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Sample records for cortical bone anisotropy

  1. Anisotropy of bovine cortical bone tissue damage properties.

    PubMed

    Szabó, M E; Thurner, P J

    2013-01-01

    Bone is a heterogeneous, anisotropic natural composite material. Several studies have measured human cortical bone elastic properties in different anatomical directions and found that the Young's modulus was highest in the longitudinal, followed by the tangential and then by the radial direction. This study compared the Young's modulus, the accumulated microdamage and local strains related to the failure process in these three anatomical directions. Cortical bone samples (≈360 μm×360 μm) were mechanically tested in three-point bending and concomitantly imaged to assess local strains using digital image correlation technique. The bone whitening effect was used to detect microdamage formation and propagation. No statistically significant difference was found between the Young's modulus of longitudinal (9.4±2.0 GPa) and tangential (9.9±1.8 GPa) bovine bone samples, as opposed to previous findings on human bone samples. The same similarity was found for the whitening values (5000±1900 pix/mm(2) for longitudinal, 5800±2600 pix/mm(2) for tangential) and failure strains (16.8±7.0% for longitudinal, 19.1±3.2% for tangential) as well. However, significantly lower values were observed in the radial samples for Young's modulus (5.92±0.77 GPa), whitening (none or minimal) and failure strain (10.8±3.8%). For strains at whitening onset, no statistically significant difference was seen for the longitudinal (5.1±1.6%) and radial groups (4.2±2.0%), however, the tangential values were significantly greater (7.0±2.4%). The data implies that bovine cortical bone tissue in long bones is designed to withstand higher loads in the longitudinal and tangential directions than in the radial one. A possible explanation of the anisotropy in the mechanical parameters derived here might be the structure of the tissues in the three directions tested. PMID:23063771

  2. Micromechanical modeling of elastic properties of cortical bone accounting for anisotropy of dense tissue.

    PubMed

    Salguero, Laura; Saadat, Fatemeh; Sevostianov, Igor

    2014-10-17

    The paper analyzes the connection between microstructure of the osteonal cortical bone and its overall elastic properties. The existing models either neglect anisotropy of the dense tissue or simplify cortical bone microstructure (accounting for Haversian canals only). These simplifications (related mostly to insufficient mathematical apparatus) complicate quantitative analysis of the effect of microstructural changes - produced by age, microgravity, or some diseases - on the overall mechanical performance of cortical bone. The present analysis fills this gap; it accounts for anisotropy of the dense tissue and uses realistic model of the porous microstructure. The approach is based on recent results of Sevostianov et al. (2005) and Saadat et al. (2012) on inhomogeneities in a transversely-isotropic material. Bone's microstructure is modeled according to books of Martin and Burr (1989), Currey (2002), and Fung (1993) and includes four main families of pores. The calculated elastic constants for porous cortical bone are in agreement with available experimental data. The influence of each of the pore types on the overall moduli is examined. PMID:25234350

  3. The relationship between the mechanical anisotropy of human cortical bone tissue and its microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza Orias, Alejandro A.

    Orthopedics research has made significant advances in the areas of biomechanics, bone implants and bone substitute materials. However, to date there is no definitive model to explain the structure-property relationships in bone as a material to enable better implant designs or to develop a true biomechanical analog of bone. The objective of this investigation was to establish a relationship between the elastic anisotropy of cortical bone tissue and its microstructure. Ultrasonic wave propagation was used to measure stiffness coefficients for specimens sectioned along the length of a human femur. The elastic constants were orthotropic and varied with anatomical location. Stiffness coefficients were generally largest at the midshaft and stiffness anisotropy ratios were largest at the distal and proximal ends. These tests were run on four additional human femurs to assess the influence of phenotypic variation, and in most cases, it was found that phenotypes do not exert a significant effect. Stiffness coefficients were shown to be correlated as a power law relation to apparent density, but anisotropy ratios were not. Texture analysis was performed on selected samples to measure the orientation distribution of the bone mineral crystals. Inverse pole figures showed that bone mineral crystals had a preferred crystallographic orientation, coincident with the long axis of the femur, which is its principal loading direction. The degree of preferred orientation was represented in Multiples of a Random Distribution (MRD), and correlated to the anisotropy ratios. Variation in elastic anisotropy was shown to be primarily due to the bone mineral orientation. The results found in this work can be used to incorporate anisotropy into structural analysis for bone as a material.

  4. Relationships between the anisotropy of longitudinal wave velocity and hydroxyapatite crystallite orientation in bovine cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazufumi; Nakatsuji, Tomohiro; Yaoi, Yuichiro; Yamato, Yu; Yanagitani, Takahiko; Matsukawa, Mami; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2012-03-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is now widely used for evaluating bone in vivo, because obtained ultrasonic wave properties directly reflect the visco-elasticity. Bone tissue is composed of minerals like hydroxyapatite (HAp) and a collagen matrix. HAp crystallites orientation is thus one parameter of bone elasticity. In this study, we experimentally investigated the anisotropy of ultrasonic wave velocity and the HAp crystallites orientation in the axial-radial and axial-tangential planes in detail, using cylindrical specimens obtained from the cortical bone of three bovine femurs. Longitudinal bulk wave propagation was investigated by using a conventional ultrasonic pulse system. We used the one cycle of sinusoidal pulse which was emitted from wide band transmitter. The nominal frequency of the pulse was 1MHz. First, we investigated the anisotropy of longitudinal wave velocity, measuring the anisotropy of velocity in two planes using cylindrical specimens obtained from identical bone areas. The wave velocity changed due to the rotation angle, showing the maximum value in the direction a little off the bone axis. Moreover, X-ray pole figure measurements also indicated that there were small tilts in the HAp crystallites orientation from the bone axis. The tilt angles were similar to those of the highest velocity direction. There were good correlations between velocity and HAp crystallites orientation obtained in different directions. However, a comparatively low correlation was found in posterior bone areas, which shows the stronger effects of bone microstructure. In the radial-tangential plane, where the HAp crystallites hardly ever align, weak anisotropy of velocity was found which seemed to depend on the bone microstructure. PMID:22014464

  5. Anisotropy of Longitudinal Wave Velocity and Hydroxyapatite Orientation in Bovine Cortical Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaoi, Yuichiro; Yamamoto, Kazufumi; Nakatsuji, Tomohiro; Yanagitani, Takahiko; Matsukawa, Mami; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Nagano, Akira

    2009-07-01

    The anisotropy of longitudinal wave velocity and the hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystallite orientation in bovine cortical bone were experimentally investigated in detail. A ring-shaped cortical bone sample was obtained from the midshaft of a 32-month-old bovine femur. Four cylindrical specimens (diameter 11 mm) were taken from the ring-shaped cortical bone specimen along the radial direction. Velocity was measured by a conventional ultrasonic pulse system, by rotating the specimen in the axial-tangential plane. The direction of the fastest wave velocity observed was inclined 5-10° from the axial direction. The HAp crystallite orientation in the specimen was also investigated by X-ray diffraction pole-figure analysis. We observed a strong intensive peak of (0002), indicating HAp crystallite c-axis alignment along the bone axis. However, the pole-figure also revealed a small tilt in the HAp crystallite orientation from the axial direction. Comparing the velocity and X-ray diffraction peak at each angle of the axial-tangential plane, a significant correlation between the velocity and the HAp orientation was observed.

  6. Variability and anisotropy of mechanical behavior of cortical bone in tension and compression.

    PubMed

    Li, Simin; Demirci, Emrah; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2013-05-01

    The mechanical properties of cortical bone vary not only from bone to bone; they demonstrate a spatial viability even within the same bone due to its changing microstructure. They also depend considerably on different loading modes and orientations. To understand the variability and anisotropic mechanical behavior of a cortical bone tissue, specimens cut from four anatomical quadrants of bovine femurs were investigated both in tension and compression tests. The obtained experimental results revealed a highly anisotropic mechanical behavior, depending also on the loading mode (tension and compression). A compressive longitudinal loading regime resulted in the best load-bearing capacity for cortical bone, while tensile transverse loading provided significantly poorer results. The distinctive stress-strain curves obtained for tension and compression demonstrated various damage mechanisms associated with different loading modes. The variability of mechanical properties for different cortices was evaluated with two-way ANOVA analyses. Statistical significances were found among different quadrants for the Young's modulus. The results of microstructure analysis of the entire transverse cross section of a cortical bone also confirmed variations of volume fractions of constituents at microscopic level between anatomic quadrants: microstructure of the anterior quadrant was dominated by plexiform bone, whereas secondary osteons were prominent in the posterior quadrant. The effective Young's modulus predicted using the modified Voigt-Reuss-Hill averaging scheme accurately reproduced our experimental results, corroborating additionally a strong effect of random and heterogeneous microstructure on variation of mechanical properties in cortical bone. PMID:23563047

  7. The effect of supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization on the anisotropy of bovine cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Russell, Nicholas; Rives, Alain; Pelletier, Matthew H; Wang, Tian; Walsh, William R

    2015-03-01

    Bone allografts are used to replace bone that has been removed or to augment bone tissue in a number of clinical scenarios. In order to minimize the risk of infection and immune response, the bone is delipidated and terminally sterilized prior to implantation. The optimal method for bone graft sterilization has been the topic of considerable research and debate. Recently, supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO(2)) treatments have been shown to terminally sterilize bone against a range of bacteria and viruses. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of these SCCO(2) treatments on the anisotropic mechanical properties of cortical bone. Adult bovine cortical cubes were prepared and treated using SCCO(2) and a range of common processing additives (ethanol, peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide). The bone was mechanically tested in uniaxial compression in the axial, radial and tangential orientations. Ultimate stress, strain, elastic modulus, energy and stiffness were evaluated. This study found that SCCO(2) treatment without additive did not alter the ultimate stress, stiffness or energy to failure depreciably in any orientation. The addition of sterilants peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide also preserved mechanical function, with no deleterious effect on stress or stiffness. This study highlights the expediency of SCCO(2) treatment for bone allograft processing as terminal sterilization can be achieved while maintaining the intrinsic mechanical properties of the graft. PMID:24737303

  8. Insights into Reference Point Indentation Involving Human Cortical Bone: Sensitivity to Tissue Anisotropy and Mechanical Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Granke, Mathilde; Coulmier, Aurélie; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Gaddy, Jennifer A; Does, Mark D; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2014-01-01

    Reference point indentation (RPI) is a microindentation technique involving 20 cycles of loading in “force-control” that can directly assess a patient’s bone tissue properties. Even though preliminary clinical studies indicate a capability for fracture discrimination, little is known about what mechanical behavior the various RPI properties characterize and how these properties relate to traditional mechanical properties of bone. To address this, the present study investigated the sensitivity of RPI properties to anatomical location and tissue organization as well as examined to what extent RPI measurements explain the intrinsic mechanical properties of human cortical bone. Multiple indents with a target force of 10 N were done in 2 orthogonal directions (longitudinal and transverse) per quadrant (anterior, medial, posterior, and lateral) of the femoral mid-shaft acquired from 26 donors (25–101 years old). Additional RPI measurements were acquired for 3 orthogonal directions (medial only). Independent of age, most RPI properties did not vary among these locations, but they did exhibit transverse isotropy such that resistance to indentation is greater in the longitudinal (axial) direction than in the transverse direction (radial or circumferential). Next, beam specimens (~ 2 mm × 5 mm × 40 mm) were extracted from the medial cortex of femoral mid-shafts, acquired from 34 donors (21–99 years old). After monotonically loading the specimens in three-point bending to failure, RPI properties were acquired from an adjacent region outside the span. Indent direction was orthogonal to the bending axis. A significant inverse relationship was found between resistance to indentation and the apparent-level mechanical properties. Indentation distance increase (IDI) and a linear combination of IDI and the loading slope, averaged over cycles 3 through 20, provided the best explanation of the variance in ultimate stress (r2=0.25, p=0.003) and toughness (r2=0.35, p=0

  9. Three-dimensional simulations of ultrasonic axial transmission velocity measurement on cortical bone models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossy, Emmanuel; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal

    2004-05-01

    The ultrasonic axial transmission technique, used to assess cortical shells of long bones, is investigated using numerical simulations based on a three-dimensional (3D) finite difference code. We focus our interest on the effects of 3D cortical bone geometry (curvature, cortical thickness), anisotropy, and microporosity on speed of sound (SOS) measurements for different frequencies in the MHz range. We first show that SOS values measured on tubular cortical shells are identical to those measured on cortical plates of equal thickness. Anisotropy of cortical bone is then shown to have a major impact on SOS measurement as a function of cortical thickness. The range of SOS values measured on anisotropic bone is half the range found when bone is considered isotropic. Dependence of thickness occurs for cortical shell thinner than 0.5×λbone in anisotropic bonebone: wavelength in bone), whereas it occurs for cortical shell thinner than λbone when anisotropy is neglected. Sensitivity of SOS along the bone axis to intracortical microporosity is shown to be approximately -20 m s-1 per percent of porosity. Using homogenized porous bone, we finally show that the cortical depth that contributes to lateral wave SOS measurement is approximately 1-1.5 mm for frequencies ranging from 500 kHz to 2 MHz under classical in vivo measurement conditions.

  10. Quantification of microarchitectural anisotropy in bone with diffraction enhanced imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Dean M.; Mehrotra, Meenal; LaRue, Amanda C.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine if diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) can quantify anisotropy in bone microarchitecture. Background: Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone. A noninvasive tool for measuring the degree of anisotropy (DA) in bone microarchitecture will help clinicians better assess fracture risk in osteoporotic patients. DEI detects small angular deflections in an x-ray beam, and is only sensitive to angular changes in one plane. If the beam is refracted by multiple anisotropic microstructures (e.g. osteocyte lacunae and pores) in bone, the angular spreading can be measured with DEI and differences in the amount of spreading for different bone orientations is indicative of the DA in bone microarchitecture. Method: An x-ray-tube based DEI system was used to collect an array of DEI reflectivity profiles measured through bovine cortical bone samples with the bones oriented with the bone axis in the plane perpendicular to the propagation of the x-ray beam. Micro-CT images of the bones were obtained using a Scanco uCT40 ex vivo scanner, and the DA of the pore structure was quantified using BoneJ. Results: The maximum and minimum measured reflectivity profile widths through bone varied by a factor of two; this suggests that the microarchitecture is preferentially aligned with the bone axis in a 2-to-1 ratio. The DA for the cortical pores was 0.6, which agrees with DEI's anisotropy measure. Conclusions: The preliminary findings of this study suggest that DEI is sensitive to anisotropy in bone microarchitecture.

  11. Analysis of anisotropic viscoelastoplastic properties of cortical bone tissues.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Adel A; Alam, Khurshid; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2011-07-01

    Bone fractures affect the health of many people and have a significant social and economic effect. Often, bones fracture due to impacts, sudden falls or trauma. In order to numerically model the fracture of a cortical bone tissue caused by an impact it is important to know parameters characterising its viscoelastoplastic behaviour. These parameters should be measured for various orientations in a bone tissue to assess bone's anisotropy linked to its microstructure. So, the first part of this study was focused on quantification of elastic-plastic behaviour of cortical bone using specimens cut along different directions with regard to the bone axis-longitudinal (axial) and transverse. Due to pronounced non-linearity of the elastic-plastic behaviour of the tissue, cyclic loading-unloading uniaxial tension tests were performed to obtain the magnitudes of elastic moduli not only from the initial loading part of the cycle but also from its unloading part. Additional tests were performed with different deformation rates to study the bone's strain-rate sensitivity. The second part of this study covered creep and relaxation properties of cortical bone for two directions and four different anatomical positions-anterior, posterior, medial and lateral-to study the variability of bone's properties. Since viscoelastoplasticity of cortical bone affects its damping properties due to energy dissipation, the Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) technique was used in the last part of our study to obtain magnitudes of storage and loss moduli for various frequencies. Based on analysis of elastic-plastic behaviour of the bovine cortical bone tissue, it was found that magnitudes of the longitudinal Young's modulus for four cortical positions were in the range of 15-24 GPa, while the transversal modulus was lower--between 10 and 15 GPa. Axial strength for various anatomical positions was also higher than transversal strength with significant differences in magnitudes for those positions

  12. Effects of cortical bone perforation on experimental guided bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Ichiro; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Ooya, Kiyoshi

    2004-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of cortical bone perforation histologically and histomorphometrically on guided bone regeneration (GBR) in rabbits. After elimination of the periosteum, cortical bone defects of two sizes were made in the external cortical plate of the frontal bone (Group A: 1 x 15 mm; Group B: 3 x 15 mm). A non-resorbable membrane filled with autogenous blood was placed in the experimental area and secured with titanium pins. After 1 and 2 weeks, vascularized connective tissue and new bone were generated in the space surrounding the defects in both the groups. The amount of vascularized connective tissue generated in Group B was greater than that in Group A at 1 week. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was expressed on the bone surrounding the perforation. The expression of ALP was more extensive in Group B than in Group A and was proportional to the breadth of perforation. At 2 weeks, the perforated region was almost covered with new bone in Group A. ALP was expressed at the periphery of newly formed bone. The expression of ALP was proportional to the breadth and height of perforation. At 6 weeks, semicircular outgrowth of bone towards the periphery of the perforated region was observed in both the groups. Newly formed bone volume and ALP expression in Group B were more extensive than those in Group A. At 12 weeks, the space was filled with bone and connective tissue in both the groups. There was no difference in ALP expression between Groups A and B. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant differences between both the groups (two-way ANOVA, P<0.01). We conclude that a larger perforation is associated with prompter bone formation in the secluded space during GBR. PMID:15142091

  13. Bone density and anisotropy affect periprosthetic cement and bone stresses after anatomical glenoid replacement: A micro finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Yan; Santos, Inês; Müller, Peter E; Pietschmann, Matthias F

    2016-06-14

    Glenoid loosening is still a main complication for shoulder arthroplasty. We hypothesize that cement and bone stresses potentially leading to fixation failure are related not only to glenohumeral conformity, fixation design or eccentric loading, but also to bone volume fraction, cortical thickness and degree of anisotropy in the glenoid. In this study, periprosthetic bone and cement stresses were computed with micro finite element models of the replaced glenoid depicting realistic bone microstructure. These models were used to quantify potential effects of bone microstructural parameters under loading conditions simulating different levels of glenohumeral conformity and eccentric loading simulating glenohumeral instability. Results show that peak cement stresses were achieved near the cement-bone interface in all loading schemes. Higher stresses within trabecular bone tissue and cement mantle were obtained within specimens of lower bone volume fraction and in regions of low anisotropy, increasing with decreasing glenohumeral conformity and reaching their maxima below the keeled design when the load is shifted superiorly. Our analyses confirm the combined influences of eccentric load shifts with reduced bone volume fraction and anisotropy on increasing periprosthetic stresses. They finally suggest that improving fixation of glenoid replacements must reduce internal cement and bone tissue stresses, in particular in glenoids of low bone density and heterogeneity. PMID:27087675

  14. On-line analysis of cracking in cortical bone under wedge penetration.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khurshid; Kerckhofs, Greet; Mitrofanov, Alexander V; Lomov, Stepan; Wevers, Martin; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the mechanism of crack propagation during bone cutting is necessary for the development of realistic bone cutting models. This article studies the on-line fractural behaviour of cortical bone caused by penetration with a sharp metallic wedge mounted on an on-line loading stage within an X-ray microfocus computed tomography system. The experimental results demonstrated anisotropy in crack propagation depending on the penetration direction with regard to the longitudinal bone axis and relate the crack growth to the extent of penetration. Scanning electron microscopy is performed to analyse the mechanism of cracking in the two phase microstructure of compact bone. PMID:23025172

  15. The reaction of cortical bone to compression by screw threads.

    PubMed

    Schatzker, J; Horne, J G; Sumner-Smith, G

    1975-09-01

    Cortical bone subjected to compression by screw threads retains its integrity and is not resorbed. Screws which generate compression at the interface of their threads with bone can be expected to provide adequate fixation until bone union occurs. PMID:1157421

  16. The myokine irisin increases cortical bone mass

    PubMed Central

    Colaianni, Graziana; Cuscito, Concetta; Mongelli, Teresa; Pignataro, Paolo; Buccoliero, Cinzia; Liu, Peng; Lu, Ping; Sartini, Loris; Di Comite, Mariasevera; Mori, Giorgio; Di Benedetto, Adriana; Brunetti, Giacomina; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Reseland, Janne E.; Colucci, Silvia; New, Maria I.; Zaidi, Mone; Cinti, Saverio; Grano, Maria

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how physical activity stimulates new bone synthesis. We explored whether irisin, a newly discovered myokine released upon physical activity, displays anabolic actions on the skeleton. Young male mice were injected with vehicle or recombinant irisin (r-irisin) at a low cumulative weekly dose of 100 µg kg−1. We observed significant increases in cortical bone mass and strength, notably in cortical tissue mineral density, periosteal circumference, polar moment of inertia, and bending strength. This anabolic action was mediated primarily through the stimulation of bone formation, but with parallel notable reductions in osteoclast numbers. The trabecular compartment of the same bones was spared, as were vertebrae from the same mice. Higher irisin doses (3,500 µg kg−1 per week) cause browning of adipose tissue; this was not seen with low-dose r-irisin. Expectedly, low-dose r-irisin modulated the skeletal genes, Opn and Sost, but not Ucp1 or Pparγ expression in white adipose tissue. In bone marrow stromal cell cultures, r-irisin rapidly phosphorylated Erk, and up-regulated Atf4, Runx2, Osx, Lrp5, β-catenin, Alp, and Col1a1; this is consistent with a direct receptor-mediated action to stimulate osteogenesis. We also noted that, although the irisin precursor Fndc5 was expressed abundantly in skeletal muscle, other sites, such as bone and brain, also expressed Fndc5, albeit at low levels. Furthermore, muscle fibers from r-irisin–injected mice displayed enhanced Fndc5 positivity, and irisin induced Fdnc5 mRNA expression in cultured myoblasts. Our data therefore highlight a previously unknown action of the myokine irisin, which may be the molecular entity responsible for muscle–bone connectivity. PMID:26374841

  17. The myokine irisin increases cortical bone mass.

    PubMed

    Colaianni, Graziana; Cuscito, Concetta; Mongelli, Teresa; Pignataro, Paolo; Buccoliero, Cinzia; Liu, Peng; Lu, Ping; Sartini, Loris; Di Comite, Mariasevera; Mori, Giorgio; Di Benedetto, Adriana; Brunetti, Giacomina; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Reseland, Janne E; Colucci, Silvia; New, Maria I; Zaidi, Mone; Cinti, Saverio; Grano, Maria

    2015-09-29

    It is unclear how physical activity stimulates new bone synthesis. We explored whether irisin, a newly discovered myokine released upon physical activity, displays anabolic actions on the skeleton. Young male mice were injected with vehicle or recombinant irisin (r-irisin) at a low cumulative weekly dose of 100 µg kg(-1). We observed significant increases in cortical bone mass and strength, notably in cortical tissue mineral density, periosteal circumference, polar moment of inertia, and bending strength. This anabolic action was mediated primarily through the stimulation of bone formation, but with parallel notable reductions in osteoclast numbers. The trabecular compartment of the same bones was spared, as were vertebrae from the same mice. Higher irisin doses (3,500 µg kg(-1) per week) cause browning of adipose tissue; this was not seen with low-dose r-irisin. Expectedly, low-dose r-irisin modulated the skeletal genes, Opn and Sost, but not Ucp1 or Pparγ expression in white adipose tissue. In bone marrow stromal cell cultures, r-irisin rapidly phosphorylated Erk, and up-regulated Atf4, Runx2, Osx, Lrp5, β-catenin, Alp, and Col1a1; this is consistent with a direct receptor-mediated action to stimulate osteogenesis. We also noted that, although the irisin precursor Fndc5 was expressed abundantly in skeletal muscle, other sites, such as bone and brain, also expressed Fndc5, albeit at low levels. Furthermore, muscle fibers from r-irisin-injected mice displayed enhanced Fndc5 positivity, and irisin induced Fdnc5 mRNA expression in cultured myoblasts. Our data therefore highlight a previously unknown action of the myokine irisin, which may be the molecular entity responsible for muscle-bone connectivity. PMID:26374841

  18. Ultrasonic wave propagation in cortical bone mimics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Simon P.; Cunningham, James L.; Miles, Anthony W.; Humphrey, Victor F.; Gheduzzi, Sabina

    2004-10-01

    Understanding the velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves in cortical bone is important for studies of osteoporosis and fractures. In particular, propagation in free- and water-loaded acrylic plates, with a thickness range of around 1-6 mm, has been widely used to mimic cortical bone behavior. A theoretical investigation of Lamb mode propagation at 200 kHz in free- and water-loaded acrylic plates revealed a marked difference in the form of their velocity and attenuation dispersion curves as a function of frequency thickness product. In experimental studies, this difference between free and loaded plates is not seen. Over short measurement distances, the results for both free and loaded plates are consistent with previous modeling and experimental studies: for thicker plates (above 3-4 mm), the velocity calculated using the first arrival signal is a lateral wave comparable with the longitudinal velocity. As the plate thickness decreases, the velocity approaches the S0 Lamb mode value. WAVE2000 modeling of the experimental setup agrees with experimental data. The data are also used to test a hypothesis that for thin plates the velocity approaches the corresponding S0 Lamb mode velocity at large measurement distances or when different arrival time criteria are used. [Work supported by Action Medical Research.

