

    In this study TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welded CP-Ti were subjected to stress-corrosion test under 261 MPa in artificial saliva of 37 degrees C for 3 months. No significant difference was noted on mechanical test (P > 0.05). No color-changed and no micro-crack on the sample's surface yet. These results indicate that TIG welded CP-Ti offers excellent resistance to stress corrosion. PMID:11211846

  16. A Milder Solution for Stress-Corrosion Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Coston, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    In search for mild corrosive, 14 different salt solutions screened in alternate-immersion tests on 3 aluminum alloys. Best results were obtained with NaCl/MgCl2 solution and with synthetic seawater (contains nearly same proportions of NaCl and MgCl2 along with precise, minute amounts of eight other salts). Because solution is less expensive than artificial seawater, it is probably preferred for future stress-corrosion-cracking (SCC) testing.

  17. Localized Corrosion of Alloy 22 -Fabrication Effects-FY05 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2005-10-06

    This report deals with the impact of fabrication processes on the localized corrosion behavior of Alloy 22 (N06022). The four fabrication processes that were analyzed are: (1) Surface stress mitigation of final closure weld, (2) Manufacturing of the mockup container, (3) Black annealing of the container and (4) Use of different heats of Alloy 22 for container fabrication. Immersion and Electrochemical tests performed in the laboratory are generally aggressive and do not represent actual repository environments in Yucca Mountain. For example, to determine the intergranular attack in the heat affected zone of a weldment, tests are conducted in boiling acidic and oxidizing solutions according to ASTM standards. These solutions are used to compare the behavior of differently treated metallic coupons. Similarly for electrochemical tests many times pure sodium chloride or calcium chloride solutions are used. Pure chloride solutions are not representative of the repository environment. (1) Surface Stress Mitigation--When metallic plates are welded, for example using the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) method, residual tensile stresses may develop in the vicinity of the weld seam. Processes such as Low Plasticity Burnishing (LPB) and Laser Shock Peening (LSP) could be applied locally to eliminate the residual stresses produced by welding. In this study, Alloy 22 plates were welded and then the above-mentioned surface treatments were applied to eliminate the residual tensile stresses. The aim of the current study was to comparatively test the corrosion behavior of as-welded (ASW) plates with the corrosion behavior of plates with stress mitigated surfaces. Immersion and electrochemical tests were performed. Results from both immersion and electrochemical corrosion tests show that the corrosion resistance of the mitigated plates was not affected by the surface treatments applied. (2) Behavior of Specimens from a Mockup container--Alloy 22 has been extensively tested for

  18. Electrochemical Corrosion Testing of Borated Stainless Steel Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    lister, tedd e; Mizia, Ronald E

    2007-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has specified borated stainless steel manufactured to the requirements of ASTM A 887-89, Grade A, UNS S30464, to be the material used for the fabrication of the fuel basket internals of the preliminary transportation, aging, and disposal canister system preliminary design. The long-term corrosion resistance performance of this class of borated materials must be verified when exposed to expected YMP repository conditions after a waste package breach. Electrochemical corrosion tests were performed on crevice corrosion coupons of Type 304 B4 and Type 304 B5 borated stainless steels exposed to single postulated in-package chemistry at 60°C. The results show low corrosion rates for the test period

  19. Electrochemical Corrosion Testing of Borated Stainless Steel Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    lister, tedd e; Mizia, Ronald E

    2007-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has specified borated stainless steel manufactured to the requirements of ASTM A 887-89, Grade A, UNS S30464, to be the material used for the fabrication of the fuel basket internals of the preliminary transportation, aging, and disposal canister system preliminary design. The long-term corrosion resistance performance of this class of borated materials must be verified when exposed to expected YMP repository conditions after a waste package breach. Electrochemical corrosion tests were performed on crevice corrosion coupons of Type 304 B4 and Type 304 B5 borated stainless steels exposed to single postulated in-package chemistry at 60°C. The results show low corrosion rates for the test period

  20. Corrosion testing of candidates for the alkaline fuel cell cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Joseph; Fielder, William L.

    1990-01-01

    Current/voltage data have been obtained for specially made corrosion electrodes of some oxides and of gold materials for the purpose of developing a screening test of catalysts and supports for use at the cathode of the alkaline fuel cell. The data consist of measurements of current at fixed potentials and cyclic voltammograms. These data will have to be correlated with longtime performance data in order to evaluate fully this approach to corrosion screening.

  1. Nickel-hydrogen Cell Test Program Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, V. C.

    1985-01-01

    Three prototype 50 ampere-hour (Ah) nickel-hydrogen cells of the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AWFAL) design were cycled to failure. A summary of the life cycling tests and failure analyses of the cells are presented. The cells were cycled in a simulated low earth orbit regime at depths of discharge ranging from 25 to 80 percent. Trend data, such as end of discharge voltage and cell capacity, was recorded during test. Cells 1, 2, and 3 completed 17167, 2473, and 10080 charge/discharge cycles, respectively, prior to failure. All failed due to internal shorts, and were disassembled to determine cause of failure.

  2. Z-1 Prototype Space Suit Testing Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Space Suit team of the NASA-Johnson Space Center performed a series of test with the Z-1 prototype space suit in 2012. This paper discusses, at a summary level, the tests performed and results from those tests. The purpose of the tests were two-fold: 1) characterize the suit performance so that the data could be used in the downselection of components for the Z-2 Space Suit and 2) develop interfaces with the suitport and exploration vehicles through pressurized suit evaluations. Tests performed included isolated and functional range of motion data capture, Z-1 waist and hip testing, joint torque testing, CO2 washout testing, fit checks and subject familiarizations, an exploration vehicle aft deck and suitport controls interface evaluation, delta pressure suitport tests including pressurized suit don and doff, and gross mobility and suitport ingress and egress demonstrations in reduced gravity. Lessons learned specific to the Z-1 prototype and to suit testing techniques will be presented.

  3. Accelerated atmospheric corrosion testing of electroplated gold mirror coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, C.-T.; Alaan, D. R.; Taylor, D. P.

    2010-08-01

    Gold-coated mirrors are widely used in infrared optics for industrial, space, and military applications. These mirrors are often made of aluminum or beryllium substrates with polished nickel plating. Gold is deposited on the nickel layer by either electroplating or vacuum deposition processes. Atmospheric corrosion of gold-coated electrical connectors and contacts was a well-known problem in the electronic industry and studied extensively. However, there is limited literature data that correlates atmospheric corrosion to the optical properties of gold mirror coatings. In this paper, the atmospheric corrosion of different electroplated gold mirror coatings were investigated with an accelerated mixed flowing gas (MFG) test for up to 50 days. The MFG test utilizes a combination of low-level air pollutants, humidity, and temperatures to achieve a simulated indoor environment. Depending on the gold coating thickness, pore corrosion started to appear on samples after about 10 days of the MFG exposure. The corrosion behavior of the gold mirror coatings demonstrated the porous nature of the electroplated gold coatings as well as the variation of porosity to the coating thickness. The changes of optical properties of the gold mirrors were correlated to the morphology of corrosion features on the mirror surface.

  4. Corrosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabaugh, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some materials for use in demonstration and experimentation of corrosion processes, including corrosion stimulation and inhibition. Indicates that basic concepts of electrochemistry, crystal structure, and kinetics can be extended to practical chemistry through corrosion explanation. (CC)

  5. Replaceable blade turbine and stationary specimen corrosion testing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Calfo, F. D.

    1985-01-01

    A facility was constructed to provide relatively low cost testing of hot section turbine blade and vane materials under hot corrosion conditions more akin to service environments. The facility consists of a small combustor whose pressurized gas flow can be directed to either a test section consisting of three small cascaded specimens or to a partial admittance single-stage axial flow turbine. The turbine rotor contains 28 replaceable turbine blades. The combustion gases resulting from the burning of Jet A-l fuel can be seeded with measured amounts of alkali salts. This facility is described here along with preliminary corrosion test results obtained during the final checkout of the facility.

  6. High temperature aqueous stress corrosion testing device

    DOEpatents

    Bornstein, A.N.; Indig, M.E.

    1975-12-01

    A description is given of a device for stressing tensile samples contained within a high temperature, high pressure aqueous environment, thereby permitting determination of stress corrosion susceptibility of materials in a simple way. The stressing device couples an external piston to an internal tensile sample via a pull rod, with stresses being applied to the sample by pressurizing the piston. The device contains a fitting/seal arrangement including Teflon and weld seals which allow sealing of the internal system pressure and the external piston pressure. The fitting/seal arrangement allows free movement of the pull rod and the piston.

  7. 16 CFR 1209.5 - Test procedures for corrosiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... water film should become gradually thinner at the top and heavier at the bottom.) Hot air dry the... level using the bottom of a clean suitably sized glass beaker. Place a metal coupon onto the... Evaluating Corrosion Test Specimens,” published by American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916...

  8. EXPERT PANEL OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE ASSESSMENT OF FY2008 CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING SIMULANT TESTING PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    BOOMER KD

    2009-01-08

    The Expert Panel Oversight Committee (EPOC) has been overseeing the implementation of selected parts of Recommendation III of the final report, Expert Panel workshop for Hanford Site Double-Shell Tank Waste Chemistry Optimization, RPP-RPT-22126. Recommendation III provided four specific requirements necessary for Panel approval of a proposal to revise the chemistry control limits for the Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs). One of the more significant requirements was successful performance of an accelerated stress corrosion cracking (SCC) experimental program. This testing program has evaluated the optimization of the chemistry controls to prevent corrosion in the interstitial liquid and supernatant regions of the DSTs.

  9. Construction and testing of a flue-gas corrosion probe

    SciTech Connect

    Federer, J.I.; McEvers, J.A.

    1990-08-01

    The selection of suitable materials for industrial, waste-heat- recovery systems requires assessment of corrosion of materials in various flue-gas environments. Such assessments involve exposing candidate materials to high-temperature flue gases and analyzing the effects of the exposure conditions. Because corrosion is related to flue-gas chemical composition and temperature, variations in temperature complicate the determination of corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms. Conversely, a relatively constant temperature allows a more accurate determination of the effects of exposure conditions. For this reason, controlled-temperature flue-gas corrosion probes were constructed and tested for exposure tests of materials. A prototype probe consisted of a silicon carbide tube specimen, supporting hardware, and instrumentation for controlling temperature by internal heating and cooling. An advanced probe included other tubular specimens. Testing of the probes in an industrial-type furnace at a nominal flue-gas temperature of 1200{degree}C revealed that temperature control was inadequate. The cooling mode imposed a substantial axial-temperature gradient on the specimens; while the heating mode imposed a smaller gradient, the heating capacity was very limited. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NNSA/NSO prepares the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) to provide the public an understanding of the environmental monitoring and compliance activities that are conducted on the NTS to protect the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. This summary provides an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER. It does not contain detailed descriptions or presentations of monitoring designs, data collection methods, data tables, the NTS environment, or all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  11. In-place filter testing summary

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, J.P.; Garcia, E.D.; Ortega, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    The most common method of identifying particle penetration through a filter or adsorber system is through the performance of a periodic penetration test, i.e., in-place test or leak test using an aerosol or gas vapor to challenge the filter or adsorber system. The aerosol is usually formed by vaporization of a liquid, di-2(ethelhexyl sebacate) (DEHS), and allowed to condense to form liquid particles of a certain size and distribution. The gas vapor is formed by vaporization of Freon 11 liquid. The periodic penetration test, although conducted annually, can and has been demonstrated to show the beginning degradation of a filter or adsorber system. Other evidence of penetration can include detection of radiation downstream of the filter system or the existence of an unusually low pressure drop across the filter, i.e., torn filter, etc. However, these kinds of occurrences show up instantaneously and could release radioactive material to the atmosphere before the systems could be shut down. When a filter system fails the in--place test or is showing evidence of.filter or component degradation, corrective measures are put into place in order to return,the system back to its best operating condition. This report presents a summary of all filter tests.

  12. License plate cosmetic corrosion test of automotive coated steel sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, H.E.; Simpson, M.W.; McCune, D.C.

    1999-04-01

    A new standard laboratory test (SAE J2334) for evaluation of the cosmetic corrosion resistance of autobody steel sheet has been developed through the joint efforts of the Society of Automotive Engineers Automotive Corrosion Prevention Committee (SAE/ACAP) and the Auto/Steel Partnership (A/SP) Corrosion Task Force. Results from this test gave an excellent correlation with those of on-vehicle tests conducted for 5 years in Canada at St. John`s, Newfoundland, and Montreal, Quebec. To determine how results of the Canadian tests related to environments in the United States, racks of identical materials were mounted on the front license plate brackets of cars driven in various locations in the US snowbelt, including Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; Detroit, Michigan, and Chardon, Ohio. After 4 years to 5 years, these tests showed the US environments produced less scribe creep and more red rust than those conducted in Canada. Similar rankings were obtained for the scribe creep resistance of the various coated steel sheet products when compared at equivalent amounts of corrosion. However, the ranking of materials changed at longer exposure times in Canada, and for that reason, it was concluded that the 5-year Canadian results used in the development of the SAE J2334 test provided a better real-world performance standard.

  13. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Shen, Dejiu

    2016-08-01

    The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  14. In-situ electrochemical study of corrosion of steel and aluminum/steel couples during cyclic corrosion test

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, G.

    1998-12-31

    Use of aluminum alloys for automotive applications is growing steadily. Galvanic corrosion is a major concern for those alloys. Because of the predominate use of steels in the automotive industry, the majority of accelerated test procedures commonly accepted by the industry are designed for cosmetic corrosion and perforation of steels. SAE 52334 and Ford Arizona Proving Ground (Ford APG) tests are two examples. Adopting those tests for galvanic corrosion of Al alloys without any fundamental understanding of the process may lead to misleading results. In this paper, electrochemical studies were conducted to examine the acceleration effects of several parameters on different types of corrosion. Galvanic corrosion of aluminum 6111 alloy and cold rolled steel (Al/ CRS) couples and general corrosion of cold rolled steel substrates were studied.

  15. Accelerated corrosion test for aluminum-zinc alloy coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, T.C. . Homer Research Labs.)

    1993-07-01

    An electrochemically monitored etching method has been developed to enable accelerated service life testing of aluminum/zinc alloy coatings with a dendritic microstructure. The method involved pre-exposure of materials to the etching solution to remove the most active phases from the coatings. This process simulated the early phases of atmospheric corrosion. The method significantly shortened the time required for an atmospheric exposure test. Historical performance data and data collected using the accelerated test method agreed.

  16. 16 CFR 1209.5 - Test procedures for corrosiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... determined using the following formula: ml distilled water = 46 / (settled density, Kg/m 3) × 75 or ml distilled water = 2.9 / (settled density, lb/ft 3) × 75 (4) Presaturate each 10g (0.35 oz) portion with the.... Cellulose insulation shall be tested for corrosiveness using the measured settled density, obtained...

  17. Assessing corrosion problems in photovoltaic cells via electrochemical stress testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalaby, H.

    1985-01-01

    A series of accelerated electrochemical experiments to study the degradation properties of polyvinylbutyral-encapsulated silicon solar cells has been carried out. The cells' electrical performance with silk screen-silver and nickel-solder contacts was evaluated. The degradation mechanism was shown to be electrochemical corrosion of the cell contacts; metallization elements migrate into the encapsulating material, which acts as an ionic conducting medium. The corrosion products form a conductive path which results in a gradual loss of the insulation characteristics of the encapsulant. The precipitation of corrosion products in the encapsulant also contributes to its discoloration which in turn leads to a reduction in its transparency and the consequent optical loss. Delamination of the encapsulating layers could be attributed to electrochemical gas evolution reactions. The usefulness of the testing technique in qualitatively establishing a reliability difference between metallizations and antireflection coating types is demonstrated.

  18. Internal corrosion testing of aluminum radiator tube alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.; Hindin, B.S.

    1998-12-31

    Aluminum radiator tubes must have several demanding properties to be successful including good heat transfer, high strength to withstand internal pressures, brazeability for attaching external fins and headers, corrosion resistance to cooling fluids, and long service life. Tubes having a wall thickness of approximately 320 microns (11.8 mils) must meet all these properties. A modified simulated service test (SST) of various aluminum radiator tube alloys was conducted to determine how well coolant-side alloys of eight different composite materials resisted corrosion. Both coupons and actual radiator tubes were used in these tests. Coolant-side alloys that were examined included 1145, low-copper 7072, low-iron 3003, 3003 plus zinc, and 3005. The results of these tests indicate that corrosion will tend to proceed laterally along the tube surface when it is anodic to the core alloy. A coolant-side alloy consisting of 3003 plus zinc exhibited advantages over 7072 because its pit density was lower. The role of microstructure in the corrosion behavior of composite brazing sheets is discussed.

  19. Comparative Stress Corrosion Cracking and General Corrosion Resistance of Annealed and Hardened 440 C Stainless Steel - New Techniques in Stress Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendreck, M. J.; Hurless, B. E.; Torres, P. D.; Danford, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    The corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) characteristics of annealed and hardened 440C stainless steel were evaluated in high humidity and 3.5-percent NaCl solution. Corrosion testing consisted of an evaluation of flat plates, with and without grease, in high humidity, as well as electrochemical testing in 3.5-percent NaCl. Stress corrosion testing consisted of conventional, constant strain, smooth bar testing in high humidity in addition to two relatively new techniques under evaluation at MSFC. These techniques involve either incremental or constant rate increases in the load applied to a precracked SE(B) specimen, monitoring the crack-opening-displacement response for indications of crack growth. The electrochemical corrosion testing demonstrated an order of magnitude greater general corrosion rate in the annealed 440C. All techniques for stress corrosion testing showed substantially better SCC resistance in the annealed material. The efficacy of the new techniques for stress corrosion testing was demonstrated both by the savings in time and the ability to better quantify SCC data.

  20. Status of coal ash corrosion resistant materials test program

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Meisenhelter, D.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1999-07-01

    In November of 1998, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) began development of a system to permit testing of several advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam conditions of 1100 F and higher in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B and W, and First Energy's Ohio Edison jointly fund the project. CONSOL Energy Company is also participating as an advisor. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. The coal-ash corrosion resistant materials test program will provide full scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater and reheater tube materials. These newer materials may be capable of operating at higher steam temperatures while resisting external/fire-side corrosion. For high sulfur coal applications, this is a key issue for advanced cycle pulverized coal-fired plants. Fireside corrosion is also a critical issue for many existing plants. Previous testing of high temperature materials in the United States has been based primarily on using laboratory test coupons. The test coupons did not operate at conditions representative of a high sulfur coal-fired boiler. Testing outside of the United States has been with low sulfur coal or natural gas firing and has not addressed corrosion issues. This test program takes place in an actual operating boiler and is expected to confirm the performance of these materials with high sulfur coal. The system consists of three identical sections, each containing multiple pieces of twelve different materials. They are cooled by reheater steam, and are located just above the furnace exit in Ohio Edison's Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. After one year of operation, the first section will be removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation. The second and third sections will operate for three and

  1. Fiscal Year 2004 Summary Report: General Corrosion and Passive Film Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, C A; Gray, J; Hayes, J; Wong, L; Rebak, R; Carroll, S; Harper, J; Gdowski, G

    2004-12-09

    This report summarizes both general corrosion Alloy 22 from 60 to 220 C and the stability of the passive film from 60 to 90 C over a range of solution compositions that are relevant to the in in-drift chemical environment at the waste package surface. The general corrosion rates were determined by weightloss measurements in a range of complex solutions representing the evaporation of seepage water and more concentrated brines representing brines formed by the deliquescence of dust deposited on the canisters. These data represent the first weightloss measurements performed by the program at temperatures above 90 C. The low corrosion rates of Alloy 22 are attributed to the protective oxide film that forms at the metal surface. In this report, changes in the oxide composition are correlated with weightloss at the higher temperatures (140 related 140-220 C) where film characterization had not been previously performed. The stability of the oxide film was further analyzed by conducted a series of electrochemical tests in progressively more aggressive acid solutions to measure the general corrosion rates in solutions that mimic crevice or pit environments.