  19. Thermographic stress analysis in cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Vanderby, R; Kohles, S S

    1991-11-01

    Under adiabatic (or near adiabatic) conditions a volumetric change in an elastic material will produce a corresponding change in temperature. Based upon this principle, thermographic stress analysis (TSA) measures changes in surface heat flux (which are related to changes in surface temperature) and relates them to a coupled form of strains or stresses. To demonstrate the feasibility of using this technique for biomechanical applications, we thermographically measured heat flux from loaded specimens of cortical bone and correlated the results with strain gage data. Regular parallelepipeds were cut from the cortex of bovine femora and loaded sinusoidally at 20 Hz. At this rate of loading, mechanically induced changes in surface temperature could be sampled (via heat flux) prior to a measureable attenuation of the thermoelastic effect. Correlation coefficients demonstrated a significant linear relationship between TSA and measured and computed mechanical parameters (stress, strain, first strain invariant, and strain energy density). TSA therefore appears to be a promising technology for experimental stress analysis in cortical bone. PMID:1762439

  20. Impact of lanthanum carbonate on cortical bone in dialysis patients with adynamic bone disease.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Aiji; Inaba, Masaaki; Tominaga, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Motoko; Otsubo, Shigeru; Nitta, Kosaku; Ito, Akemi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2013-04-01

    Among the most serious problems in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is fragility of cortical bone caused by cortical thinning and increased cortical porosity; the cortical fragility is sometimes irreversible, with fractures generally initiating from cortical bone. Therefore, development of treatments for problems of cortical bone is urgently desired. Cortical bone has the three surfaces, including the periosteal surface, intracortical spaces and endocortical surface. Bone turnover at the endocortical surface and intracortical resorption spaces are increased as compared with that at cancellous surface. Bone growth sometimes depends on apposition at the periosteal surface. We treated hyperphosphatemia in two hemodialysis patients with adynamic bone disease with 750-1500 mg/day of lanthanum carbonate, which is a non-calcium containing phosphate binder; the treatment resulted in a decrease of the serum phosphorus levels (P levels), without significant change of the serum intact parathyroid hormone levels. We now report that treatment of these patients with lanthanum carbonate increased mineralization of the periosteal surface, increased bone mass within the intracortical resorption spaces and increased mineralization of the minimodeling surface at the endocortical surface. In addition, woven bone volume in cortical bone was decreased and mineralization of bone units, namely, osteons, was increased. Although these findings were not observed across all surfaces of the cortical bone in the patients, it is expected that lanthanum carbonate would increase the cortical stability in CKD patients, with consequent reduction in the fracture rate in these patients. PMID:23586512

  1. Femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cangueiro, Liliana T.; Vilar, Rui; Botelho do Rego, Ana M.; Muralha, Vania S. F.

    2012-12-01

    We study the surface topographical, structural, and compositional modifications induced in bovine cortical bone by femtosecond laser ablation. The tests are performed in air, with a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (500 fs, 1030 nm) at fluences ranging from 0.55 to 2.24 J/cm2. The ablation process is monitored by acoustic emission measurements. The topography of the laser-treated surfaces is studied by scanning electron microscopy, and their constitution is characterized by glancing incidence x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results show that femtosecond laser ablation allows removing bone without melting, carbonization, or cracking. The structure and composition of the remaining tissue are essentially preserved, the only constitutional changes observed being a reduction of the organic material content and a partial recrystallization of hydroxyapatite in the most superficial region of samples. The results suggest that, within this fluence range, ablation occurs by a combination of thermal and electrostatic mechanisms, with the first type of mechanism predominating at lower fluences. The associated thermal effects explain the constitutional changes observed. We show that femtosecond lasers are a promising tool for delicate orthopaedic surgeries, where small amounts of bone must be cut with negligible damage, thus minimizing surgical trauma.

  2. Cement line staining in undecalcified thin sections of cortical bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, S. D.; Impeduglia, T. M.; Rubin, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for demonstrating cement lines in thin, undecalcified, transverse sections of cortical bone has been developed. Cortical bone samples are processed and embedded undecalcified in methyl methacrylate plastic. After sectioning at 3-5 microns, cross-sections are transferred to a glass slide and flattened for 10 min. Sections of cortical bone are stained for 20 sec free-floating in a fresh solution of 1% toluidine blue dissolved in 0.1% formic acid. The section is dehydrated in t-butyl alcohol, cleared in xylene, and mounted with Eukitt's medium. Reversal lines appear as thin, scalloped, dark blue lines against a light blue matrix, whereas bone formation arrest lines are thicker with a smooth contour. With this technique cellular detail, osteoid differentiation, and fluorochrome labels are retained. Results demonstrate the applicability of a one-step staining method for cement lines which will facilitate the assessment of bone remodeling activity in thin sections of undecalcified cortical bone.

  3. Biomechanical characteristics of regenerated cortical bone in the canine mandible

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Uriel; Opperman, Lynne A.; Kontogiorgos, Elias; Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Dechow, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    To test the mechanical properties of regenerate cortical bone created using Mandibular Bone Transport (MBT) distraction, five adult male American foxhound dogs underwent unilateral distraction of the mandible with a novel MBT device placed to linearly repair a 30-35 mm bone defect. The animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after the beginning of the consolidation period. Fourteen cylindrical specimens were taken from the inner (lingual) and outer (buccal) plates of the reconstructed mandible and 21 control specimens were removed from the contralateral aspect of the mandible. The mechanical properties of the 35 cylindrical cortical bone specimens were assessed by using a non-destructive pulse ultrasound technique. Results showed that all of the cortical mechanical properties exhibit higher numerical values on the control side than the MBT regenerate side. In addition, both densities and the elastic moduli in the direction of maximum stiffness of the regenerate cortical bone specimens are higher on the lingual side than the buccal side. Interestingly, there is no statistical difference between elastic modulus (E1 and E2) in orthogonal directions throughout the 35 cortical specimens. The data suggest that the regenerate canine cortical bone is not only heterogeneous, but the elastic mechanical properties tend to approximate transverse isotropy at a tissue level as opposed to control cortical bone that is orthotropic. In addition, the elastic mechanical properties are not only higher on the control side but also in the lingual anatomical position, suggesting a stress shielding effect from the presence of the reconstruction plate. PMID:21695796

  4. Scanning acoustic microscopy study of human cortical and trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Bumrerraj, S; Katz, J L

    2001-12-01

    Scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) has been used in the burst mode to study the properties of human cortical and trabecular bone. An Olympus UH3 SAM (Olympus Co., Tokyo, Japan) was used with a 400 MHz burst mode lens (120 degrees aperture, nominal lateral resolution 2.5 microm). The human cortical bone was from the midshaft of a femur from a 60+ male cadaver; the trabecular bone specimens were obtained from the distal femoral condyles of another 60+ human male cadaver. Elastic moduli for both trabecular and cortical bone were obtained by means of a series of calibration curves correlating SAM gray levels of known materials with their elastic moduli; specimens included: polypropylene, PMMA, Teflon, aluminum, Pyrex glass, titanium, and stainless steel. Values obtained by this method are in good agreement with those obtained by nanoindentation techniques. The three critical findings earlier by Katz and Meunier were observed here as well in both the cortical and trabecular bone samples. PMID:11853252

  5. Mechanical properties of femoral cortical bone following cemented hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Ni, G X; Lu, W W; Chiu, P K Y; Wang, Y; Li, Z Y; Zhang, Y G; Xu, B; Deng, L F; Luk, K D K

    2007-11-01

    Femoral bone remodeling following total hip replacement is a big concern and has never been examined mechanically. In this study, six goats underwent unilateral cemented hip hemiarthroplasty with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. Nine months later animals were sacrificed, and the femoral cortical bone slices at different levels were analysed using microhardness testing and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) scanning. Implanted femurs were compared to contralateral nonimplanted femurs. Extensive bone remodeling was demonstrated at both the proximal and middle levels, but not at the distal level. Compared with the nonimplanted side, significant decreases were found in the implanted femur in cortical bone area, bone mineral density, and cortical bone hardness at the proximal level, as well as in bone mineral density and bone hardness at the middle level. However, no significant difference was observed in either variable for the distal level. In addition, similar proximal-to-distal gradient changes were revealed both in cortical bone microhardness and bone mineral density. From the mechanical point of view, the results of the present study suggested that stress shielding is an important mechanical factor associated with bone adaptation following total hip replacement. PMID:17506504

  6. Orientation and size-dependent mechanical modulation within individual secondary osteons in cortical bone tissue

    PubMed Central

    Carnelli, Davide; Vena, Pasquale; Dao, Ming; Ortiz, Christine; Contro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Anisotropy is one of the most peculiar aspects of cortical bone mechanics; however, its anisotropic mechanical behaviour should be treated only with strict relationship to the length scale of investigation. In this study, we focus on quantifying the orientation and size dependence of the spatial mechanical modulation in individual secondary osteons of bovine cortical bone using nanoindentation. Tests were performed on the same osteonal structure in the axial (along the long bone axis) and transverse (normal to the long bone axis) directions along arrays going radially out from the Haversian canal at four different maximum depths on three secondary osteons. Results clearly show a periodic pattern of stiffness with spatial distance across the osteon. The effect of length scale on lamellar bone anisotropy and the critical length at which homogenization of the mechanical properties occurs were determined. Further, a laminate-composite-based analytical model was applied to the stiffness trends obtained at the highest spatial resolution to evaluate the elastic constants for a sub-layer of mineralized collagen fibrils within an osteonal lamella on the basis of the spatial arrangement of the fibrils. The hierarchical arrangement of lamellar bone is found to be a major determinant for modulation of mechanical properties and anisotropic mechanical behaviour of the tissue. PMID:23389895

  7. The Effects of Obesity on Murine Cortical Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sophi

    This dissertation details the effects of obesity on the mechanical properties and structure of cortical bone. Obesity is associated with greater bone mineral content that might be expected to protect against fracture, which has been observed in adults. Paradoxically however, the incidence of bone fractures has been found to increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Femora from adolescent and adult mice fed a high-fat diet are investigated for changes in shape, tissue structure, as well as tissue-level and whole-bone mechanical properties. Results indicate increased bone size, reduced size-independent mechanical properties, but maintained size-dependent mechanical properties. Other changes in cortical bone response to obesity are observed with advancing age. This study indicates that bone quantity and bone quality play important compensatory roles in determining fracture risk, and that fracture risk may not be lessened for adults as previously thought.

  8. Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Disuse-Induced Cortical Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, Webster S. S.; Akamine, T.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian; Tang, L. Y.; Zeng, Q. Q.

    1992-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can prevent disuse (underloaded)-induced cortical bone loss as well as add extra bone to underloaded bones. Thirteen-month-old retired female Sprague-Dawley breeders served as controls or were subjected to simultaneous right hindlimb immobilization by bandaging and daily subcutaneous doses of 0, 1, 3, or 6 mg PGE2/kg/d for two and six weeks. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent labeled undecalcified tibial shaft sections (proximal to the tibiofibular junction). Disuse-induced cortical bone loss occurred by enlarging the marrow cavity and increasing intracortical porosity. PGE2 treatment of disuse shafts further increased intracortical porosity above that in disuse alone controls. This bone loss was counteracted by enhancement of periosteal and corticoendosteal bone formation. Stimulation of periosteal and corticoendosteal bone formation slightly enlarged the total tissue (cross-sectional) area and inhibited marrow cavity enlargement. These PGE2-induced activities netted the same percentage of cortical bone with a different distribution than the beginning and age related controls. These findings indicate the PGE2-induced increase in bone formation compensated for the disuse and PGE2-induced bone loss, and thus prevented immobilization induced bone loss.

  9. Probiotics Protect Mice from Ovariectomy-Induced Cortical Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Ohlsson, Claes; Engdahl, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Andersson, Annica; Windahl, Sara H.; Farman, Helen H.; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Islander, Ulrika; Sjögren, Klara

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx) results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L) strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para) or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix) given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh) treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice. PMID:24637895

  10. Dynamic photophysical processes in laser irradiated human cortical skull bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelis, Andreas; Kwan, Chi-Hang; Matvienko, Anna

    2009-02-01

    Modulated luminescence (LUM) technique was applied to analyze photophysical processes in the cortical layer of human skull bones. The theoretical interpretation of the results was based on the optical excitation and decay rate equations of the fluorophore and on the molecular interaction parameter with the photon field density in the matrix of the bone. Using comparisons of the theory with the frequency response of dental LUM it was concluded that the optically active molecular species (fluorophore) in the bones is hydroxyapatite. An effective relaxation lifetime of skull cortical bone was derived theoretically and was found to depend on the intrinsic fluorophore decay lifetime, on the photon field density, and on the thickness of the bone. The experimentally measured dependencies were in excellent agreement with the theoretical model. The theory was able to yield measurements of the optical scattering coefficient, optical absorption coefficient, and mean coupling coefficient. These results show that the quantitative LUM can be used as a sensitive method to measure optical properties of the active fluorophore in cortical skull bones and the optical-field-induced molecular interaction parameter. When calibrated vs. laser intensity, the modulated luminescence can also be used to measure human skull thickness. These traits can be applied to monitor the bone mineral density (BMD) and, ultimately can be used as potential markers of bone health or disease, such as osteoporosis or bone cancer.

  11. Disuse exaggerates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefferan, Theresa E.; Kennedy, Angela M.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis. However, comorbidity factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related bone fractures. Suboptimal mechanical loading of the skeleton, an established risk factor for bone loss, may occur in some alcohol abusers due to reduced physical activity, muscle atrophy, or both. The effect of alcohol consumption and reduced physical activity on bone metabolism has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical disuse alters bone metabolism in a rat model for chronic alcohol abuse. METHODS: Alcohol was administered in the diet (35% caloric intake) of 6-month-old male rats for 4 weeks. Rats were hindlimb-unloaded the final 2 weeks of the experiment to prevent dynamic weight bearing. Afterward, cortical bone histomorphometry was evaluated at the tibia-fibula synostosis. RESULTS: At the periosteal surface of the tibial diaphysis, alcohol and hindlimb unloading independently decreased the mineralizing perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. In addition, alcohol, but not hindlimb unloading, increased endocortical bone resorption. The respective detrimental effects of alcohol and hindlimb unloading to inhibit bone formation were additive; there was no interaction between the two variables. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced weight bearing accentuates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone in adult male rats by further inhibiting bone formation. This finding suggests that reduced physical activity may be a comorbidity factor for osteoporosis in alcohol abusers.

  12. Mammalian cortical bone in tension is non-Haversian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayya, Ashwij; Banerjee, Anuradha; Rajesh, R.

    2013-08-01

    Cortical bone, found in the central part of long bones like femur, is known to adapt to local mechanical stresses. This adaptation has been linked exclusively with Haversian remodelling involving bone resorption and formation of secondary osteons. Compared to primary/plexiform bone, the Haversian bone has lower stiffness, fatigue strength and fracture toughness, raising the question why nature prefers an adaptation that is detrimental to bone's primary function of bearing mechanical stresses. Here, we show that in the goat femur, Haversian remodelling occurs only at locations of high compressive stresses. At locations corresponding to high tensile stresses, we observe a microstructure that is non-Haversian. Compared with primary/plexiform bone, this microstructure's mineralisation is significantly higher with a distinctly different spatial pattern. Thus, the Haversian structure is an adaptation only to high compressive stresses rendering its inferior tensile properties irrelevant as the regions with high tensile stresses have a non-Haversian, apparently primary microstructure.

  13. Cortical bone distribution in the femoral neck of strepsirhine primates.

    PubMed

    Demes, B; Jungers, W L; Walker, C

    2000-10-01

    The thickness of the inferior and superior cortices of the femoral neck was measured on X-rays of 181 strepsirhine primate femora representing 24 species. Neck length, neck depth and neck-shaft angle were also measured. The strength of the femoral neck in frontal bending was estimated by modeling the neck as a hollow cylinder, with neck depth as the outer diameter and cortical thickness representing the superior and inferior shell dimensions. Results indicate that the inferior cortex is always thicker than the superior cortex. The ratio of superior to inferior cortical thickness is highly variable but distinguishes two of the three locomotor groups in the sample. Vertical clingers and leapers have higher ratios (i.e., a more even distribution of cortical bone) than quadrupeds. The slow climbers tend to have the lowest ratios, although they do not differ significantly from the leapers and quadrupeds. These results do not confirm prior theoretical expectations and reported data for anthropoid primates that link greater asymmetry of the cortical shell to more stereotypical hip excursions. The ratio of superior to inferior cortical thickness is unrelated to body mass, femoral neck length, and neck-shaft angle, calling into question whether the short neck of strepsirhine primates acts as a cantilever beam in bending. On the other hand, the estimated section moduli are highly correlated with body mass and neck length, a correlation that is driven primarily by body mass. In conclusion, we believe that an alternative interpretation to the cantilever beam model is needed to explain the asymmetry in bone distribution in the femoral neck, at least in strepsirhine primates (e.g., a thicker inferior cortex is required to reinforce the strongly curved inferior surface). As in prior studies of cross-sectional geometry of long bones, we found slightly positive allometry of cortical dimensions with body mass. PMID:11006046

  14. Non-Contact Ultrasound Imaging Applied to Cortical Bone Phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halcrow, Peter; Ganezer, Kenneth

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to take the initial steps towards applying Non-Contact Ultrasound (NCU) to the in-vivo monitoring of osteoporosis and to quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUS) of the skeleton using cortical bone. This project was also undertaken to find additional applications of NCU beyond its past limited usage in assessing the severity of third degree burns. With an NCU imaging system, a pair of specially designed broadband 1.5 MHz non-contact transducers and cortical bone phantoms we determined bone mineral density, speed of sound (SOS), integrated acoustical response (IR), and ultrasonic transmittance. Air gaps of greater than 3 cm, two transmission and two reflection paths, and a digital signal processor were used to collect data from phantoms of known mass density and bone mineral density (BMD). Significant correlations between known BMD and measured SOS, IR, and transmittance were obtained for all 14 phantoms. At least thirty to forty repeated measurements were collected over a period of 1.5 years of the SOS, thickness, and IR for our phantom set, extending through most of the in-vivo range of BMD found in cortical bone. The collected data showed a small variation in the range of measurements of plus or minus 1-2 %. These NCU results were shown to be in agreement with similar results from contact ultrasound to within 1-2%. This study suggests that NCU might find additional applications in a clinical setting in the near future in medical imaging.

  15. Post-yield and failure properties of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Uwe; Schwiedrzik, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Ageing and associated skeletal diseases pose a significant challenge for health care systems worldwide. Age-related fractures have a serious impact on personal, social and economic wellbeing. A significant proportion of physiological loading is carried by the cortical shell. Its role in the fracture resistance and strength of whole bones in the ageing skeleton is of utmost importance. Even though a large body of knowledge has been accumulated on this topic on the macroscale, the underlying micromechanical material behaviour and the scale transition of bone's mechanical properties are yet to be uncovered. Therefore, this review aims at providing an overview of the state-of-the-art of the post-yield and failure properties of cortical bone at the extracellular matrix and the tissue level. PMID:27579166

  16. Specimen-specific multi-scale model for the anisotropic elastic constants of human cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Deuerling, Justin M.; Yue, Weimin; Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2009-01-01

    The anisotropic elastic constants of human cortical bone were predicted using a specimen-specific micromechanical model that accounted for structural parameters across multiple length scales. At the nano-scale, the elastic constants of the mineralized collagen fibril were estimated from measured volume fractions of the constituent phases, namely apatite crystals and Type I collagen. The elastic constants of the extracellular matrix (ECM) were predicted using the measured orientation distribution function (ODF) for the apatite crystals to average the contribution of misoriented mineralized collagen fibrils. Finally, the elastic constants of cortical bone tissue were determined by accounting for the measured volume fraction of Haversian porosity within the ECM. Model predictions using the measured apatite crystal ODF were not statistically different from experimental measurements for both the magnitude and anisotropy of elastic constants. In contrast, model predictions using common idealized assumptions of perfectly aligned or randomly oriented apatite crystals were significantly different from the experimental measurements. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the apatite crystal volume fraction and ODF were the most influential structural parameters affecting model predictions of the magnitude and anisotropy, respectively, of elastic constants. PMID:19664772

  17. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities. PMID:25922212

  18. Evaluation of trabecular bone patterns on dental radiographic images: influence of cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouriq, Yves; Evenou, Pierre; Arlicot, Aurore; Normand, Nicolas; Layrolle, Pierre; Weiss, Pierre; Guédon, Jean-Pierre

    2010-03-01

    For some authors trabecular bone is highly visible in intraoral radiographs. For other authors, the observed intrabony trabecular pattern is a representation of only the endosteal surface of cortical bone, not of intermedullary striae. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the true anatomical structures that are visible in routine dental radiographs and classically denoted trabecular bone. This is a major point for bone texture analysis on radiographs. Computed radiography (CR) images of dog mandible section in molar region were compared with simulations calculated from high-resolution micro-CT volumes. Calculated simulations were obtained using the Mojette Transform. By digitally editing the CT volume, the simulations were separated into trabecular and cortical components into a region of interest. Different images were compared and correlated, some bone micro-architecture parameters calculated. A high correlation was found between computed radiographs and calculated simulations from micro-CT. The Mojette transform was successful to obtain high quality images. Cortical bone did not contribute to change in a major way simulated images. These first results imply that intrabony trabecular pattern observed on radiographs can not only be a representation of the cortical bone endosteal surface and that trabecular bone is highly visible in intraoral radiographs.

  19. In Vitro Fracture of Human Cortical Bone: Local Fracture Criteria and Toughening Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Nalla, R; Stolken, J; Kinney, J; Ritchie, R

    2004-08-18

    A micro-mechanistic understanding of bone fracture that encompasses how cracks interact with the underlying microstructure and defines their local failure mode is lacking, despite extensive research on the response of bone to a variety of factors like aging, loading, and/or disease. Micro-mechanical models for fracture incorporating such local failure criteria have been widely developed for metallic and ceramic materials systems; however, few such deliberations have been undertaken for the fracture of bone. In fact, although the fracture event in mineralized tissues such as bone is commonly believed to be locally strain controlled, until recently there has been little experimental evidence to support this widely held belief. In the present study, a series of in vitro experiments involving a double-notch bend test geometry are performed in order to shed further light on the nature of the local cracking events that precede catastrophic fracture in bone and to define their relationship to the microstructure. Specifically, crack-microstructure interactions are examined to determine the salient toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone and to characterize how these may affect the anisotropy in fracture properties. Based on preliminary micro-mechanical models of these processes, in particular crack deflection and uncracked ligament bridging, the relative importance of these toughening mechanisms is established.