  2. [Corrosion testing of high level radioactive waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Alloys under consideration as candidates for the high level nuclear waste containers at Yucca Mountain were exposed to a range of corrosion conditions and their performance measured. The alloys tested were Incoloy 825, 70/30 Copper-Nickel, Monel 400, Hastelloy C- 22, and low carbon steel. The test conditions varied were: temperature, concentration, agitation, and crevice simulation. Only in the case of carbon steel was significant attack noted. This attack appeared to be transport limited.

  3. Corrosion fatigue boiler tube failures in waterwalls and economizers. Volume 1, Field Survey Summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, D.; Sidey, D.

    1992-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue is a cracking mechanism initiating on the inside surface of water-touched boiler tubing at locations subject to high fatigue stresses, usually at pressure/nonpressure attachments. The mechanism is considered one of the last major sources of boiler tube failures in subcritical drum-type boilers without a root cause solution. The Electric Power Research Institute initiated a study to derive solutions to corrosion fatigue for in-service boilers and guidelines for the design of new boilers. The study consisted of a number of tasks including a survey of industry experience, field testing, theoretical stress analysis, and laboratory testing. The present volume summarizes the survey results. Ten subcritical drum-type boilers participated in the survey. The procedure involved a review of maintenance and boiler water chemistry history, and a detailed inspection of the boiler.

  4. Durability Tests of a Fiber Optic Corrosion Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Kai Tai; Leung, Christopher K.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Steel corrosion is a major cause of degradation in reinforced concrete structures, and there is a need to develop cost-effective methods to detect the initiation of corrosion in such structures. This paper presents a low cost, easy to use fiber optic corrosion sensor for practical application. Thin iron film is deposited on the end surface of a cleaved optical fiber by sputtering. When light is sent into the fiber, most of it is reflected by the coating. If the surrounding environment is corrosive, the film is corroded and the intensity of the reflected signal drops significantly. In previous work, the sensing principle was verified by various experiments in laboratory and a packaging method was introduced. In this paper, the method of multiplexing several sensors by optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) and optical splitter is introduced, together with the interpretation of OTDR results. The practical applicability of the proposed sensors is demonstrated in a three-year field trial with the sensors installed in an aggressive marine environment. The durability of the sensor against chemical degradation and physical degradation is also verified by accelerated life test and freeze-thaw cycling test, respectively. PMID:22737030

  5. Durability tests of a fiber optic corrosion sensor.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kai Tai; Leung, Christopher K Y

    2012-01-01

    Steel corrosion is a major cause of degradation in reinforced concrete structures, and there is a need to develop cost-effective methods to detect the initiation of corrosion in such structures. This paper presents a low cost, easy to use fiber optic corrosion sensor for practical application. Thin iron film is deposited on the end surface of a cleaved optical fiber by sputtering. When light is sent into the fiber, most of it is reflected by the coating. If the surrounding environment is corrosive, the film is corroded and the intensity of the reflected signal drops significantly. In previous work, the sensing principle was verified by various experiments in laboratory and a packaging method was introduced. In this paper, the method of multiplexing several sensors by optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) and optical splitter is introduced, together with the interpretation of OTDR results. The practical applicability of the proposed sensors is demonstrated in a three-year field trial with the sensors installed in an aggressive marine environment. The durability of the sensor against chemical degradation and physical degradation is also verified by accelerated life test and freeze-thaw cycling test, respectively. PMID:22737030

  6. 16 CFR 1610.3 - Summary of test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary of test method. 1610.3 Section 1610.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.3 Summary of test method. The Standard provides methods of testing the flammability...

  7. Corrosion testing of candidates for the alkaline fuel cell cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Joseph; Fielder, William L.

    1989-01-01

    It is desirable to employ a corrosion screening test for catalyst or support candidates for the fuel cell cathode before entering upon optimization of the candidate or of the catalytic electrode. To this end, corrosion test electrodes, intended for complete immersion and maximum wetting, have been made with 30 to 40 vol. pct Teflon; with perovskites this is about 10 to 15 pct. The candidates were synthesized by methods intended for single-phase product without special emphasis on high surface area, although the substances tested were no coarser than 2 m squared/g. A typical loading was 25 mg/cm sq of the pure substance, usually on gold screen, a few mm squared of which were left bare for contacting. Contact to the gold lead wire was made by welding with a micro-torch or a spot-welder. Corrosion testing consisted of obtaining current-voltage data under flowing inert gas in the potential region for reduction of O2. The electrode was immersed in 30 pct KOH. Observations were made at 20 C and 80 C, and the results compared with data from gold standards. Results with some perovskites, pyrochlores, spinels, and interstitial compounds will be discussed.

  8. Corrosion testing of candidates for the alkaline fuel cell cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Joseph; Fielder, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Current/voltage data was obtained for specially made corrosion electrodes of some oxides and of gold materials for the purpose of developing a screening test of catalysts and supports for use at the cathode of the alkaline fuel cell. The data consists of measurements of current at fixed potentials and cyclic voltammograms. These data will have to be correlated with longtime performance data in order to fully evaluate this approach to corrosion screening. Corrosion test screening of candidates for the oxygen reduction electrode of the alkaline fuel cell was applied to two substances, the pyrochlore Pb2Ru2O6.5 and the spinel NiCo2O4. The substrate gold screen and a sample of the IFC Orbiter Pt-Au performance electrode were included as blanks. The pyrochlore data indicate relative stability, although nothing yet can be said about long term stability. The spinel was plainly unstable. For this type of testing to be validated, comparisons will have to be made with long term performance tests.

  9. Reproduction of natural corrosion by accelerated laboratory testing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.S.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-05-01

    Various laboratory corrosion tests have been developed to study the behavior of glass waste forms under conditions similar to those expected in an engineered repository. The data generated by laboratory experiments are useful for understanding corrosion mechanisms and for developing chemical models to predict the long-term behavior of glass. However, it is challenging to demonstrate that these test methods produce results that can be directly related to projecting the behavior of glass waste forms over time periods of thousands of years. One method to build confidence in the applicability of the test methods is to study the natural processes that have been taking place over very long periods in environments similar to those of the repository. In this paper, we discuss whether accelerated testing methods alter the fundamental mechanisms of glass corrosion by comparing the alteration patterns that occur in naturally altered glasses with those that occur in accelerated laboratory environments. This comparison is done by (1) describing the alteration of glasses reacted in nature over long periods of time and in accelerated laboratory environments and (2) establishing the reaction kinetics of naturally altered glass and laboratory reacted glass waste forms.

  10. Corrosion resistance tests on NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, G

    1996-10-01

    The corrosion performances of NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) in human body simulating fluids were evaluated in comparison with other implant materials. As for the passivity current in potentiostatic conditions, taken as an index of ion release, the values are about three times higher for NiTi than for Ti6Al4V and austenitic stainless steels. Regarding the localized corrosion, while plain potentiodynamic scans indicated for NiTi alloy good resistance to pitting attack similar to Ti6Al4V, tests in which the passive film is abruptly damaged (i.e. potentiostatic scratch test and modified ASTM F746) pointed out that the characteristics of the passive film formed on NiTi alloy (whose strength can be related to the alloy's biocompatibility) are not as good as those on Ti6Al4V but are comparable or inferior to those on austenitic stainless steels. PMID:8894095

  11. Corrosion Tests of LWR Fuels - Nuclide Release

    SciTech Connect

    P.A. Finn; Y. Tsai; J.C. Cunnane

    2001-12-14

    Two BWR fuels [64 and 71 (MWd)/kgU], one of which contained 2% Gd, and two PWR fuels [30 and 45 (MWd)/kgU], are tested by dripping groundwater on the fuels under oxidizing and hydrologically unsaturated conditions for times ranging from 2.4 to 8.2 yr at 90 C. The {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 97}Mo, and {sup 90}Sr releases are presented to show the effects of long reaction times and of gadolinium on nuclide release. This investigation showed that the five nuclides at long reaction times have similar fractional release rates and that the presence of 2% Gd reduced the {sup 99}Tc cumulative release fraction by about an order of magnitude over that of a fuel with a similar burnup.

  12. Corrosion erosion test of SS316 in flowing Pb Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, K.; Kurata, Y.; Saito, S.; Futakawa, M.; Sasa, T.; Oigawa, H.; Wakai, E.; Miura, K.

    2003-05-01

    Corrosion tests of austenitic stainless tube were done under flowing Pb-Bi conditions for 3000 h at 450 °C. Specimens were 316SS produced as a tubing form with 13.8 mm outer diameter, 2 mm thickness and 40 cm length. During operation, maximum temperature, temperature difference and flow velocity of Pb-Bi at the specimen were kept at 450, 50 °C, and 1 m/s, respectively. After the test, specimen and components of the loop were cut and examined by optical microscope, SEM, EDX, WDX and X-ray diffraction. Pb-Bi adhered on the surface of the specimen even after Pb-Bi was drained out to the storage tank from the circulating loop. Results differed from a stagnant corrosion test in that the specimen surface became rough and the corrosion rate was maximally 0.1 mm/3000 h. Mass transfer from the high temperature to the lower temperature area was observed: crystals of Fe-Cr were found on the tube surface in the low-temperature region. The sizes of crystals varied from 0.1 to 0.2 mm. The depositing crystals were ferrite grains and the chemical composition ratio (mass%) of Fe to Cr was 9:1.

  13. CISN Testing Center ShakeAlert Performance Summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maechling, P. J.; Liukis, M.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    SCEC and CISN ShakeAlert researchers have developed an operational testing system for the CISN ShakeAlert system called the CISN Testing Center (CTC). The CTC generates two main types of ShakeAlert performance summaries: (1) Event Summaries (for each significant California event), and (2) Cumulative Summaries (for ShakeAlert system performance over a specific period of time). Event Summaries are generated for each M3.0 and larger ANSS catalog California earthquake. Event Summaries show performance of the individual ShakeAlert algorithms, and the performance of the Decision Module that sends the public communications. Cumulative Summaries show ShakeAlert performance for a given earthquake catalog. In general, CTC Cumulative Summaries compare ShakeAlert forecast parameters, such as location and magnitude, against final observed parameters in the ANSS earthquake catalog. The CTC processing system uses the SCEC CSEP open-source scientific testing framework to automate the test processing. This testing framework provides tools to retrieve catalog data retrieval for ANSS and other catalog sources, software utilities for filtering earthquake catalogs by region and magnitude, and utilities for automating performance summary generation. The CTC system calculates performance summaries for the CISN ShakeAlert system on a daily basis. Each day, twenty-four hours of California earthquakes are retrieved from the ANSS catalog, and the testing center retrieves ShakeAlert logs for each event, and compares the forecasts to the observations. The CTC testing approach is intended to be open, transparent, and well defined so that all testing center results can be reproduced externally. The CTC ShakeAlert testing system provides standardized, and repeatable, testing of the ShakeAlert algorithms and decision modules, along with overall ShakeAlert system performance evaluation, providing robust testing capabilities with low development and operations cost by leveraging the capabilities of

  14. Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing - Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of metals to predict service life of metal-based structures in corrosive environments has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions similar to those of the corrosive environment. Their reliability to correlate to atmospheric exposure test results is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated corrosion testing has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long-term service life of a metal, despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard, and their use is crucial, a method that correlates timescales from accelerated testing to atmospheric exposure would be very valuable. This paper presents work that began with the characterization of the atmospheric environment at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Beachside Corrosion Test Site. The chemical changes that occur on low carbon steel, during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions, were investigated using surface chemistry analytical methods. The corrosion rates and behaviors of panels subjected to long-term and accelerated corrosion conditions, involving neutral salt fog and alternating seawater spray, were compared to identify possible timescale correlations between accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The results, as well as preliminary findings on the correlation investigation, are presented.

  15. LIQUID AIR INTERFACE CORROSION TESTING FOR FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.

    2010-12-16

    An experimental study was undertaken to investigate the corrosivity to carbon steel of the liquid-air interface of dilute simulated radioactive waste solutions. Open-circuit potentials were measured on ASTM A537 carbon steel specimens located slightly above, at, and below the liquid-air interface of simulated waste solutions. The 0.12-inch-diameter specimens used in the study were sized to respond to the assumed distinctive chemical environment of the liquid-air interface, where localized corrosion in poorly inhibited solutions may frequently be observed. The practical inhibition of such localized corrosion in liquid radioactive waste storage tanks is based on empirical testing and a model of a liquid-air interface environment that is made more corrosive than the underlying bulk liquid due to chemical changes brought about by absorbed atmospheric carbon dioxide. The chemical changes were assumed to create a more corrosive open-circuit potential in carbon in contact with the liquid-air interface. Arrays of 4 small specimens spaced about 0.3 in. apart were partially immersed so that one specimen contacted the top of the meniscus of the test solution. Two specimens contacted the bulk liquid below the meniscus and one specimen was positioned in the vapor space above the meniscus. Measurements were carried out for up to 16 hours to ensure steady-state had been obtained. The results showed that there was no significant difference in open-circuit potentials between the meniscus-contact specimens and the bulk-liquid-contact specimens. With the measurement technique employed, no difference was detected between the electrochemical conditions of the meniscus versus the bulk liquid. Stable open-circuit potentials were measured on the specimen located in the vapor space above the meniscus, showing that there existed an electrochemical connection through a thin film of solution extending up from the meniscus. This observation supports the Hobbs-Wallace model of the development

  16. SUMMARY REPORT ON CORROSIVITY STUDIES IN COINCINERATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corrosion probe exposures were conducted in the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Incinerator to determine the effects of burning low-chloride sewage sludge with municipal refuse. Probes having controlled temperature gradients were used to measure corrosion rates for exposure times up to ...

  17. Electrode holder useful in a corrosion testing device

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Jr., Robert J.; Jamison, Dale E.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for holding one or more test electrodes of precisely known exposed surface area. The present invention is particularly useful in a device for determining the corrosion properties of the materials from which the test electrodes have been formed. The present invention relates to a device and method for holding the described electrodes wherein the exposed surface area of the electrodes is only infinitesimally decreased. Further, in the present invention the exposed, electrically conductive surface area of the contact devices is small relative to the test electrode surface area. The holder of the present invention conveniently comprises a device for contacting and engaging each test electrode at two point contacts infinitesimally small in relation to the exposed surface area of the electrodes.

  18. Electrode holder useful in a corrosion testing device

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, R.J. Jr.; Jamison, D.E.

    1986-08-19

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for holding one or more test electrodes of precisely known exposed surface area. The present invention is particularly useful in a device for determining the corrosion properties of the materials from which the test electrodes have been formed. The present invention relates to a device and method for holding the described electrodes wherein the exposed surface area of the electrodes is only infinitesimally decreased. Further, in the present invention the exposed, electrically conductive surface area of the contact devices is small relative to the test electrode surface area. The holder of the present invention conveniently comprises a device for contacting and engaging each test electrode at two point contacts infinitesimally small in relation to the exposed surface area of the electrodes. 4 figs.

  19. A rapid stress-corrosion test for aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfrich, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Stressed alloy specimens are immersed in a salt-dichromate solution at 60 degrees C. Because of the minimal general corrosion of these alloys in this solution, stress corrosion failures are detected by low-power microscopic examination.

  20. Development of an Accelerated Test Method for the Determination of Susceptibility to Atmospheric Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, John R.

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical rationale is presented for use of a repetitive cyclic current reversal voltammetric technique for characterization of localized corrosion processes, including atmospheric corrosion. Applicability of this proposed experimental protocol is applied to characterization of susceptibility to crevice and pitting corrosion, atmospheric corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Criteria upon which relative susceptibility is based were determined and tested using two iron based alloys commonly in use at NASA-Kennedy; A36 (a low carbon steel) and 4130 (a low alloy steel). Practicality of the procedure was demonstrated by measuring changes in anodic polarization behavior during high frequency current reversal cycles of 25 cycles per second with 1 mA/sq cm current density amplitude in solutions containing Cl anions. The results demonstrated that, due to excessive polarization which affects conductivity of barrier corrosion product layers, A36 was less resistant to atmospheric corrosion than its 4130 counterpart; behavior which was also demonstrated during exposure tests.

  1. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings was exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy are being exposed for 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after approximately 4,400 hours of exposure.

  2. Testing and prediction of erosion-corrosion for corrosion resistant alloys used in the oil and gas production industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon, Hernan E.

    The corrosion behavior of CRAs has been thoroughly investigated and documented in the public literature by many researchers; however, little work has been done to investigate erosion-corrosion of such alloys. When sand particles are entrained in the flow, the degradation mechanism is different from that observed for sand-free corrosive environment. There is a need in the oil and gas industry to define safe service limits for utilization of such materials. The effects of flow conditions, sand rate, pH and temperature on the erosion-corrosion of CRAs were widely studied. An extensive experimental work was conducted using scratch tests and flow loop tests using several experimental techniques. At high erosivity conditions, a synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion was observed. Under the high sand rate conditions tested, erosivity is severe enough to damage the passive layer protecting the CRA thereby enhancing the corrosion rate. In most cases there is likely a competition between the rates of protective film removal due to mechanical erosion and protective film healing. Synergism occurs for each of the three alloys examined (13Cr and Super13Cr and 22Cr); however, the degree of synergism is quite different for the three alloys and may not be significant for 22Cr for field conditions where erosivities are typically much lower that those occurring in the small bore loop used in this research. Predictions of the corrosion component of erosion-corrosion based on scratch test data compared reasonably well to test results from flow loops for the three CRAs at high erosivity conditions. Second order behavior appears to be an appropriate and useful model for representing the repassivation process of CRAs. A framework for a procedure to predict penetration rates for erosion-corrosion conditions was developed based on the second order model behavior observed for the re-healing process of the passive film of CRAs and on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations

  3. Relationships between stress corrosion cracking tests and utility operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Allen

    1999-10-22

    Several utility steam generator and stress corrosion cracking databases are synthesized with the view of identifying the crevice chemistry that is most consistent with the plant cracking data. Superheated steam and neutral solution environments are found to be inconsistent with the large variations in the observed SCC between different plants, different support plates within a plant, and different crevice locations. While the eddy current response of laboratory tests performed with caustic chemistries approximates the response of the most extensively affected steam generator tubes, the crack propagation kinetics in these tests differ horn plant experience. The observations suggest that there is a gradual conversion of the environment responsible for most steam generator ODSCC from a concentrated, alkaline-forming solution to a progressively more steam-enriched environment.

  4. Acceptance Test Report for Fourth-Generation Hanford Corrosion Monitoring Cabinet

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-10-23

    This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the third-generation corrosion monitoring cabinet (Hiline Engineering Part No.0004-CHM-072-C01). This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer of the cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinet. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation.

  5. Summary of CPAS EDU Testing Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Leah M.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Davidson, John.; Engert, Meagan E.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Galaviz, Fernando S.; Galvin, Patrick J.; Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Orion program's Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is currently conducting its third generation of testing, the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series. This series utilizes two test articles, a dart-shaped Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and capsule-shaped Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), both of which include a full size, flight-like parachute system and require a pallet delivery system for aircraft extraction. To date, 15 tests have been completed, including six with PCDTVs and nine with PTVs. Two of the PTV tests included the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) provided by Lockheed Martin. Advancements in modeling techniques applicable to parachute fly-out, vehicle rate of descent, torque, and load train, also occurred during the EDU testing series. An upgrade from a composite to an independent parachute simulation allowed parachute modeling at a higher level of fidelity than during previous generations. The complexity of separating the test vehicles from their pallet delivery systems necessitated the use the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulator for modeling mated vehicle aircraft extraction and separation. This paper gives an overview of each EDU test and summarizes the development of CPAS analysis tools and techniques during EDU testing.