  20. A new WNT on the bone: WNT16, cortical bone thickness, porosity and fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Francesca; Lerner, Ulf; Ohlsson, Claes; Baron, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has provided abundant data implicating the WNT pathway in bone development and in the regulation of skeletal homeostasis. Rare human mutations together with gain- and loss-of-function approaches in mice have clearly demonstrated that disrupted regulation of this pathway leads to altered bone mass. In addition to these rare human and mice mutations, large population-based genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ∼60 loci strongly associated with variations in bone mineral density (BMD) at different skeletal sites. Among the loci/genes identified by BMD GWAS, components of the WNT signaling pathway are numerous and have been shown to contribute to skeletal development and homeostasis. Within the components of WNT signaling, the gene coding for WNT16, one of the 19 WNT ligands of the human genome, has been found strongly associated with specific bone traits such as cortical bone thickness, cortical porosity and fracture risk. Recently, the first functional characterization of Wnt16 has confirmed the critical role of Wnt16 in the regulation of cortical bone mass and bone strength in mice. These reports have extended our understanding of Wnt16 function in bone homeostasis and have not only confirmed the unique association of Wnt16 with cortical bone and fracture susceptibility, as suggested by GWAS in human populations, but have also provided novel insights into the biology of this WNT ligand and the mechanism(s) by which it regulates cortical but not trabecular bone homeostasis. Most interestingly, Wnt16 appears to be a strong anti-resorptive soluble factor acting on both osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors. PMID:25987984

  1. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from <0.5 °C to nearly 13 °C. The difference between drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. PMID:26334198

  2. Fracture Characterization of Human Cortical Bone Under Mode I Loading.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filipe; de Moura, Marcelo; Dourado, Nuno; Xavier, José; Pereira, Fábio; Morais, José; Dias, Maria; Lourenço, Paulo; Judas, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    A miniaturized version of the double cantilever beam (DCB) test is used to determine the fracture energy in human cortical bone under pure mode I loading. An equivalent crack length based data-reduction scheme is used with remarkable advantages relative to classical methods. Digital image correlation (DIC) technique is employed to determine crack opening displacement at the crack tip being correlated with the evolution of fracture energy. A method is presented to obtain the cohesive law (trapezoidal bilinear softening) mimicking the mechanical behavior observed in bone. Cohesive zone modeling (CZM) (finite-element method) was performed to validate the procedure showing excellent agreement. PMID:26502314

  3. Evaluation of mandibular cortical bone thickness for placement of temporary anchorage devices (TADs)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Objective In this study, we measured the cortical bone thickness in the mandibular buccal and lingual areas using computed tomography in order to evaluate the suitability of these areas for application of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) and to suggest a clinical guide for TADs. Methods The buccal and lingual cortical bone thickness was measured in 15 men and 15 women. Bone thickness was measured 4 mm apical to the interdental cementoenamel junction between the mandibular canine and the 2nd molar using the transaxial slices in computed tomography images. Results The cortical bone in the mandibular buccal and lingual areas was thicker in men than in women. In men, the mandibular lingual cortical bone was thicker than the buccal cortical bone, except between the 1st and 2nd molars on both sides. In women, the mandibular lingual cortical bone was thicker in all regions when compared to the buccal cortical bone. The mandibular buccal cortical bone thickness increased from the canine to the molars. The mandibular lingual cortical bone was thickest between the 1st and 2nd premolars, followed by the areas between the canine and 1st premolar, between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar, and between the 1st molar and 2nd molar. Conclusions There is sufficient cortical bone for TAD applications in the mandibular buccal and lingual areas. This provides the basis and guidelines for the clinical use of TADs in the mandibular buccal and lingual areas. PMID:23112941

  4. Comparative study between cortical bone graft versus bone dust for reconstruction of cranial burr holes

    PubMed Central

    Worm, Paulo V.; Ferreira, Nelson P.; Faria, Mario B.; Ferreira, Marcelo P.; Kraemer, Jorge L.; Collares, Marcus V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: As a consequence of the progressive evolution of neurosurgical techniques, there has been increasing concern with the esthetic aspects of burr holes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the use of cortical bone graft and bone dust for correcting cranial deformities caused by neurosurgical trephines. Methods: Twenty-three patients were enrolled for cranial burr hole reconstruction with a 1-year follow-up. A total of 108 burr holes were treated; 36 burr holes were reconstructed with autogenous cortical bone discs (33.3%), and the remaining 72 with autogenous wet bone powder (66.6%). A trephine was specifically designed to produce this coin-shaped bone plug of 14 mm in diameter, which fit perfectly over the burr holes. The reconstructions were studied 12 months after the surgical procedure, using three-dimensional quantitative computed tomography. Additionally, general and plastic surgeons blinded for the study evaluated the cosmetic results of those areas, attributing scores from 0 to 10. Results: The mean bone densities were 987.95 ± 186.83 Hounsfield units (HU) for bone fragment and 473.55 ± 220.34 HU for bone dust (P < 0.001); the mean cosmetic scores were 9.5 for bone fragment and 5.7 for bone dust (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The use of autologous bone discs showed better results than bone dust for the reconstruction of cranial burr holes because of their lower degree of bone resorption and, consequently, better cosmetic results. The lack of donor site morbidity associated with procedural low cost qualifies the cortical autograft as the first choice for correcting cranial defects created by neurosurgical trephines. PMID:21206899

  5. Shear deformation and fracture of human cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tengteng; Ebacher, Vincent; Cripton, Peter; Guy, Pierre; McKay, Heather; Wang, Rizhi

    2015-02-01

    Bone can be viewed as a nano-fibrous composite with complex hierarchical structures. Its deformation and fracture behaviors depend on both the local structure and the type of stress applied. In contrast to the extensive studies on bone fracture under compression and tension, there is a lack of knowledge on the fracture process under shear, a stress state often exists in hip fracture. This study investigated the mechanical behavior of human cortical bone under shear, with the focus on the relation between the fracture pattern and the microstructure. Iosipescu shear tests were performed on notched rectangular bar specimens made from human cortical bone. They were prepared at different angles (i.e. 0°, 30°, 60° and 90°) with respect to the long axis of the femoral shaft. The results showed that human cortical bone behaved as an anisotropic material under shear with the highest shear strength (~50MPa) obtained when shearing perpendicular to the Haversian systems or secondary osteons. Digital image correlation (DIC) analysis found that shear strain concentration bands had a close association with long bone axis with an average deviation of 11.8° to 18.5°. The fracture pattern was also greatly affected by the structure with the crack path generally following the direction of the long axes of osteons. More importantly, we observed unique peripheral arc-shaped microcracks within osteons, using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). They were generally long cracks that developed within a lamella without crossing the boundaries. This microcracking pattern clearly differed from that created under either compressive or tensile stress: these arc-shaped microcracks tended to be located away from the Haversian canals in early-stage damaged osteons, with ~70% developing in the outer third osteonal wall. Further study by second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy revealed a strong influence of the organization of collagen

  6. Photoacoustic FTIR spectroscopic study of undisturbed human cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Chunju; Katti, Dinesh R.; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2013-02-01

    Chemical pretreatment has been the prevailing sample preparation procedure for infrared (IR) spectroscopic studies on bone. However, experiments have indicated that chemical pretreatment can potentially affect the interactions between the components. Typically the IR techniques have involved transmission experiments. Here we report experimental studies using photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (PA-FTIR). As a nondestructive technique, PA-FTIR can detect absorbance spectrum from a sample at controllable sampling depth and with little or no sample preparation. Additionally, the coupling inert gas, helium, which is utilized in the PA-FTIR system, can inhibit bacteria growth of bone by displacing oxygen. Therefore, we used this technique to study the undisturbed human cortical bone. It is found that photoacoustic mode (linear-scan, LS-PA-FTIR) can obtain basically similar spectra of bone as compared to the traditional transmission mode, but it seems more sensitive to amide III and ν2 carbonate bands. The ν3 phosphate band is indicative of detailed mineral structure and symmetry of native bone. The PA-FTIR depth profiling experiments on human cortical bone also indicate the influence of water on OH band and the cutting effects on amide I and mineral bands. Our results indicate that phosphate ion geometry appears less symmetric in its undisturbed state as detected by the PA-FTIR as compared to higher symmetry observed using transmission techniques on disturbed samples. Moreover, the PA-FTIR spectra indicate a band at 1747 cm-1 possibly resulting from Cdbnd O stretching of lipids, cholesterol esters, and triglycerides from the arteries. Comparison of the spectra in transverse and longitudinal cross-sections demonstrates that, the surface area of the longitudinal section bone appears to have more organic matrix exposed and with higher mineral stoichiometry.

  7. Inhibition of cortical and trabecular bone formation in the long bones of immobilized monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Tetracycline derivatives are administered on three separate occasions to label the sites of bone formation. Determinations are made of the tetracycline-labeling frequency and mineral apposition rate of osteons and trabecular bone surfaces in the humerus and femur. The inhibition of bone formation induced by immobilization is found to be more pronounced in trabecular bone. The immobilized monkeys exhibit a moderate, but statistically nonsignificant, reduction in the percentage of osteons forming bone. Conversely, the dramatic decline in the percentage of trabecular surfaces undergoing bone formation in the monkeys is found to be highly significant. The diminished rate of mineral apposition in osteons is seen as suggesting that osteoblastic activity is impaired in cortical bone during immobilization.

  8. Tensile Mechanical Properties of Swine Cortical Mandibular Bone

    PubMed Central

    Brosh, Tamar; Rozitsky, Doron; Geron, Silvia; Pilo, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Temporary orthodontic mini implants serve as anchorage devices in orthodontic treatments. Often, they are inserted in the jaw bones, between the roots of the teeth. The stability of the mini implants within the bone is one of the major factors affecting their success and, consequently, that of the orthodontic treatment. Bone mechanical properties are important for implant stability. The aim of this study was to determine the tensile properties of the alveolar and basal mandible bones in a swine model. The diametral compression test was employed to study the properties in two orthogonal directions: mesio-distal and occluso-gingival. Small cylindrical cortical bone specimens (2.6 mm diameter, 1.5 mm thickness) were obtained from 7 mandibles using a trephine drill. The sites included different locations (anterior and posterior) and aspects (buccal and lingual) for a total of 16 specimens from each mandible. The load-displacement curves were continuously monitored while loading half of the specimens in the oclluso-gingival direction and half in the mesio-distal direction. The stiffness was calculated from the linear portion of the curve. The mesio-distal direction was 31% stiffer than the occluso-gingival direction. The basal bone was 40% stiffer than the alveolar bone. The posterior zone was 46% stiffer than the anterior zone. The lingual aspect was stiffer than the buccal aspect. Although bone specimens do not behave as brittle materials, the diametral compression test can be adequately used for determining tensile behavior when only small bone specimens can be obtained. In conclusion, to obtain maximal orthodontic mini implant stability, the force components on the implants should be oriented mostly in the mesio-distal direction. PMID:25463971

  9. Reduced Bone Density and Cortical Bone Indices in Female Adiponectin-Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Naot, Dorit; Watson, Maureen; Callon, Karen E; Tuari, Donna; Musson, David S; Choi, Ally J; Sreenivasan, Dharshini; Fernandez, Justin; Tu, Pao Ting; Dickinson, Michelle; Gamble, Greg D; Grey, Andrew; Cornish, Jillian

    2016-09-01

    A positive association between fat and bone mass is maintained through a network of signaling molecules. Clinical studies found that the circulating levels of adiponectin, a peptide secreted from adipocytes, are inversely related to visceral fat mass and bone mineral density, and it has been suggested that adiponectin contributes to the coupling between fat and bone. Our study tested the hypothesis that adiponectin affects bone tissue by comparing the bone phenotype of wild-type and adiponectin-knockout (APN-KO) female mice between the ages of 8-37 weeks. Using a longitudinal study design, we determined body composition and bone density using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. In parallel, groups of animals were killed at different ages and bone properties were analyzed by microcomputed tomography, dynamic histomorphometry, 3-point bending test, nanoindentation, and computational modelling. APN-KO mice had reduced body fat and decreased whole-skeleton bone mineral density. Microcomputed tomography analysis identified reduced cortical area fraction and average cortical thickness in APN-KO mice in all the age groups and reduced trabecular bone volume fraction only in young APN-KO mice. There were no major differences in bone strength and material properties between the 2 groups. Taken together, our results demonstrate a positive effect of adiponectin on bone geometry and density in our mouse model. Assuming adiponectin has similar effects in humans, the low circulating levels of adiponectin associated with increased fat mass are unlikely to contribute to the parallel increase in bone mass. Therefore, adiponectin does not appear to play a role in the coupling between fat and bone tissue. PMID:27384302

  10. A mechanostatistical approach to cortical bone remodelling: an equine model.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Thomas, C D L; Clement, J G; Das, R; Davies, H; Fernandez, J W

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the development of a mechanostatistical model of three-dimensional cortical bone remodelling informed with in vivo equine data is presented. The equine model was chosen as it is highly translational to the human condition due to similar Haversian systems, availability of in vivo bone strain and biomarker data, and furthermore, equine models are recommended by the US Federal Drugs Administration for comparative joint research. The model was derived from micro-computed tomography imaged specimens taken from the equine third metacarpal bone, and the Frost-based 'mechanostat' was informed from both in vivo strain gauges and biomarkers to estimate bone growth rates. The model also described the well-known 'cutting cone' phenomena where Haversian canals tunnel and replace bone. In order to make this model useful in practice, a partial least squares regression (PLSR) surrogate model was derived based on training data from finite element simulations with different loads. The PLSR model was able to predict microstructure and homogenised Young's modulus with errors less than 2.2% and 0.6%, respectively. PMID:25862068

  11. Bone Balance within a Cortical BMU: Local Controls of Bone Resorption and Formation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David W.; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Dunstan, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining bone volume during bone turnover by a BMU is known as bone balance. Balance is required to maintain structural integrity of the bone and is often dysregulated in disease. Consequently, understanding how a BMU controls bone balance is of considerable interest. This paper develops a methodology for identifying potential balance controls within a single cortical BMU. The theoretical framework developed offers the possibility of a directed search for biological processes compatible with the constraints of balance control. We first derive general control constraint equations and then introduce constitutive equations to identify potential control processes that link key variables that describe the state of the BMU. The paper describes specific local bone volume balance controls that may be associated with bone resorption and bone formation. Because bone resorption and formation both involve averaging over time, short-term fluctuations in the environment are removed, leaving the control systems to manage deviations in longer-term trends back towards their desired values. The length of time for averaging is much greater for bone formation than for bone resorption, which enables more filtering of variability in the bone formation environment. Remarkably, the duration for averaging of bone formation may also grow to control deviations in long-term trends of bone formation. Providing there is sufficient bone formation capacity by osteoblasts, this leads to an extraordinarily robust control mechanism that is independent of either osteoblast number or the cellular osteoid formation rate. A complex picture begins to emerge for the control of bone volume. Different control relationships may achieve the same objective, and the ‘integration of information’ occurring within a BMU may be interpreted as different sets of BMU control systems coming to the fore as different information is supplied to the BMU, which in turn leads to different observable BMU behaviors

  12. The tensile behavior of demineralized bovine cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Bowman, S M; Zeind, J; Gibson, L J; Hayes, W C; McMahon, T A

    1996-11-01

    Bone is frequently modeled as a two-phase composite of hydroxyapatite mineral crystals dispersed throughout an organic collagen matrix. However, because of the numerous limitations (e.g. small sample size, poor strain measuring techniques, rapid demineralization with acids) of previous mechanical tests of bone with its hydroxyapatite chemically removed, we have determined new, accurate data on the material properties of the demineralized bone matrix for use in these composite models. We performed tensile tests on waisted specimens of demineralized bovine cortical bone from six humeral diaphyses. Specimens were demineralized over 14 days with a 0.5 M disodium EDTA solution that was replaced daily. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to track the demineralization process and to determine the effectiveness of our demineralization protocol. Mechanical tests were performed at room temperature under displacement control at an approximate strain rate of 0.5% per s. We imposed nine preconditioning cycles before a final ramp to failure, and measured gauge length displacements using a non-invasive optical technique. The resulting stress-strain curves were similar to the tensile behavior observed in mechanical tests of other collagenous tissues, exhibiting an initial non-linear 'toe' region, followed by a linear region and subsequent failure without evidence of yielding. We found an average modulus, ultimate stress, and ultimate strain of 613 MPa (S.D. = 113 MPa), 61.5 MPa (S.D. = 13.1 MPa), and 12.3% (S.D. = 0.5%), respectively. Our average modulus is approximately half the value frequently used in current composite bone analyses. These data should also have clinical relevance because the early strength of healing fractured bone depends largely on the material properties of the collagen matrix. PMID:8894931

  13. Decreased cortical and increased cancellous bone in two children with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Boechat, M I; Westra, S J; Van Dop, C; Kaufman, F; Gilsanz, V; Roe, T F

    1996-01-01

    The basis for this study is two children with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) who radiographically manifested both marked subperiosteal resorption and prominent osteosclerosis. We hypothesize that the parathyroid hormone (PTH) elevation not only increased osteoclastic resorption of cortical bone but also simultaneously enhanced cancellous bone formation, giving rise to osteosclerosis. In this report, we describe the changes in trabecular and cortical bone density, as measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), in these two young patients with severe PHPT, before and after removal of a parathyroid adenoma. Before surgery, the radiographic findings of subperiosteal resorption and osteosclerosis were associated with low cortical and high cancellous bone density values in both children. Within 1 week of surgery, both cortical and cancellous bone density values increased and serum concentrations of calcium and, to a lesser degree, phosphorus decreased due to the "hungry bone syndrome." Twelve weeks after parathyroidectomy, QCT bone density values and skeletal radiographs were normal in both patients. The findings suggest that in patients with severe PHPT, the catabolic effect of PTH on cortical bone may be associated with a simultaneous anabolic effect on cancellous bone, and PTH may cause a significant redistribution of bone mineral from cortical to cancellous bone. PMID:8544781

  14. Novel multilayer Ti foam with cortical bone strength and cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Ochiai, S; Yamamoto, A; Daigo, Y; Honma, K; Matano, S; Omori, K

    2013-03-01

    The major functions required for load-bearing orthopaedic implants are load-bearing and mechanical or biological fixation with the surrounding bone. Porous materials with appropriate mechanical properties and adequate pore structure for fixation are promising candidates for load-bearing implant material. In previous work, the authors developed a novel titanium (Ti) foam sheet 1-2mm thick by an original slurry foaming method. In the present work, novel Ti foam is developed with mechanical properties compatible with cortical bone and biological fixation capabilities by layer-by-layer stacking of different foam sheets with volumetric porosities of 80% and 17%. The resulting multilayer Ti foam exhibited a Young's modulus of 11-12GPa and yield strength of 150-240MPa in compression tests. In vitro cell culture on the sample revealed good cell penetration in the higher-porosity foam (80% volumetric porosity), which reached 1.2mm for 21 days of incubation. Cell penetration into the high-porosity layers of a multilayer sample was good and not influenced by the lower-porosity layers. Calcification was also observed in the high-porosity foam, suggesting that this Ti foam does not inhibit bone formation. Contradictory requirements for high volumetric porosity and high strength were attained by role-sharing between the foam sheets of different porosities. The unique characteristics of the present multilayer Ti foam make them attractive for application in the field of orthopaedics. PMID:23201016

  15. Aging and Fracture of Human Cortical Bone and Tooth Dentin

    SciTech Connect

    Ager, Joel; Koester, Kurt J.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-05-07

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and tooth dentin, serve as structural materials in the human body and, as such, have evolved to resist fracture. In assessing their quantitative fracture resistance or toughness, it is important to distinguish between intrinsic toughening mechanisms which function ahead of the crack tip, such as plasticity in metals, and extrinsic mechanisms which function primarily behind the tip, such as crack bridging in ceramics. Bone and dentin derive their resistance to fracture principally from extrinsic toughening mechanisms which have their origins in the hierarchical microstructure of these mineralized tissues. Experimentally, quantification of these toughening mechanisms requires a crack-growth resistance approach, which can be achieved by measuring the crack-driving force, e.g., the stress intensity, as a function of crack extension ("R-curve approach"). Here this methodology is used to study of the effect of aging on the fracture properties of human cortical bone and human dentin in order to discern the microstructural origins of toughness in these materials.

  16. Computer modelling of the structure of the cortical and trabecular bone tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakova, Tatyana

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents computer models of the structure of cortical and trabecular bone tissue. The model fragment of the cortical bone tissue was built based on a real image of the natural bone microstructure. The osteons and Haversian canals were directly taken into consideration. The Volkmann's canals and the orientation of the collagenous mineral fibers in the osteons and the surrounding matrix were considered indirectly. The model fragment of the trabecular bone tissue was built based on the data of structure of the real bone fragments, taking into account the orientation of the trabecules of bones, their length and thickness.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of human cortical bone failure surfaces.

    PubMed

    Braidotti, P; Branca, F P; Stagni, L

    1997-02-01

    Undecalcified samples extracted from human femoral shafts are fractured by bending and the fracture surfaces are examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The investigation is performed on both dry and wet (hydrated with a saline solution) specimens. SEM micrographs show patterns in many respects similar to those observed in fractography studies of laminated fiber-reinforced synthetic composites. In particular, dry and wet samples behave like brittle and ductile matrix laminates, respectively. An analysis carried out on the basis of the mechanisms that dominate the fracture process of laminates shows that a reasonable cortical bone model is that of a laminated composite material whose matrix is composed of extracellular noncollagenous calcified proteins, and the reinforcement is constituted by the calcified collagen fiber system. PMID:9001936

  18. Relationship of bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in cortical and cancellous bone within the iliac crest of healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Dempster, D W; Zhou, Hua; Roschger, P; Fratzl-Zelman, N; Fratzl, P; Silverberg, S J; Shane, E; Cohen, A; Stein, E; Nickolas, T L; Recker, R R; Lappe, J; Bilezikian, J P; Klaushofer, K

    2014-10-01

    Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) is an important determinant of bone mechanical properties. The most available skeletal site for access to the BMDD is the iliac crest. Compared to cancellous bone much less information on BMDD is available for cortical bone. Hence, we analyzed complete transiliac crest bone biopsy samples from premenopausal women (n = 73) aged 25-48 years, clinically classified as healthy, by quantitative backscattered electron imaging for cortical (Ct.) and cancellous (Cn.) BMDD. The Ct.BMDD was characterized by the arithmetic mean of the BMDD of the cortical plates. We found correlations between Ct. and Cn. BMDD variables with correlation coefficients r between 0.42 and 0.73 (all p < 0.001). Additionally to this synchronous behavior of cortical and cancellous compartments, we found that the heterogeneity of mineralization densities (Ct.Ca(Width)), as well as the cortical porosity (Ct.Po) was larger for a lower average degree of mineralization (Ct.Ca(Mean)). Moreover, Ct.Po correlated negatively with the percentage of highly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(High)) and positively with the percentage of lowly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(Low)). In conclusion, the correlation of cortical with cancellous BMDD in the iliac crest of the study cohort suggests coordinated regulation of bone turnover between both bone compartments. Only in a few cases, there was a difference in the degree of mineralization of >1wt % between both cortices suggesting a possible modeling situation. This normative dataset of healthy premenopausal women will provide a reference standard by which disease- and treatment-specific effects can be assessed at the level of cortical bone BMDD. PMID:25134800

  19. To what extent can cortical bone millimeter-scale elasticity be predicted by a two-phase composite model with variable porosity?

    PubMed

    Granke, Mathilde; Grimal, Quentin; Parnell, William J; Raum, Kay; Gerisch, Alf; Peyrin, Françoise; Saïed, Amena; Laugier, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    An evidence gap exists in fully understanding and reliably modeling the variations in elastic anisotropy that are observed at the millimeter scale in human cortical bone. The porosity (pore volume fraction) is known to account for a large part, but not all, of the elasticity variations. This effect may be modeled by a two-phase micromechanical model consisting of a homogeneous matrix pervaded by cylindrical pores. Although this model has been widely used, it lacks experimental validation. The aim of the present work is to revisit experimental data (elastic coefficients, porosity) previously obtained from 21 cortical bone specimens from the femoral mid-diaphysis of 10 donors and test the validity of the model by proposing a detailed discussion of its hypotheses. This includes investigating to what extent the experimental uncertainties, pore network modeling, and matrix elastic properties influence the model's predictions. The results support the validity of the two-phase model of cortical bone which assumes that the essential source of variations of elastic properties at the millimeter-scale is the volume fraction of vascular porosity. We propose that the bulk of the remaining discrepancies between predicted stiffness coefficients and experimental data (RMSE between 6% and 9%) is in part due to experimental errors and part due to small variations of the extravascular matrix properties. More significantly, although most of the models that have been proposed for cortical bone were based on several homogenization steps and a large number of variable parameters, we show that a model with a single parameter, namely the volume fraction of vascular porosity, is a suitable representation for cortical bone. The results could provide a guide to build specimen-specific cortical bone models. This will be of interest to analyze the structure-function relationship in bone and to design bone-mimicking materials. PMID:25462527

  20. Anisotropic elasticity of cortical and cancellous bone in the posterior mandible increases peri-implant stress and strain under oblique loading.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, A M; Williams, J L; Spencer, P

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare implant-bone interface stresses and peri-implant principal strains in anisotropic versus isotropic three-dimensional finite element models of an osseointegrated implant in the posterior mandible. We obtained anisotropic (transversely isotropic) elastic constants for mandibular bone and derived equivalent isotropic constants by averaging over all possible spatial orientations. A finite element model was constructed using ten-node tetrahedral p-elements, providing curved edges where necessary and increasing the accuracy of the results in regions of high stress gradients. Perfect bonding was assumed at the implant-bone interface. An oblique load was applied at the coronal aspect of the crown with 100 N vertical and 20 N bucco-to-lingual components. Implant-bone interface stresses exceeded reported bond strengths and principal strains reached yield strain levels in the cortical crest. Anisotropy increased what were already high levels of stress and strain in the isotropic case by 20 to 30% in the cortical crest. In cancellous bone, anisotropy increased what were relatively low levels of interface stress in the isotropic case by three- to four-fold to exceed bond strength levels. Anisotropy has subtle, yet significant effects on interface stresses and peri-implant strains and careful consideration should be given to its use in finite element studies of dental implants. PMID:11737110

  1. Comparative cortical bone thickness between the long bones of humans and five common non-human mammal taxa.

    PubMed

    Croker, Sarah L; Reed, Warren; Donlon, Denise

    2016-03-01

    The task of identifying fragments of long bone shafts as human or non-human is difficult but necessary, for both forensic and archaeological cases, and a fast simple method is particularly useful. Previous literature suggests there may be differences in the thickness of the cortical bone between these two groups, but this has not been tested thoroughly. The aim of this study was not only to test this suggestion, but also to provide data that could be of practical assistance for future comparisons. The major limb bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) of 50 Caucasoid adult skeletons of known age and sex were radiographed, along with corresponding skeletal elements from sheep, pigs, cattle, large dogs and kangaroos. Measurements were taken from the radiographs at five points along the bone shaft, of shaft diameter, cortical bone thickness, and a cortical thickness index (sum of cortices divided by shaft diameter) in both anteroposterior and mediolateral orientations. Each variable for actual cortical bone thickness as well as cortical thickness indices were compared between the human group (split by sex) and each of the non-human groups in turn, using Student's t-tests. Results showed that while significant differences did exist between the human groups and many of the non-human groups, these were not all in the same direction. That is, some variables in the human groups were significantly greater than, and others were significantly less than, the corresponding variable in the non-human groups, depending on the particular non-human group, sex of the human group, or variable under comparison. This was the case for measurements of both actual cortical bone thickness and cortical thickness index. Therefore, for bone shaft fragments for which the skeletal element is unknown, the overlap in cortical bone thickness between different areas of different bones is too great to allow identification using this method alone. However, by providing extensive cortical bone

  2. Differences in Non-Enzymatic Glycation and Collagen Crosslinks between Human Cortical and Cancellous Bone

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Lamya; Tang, Simon Y.; Sroga, Grażyna E.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accumulation of collagen crosslinks (advanced glycation end products [AGEs]) produced by non-enzymatic glycation deteriorates bone's mechanical properties and fracture resistance. Although a single AGE, pentosidine, is commonly used as a representative marker, it is unclear whether it quantitatively reflects total fluorescent AGEs in bone. The goal of this study was to establish the relationship between pentosidine and total AGEs in cancellous and cortical bone. Methods Pentosidine and total AGEs were quantified in 170 human bone samples. Total fluorescent AGEs were measured in 28 additional cancellous and cortical bone specimens of the same apparent volume that were incubated in control or in vitro glycation solutions. Correlations between pentosidine and total AGEs and differences between cortical and cancellous groups were determined. Results Pentosidine was correlated with total AGEs in cancellous bone (r=0.53, p<0.0001) and weakly correlated in cortical bone (r=0.23, p<0.05). There was more pentosidine (p<0.01) and total AGEs (p<0.001) in cancellous than in cortical bone. The in vitro glycation sub-study showed that cancellous bone accumulated more AGEs than cortical bone (p<0.05). Conclusion The relationship between pentosidine and total AGEs and their magnitude of accumulation differed in cancellous and cortical bone of the same apparent volume, and were dependent on the surface-to-volume ratios of each sample. It is important to consider the bone types as two separate entities, and it is crucial to quantify total AGEs in addition to pentosidine to allow for more comprehensive analysis of the effects of non-enzymatic glycation in bone. PMID:23471564

  3. Fatigue crack growth behavior in equine cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Debbie Renee

    2001-07-01

    Objectives for this research were to experimentally determine crack growth rates, da/dN, as a function of alternating stress intensity factor, DeltaK, for specimens from lateral and dorsal regions of equine third metacarpal cortical bone tissue, and to determine if the results were described by the Paris law. In one set of experiments, specimens were oriented for crack propagation in the circumferential direction with the crack plane transverse to the long axis of the bone. In the second set of experiments, specimens were oriented for radial crack growth with the crack plane parallel to the long axis of the bone. Results of fatigue tests from the latter specimens were used to evaluate the hypothesis that crack growth rates differ regionally. The final experiments were designed to determine if crack resistance was dependent on region, proportion of hooped osteons (those with circumferentially oriented collagen fibers in the outer lamellae) or number of osteons penetrated by the crack, and to address the hypothesis that hooped osteons resist invasion by cracks better than other osteonal types. The transverse crack growth data for dorsal specimens were described by the Paris law with an exponent of 10.4 and suggested a threshold stress intensity factor, DeltaKth, of 2.0 MPa·m1/2 and fracture toughness of 4.38 MPa·m 1/2. Similar results were not obtained for lateral specimens because the crack always deviated from the intended path and ran parallel to the loading direction. Crack growth for the dorsal and lateral specimens in the radial orientation was described by the Paris law with exponents of 8.7 and 10.2, respectively, and there were no regional differences in the apparent DeltaK th (0.5 MPa·m1/2) or fracture toughness (1.2 MPa·m 1/2). Crack resistance was not associated with cortical region, proportion of hooped osteons or the number of osteons penetrated by the crack. The extent to which cracks penetrate osteons was influenced by whether the collagen fiber

  4. Using the gradient of human cortical bone properties to determine age-related bone changes via ultrasonic guided waves.