  6. Impact of corrosion test container material in molten fluorides

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Olson, Luke C.; Fuentes, Roderick E.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Ambrosek, James W.; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark H.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Gray, Joshua; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-10-15

    The effects of crucible material choice on alloy corrosion rates in immersion tests in molten LiF–NaF–KF (46.5–11.5-42 mol. %) salt held at 850 °C for 500 hrs are described. Four crucible materials were studied. Molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in graphite, Ni, Incoloy-800H, and pyrolytic boron nitride (PyBN) crucibles all led to weight-loss in the Incoloy-800H coupons. Alloy weight loss was ~30 times higher in the graphite and Ni crucibles in comparison to the Incoloy-800H and PyBN crucibles. It is hypothesized galvanic coupling between the alloy coupons and crucible materials contributed to the higher corrosion rates. Alloy salt immersion inmore » graphite and Ni crucibles had similar weight-loss hypothesized to occur due to the rate limiting out diffusion of Cr in the alloys to the surface where it reacts with and dissolves into the molten salt, followed by the reduction of Cr from solution at the molten salt and graphite/Ni interfaces. As a result, both the graphite and the Ni crucibles provided sinks for the Cr, in the formation of a Ni–Cr alloy in the case of the Ni crucible, and Cr carbide in the case of the graphite crucible.« less

  7. Impact of corrosion test container material in molten fluorides

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Luke C.; Fuentes, Roderick E.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Ambrosek, James W.; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark H.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Gray, Joshua; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-10-15

    The effects of crucible material choice on alloy corrosion rates in immersion tests in molten LiF–NaF–KF (46.5–11.5-42 mol. %) salt held at 850 °C for 500 hrs are described. Four crucible materials were studied. Molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in graphite, Ni, Incoloy-800H, and pyrolytic boron nitride (PyBN) crucibles all led to weight-loss in the Incoloy-800H coupons. Alloy weight loss was ~30 times higher in the graphite and Ni crucibles in comparison to the Incoloy-800H and PyBN crucibles. It is hypothesized galvanic coupling between the alloy coupons and crucible materials contributed to the higher corrosion rates. Alloy salt immersion in graphite and Ni crucibles had similar weight-loss hypothesized to occur due to the rate limiting out diffusion of Cr in the alloys to the surface where it reacts with and dissolves into the molten salt, followed by the reduction of Cr from solution at the molten salt and graphite/Ni interfaces. As a result, both the graphite and the Ni crucibles provided sinks for the Cr, in the formation of a Ni–Cr alloy in the case of the Ni crucible, and Cr carbide in the case of the graphite crucible.

  8. Behavior of painted steel and aluminum sheet in laboratory corrosion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, H.E.

    1995-11-01

    Cold rolled steel, electrogalvanized steel (60 g/m{sup 2} coating), and three aluminum-alloy (2036, 5182, and 6111) sheet products were painted with a full automotive paint system. These materials were tested in two laboratory cyclic corrosion test environments, namely, GM9540Ps(B) and CCT-4. Resistance to cosmetic corrosion was measured in terms of underfilm paint delamination on scribed, flat panels. Crevice corrosion resistance was determined in terms of pitting on lapped panels of like materials, and galvanic corrosion resistance in terms of pitting on lapped panels of unlike materials. Cosmetic corrosion of the aluminum alloys was found to be much better than that of cold rolled, and slightly better than that of electrogalvanized steel. The CCT-IV test was found to be more severe than GM9540P(B) for cosmetic corrosion, but GM9540P(B) was more severe for galvanic corrosion. Galvanic current measurements indicate that the difference is related to the salt solutions used in each test. Aluminum alloys were found to be prone to crevice corrosion and to galvanic corrosion when coupled to steel. These results indicate that comparative evaluations of the corrosion resistance of these materials must take into account the possibility of crevice and galvanic effects.

  9. Corrosion test on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Curtis, P.G.

    1996-01-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials in order to assist in selecting materials for package design and to help in designing longer-term corrosion tests. The corrosion solution was buffered near pH4, was in contact with air, and contained chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90 C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel-, and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron absorber elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron absorber elements were studied.

  10. Summary of nondestructive testing theory and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, R. P.; Randall, M. D.; Mitchell, D. K.; Williams, L. P.; Pattee, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    The ability to fabricate design critical and man-rated aerospace structures using materials near the limits of their capabilities requires a comprehensive and dependable assurance program. The quality assurance program must rely heavily on nondestructive testing methods for thorough inspection to assess properties and quality of hardware items. A survey of nondestructive testing methods is presented to provide space program managers, supervisors and engineers who are unfamiliar with this technical area with appropriate insight into the commonly accepted nondestructive testing methods available, their interrelationships, used, advantages and limitations. Primary emphasis is placed on the most common methods: liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiography, ultrasonics and eddy current. A number of the newer test techniques including thermal, acoustic emission, holography, microwaves, eddy-sonic and exo-electron emission, which are beginning to be used in applications of interest to NASA, are also discussed briefly.

  11. Letter report on PCT/Monolith glass ceramic corrosion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Charles L.

    2015-09-24

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is collaborating with personnel from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to study advanced waste form glass ceramics for immobilization of waste from Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) separations processes. The glass ceramic waste forms take advantage of both crystalline and glassy phases where ‘troublesome’ elements (e.g., low solubility in glass or very long-lived) partition to highly durable ceramic phases with the remainder of elements residing in the glassy phase. The ceramic phases are tailored to create certain minerals or unique crystalline structures that can host the radionuclides by binding them in their specific crystalline network while not adversely impacting the residual glass network (Crum et al., 2011). Glass ceramics have been demonstrated using a scaled melter test performed in a pilot scale (1/4 scale) cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) (Crum et al., 2014; Maio et al., 2015). This report summarizes recent results from both Phase I and Phase II bench scale tests involving crucible fabrication and corrosion testing of glass ceramics using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). Preliminary results from both Phase I and Phase II bench scale tests involving statistically designed matrices have previously been reported (Crawford, 2013; Crawford, 2014).

  12. External corrosion of line pipe -- A summary of research activities performed since 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, T.R.; Wilmott, M.J.; Sutherby, R.L.; Worthington, R.G.

    1995-11-01

    External corrosion is a major threat to the integrity of gas transmission systems. This paper reviews corrosion and environmental cracking problems and their control based on more than twelve years of field and laboratory research work performed by a major Canadian gas transmission company. To protect against corrosion the company uses a dual system consisting of protective coatings and cathodic protection. Either of these systems operating properly can provide the protection necessary to prevent leaks and ruptures in line pipe. In some situations however coatings can fail in such a way as to shield a corrosion cell on the pipe surface under degraded coating from cathodic protection. Where the protective systems are thwarted, a variety of corrosion and cracking scenarios can lead to leaks and ruptures. These scenarios will be identified and assessed in terms of where they occur as well as their frequency and seriousness.

  13. Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop: Summary Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) designed and conducted the Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop on October 19 and 20, 2006, at the Environmental Protection Agency's Research Triangle Park, NC campus. The workshop was conducted as...

  14. Corrosion testing of Type 304L stainless steel for waste tank applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.J.; Mickalonis, J.I.

    1991-12-31

    AISI Type 304L stainless steel will be the material of construction for hazardous waste storage tanks. The corrosion behavior of 304L was characterized in simulated waste solutions using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and long term immersion tests. The results were correlated to assess the use of corrosion characteristics determined by electrochemical techniques for predicting long term corrosion behavior. The corrosion behaviors of Type A537 carbon steel and Incoloy 825 were also evaluated. A good correlation was found between the results from the electrochemical techniques and the immersion tests.

  15. Corrosion testing of Type 304L stainless steel for waste tank applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.J.; Mickalonis, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    AISI Type 304L stainless steel will be the material of construction for hazardous waste storage tanks. The corrosion behavior of 304L was characterized in simulated waste solutions using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and long term immersion tests. The results were correlated to assess the use of corrosion characteristics determined by electrochemical techniques for predicting long term corrosion behavior. The corrosion behaviors of Type A537 carbon steel and Incoloy 825 were also evaluated. A good correlation was found between the results from the electrochemical techniques and the immersion tests.

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of zirconium cladding tubes: I. Proximate local SCC testing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhnov, A. B.; Belov, V. A.; Nikulin, S. A.; Khanzhin, V. G.

    2010-10-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) methods of testing zirconium cladding tubes are analyzed. A proximate method is proposed for estimating SCC of fuel claddings claddings in a iodine-containing environment with a limited contact zone between a metal and corrosive medium and simultaneous measurement of acoustic emission (AE) from forming corrosion defects. Criteria of estimating the SCC resistance of the tubes are proposed from measured AE and corrosion damage of the tube material. The results of local SCC tests of cladding tubes of E110 and E635 zirconium alloys are presented.

  17. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in the natural gas industry. Annual report, January 1991-December 1991. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, D.H.

    1991-12-01

    The report presents results of 1991 work in the Gas Research Institute's program on microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the gas industry. A mechanistic model for MIC was developed which incorporated metallurgical, biological, chemical, andoperational factors. Supporting data from laboratory and field studies can be used with the MIC model to make informed choices regarding mitigation measures. Studies on coatings demonstrated the susceptibility of some coatings to accelerated disbondment due to MIC bacteria as well as cathodic disbondment at higher CP levels. Field and laboratory tests demonstrated that CP of sufficient potential, applied immediately and maintained throughout the test, combined with particular local enviornmental conditions protects against MIC. Targeted chemical biocide treatments (only at sites most likely to have internal MIC) performed in operating gas industry facilities resulted in more effective control at lower cost and reduced environmental and personnel exposure to toxic chemicals. A field guide for internal MIC/MIC mitigation, an instructional video tape on MIC in the gas industry, and a new field kit for the measurement of chemical species important to assessment of MIC and CP were developed.

  18. Corrosion tests in brine and steam from the Salton Sea KGRA

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.P.; McCawley, F.X.

    1982-03-01

    The Bureau of Mines tested 13 alloys for resistance to general corrosion, pitting corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking in the brine and steam environments produced from geothermal well Magmamax 1 in the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Resources Area in California. The tests provided seven process environments. The alloys most resistant to corrosion in all environments were Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, and stainless steel alloy 29-4. Hastelloys G and S were highly resistant to all types of corrosion decreases with time. The stainless steel alloys 430, E-Brite 26-1, and 6X had good resistance to general corrosion but were susceptible to pitting. Unstressed type 316 L stainless steel exhibited severe cracking. The 1020 carbon and 4130 alloy steels were the least resistant.

  19. LABORATORY TESTING TO SIMULATE VAPOR SPACE CORROSION IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Gray, J.

    2013-08-30

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 70 years at the Hanford nuclear facility. Vapor space corrosion of the tank walls has emerged as an ongoing challenge to overcome in maintaining the structural integrity of these tanks. The interaction between corrosive and inhibitor species in condensates/supernates on the tank wall above the liquid level, and their interaction with vapor phase constituents as the liquid evaporates from the tank wall influences the formation of corrosion products and the corrosion of the carbon steel. An effort is underway to gain an understanding of the mechanism of vapor space corrosion. Localized corrosion, in the form of pitting, is of particular interest in the vapor space. CPP testing was utilized to determine the susceptibility of the steel in a simulated vapor space environment. The tests also investigated the impact of ammonia gas in the vapor space area on the corrosion of the steel. Vapor space coupon tests were also performed to investigate the evolution of the corrosion products during longer term exposures. These tests were also conducted at vapor space ammonia levels of 50 and 550 ppm NH{sub 3} (0.005, and 0.055 vol.%) in air. Ammonia was shown to mitigate vapor space corrosion.

  20. Process Test Plan for 4TH Generation Hanford Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-06-20

    Instrumentation and cabinets for the 241-AN-107 and 241-AN-102 corrosion monitoring systems will be upgraded in FY 2000. The bulk of the field work involved in this task will involve placement of the corrosion monitoring data collection hardware closer to the risers that house the existing corrosion probes. This will be accomplished by placing a new climate controlled cabinet by the risers containing corrosion probes on these two tanks (one cabinet per tank). Once installed the systems will feed data back to a centralized corrosion monitoring station in the 241-AN-271 instrument building. The upgraded systems will be operated under the bounds of this Process Test Plan (PTP) for six principle reasons. These reasons were established prior to installing the original systems in 1997 (241-AN-107) and 1998 (241-AN-102). They are as follows: (1) Acquire corrosion data on the waste in 241-AN-107 and 241-AN-102. (2) Provide supporting data to the site's Integrity Assessment program. (3) Demonstrate that corrosion monitoring by evaluation of electrochemical noise data is possible in waste tank systems, particularly with regard to the detection of general corrosion and (if present) pitting and stress corrosion cracking. (4) Demonstrate the durability of the design of the corrosion monitoring equipment. (5) Extend tank life and reduce annual operations cost. (6) Provide basis to control corrosion in double shell tanks though the use of direct corrosion monitoring rather than waste sampling and analysis. The designs of the existing corrosion probes in 241-AN-107 and 241-AN-102 were reviewed and documented prior to the original installation activities in 1997 and 1998. Initial programmatic documentation for Hanford's corrosion monitoring program was also established prior to the original installation activities.

  1. Tonopah Test Range 2030 Meeting Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-04-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Closed, Closed in Place, or Closure in Progress. CASs and CAUs where contaminants were either not detected or were cleaned up to within regulatory action levels are summarized. CASs and CAUs where contaminants and/or waste have been closed in place are summarized. There is also a table that summarizes the contaminant that has been closed at each site, if land-use restrictions are present, and if post-closure inspections are required.

  2. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  3. Nuclear containment steel liner corrosion workshop : final summary and recommendation report.

    SciTech Connect

    Erler, Bryan A.; Weyers, Richard E.; Sagues, Alberto; Petti, Jason P.; Berke, Neal Steven; Naus, Dan J.

    2011-07-01

    This report documents the proceedings of an expert panel workshop conducted to evaluate the mechanisms of corrosion for the steel liner in nuclear containment buildings. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored this work which was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. A workshop was conducted at the NRC Headquarters in Rockville, Maryland on September 2 and 3, 2010. Due to the safety function performed by the liner, the expert panel was assembled in order to address the full range of issues that may contribute to liner corrosion. This report is focused on corrosion that initiates from the outer surface of the liner, the surface that is in contact with the concrete containment building wall. Liner corrosion initiating on the outer diameter (OD) surface has been identified at several nuclear power plants, always associated with foreign material left embedded in the concrete. The potential contributing factors to liner corrosion were broken into five areas for discussion during the workshop. Those include nuclear power plant design and operation, corrosion of steel in contact with concrete, concrete aging and degradation, concrete/steel non-destructive examination (NDE), and concrete repair and corrosion mitigation. This report also includes the expert panel member's recommendations for future research.

  4. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan: Annual summary, January 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan published in December of 1998 (DOE/NV--518) describes the Nevada Test Site stewardship mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. As part of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, DOE Nevada Operations Office has committed to perform and publish an annual summary review of DOE Nevada Operations' stewardship of the Nevada Test Site. This annual summary includes a description of progress made toward the goals of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, pertinent monitoring data, actions that were taken to adapt to changing conditions, and any other changes to the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan.

  5. DETERMINATION OF CORROSION INHIBITOR CRITERIA FOR TYPE III/IIIA TANKS DURING SALT DISSOLUTION OPERATIONS SUMMARY DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Wiersma, B.; Garcia-Diaz, B.

    2009-10-01

    Dissolution of salt from Type III/IIIA waste tanks at the Savannah River Site may create solutions with inhibitor concentrations below those currently required (0.6M OH{sup -} and 1.1M OH{sup -} + NO{sub 2}{sup -}) per the Corrosion Control Program for high nitrate salt solutions (5.5 to 8.5M NO{sub 3}{sup -}). An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of grade A537 carbon steel for waste simulants containing 4.5-8.5M NaNO{sub 3} with maximum inhibitor concentrations of 0.6M NaOH and 0.2M NaNO{sub 2}. These maximum inhibitor concentrations used in this program are at a reduced level from those currently required. Current requirements were initially established for the Types I, II and IV tanks made of A285 carbon steel. The experimental program involved corrosion testing to evaluate the pitting and stress corrosion stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of the Type III/IIIA waste tank materials. The program was conducted in two phases; the results of the first phase were reported previously (WSRC-STI-2006-00029). In this second phase, the corrosion specimens were modified to represent the 'as-fabricated' condition of the tank wall, and included specimens with mill scale, ground welds and stress-relief heat treatments. The complete description of the corrosion testing and the results are reported herein. The collective corrosion test results for A537 carbon steel in high nitrate waste simulants (4.5 - 8.5M) with the maximum inhibitor concentrations of 0.6M NaOH and 0.2M NaNO{sub 2} were as follows: (1) In long-term non-polarized U-bend testing, heat treatment, similar to the waste tank stress relief regime, reduced the incidence of cracking over the 18-month test period. Vapor space SCC was found to initiate on non-heat treated U-bend coupons. (2) In polarized U-bend testing, cracking occurred on U-bend coupons that had welds prepared similar to those in the waste tanks, i.e. ground and heat treated. (3) In electrochemical

  6. Corrosion Embrittlement of Duralumin V : Results of Weather-Exposure Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawdon, Henry S

    1929-01-01

    In a series of weather exposure tests of sheet duralumin, upon which accelerated corrosion tests in the laboratory by the wet-and-dry corrosion method in a sodium chloride solution has already been carried out, a close parallelism between the results of the two kinds of tests was found to exist. The exposure tests showed that the lack of permanence of sheet duralumin is largely, if not entirely, due to corrosion. A corrosion attack of an intercrystalline nature is very largely responsible for the degree of embrittlement produced. The rate of embrittlement was greatly accelerated by a marine atmosphere and by the tropical climate. Variations in corrosion and embrittlement are noted in relation to heat treatment, cold working, and types of protective coatings.

  7. Field Test of High Temperature Corrosion Sensors in a Waste to Energy Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Matthes, S.A.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Williamson, K.M.

    2008-03-16

    A field trial of electrochemical corrosion rate sensors was conducted over a five month period to monitor fireside corrosion in a waste to energy (WTE) plant. The unique 3-electrode air-cooled corrosion sensors, each including a thermocouple to monitor sensor temperature, were installed in four different ports at approximately the same level of the WTE boiler. A total of twelve sensors were tested, six with electrodes using the carbon steel boiler tube material, and six using the nickel-chromium weld overlay alloy for the electrodes. Corrosion rates and temperatures of the sensors were monitored continuously through the trial. Measurements of sensor thickness loss were used to calibrate the electrochemical corrosion rates. Air cooling of the sensors was found to be necessary in order to bring the sensors to the temperature of the boiler tubes, to better match the corrosion rate of the tubes, and to increase survivability of the sensors and thermocouples. Varying the temperature of the sensors simulated corrosion rates of boiler tubes with steam temperatures above and below that in the actual WTE plant. Temperatures of two of the sensors were successfully held at various controlled temperatures close to the steam temperature for a three hour test period. Corrosion rates of the two materials tested were similar although of different magnitude. An expression relating the corrosion rate of the boiler tube material to the corrosion rate of weld overlay was determined for a 7 day period in the middle of the field trial. Results from the field trial suggest that corrosion rate sensors controlled to the outer waterwall temperature can successfully monitor fireside corrosion in WTE plants and be used as a process control variable by plant operators.

  8. Field tests of corrosion and chemical sensors for geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robertus, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Sullivan, R.G.; Mackey, D.B.; Koski, O.H.; McBarron, F.O.; Duce, J.L.; Pierce, D.D.

    1986-03-01

    This report summarizes approximately two years of continuous monitoring of corrosion (and other variables that affect corrosion) in a 10-megawatt binary cycle geothermal power plant. The project goal was to develop methods for detecting adverse plant conditions soon enough to prevent equipment failures. The instruments tested were: (1) resistance-type corrosion probes; (2) linear polarization corrosion probes; (3) oxidation/reduction potential (ORP) probes for oxygen detection; (4) high-temperature pH electrodes; and (5) electrodeless conductivity cells for gas bubble detection.

  9. Correlation of steel corrosion in pipe flow with jet impingement and rotating cylinder tests

    SciTech Connect

    Efird, K.D.; Wright, E.J.; Boros, J.A.; Hailey, T.G.

    1993-12-01

    The relationship of laboratory fluid flow corrosion test techniques to flow-accelerated corrosion in field applications and the parameters required to apply laboratory data effectively in the field were studied. Single-phase, aqueous, sweet corrosion of steel in turbulent pipe flow was correlated to corrosion in jet impingement and rotating cylinder tests. All tests were conducted simultaneously, using the same test fluid to minimize environmental variables and to allow a direct, realistic comparison of test methods. Rotating cylinder electrode corrosion rates did not correlate with pipe flow based on wall shear stress or mass transfer for flow-accelerated corrosion of carbon (C) steel in the environment studied. Jet impingement corrosion rates for the test ring at r/r{sub 0} = 3 correlated with pipe flow based on wall shear stress. The general equation for flow-accelerated corrosion of C steel under turbulent flow conditions in this environment was expressed as: R = a{tau}{sub w}{sup b} where R was the C steel corrosion rate in mm/y and {tau}{sub w} was the wall shear stress in N/m{sup 2}. Effects of solution chemistry were contained in the equation coefficient and exponent and require further experimental definition. The physical fluid and hydrodynamic parameters were included in {tau}{sub w}. Use of wall shear stress as the correlating factor did not imply a shear mechanism for corrosion acceleration. Wall shear stress was found to be a hydrodynamic factor that can be used effectively to relate fluid flow in different geometries, allowing valid comparison of laboratory tests and field operations.

  10. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy

  11. Summary description of the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cabell, C.P.

    1980-12-01

    This document has been compiled and issued to provide an illustrated engineering summary description of the FFTF. The document is limited to a description of the plant and its functions, and does not cover the extensive associated programs that have been carried out in the fields of design, design analysis, safety analysis, fuels development, equipment development and testing, quality assurance, equipment fabrication, plant construction, acceptance testing, operations planning and training, and the like.

  12. Corrosion behavior of Alloy 22 in heated surface test conditions in simulated Yucca Mountain Nuclear Repository environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badwe, Sunil

    h and 800°C/100 h showed almost identical corrosion behaviors in the SAW environment. The specimen aged at 650°C/100 h showed lower corrosion resistance in the SAW environment indicating the effect of Mo-depletion profile near the grain boundaries. The specimen aged at 800°C for 100 h showed lower corrosion resistance in the SCW environment because of possible dissolution of the Mo-rich precipitates. Compared to the mill annealed condition, the aged specimens showed approximately an order of magnitude higher corrosion current in the SAW environment and almost similar corrosion currents in the SCW environment. Results also indicate that the passivity of Alloy 22, both in mill annealed and in aged conditions was not hampered during dry-out/rewet cycles. Presence of nitrate and other oxyanions in the SAW environment reduced the charge required to form a stable passive film of alloy 22 aged samples as compared to the charge passed in the pure chloride pH 3 environments. The passive film of the aged Alloy 22 specimens exposed to pure chloride solutions showed predominantly n-type semiconducting behavior and the on-set of p-type semiconductivity at higher potentials. The charge carrier density of the passive film of Alloy 22 varied in the range 1.5-9.0 x 10 21/cm3. The predominant charge carriers could be oxygen vacancies. Increase in the charge carrier density was observed in the specimen aged at 800°C/100 h when exposed to pH 3 solution as compared to exposure in pH 8 solution. In Summary, Alloy 22 sustained the heated surface corrosion test without any appreciable surface attack in the simulated repository environments as well as the more corrosive chloride environments.

  13. Thermal barrier coatings: Burner rig hot corrosion test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Stecura, S.; Gedwill, M. A.; Zaplatynsky, I.; Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y NASA thermal barrier coating system which was developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such environments. Two thermal barrier coating systems, Ca2SiO4/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y and ZrO2-8Y2O3/Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y and a less insulative cermet coating system, 50 volume percent MgO-50 volume percent Ni-19.6Cr-17.1Al-0.97Y/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y, were identified as having much improved corrosion resistance compared to the standard coating.

  14. Corrosion testing in flash tanks of kraft pulp mills

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.J.; Stead, N.J.

    1999-11-01

    The corrosion observed in the first flash tanks in kraft pulp mills with modified cooking practices was characterized. Coupons of carbon steel (CS), several stainless steels (SS), and Ti were exposed at two mills. At one mill, identical sets of coupons were exposed in the No. 1 and No. 2 flash tank. At the other mill, three identical sets of coupons were placed in flash tank No. 1. The results of the exposures showed that both CS and Ti suffered high rates of general corrosion, while the SS suffered varying degrees of localized attack. The ranking of the corrosion resistance in the flash tank was the same that would be expected in a reducing acid environment. Attack by organic acids was concluded to be the most likely cause of corrosion of the flash tanks.

  15. Stress corrosion evaluation of powder metallurgy aluminum alloy 7091 with the breaking load test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Marcia S.

    1987-01-01

    The stress corrosion behavior of the P/M aluminum alloy 7091 is evaluated in two overaged heat treatment conditions, T7E69 and T7E70, using an accelerated test technique known as the breaking load test method. The breaking load data obtained in this study indicate that P/M 7091 alloy is highly resistant to stress corrosion in both longitudinal and transverse orientations at stress levels up to 90 percent of the material yield strength. The reduction in mean breaking stress as a result of corrosive attack is smallest for the more overaged T7E70 condition. Details of the test procedure are included.

  16. Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility Corrosion Test Report (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, W. C.; Fritz, R. L.

    1993-12-27

    This report documents the results of the corrosion tests that were performed to aid in the selection of the construction materials for multi-function waste tanks to be built in the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. Two alloys were tested: 304L and Alloy 20 austenitic stainless steel. The test media were aqueous solutions formulated to represent the extreme of the chemical compositions of waste to be stored in the tanks. The results summerized by alloy are as follows: For 304L the tests showed no stress-corrosion cracking in any of the nine test solutions. The tests showed pitting in on of the solutions. There were no indications of any weld heat-tint corrosion, nor any sign of preferential corrosion in the welded areas. For Alloy 20 the tests showed no general, pitting, or stress-corrosion cracking. One crevice corrosion coupon cracked at the web between a hole and the edge of the coupon in one of the solutions. Mechanical tests showed some possible crack extension in the same solution. Because of the failure of both alloys to meet test acceptance criteria, the tank waste chemistry will have to be restricted or an alternative alloy tested.

  17. Growth and stability of stress corrosion cracks in large-diameter BWR piping. Volume 1: summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D A; Heald, J D; Horn, R M; Jewett, C W; Kass, J N; Mehta, H S; Ranganath, S; Sharma, S R

    1982-07-01

    This report presents the results of a research program conducted to evaluate the behavior of hypothetical stress corrosion cracks in large diameter austenitic piping. The program included major tasks, a design margin assessment, an evaluation of crack growth and crack arrest, and development of a predictive model. As part of the margin assessment, the program developed diagrams which predicted net section collapse as a function of crack size. In addition, plasticity and dynamic load effects were also considered in evaluating collapse. Analytical methods for evaluating these effects were developed and were benchmarked by dynamic tests of 4-in.-diameter piping. The task of evaluating the growth behavior of stress corrosion cracks focused on developing constant load and cyclic growth rate data that could be used with the predictive model. Secondly, laboratory tests were performed to evaluate the conditions under which growing stress corrosion cracks would arrest when they intersected stress corrosion resistant weld metal. The third task successfully developed a model to predict the behavior of cracks in austenitic piping. This model relies on crack growth data and the critical crack size predicted by the net section collapse approach.

  18. Research Summary: Corrosion Considerations for Thermochemical Biomass Liquefaction Process Systems in Biofuel Production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brady, Michael P; Keiser, James R; Leonard, Donovan N; Whitmer, Lysle; Thomson, Jeffery K

    2014-01-01

    Thermochemical liquifaction processing of biomass to produce bio-derived fuels (e.g. gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, home heating oil, etc.) is of great recent interest as a renewable energy source. Approaches under investigation include direct liquefaction, hydrothermal liquefaction, hydropyrolysis, fast pyrolysis, etc. to produce energy dense liquids that can be utilized as produced or further processed to provide products of higher value. An issue with bio-oils is that they tend to contain significant concentrations of organic compounds, which make the bio-oil acidic and a potential source of corrosion issues in in transport, storage, and use. Efforts devoted to modified/further processing of bio-oilsmore » to make them less corrosive are currently being widely pursued. Another aspect that must also be addressed is potential corrosion issues in the bio-oil liquefaction process equipment itself. Depending on the specific process, bio-oil liquefaction production temperatures can reach up to 400-600 C, and involve the presence of aggressive sulfur, and halide species from both the biomass used and/or process additives. Detailed knowledge of the corrosion resistance of candidate process equipment alloys in these bio-oil production environments is currently lacking. This paper summarizes our recent, ongoing efforts to assess the extent to which corrosion of bio-oil process equipment may be an issue, with the ultimate goal of providing the basis to select the lowest cost alloy grades capable of providing the long-term corrosion resistance needed for future bio-oil production plants.« less

  19. Behavior of painted steel and aluminum sheet in laboratory automotive corrosion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    Because of environmental concern and government pressure, automakers are exploring ways to increase the fuel economy of vehicles. Mass reduction can be achieved by substituting plastics, aluminum, or high-strength steel for ordinary grades of steel in the autobody. Estimates of fuel economy increases range from 3% to 7% for each 10% reduction in mass. The use of aluminum for mass reduction currently is receiving considerable attention. Cold-rolled steel, electrogalvanized steel (60 g/m{sup 2} coating), and three aluminum alloy sheet products (Al 2036, Al 5182, and Al 6111) were painted with a full automotive paint system. These materials were tested in two laboratory cyclic corrosion test environments, GM9540P(B) and CCT-IV. Resistance to cosmetic corrosion was measured in terms of underfilm paint delamination on scribed, flat panels. Crevice corrosion resistance was determined in terms of pitting on lapped panels of like materials, and galvanic corrosion resistance was determined in terms of pitting on lapped panels of unlike materials. Cosmetic corrosion of the aluminum alloys was found to be much better than that of cold-rolled steel and slightly better than that of electrogalvanized steel. The CCT-IV test was found to be more severe than GM9540P(B) for cosmetic corrosion, but GM9540P(B) was more severe for galvanic corrosion. Galvanic current measurements indicated the difference was related to the salt solutions used in each test. The aluminum alloys were prone to crevice corrosion and to galvanic corrosion when coupled to steel. Results indicated that comparative evaluations of the corrosion resistance of these materials must take into account the possibility of crevice and galvanic effects.

  20. Field testing results for the strategic petroleum reserve pipeline corrosion control program

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, R.G.; Maestas, L.M.; Hinkebein, T.E.

    1998-02-01

    Results of two studies conducted as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Pipeline Corrosion Control Program are reported. These studies focused on evaluation of rotary-applied concrete materials for internal pipeline protection against the erosive and corrosive effects of flowing brine. The study also included evaluation of liners applied by hand on pipe pieces that cannot be lined by rotary methods. Such pipe pieces include tees, elbows and flanged pipe sections. Results are reported from a corrosion survey of 17 different liner formulations tested at the-Big-Rill SPR Site. Testing consisted of electrochemical corrosion rate measurements made on lined pipe sections exposed, in a test manifold, to flowing SPR generated fluids. Testing also involved cumulative immersion exposure where samples were exposed to static site-generated brine for increasing periods of time. Samples were returned to the laboratory for various diagnostic analyses. Results of this study showed that standard calcium silicate concrete (API RP10E) and a rotary calcium aluminate concrete formulation were excellent performers. Hand-lined pipe pieces did not provide as much corrosion protection. The focus of the second part of the study was on further evaluation of the calcium silicate, calcium aluminate and hand-applied liners in actual SPR equipment and service. It was a further objective to assess the practicality of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for field corrosion monitoring of concrete lined pipe compared to the more well-known linear polarization technique. This study showed that concrete linings reduced the corrosion rate for bare steel from 10 to 15 mils per year to 1 mil per year or less. Again, the hand-applied liners did not provide as much corrosion protection as the rotary-applied liners. The EIS technique was found to be robust for field corrosion measurements. Mechanistic and kinetic corrosion rate data were reliably obtained.

  1. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.; Girshik, A.

    1998-06-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, laboratory experiments were performed on a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings by exposing them to fireside corrosion tests which simulated a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, RA253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, Ta-modified 310, NF 709, 690 clad, 671 clad, and 800HT for up to approximately 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy were exposed for 4,483, 11,348, and 15,883 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after the full 15,883 hours of exposure. A previous topical report has been issued for the 4,483 hours of exposure.

  2. Corrosion coupon testing in natural waters: A case history dealing with reverse osmosis desalination of seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Kain, R.M.; Adamson, W.L.; Weber, B.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a series of corrosion tests performed to determine the general and localized corrosion behavior of two stainless alloys (UNS S31603 and UNS N08367) and 70/30 CuNi (UNS C71500) in three aqueous environments associated with advanced reverse osmosis (TO) desalination of natural seawater. In addition to seawater (the RO feed stock), the other environments included a 2nd-pass RO brine with lower chloride content and total dissolved solids than raw seawater, and an ultrapure 3rd-pass permeate. Two ASTM standards were reviewed for guidance in the design of the experiment. Since testing could be conducted in an operating prototype RO system, the test program followed the general procedures for an in-plant corrosion tests described by ASTM G4-95: Standard Guide for Conducting Corrosion Coupon Tests in Field Applications. This standard, along with G78-95: Standard Guide for Crevice Corrosion Testing of Iron-Base and Nickel-Base Alloys in Seawater and Other Chloride-Containing Environments, provided guidance in the selection of test specimens and mounting fixtures as well as crevice formers utilized. The G78-95 standard guide also provided considerations associated with the interpretation of the crevice corrosion test results.

  3. Evaluating the effects of test methods and fluids compositions on the performance of corrosion inhibitors electrochemically

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.J.

    1999-11-01

    In an attempt to answer the question ``can carbon steel be adequately protected from corrosion by use of corrosion inhibitors due to the high CO{sub 2} concentration``, the authors initiated a project to identify the best commercial corrosion inhibitor by conducting a series of performance evaluation tests. They solicited the inhibitors from various chemical suppliers and evaluated their performance using various test methods in test fluid compositions simulating field conditions. Inhibitor performance was evaluated using electrochemical techniques including EIS and DC in the Rotating Cylinder Electrode (RCE) system and the conventional weight loss methods. Various tests were conducted for the purpose of determining the effect of velocity, chemical partition, and dispersibility on inhibitor performance in various test fluids. Physical characteristics testing including emulsion tendency and brine dispersibility were also conducted. Results show that some commercial corrosion inhibitors can be used to protect carbon steel in high CO{sub 2} concentration. There are significant performance differences among commercial products in various test methods and fluid compositions. Results show the importance of multiple performance evaluations when selecting corrosion inhibitors for particular field applications. An inhibitor that out performs others under various testing conditions would have a much greater chance to protect against corrosion in the field.

  4. Summary of Granulation Matrix Testing for the Plutonium Immobilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, C.C.

    2001-10-19

    In FY00, a matrix for process development testing was created to identify those items related to the ceramic process that had not been fully developed or tested and to help identify variables that needed to be tested. This matrix, NMTP/IP-99-003, was jointly created between LLNL and SRTC and was issued to all affected individuals. The matrix was also used to gauge the progress of the development activities. As part of this matrix, several series of tests were identified for the granulation process. This summary provides the data and results from the granulation testing. The results of the granulation matrix testing were used to identify the baseline process for testing in the PuCTF with cold surrogates in B241 at LLNL.

  5. Development and testing of a low toxicity acid corrosion inhibitor for industrial cleaning applications

    SciTech Connect

    Frenier, W.W.

    1997-02-01

    A low toxicity corrosion inhibitor used in hydrochloric acid cleaning formulations has been developed. This formulation does not contain formaldehyde. It contains cinnamaldehyde, quaternary nitrogen salts, and a nonionic surfactant, none of which are currently known or suspected to be carcinogens. In laboratory tests, corrosion protection values were equivalent to those provided by current commercial acid inhibitors. Field tests using the low toxicity inhibitor were conducted.

  6. KSC lubricant testing program. [lubrication characteristics and corrosion resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, B. J.; Bryan, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to evaluate the performance of various lubricants in use and considered for use at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The overall objectives of the program were to: (1) determine the lubrication characteristics and relative corrosion resistance of lubricants in use and proposed for use at KSC; (2) identify materials which may be equivalent to or better than KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC greases; and (3) identify or develop an improved lubricating oil suitable for use in liquid oxygen (LOX) pumps at KSC. It was concluded that: (1) earth gel thickened greases are very poor corrosion preventive materials in the KSC environment; (2) Halocarbon 25-5S and Braycote 656 were suitable substiutes for KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC respectively; and (3) none of the oils evaluated possessed the necessary inertness, lubricity, and corrosion prevention characteristics for the KSC LOX pumping systems in their present configuration.

  7. Multisystem corrosion monitoring in a cyclic reheat test facility: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, D.M.; Cox, W.M.; Gearey, D.

    1988-04-01

    The work described in this report was the first stage of an EPRI-sponsored corrosion investigation utilizing the CAPCIS electrochemical monitoring system installed in a cyclic reheat test facility on a flue gas slipstream at the Scholz Steam Plant of Gulf Power Company. The primary reasons for incorporating the continuous corrosion monitoring system in the cyclic reheat investigation were that unexpectedly high corrosion rates had been observed in earlier tests at certain locations within the test exchanger and the precise reasons for these high rates of attack were not well understood. The corrosion behavior was not typical of the limited service experience on full scale units and the reasons for this required clarification. Controlled temperature weight loss and electrochemical probes were installed in the unit in place of three of the 1-inch diameter heat exchanger tubes. The corrosion behavior of Inconel Alloy 625 over the temperature range 260/degree/ to 120/degree/F (127/degree/ to 49/degree/C) was evaluated at mid-stream and sidewall locations. The efects on corrosion of operational variables and cleaning procedures were also evaluated. The severe corrosion attack sustained on the Inconel Alloy 625 was proved to result from a combination of effects which included the flue gas flow pattern, local cool-spots within the unit and preferential locations at which ash deposits could accumulate. 5 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Synthetic sea water - An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A major problem in evaluating the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys by alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt (NaCl) water is excessive pitting corrosion. Several methods were examined to eliminate this problem and to find an improved accelerated test medium. These included the addition of chromate inhibitors, surface treatment of specimens, and immersion in synthetic sea water. The results indicate that alternate immersion in synthetic sea water is a very promising stress corrosion test medium. Neither chromate inhibitors nor surface treatment (anodize and alodine) of the aluminum specimens improved the performance of alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water sufficiently to be classified as an effective stress corrosion test method.