    PubMed

    Baron, Cécile

    2012-06-01

    Bone fragility depends not only on bone mass but also on bone quality (structure and material). To accurately evaluate fracture risk or propose therapeutic treatment, clinicians need a criterion, which reflects the determinants of bone strength: geometry, structure and material. In human long bone, the changes due to aging, accentuated by osteoporosis are often revealed through the trabecularization of cortical bone, i.e., increased porosity of endosteal bone inducing a thinning of the cortex. Consequently, the intracortical porosity gradient corresponding to the spatial variation in porosity across the cortical thickness is representative of loss of mass, changes in geometry (thinning) and variations in structure (porosity). This article examines the gradient of material properties and its age-related evolution as a relevant parameter to assess bone geometry, structure and material. By applying a homogenization process, cortical bone can be considered as an anisotropic functionally graded material with variations in material properties. A semi-analytical method based on the sextic Stroh formalism is proposed to solve the wave equation in an anisotropic functionally graded waveguide for two geometries, a plate and a tube, without using a multilayered model to represent the structure. This method provides an analytical solution called the matricant and explicitly expressed under the Peano series expansion form. Our findings indicate that ultrasonic guided waves are sensitive to the age-related evolution of realistic gradients in human bone properties across the cortical thickness and have their place in a multimodal clinical protocol. PMID:22502890

  5. Effect of the quantity and quality of cortical bone on the failure force of a miniscrew implant.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Masahiro; Takano, Masamitsu; Yasuda, Yoshitaka; Muguruma, Takeshi; Nakagaki, Susumu; Sakakura, Yasunori; Ochi, Morio; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the influence of the quantity and quality of cortical bone on the failure force of miniscrew implants. Twenty-six titanium alloy miniscrew implants (AbsoAnchor) 1.4mm in diameter and 5 or 7 mm long were placed in cross-sectioned maxillae (n = 6) and mandibles (n = 20) of human cadavers. Computed tomography imaging was used to estimate the cortical bone thickness and bone mineral density [total bone mineral density (TBMD, values obtained from cortical bone plus trabecular bone); cortical bone mineral density (CBMD, values obtained from only cortical bone)]. Maximum force at failure was measured in a shear test. Nanoindentation tests were performed to measure the hardness and elastic modulus of cortical bone around the miniscrew implants. The mean failure force of miniscrew implants placed in mandibles was significantly greater than that for implants in maxillae, and the bone hardness of mandibles was significantly greater than that of maxillae. The length of miniscrew implants did not influence the mean failure force in monocortical placement in the mandible. Cortical bone thickness, TBMD, CBMD, and bone hardness were significantly related to the mean failure force. CBMD was related to the mechanical properties of cortical bone. In conclusion, the quantity and quality of cortical bone greatly influenced the failure force of miniscrew implants. PMID:23041933

  6. Non-destructive characterization of microdamage in cortical bone using low field pulsed NMR.

    PubMed

    Nicolella, Daniel P; Ni, Qingwen; Chan, Kwai S

    2011-04-01

    The microcracking and damage accumulation process in human cortical bone was characterized by performing cyclic loading under four-point bending at ambient temperature. A non-destructive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation technique was applied to quantify the apparent changes in bone porosity as a function of cyclic loading and prior damage accumulation, first to unloaded cortical bone to quantify the initial porosity and then to fatigued cortical bone that was subjected to cyclic loading to various levels of modulus degradation and microdamage in the form of microcracks. The NMR T(2) relaxation time and amplitude data of the fatigued bone were compared against the undamaged state. The difference in the T(2) relaxation time data was taken as a measure of the increase in pore size, bone porosity or microcrack density due to microdamage induced by cyclic loading. A procedure was developed to deduce the number and size distributions of microcracks formed in cortical bone. Serial sectioning of the fatigued bone showed the formation of microcracks along the cement lines or within the interstitial tissue. The results on the evolution of microdamage derived from NMR measurements were verified by independent experimental measurements of microcrack density using histological characterization techniques. The size distribution and population of the microcracks were then utilized in conjunction with an analytical model to predict the degradation of the elastic modulus of cortical bone as a function of damage accumulation. PMID:21316626

  7. Regional, ontogenetic, and sex-related variations in elastic properties of cortical bone in baboon mandibles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Ashley, Dennis W.; Dechow, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical features of cortical bone and their changes with growth and adaptation to function plays an important role in our ability to interpret the morphology and evolution of craniofacial skeletons. We assessed the elastic properties of cortical bone of juvenile and adult baboon mandibles using ultrasonic techniques. Results showed that, overall, cortical bone from baboon mandibles could be modeled as an orthotropic elastic solid. There were significant differences in the directions of maximum stiffness, thickness, density, and elastic stiffness among different functional areas, indicating regional adaptations. After maturity, the cortical bone becomes thicker, denser, and stiffer, but less anisotropic. There were differences in elastic properties of the corpus and ramus between male and female mandibles which are not observed in human mandibles. There were correlations between cortical thicknesses and densities, between bone elastic properties and microstructural configuration, and between the directions of maximum stiffness and bone anatomical axes in some areas. The relationships between bone extrinsic and intrinsic properties bring us insights into the integration of form and function in craniofacial skeletons and suggest that we need to consider both macroscopic form, microstructural variation, and the material properties of bone matrix when studying the functional properties and adaptive nature of the craniofacial skeleton in primates. The differences between baboon and human mandibles is at variance to the pattern of differences in crania, suggesting differences in bone adaption to varying skeletal geometries and loading regimes at both phylogenetic and ontogenetic levels. PMID:19927280

  8. Assessment of cortical and trabecular bone distribution in the beagle skeleton by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, N.J.; Jee, W.S.; Dell, R.B.; Miller, G.E.

    1986-07-01

    The distribution of bone calcium between morphologically identifiable cortical and trabecular bone obtained by dissection and quantitated by neutron activation analysis (NAA) is described. The skeleton of a female beagle dog was dissected into approximately 400 pieces and assayed for /sup 49/Ca produced in the University of California, Irvine TRIGA reactor. For each of the skeletal sections, we give the initial weight of the alcohol-fixed tissue, which includes cortical bone, trabecular bone, marrow, and cartilage, and a final tissue weight after the marrow and trabecular bone have been dissected away; total section and cortical section calcium weights are reported. The level of detail is represented, for example, by the vertebrae, which were divided into three parts (body, spine, and transverse processes) and by the long bones, which were divided into 10-12 parts such that characterization of the epiphysis, metaphysis, and diaphysis was accomplished. The median percentage cortical calcium values for cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae were 82%, 56%, and 66%, respectively; however, variation within these groups and among individual vertebral sections was about a factor of 2. For long bones, the median percentage cortical calcium varied from 90-100% in the midshaft to below 50% in the proximal and distal sections. The final calculated cortical tissue-to-calcium mass ratio (TCR) varied from about 4.5 for midshafts of the long bones to about 9 for thoracic vertebral bodies and indicated that the mineral fraction of cortical bone is not constant throughout the skeleton. The ratio of cortical to trabecular calcium in the skeleton was 79.6:20.4.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Cefuroxime in Porcine Cortical and Cancellous Bone Determined by Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Bendtsen, Michael; Bue, Mats; Brock, Birgitte; Fuursted, Kurt; Søballe, Kjeld; Birke-Sørensen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the pharmacokinetics of antimicrobials in bone have been investigated using bone biopsy specimens, but this approach suffers from considerable methodological limitations. Consequently, new methods are needed. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of microdialysis (MD) for measuring cefuroxime in bone and to obtain pharmacokinetic profiles for the same drug in porcine cortical and cancellous bone. The measurements were conducted in bone wax sealed and unsealed drill holes in cortical bone and in drill holes in cancellous bone and in subcutaneous tissue. As a reference, the free and total plasma concentrations were also measured. The animals received a bolus of 1,500 mg cefuroxime over 30 min. No significant differences were found between the key pharmacokinetic parameters for sealed and unsealed drill holes in cortical bone. The mean ± standard error of the mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values from 0 to 5 h were 6,013 ± 1,339, 3,222 ± 1086, 2,232 ± 635, and 952 ± 290 min · μg/ml for free plasma, subcutaneous tissue, cancellous bone, and cortical bone, respectively (P < 0.01, analysis of variance). The AUC for cortical bone was also significantly different from that for cancellous bone (P = 0.04). This heterogeneous tissue distribution was also reflected in other key pharmacokinetic parameters. This study validates MD as a suitable method for measuring cefuroxime in bone. Cefuroxime penetration was impaired for all tissues, and bone may not be considered one distinct compartment. PMID:24663019

  10. Adaptations of young adult rat cortical bone to 14 days of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R., Jr.; Martinez, D. A.; Ashman, R. B.; Ulm, M. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A.

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether mature humeral cortical bone would be modified significantly by an acute exposure to weightlessness, adult rats (110 days old) were subjected to 14 days of microgravity on the COSMOS 2044 biosatellite. There were no significant changes in peak force, stiffness, energy to failure, and displacement at failure in the flight rats compared with ground-based controls. Concentrations and contents of hydroxyproline, calcium, and mature stable hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline collagen cross-links remained unchanged after spaceflight. Bone lengths, cortical and endosteal areas, and regionl thicknesses showed no significant differences between flight animals and ground controls. The findings suggest that responsiveness of cortical bone to microgravity is less pronounced in adult rats than in previous spaceflight experiments in which young growing animals were used. It is hypothesized that 14 days of spaceflight may not be sufficient to impact the biochemical and biomechanical properties of cortical bone in the mature rat skeleton.

  11. Cortical bone trajectory screws for the middle-upper thorax

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Chen, Jiao-Xiang; Chen, Wei; Xue, En-Xing; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Zhu, Qing-An

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To quantify the reference data concerning the morphometrics of the middle-upper thorax to guide the placement of cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screws. Eighty patients were studied on computed tomography (CT) scans. The reference anatomical parameters were measured. Next, 20 cadaveric specimens were implanted with CBT screws based on CT measurements. These specimens were then judged directly from the cadaveric vertebrae and X-ray. The maximum length of the trajectory, the maximum diameter, and the cephaled angle exhibited a slight increase trend while the transverse and sagittal angles of the pedicle tended to decrease from T3 to T8. We recommend that the width of CBT screw for middle-upper thoracic spine is 5.0 mm, the length is 25 to 35 mm. The cadaveric anatomical study revealed that 5/240 screws penetrated in the medial or lateral areas, 5/240 screws penetrated in the superior or inferior pedicle wall, and 2/240 screws did not fit into the superior endplate of the pedicle. The CBT screws are safe for the middle-upper thorax. This study provides a theoretical basis for clinical surgery. PMID:27583893

  12. Hierarchical analysis and multi-scale modelling of rat cortical and trabecular bone

    PubMed Central

    Oftadeh, Ramin; Entezari, Vahid; Spörri, Guy; Villa-Camacho, Juan C.; Krigbaum, Henry; Strawich, Elsa; Graham, Lila; Rey, Christian; Chiu, Hank; Müller, Ralph; Hashemi, Hamid Nayeb; Vaziri, Ashkan; Nazarian, Ara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the hierarchical arrangement of structural properties in cortical and trabecular bone and to determine a mathematical model that accurately predicts the tissue's mechanical properties as a function of these indices. By using a variety of analytical techniques, we were able to characterize the structural and compositional properties of cortical and trabecular bones, as well as to determine the suitable mathematical model to predict the tissue's mechanical properties using a continuum micromechanics approach. Our hierarchical analysis demonstrated that the differences between cortical and trabecular bone reside mainly at the micro- and ultrastructural levels. By gaining a better appreciation of the similarities and differences between the two bone types, we would be able to provide a better assessment and understanding of their individual roles, as well as their contribution to bone health overall. PMID:25808343

  13. Effect of random microstructure on crack propagation in cortical bone tissue under dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Li, S.; Adel-Wahab, A.; Silberschmidt, V.

    2013-07-01

    A fracture process in a cortical bone tissue depends on various factors, such as bone loss, heterogeneous microstructure, variation of its material properties and accumulation of microcracks. Therefore, it is crucial to comprehend and describe the effect of microstructure and material properties of the components of cortical bone on crack propagation in a dynamic loading regime. At the microscale level, osteonal bone demonstrates a random distribution of osteons imbedded in an interstitial matrix and surrounded by a thin layer known as cement line. Such a distribution of osteons can lead to localization of deformation processes. The global mechanical behavior of bone and the crack-propagation process are affected by such localization under external loads. Hence, the random distribution of microstructural features plays a key role in the fracture process of cortical bone. The purpose of this study is two-fold: firstly, to develop two-dimensional microstructured numerical models of cortical bone tissue in order to examine the interaction between the propagating crack and bone microstructure using an extended finite-element method under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions; secondly, to investigate the effect of randomly distributed microstructural constituents on the crack propagation processes and crack paths. The obtained results of numerical simulations showed the influence of random microstructure on the global response of bone tissue at macroscale and on the crack-propagation process for quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions.

  14. Machine vision photogrammetry: a technique for measurement of microstructural strain in cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Nicolella, D P; Nicholls, A E; Lankford, J; Davy, D T

    2001-01-01

    Understanding local microstructural deformations and strains in cortical bone may lead to a better understanding of cortical bone damage development, fracture, and remodeling. Traditional experimental techniques for measuring deformation and strain do not allow characterization of these quantities at the microstructural level in cortical bone. This study describes a technique based on digital stereoimaging used to measure the microstructural strain fields in cortical bone. The technique allows the measurement of material surface displacements and strains by comparing images acquired from a specimen at two distinct stress states. The accuracy of the system is investigated by analyzing an undeformed image set; the test image is identical to the reference image but translated by a known pixel amount. An increase in the correlation sub-image train parameter results in an increase in displacement measurement accuracy from 0.049 to 0.012 pixels. Errors in strain calculated from the measured displacement field were between 39 and 564 microstrain depending upon the sub-image train size and applied image displacement. The presence of a microcrack in cortical bone results in local strain at the crack tip reaching 0.030 (30,000 microstrain) and 0.010 (10,000 microstrain) near osteocyte lacunae. It is expected that the use of this technique will allow a greater understanding of bone strength and fracture as well as bone mechanotransduction. PMID:11425075

  15. Predicting cortical bone adaptation to axial loading in the mouse tibia

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, A. F.; Javaheri, B.; Pitsillides, A. A.; Shefelbine, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of predictive mathematical models can contribute to a deeper understanding of the specific stages of bone mechanobiology and the process by which bone adapts to mechanical forces. The objective of this work was to predict, with spatial accuracy, cortical bone adaptation to mechanical load, in order to better understand the mechanical cues that might be driving adaptation. The axial tibial loading model was used to trigger cortical bone adaptation in C57BL/6 mice and provide relevant biological and biomechanical information. A method for mapping cortical thickness in the mouse tibia diaphysis was developed, allowing for a thorough spatial description of where bone adaptation occurs. Poroelastic finite-element (FE) models were used to determine the structural response of the tibia upon axial loading and interstitial fluid velocity as the mechanical stimulus. FE models were coupled with mechanobiological governing equations, which accounted for non-static loads and assumed that bone responds instantly to local mechanical cues in an on–off manner. The presented formulation was able to simulate the areas of adaptation and accurately reproduce the distributions of cortical thickening observed in the experimental data with a statistically significant positive correlation (Kendall's τ rank coefficient τ = 0.51, p < 0.001). This work demonstrates that computational models can spatially predict cortical bone mechanoadaptation to a time variant stimulus. Such models could be used in the design of more efficient loading protocols and drug therapies that target the relevant physiological mechanisms. PMID:26311315

  16. Increased intra-cortical porosity reduces bone stiffness and strength in pediatric patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Vardakastani, V; Saletti, D; Skalli, W; Marry, P; Allain, J M; Adam, C

    2014-12-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable disease occurring in one out of every 20,000 births. Although it is known that Type I collagen mutation in OI leads to increased bone fragility, the mechanism of this increased susceptibility to fracture is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the microstructure of cortical bone fragments from patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) using polarized light microscopy, and to correlate microstructural observations with the results of previously performed mechanical compression tests on bone from the same source. Specimens of cortical bone were harvested from the lower limbs of three (3) OI patients at the time of surgery, and were divided into two groups. Group 1 had been subjected to previous micro-mechanical compression testing, while Group 2 had not been subjected to any prior testing. Polarized light microscopy revealed disorganized bone collagen architecture as has been previously observed, as well as a large increase in the areal porosity of the bone compared to typical values for healthy cortical bone, with large (several hundred micron sized), asymmetrical pores. Importantly, the areal porosity of the OI bone samples in Group 1 appears to correlate strongly with their previously measured apparent Young's modulus and compressive strength. Taken together with prior nanoindentation studies on OI bone tissue, the results of this study suggest that increased intra-cortical porosity is responsible for the reduction in macroscopic mechanical properties of OI cortical bone, and therefore that in vivo imaging modalities with resolutions of ~100 μm or less could potentially be used to non-invasively assess bone strength in OI patients. Although the number of subjects in this study is small, these results highlight the importance of further studies in OI bone by groups with access to human OI tissue in order to clarify the relationship between increased porosity and reduced macroscopic mechanical integrity. PMID

  17. Osteostatin-coated porous titanium can improve early bone regeneration of cortical bone defects in rats.

    PubMed

    van der Stok, Johan; Lozano, Daniel; Chai, Yoke Chin; Amin Yavari, Saber; Bastidas Coral, Angela P; Verhaar, Jan A N; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Schrooten, Jan; Jahr, Holger; Zadpoor, Amir A; Esbrit, Pedro; Weinans, Harrie

    2015-05-01

    A promising bone graft substitute is porous titanium. Porous titanium, produced by selective laser melting (SLM), can be made as a completely open porous and load-bearing scaffold that facilitates bone regeneration through osteoconduction. In this study, the bone regenerative capacity of porous titanium is improved with a coating of osteostatin, an osteoinductive peptide that consists of the 107-111 domain of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related protein (PTHrP), and the effects of this osteostatin coating on bone regeneration were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SLM-produced porous titanium received an alkali-acid-heat treatment and was coated with osteostatin through soaking in a 100 nM solution for 24 h or left uncoated. Osteostatin-coated scaffolds contained ∼0.1 μg peptide/g titanium, and in vitro 81% was released within 24 h. Human periosteum-derived osteoprogenitor cells cultured on osteostatin-coated scaffolds did not induce significant changes in osteogenic (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], collagen type 1 [Col1], osteocalcin [OCN], runt-related transcription factor 2 [Runx2]), or angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) gene expression; however, it resulted in an upregulation of osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene expression after 24 h and a lower receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RankL):OPG mRNA ratio. In vivo, osteostatin-coated, porous titanium implants increased bone regeneration in critical-sized cortical bone defects (p=0.005). Bone regeneration proceeded until 12 weeks, and femurs grafted with osteostatin-coated implants and uncoated implants recovered, respectively, 66% and 53% of the original femur torque strength (97±31 and 77±53 N·mm, not significant). In conclusion, the osteostatin coating improved bone regeneration of porous titanium. This effect was initiated after a short burst release and might be related to the observed in vitro upregulation of OPG gene expression by osteostatin in osteoprogenitor

  18. High-acceleration whole body vibration stimulates cortical bone accrual and increases bone mineral content in growing mice.

    PubMed

    Gnyubkin, Vasily; Guignandon, Alain; Laroche, Norbert; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Malaval, Luc; Vico, Laurence

    2016-06-14

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a promising tool for counteracting bone loss. Most WBV studies on animals have been performed at acceleration <1g and frequency between 30 and 90Hz. Such WBV conditions trigger bone growth in osteopenia models, but not in healthy animals. In order to test the ability of WBV to promote osteogenesis in young animals, we exposed seven-week-old male mice to vibration at 90Hz and 2g peak acceleration for 15min/day, 5 days/week. We examined the effects on skeletal tissues with micro-computed tomography and histology. We also quantified bone vascularization and mechanosensitive osteocyte proteins, sclerostin and DMP1. Three weeks of WBV resulted in an increase of femur cortical thickness (+5%) and area (+6%), associated with a 25% decrease of sclerostin expression, and 35% increase of DMP1 expression in cortical osteocytes. Mass-structural parameters of trabecular bone were unaltered in femur or vertebra, while osteoclastic parameters and bone formation rate were increased at both sites. Three weeks of WBV resulted in higher blood vessel numbers (+23%) in the distal femoral metaphysis. After 9-week WBV, we have not observed the difference in structural cortical or trabecular parameters. However, the tissue mineral density of cortical bone was increased by 2.5%. Three or nine weeks of 2g/90Hz WBV treatment did not affect longitudinal growth rate or body weight increase under our experimental conditions, indicating that these are safe to use. These results validate a potential of 2g/90Hz WBV to stimulate trabecular bone cellular activity, accelerate cortical bone growth, and increase bone mineral density. PMID:27178020

  19. Dynamic tensile material properties of human pelvic cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Andrew R; McNally, Craig; Duma, Stefan M

    2008-01-01

    IIn order for finite element models of the human body to predict pelvic injuries accurately, the appropriate material properties must be applied. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the dynamic material properties of human pelvic cortical bone in tension. In order to accomplish this, a total of 20 tension coupon specimens were obtained from four regions of four human cadaver pelves: anterior ilium wing, posterior ilium wing, superior pubic ramus, and ischium body. For the anterior and posterior regions of the ilium wing, samples were taken in two orientations to investigate any direction dependence. A high-rate servo-hydraulic Material Testing System (MTS) with a custom slack adaptor was used to apply tension loads to failure at a constant loading rate of 0.5 strains/s. The horizontally oriented anterior ilium specimens were found to have a significantly larger ultimate stress (p=0.02), ultimate strain (p>0.01), and modulus (p=0.02) than the vertically oriented anterior ilium specimens. There were no significant differences in ultimate stress (p=0.27), ultimate strain (p=0.85), or modulus (p=0.87) found between horizontally oriented and vertically oriented posterior ilium specimens. However, additional testing should be conducted at specimen orientation 45 degree from the orientations used in the current study to further investigate the effect of specimen orientation on the posterior portion of the ilium wing. There were no significant differences in ultimate stress (p=0.79), ultimate strain (p=0.31), or modulus (p=0.15) found between the superior pubic ramus and ischium body specimens. However, the statistical comparison between superior pubic ramus and ischium body specimens was considered weak due to the limited samples and large variation between subjects. PMID:19141951

  20. Nanoindentation testing and finite element simulations of cortical bone allowing for anisotropic elastic and inelastic mechanical response.