  9. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TEST RESULTS FOR TANK 241-SY-102 SUPERNATE GRAB SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB

    2007-04-09

    This report describes the electrochemical corrosion scans and conditions for testing of SY-102 supernatant samples taken December 2004. The testing was performed because the tank was under a Justification for Continued Operation allowing the supernatant composition to be outside the chemistry limits of Administrative Control 5.16, 'Corrosion Mitigation program'. A new electrochemical working electrode of A516 Grade 60 carbon steel was used for each scan; all scans were measured against a saturated calomel electrode, with carbon counter electrodes, and all scans were carried out at 50 C. The samples were scanned twice, once as received and once sparged with argon to deoxygenate the sample. For those scans conducted after argon purging, the corrosion rates ranged from 0.012 to 0.019 mpy. A test for stress corrosion cracking was carried out on one sample (2SY-04-07) with negative results.

  10. Corrosion Testing of Stainless Steel Fuel Cell Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1998-11-01

    Metal hardware is gaining increasing interest in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) development as a possible alternative to machined graphite hardware because of its potential for low-cost manufacturing combined with its intrinsic high conductivity, minimal permeability and advantageous mechanical properties. A major barrier to more widespread use of metal hardware has been the susceptibility of various metals to corrosion. Few pure metals can withstand the relatively aggressive environment of a fuel cell and thus the choices for hardware are quite limited. Precious metals such as platinum or gold are prohibitively expensive and so tend to be utilized as coatings on inexpensive substrates such as aluminum or stainless steel. The main challenge with coatings has been to achieve pin-hole free surfaces that will remain so after years of use. Titanium has been used to some extent and though it is very corrosion-resistant, it is also relatively expensive and often still requires some manner of surface coating to prevent the formation of a poorly conducting oxide layer. In contrast, metal alloys may hold promise as potentially low-cost, corrosion-resistant materials for bipolar plates. The dozens of commercially available stainless steel and nickel based alloys have been specifically formulated to offer a particular advantage depending upon their application. In the case of austenitic stainless steels, for example, 316 SS contains molybdenum and a higher chromium content than its more common counterpart, 304 SS, that makes it more noble and increases its corrosion resistance. Likewise, 316L SS contains less carbon than 316 SS to make it easier to weld. A number of promising corrosion-resistant, highly noble alloys such as Hastelloy{trademark} or Duplex{trademark} (a stainless steel developed for seawater service) are available commercially, but are expensive and difficult to obtain in various forms (i.e. wire screen, foil, etc.) or in small amounts for R and D

  11. Corrosion tests of canister and overpack materials in simulated basalt groundwater. [Hastelloy G and C-276

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary results indicate that the environment expected in a repository in basalt is not highly corrosive to the materials tested. Comparisons of weight change data between two simulated basalt groundwater compositions indicate that variations in oxygen fugacity had a minor effect on corrosion of nickel, titanium, and zirconium alloys. The corrosion of cupronickel alloy, however, was drastically reduced when a lower oxygen fugacity was maintained. Effectiveness of a hydrogen/argon sparge to maintain a low oxygen fugacity in a simulated groundwater was demonstrated. 5 tables.

  12. Viking '75 spacecraft design and test summary. Volume 3: Engineering test summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmberg, N. A.; Faust, R. P.; Holt, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    The engineering test program for the lander and the orbiter are presented. The engineering program was developed to achieve confidence that the design was adequate to survive the expected mission environments and to accomplish the mission objective.

  13. Preparation and Testing of Corrosion and Spallation-Resistant Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, John

    2015-11-01

    with the Rene 80. One-inch-diameter buttons were machined from each of the bonded blocks and sent to Siemens for standard oxidation, spallation, and corrosion testing, which should be complete in the spring of 2016.

  14. Note: Inhibiting bottleneck corrosion in electrical calcium tests for ultra-barrier measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehm, F.; Müller-Meskamp, L.; Klumbies, H.; Leo, K.

    2015-12-01

    A major failure mechanism is identified in electrical calcium corrosion tests for quality assessment of high-end application moisture barriers. Accelerated calcium corrosion is found at the calcium/electrode junction, leading to an electrical bottleneck. This causes test failure not related to overall calcium loss. The likely cause is a difference in electrochemical potential between the aluminum electrodes and the calcium sensor, resulting in a corrosion element. As a solution, a thin, full-area copper layer is introduced below the calcium, shifting the corrosion element to the calcium/copper junction and inhibiting bottleneck degradation. Using the copper layer improves the level of sensitivity for the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) by over one order of magnitude. Thin-film encapsulated samples with 20 nm of atomic layer deposited alumina barriers this way exhibit WVTRs of 6 × 10-5 g(H2O)/m2/d at 38 °C, 90% relative humidity.

  15. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2008-11-20

    This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

  16. Acceptance test plan for the 241-AN-105 multi-function corrosion monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    EDGEMON, G.L.

    1999-06-24

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the corrosion probe tree assembly destined for installation into tank 241-AN-105. This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion probe tree assembly to be installed into tank 241-AN-105. The test will consist of a pressure test to verify leak tightness of the probe tree body, a continuity test of the probe tree wiring, a test of the high level detector wiring, a test of the operation of the Type K thermocouples along the probe body, and verification of operation of corrosion monitoring computer and instrumentation.

  17. LWRS Fuels Pathway: Engineering Design and Fuels Pathway Initial Testing of the Hot Water Corrosion System

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Garnier; Dr. Kevin McHugh

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development R&D pathway performs strategic research focused on cladding designs leading to improved reactor core economics and safety margins. The research performed is to demonstrate the nuclear fuel technology advancements while satisfying safety and regulatory limits. These goals are met through rigorous testing and analysis. The nuclear fuel technology developed will assist in moving existing nuclear fuel technology to an improved level that would not be practical by industry acting independently. Strategic mission goals are to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental nuclear fuel and cladding performance in nuclear power plants, and to apply this information in the development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels. These will result in improved safety, cladding, integrity, and nuclear fuel cycle economics. To achieve these goals various methods for non-irradiated characterization testing of advanced cladding systems are needed. One such new test system is the Hot Water Corrosion System (HWCS) designed to develop new data for cladding performance assessment and material behavior under simulated off-normal reactor conditions. The HWCS is capable of exposing prototype rodlets to heated, high velocity water at elevated pressure for long periods of time (days, weeks, months). Water chemistry (dissolved oxygen, conductivity and pH) is continuously monitored. In addition, internal rodlet heaters inserted into cladding tubes are used to evaluate repeated thermal stressing and heat transfer characteristics of the prototype rodlets. In summary, the HWCS provides rapid ex-reactor evaluation of cladding designs in normal (flowing hot water) and off-normal (induced cladding stress), enabling engineering and manufacturing improvements to cladding designs before initiation of the more expensive and time consuming in-reactor irradiation testing.

  18. Conditions for testing the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Nowok, J.W.

    1996-08-01

    Coal gasifier operating conditions and gas and ash compositions affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used for construction in three ways: (1) through direct corrosion of the materials, (2) by affecting the concentration and chemical form of the primary corrodents, and (3) by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodents. To perform an accurate corrosion test on a system material, the researcher must include all relevant corrodents and simulate conditions in the gasifier as closely as possible. In this paper, the authors present suggestions for conditions to be used in such corrosion tests. Two main types of corrosion conditions are discussed: those existing in hot-gas cleanup systems where vapor and dry ash may contribute to corrosion and those experienced by high-temperature heat exchangers and refractories where the main corrodent will be coal ash slag. Only the fluidized-bed gasification systems such as the Sierra Pacific Power Company Pinon Pine Power Project system are proposing the use of ceramic filters for particulate cleanup. The gasifier is an air-blown 102-MWe unit employing a Westinghouse{trademark} ceramic particle filter system operating at as high as 1100{degrees}F at 300 psia. Expected gas compositions in the filter will be approximately 25% CO, 15% H{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}, 5% H{sub 2}O, and 50% N{sub 2}. Vapor-phase sodium chloride concentrations are expected to be 10 to 100 times the levels in combustion systems at similar temperatures, but in general the concentrations of the minor primary and secondary corrodents are not well understood. Slag corrosiveness will depend on its composition as well as viscosity. For a laboratory test, the slag must be in a thermodynamically stable form before the beginning of the corrosion test to assure that no inappropriate reactions are allowed to occur. Ideally, the slag would be flowing, and the appropriate atmosphere must be used to assure realistic slag viscosity.

  19. Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2012 Glass Testing Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Snyder, Michelle MV; Crum, Jarrod V.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-03-29

    PNNL is conducting work to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility for Hanford immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program, PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. Key activities in FY12 include upgrading the STOMP/eSTOMP codes to do near-field modeling, geochemical modeling of PCT tests to determine the reaction network to be used in the STOMP codes, conducting PUF tests on selected glasses to simulate and accelerate glass weathering, developing a Monte Carlo simulation tool to predict the characteristics of the weathered glass reaction layer as a function of glass composition, and characterizing glasses and soil samples exhumed from an 8-year lysimeter test. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2012 and the first quarter of FY 2013 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of LAW glasses.

  20. Laboratory corrosion tests for simulating fireside wastage of superheater materials in waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, N.; Kawahara, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Hosoda, T.

    1999-11-01

    Laboratory corrosion tests were performed to clarify the effects of relative amounts of fused salts in tube deposits on corrosion rates of superheater materials in WTE plants. All test exposures were at 550 C and of 100 hour duration. The nine synthetic ashes used as corrodents consisted of mixtures of chlorides, sulfates and oxides. The test materials were alloy steel T22, stainless steels TP347H, TP310HCbN, and alloys HR11N and 625. The gas atmosphere consisted of 500 to 3000 ppm HCl-30ppm SO{sub 2}-10%O{sub 2}-10%CO{sub 2}-20%H{sub 2}O-bal.N{sub 2}. Generally, the relative amount of fused salts in non-fused ash constituents at 550 C increased with increasing the chlorine content of the ashes. The corrosion rate of T22 steel did not depend directly on ash chlorine content, but for ashes of 7.7 wt.%Cl, the corrosion rate depended on the calculated amount of fused salt at 500 C. The corrosion rates of TP347H steel and alloy 625 were maximum for ashes of 6--8 wt%Cl. For ashes of 7.7 wt.%Cl, the corrosion rates of T22 steel, stainless steels, and alloys increased with ashes having higher amounts of fused salts. Increased HCl content of the gas caused higher corrosion of the stainless steels and high-nickel alloys, but there was no clear corrosion-exacerbating effect with T22 steel.

  1. Field tests of probes for detecting internal corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Cayard, Michael S.; Kane, Russell D.; Meidinger, Brian

    2005-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes for detecting corrosion in environments similar to those found in natural gas transmission pipelines. Results and interpretation will be reported from four different field tests. Flange and flush-mount probes were used in four different environments at a gas-gathering site and one environment but two different orientations at a natural gas plant. These sites were selected to represent normal and upset conditions in a gas transmission pipeline. The environments consisted of 2 different levels of humidified natural gas/organic/water mixtures removed from natural gas, and the environments at the 6 and 12 o'clock positions of a natural gas pipeline carrying 2-phase gas/liquid flow. Data are also presented comparing the ECR probe data to that for coupons used to determine corrosion rate and to detect the presence of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC).

  2. Liquid-Air Interface Corrosion Testing Simulating The Environment Of Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Gray, J. R.; Garcia-Diaz, B. L.; Murphy, T. H.; Hicks, K. R.

    2014-01-30

    Coupon tests on A537 carbon steel materials were conducted to evaluate the Liquid-Air Interface (LAI) corrosion susceptibility in a series of solutions designed to simulate conditions in the radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Nuclear Facility. The new stress corrosion cracking requirements and the impact of ammonia on LAI corrosion were the primary focus. The minimum R value (i.e., molar ratio of nitrite to nitrate) of 0.15 specified by the new stress corrosion cracking requirements was found to be insufficient to prevent pitting corrosion at the LAI. The pH of the test solutions was 10, which was actually less than the required pH 11 defined by the new requirements. These tests examined the effect of the variation of the pH due to hydroxide depletion at the liquid air interface. The pits from the current testing ranged from 0.001 to 0.008 inch in solutions with nitrate concentrations of 0.4 M and 2.0 M. The pitting and general attack that occurred progressed over the four-months. No significant pitting was observed, however, for a solution with a nitrate concentration of 4.5 M. The pitting depths observed in these partial immersion tests in unevaporated condensates ranged from 0.001 to 0.005 inch after 4 months. The deeper pits were in simulants with low R values. Simulants with R values of approximately 0.6 to 0.8 appeared to significantly reduce the degree of attack. Although, the ammonia did not completely eliminate attack at the LAI, the amount of corrosion in an extremely corrosive solution was significantly reduced. Only light general attack (< 1 mil) occurred on the coupon in the vicinity of the LAI. The concentration of ammonia (i.e., 50 ppm or 500 ppm) did not have a strong effect.

  3. Corrosion Testing of Carbon Steel in Oxalic Acid that Contains Dissolved Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, Bruce J.; Mickalonis, John I.; Subramanian, Karthik H.

    2012-10-11

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 60 years at the Savannah River Site. The site is currently in the process of removing the waste from these tanks in order to place it into vitrified, stable state for longer term storage. The last stage in the removal sequence is a chemical cleaning step that breaks up and dissolves metal oxide solids that cannot be easily pumped out of the tank. Oxalic acid (OA) will be used to chemically clean the tanks after waste retrieval is completed. The waste tanks at SRS were constructed from carbon steel materials and thus are vulnerable to corrosion in acidic media. In addition to structural impacts, the impact of corrosion on the hydrogen generated during the process must be assessed. Electrochemical and coupon immersion tests were used to investigate the corrosion mechanism at anticipated process conditions. The testing showed that the corrosion rates were dependent upon the reduction of the iron species that had dissolved in solution. Initial corrosion rates were elevated due to the reduction of the ferric species to ferrous species. At later times, as the ferric species depleted, the corrosion rate decreased. On the other hand, the hydrogen evolution reaction became more dominant.

  4. Results and conclusions test capabilities task group summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bomber, T.; Pierce, K.; Easterling, R.; Rogers, J.

    1996-12-01

    This annotated briefing documents an economic analysis of Sandia`s system-level test facilities maintained and operated by the Design, Evaluation, and Test Technology Center 9700. The study was divided into four primary sub-tasks: (1) Estimation of the future system-level test workload, (2) Development of a consistent economic model to estimate the cost of maintaining and operating the test facilities, (3) Determination of the availability of viable alternative test sites, and (4) Assessment of the potential savings through reduction of excess capacity under various facility-closure scenarios. The analysis indicated that potential savings from closing all facilities could approach $6 million per year. However, large uncertainties in these savings remove any sound economic arguments for such closure: it is possible that testing at alternative sites could cost more than maintaining the current set of system-level test facilities. Finally, a number of programmatic risks incurred by facility closure were identified. Consideration of facility closure requires a careful weighing of any projected economic benefit against these programmatic risks. This summary report covers the briefing given to upper management. A more detailed discussion of the data and analyses is given in the full report, available for internal use from the technical library.

  5. Test Plan: Sludge Treatment Project Corrosion Process Chemistry Follow-on Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Poloski, Adam P.

    2007-08-17

    This test plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with Fluor Hanford (FH). The test plan describes the scope and conditions to be used to perform laboratory-scale testing of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) hydrothermal treatment of K Basin sludge. The STP, managed for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) by FH, was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from the sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by using high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. The proposed testing builds on the approach and laboratory test findings for both K Basin sludge and simulated sludge garnered during prior testing from September 2006 to March 2007. The outlined testing in this plan is designed to yield further understanding of the nature of the chemical reactions, the effects of compositional and process variations and the effectiveness of various strategies to mitigate the observed high shear strength phenomenon observed during the prior testing. These tests are designed to provide process validation and refinement vs. process development and design input. The expected outcome is to establish a level of understanding of the chemistry such that successful operating strategies and parameters can be implemented within the confines of the existing STP corrosion vessel design. In July 2007, the DOE provided direction to FH regarding significant changes to the scope of the overall STP. As a result of the changes, FH directed PNNL to stop work on most of the planned activities covered in this test plan. Therefore, it is unlikely the testing described here will be performed. However, to preserve the test strategy and details developed to date, the test plan has been published.

  6. Aluminum alloy welding and stress-corrosion testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.G.; Jimenez, E.

    1981-04-01

    The weldability, strength, and corrosion resistance of four 5XXX aluminum alloys electron beam welded to 6061-T6 aluminum alloy without a filler metal were evaluated. Adding filler metal raises weld energy requirements and makes the process more difficult to control. In this study, instead of using a filler metal, a high-magnesium 5XXX alloy was welded to the 6061 alloy. The four 5XXX alloys used (5456-H321, 5052-H34, 5086-H323, and 5083-H32) were selected for their high magnesium content which reduces weld crack sensitivity.

  7. High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Materials Degradation: Preliminary Results of Corrosion Tests on Ceramatec Electrolysis Cell Components

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Demkowicz; Prateek Sachdev; Kevin DeWall; Pavel Medvedev

    2007-06-01

    Corrosion tests were performed on stainless steel and nickel alloy coupons in H2O/H2 mixtures and dry air to simulate conditions experienced in high temperature steam electrolysis systems. The stainless steel coupons were tested bare and with one of three different proprietary coatings applied. Specimens were corroded at 850°C for 500 h with weight gain data recorded at periodic intervals. Post-test characterization of the samples included surface and cross-section scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and area-specific resistance measurements. The uncoated nickel alloy outperformed the ferritic stainless steel under all test conditions based on weight gain data. Parabolic rate constants for corrosion of these two uncoated alloys were consistent with values presented in the literature under similar conditions. The steel coatings reduced corrosion rates in H2O/H2 mixtures by as much as 50% compared to the untreated steel, but in most cases showed negligible corrosion improvement in air. The use of a rare-earth-based coating on stainless steel did not result in a significantly different area specific resistance values after corrosion compared to the untreated alloy. Characterization of the samples is still in progress and the findings will be revised when the complete data set is available.

  8. Field Testing of Rapid Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Control of Steel in Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardenas, Henry E.; Alexander, Joshua B.; Kupwade-Patil,Kunal; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    This work field tested the use of electrokinetics for delivery of concrete sealing nanoparticles concurrent with the extraction of chlorides. Several cylinders of concrete were batched and placed in immersion at the Kennedy Space Center Beach Corrosion Test Site. The specimens were batched with steel reinforcement and a 4.5 wt.% (weight percent) content of sodium chloride. Upon arrival at Kennedy Space Center, the specimens were placed in the saltwater immersion pool at the Beach Corrosion Test Site. Following 30 days of saltwater exposure, the specimens were subjected to rapid chloride extraction concurrent with electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment. The treatments were operated at up to eight times the typical current density in order to complete the treatment in 7 days. The findings indicated that the short-term corrosion resistance of the concrete specimens was significantly enhanced as was the strength of the concrete.

  9. Vapor Space Corrosion Testing Simulating The Environment Of Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Gray, J. R.; Garcia-Diaz, B. L.; Murphy, T. H.; Hicks, K. R.