    PubMed

    Carnelli, Davide; Lucchini, Riccardo; Ponzoni, Matteo; Contro, Roberto; Vena, Pasquale

    2011-07-01

    Anisotropy is one of the most peculiar aspects of cortical bone mechanical behaviour, and the numerical approach can be successfully used to investigate aspects of bone tissue mechanics that analytical methods solve in approximate way or do not cover. In this work, nanoindentation experimental tests and finite element simulations were employed to investigate the elastic-inelastic anisotropic mechanical properties of cortical bone. The model allows for anisotropic elastic and post-yield behaviour of the tissue. A tension-compression mismatch and direction-dependent yield stresses are allowed for. Indentation experiments along the axial and transverse directions were simulated with the purpose to predict the indentation moduli and hardnesses along multiple orientations. Results showed that the experimental transverse-to-axial ratio of indentation moduli, equal to 0.74, is predicted with a ∼3% discrepancy regardless the post-yield material behaviour; whereas, the transverse-to-axial hardness ratio, equal to 0.86, can be correctly simulated (discrepancy ∼6% w.r.t. the experimental results) only employing an anisotropic post-elastic constitutive model. Further, direct comparison between the experimental and simulated indentation tests evidenced a good agreement in the loading branch of the indentation curves and in the peak loads for a transverse-to-axial yield stress ratio comparable to the experimentally obtained transverse-to-axial hardness ratio. In perspective, the present work results strongly support the coupling between indentation experiments and FEM simulations to get a deeper knowledge of bone tissue mechanical behaviour at the microstructural level. The present model could be used to assess the effect of variations of constitutive parameters due to age, injury, and/or disease on bone mechanical performance in the context of indentation testing. PMID:21570077

  1. Reduced Bone Cortical Thickness in Boys with Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hediger, Mary L.; England, Lucinda J.; Molloy, Cynthia A.; Yu, Kai F.; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Mills, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Bone development, casein-free diet use, supplements, and medications were assessed for 75 boys with autism or autism spectrum disorder, ages 4-8 years. Second metacarpal bone cortical thickness (BCT), measured on hand-wrist radiographs, and % deviations in BCT from reference medians were derived. BCT increased with age, but % deviations evidenced…

  2. Progressive femoral cortical and cancellous bone density loss after uncemented tapered-design stem fixation

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Tobias E; Haeberle, Lothar; Mueller, Lars P; Kress, Alexander; Voelk, Michael; Pfander, David; Forst, Raimund; Schmidt, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Background Aseptic implant loosening and periprosthetic bone loss are major problems after total hip arthroplasty (THA). We present an in vivo method of computed tomography (CT) assisted osteodensitometry after THA that differentiates between cortical and cancellous bone density (BD) and area around the femoral component. Method Cortical and cancellous periprosthetic femoral BD (mg CaHA/mL), area (mm2) and contact area between the prothesis and cortical bone were determined prospectively in 31 patients 10 days, 1 year, and 6 years after uncemented THA (mean age at implantation: 55 years) using CT-osteodensitometry. Results 6 years postoperatively, cancellous BD had decreased by as much as 41% and cortical BD by up to 27% at the metaphyseal portion of the femur; this decrease was progressive between the 1-year and 6-year examinations. Mild cortical hypertrophy was observed along the entire length of the diaphysis. No statistically significant changes in cortical BD were observed along the diaphysis of the stem. Interpretation Periprosthetic CT-assisted osteodensitometry has the technical ability to discriminate between cortical and cancellous bone structures with respect to strain-adapted remodeling. Continuous loss of cortical and cancellous BD at the femoral metaphysis, a homeostatic cortical strain configuration, and mild cortical hypertrophy along the diaphysis suggest a diaphyseal fixation of the implanted stem. CT-assisted osteodensitometry has the potential to become an effective instrument for quality control in THA by means of in vivo determination of periprosthetic BD, which may be a causal factor in implant loosening after THA. PMID:20180716

  3. Effect of micromorphology of cortical bone tissue on crack propagation under dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mayao; Gao, Xing; Abdel-Wahab, Adel; Li, Simin; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Riedel, Christoph; Busse, Björn; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2015-09-01

    Structural integrity of bone tissue plays an important role in daily activities of humans. However, traumatic incidents such as sports injuries, collisions and falls can cause bone fracture, servere pain and mobility loss. In addition, ageing and degenerative bone diseases such as osteoporosis can increase the risk of fracture [1]. As a composite-like material, a cortical bone tissue is capable of tolerating moderate fracture/cracks without complete failure. The key to this is its heterogeneously distributed microstructural constituents providing both intrinsic and extrinsic toughening mechanisms. At micro-scale level, cortical bone can be considered as a four-phase composite material consisting of osteons, Haversian canals, cement lines and interstitial matrix. These microstructural constituents can directly affect local distributions of stresses and strains, and, hence, crack initiation and propagation. Therefore, understanding the effect of micromorphology of cortical bone on crack initiation and propagation, especially under dynamic loading regimes is of great importance for fracture risk evaluation. In this study, random microstructures of a cortical bone tissue were modelled with finite elements for four groups: healthy (control), young age, osteoporosis and bisphosphonate-treated, based on osteonal morphometric parameters measured from microscopic images for these groups. The developed models were loaded under the same dynamic loading conditions, representing a direct impact incident, resulting in progressive crack propagation. An extended finite-element method (X-FEM) was implemented to realize solution-dependent crack propagation within the microstructured cortical bone tissues. The obtained simulation results demonstrate significant differences due to micromorphology of cortical bone, in terms of crack propagation characteristics for different groups, with the young group showing highest fracture resistance and the senior group the lowest.

  4. Effect of Cortical Bone Thickness on Detection of Intraosseous Lesions by Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, Sadaf; Shakibafard, Alireza; Karimi Sarvestani, Zohreh; Saadat, Najmeh; Khojastepour, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background. Usefulness of ultrasound (US) in detection of intrabony lesions has been showed. A cortical bone perforation or a very thin and intact cortical bone is prerequisite for this purpose. Objective. The current in vitro study was aimed at measuring the cut-off thickness of the overlying cortical bone which allows ultrasonic assessment of bony defects. Materials and Methods. 20 bovine scapula blocks were obtained. Samples were numbered from 1 to 20. In each sample, 5 artificial lesions were made. The lesions were made in order to increase the overlying bone thickness, from 0.1 mm in the first sample to 2 mm in the last one (with 0.1 mm interval). After that, the samples underwent ultrasound examinations by two practicing radiologists. Results. All five lesions in samples numbered 1 to 11 were detected as hypoechoic area. Cortical bone thickness more than 1.1 mm resulted in a failure in the detection of central lesions. Conclusion. We can conclude that neither bony perforation nor very thin cortical bones are needed to consider US to be an effective imaging technique in the evaluation of bony lesion. PMID:26366296

  5. Temperature Values Variability in Piezoelectric Implant Site Preparation: Differences between Cortical and Corticocancellous Bovine Bone

    PubMed Central

    Lamazza, Luca; Garreffa, Girolamo; Laurito, Domenica; Lollobrigida, Marco; Palmieri, Luigi; De Biase, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Various parameters can influence temperature rise and detection during implant site preparation. The aim of this study is to investigate local temperature values in cortical and corticocancellous bovine bone during early stages of piezoelectric implant site preparation. Materials and Methods. 20 osteotomies were performed using a diamond tip (IM1s, Mectron Medical Technology, Carasco, Italy) on two different types of bovine bone samples, cortical and corticocancellous, respectively. A standardized protocol was designed to provide constant working conditions. Temperatures were measured in real time at a fixed position by a fiber optic thermometer. Results. Significantly higher drilling time (154.90 sec versus 99.00 sec; p < 0.0001) and temperatures (39.26°C versus 34.73°C; p = 0.043) were observed in the cortical group compared to the corticocancellous group. A remarkable variability of results characterized the corticocancellous blocks as compared to the blocks of pure cortical bone. Conclusion. Bone samples can influence heat generation during in vitro implant site preparation. When compared to cortical bone, corticocancellous samples present more variability in temperature values. Even controlling most experimental factors, the impact of bone samples still remains one of the main causes of temperature variability. PMID:27110567

  6. Penetration of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin into cancellous and cortical bone in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Metallidis, S; Topsis, D; Nikolaidis, J; Alexiadou, E; Lazaraki, G; Grovaris, L; Theodoridou, A; Nikolaidis, P

    2007-12-01

    Penetration of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin into cancellous and cortical bone was studied using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 16 patients who underwent routine total hip arthroplasty. Our results demonstrate a good degree of penetration into bone for both quinolones. The mean cancellous penetration was 53.86% for moxifloxacin and 54.13% for levofloxacin. The penetration into cortical bone was 41.59% and 34.26% respectively. The concentrations for both quinolones were above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90s)) for the most common pathogens, so they can be used for the treatment of osteomyelitis. PMID:18230551

  7. Fractional Anisotropy of Cerebral White Matter and Thickness of Cortical Gray Matter across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    P., Kochunov; DC, Glahn; J., Lancaster; P.M., Thompson; V., Kochunov; B., Rogers; P., Fox; J., Blangero; D.E., Williamson

    2011-01-01

    We examined age trajectories of fractional anisotropy (FA) of cerebral white matter (WM) and thickness of cortical gray matter (GM) in 1,031 healthy human subjects (aged 11-90 years). Whole-brain FA and GM thickness values followed quadratic trajectories with age but the relationship between them was linear, indicating that a putative biological mechanism may explain the non-linearity of their age trajectories. Inclusion of the FA values into the quadratic model of the whole-brain and regional GM thickness changes with age made the effect of the age2 term no longer significant for the whole-brain GM thickness and greatly reduced its significance for regional GM thickness measurements. The phylogenetic order of cerebral myelination helped to further explain the intersubject variability in GM thickness. FA values for the early maturing WM were significantly better (p=10−6) at explaining variability in GM thickness in maturing (aged 11-20) subjects than FA values for the late maturing WM. The opposite trend was observed for aging subjects (aged 40-90) where FA values for the late maturing WM were better (p=10−16) at explaining the variability in GM thickness. We concluded that the non-linearity of the age trajectory for GM thickness, measured from T1-weighted MRI, was partially explained by the heterogeneity and the heterochronicity of the age-related changes in the microintegrity of cerebral WM. We consider these findings as the evidence that the measurements of age-related changes in GM thickness and FA are driven, in part, by a common biological mechanism, presumed to be related to changes in cerebral myelination. PMID:21640837

  8. Modeling of femoral neck cortical bone for the numerical simulation of ultrasound propagation.

    PubMed

    Grimal, Quentin; Rohrbach, Daniel; Grondin, Julien; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus-C; Raum, Kay; Laugier, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative ultrasound assessment of the cortical compartment of the femur neck (FN) is investigated with the goal of achieving enhanced fracture risk prediction. Measurements at the FN are influenced by bone size, shape and material properties. The work described here was aimed at determining which FN material properties have a significant impact on ultrasound propagation around 0.5 MHz and assessing the relevancy of different models. A methodology for the modeling of ultrasound propagation in the FN, with a focus on the modeling of bone elastic properties based on scanning acoustic microscopy data, is introduced. It is found that the first-arriving ultrasound signal measured in through-transmission at the FN is not influenced by trabecular bone properties or by the heterogeneities of the cortical bone mineralized matrix. In contrast, the signal is sensitive to variations in cortical porosity, which can, to a certain extent, be accounted for by effective properties calculated with the Mori-Tanaka method. PMID:24486239

  9. The effect of in vitro fluoride ion treatment on the ultrasonic properties of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Walsh, W R; Labrador, D P; Kim, H D; Guzelsu, N

    1994-01-01

    The mechanical properties of composites are influenced, in part, by the volume fraction, orientation, constituent mechanical properties, and interfacial bonding. Cortical bone tissue represents a short-fibered biological composite where the hydroxyapatite phase is embedded in an organic matrix composed of type I collagen and other noncollagenous proteins. Destructive mechanical testing has revealed that fluoride ion treatment significantly lowers the Z-axis tensile and compressive properties of cortical bone through a constituent interfacial debonding mechanism. The present ultrasonic data indicates that fluoride ion treatment significantly alters the longitudinal velocity in the Z-axis as well as the circumferential and radial axes of cortical bone. This suggests that the distribution of constituents and interfacial bonding amongst them may contribute to the anisotropic nature of bone tissue. PMID:7998686

  10. Cortical Bone Morphological and Trabecular Bone Microarchitectural Changes in the Mandible and Femoral Neck of Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Pei-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Wang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Ying-Ju; Wu, Jay; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study used microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on the trabecular bone microarchitecture and cortical bone morphology in the femoral neck and mandible of female rats. Materials and Methods Twelve female Wister rats were divided into two groups: the control and ovariectomized groups. The rats in the ovariectomized group received ovariectomy at 8 weeks of age; all the rats were sacrificed at 20 weeks of age, and their mandibles and femurs were removed and scanned using micro-CT. Four microstructural trabecular bone parameters were measured for the region below the first mandibular molar and the femoral neck region: bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (TbTh), trabecular separation (TbSp), and trabecular number (TbN). In addition, four cortical bone parameters were measured for the femoral neck region: total cross-sectional area (TtAr), cortical area (CtAr), cortical bone area fraction (CtAr/TtAr), and cortical thickness (CtTh). The CtTh at the masseteric ridge was used to assess the cortical bone morphology in the mandible. The trabecular bone microarchitecture and cortical bone morphology in the femoral necks and mandibles of the control group were compared with those of the ovariectomized group. Furthermore, Spearman’s correlation (rs) was conducted to analyze the correlation between the osteoporosis conditions of the mandible and femoral neck. Results Regarding the trabecular bone microarchitectural parameters, the BV/TV of the trabecular bone microarchitecture in the femoral necks of the control group (61.199±11.288%, median ± interquartile range) was significantly greater than that of the ovariectomized group (40.329±5.153%). Similarly, the BV/TV of the trabecular bone microarchitecture in the mandibles of the control group (51.704±6.253%) was significantly greater than that of the ovariectomized group (38.486±9.111%). Furthermore, the TbSp of the femoral necks in the ovariectomized group

  11. Effect of microstructure on micromechanical performance of dry cortical bone tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Ling; Venkatesan, Sudharshan; Kalyanasundaram, Shankar; Qin Qinghua

    2009-12-15

    The mechanical properties of bone depend on composition and structure. Previous studies have focused on macroscopic fracture behavior of bone. In the present study, we performed microindentation studies to understand the deformation properties and microcrack-microstructure interactions of dry cortical bone. Dry cortical bone tissues from lamb femurs were tested using Vickers indentation with loads of 0.245-9.8 N. We examined the effect of bone microstructure on deformation and crack propagation using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the significant effect of cortical bone microstructure on indentation deformation and microcrack propagation. The indentation deformation of the dry cortical bone was basically plastic at any applied load with a pronounced viscoelastic recovery, in particular at lower loads. More microcracks up to a length of approximately 20 {mu}m occurred when the applied load was increased. At loads of 4.9 N and higher, most microcracks were found to develop from the boundaries of haversian canals, osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi. Some microcracks propagated from the parallel direction of the longitudinal interstitial lamellae. At loads 0.45 N and lower, no visible microcracks were observed.

  12. An approach to the histomorphological and histochemical variations of the humerus cortical bone through human ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Cambra-Moo, Oscar; Nacarino Meneses, Carmen; Rodríguez Barbero, Miguel Ángel; García Gil, Orosia; Rascón Pérez, Josefina; Rello-Varona, Santiago; D'Angelo, Manuel; Campo Martín, Manuel; González Martín, Armando

    2014-01-01

    For many years, clinical and non-clinical investigations have investigated cortical bone structure in an attempt to address questions related to normal bone development, mineralisation, pathologies and even evolutionary trends in our lineage (adaptations). Research in the fields of medicine, materials science, physical anthropology, palaeontology, and even archaeobiology has contributed interesting data. However, many questions remain regarding the histomorphological and histochemical variations in human cortical bone during different stages of life. In the present work, we describe a study of long bone cortex transformations during ontogeny. We analysed cross-sections of 15 human humeri histomorphologically and histochemically from perinatal to adult age, marking and quantifying the spatial distribution of bone tissue types using GIS software and analysing the mineral composition and crystallinity of the mineralised cortex using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our results allowed us to propose that human cortical bone undergoes three main ‘events’ through ontogeny that critically change the proportions and structure of the cortex. In early development, bone is not well mineralised and proportionally presents a wide cortex that narrows through the end of childhood. Before reaching complete maturity, the bone mineral area increases, allowing the bone to nearly reach the adult size. The medullary cavity is reduced, and the mineral areas have a highly ordered crystalline structure. The last event occurs in adulthood, when the ‘oldest’ individuals present a reduced mineralised area, with increasing non-mineralised cavities (including the medullary cavity) and reduced crystalline organisation. PMID:24660964

  13. Loss of Prostaglandin E2-induced Extra Cortical Bone After its Withdrawal in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, Webster S. S.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian

    1992-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine the fate of PGE2-(Prostaglandin E2) induced new cortical bone mass after withdrawal of PGE2 administration. Seven-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections of 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day for 60 days and then withdrawn for 60 and 120 days (on/off treatment). Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent-labeled undecalcified tibial shaft sections (proximal to the tibiofibular junction). In a previous report we showed that after 60, 120 and 180 days of daily PGE2 (on)treatment, a new steady state was achieved marked by increased total bone area (+16%, +25% and +34% with 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day) when compared to age-matched controls. The continuous PGE2 treatment stimulated periosteal and endocortical lamellar bone formation, activated endocortical woven trabecular bone formation and intracortical bone resorption. These responses increased cortical bone mass since the bone formation exceeded bone resorption. The current study showed that after withdrawal of PGE2 for 60 and 120 days, the extra endocortical bone, which was induced by the first 60-days treatment, was resorbed, but the new subperiosteal bone persisted resulting in a tibial shaft with larger cross sectional and marrow areas. Despite that, there was still the same amount of bone mass in these shafts as in age-related controls. A new steady state was achieved after 60 days of withdrawal, in which the bone mass and bone formation activity approximated that of age-related controls. It was concluded that maintaining the extra PGE2-induced cortical bone mass depends on continuous daily administration of PGE2.

  14. Loss of Prostaglandin E2-induced Extra Cortical Bone after its Withdrawal in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, Webster S. S.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian

    1992-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine the fate of PGE2-induced new cortical bone mass after withdrawal of PGE2 administration. Seven-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections of 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day for 60 days and then withdrawn for 60 and 120 days (on/off treatment). Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent-labeled undecalcified tibial shaft sections (proximal to the tibiofibular junction). In a previous report we showed that after 60, 120 and 180 days of daily PGE2 (on)treatment, a new steady state was achieved marked by increased total bone area (+ 16%, +25% and + 34% with 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day) when compared to age-matched controls. The continuous PGE2 treatment stimulated periosteal and endocortical lamellar bone formation, activated endocortical woven trabecular bone formation and intracortical bone resorption. These responses increased cortical bone mass since the bone formation exceeded bone resorption. The current study showed that after withdrawal of PGE2 for 60 and 120 days, the extra endocortical bone, which was induced by the first 60-days treatment, was resorbed, but the new subperiosteal bone persisted resulting in a tibial shaft with larger cross sectional and marrow areas. Despite that, there was still the same amount of bone mass in these shafts as in age-related controls. A new steady state was achieved after 60 days of withdrawal, in which the bone mass and bone formation activity approximated that of age-related controls. It was concluded that maintaining the extra PGE2-induced cortical bone mass depends on continuous daily administration of PGE2.

  15. Assessment of the cortical bone thickness using ultrasonic guided waves: modelling and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Petro; Nicholson, Patrick H F; Kilappa, Vantte; Cheng, Sulin; Timonen, Jussi

    2007-02-01

    Determination of cortical bone thickness is warranted, e.g., for assessing the level of endosteal resorption in osteoporosis or other bone pathologies. We have shown previously that the velocity of the fundamental antisymmetric (or flexural) guided wave, measured for bone phantoms and bones in vitro, correlates with the cortical thickness significantly better than those by other axial ultrasound methods. In addition, we have introduced an inversion scheme based on guided wave theory, group velocity filtering and 2-D fast Fourier transform, for determination of cortical thickness from the measured velocity of guided waves. In this study, the method was validated for tubular structures by using numerical simulations and experimental measurements on tube samples. In addition, 40 fresh human radius specimens were measured. For tubes with a thin wall, plate theory could be used to determine the wall thickness with a precision of 4%. For tubes with a wall thicker than 1/5 of the outer radius, tube theory provided the wall thickness with similar accuracy. For the radius bone specimens, tube theory was used and the ultrasonically-determined cortical thickness was found to be U-Th = 2.47 mm +/- 0.66 mm. It correlated strongly (r(2) = 0.73, p < 0.001) with the average cortical thickness, C-Th = 2.68 +/- 0.53 mm, and the local cortical thickness (r(2) = 0.81, p < 0.001), measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. We can conclude that the guided-wave inversion scheme introduced here is a feasible method for assessing cortical bone thickness. PMID:17306696

  16. Mechanistic fracture criteria for the failure of human cortical bone

    SciTech Connect

    Nalla, Ravi K.; Kinney, John H.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2002-12-13

    A mechanistic understanding of fracture in human bone is critical to predicting fracture risk associated with age and disease. Despite extensive work, a mechanistic framework for describing how the underlying microstructure affects the failure mode in bone is lacking.

  17. Ultrashort echo time magnetization transfer (UTE-MT) imaging of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric Y; Bae, Won C; Shao, Hongda; Biswas, Reni; Li, Shihong; Chen, Jun; Patil, Shantanu; Healey, Robert; D'Lima, Darryl D; Chung, Christine B; Du, Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging is one way to indirectly assess pools of protons with fast transverse relaxation. However, conventional MT imaging sequences are not applicable to short T2 tissues such as cortical bone. Ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences with TE values as low as 8 µs can detect signals from different water components in cortical bone. In this study we aim to evaluate two-dimensional UTE-MT imaging of cortical bone and its application in assessing cortical bone porosity as measured by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and biomechanical properties. In total, 38 human cadaveric distal femur and proximal tibia bones were sectioned to produce 122 rectangular pieces of cortical bone for quantitative UTE-MT MR imaging, μCT, and biomechanical testing. Off-resonance saturation ratios (OSRs) with a series of MT pulse frequency offsets (Δf) were calculated and compared with porosity assessed with μCT, as well as elastic (modulus, yield stress, and strain) and failure (ultimate stress, failure strain, and energy) properties, using Pearson correlation and linear regression. A moderately strong negative correlation was observed between OSR and μCT porosity (R(2)  = 0.46-0.51), while a moderate positive correlation was observed between OSR and yield stress (R(2)  = 0.25-0.30) and failure stress (R(2)  = 0.31-0.35), and a weak positive correlation (R(2)  = 0.09-0.12) between OSR and Young's modulus at all off-resonance saturation frequencies. OSR determined with the UTE-MT sequence provides quantitative information on cortical bone and is sensitive to μCT porosity and biomechanical function. PMID:25981914

  18. Assessment of water distribution changes in human cortical bone by nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Qingwen; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Wang, Xiaodu; DeLos Santos, Armondo; Nicolella, Daniel P.

    2007-03-01

    A NMR spin-spin (T2) relaxation technique has been described for determining water distribution changes in human cortical bone tissue. The advantages of using NMR T2 relaxation techniques for bone water distribution are illustrated. The CPMG T2 relaxation data can be inverted to T2 relaxation distribution and this distribution then can be transformed to a pore size distribution with the longer relaxation times corresponding to larger pores. The FID T2 relaxation data can be inverted to T2 relaxation distribution and this distribution then can be transformed to bound- and mobile-water distribution with the longest relaxation time corresponding to mobile water and the middle relaxation time corresponding to bound water. The technique is applied to quantify apparent changes in porosity, bound and mobile water in cortical bone. Overall bone porosity is determined using the calibrated NMR fluid volume from the proton relaxation data divided by overall bone volume. The NMR bound and mobile water changes were determined from cortical bone specimens obtained from male and female donors of different ages. Differences in water distribution were found between specimens from male and female donors. Furthermore, the distribution of water within a single specimen was found to be non-homogeneous. Our results show that the ratio of the average bound to mobile water in bone from male donors is higher than in bone from female donors when the bone porosities are similar between male and female groups. We also show that the average bone porosity multiplied by the ratio of bound to mobile water is constant for both male and female bone groups. This parameter may be used as a measure of bone quality describing both porosity and water content, both of which may be important determinants of bone strength and fracture resistance.

  19. Interaction of microstructure and microcrack growth in cortical bone: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Mischinski, Susan; Ural, Ani

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural features including osteons and cement lines are considered to play an important role in determining the crack growth behaviour in cortical bone. This study aims to develop a computational mechanics approach to evaluate microscale fracture mechanisms in bone. In this study, finite element models based on actual human cortical bone images that allow for arbitrary crack growth were utilised to determine the crack propagation behaviour. The simulations varied the cement line and osteon strength and fracture toughness in different bone microstructures to assess the crack propagation trajectory, stress-strain relationship and nonlinear strain energy density. The findings of this study provide additional insight into the individual influence of microstructural features and their properties on crack growth behaviour in bone using a computational approach. PMID:21970670

  20. Hindlimb unloading has a greater effect on cortical compared with cancellous bone in mature female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Matthew R.; Bloomfield, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of 28 days of hindlimb unloading (HU) on the mature female rat skeleton. In vivo proximal tibia bone mineral density and geometry of HU and cage control (CC) rats were measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) on days 0 and 28. Postmortem pQCT, histomorphometry, and mechanical testing were performed on tibiae and femora. After 28 days, HU animals had significantly higher daily food consumption (+39%) and lower serum estradiol levels (-49%, P = 0.079) compared with CC. Proximal tibia bone mineral content and cortical bone area significantly declined over 28 days in HU animals (-4.0 and 4.8%, respectively), whereas total and cancellous bone mineral densities were unchanged. HU animals had lower cortical bone formation rates and mineralizing surface at tibial midshaft, whereas differences in similar properties were not detected in cancellous bone of the distal femur. These results suggest that cortical bone, rather than cancellous bone, is more prominently affected by unloading in skeletally mature retired breeder female rats.

  1. Analytical methods to determine the effective mesoscopic and macroscopic elastic properties of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Parnell, William J; Vu, M B; Grimal, Q; Naili, S

    2012-07-01

    We compare theoretical predictions of the effective elastic moduli of cortical bone at both the meso- and macroscales. We consider the efficacy of three alternative approaches: the method of asymptotic homogenization, the Mori-Tanaka scheme and the Hashin-Rosen bounds. The methods concur for specific engineering moduli such as the axial Young's modulus but can vary for others. In a past study, the effect of porosity alone on mesoscopic properties of cortical bone was considered, taking the matrix to be isotropic. Here, we consider the additional influence of the transverse isotropy of the matrix. We make the point that micromechanical approaches can be used in two alternative ways to predict either the macroscopic (size of cortical bone sample) or mesoscopic (in between micro- and macroscales) effective moduli, depending upon the choice of representative volume element size. It is widely accepted that the mesoscale behaviour is an important aspect of the mechanical behaviour of bone but models incorporating its effect have started to appear only relatively recently. Before this only macroscopic behaviour was addressed. Comparisons are drawn with experimental data and simulations from the literature for macroscale predictions with particularly good agreement in the case of dry bone. Finally, we show how predictions of the effective mesoscopic elastic moduli can be made which retain dependence on the well-known porosity gradient across the thickness of cortical bone. PMID:22109098

  2. Artifacts and thresholding in X-ray CT of a cortical bone and titanium composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, C.J.; Gayou, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    X-Ray CT has the potential to provide precise and accurate data from which the mechanical properties of bone can be calculated. Such data would be useful in understanding the response of bone tissue to implants. Various artifacts can, however, degrade accuracy of the data. The aim of this study was to measure the artifactual errors produced in CT of a simulated femoral bone-titanium composite and to propose a method to correct for them. A composite phantom that simulates cortical bone and a titanium implant was designed and constructed. The phantom was scanned and the image data were analyzed over a range of thresholds with image analysis software developed for this study. The outer (OD) and inner (ID) diameter and the CT number of the cortical bone, with and without titanium, were measured over a range of cortical thicknesses. While ID can be accurately measured by choosing the proper threshold (800 HU), OD, even at optimal threshold, will be underestimated by {approx}2%. If a proper threshold is selected, CT number can also be accurately determined. Errors of tip to 5%, however, are produced by titanium unless corrected by proper threshold selection. Intramedullary titanium is not a deterrent to obtaining accurate measurements of cortical bone dimensions and properties. Proper choice of thresholds for image analysis of CT scan data can yield accuracy and precision of 2%. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  3. ONO-5334, a cathepsin K inhibitor, improves bone strength by preferentially increasing cortical bone mass in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Yasuo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mori, Hiroshi; Kawada, Naoki; Kayasuga, Ryoji; Nakanishi, Yasutomo; Tanaka, Makoto; Imagawa, Akira; Ohmoto, Kazuyuki; Kawabata, Kazuhito

    2014-11-01

    This study compared the effects of ONO-5334, a cathepsin K inhibitor, with those of alendronate on bone mass and strength in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy resulted in significant elevation in urinary deoxypyridinoline and plasma C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) 8 weeks after surgery. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography analysis showed that total, trabecular, and cortical bone mineral content (BMC) decreased in the proximal tibia, which was paralleled with a significant decline in bone strength. Treatment with ONO-5334 (0.12, 0.6, 3 or 15 mg/kg) once daily for 8 weeks dose-dependently restored the decrease in total BMC and bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximal tibia and suppressed urinary deoxypyridinoline and plasma CTX levels. Alendronate (1 mg/kg, once daily) also fully restored these bone mass parameters. Separate analysis of trabecular and cortical bones, however, showed that ONO-5334 only partially restored trabecular BMD and BMC at 15 mg/kg, whereas alendronate fully restored these parameters. On the other hand, ONO-5334 increased both cortical BMD and BMC with an effect more potent than that of alendronate. Bone geometric analysis indicated that ONO-5334 at 15 mg/kg decreased endosteal circumference without affecting periosteal circumference, resulting in marked increase in cortical thickness. Interestingly, the effects of ONO-5334 on bone strength parameters were more prominent than those of alendronate, although the two test compounds had a similar effect on total BMC. Taken together, our results indicate that ONO-5334 has pharmacological characteristics different from those of alendronate and may offer a unique therapy for patients with osteoporosis. PMID:24317478

  4. A new algorithm to improve assessment of cortical bone geometry in pQCT.

    PubMed

    Cervinka, Tomas; Sievänen, Harri; Lala, Deena; Cheung, Angela M; Giangregorio, Lora; Hyttinen, Jari

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is now considered the leading imaging modality in bone research. However, access to HR-pQCT is limited and image acquisition is mainly constrained only for the distal third of appendicular bones. Hence, the conventional pQCT is still commonly used despite inaccurate threshold-based segmentation of cortical bone that can compromise the assessment of whole bone strength. Therefore, this study addressed whether the use of an advanced image processing algorithm, called OBS, can enhance the cortical bone analysis in pQCT images and provide similar information to HR-pQCT when the same volumes of interest are analyzed. Using pQCT images of European Forearm Phantom (EFP), and pQCT and HR-pQCT images of the distal tibia from 15 cadavers, we compared the results from the OBS algorithm with those obtained from common pQCT analyses, HR-pQCT manual analysis (considered as a gold standard) and common HR-pQCT analysis dual threshold technique.We found that the use of OBS segmentation method for pQCT image analysis of EFP data did not result in any improvement but reached similar performance in cortical bone delineation as did HR-pQCT image analyses. The assessments of cortical cross-sectional bone area and thickness by OBS algorithm were overestimated by less than 4% while area moments of inertia were overestimated by ~5–10%, depending on reference HR-pQCT analysis method. In conclusion, this study showed that the OBS algorithm performed reasonably well and it offers a promising practical tool to enhance the assessment of cortical bone geometry in pQCT. PMID:26428659

  5. Mandibular Inferior Cortical Bone Thickness on Panoramic Radiographs in Patients using Bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sandra R.; Chen, Curtis S. K.; Leroux, Brian G.; Lee, Peggy P.; Hollender, Lars G.; Lloid, Michelle; Drew, Shane Patrick; Schubert, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To detect dimensional changes in the mandibular cortical bone associated with bisphosphonate (BP) use and to correlate the measurements of the cortical bone with the cumulative dose of BP therapy. Methods Mandibular inferior cortical bone thickness (MICBT) was measured under the mental foramen from panoramic radiographs of subjects using BP with and without bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) and controls. Results The highest mean MICBT was observed in BRONJ subjects 6.81 (± 1.35 mm), when compared to subjects using BP 5.44 (± 1.09 mm) and controls 4.79 (± 0.85 mm; p<0.01). The mean MICBT of BRONJ subjects was significantly higher than that of subjects using BP without BRONJ. There was a correlation between MICBT and cumulative dose of zolendronate. Conclusion The MICBT on panoramic radiograph is a potentially useful tool for the detection of dimensional changes associated with BP therapy. PMID:25864820

  6. Acute hypothalamic suppression significantly affects trabecular bone but not cortical bone following recovery and ovariectomy surgery in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kathryn A.; Lunny, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Osteoporosis is “a pediatric disease with geriatric consequences.” Bone morphology and tissue quality co-adapt during ontogeny for sufficient bone stiffness. Altered bone morphology from hypothalamic amenorrhea, a risk factor for low bone mass in women, may affect bone strength later in life. Our purpose was to determine if altered morphology following hypothalamic suppression during development affects cortical bone strength and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) at maturity. Methods. Female rats (25 days old) were assigned to a control (C) group (n = 45) that received saline injections (.2 cc) or an experimental group (GnRH-a) (n = 45) that received gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist injections (.24 mg per dose) for 25 days. Fifteen animals from each group were sacrificed immediately after the injection protocol at Day 50 (C, GnRH-a). The remaining animals recovered for 135 days and a subset of each group was sacrificed at Day 185 ((C-R) (n = 15) and (G-R) (n = 15)). The remaining animals had an ovariectomy surgery (OVX) at 185 days of age and were sacrificed 40 days later (C-OVX) (n = 15) and (G-OVX) (n = 15). After sacrifice femurs were mechanically tested and scanned using micro CT. Serum C-terminal telopeptides (CTX) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. Two-way ANOVA (2 groups (GnRH-a and Control) X 3 time points (Injection Protocol, Recovery, post-OVX)) was computed. Results. GnRH-a injections suppressed uterine weights (72%) and increased CTX levels by 59%. Bone stiffness was greater in the GnRH-a groups compared to C. Ash content and cortical bone area were similar between groups at all time points. Polar moment of inertia, a measure of bone architecture, was 15% larger in the GnRH-a group and remained larger than C (19%) following recovery. Both the polar moment of inertia and cortical area increased linearly with the increases in body weight. Following the injection protocol, trabecular BV/TV was 31% lower in the Gn

  7. Acute hypothalamic suppression significantly affects trabecular bone but not cortical bone following recovery and ovariectomy surgery in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Yingling, Vanessa R; Mitchell, Kathryn A; Lunny, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Osteoporosis is "a pediatric disease with geriatric consequences." Bone morphology and tissue quality co-adapt during ontogeny for sufficient bone stiffness. Altered bone morphology from hypothalamic amenorrhea, a risk factor for low bone mass in women, may affect bone strength later in life. Our purpose was to determine if altered morphology following hypothalamic suppression during development affects cortical bone strength and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) at maturity. Methods. Female rats (25 days old) were assigned to a control (C) group (n = 45) that received saline injections (.2 cc) or an experimental group (GnRH-a) (n = 45) that received gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist injections (.24 mg per dose) for 25 days. Fifteen animals from each group were sacrificed immediately after the injection protocol at Day 50 (C, GnRH-a). The remaining animals recovered for 135 days and a subset of each group was sacrificed at Day 185 ((C-R) (n = 15) and (G-R) (n = 15)). The remaining animals had an ovariectomy surgery (OVX) at 185 days of age and were sacrificed 40 days later (C-OVX) (n = 15) and (G-OVX) (n = 15). After sacrifice femurs were mechanically tested and scanned using micro CT. Serum C-terminal telopeptides (CTX) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. Two-way ANOVA (2 groups (GnRH-a and Control) X 3 time points (Injection Protocol, Recovery, post-OVX)) was computed. Results. GnRH-a injections suppressed uterine weights (72%) and increased CTX levels by 59%. Bone stiffness was greater in the GnRH-a groups compared to C. Ash content and cortical bone area were similar between groups at all time points. Polar moment of inertia, a measure of bone architecture, was 15% larger in the GnRH-a group and remained larger than C (19%) following recovery. Both the polar moment of inertia and cortical area increased linearly with the increases in body weight. Following the injection protocol, trabecular BV/TV was 31% lower in the Gn

  8. Modalities for Visualization of Cortical Bone Remodeling: The Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kimberly D; Cooper, David M L

    2015-01-01

    Bone's ability to respond to load-related phenomena and repair microdamage is achieved through the remodeling process, which renews bone by activating groups of cells known as basic multicellular units (BMUs). The products of BMUs, secondary osteons, have been extensively studied via classic two-dimensional techniques, which have provided a wealth of information on how histomorphology relates to skeletal structure and function. Remodeling is critical in maintaining healthy bone tissue; however, in osteoporotic bone, imbalanced resorption results in increased bone fragility and fracture. With increasing life expectancy, such degenerative bone diseases are a growing concern. The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of BMUs and their correlation to function, however, are not well-characterized and little is known about the specific mechanisms that initiate and regulate their activity within cortical bone. We believe a key limitation has been the lack of 3D information about BMU morphology and activity. Thus, this paper reviews methodologies for 3D investigation of cortical bone remodeling and, specifically, structures associated with BMU activity (resorption spaces) and the structures they create (secondary osteons), spanning from histology to modern ex vivo imaging modalities, culminating with the growing potential of in vivo imaging. This collection of papers focuses on the theme of "putting the 'why' back into bone architecture." Remodeling is one of two mechanisms "how" bone structure is dynamically modified and thus an improved 3D understanding of this fundamental process is crucial to ultimately understanding the "why." PMID:26322017

  9. Relationships between material properties and CT scan data of cortical bone with and without metastatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Tadashi S; Pejcic, Marina R; Tehranzadeh, Jamshid; Keyak, Joyce H

    2003-07-01

    Breast, prostate, lung, and other cancers can metastasize to bone and lead to pathological fracture. To lay the groundwork for new clinical techniques for assessing the risk of pathological fracture, we identified relationships between density measured using quantitative computed tomography (rhoQCT), longitudinal mechanical properties, and ash density (rhoAsh) of cortical bone from femoral diaphyses with and without metastatic lesions from breast, prostate, and lung cancer (bone with metastases from six donors; bone without metastases from one donor with cancer and two donors without cancer). Moderately strong linear relationships between rhoQCT and elastic modulus, strength, and rhoAsh were found for bone with metastases (0.73bone with metastatic lesions differed from those of bone from donors without cancer (P<0.01). However, differences in tensile strength or compressive yield strain, after controlling for rhoQCT, were not found. Thus, these cancers degrade the elastic modulus and compressive strength, but not the tensile strength, of cortical bone beyond the amount that would be expected from decreased density alone. The rhoQCT-mechanical property relationships reported may be useful for evaluating bone integrity and assessing the risk of fracture of bone with metastases. PMID:12787982

  10. Intramedullary reaming for press-fit fixation of a humeral component removes cortical bone asymmetrically.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael; Chebli, Caroline; Mounce, Doug; Bertelsen, Alexander; Richardson, Michael; Matsen, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Periprosthetic humeral fractures are major complications of shoulder arthroplasty. Bone removal during surgical reaming is a risk factor for these fractures. Although it is recognized that the endosteal surface of the humerus is asymmetrical whereas the reamers are symmetrical, to our knowledge, the effect of cylindrical reaming on the pattern of cortical bone removal during reaming has not been previously studied. The medullary canals of 10 cadaveric humeri (mean age, 73 years) were reamed in a manner similar to that used during humeral arthroplasty. Cortical dimensions were obtained from computed tomography scans before and after reaming. In unreamed humeri, the anterior-posterior endocortical diameter was 20% smaller than the medial-lateral diameter. The average medial-lateral diameter (15.6 +/- 2.3 mm) was significantly greater than the anterior-posterior diameter (12.5 +/- 1.9 mm) at 13 cm distal to the tuberosity (P < .00005). Successive cylindrical reaming preferentially thinned the anterior and posterior cortices. This bone loss would not be apparent on anterior-posterior radiographs. Intramedullary reaming to obtain substantial cortical contact asymmetrically removes cortical bone in a manner that may increase the risk of periprosthetic fracture. PMID:18029200

  11. The effects of bone density and crestal cortical bone thickness on micromotion and peri-implant bone strain distribution in an immediately loaded implant: a nonlinear finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the effects of bone density and crestal cortical bone thickness at the implant-placement site on micromotion (relative displacement between the implant and bone) and the peri-implant bone strain distribution under immediate-loading conditions. Methods A three-dimensional finite element model of the posterior mandible with an implant was constructed. Various bone parameters were simulated, including low or high cancellous bone density, low or high crestal cortical bone density, and crestal cortical bone thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 mm. Delayed- and immediate-loading conditions were simulated. A buccolingual oblique load of 200 N was applied to the top of the abutment. Results The maximum extent of micromotion was approximately 100 μm in the low-density cancellous bone models, whereas it was under 30 μm in the high-density cancellous bone models. Crestal cortical bone thickness significantly affected the maximum micromotion in the low-density cancellous bone models. The minimum principal strain in the peri-implant cortical bone was affected by the density of the crestal cortical bone and cancellous bone to the same degree for both delayed and immediate loading. In the low-density cancellous bone models under immediate loading, the minimum principal strain in the peri-implant cortical bone decreased with an increase in crestal cortical bone thickness. Conclusions Cancellous bone density may be a critical factor for avoiding excessive micromotion in immediately loaded implants. Crestal cortical bone thickness significantly affected the maximum extent of micromotion and peri-implant bone strain in simulations of low-density cancellous bone under immediate loading. PMID:27382504

  12. Weibull Analysis of Fracture Test Data on Bovine Cortical Bone: Influence of Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Ekwaro-Osire, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The fracture toughness, KIC, of a cortical bone has been experimentally determined by several researchers. The variation of KIC values occurs from the variation of specimen orientation, shape, and size during the experiment. The fracture toughness of a cortical bone is governed by the severest flaw and, hence, may be analyzed using Weibull statistics. To the best of the authors' knowledge, however, no studies of this aspect have been published. The motivation of the study is the evaluation of Weibull parameters at the circumferential-longitudinal (CL) and longitudinal-circumferential (LC) directions. We hypothesized that Weibull parameters vary depending on the bone microstructure. In the present work, a two-parameter Weibull statistical model was applied to calculate the plane-strain fracture toughness of bovine femoral cortical bone obtained using specimens extracted from CL and LC directions of the bone. It was found that the Weibull modulus of fracture toughness was larger for CL specimens compared to LC specimens, but the opposite trend was seen for the characteristic fracture toughness. The reason for these trends is the microstructural and extrinsic toughening mechanism differences between CL and LC directions bone. The Weibull parameters found in this study can be applied to develop a damage-mechanics model for bone. PMID:24385985

  13. Weibull analysis of fracture test data on bovine cortical bone: influence of orientation.

    PubMed

    Khandaker, Morshed; Ekwaro-Osire, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The fracture toughness, K IC, of a cortical bone has been experimentally determined by several researchers. The variation of K IC values occurs from the variation of specimen orientation, shape, and size during the experiment. The fracture toughness of a cortical bone is governed by the severest flaw and, hence, may be analyzed using Weibull statistics. To the best of the authors' knowledge, however, no studies of this aspect have been published. The motivation of the study is the evaluation of Weibull parameters at the circumferential-longitudinal (CL) and longitudinal-circumferential (LC) directions. We hypothesized that Weibull parameters vary depending on the bone microstructure. In the present work, a two-parameter Weibull statistical model was applied to calculate the plane-strain fracture toughness of bovine femoral cortical bone obtained using specimens extracted from CL and LC directions of the bone. It was found that the Weibull modulus of fracture toughness was larger for CL specimens compared to LC specimens, but the opposite trend was seen for the characteristic fracture toughness. The reason for these trends is the microstructural and extrinsic toughening mechanism differences between CL and LC directions bone. The Weibull parameters found in this study can be applied to develop a damage-mechanics model for bone. PMID:24385985

  14. Optical phase analysis in drilled cortical porcine bones using digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavera R., César G.; De la Torre I., Manuel H.; Flores M., J. Mauricio; Luna H., Juan M.; Briones R., Manuel de J.; Mendoza S., Fernando

    2016-03-01

    A study in porcine femoral bones with and without the presence of cortical drilling is presented. An out of plane digital holographic interferometer is used to retrieve the optical phase during the controlled compression tests. These tests try to simulate physiological deformations in postmortem healthy bones and compare their mechanical response with those having a cortical hole. The cortical drilling technique is widely used in medical procedures to fix plaques and metallic frames to a bone recovering from a fracture. Several materials and drilling techniques are used for this purpose. In this work we analyze the superficial variations of the bone when different drilling diameters are used. By means of the optical phase it is possible to recover the superficial deformation of the tissue during a controlled deformation with high resolution. This information could give a better understand about the micro structural variations of the bone instead of a bulk response. As proof of principle, several tests were performed to register the modes and ranges of the displacements for compressive loads. From these tests notorious differences are observed between both groups of bones, having less structural stiffness the drilled ones as expected. However, the bone's characteristic to absorb and adjust itself due the load is also highly affected according to the number of holes. Results from different kind of samples (undrilled and drilled) are presented and discussed in this work.

  15. Micromechanical Modeling of R-Curve Behaviors in Human Cortical Bone

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwai S.; Nicolella, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of bone fracture increases with age because of a variety of factors that include, among others, decreasing bone quantity and quality due to increasing porosity and crack density with age. Experimental evidence has indicated that changes in bone microstructure and trace mineralization with age can result in different crack-tip strain field and fracture response, leading to different fracture mechanisms and R-curve behaviors. In this paper, a micromechanical modeling approach is developed to predict the R-curve response of bone tissue by delineating fracture mechanisms that lead to microdamage and ligament bridging by incorporating the influence of increasing porosity and crack density with age. The effects of age on fracture of human femur cortical bone due to porosity (bone quantity) and bone quality (crack density) with age are then examined via the micromechanical model. PMID:23158217

  16. Elastic Anisotropy of Trabecular Bone in the Elderly Human Vertebra.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, Ginu U; Gallagher, John A; Hussein, Amira I; Barest, Glenn D; Morgan, Elise F

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the nature of the elastic symmetry of trabecular bone is fundamental to the study of bone adaptation and failure. Previous studies have classified human vertebral trabecular bone as orthotropic or transversely isotropic but have typically obtained samples from only selected regions of the centrum. In this study, the elastic symmetry of human vertebral trabecular bone was characterized using microfinite element (μFE) analyses performed on 1019 cubic regions of side length equal to 5 mm, obtained via thorough sampling of the centrums of 18 human L1 vertebrae (age = 81.17 ± 7.7 yr; eight males and ten females). An optimization procedure was used to find the closest orthotropic representation of the resulting stiffness tensor for each cube. The orthotropic elastic constants and orientation of the principal elastic axes were then recorded for each cube and were compared to the constants predicted from Cowin's fabric-based constitutive model (Cowin, 1985, "The Relationship Between the Elasticity Tensor and the Fabric Tensor," Mech. Mater., 4(2), pp. 137-147.) and the orientation of the principal axes of the fabric tensor, respectively. Deviations from orthotropy were quantified by the "orthotropic error" (van Rietbergen et al., 1996, "Direct Mechanics Assessment of Elastic Symmetries and Properties of Trabecular Bone Architecture," J. Biomech., 29(12), pp. 1653-1657), and deviations from transverse isotropy were determined by statistical comparison of the secondary and tertiary elastic moduli. The orthotropic error was greater than 50% for nearly half of the cubes, and the secondary and tertiary moduli differed from one another (p < 0.0001). Both the orthotropic error and the difference between secondary and tertiary moduli decreased with increasing bone volume fraction (BV/TV; p ≤ 0.007). Considering only the cubes with an orthotropic error less than 50%, only moderate correlations were observed between the fabric-based and the

  17. Modeling deformation-induced fluid flow in cortical bone's canalicular-lacunar system.

    PubMed

    Gururaja, S; Kim, H J; Swan, C C; Brand, R A; Lakes, R S

    2005-01-01

    To explore the potential role that load-induced fluid flow plays as a mechano-transduction mechanism in bone adaptation, a lacunar-canalicular scale bone poroelasticity model is developed and implemented. The model uses micromechanics to homogenize the pericanalicular bone matrix, a system of straight circular cylinders in the bone matrix through which bone fluids can flow, as a locally anisotropic poroelastic medium. In this work, a simplified two-dimensional model of a periodic array of lacunae and their surrounding systems of canaliculi is used to quantify local fluid flow characteristics in the vicinity of a single lacuna. When the cortical bone model is loaded, microscale stress, and strain concentrations occur in the vicinity of individual lacunae and give rise to microscale spatial variations in the pore fluid pressure field. Furthermore, loading of the bone matrix containing canaliculi generates fluid pressures in the contained fluids. Consequently, loading of cortical bone induces fluid flow in the canaliculi and exchange of fluid between canaliculi and lacunae. For realistic bone morphology parameters, and a range of loading frequencies, fluid pressures and fluid-solid drag forces in the canalicular bone are computed and the associated energy dissipation in the models compared to that measured in physical in vitro experiments on human cortical bone. The proposed model indicates that deformation-induced fluid pressures in the lacunar-canalicular system have relaxation times on the order of milliseconds as opposed to the much shorter times (hundredths of milliseconds) associated with deformation-induced pressures in the Haversian system. PMID:15709702

  18. The effect of high voltage, high frequency pulsed electric field on slain ovine cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Asgarifar, Hajarossadat; Oloyede, Adekunle; Zare, Firuz