    2014-01-30

    As part of an integrated program to better understand corrosion in the high level waste tanks, Hanford has been investigating corrosion at the liquid/air interface (LAI) and at higher areas in the tank vapor space. This current research evaluated localized corrosion in the vapor space over Hanford double shell tank simulants to assess the impact of ammonia and new minimum nitrite concentration limits, which are part of the broader corrosion chemistry limits. The findings from this study showed that the presence of ammonia gas (550 ppm) in the vapor space is sufficient to reduce corrosion over the short-term (i.e. four months) for a Hanford waste chemistry (SY102 High Nitrate). These findings are in agreement with previous studies at both Hanford and SRS which showed ammonia gas in the vapor space to be inhibitive. The presence of ammonia in electrochemical test solution, however, was insufficient to inhibit against pitting corrosion. The effect of the ammonia appears to be a function of the waste chemistry and may have more significant effects in waste with low nitrite concentrations. Since high levels of ammonia were found beneficial in previous studies, additional testing is recommended to assess the necessary minimum concentration for protection of carbon steel. The new minimum R value of 0.15 was found to be insufficient to prevent pitting corrosion in the vapor space. The pitting that occurred, however, did not progress over the four-month test. Pits appeared to stop growing, which would indicate that pitting might not progress through wall.

  10. Characterizing Corrosion Effects of Weak Organic Acids Using a Modified Bono Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuqin; Turbini, Laura J.; Ramjattan, Deepchand; Christian, Bev; Pritzker, Mark

    2013-12-01

    To meet environmental requirements and achieve benefits of cost-effective manufacturing, no-clean fluxes (NCFs) or low-solids fluxes have become popular in present electronic manufacturing processes. Weak organic acids (WOAs) as the activation ingredients in NCFs play an important role, especially in the current lead-free and halogen-free soldering technology era. However, no standard or uniform method exists to characterize the corrosion effects of WOAs on actual metallic circuits of printed wiring boards (PWBs). Hence, the development of an effective quantitative test method for evaluating the corrosion effects of WOAs on the PWB's metallic circuits is imperative. In this paper, the modified Bono test, which was developed to quantitatively examine the corrosion properties of flux residues, is used to characterize the corrosion effects of five WOAs (i.e., abietic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, and malic acid) on PWB metallic circuits. Experiments were performed under three temperature/humidity conditions (85°C/85% RH, 60°C/93% RH, and 40°C/93% RH) using two WOA solution concentrations. The different corrosion effects among the various WOAs were best reflected in the testing results at 40°C and 60°C. Optical microscopy was used to observe the morphology of the corroded copper tracks, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) characterization was performed to determine the dendrite composition.

  11. Corrosion tests of 316L and Hastelloy C-22 in simulated tank waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Danielson; SG Pitman

    2000-02-23

    Both the 316L stainless steel and Hastelloy{reg_sign} C-22 gave satisfactory corrosion performance in the simulated test environments. They were subjected to 100 day weight loss corrosion tests and electrochemical potentiodynamic evaluation. This activity supports confirmation of the design basis for the materials of construction of process vessels and equipment used to handle the feed to the LAW-melter evaporator. BNFL process and mechanical engineering will use the information derived from this task to select material of construction for process vessels and equipment.

  12. Corrosion inhibitor testing and selection for exploration and production: A user's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kapusta, S.D.

    1999-06-01

    Inhibitor users need simple, reliable, and representative tests to select the best product from a number of candidates. This article describes a procedure that can help users test and select inhibitors for carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide (CO[sub 2]/H[sub 2]S) corrosion in oil and gas production, in a fast and cost-effective manner. The selection is based on two criteria: performance (effectiveness) against corrosion, and compatibility with other chemicals. The compatibility of the inhibitor with the injection and production systems must be confirmed.

  13. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2011 Glass Testing Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of glass (Certa and Wells 2010). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 8.9 x 10{sup 14} Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally {sup 99}Tc (t{sub 1/2} = 2.1 x 10{sup 5}), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2011 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses.

  14. Corrosion resistance and electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation testing of some iron-base hardfacing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1999-11-01

    Hardfacing alloys are weld deposited on a base material to provide a wear resistant surface. Commercially available iron-base hardfacing alloys are being evaluated for replacement of cobalt-base alloys to reduce nuclear plant activation levels. Corrosion testing was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of several iron-base hardfacing alloys in highly oxygenated environments. The corrosion test results indicate that iron-base hardfacing alloys in the as-deposited condition have acceptable corrosion resistance when the chromium to carbon ratio is greater than 4. Tristelle 5183, with a high niobium (stabilizer) content, did not follow this trend due to precipitation of niobium-rich carbides instead of chromium-rich carbides. This result indicates that iron-base hardfacing alloys containing high stabilizer contents may possess good corrosion resistance with Cr:C < 4. NOREM 02, NOREM 01, and NoCo-M2 hardfacing alloys had acceptable corrosion resistance in the as-deposited and 885 C/4 hour heat treated condition, but rusting from sensitization was observed in the 621 C/6 hour heat treated condition. The feasibility of using an Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (EPR) test method, such as used for stainless steel, to detect sensitization in iron-base hardfacing alloys was evaluated. A single loop-EPR method was found to provide a more consistent measurement of sensitization than a double loop-EPR method. The high carbon content that is needed for a wear resistant hardfacing alloy produces a high volume fraction of chromium-rich carbides that are attacked during EPR testing. This results in inherently lower sensitivity for detection of a sensitized iron-base hardfacing alloy than stainless steel using conventional EPR test methods.

  15. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings - phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    In Phase I a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase II (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA-8511, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, 800HT, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy will be exposed for 4000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The results will be presented for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 4000 hours of exposure.

  16. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J.

    1997-08-01

    In Phase 1 a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA-85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, 800HT, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy will be exposed for 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The results will be presented for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 4,000 hours of exposure.

  17. Scoping corrosion tests on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Curits, P.C.; Summers, T.S.E.

    1998-03-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials. The corrosion medium was a pH-buffered solution of chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90{degrees}C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel-, and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron-absorbing elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron- absorbing elements were studied. The ceramics and the zirconium-based materials underwent only minor corrosion. the stainless steel-based materials performed well except for a welded sample. The aluminum- and copper-based materials exhibited the highest corrosion rates. Boron dissolution depends on it chemical form. Boron oxide and many metal borides dissolve readily in acidic solutions while high- chromium borides and boron carbide, though thermodynamically unstable, exhibit little dissolution in short times. the results of solution chemical analyses were consistent with this. Gadolinium did not dissolve significantly from monazite, and hafnium showed little dissolution from a variety of host materials, in keeping with its low solubility.

  18. Scoping corrosion tests on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Curtis, P.G.; Summers, T.S.E.

    1998-03-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials. The corrosion medium was a pH-buffered solution of chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90 C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel- and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron-absorbing elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron-absorbing elements were studied. The ceramics and the zirconium-based materials underwent only minor corrosion. The stainless steel-based materials performed well except for a welded sample. The aluminum- and copper-based materials exhibited the highest corrosion rates. Boron dissolution depends on its chemical form. Boron oxide and many metal borides dissolve readily in acidic solutions while high-chromium borides and boron carbide, though thermodynamically unstable, exhibit little dissolution in short times. The results of solution chemical analyses were consistent with this. Gadolinium did not dissolve significantly from monazite, and hafnium showed little dissolution from a variety of host materials, in keeping with its low solubility.

  19. Corrosion Testing of Ni Alloy HVOF Coatings in High Temperature Environments for Biomass Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, S.; Harvey, M. D. F.

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports the corrosion behavior of Ni alloy coatings deposited by high velocity oxyfuel spraying, and representative boiler substrate alloys in simulated high temperature biomass combustion conditions. Four commercially available oxidation resistant Ni alloy coating materials were selected: NiCrBSiFe, alloy 718, alloy 625, and alloy C-276. These were sprayed onto P91 substrates using a JP5000 spray system. The corrosion performance of the coatings varied when tested at ~525, 625, and 725 °C in K2SO4-KCl mixture and gaseous HCl-H2O-O2 containing environments. Alloy 625, NiCrBSiFe, and alloy 718 coatings performed better than alloy C-276 coating at 725 °C, which had very little corrosion resistance resulting in degradation similar to uncoated P91. Alloy 625 coatings provided good protection from corrosion at 725 °C, with the performance being comparable to wrought alloy 625, with significantly less attack of the substrate than uncoated P91. Alloy 625 performs best of these coating materials, with an overall ranking at 725 °C as follows: alloy 625 > NiCrBSiFe > alloy 718 ≫ alloy C-276. Although alloy C-276 coatings performed poorly in the corrosion test environment at 725 °C, at lower temperatures (i.e., below the eutectic temperature of the salt mixture) it outperformed the other coating types studied.

  20. Integrated Corrosion Facility for long-term testing of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste containment

    SciTech Connect

    Estill, J.C.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    A long-term-testing facility, the Integrated Corrosion Facility (I.C.F.), is being developed to investigate the corrosion behavior of candidate construction materials for high-level-radioactive waste packages for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Corrosion phenomena will be characterized in environments considered possible under various scenarios of water contact with the waste packages. The testing of the materials will be conducted both in the liquid and high humidity vapor phases at 60 and 90{degrees}C. Three classes of materials with different degrees of corrosion resistance will be investigated in order to encompass the various design configurations of waste packages. The facility is expected to be in operation for a minimum of five years, and operation could be extended to longer times if warranted. A sufficient number of specimens will be emplaced in the test environments so that some can be removed and characterized periodically. The corrosion phenomena to be characterized are general, localized, galvanic, and stress corrosion cracking. The long-term data obtained from this study will be used in corrosion mechanism modeling, performance assessment, and waste package design. Three classes of materials are under consideration. The corrosion resistant materials are high-nickel alloys and titanium alloys; the corrosion allowance materials are low-alloy and carbon steels; and the intermediate corrosion resistant materials are copper-nickel alloys.

  1. Accelerated corrosion testing, evaluation and durability design of bonded post-tensioned concrete tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas Pereira, Ruben Mario

    2003-06-01

    In the last few years, the effectiveness of cement grout in galvanized or polyethylene ducts, the most widely used corrosion protection system for multistrand bonded post-tensioned concrete tendons, has been under debate, due to significant tendon corrosion damage, several reported failures of individual tendons as well as a few collapses of non-typical structures. While experience in the USA has been generally good, some foreign experience has been less than satisfactory. This dissertation is part of a comprehensive research program started in 1993, which has the objectives to examine the use of post-tensioning in bridge substructures, identify durability concerns and existing technology, develop and carry out an experimental testing program, and conclude with durability design guidelines. Three experimental programs were developed: A long term macrocell corrosion test series, to investigate corrosion protection for internal tendons in precast segmental construction; a long term beam corrosion test series, to examine the effects of post-tensioning on corrosion protection as affected by crack width; and, a long term column corrosion test series, to examine corrosion protection in vertical elements. Preliminary design guidelines were developed previously in the overall study by the initial researchers, after an extensive literature review. This dissertation scope includes continuation of exposure testing of the macrocell, beam and column specimens, performing comprehensive autopsies of selected specimens and updating the durability design guidelines based on the exposure testing and autopsy results. After autopsies were performed, overall findings indicate negative durability effects due to the use of mixed reinforcement, small concrete covers, galvanized steel ducts, and industry standard or heat-shrink galvanized duct splices. The width of cracks was shown to have a direct negative effect on specimen performance. Grout voids were found to be detrimental to the

  2. Localized corrosion testing of CRA materials in elevated temperature sour gas environments

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, P.; Oldfield, J.W.; Al-Maslamani, M.

    1999-11-01

    An exposure test program has been undertaken to investigate the localized corrosion resistance of Alloys 28, 825, G3 and 625 in two simulated sour gas environments at 150 C. The chloride levels in these test environments, containing 30 psi (0.21 MPa) H{sub 2}S and 101 psi (0.70 MPa) CO{sub 2}, were 150 ppm and 30,000 ppm. The general corrosion rate of each material was found to be negligible in each test. Alloy 825 alone was susceptible to minor pitting and crevice initiation in the 150 ppm chloride environment. Increasing the chloride level to 30,000 ppm resulted in more severe crevice attack of Alloy 825 and crevice corrosion of Alloy 28. Alloys G3 and 625 were not susceptible to localized corrosion in either test environment. The exposure tests were supported by complementary electrochemical polarization curves in the low chloride environment. The curves did not exhibit clearly defined passive regions, which were masked by additional anodic current from the oxidation of H{sub 2}S.

  3. Atmospheric corrosion testing. (Latest citations from the Metadex (Metals Abstracts/Alloys Index) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the results of both long term atmospheric testing and accelerated testing in artificial environments for a wide variety of materials. The effects of atmospheric pollution, specifically, sulfur dioxide, are included. Applications include use in testing for corrosion of aluminum, steel, magnesium, automotive parts, and metal roofing materials. (Contains a minimum of 203 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Sub-categorisation of skin corrosive chemicals by the EpiSkin™ reconstructed human epidermis skin corrosion test method according to UN GHS: revision of OECD Test Guideline 431.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Grandidier, M H; Cotovio, J

    2014-03-01

    The EpiSkin™ skin corrosion test method was formally validated and adopted within the context of OECD TG 431 for identifying corrosive and non-corrosive chemicals. The EU Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulation (EU CLP) system requires the sub-categorisation of corrosive chemicals into the three UN GHS optional subcategories 1A, 1B and 1C. The present study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of the validated EpiSkin™ test method to identify skin corrosive UN GHS Categories 1A, 1B and 1C using the original and validated prediction model and adapted controls for direct MTT reduction. In total, 85 chemicals selected by the OECD expert group on skin corrosion were tested in three independent runs. The results obtained were highly reproducible both within (>80%) and between (>78%) laboratories when compared with historical data. Moreover the results obtained showed that the EpiSkin™ test method is highly sensitive (99%) and specific (80%) in discriminating corrosive from non-corrosive chemicals and allows reliable and relevant identification of the different skin corrosive UN GHS subcategories, with high accuracies being obtained for both UN GHS Categories 1A (83%) and 1B/1C (76%) chemicals. The overall accuracy of the test method to subcategorise corrosive chemicals into three or two UN GHS subcategories ranged from 75% to 79%. Considering those results, the revised OECD Test Guideline 431 permit the use of EpiSkin™ for subcategorising corrosive chemicals into at least two classes (Category 1A and Category 1B/1C). PMID:24211528

  5. The usefulness of the validated SkinEthic™ RHE test method to identify skin corrosive UN GHS subcategories.

    PubMed

    Alépée, Nathalie; Robert, Clément; Tornier, Carine; Cotovio, José

    2014-06-01

    The SkinEthic™ Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) test method has been adopted within the context of OECD TG 431 for distinguishing corrosive and non-corrosive chemicals. The EU CLP classification system requires subcategorising of corrosive chemicals into the three UN GHS subcategories 1A, 1B and 1C. Since the SkinEthic™ RHE method was originally validated to discriminate corrosives from non-corrosives, the present study was undertaken to investigate its usefulness to discriminate skin corrosive UN GHS subcategories. In total 84 substances were tested in three independent runs and two prediction models (PM) were assessed, representing a pre-defined validated prediction model (PM-A) and an alternative one defined post-hoc (PM-B). The results obtained with both PM were reproducible, as shown by the ⩾92.9% concordance of classification between runs for discriminating corrosives versus non-corrosives, and the ⩾85% concordance for discriminating the GHS subcategories versus non-corrosives. Moreover results confirmed a high sensitivity of the SkinEthic™ RHE method to predict corrosives (94.9%) and good specificity (⩾73.7%) independent of the PM applied. Regarding the identification of UN GHS corrosive subcategories, PM-A resulted in 86.1% correct classifications of the GHS subcategory 1A. When using the PM-B, the identification of GHS subcategory 1B-and-1C substances improved, with 63.4% correct sub-categorisation. If considering the 30 reference chemicals as recommended in the recently revised OECD TG 431 (2013), PM-A and PM-B achieved 78.9% and 83.3% accuracy respectively for the identification of GHS subcategories and non-corrosives. They correctly predicted 90% of GHS subcategory 1A and 80% of GHS non-corrosive substances independent of the PM used. In conclusion, the SkinEthic™ RHE test method is highly reproducible and sensitive for discriminating corrosive from non-corrosive substances. Furthermore it allows reliable identification of skin

  6. CORROSION TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN OXALIC ACID CHEMICAL CLEANING SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Mickalonis, J.; Subramanian, K.; Ketusky, E.

    2011-10-14

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 60 years at the Savannah River Site. The site is currently in the process of removing the waste from these tanks in order to place it into vitrified, stable state for longer term storage. The last stage in the removal sequence is a chemical cleaning step that breaks up and dissolves metal oxide solids that cannot be easily pumped out of the tank. Oxalic acid has been selected for this purpose because it is an effective chelating agent for the solids and is not as corrosive as other acids. Electrochemical and immersion studies were conducted to investigate the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in simulated chemical cleaning environments. The effects of temperature, agitation, and the presence of sludge solids in the oxalic acid on the corrosion rate and the likelihood of hydrogen evolution were determined. The testing showed that the corrosion rates decreased significantly in the presence of the sludge solids. Corrosion rates increased with agitation, however, the changes were less noticeable.

  7. Application of the thin electrolyte layer technique to corrosion testing of dental materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvina, Martin

    Proper simulation of the oral environment for the corrosion testing of dental materials is crucial for determining corrosion rates and mechanisms correctly. In this study, the thin electrolyte layer technique (TET) was characterized and employed to investigate the importance of the chemical composition of the testing environment on the outcome of electrochemical tests. The thickness of the electrolyte layer in TET is only 0.5 mm and contains only 20 muL of electrolyte. This arrangement simulates the physical characteristics of the oral environment and facilitates testing in human saliva. Oxygen availability for reduction on the sample surface was determined, using cathodic polarization of Pt in borate buffer, to be lower in TET than in traditional (bulk electrolyte) techniques. Appreciable differences were found during polarization experiments on 316 L SS in saline and artificial saliva. Oxygen content was found to play a significant role in the corrosivity of various species contained in artificial saliva. Potentiodynamic polarization employing human saliva in TET on 316L SS proved to be very different from tests performed in artificial saliva. This was believed to be due to the presence of organic species, specifically proteins, contained in human saliva. This was further confirmed by cyclic polarization and corrosion current measurements of four commercial nickel-chromium (NiCr) alloys with varying amounts of Be. For this phase of the experiment, artificial saliva (AS), AS with 1% albumin, AS with 1% of mucin and parotid human saliva were employed as electrolytes. The results obtained in the various electrolytes depended on the composition, microstructure, stability of passive film, and the presence of casting porosity of the alloys tested. Proteins had insignificant effect on alloys with highly stable passive films, whereas, corrosion rates increased substantially in those alloys with compromised passive film formation. Proteins, especially mucin, lowered the

  8. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2010 Glass Testing Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Serne, R Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2010-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 × 105 m3 of glass (Puigh 1999). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 0.89 × 1018 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99Tc (t1/2 = 2.1 × 105), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessement (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2010 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses. The emphasis in FY2010 was the completing an evaluation of the most sensitive kinetic rate law parameters used to predict glass weathering, documented in Bacon and Pierce (2010), and transitioning from the use of the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases to Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases computer code for near-field calculations. The FY2010 activities also consisted of developing a Monte Carlo and Geochemical Modeling framework that links glass composition to alteration phase formation by 1) determining the structure of unreacted and reacted glasses for use as input information into Monte Carlo

  9. Structural analysis and intergranular corrosion tests of AISI 316L steel.

    PubMed

    Stonawská, Z; Svoboda, M; Sozańska, M; Krístková, M; Sojka, J; Dagbert, C; Hyspecká, L

    2006-10-01

    Pure AISI 316L steel is investigated after solution heat treatment (1050 degrees C/H(2)O) and structural sensitization (650 degrees C). Two quite different intergranular corrosion tests are used to determine the degree of structural sensitization due to the precipitation of secondary phases along the grain boundaries (mainly the M(23)C(6) and sigma-phase): the oxalic acid etch test and the electrochemical potentio-kinetic reactivation test. Generally, the dissolution of chromium-rich carbides (M(23)C(6)) is provoked by oxalic acid etch tests, whereas the chromium-depleted zones, in the vicinity of chromium-rich carbides (M(23)C(6)), are attacked by electrochemical potentio-kinetic reactivation tests. Both intergranular corrosion tests are used to determine the maximum degree of structural sensitization. Thus structural analysis by carbon replicas reveals the Laves phase, and both the M(23)C(6) and (Cr,Mo)(x)(Fe,Ni)(y) phases. The results of intergranular corrosion tests are related to the findings of the structural analysis. PMID:17100908

  10. Some important considerations in the development of stress corrosion cracking test methods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, R. P.; Novak, S. R.; Williams, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of some of the precaution needs the development of fracture-mechanics based test methods for studying stress corrosion cracking involves. Following a review of pertinent analytical fracture mechanics considerations and of basic test methods, the implications for test corrosion cracking studies of the time-to-failure determining kinetics of crack growth and life are examined. It is shown that the basic assumption of the linear-elastic fracture mechanics analyses must be clearly recognized and satisfied in experimentation and that the effects of incubation and nonsteady-state crack growth must also be properly taken into account in determining the crack growth kinetics, if valid data are to be obtained from fracture-mechanics based test methods.