    2014-04-01

    High power, high frequency pulsed electric fields known as pulsed power (PP) has been applied recently in biology and medicine. However, little attention has been paid to investigate the application of pulse power in musculoskeletal system and its possible effect on functional behavior and biomechanical properties of bone tissue. This paper presents the first research investigating whether or not PP can be applied safely on bone tissue as a stimuli and what will be the possible effect of these signals on the characteristics of cortical bone by comparing the mechanical properties of this type of bone pre and post expose to PP and in comparison with the control samples. A positive buck-boost converter was applied to generate adjustable high voltage, high frequency pulses (up to 500 V and 10 kHz). The functional behavior of bone in response to pulse power excitation was elucidated by applying compressive loading until failure. The stiffness, failure stress (strength) and the total fracture energy (bone toughness) were determined as a measure of the main bone characteristics. Furthermore, an ultrasonic technique was applied to determine and comprise bone elasticity before and after pulse power stimulation. The elastic property of cortical bone samples appeared to remain unchanged following exposure to pulse power excitation for all three orthogonal directions obtained from ultrasonic technique and similarly from the compression test. Nevertheless, the compressive strength and toughness of bone samples were increased when they were exposed to 66 h of high power pulsed electromagnetic field compared to the control samples. As the toughness and the strength of the cortical bone tissue are directly associated with the quality and integrity of the collagen matrix whereas its stiffness is primarily related to bone mineral content these overall results may address that although, the pulse power stimulation can influence the arrangement or the quality of the collagen network

  19. Time responses of cancellous and cortical bones to sciatic neurectomy in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q Q; Jee, W S; Bigornia, A E; King, J G; D'Souza, S M; Li, X J; Ma, Y F; Wechter, W J

    1996-07-01

    Effects of unilateral sciatic neurectomy on the responses of both cancellous and cortical bones were studied in growing female rats at 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after operation. Using double-fluorescent labeling techniques, histomorphometric analyses were performed on longitudinal sections of proximal tibial metaphyseal secondary spongiosa (PTM) and on cross sections of tibial shaft (TX). In PTM, sciatic neurectomy not only inhibited the age-related bone gain, but also reduced the trabecular bone mass by 46%, which was accompanied by decreases in trabecular number, thickness, and node to node density, and an increase in trabecular separation and free end to free end density. The bone loss occurred mainly between 1 and 4 weeks after operation. A sharp increase in bone formation indices was observed during the first week after nerve section. However, these endpoints quickly dropped to levels lower than those of sham-operated controls at 4 weeks, and were not different from the control levels at 8 weeks after operation. Eroded surface increased progressively after sciatic neurectomy during the 12 weeks experimental period. In TX, sciatic neurectomy inhibited the age-related increase in total tissue area that maintained it at the basal control level. However, the cortical bone area in neurectomized legs was lower than that in sham-operated controls. Sciatic neurectomy also stimulated the bone formation indices on both periosteal and endocortical surfaces during the first week after operation. These endpoints declined sharply between 1 and 4 weeks and then maintained at control levels between 8 and 12 weeks post surgery. Endocortical eroded surface increased 1 week after neurectomy, reached the peak at 8 weeks, and then decreased thereafter. These findings suggest that (1) sciatic neurectomy not only inhibited age-related bone gain but also induced marked bone loss in cancellous bone site and inhibited age-related bone gain in cortical bone site, which mainly resulted

  20. The Effect of High Voltage, High Frequency Pulsed Electric Field on Slain Ovine Cortical Bone

    PubMed Central

    Asgarifar, Hajarossadat; Oloyede, Adekunle; Zare, Firuz

    2014-01-01

    High power, high frequency pulsed electric fields known as pulsed power (PP) has been applied recently in biology and medicine. However, little attention has been paid to investigate the application of pulse power in musculoskeletal system and its possible effect on functional behavior and biomechanical properties of bone tissue. This paper presents the first research investigating whether or not PP can be applied safely on bone tissue as a stimuli and what will be the possible effect of these signals on the characteristics of cortical bone by comparing the mechanical properties of this type of bone pre and post expose to PP and in comparison with the control samples. A positive buck-boost converter was applied to generate adjustable high voltage, high frequency pulses (up to 500 V and 10 kHz). The functional behavior of bone in response to pulse power excitation was elucidated by applying compressive loading until failure. The stiffness, failure stress (strength) and the total fracture energy (bone toughness) were determined as a measure of the main bone characteristics. Furthermore, an ultrasonic technique was applied to determine and comprise bone elasticity before and after pulse power stimulation. The elastic property of cortical bone samples appeared to remain unchanged following exposure to pulse power excitation for all three orthogonal directions obtained from ultrasonic technique and similarly from the compression test. Nevertheless, the compressive strength and toughness of bone samples were increased when they were exposed to 66 h of high power pulsed electromagnetic field compared to the control samples. As the toughness and the strength of the cortical bone tissue are directly associated with the quality and integrity of the collagen matrix whereas its stiffness is primarily related to bone mineral content these overall results may address that although, the pulse power stimulation can influence the arrangement or the quality of the collagen network

  1. Postnatal Changes in Humerus Cortical Bone Thickness Reflect the Development of Metabolic Bone Disease in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tokuriki, Shuko; Igarashi, Aiko; Okuno, Takashi; Ohta, Genrei; Kosaka, Takuya; Ohshima, Yusei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To use cortical bone thickness (CBT) of the humerus to identify risk factors for the development of metabolic bone disease in preterm infants. Methods. Twenty-seven infants born at <32 weeks of gestational age, with a birth weight of <1,500 g, were enrolled. Humeral CBT was measured from chest radiographs at birth and at 27-28, 31-32, and 36–44 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA). The risk factors for the development of osteomalacia were statistically analyzed. Results. The humeral CBT at 36–44 weeks of PMA was positively correlated with gestational age and birth weight and negatively correlated with the duration of mechanical ventilation. CBT increased with PMA, except in six very early preterm infants in whom it decreased. Based on logistic regression analysis, gestational age and duration of mechanical ventilation were identified as risk factors for cortical bone thinning. Conclusions. Humeral CBT may serve as a radiologic marker of metabolic bone disease at 36–44 weeks of PMA in preterm infants. Cortical bones of extremely preterm infants are fragile, even when age is corrected for term, and require extreme care to lower the risk of fractures. PMID:27194819

  2. Implant design and its effects on osseointegration over time within cortical and trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Bryan G; Danna, Natalie R; Granato, Rodrigo; Bonfante, Estevam A; Marin, Charles; Tovar, Nick; Suzuki, Marcelo; Coelho, Paulo G

    2016-08-01

    Healing chambers present at the interface between implant and bone have become a target for improving osseointegration. The objective of the present study was to compare osseointegration of several implant healing chamber configurations at early time points and regions of interest within bone using an in vivo animal femur model. Six implants, each with a different healing chamber configuration, were surgically implanted into each femur of six skeletally mature beagle dogs (n = 12 implants per dog, total n = 72). The implants were harvested at 3 and 5 weeks post-implantation, non-decalcified processed to slides, and underwent histomorphometry with measurement of bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupied (BAFO) within healing chambers at both cortical and trabecular bone sites. Microscopy demonstrated predominantly woven bone at 3 weeks and initial replacement of woven bone by lamellar bone by 5 weeks. BIC and BAFO were both significantly increased by 5 weeks (p < 0.001), and significantly higher in cortical than trabecular bone (p < 0.001). The trapezoidal healing chamber design demonstrated a higher BIC than other configurations. Overall, a strong temporal and region-specific dependence of implant osseointegration in femurs was noted. Moreover, the findings suggest that a trapezoidal healing chamber configuration may facilitate the best osseointegration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1091-1097, 2016. PMID:26034012

  3. Prostaglandin E2 Increased Rat Cortical Bone Mass When Administered Immediately Following Ovariectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Jee, Webster S.S.; Zeng, Qing Qiang; Li, Mei; Lin, Bai Yun

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effects of ovariectomy and the simultaneous administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on rat tibial shaft cortical bone histomorphometry, thirty-five 3 month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were either ovariectomized (OVX), or sham ovariectomy (sham-OVX). The OVX rats were divided into three groups and treated with 0, 1 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day for 90 days. The double fluorescent labeled undecalcified tibial shaft cross sections (proximal to the tibiofibular junction) of all the subjects were used for histomorphometry analysis. No differences in cross-sectional area and cortical bone area were found between sham-OVX and OVX controls, but OVX increased marrow area, intracortical porosity area and endocortical eroded perimeter. Periosteal and endocortical bone formation rates decreased with aging yet OVX prevented these changes. These OVX-induced increases in marrow area and endocortical eroded perimeter were prevented by 1 mg PGE2/kg/day treatment and added bone to periosteal and endocortical surfaces and to the marrow cavity. At the 6 mg/kg/day dose level, PGE2-treated OVX rats increased total tissue area, cortical bone area, marrow trabmular bone area, minimal cortical width and intracortical porosity area, and decreased marrow area compared to basal, sham-OVX and OVX controls. In addition, periosteal bone formation was elevated in the 6 mg PGE2/kg/day-treated OVX rats compared to OVX controls. Endocortical eroded perimeter increased from basal and sham-OVX control levels, but decreased from OVX control levels in the 6 mg PGE2/kg/day-treated OVX rats. Our study confirmed that ovariectomy does not cause osteopenia in tibial shaft cortical bone in rats, but it does stimulate endocortical bone resorption and enlarges marrow area. The new findings from the present study demonstrate that PGE2 prevents the OVX-induced increases in endocortical bone resorption and marrow area and adds additional bone to periosteal and endocortical surfaces and to marrow

  4. Anisotropic properties of human cortical bone with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Katti, Kalpana S; Gu, Chunju; Katti, Dinesh R

    2016-02-01

    The heterogeneity of bone shape and size variation is modulated by genetic, mechanical, nutritional, and hormonal patterning throughout its lifetime. Microstructural changes across cross sections are a result of mechanistic optimization that results over the years of evolution while being based on universal, time-invariant ingredients and patterns. Here we report changes across anatomical sections of bone with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) that undermines the work of evolution through genetic mutation. This work examines the microstructure and molecular composition of different anatomical positions (anterior, medial, posterior, and lateral regions) in the diaphysis of an OI human tibia. The study shows that although there is no significant microstructural difference, molecular changes are observed using FTIR revealing differences in molecular composition of the four anatomical positions. In addition, the nanomechanical properties of anterior section of OI bone seem more heterogeneous. The nanomechanical properties of interstitial lamellae in all these bone samples are consistently greater than those of osteonal lamellae. The nanomechanical properties of bone depend on its anatomical section and on the measurement direction as well. Variations in molecular structure with anatomical positions and also corresponding differences in nanomechanical properties are reported. These are compared to those observed typically in healthy bone illustrating the unique influence of OI on bone multiscale behavior which results from an evolutionary process lasting for many years. PMID:26399513

  5. Effect of ibandronate on bending strength and toughness of rodent cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Savaridas, T.; Wallace, R. J.; Dawson, S.; Simpson, A. H. R. W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There remains conflicting evidence regarding cortical bone strength following bisphosphonate therapy. As part of a study to assess the effects of bisphosphonate treatment on the healing of rat tibial fractures, the mechanical properties and radiological density of the uninjured contralateral tibia was assessed. Methods Skeletally mature aged rats were used. A total of 14 rats received 1µg/kg ibandronate (iban) daily and 17 rats received 1 ml 0.9% sodium chloride (control) daily. Stress at failure and toughness of the tibial diaphysis were calculated following four-point bending tests. Results Uninjured cortical bone in the iban group had a significantly greater mean (standard deviation (sd)), p < 0.001, stress at failure of 219.2 MPa (sd 45.99) compared with the control group (169.46 MPa (sd 43.32)) following only nine weeks of therapy. Despite this, the cortical bone toughness and work to failure was similar. There was no significant difference in radiological density or physical dimensions of the cortical bone. Conclusions Iban therapy increases the stress at failure of uninjured cortical bone. This has relevance when normalising the strength of repair in a limb when comparing it with the unfractured limb. However, the 20% increase in stress at failure with iban therapy needs to be interpreted with caution as there was no corresponding increase in toughness or work to failure. Further research is required in this area, especially with the increasing clinical burden of low-energy diaphyseal femoral fractures following prolonged use of bisphosphonates. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:99–104 PMID:26062566

  6. Increased Resistance during Jump Exercise Does Not Enhance Cortical Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Boudreaux, Ramon D.; Swift, Joshua M.; Gasier, Heath G.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Hogan, Harry A.; Fluckey, James D.; Bloomfield, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study sought to elucidate the effects of a low- and high-load jump resistance exercise (RE) training protocol on cortical bone of the tibia and femur mid-diaphyses. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 6-mos-old) were randomly assigned to high-load RE (HRE; n = 16), low-load RE (LRE; n = 15) or cage control (CC; n = 11) groups. Animals in the HRE and LRE groups performed 15 sessions of jump RE for 5 weeks. Load in the HRE group was progressively increased from 80g added to a weighted vest (50 repetitions) to 410g (16 repetitions). The LRE rats completed the same protocol as the HRE group (same number of repetitions) with only a 30g vest applied. RESULTS Low- and high-load jump RE resulted in 6–11% higher cortical bone mineral content (BMC) and cortical bone area compared to controls as determined by in vivo pQCT measurements. In the femur, however, only LRE demonstrated improvements in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD; +11%) and cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI; +20%) versus CC group. Three-point bending to failure revealed a marked increase in tibial max force (25–29%), stiffness (19–22%), and energy to max force (35–55%), and a reduction in elastic modulus (−11–14%) in both LRE and HRE compared to controls. Dynamic histomorphometry assessed at the tibia mid-diaphysis determined that both LRE and HRE resulted in 20–30% higher periosteal mineralizing surface versus CC group. Mineral apposition rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR) were significantly greater in LRE animals (27%, 39%) than in the HRE group. CONCLUSION These data demonstrate that jump training with minimal loading is equally, and sometimes more, effective at augmenting cortical bone integrity compared to overload training in skeletally mature rats. PMID:24743108

  7. Ultrashort pulse laser interactions with cortical bone tissue for applications in orthopaedic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashforth, Simon A.; Simpson, M. C.; Bodley, Owen; Oosterbeek, Reece

    2015-03-01

    Using a femtosecond pulsed laser system (pulse width = 100fs, repetition rate = 1kHz, λ = 800nm), ablation threshold studies of freshly culled bovine and ovine cortical bone samples were identified using the diameter regression technique. Using the D2 technique, the ablation threshold was found to lie within a range of 0.83 - 0.96 Jcm-2 and 0.89 - 0.95 Jcm-2 for ovine and bovine cortical bone respectively indicating that laser ablation of bone is irrespective of target species. The relationship between cortical bone tissue removal and the number of applied pulses was explored. By altering the laser spot translation rate, we varied the number of pulses at each point along scribed linear cuts. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and PDMS casting indicates that cut depth is linearly dependent on the number of pulses applied to the tissue, irrespective of donor species. For single pulse ablation of ovine and bovine cortical bone, we determined that the ablation rates were 0.41 - 0.75 μm per pulse and 0.28 - 0.90 μm per pulse when pulses of fluences in the range 0.52 - 2.63 Jcm-2 were applied to ovine and bovine cortical bone tissue, respectively. Structural analysis of the ablation features using environmental scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy were utilized to assess the ablation features and identify signs of damage to surrounding tissue. We observed no structural indications of thermal shockwave cracking, molten debris deposition or charring of the tissue whilst leaving hydroxyapatite crystal structure intact.

  8. Experimental and numerical analysis of Izod impact test of cortical bone tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Wahab, A. A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2012-05-01

    Bones can only sustain loads until a certain limit, beyond which they fail. Usually, the reasons for bone fracture are traumatic falls, sports injuries, and engagement in transport or industrial accidents. A proper treatment of bones and prevention of their fracture can be supported by in-depth understanding of deformation and fracture behavior of this tissue in such dynamic events. In this paper, a combination of experimental and numerical analysis was carried out in order to comprehend the fracture behavior of cortical bone tissue. Experimental tests were performed to study the transient dynamic behavior of cortical bone tissue under impact bending loading. The variability of absorbed energy for different cortex positions and notch depths was studied using Izod impact tests. Also, Extended Finite-Element Method implemented into the commercial finite-element software Abaqus was used to simulate the crack initiation and growth processes in a cantilever beam of cortical bone exposed to impact loading using the Izod loading scheme. The simulation results show a good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Histometric analyses of cancellous and cortical interface in autogenous bone grafting

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Henrique Duque; Olate, Sergio; Klüppel, Leandro; do Carmo, Antonio Marcio Resende; Vásquez, Bélgica; Albergaria-Barbosa, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Surgical procedures involving the rehabilitation of the maxillofacial region frequently require bone grafts; the aim of this research was to evaluate the interface between recipient and graft with cortical or cancellous contact. 6 adult beagle dogs with 15 kg weight were included in the study. Under general anesthesia, an 8 mm diameter block was obtained from parietal bone of each animal and was put on the frontal bone with a 12 mm 1.5 screws. Was used the lag screw technique from better contact between the recipient and graft. 3-week and 6-week euthanized period were chosen for histometric evaluation. Hematoxylin-eosin was used in a histologic routine technique and histomorphometry was realized with IMAGEJ software. T test was used for data analyses with p<0.05 for statistical significance. The result show some differences in descriptive histology but non statistical differences in the interface between cortical or cancellous bone at 3 or 6 week; as natural, after 6 week of surgery, bone integration was better and statistically superior to 3-week analyses. We conclude that integration of cortical or cancellous bone can be usefully without differences. PMID:23923071

  10. How Tough is Human Cortical Bone? In-Situ Measurements on Realistically Short Cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, Robert O; Koester, K. J.; Ager III, J. W.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2008-05-10

    Bone is more difficult to break than to split. Although this is well known, and many studies exist on the behavior of long cracks in bone, there is a need for data on the orientation-dependent crack-growth resistance behavior of human cortical bone which accurately assesses its toughness at appropriate size-scales. Here we use in-situ mechanical testing in the scanning electron microscope and x-ray computed tomography to examine how physiologically-pertinent short (<600 mu m) cracks propagate in both the transverse and longitudinal orientations in cortical bone, using both crack-deflection/twist mechanics and nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics to determine crack-resistance curves. We find that after only 500 mu m of cracking, the driving force for crack propagation was more than five times higher in the transverse (breaking) direction than in the longitudinal (splitting) direction due to major crack deflections/twists principally at cement sheathes. Indeed, our results show that the true transverse toughness of cortical bone is far higher than previously reported. However, the toughness in the longitudinal orientation, where cracks tend to follow the cement lines, is quite low at these small crack sizes; it is only when cracks become several millimeters in length that bridging mechanisms can develop leading to the (larger-crack) toughnesses generally quoted for bone.

  11. Estrogen receptor-α signaling in osteoblast progenitors stimulates cortical bone accrual

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Maria; Iyer, Srividhya; Martin-Millan, Marta; Bartell, Shoshana M.; Han, Li; Ambrogini, Elena; Onal, Melda; Xiong, Jinhu; Weinstein, Robert S.; Jilka, Robert L.; O’Brien, Charles A.; Manolagas, Stavros C.

    2012-01-01

    The detection of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in osteoblasts and osteoclasts over 20 years ago suggested that direct effects of estrogens on both of these cell types are responsible for their beneficial effects on the skeleton, but the role of ERα in osteoblast lineage cells has remained elusive. In addition, estrogen activation of ERα in osteoclasts can only account for the protective effect of estrogens on the cancellous, but not the cortical, bone compartment that represents 80% of the entire skeleton. Here, we deleted ERα at different stages of differentiation in murine osteoblast lineage cells. We found that ERα in osteoblast progenitors expressing Osterix1 (Osx1) potentiates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, thereby increasing proliferation and differentiation of periosteal cells. Further, this signaling pathway was required for optimal cortical bone accrual at the periosteum in mice. Notably, this function did not require estrogens. The osteoblast progenitor ERα mediated a protective effect of estrogens against endocortical, but not cancellous, bone resorption. ERα in mature osteoblasts or osteocytes did not influence cancellous or cortical bone mass. Hence, the ERα in both osteoblast progenitors and osteoclasts functions to optimize bone mass but at distinct bone compartments and in response to different cues. PMID:23221342

  12. Can cone beam CT predict the hardness of interradicular cortical bone?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Orthodontic mini implants can be inserted at the interradicular site. The bone quality at this site may affect the stability and anchorage of the implant. Bone density is clinically evaluated by Hounsfield units (HU) obtained from cone beam CT (CBCT). The objective of this study was to determine the correlations between HU, microhardness and cortical bone thickness of interradicular site at various segments (anterior/posterior) and aspects (buccal/lingual) of both jaws in a swine model. Materials and methods Eight mandible and maxilla swine bones were scanned by CBCT. The HU and thickness of the above-mentioned sites were determined. Then, a Knoop microhardness test was applied and the Knoop Hardness Number was obtained (KHN). Results The mandible parameters spread over a wider range than the maxilla. The buccal aspect of the maxilla had higher HU and KHN values than the mandible. The lingual aspect of the mandible had higher KHN values than the maxilla. Posterior segments had higher HU and KHN values. The thickness of the alveolar cortical bone was greater in the maxilla than in the mandible. Correlations were found between HU and KHN for 3 of the 4 sites (anterior or posterior, buccal or lingual) of the mandible only. No correlations were found for the maxilla. Upon pooling the HU and KHN data for the whole jaw, correlation was found for the maxilla as well. Conclusions Relying on HU values as a predictor of cortical bone hardness should be considered with caution. PMID:24735746

  13. Histological analysis of the alterations on cortical bone channels network after radiotherapy: A rabbit study.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Gustavo Davi; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Dechichi, Paula

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy in cortical bone channels network. Fourteen rabbits were divided in two groups and test group received single dose of 15 Gy cobalt-60 radiation in tibia, bilaterally. The animals were sacrificed and a segment of tibia was removed and histologically processed. Histological images were taken and had their bone channels segmented and called regions of interest (ROI). Images were analyzed through developed algorithms using the SCILAB mathematical environment, getting percentage of bone matrix, ROI areas, ROI perimeters, their standard deviations and Lacunarity. The osteocytes and empty lacunae were also counted. Data were evaluated using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann Whitney, and Student's t test (P < 0.05). Significant differences in bone matrix percentage, area and perimeters of the channels, their respective standard deviations and lacunarity were found between groups. In conclusion, the radiotherapy causes reduction of bone matrix and modifies the morphology of bone channels network. PMID:20169617

  14. The effects of immobilization on cortical bone in monkeys (M. nemestrina)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niklowitz, W. J.; Bunch, T. E.; Young, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Rhesus and pigtail monkeys were restrained for up to seven months in a hypogravic-hypodynamic environment for the purpose of studying the osteoporotic process and its reversibility, particularly in relation to humans. In vivo bending, radiography and tomography are among the techniques that were used. Bone deterioration within one month was detectable only in histological preparation, where resorption and subsequent cavity formation were demonstrated in addition to demineralization of the remaining hard tissue. Norland bone mineral analysis showed the greatest bone demineralization in the proximal tibia (23 percent to 31 percent after six months restraint), recovery did not even necessarily occur after 15 months. The largest bone stiffness decrease was 36 to 40 percent after a six months restraint; normal bending properties but not mineral content were restored after 8-1/2 months. Contrary to earlier studies, it is concluded that bone recovery, though a lengthy process, is possible: cortical bone in the tibia required 40 months.

  15. Hopkinson bar techniques for the intermediate strain rate testing of bovine cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Cloete, T. J.; Paul, G.; Ismail, E. B.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the dynamic viscoelastic properties of bone is required to understand the mechanisms of macroscopic bone fracture in humans, and other terrestrial mammals, during impact loading events (e.g. falls, vehicle accidents, etc.). While the dynamic response of bone has been studied for several decades, high-quality data remain limited, and it is only within the last decade that techniques for conducting dynamic compression tests on bone at near-constant strain rates have been developed. Furthermore, there appears to be a lack of published bone data in the intermediate strain rate (ISR) range (i.e. 1–100 s−1), which represents a regime in which many dynamic bone fractures occur. In this paper, preliminary results for the dynamic compression of bovine cortical bone in the ISR regime are presented. The results are obtained using two Hopkinson-bar-related techniques, namely the conventional split Hopkinson bar arrangement incorporating a novel cone-in-tube striker design, and the recently developed wedge bar apparatus. The experimental results show a rapid transition in the strain rate sensitive behaviour of bovine cortical bone in the ISR range. Finally, a new viscoelastic model is proposed that captures the observed transition behaviour. PMID:24711493

  16. Progressive post-yield behavior of human cortical bone in shear

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xuanliang N.; Luo, Qing; Wang, Xiaodu

    2012-01-01

    Bone fragility depends on its post-yield behavior since most of energy dissipation in bone occurs during the post-yield deformation. Previous studies have investigated the progressive changes in the post-yield behavior of human cortical bone in tension and compression using a novel progressive loading scheme. However, little is known regarding the progressive changes in the post-yield behavior of bone in shear. The objective of this short study was to address this issue by testing bone specimens in an inclined double notch shear configuration using the progressive loading protocol. The results of this study indicated that the shear modulus of bone decreased with respect to the applied strain, and the rate of degradation was about 50% less than those previously observed in compression and tension tests. In addition, a quasi-linear relationship between the plastic and applied strains was observed in shear mode, which is similar to those previously reported in tension and compression tests. However, the viscous responses of bone (i.e. relaxation time constants and stress magnitude) demonstrated slight differences in shear compared with those observed in tension and compression tests. Nonetheless, the results of this study suggest that the intrinsic mechanism of plastic deformation of human cortical bone may be independent of loading modes. PMID:23219946

  17. Ultrasonic wave velocity measurement in small polymeric and cortical bone specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohles, S. S.; Bowers, J. R.; Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R. Jr

    1997-01-01

    A system was refined for the determination of the bulk ultrasonic wave propagation velocity in small cortical bone specimens. Longitudinal and shear wave propagations were measured using ceramic, piezoelectric 20 and 5 MHz transducers, respectively. Results of the pulse transmission technique were refined via the measurement of the system delay time. The precision and accuracy of the system were quantified using small specimens of polyoxymethylene, polystyrene-butadiene, and high-density polyethylene. These polymeric materials had known acoustic properties, similarity of propagation velocities to cortical bone, and minimal sample inhomogeneity. Dependence of longitudinal and transverse specimen dimensions upon propagation times was quantified. To confirm the consistency of longitudinal wave propagation in small cortical bone specimens (< 1.0 mm), cut-down specimens were prepared from a normal rat femur. Finally, cortical samples were prepared from each of ten normal rat femora, and Young's moduli (Eii), shear moduli (Gij), and Poisson ratios (Vij) were measured. For all specimens (bone, polyoxymethylene, polystyrene-butadiene, and high-density polyethylene), strong linear correlations (R2 > 0.997) were maintained between propagation time and distance throughout the size ranges down to less than 0.4 mm. Results for polyoxymethylene, polystyrene-butadiene, and high-density polyethylene were accurate to within 5 percent of reported literature values. Measurement repeatability (precision) improved with an increase in the wave transmission distance (propagating dimension). No statistically significant effect due to the transverse dimension was detected.