  11. Performance of laser glazed Zr02 TBCs in cyclic oxidation and corrosion burner test rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of laser glazed zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was evaluated in cyclic oxidation and cyclic corrosion tests. Plasma sprayed zirconia coatings of two thicknesses were partially melted with a CO2 laser. The power density of the focused laser beam was varied from 35 to 75 W/sq mm, while the scanning speed was about 80 cm per minute. In cyclic oxidation tests, the specimens were heated in a burner rig for 6 minutes and cooled for 3 minutes. It is indicated that the laser treated samples have the same life as the untreated ones. However, in corrosion tests, in which the burner rig flame contained 100 PPM sodium fuel equivalent, the laser treated samples exhibit nearly a fourfold life improvement over that of the reference samples vary. In both tests, the lives of the samples inversely with the thickness of the laser melted layer of zirconia.

  12. Corrosion of aluminum and copper thin films under simulated atmospheric conditions in laboratory tests

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Raman, A.; Diwan, R.; Bhattacharya, P.K.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion characteristics of Al and Cu thin films have been studied in cyclic fog tests using tap water fog and fog created with 0.1% NaCl solution in tap water. Likewise, their corrosion features have been analyzed in continuous immersion testing in the laboratory in distilled water, tap water, in 0.1% NaCl and 3.5% NaCl solutions in distilled water. The corrosion potentials and the corrosion currents of these thin films change and reach steady state values after some time. However, steady state is not realized in 3.5% NaCl solutions. The corrosion current density data have been used to calculate lifetime of 1 {mu}m thick thin films of Al and Cu in the various tests, and assuming that the fog test data would hold under normal exposure conditions, life spans for these thin film sensor elements in actual exterior exposure have also been calculated. According to estimates, an Al-TF of about 1 {mu}m would last about 9 months in exterior exposure in chloride containing atmospheres, such as in the coastal regions, but would survive nearly 2 years in normal atmospheres not having acidic or chloride pollutants. On the contrary, 1 {mu}m thick Cu-TF would last only for about 2.5 months in chloride-laden environments, but would last for about 2 years in normal atmospheres. However, Cu-TF would be corroded off faster in slightly alkaline atmospheric condensate under total immersion situation. Lifetime estimates are presented and discussed.

  13. Space shuttle orbiter approach and landing test evaluation report. Captive-active flight test summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Captive-active tests consisted of three mated carrier aircraft/Orbiter flights with an active manned Orbiter. The objectives of this series of flights were to (1) verify the separation profile, (2) verify the integrated structure, aerodynamics, and flight control system, (3) verify Orbiter integrated system operations, and (4) refine and finalize carrier aircraft, Orbiter crew, and ground procedures in preparation for free flight tests. A summary description of the flights is presented with assessments of flight test requirements, and of the performance operations, and of significant flight anomalies is included.

  14. Note: Inhibiting bottleneck corrosion in electrical calcium tests for ultra-barrier measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nehm, F. Müller-Meskamp, L.; Klumbies, H.; Leo, K.

    2015-12-15

    A major failure mechanism is identified in electrical calcium corrosion tests for quality assessment of high-end application moisture barriers. Accelerated calcium corrosion is found at the calcium/electrode junction, leading to an electrical bottleneck. This causes test failure not related to overall calcium loss. The likely cause is a difference in electrochemical potential between the aluminum electrodes and the calcium sensor, resulting in a corrosion element. As a solution, a thin, full-area copper layer is introduced below the calcium, shifting the corrosion element to the calcium/copper junction and inhibiting bottleneck degradation. Using the copper layer improves the level of sensitivity for the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) by over one order of magnitude. Thin-film encapsulated samples with 20 nm of atomic layer deposited alumina barriers this way exhibit WVTRs of 6 × 10{sup −5} g(H{sub 2}O)/m{sup 2}/d at 38 °C, 90% relative humidity.

  15. Field Testing of High Current Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Mitigation in Reinforced Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardenas, Henry; Alexander, Joshua; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal; Calle, Luz marina

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic Nanoparticle (EN) treatment was used as a rapid repair measure to mitigate chloride induced corrosion of reinforced concrete in the field. EN treatment uses an electric field to transport positively charged nanoparticles to the reinforcement through the concrete capillary pores. Cylindrical reinforced concrete specimens were batched with 4.5 wt % salt content (based on cement mass). Three distinct electrokinetic treatments were conducted using high current density (up to 5 A/m2) to form a chloride penetration barrier that was established in 5 days, as opposed to the traditional 6-8 weeks, generally required for electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). These treatments included basic EN treatment, EN with additional calcium treatment, and basic ECE treatment. Field exposures were conducted at the NASA Beachside Corrosion Test Site, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. The specimens were subjected to sea water immersion at the test site as a posttreatment exposure. Following a 30-day post-treatment exposure period, the specimens were subjected to indirect tensile testing to evaluate treatment impact. The EN treated specimens exhibited 60% and 30% increases in tensile strength as compared to the untreated controls and ECE treated specimens respectively. The surfaces of the reinforcement bars of the control specimens were 67% covered by corrosion products. In contrast, the EN treated specimens exhibited corrosion coverage of only 4%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a dense concrete microstructure adjacent to the bars of the treated specimens as compared to the control and ECE specimens. Energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis of the polished EN treated specimens showed a reduction in chloride content by a factor of 20 adjacent to the bars. This study demonstrated that EN treatment was successful in forming a chloride penetration barrier rapidly. This work also showed that the chloride barrier was effective when samples were exposed to

  16. Single-Crystal NiAl-X Alloys Tested for Hot Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Single-crystal nickel aluminide (NiAl) has been investigated extensively throughout the last several years as a potential structural material in aero-gas turbine engines. The attractive features of NiAl in comparison to Ni-base superalloys include a higher melting point, lower density, higher thermal conductivity, and excellent oxidation resistance. However, NiAl suffers from a lack of ductility and fracture toughness at low temperatures and a low creep strength at high temperatures. Alloying additions of hafnium (Hf), gallium (Ga), titanium (Ti), and chromium (Cr) have each shown some benefit to the mechanical properties over that of the binary alloy. However, the collective effect of these alloying additions on the environmental resistance of NiAl-X was unclear. Hence, the present study was undertaken to examine the hot corrosion behavior of these alloys. A companion study examined the cyclic oxidation resistance of these alloys. Several single-crystal NiAl-X alloys (where X is Hf, Ti, Cr, or Ga) underwent hot corrosion testing in a Mach 0.3 burner rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Samples were tested for up to 300 1-hr cycles at a temperature of 900 C. It was found that increasing the Ti content from 1 to 5 at.% degraded the hot corrosion behavior. This decline in the behavior was reflected in high weight gains and large corrosion mound formation during testing (see the figures). However, the addition of 1 to 2 at.% Cr to alloys containing 4 to 5 at.% Ti appeared to greatly reduce the susceptibility of these alloys to hot corrosion attack and negated the deleterious effect of the increased Ti addition.

  17. Corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks compared to titanium modular necks in a simulator test.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Ulrich; Neumann, Daniel; Frank, Mario

    2014-04-01

    This study compared the corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks with that of titanium alloy modular necks at their junction to titanium-alloy femoral stem. Tests were performed in a dry assembly and two wet assemblies, one contaminated with calf serum and the other contaminated with calf serum and bone particles. Whereas the titanium modular neck tested in the dry assembly showed no signs of corrosion, the titanium modular necks tested in both wet assemblies showed marked depositions and corrosive attacks. By contrast, the tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks showed no traces of corrosion or chemical attack in any of the three assemblies. This study confirms the protective effect of tantalum coating the taper region of cobalt-chromium modular neck components, suggesting that the use of tantalum may reduce the risk of implant failure due to corrosion. PMID:24099841

  18. T-111 Rankine system corrosion test loop, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, R. W.; Hoffman, E. E.; Smith, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Results are given of a program whose objective was to determine the performance of refractory metal alloys in a two loop Rankine test system. The test system consisted of a circulating lithium circuit heated to 1230 C maximum transferring heat to a boiling potassium circuit with a 1170 C superheated vapor temperature. The results demonstrate the suitability of the selected refractory alloys to perform from a chemical compatibility standpoint.

  19. Stress corrosion cracking tests on high-level-waste container materials in simulated tuff repository environments

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, T.; Jain, H.; Soo, P.

    1986-06-01

    Types 304L, 316L, and 321 austenitic stainless steel and Incoloy 825 are being considered as candidate container materials for emplacing high-level waste in a tuff repository. The stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of these materials under simulated tuff repository conditions was evaluated by using the notched C-ring method. The tests were conducted in boiling synthetic groundwater as well as in the steam/air phase above the boiling solutions. All specimens were in contact with crushed Topopah Spring tuff. The investigation showed that microcracks are frequently observed after testing as a result of stress corrosion cracking or intergranular attack. Results showing changes in water chemistry during test are also presented.

  20. On-line corrosion monitoring at the High Sulfur Test Center. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, W.Y.; Moore, D.C.A.; Cox, W.M.; Farrell, D.M.; Gearey, D.

    1993-06-01

    The corrosion performance of alloys used in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) outlet ducting and stacks was assessed over two years period in a 4MW pilot wet FGD system. Twelve sensor assemblies were installed in the post-absorber duct section, one sensor for each material tested. Candidate materials included austenitic stainless steels, nickel alloys and titanium alloys. In the first of the tests, the sensor assemblies were exposed under the same environmental conditions as the adjacent duct wall. In subsequent tests, other FGD operating conditions were simulated, including changes in degree of reheat and cycling of the gas temperature. Finally, the sensors were exposed when chemical additive tests were in progress in the absorber. Results showed that Alloy C276, Alloy C22, titanium grades 2 and 7 were the most corrosion-resistant alloys tested, though less expensive austenitic stainless steel could provide adequate service in FGD environments subjected to continuous condensation. Scrubber additives, such as thiosulfate, could adversely affect the corrosion rate of certain alloys. Other work has demonstrated that unlined carbon steel can be made to operate satisfactorily provided that the environment within the outlet duct is controlled within target parameters. It was concluded that opportunities exist for cost reductions and improved cost-effectiveness of materials selection in many new and existing FGD installations.

  1. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Krawchuk, M.T.; Van Weele, S.F.

    1995-08-01

    A number of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings have previously been exposed in Phase I to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. This program is exposing samples of TP 347, RA-85H, HR-3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, NF-709, 690 clad, and 671 clad, which showed good corrosion resistance from Phase 1, to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and are being controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The exposure will continue for 4000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. After the three exposure times, the samples will be metallurgically examined to determine the wastage rates and mode of attack. The probes were commissioned November 16, 1994. The temperatures are being recorded every 15 minutes, and the weighted average temperature calculated for each sample. Each of the alloys is being exposed to a temperature in each of two temperature bands-1150 to 1260{degrees}F and 1260 to 1325{degrees}F. After 2000 hours of exposure, one of the corrosion probes was cleaned and the wall thicknesses were ultrasonically measured. The alloy performance from the field probes will be discussed.

  2. Effects of surface chemistry on hot corrosion life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryxell, R. E.; Leese, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    This program has its primary objective: the development of hot corrosion life prediction methodology based on a combination of laboratory test data and evaluation of field service turbine components which show evidence of hot corrosion. The laboratory program comprises burner rig testing by TRW. A summary of results is given for two series of burner rig tests. The life prediction methodology parameters to be appraised in a final campaign of burner rig tests are outlined.

  3. Simulated Service and Stress Corrosion Cracking Testing for Friction Stir Welded Spun Formed Domes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Thomas J.; Torres, Pablo D.; Caratus, Andrei A.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Simulated service testing (SST) development was required to help qualify a new 2195 aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloy spin forming dome fabrication process for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Development Technology Program. The application for the technology is to produce high strength low weight tank components for NASA s next generation launch vehicles. Since plate material is not currently manufactured large enough to fabricate these domes, two plates are joined by means of friction stir welding. The plates are then pre-contour machined to near final thicknesses allowing for a thicker weld land and anticipating the level of stretch induced by the spin forming process. The welded plates are then placed in a spin forming tool and hot stretched using a trace method producing incremental contours. Finally the dome receives a room temperature contour stretch to final dimensions, heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging to emulate a T-8 condition of temper. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests were also performed by alternate immersion in a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using the typical double beam assembly and with 4-point loaded specimens and use of bent-beam stress-corrosion test specimens under alternate immersion conditions. In addition, experiments were conducted to determine the threshold stress intensity factor for SCC (K(sub ISCC)) which to our knowledge has not been determined previously for Al-Li 2195 alloy. The successful simulated service and stress corrosion testing helped to provide confidence to continue to Ares 1 scale dome fabrication

  4. Corrosion characterization of durable silver coatings by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and accelerated environmental testing.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chung-Tse; Fuqua, Peter D; Barrie, James D

    2006-03-01

    Highly reflective front-surface silver mirrors are needed for many optical applications. While various protective dielectric coating schemes have been developed, the long-term durability of Ag mirrors is still of great concern in the optics community for a variety of applications under harsh environments. The corrosion protection behavior of a SiNx-coated silver-mirror coating scheme was tested with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and accelerated environmental testing, including humidity and salt fog tests. The EIS data obtained were fitted with different equivalent circuit models. The results suggested that the 100A thick SiNx coating produced by rf magnetron sputtering was porous and acted as a leaky capacitor on the Ag film, whereas the addition of a NiCrNx interlayer as thin as 3A between SiNx and Ag films resulted in a much denser SiNx coating with a low-frequency impedance value of 2 orders of magnitude higher than that without the interlayer. Humidity and salt fog testing of different silver coatings showed similar results. The 100A SiNx/3A-NiCrNx/Ag coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance against the corrosive environments used in this study. PMID:16539267

  5. Hot Corrosion Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Special Projects Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Raymond C.; Cuy, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    The Hot Corrosion Test Facility (HCTF) at the NASA Lewis Special Projects Laboratory (SPL) is a high-velocity, pressurized burner rig currently used to evaluate the environmental durability of advanced ceramic materials such as SiC and Si3N4. The HCTF uses laboratory service air which is preheated, mixed with jet fuel, and ignited to simulate the conditions of a gas turbine engine. Air, fuel, and water systems are computer-controlled to maintain test conditions which include maximum air flows of 250 kg/hr (550 lbm/hr), pressures of 100-600 kPa (1-6 atm), and gas temperatures exceeding 1500 C (2732 F). The HCTF provides a relatively inexpensive, yet sophisticated means for researchers to study the high-temperature oxidation of advanced materials, and the injection of a salt solution provides the added capability of conducting hot corrosion studies.

  6. Simulation of natural corrosion by vapor hydration test: seven-year results

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.S.; Ebert, W.L.; Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-12-31

    We have investigated the alteration behavior of synthetic basalt and SRL 165 borosilicate waste glasses that had been reacted in water vapor at 70 {degrees}C for time periods up to seven years. The nature and extent of corrosion of glasses have been determined by characterizing the reacted glass surface with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Alteration in 70 {degrees}C laboratory tests was compared to that which occurs at 150-200 {degrees}C and also with Hawaiian basaltic glasses of 480 to 750 year old subaerially altered in nature. Synthetic basalt and waste glasses, both containing about 50 percent wt SiO{sub 2} were found to react with water vapor to form an amorphous hydrated gel that contained small amounts of clay, nearly identical to palagonite layers formed on naturally altered basaltic glass. This result implies that the corrosion reaction in nature can be simulated with a vapor hydration test. These tests also provide a means for measuring the corrosion kinetics, which are difficult to determine by studying natural samples because alteration layers have often spelled off the samples and we have only limited knowledge of the conditions under which alteration occurred.

  7. Preparation and testing of corrosion and spallation-resistant coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, John

    2012-09-30

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is designed to determine if plating APMT, a specific highly oxidation-resistant oxide dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The method for joining the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding. It involves placing a thin foil of zinc (Zn) between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the Zn melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The Zn then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces. Laboratory testing has shown that the diffusion rate of Zn through the FeCrAl alloy is much faster than through the nickel superalloys. This means that the FeCrAl will serve as a sink for the Zn bonding alloy during the evaporative metal bonding process. Also, the testing has shown that the Zn diffusion mechanism is bulk diffusion, and not intergranular. This is a surprise. However, it means that quantification of the Zn diffusivities in these samples will be significantly simpler than would have been the case if grain boundary diffusion dominated. In addition to the laboratory testing, gas impinger and particulate samples are being collected from a combustor firing syngas and natural gas to determine what types of microcontaminants may reach a turbine firing syngas. The syngas is created in one of two different pilot-scale pressurized coal gasifiers. The initial analysis of the impinger solutions was for standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 29 determination of hazardous metals and did not include major element analysis. When syngas is fired, the amount of Mn in the combustor gas increases substantially. Halogens (Br2 and Cl2) and hydrogen

  8. Corrosion-erosion test of SS316L grain boundary engineering material (GBEM) in lead bismuth flowing loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Dai; Tezuka, Masao; Miyagi, Masanori; Kokawa, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the lifetime of structural materials utilized in a spallation neutron source, corrosion tests in lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) have been done at JAEA. Austenitic steels are preferable as the structural material for ADS. However, previous studies have revealed that austenitic steel SS316 shows severe corrosion-erosion in LBE because of LBE penetration through grain boundaries and separation of grains. So it was considered that GBE (grain-boundary engineered) materials may be effective to improve the corrosion resistance of austenitic steels in LBE. In this study, the results of corrosion tests on austenitic steel SS316L-BM (base metal) and SS316L-GBEM (grain-boundary-engineered material) under flowing LBE conditions will be reported. The corrosion test was performed using the JAEA lead-bismuth material corrosion loop (JLBL-1). The experimental conditions were as follows: The high and low temperature parts of the loop were 450 °C and 350 °C, respectively. The flow velocity at the test specimens was about 0.7 m/s. The oxygen concentration in LBE was not controlled and was estimated to have been very low. After the 3600 h of operation, macroscopic, SEM, and SIM observations and EDX analysis were carried out. The results showed that the corrosion depth and LBE penetration through the grain boundaries of the 316SS-GBEM were smaller than those of the 316SS-BM.

  9. Corrosion 99: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    This conference includes the following; Corrosion in Gas Treating; Advances in Scale and Deposit Control; Uses of Computers for Improved Corrosion Control; Erosion-Corrosion in Steam Generating Systems; Electrochemical Noise Measurements for Corrosion Evaluations; Materials Performance in Fossil Fuel Combustion and Conversion Systems; Corrosion in Super Critical Processes; Cathodic Protection of External Surfaces for Underground and Aboveground Storage Tanks; Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion; Advances in Materials for Oilfield Applications; Refining Industry Corrosion; Green Corrosion/Scale Inhibition Technologies; Managing Corrosion With Plastics; Corrosion Measurement Technology; Marine Corrosion; Improved Understanding and Mitigation of CO{sub 2} Corrosion; Thermal Spray Coatings for Corrosion Protection; Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors; Corrosion Testing in Concrete; Stress Corrosion Cracking: Field Laboratory Correlations; Materials Performance in Incineration and Waste Fuel Combustion Environments; Water Reuse in Industry; Corrosion Control and Prevention of Military and Aerospace Equipment; Corrosion in Nuclear Systems; Latest Developments in Aboveground Storage Tanks Corrosion Control, Monitoring and Evaluation Technology; Internal In-line Inspection of Pipelines and Evaluation of Results; New Developments in Cathodic Protection of Reinforcing Steels in Concrete; Cathodic Protection in Natural Waters; Corrosion in the Pulp and Paper Industry; Advanced Materials for High Temperature Service in Chemical Process Industry; Advances in Cooling Water Treatment; Materials, Fabrication, and Inspection Guidelines for Wet H{sub 2}S Service; Environmental Wear of Nonmetallics in Oilfield Service; and Corrosion and Scale Control in Low Pressure Boiler and Steam Systems in Buildings. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the papers.

  10. Corrosion 99: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    This conference includes the following; Corrosion in Gas Treating; Advances in Scale and Deposit Control; Uses of Computers for Improved Corrosion Control; Erosion-Corrosion in Steam Generating Systems; Electrochemical Noise Measurements for Corrosion Evaluations; Materials Performance in Fossil Fuel Combustion and Conversion Systems; Corrosion in Super Critical Processes; Cathodic Protection of External Surfaces for Underground and Aboveground Storage Tanks; Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion; Advances in Materials for Oilfield Applications; Refining Industry Corrosion; Green Corrosion/Scale Inhibition Technologies; Managing Corrosion With Plastics; Corrosion Measurement Technology; Marine Corrosion; Improved Understanding and Mitigation of CO[sub 2] Corrosion; Thermal Spray Coatings for Corrosion Protection; Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors; Corrosion Testing in Concrete; Stress Corrosion Cracking: Field Laboratory Correlations; Materials Performance in Incineration and Waste Fuel Combustion Environments; Water Reuse in Industry; Corrosion Control and Prevention of Military and Aerospace Equipment; Corrosion in Nuclear Systems; Latest Developments in Aboveground Storage Tanks Corrosion Control, Monitoring and Evaluation Technology; Internal In-line Inspection of Pipelines and Evaluation of Results; New Developments in Cathodic Protection of Reinforcing Steels in Concrete; Cathodic Protection in Natural Waters; Corrosion in the Pulp and Paper Industry; Advanced Materials for High Temperature Service in Chemical Process Industry; Advances in Cooling Water Treatment; Materials, Fabrication, and Inspection Guidelines for Wet H[sub 2]S Service; Environmental Wear of Nonmetallics in Oilfield Service; and Corrosion and Scale Control in Low Pressure Boiler and Steam Systems in Buildings. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the papers.

  11. DUAL ALKALI TEST AND EVALUATION PROGRAM. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume I of the report is an executive summary of the results of a three-task program to investigate, characterize, and evaluate the basic process chemistry and the various operating modes of sodium-based dual alkali scrubbing processes. The tasks were: I, laboratory studies at b...

  12. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.

    1997-12-01

    In Phase 1 a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347 RA-85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 Ta modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for approximately 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were assembled on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, the probe was installed in the reheater activity of the boiler and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The results will be presented for the preliminary metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 16,000 hours of exposure. Continued metallurgical and interpretive analysis is still on going.

  13. The chloride stress-corrosion cracking behavior of stainless steels under different test methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L. Z.

    1994-12-01

    Chloride-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of the failure modes of stainless steels. Highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels S32654, S31254, and N08028, and duplex grades S32750 and S31803 possess much improved resistance to SCC compared with S30400 and S31600 steels. With the development of a database, SSData, experimental data collected from calcium chloride tests, autoclave tests, and drop evaporation tests were evaluated. Stress-corrosion cracking data generated by autoclave tests agreed well with the practical service conditions and can be used to discriminate alloys for SCC resistance in sodium chloride solution. Drop evaporation test data can be used in situations where evaporation may occur and cyclic loading may be involved. The SCC resistance of alloys under each method increased with increasing molybdenum equivalent Mo + 0.25Cr + 0.1Ni. For a given alloy, the testing result depends on the stress state and environment; different test methods can give different ranking orders concerning SCC resistance. The performance of duplex stainless steels in a chloride-containing environment at higher temperatures was not as good as expected when dynamic loading was involved.

  14. Summary of Well Testing and Analysis, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-30

    This report summarizes the results of the analysis of the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. This program included the testing of eight wells: ER-EC-1, ER-EC-6, ER-18-2, ER-EC-7, ER-EC-5, ER-EC-8, ER-EC-2a, and ER-EC-4. The locations of these wells are shown in Figure 1-1. The data collection for the program was documented in individual well development and testing reports. Drilling and well construction information has been documented in individual well completion reports. This summary report is based on the individual well analysis reports.

  15. Material Corrosion and Plate-Out Test of Types 304L and 316L Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.E.

    2001-02-06

    Corrosion and plate-out tests were performed on 304L and 316L stainless steel in pretreated Envelope B and Envelope C solutions. Flat coupons of the two stainless steels were exposed to 100 degrees C liquid and to 74 degrees C and 88 degrees C vapor above the solutions for 61 days. No significant corrosion was observed either by weight-loss measurements or by microscopic examination. Most coupons had small weight gains due to plate-out of solids, which remained to some extent even after 24-hour immersion in 1 N nitric acid at room temperature. Plate-out was more significant in the Envelope B coupons, with film thickness from less than 0.001 in. to 0.003-inches.

  16. An integrated testing strategy for in vitro skin corrosion and irritation assessment using SkinEthic™ Reconstructed Human Epidermis.

    PubMed

    Alépée, Nathalie; Grandidier, Marie-Hélène; Tornier, Carine; Cotovio, José

    2015-10-01

    The SkinEthic™ Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) method has been formally adopted for the regulatory assessment of skin irritation (OECD TG 439) and corrosion (OECD TG 431). Recently, the OECD adopted an Integrated Approach on Testing and Assessment (IATA) for skin corrosion and skin irritation (OECD GD 203), which provides guidance on the integration of existing and new information in a modular approach for classification and labelling. The present study aimed to evaluate the use of the SkinEthic™ RHE model within the proposed OECD IATA. Data on 86 substances were integrated in a bottom-up and top-down testing strategy to assess their capacity for EU CLP and UN GHS classifications. For EU CLP, strategies showed an accuracy of 84.8% to discriminate non-classified from classified substances, 94.4% to discriminate corrosive from non-corrosive substances, and 68.5% to discriminate the four (sub)-categories. For UN GHS, strategies showed an accuracy of 89.5% to discriminate non-classified from classified substances, 93.4% to discriminate corrosive from non-corrosive substances, and 74.2% to discriminate four GHS (sub)-categories (excluding Category 3). In conclusion, the integration of SkinEthic™ RHE irritation and corrosion data in a bottom-up and top-down testing strategy allows the classification of substances according to EU CLP and UN GHS. PMID:26187475

  17. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 using the constant strain rate test

    SciTech Connect

    Bulischeck, T.S.; Van Rooyen, D.

    1981-10-01

    Nuclear grade production tubing of Alloy 600 was evaluated for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility in high purity water at 365, 345, 325, and 290 C. Reverse tube U-bend specimens provided crack initiation data and constant extension rate tests were employed to determine the crack velocities experienced in th crack propagation stage. Initial results indicate that a linear extrapolation of data received from high temperature tests can be used to predict the service life of steam generator tubing that has been plastically deformed or is continually deforming by ''denting.''

  18. Atmospheric corrosion of coated steel; Relationship between laboratory and field testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambier, Severine Marie Noelle

    The lifetime prediction for corrosion-protective coatings on metals is a challenge that has been studied for several decades. Accelerated tests are used in the hope to reproduce in few days the damage that would develop during several years of field exposure. Field exposures are also used because accelerated tests are not always reliable. Several approaches have been taken to reduce the duration of field exposures. One of them is the use of sensitive techniques to assess the coating degradation before visual inspection indicates any damage. Cathodic delamination measured by the scanning Kelvin probe (CD-SKP) was introduced here as a sensitive technique to assess the degradation at the coating/metal interface after weathering exposure. This technique was shown to predict the failure of the coating/steel interface. Several climates were tested in the US continent and on the islands of Hawaii. PVB coated steel environmental degradation was characterized in the field and reproduced in the laboratory. A second approach to shorten coated metal field exposure is to accelerate the degradation using intentionally added through-film scribes. In service, most corrosion mechanism for painted metals, such as filiform corrosion and cathodic delamination, initiate from a mechanical defect. The iron oxides formed under PVB and Eponol were identified with Raman spectroscopy to determine the environment factors that participated in their formation. This investigation was complemented by laboratory exposure. An accelerated test for PVB coated steel was designed to reproduce the environmental degradation observed in the field. The CD-SKP technique to assess interface degradation after weathering exposure was also applied to other coating systems. E-coated, sprayed epoxy primers with a conversion coating or grit blasting treatment, and one full coating system were tested.

  19. TESTING VAPOR SPACE AND LIQUID-AIR INTERFACE CORROSION IN SIMULATED ENVIRONMENTS OF HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELLED TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.

    2013-05-30

    Electrochemical coupon testing were performed on 6 Hanford tank solution simulants and corresponding condensate simulants to evaluate the susceptibility of vapor space and liquid/air interface corrosion. Additionally, partial-immersion coupon testing were performed on the 6 tank solution simulants to compliment the accelerated electrochemical testing. Overall, the testing suggests that the SY-102 high nitrate solution is the most aggressive of the six solution simulants evaluated. Alternatively, the most passive solution, based on both electrochemical testing and coupon testing, was AY-102 solution. The presence of ammonium nitrate in the simulants at the lowest concentration tested (0.001 M) had no significant effect. At higher concentrations (0.5 M), ammonium nitrate appears to deter localized corrosion, suggesting a beneficial effect of the presence of the ammonium ion. The results of this research suggest that there is a threshold concentration of ammonium ions leading to inhibition of corrosion, thereby suggesting the need for further experimentation to identify the threshold.

  20. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Kimitaka

    2009-02-19

    In this presentation, lectures in the school are revisited and a brief summary is given. An emphasis is made to illustrate how the lectures are interconnected so as to constitute the unified basis of knowledge in realizing thermonuclear fusion in ITER.The first message here is the integration of the knowledge. All of conditions (which is imposed by individual characteristic dynamics) must be simultaneously fulfilled. Plasma conditions (density, pressure, current, shape, etc.) set parameter boundaries. Achievement of Q = 10 is expected to be realized near the ridge of boundary, so that exact knowledge of mutual relations between constraints is inevitable. The other message is that, the constraints of plasma, material and design must be subject to a special care. In this regard, the use of tritium in ITER introduces new issue in research. For instance, the containment of tritium in the device leads to a new demand for the system. This issue influences the choice of the wall material. The difference of the wall material (either light element or heavy metal), on the other hand, can have a large impact on confinement. These new features in integration will be explained.The other issue is the need of integration of knowledge to form a law of understanding. The mission of ITER must be realized as fast as possible, considering the fact the necessity for fusion energy will be more keen as time goes on. The operation of ITER has been predicted by extending the empirical scaling relations. More precise prediction and the resolution of possible problems in advance are required. For this urgency, our knowledge must be distilled as a scientific law in which elementary processes are validated.

  1. OTEC biofouling-control and corrosion-protection study at the Seacoast Test Facility: 1981-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, C.B.; Larsen-Basse, J.; Berger, L.R.; Berger, J.A.; Little, B.J.; Stevens, H.C.; Darby, J.B.; Genens, L.E.; Hillis, D.L.

    1985-07-01

    Results from the first two years of operation of the OTEC Seacoast Test Facility in Hawaii are presented. No detectable biofouling from cold water in smooth tubes has been observed. Intermittent, low-level chlorination appears to control biofouling from warm water in smooth tubes. Uniform corrosion of all aluminum alloys is low in warm water, with no pitting observed. In cold water, preliminary data indicate pitting of all alloys, but corrosion is considerably less uniform than in warm water.

  2. The sky is falling: chemical characterization and corrosion evaluation of deposition produced during the static testing of solid rocket motors.

    PubMed

    Doucette, William J; McNeill, Laurie S; Mendenhall, Scout; Hancock, Paul V; Wells, Jason E; Thackeray, Kevin J; Gosen, David P

    2013-03-01

    Static tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory UT, USA result in the deposition of entrained soil and fuel combustion products, referred to as Test Fire Soil (TFS), over areas as large as 30-50 mile (80-130 km) and at distances up to 10-12 miles (16-20 km) from the test site. Chloride is the main combustion product generated from the ammonium perchlorate-aluminum based composite propellant. Deposition sampling/characterization and a 6-month field corrosivity study using mild steel coupons were conducted in conjunction with the February 25th 2010 FSM-17 static test. The TFS deposition rates at the three study sites ranged from 1 to 5 g/min/m. TFS contained significantly more chloride than the surface soil collected from the test site. The TFS collected during two subsequent tests had similarly elevated chloride, suggesting that the results obtained in this study are applicable to other tests assuming that the rocket fuel composition remains similar. The field-deployed coupons exposed to the TFS had higher corrosion rates (3.6-5.0 mpy) than paired non-exposed coupons (1.6-1.8 mpy). Corrosion rates for all coupons decreased over time, but coupons exposed to the TFS always had a higher rate than the non-exposed. Differences in corrosion rates between the three study sites were also observed, with sites receiving more TFS deposition having higher corrosion rates. PMID:23410860

  3. TMACS test procedure TP010: Integration summary. Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Spurling, D.G.

    1994-09-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure verifies that Test Procedures 1, 2, 3, 5 and 9 (WHC-SD-WM-TRP-105, 106, 107, 109 and 113) of TMACS Software Release 4.1 have been successfully completed.

  4. Superheater/intermediate temperature airheater tube corrosion tests in the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility (Eastern Coal Phase)

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.K.

    1993-11-01

    Corrosion data have been obtained for tub is exposed for 1500--2000 hours in a proof-of-concept magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation test facility to conditions representative of superheater and intermediate temperature air heater (ITAH) components. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-rich deposits, were corroded more than in most pulverized coal fired superheater service, but much less than the highly aggressive liquid phase attack encountered in conventional plants with certain coals and temperatures. Results indicated that, with parabolic corrosion kinetics, type 310 and 253MA stainless steels should be usable to 1400F at hot end of ITAH. At final superheater temperatures, 2.25 and 5 Cr steels were indicated to have parabolic corrosion rates generally below a 0.5 mm/yr criterion, based on corrosion scale thickness. However, unknown amounts of scale loss from spallation made this determination uncertain. Stainless steels 304H, 316H, and 321H had parabolic rates variably above the criterion, but may be servicable under less cyclic conditions. Corrosion rates derived from scale thickness and intergranular corrosion depth measurements are reported, along with scale morphologies and compositions. Implications of results on commercial MHD utilization of the alloys are discussed, as well as the indicated need for more corrosion resistant alloys or coatings under the most severe exposure conditions.

  5. 2000-hour stress-corrosion cracking tests on 90-10 cupronickel in simulated Hanford groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.

    1987-02-01

    Self-loaded fracture mechanics specimens were tested in simulated groundwater at 150/degree/C to evaluate the susceptibility of 90-10 cupronickel to environmentally enhanced cracking. The test duration was 2000 hours. Electron fractographic evidence indicated that no stress corrosion cracking occurred during the test. Compliance methods demonstrated that a substantial amount of crack extension did not occur during the 2000-hour exposure, but this method was insensitive to detecting crack growth increments less than 0.030 inch. Conventional macroscopic examination of fracture surfaces could not be used to determine if any crack extension occurred during the test because stains were observed beyond the original precrack. The stains were attributed to artifacts associated with postcracking procedures. 7 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. In vitro corrosion testing of PVD coatings applied to a surgical grade Co-Cr-Mo alloy.

    PubMed

    Bolton, J; Hu, X

    2002-06-01

    Toxic effects and biological reaction of metallic corrosion and wear products are an important concern for metal on metal artificial joints. Corrosion tests were conducted to study the susceptibility to pitting and localized corrosion, with three coatings, CrN, TiN and DLC, applied to a wrought high carbon Co-Cr-Mo alloy substrate material. Corrosion testing involved the measurement of potential time transients during immersion in a physiological solution and cyclic polarization of specimen potentials into the transpassive range followed by reversal of the potential to scan in the cathodic direction to regain the rest potential E(rest). Resistance to pitting and localized corrosion was assessed by determining the transpassive breakdown potential E(bd) and if any hysteresis generated during the reverse cyclic scan may have caused crossover with the original anodic scan. Three different surface coating conditions were tested namely: (1) as-coated, (2) polished, and (3) indented to penetrate the coating by diamond pyramid hardness indentor. Results showed that all three coatings produced significant improvements in corrosion resistance compared to performance of the wrought cobalt alloy but that some corrosive attack to both the CrN and TiN coatings occurred and some risk of attack to the cobalt alloy substrate existed due to coating defects or when damage to the coating occurred. TiN coatings were highly effective in preventing corrosion provided they were thick enough to produce complete coverage. Thin TiN coatings displayed some tendency to encourage localized attack of the cobalt alloy at coating defects or where the coating suffered mechanical damage. CrN coatings underwent transpassive breakdown more easily and some degree of pitting at defects within the coating was observed, especially when the CrN coating was polished before the test. No corrosive attack of the cobalt alloy substrate was observed when the CrN coating was mechanically damaged by indentation

  7. Laboratory testing on welded duplex stainless steel line pipe internal corrosion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Condanni, D.; Barteri, M.

    1996-12-01

    Duplex 22% Cr stainless steel (ss) was recommended, at the basic design stage, as the most cost-performing material for intrafield flowlines conveying multiphase sour production from subsea well-heads to production platform. Due to aggressiveness of the production environment [H{sub 2}S partial pressure (pH{sub 2}S) = 14 mbar, CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) = 40 bar, NaCl = 100 g/l, T = 135 C], and partially to the lack of definitive information on the corrosion resistance of welded duplex, some laboratory testing was deemed necessary and performed. The paper presents testing results dealing with localized corrosion and sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance of base material and girth-welded seamless tubes 22% Cr duplex, both wrought and centrifugally cast. The last one was considered because of possible procurement difficulties of the first one when required in small quantities and large diameters as in the case of production manifolds. It is concluded that the material can be used in the test environment as girth weld line pipe provided suitable welding technique is adopted.

  8. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  9. The OECD Fish Testing Framework Project: Summary of Workshop Recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated Fish Testing Framework was initiated in mid-2009 as OECD Project 2.30 with the United States as the lead country. The objectives of the project were to review the regulatory needs and data requirements for fish testing and review the currency of existing OECD Test ...

  10. APA's Guidelines for Test User Qualifications: An Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Samuel M.; DeMers, Stephen T.; Fox, Heather Roberts; Reed, Geoffrey M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the American Psychological Association's (APA's) development of the Task Force on Test User Qualifications, explaining the APA's purpose in developing guidelines for the use of psychological tests. Highlights the historical background, the scope of the guidelines, generic knowledge and skills considered important for good test use, and…