  18. Anisotropic mode-dependent damage of cortical bone using the extended finite element method (XFEM).

    PubMed

    Feerick, Emer M; Liu, Xiangyi Cheryl; McGarry, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Anisotropic damage initiation criteria were developed for extended finite element method (XFEM) prediction of crack initiation and propagation in cortical bone. This anisotropic damage model was shown to accurately predict the dependence of crack propagation patterns and fracture toughness on mode mixity and on osteon orientations, as observed experimentally. Four initiation criteria were developed to define crack trajectories relative to osteon orientations and max principal stress for single and mixed mode fracture. Alternate failure strengths for tensile and compressive loading were defined to simulate the asymmetric failure of cortical bone. The dependence of cortical bone elasticity and failure properties on osteon orientation is analogous to the dependence of composite properties on fibre orientation. Hence, three of the criteria developed in the present study were based upon the Hashin damage criteria. The fourth criterion developed was defined in terms of the max principal stress. This criterion initiated off axis crack growth perpendicular to the direction of the max principal stress. The unique set of parameters calibrated accurately predicted; (i) the relationship between fracture energy and osteon alignment, (ii) the alternate crack patterns for both varying osteon orientations and loading angle. Application of the developed anisotropic damage models to cortical bone screw pullout highlights the potential application for orthopaedic device design evaluation. PMID:23455165

  19. USE OF CORTICAL STRUCTURAL HOMOLOGOUS BONE GRAFT IN FEMORAL RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Milton Valdomiro; Roos, Bruno Dutra; Giora, Taís Stedile Busin; Taglietti, Thiago Martins

    2015-01-01

    To perform a clinical and radiographic assessment of patients undergoing surgical treatment using a cortical structural homologous bone graft for femoral reconstruction following mechanical failure of total hip arthroplasty and periprosthetic fractures. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 27 patients who underwent surgical treatment for femoral reconstruction following mechanical failure of total hip arthroplasty (12 cases) and periprosthetic fractures (15 cases), using a cortical structural homologous bone graft and cemented implants, between June 1999 and February 2008. Of these, 21 fulfilled all the criteria required for this study. The patients underwent pre and postoperative clinical assessments using the Harris Hip Score. Preoperative, immediate postoperative and late postoperative radiographs were also evaluated, with comparisons of fracture consolidation, radiographic signs of graft consolidation, changes to the bone stock and femoral bone quality, and femoral alignment. Results: Nine patients (42.9%) underwent femoral reconstruction following mechanical failure of total hip arthroplasty and 12 cases (57.1%) underwent femoral reconstruction following periprosthetic fracture. Regarding the postoperative clinical classification, the results were considered satisfactory in 85.7% of the cases and unsatisfactory in 14.3%. Radiographic signs of graft consolidation were seen in all cases. There was an increase in bone stock in 90.5% of the hip reconstructions, as measured by the cortical index. Furthermore, the changes to femoral bone quality were considered good in 66.7% of the cases. Conclusion: The use of cortical structural homologous bone grafts for both femoral reconstructive surgery on total hip arthroplasty and periprosthetic fractures is a good treatment option for selected cases, enabling satisfactory clinical and radiographic results. PMID:27026955

  20. Physical activity when young provides lifelong benefits to cortical bone size and strength in men

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Stuart J.; Mantila Roosa, Sara M.; Kersh, Mariana E.; Hurd, Andrea L.; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Pandy, Marcus G.; Fuchs, Robyn K.

    2014-01-01

    The skeleton shows greatest plasticity to physical activity-related mechanical loads during youth but is more at risk for failure during aging. Do the skeletal benefits of physical activity during youth persist with aging? To address this question, we used a uniquely controlled cross-sectional study design in which we compared the throwing-to-nonthrowing arm differences in humeral diaphysis bone properties in professional baseball players at different stages of their careers (n = 103) with dominant-to-nondominant arm differences in controls (n = 94). Throwing-related physical activity introduced extreme loading to the humeral diaphysis and nearly doubled its strength. Once throwing activities ceased, the cortical bone mass, area, and thickness benefits of physical activity during youth were gradually lost because of greater medullary expansion and cortical trabecularization. However, half of the bone size (total cross-sectional area) and one-third of the bone strength (polar moment of inertia) benefits of throwing-related physical activity during youth were maintained lifelong. In players who continued throwing during aging, some cortical bone mass and more strength benefits of the physical activity during youth were maintained as a result of less medullary expansion and cortical trabecularization. These data indicate that the old adage of “use it or lose it” is not entirely applicable to the skeleton and that physical activity during youth should be encouraged for lifelong bone health, with the focus being optimization of bone size and strength rather than the current paradigm of increasing mass. The data also indicate that physical activity should be encouraged during aging to reduce skeletal structural decay. PMID:24706816

  1. Biomechanical properties of canine cortical bone allografts: effects of preparation and storage.

    PubMed

    Roe, S C; Pijanowski, G J; Johnson, A L

    1988-06-01

    The effects of various preparation and storage procedures and of different storage times on structural properties of canine cortical bone allografts were determined by evaluation of the compressive load to failure of a whole diaphyseal segment, the ability of a screw to resist being pulled from a cortical segment, and the torque required to strip the threads of a screw hole in a cortical segment. Preparation and storage procedures evaluated were sterile collection and storage at -20 C; ethylene oxide sterilization and storage at room temperature (22 C); chemical sterilization (methanol and chloroform, then iodoacetic acid) and storage at -20 C; and chemical sterilization, partial decalcification, and storage at -20 C. Storage times were 1, 16, and 32 weeks for each procedure. After 1 week of storage, aseptically collected frozen bone and ethylene oxide-sterilized bone had an increase, compared with matched controls, in load to failure in compression, but pullout load or screw-stripping torque did not change. Chemically sterilized bone had not changed after 1 week of storage, whereas chemically sterilized and partially decalcified bone had a 40% to 60% decrease in compressive load to failure, pullout load, and screw-stripping torque. Chemically sterilized and partially decalcified bone remained weak after 16 and 32 weeks of storage. Significant structural alterations were not detected in aseptically collected bone after 16 or 32 weeks of storage. Ethylene oxide-sterilized bone had a reduced pullout load after 32 weeks of storage. Chemically sterilized bone had significantly reduced compressive load to failure and pullout load after 16 and 32 weeks of storage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3041883

  2. GBR and autogenous cortical bone particulate by bone scraper for alveolar ridge augmentation: a 2-case report.

    PubMed

    Trombelli, Leonardo; Farina, Roberto; Marzola, Andrea; Itro, Angelo; Calura, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Scientific literature describes autogenous bone as the gold standard among graft materials for alveolar reconstructive procedures. Alveolar ridge augmentation has been clinically achieved with different forms of autogenous bone, including autogenous cortical bone particulate (ACBP). However, few histologic studies demonstrating the biologic potential and healing dynamics following the use of ACBP are currently available. This case report presents 2 patients in whom atrophic edentulous alveolar crests were submitted to a vertical/lateral ridge augmentation prior to implant placement. The technique was performed through the use of a titanium-reinforced expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membrane with an ACBP graft obtained from the retromolar region with a specially designed bone scraper. Bone biopsy specimens were harvested at 9 months after graft placement. Analysis of the reconstructed bone revealed bone with a lamellar quality characterized by a mature osteonic structure. Sparse particles of grafted bone were evident in direct contact with the regenerated bone. Marrow spaces showed a normal stromal component with limited grafted particles. PMID:18416419

  3. PTHrP regulates the modeling of cortical bone surfaces at fibrous insertion sites during growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meina; VanHouten, Joshua N; Nasiri, Ali R; Johnson, Randy L; Broadus, Arthur E

    2013-03-01

    The sites that receive ligament and tendon insertions (entheses) on the cortical surfaces of long bones are poorly understood, particularly regarding modeling and regulation. Entheses are classified as either fibrocartilaginous or fibrous based on their structures. Fibrous entheses typically insert into the metaphysis or diaphysis of a long bone, bear a periosteal component, and are modeled during long-bone growth. This modeling forms a root system by which the insertions attach to the cortical surface. In the case of the medial collateral ligament, modeling drives actual migration of the ligament along the cortical surface in order to accommodate linear growth, whereas in other sites modeling may excavate a deep cortical root system (eg, the teres major insertion) or a shallow root system with a large footprint (eg, the latissimus dorsi insertion). We report here that conditionally deleting parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in fibrous entheses via Scleraxis-Cre targeting causes modeling to fail in these three iterations of osteoclast-driven enthesis excavation or migration. These iterations appear to represent formes frustes of a common modeling strategy, presumably differing from each other as a consequence of differences in biomechanical control. In sites in which PTHrP is not induced, either physiologically or because of conditional deletion, modeling does not take place and fibrocartilage is induced. These findings represent the initial genetic evidence that PTHrP regulates periosteal/intramembranous bone cell activity on cortical bone surfaces and indicate that PTHrP serves as a load-induced modeling tool in fibrous insertion sites during linear growth. PMID:23109045

  4. Trabecular bone anisotropy and orientation in an Early Pleistocene hominin talus from East Turkana, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Su, Anne; Wallace, Ian J; Nakatsukasa, Masato

    2013-06-01

    Among the structural properties of trabecular bone, the degree of anisotropy is most often found to separate taxa with different habitual locomotor modes. This study examined the degree of anisotropy, the elongation, and primary orientation of trabecular bone in the KNM-ER 1464 Early Pleistocene hominin talus as compared with extant hominoid taxa. Modern human tali were found to have a pattern of relatively anisotropic and elongated trabeculae on the lateral aspect, which was not found in Pan, Gorilla, Pongo, or KNM-ER 1464. Trabecular anisotropy in the fossil talus most closely resembled that of the African apes except for a region of high anisotropy in the posteromedial talus. The primary orientation of trabeculae in the anteromedial region of KNM-ER 1464 was strikingly different from that of the great apes and very similar to that of modern humans in being directed parallel to the talar neck. These results suggest that, relative to that of modern humans, the anteromedial region of the KNM-ER 1464 talus may have transmitted body weight to the midfoot in a similar manner while the lateral aspect may have been subjected to more variable loading conditions. PMID:23601236

  5. Collagen and mineral deposition in rabbit cortical bone during maturation and growth: effects on tissue properties.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Hanna; Harjula, Terhi; Koistinen, Arto; Iivarinen, Jarkko; Seppänen, Kari; Arokoski, Jari P A; Brama, Pieter A; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Helminen, Heikki J

    2010-12-01

    We characterized the composition and mechanical properties of cortical bone during maturation and growth and in adult life in the rabbit. We hypothesized that the collagen network develops earlier than the mineralized matrix. Growth was monitored, and the rabbits were euthanized at birth (newborn), and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 18 months of age. The collagen network was assessed biochemically (collagen content, enzymatic and non-enzymatic cross-links) in specimens from the mid-diaphysis of the tibia and femur and biomechanically (tensile testing) from decalcified whole tibia specimens. The mineralized matrix was analyzed using pQCT and 3-point bend tests from intact femur specimens. The collagen content and the Young's modulus of the collagen matrix increased significantly until the rabbits were 3 months old, and thereafter remained stable. The amount of HP and LP collagen cross-links increased continuously from newborn to 18 months of age, whereas PEN cross-links increased after 6 months of age. Bone mineral density and the Young's modulus of the mineralized bone increased until the rabbits were at least 6 months old. We concluded that substantial changes take place during the normal process of development in both the biochemical and biomechanical properties of rabbit cortical bone. In cortical bone, the collagen network reaches its mature composition and mechanical strength prior to the mineralized matrix. PMID:20540098

  6. In situ observation of fracture behavior of canine cortical bone under bending.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zilan X; Xu, Zhi-Hui; An, Yuehuei H; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    Cortical bone provides many important body functions and maintains the rigidness and elasticity of bone. A common failure mode for bone structure is fracture under a bending force. In the current study, the fracture behavior of canine cortical bone under three-point bending was observed in situ using an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an optical microscope to examine the fracture process in detail. Nanoindentation was carried out to determine the elastic modulus and hardness of different building blocks of the canine cortical bone. The results have shown that the special structure of Haversian systems has significant effects on directing crack propagation. Although Haversian systems contain previously believed weak points, and micro-cracks initiate within Haversian systems, our findings have demonstrated that macro-cracks typically form around the boundaries of Haversian systems, i.e. the cement lines. Micro-cracks that developed inside Haversian systems have the functions of absorbing and dissipating energy and slow down on expanding when interstitial tissue cannot hold any more pressure, then plastic deformation and fracture occur. PMID:26952434

  7. Influence of strain rate on the mechanical behaviour in tension of bovine cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latella, C.; Dotta, M.; Forni, D.; Tesio, N.; Cadoni, E.

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical behaviour of bones when subjected to tension loading in a wide range of strain-rates is fundamental to develop protection systems. The paper presents the preliminary tests on the tensile behaviour of bovine cortical bone at medium and high strain rates. Two special apparatus, both installed at the DynaMat Laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland, a Hydro-Pneumatic Machine and a Modified Hopkinson Bar respectively for medium and high strain-rate tests have been used. Flat shape specimens (having 10 mm of gauge length, 5 mm width and 3 mm thickness) have been obtained from 15 bovine femurs with the same age. The paper describes the preparation techniques of the samples and the experimental results obtained. The bovine cortical bone shown a quite important strain rate dependency.

  8. Quantitative medical imaging: Initial studies of noncontact ultrasound applied to cortical bone phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halcrow, Peter William

    The purpose of this study was to take the initial steps towards applying Noncontact Ultrasound (NCU) to the in vivo monitoring of osteoporosis and to skeletal quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUS) using cortical bone phantoms. This project sought additional applications of NCU beyond its past limited usage in assessing third-degree burns. With this noncontact ultrasound imaging system, noncontact transducers and cortical bone phantoms with known bone mineral density (BMD) were used to determine speed of sound (SOS), integrated acoustical response (IR), and ultrasonic transmittance. Air gaps greater than 3 cm, two transmission and two reflection paths, and a digital signal processor were used to collect data. Significant correlations between BMD and measured SOS, IR, and transmittance were obtained. These NCU results were shown to be in agreement with results from contact ultrasound within 1-2%, which suggests that NCU might find additional applications in a clinical setting in the future in medical imaging.

  9. Machining characteristics of the haversian and plexiform components of bovine cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Conward, Michael; Samuel, Johnson

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the characteristic differences observed while machining the haversian and plexiform components of a bovine cortical femoral bone. To this end micro-milling slotting experiments are performed on both the components by varying both the cutting velocity and the feed-per-tooth values. The scale of machining is chosen specifically to ensure sensitivity to the microstructural variations in the bone. The material properties of the microstructural components and their size-scale relative to the feed-per-tooth values are seen to dictate the failure mechanisms encountered during machining. The cutting force, surface roughness, and tool wear are all uniquely affected by the plexiform and haversian components of the cortical bone. In general, plexiform bone requires a higher cutting force than the haversian bone. While a higher cutting velocity can lower the surface roughness of haversian bone, it typically results in the most surface damage. The cutting force and surface roughness values for both the components show strain rate sensitivity. The tool wear is seen to be the highest while cutting parallel to the lamellar structures seen in the plexiform bone. PMID:27041629

  10. Trabecular and cortical bone deficits are present in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Andrea; Schall, Joan; Stallings, Virginia A; Zemel, Babette S

    2016-09-01

    Osteopenia and increased fracture rates are well-recognized in adults with CF, but neither the specific contributions of cortical and trabecular bone deficits to bone fragility nor their presence in youth with CF are well-characterized. This study sought to characterize cortical and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and biomechanical competence in children with CF and determine their relationship to growth, body composition, and disease severity. Peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) measures of total, cortical, and trabecular vBMD, cortical, muscle, and fat cross-sectional areas (CSA), periosteal and endosteal circumferences, and the polar unweighted section modulus (Zp) of the tibia were converted to age- and tibial length-adjusted Z-scores in 97 CF and 199 healthy children (aged 8-21y). Effects of body composition and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1s, FEV1) upon pQCT outcomes were determined using linear regression. Children with CF (FEV1%-predicted: 84.4+19.7) had lower weight-, height-, BMI-, and whole body lean mass (LBM)-Z and tibial length. Females with CF had lower (p<0.01) total and trabecular vBMD; cortical, muscle, and fat CSA; Zp and periosteal circumference than females in the healthy reference group. These bone differences persisted after adjustment for BMI-Z and to a great extent following adjustment for muscle CSA. Males with CF had lower (p<0.01) cortical, muscle, and fat CSA and their trabecular vBMD deficit approached significance (p=0.069). Deficits were attenuated by adjustment for BMI-Z and to a greater extent adjustment for muscle CSA-Z. The relationship between FEV1%-predicted and pQCT outcomes persisted only in males following adjustment for age and BMI-Z. The CF cohort had lower tibial muscle CSA than expected for their LBM. In this relatively healthy, young CF cohort, deficits in trabecular and multiple cortical bone parameters were present. In females, deficits were greater

  11. Time Related Changes of Mineral and Collagen and Their Roles in Cortical Bone Mechanics of Ovariectomized Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Wu, Zi-Xiang; Zhang, Yang; Feng, Ya-Fei; Yan, Ya-Bo; Lei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    As cortical bone has a hierarchical structure, the macroscopic bone strength may be affected by the alterations of mineral crystal and collagen, which are main components of cortical bone. Limited studies focused on the time related alterations of these two components in osteoporosis, and their contributions to bone mechanics at tissue level and whole-bone level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the time related changes of mineral and collagen in cortical bone of ovariectomized (OVX) rabbits, and to relate these changes to cortical bone nanomechanics and macromechanics. 40 Rabbits (7-month-old) were randomly allocated into two groups (OVX and sham). OVX group received bilateral ovariectomy operation. Sham group received sham-OVX operation. Cortical bone quality of five rabbits in each group were assessed by DXA, μCT, nanoindentation, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and biomechanical tests (3-point bending of femoral midshaft) at pre-OVX, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after OVX. As time increased from pre-OVX to 8 weeks, the mineral to matrix ratio decreased with time, while both collagen crosslink ratio and crystallinity increased with time in OVX group. Elastic modulus and hardness measured by nanoindentation, whole-bone strength measured by biomechanical tests all decreased in OVX group with time. Bone material properties measured by FTIR correlated well with nano or whole-bone level mechanics. However, bone mineral density (BMD), structure, tissue-level and whole-bone mechanical properties did not change with age in sham group. Our study demonstrated that OVX could affect the tissue-level mechanics and bone strength of cortical bone. And this influence was attributed to the time related alterations of mineral and collagen properties, which may help us to design earlier interventions and more effective treatment strategies on osteoporosis. PMID:26046792

  12. Suppression of Autophagy in Osteocytes Does Not Modify the Adverse Effects of Glucocorticoids on Cortical Bone

    PubMed Central

    Piemontese, Marilina; Onal, Melda; Xiong, Jinhu; Wang, Yiying; Almeida, Maria; Thostenson, Jeff D.; Weinstein, Robert S.; Manolagas, Stavros C.; O’Brien, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid excess decreases bone mass and strength in part by acting directly on osteoblasts and osteocytes, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Macroautophagy (herein referred to as autophagy) is a lysosome-based recycling pathway that promotes the turnover of intracellular components and can promote cell function and survival under stressful conditions. Recent studies have shown that glucocorticoids stimulate autophagy in osteocytes, suggesting that autophagy may oppose the negative actions of glucocorticoids on this cell type. To address this possibility, we compared the impact of prednisolone administration on the skeletons of adult mice in which autophagy was suppressed in osteocytes, via deletion of Atg7 with a Dmp1-Cre transgene, to their control littermates. In control mice, prednisolone increased autophagic flux in osteocyte-enriched bone as measured by LC3 conversion, but this change did not occur in the mice lacking Atg7 in osteocytes. Nonetheless, prednisolone reduced femoral cortical thickness, increased cortical porosity, and reduced bone strength to similar extents in mice with and without autophagy in osteocytes. Prednisolone also suppressed osteoblast number and bone formation in the cancellous bone of control mice. As shown previously, Atg7 deletion in osteocytes reduced osteoblast number and bone formation in cancellous bone, but these parameters were not further reduced by prednisolone administration. In cortical bone, prednisolone elevated osteoclast number to a similar extent in both genotypes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that although glucocorticoids stimulate autophagy in osteocytes, suppression of autophagy in this cell type does not worsen the negative impact of glucocorticoids on the skeleton. PMID:25700544

  13. A mathematical model of cortical bone remodeling at cellular level under mechanical stimulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qing-Hua; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2012-12-01

    A bone cell population dynamics model for cortical bone remodeling under mechanical stimulus is developed in this paper. The external experiments extracted from the literature which have not been used in the creation of the model are used to test the validity of the model. Not only can the model compare reasonably well with these experimental results such as the increase percentage of final values of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone fracture energy (BFE) among different loading schemes (which proves the validity of the model), but also predict the realtime development pattern of BMC and BFE, as well as the dynamics of osteoblasts (OBA), osteoclasts (OCA), nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) for each loading scheme, which can hardly be monitored through experiment. In conclusion, the model is the first of its kind that is able to provide an insight into the quantitative mechanism of bone remodeling at cellular level by which bone cells are activated by mechanical stimulus in order to start resorption/formation of bone mass. More importantly, this model has laid a solid foundation based on which future work such as systemic control theory analysis of bone remodeling under mechanical stimulus can be investigated. The to-be identified control mechanism will help to develop effective drugs and combined nonpharmacological therapies to combat bone loss pathologies. Also this deeper understanding of how mechanical forces quantitatively interact with skeletal tissue is essential for the generation of bone tissue for tissue replacement purposes in tissue engineering.

  14. Effect of vitamin K2 on cortical and cancellous bones in orchidectomized and/or sciatic neurectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Yeh, James K; Takeda, Tsuyoshi

    2003-04-01

    We examined the effect of vitamin K2 on cortical and cancellous bones in orchidectomized and/or sciatic neurectomized rats. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats, 3 months of age, were randomized by stratified weight method into nine groups with 10 rats in each group: baseline control (BLC), age-matched intact control (IN), IN+vitamin K2 administration (K), orchidectomy (ORX), ORX+K, unilateral sciatic neurectomy (NX), NX+K, ORX+NX (ONX), and ONX+K. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) was administered orally twice a week at a dose of 30 mg/kg each. After 10 weeks of feeding, the tibial shaft and proximal tibia were processed for cortical and cancellous bone histomorphometric analyses, respectively. An ORX-induced reduction in maturation-related cortical bone gain and ORX-induced cancellous bone loss were attributable to increased endocortical and trabecular bone turnover, respectively. NX- and ONX-induced reductions in maturation-related cortical bone gain were attributable to decreased periosteal bone formation and increased endocortical bone turnover, while NX- and ONX-induced cancellous bone loss was attributable to increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. ORX-induced cancellous bone loss was more pronounced when combined with immobilization. Vitamin K2 administration did not significantly alter any parameters in IN rats. Vitamin K2 administration in ORX rats suppressed endocortical bone resorption and trabecular bone turnover, retarding a reduction in maturation-related cortical bone gain and cancellous bone loss. This effect on cancellous bone loss was primarily because of prevention of a reduction of trabecular thickness. Vitamin K2 administration in NX and ONX rats suppressed bone resorption and stimulated bone formation (mineralization), with retardation of a reduction of trabecular thickness without any significant effect on cancellous bone mass, and suppressed endocortical bone resorption, retarding a reduction in maturation-related cortical bone gain

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow–derived counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Blashki, Daniel; Murphy, Matthew B; Ferrari, Mauro; Simmons, Paul J; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit–fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit–fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin−/CD45−/CD31−/VLA-1+/Thy-1+ enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone–derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone–derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies. PMID:27579159

  16. Spaceflight-relevant types of ionizing radiation and cortical bone: Potential LET effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Shane A. J.; Bandstra, Eric R.; Travis, Neil D.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Pecaut, Michael J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Willey, Jeffrey S.; Bateman, Ted A.

    2008-12-01

    Extended exposure to microgravity conditions results in significant bone loss. Coupled with radiation exposure, this phenomenon may place astronauts at a greater risk for mission-critical fractures. In a previous study, we identified a profound and prolonged loss of trabecular bone (29-39%) in mice following exposure to an acute, 2 Gy dose of radiation simulating both solar and cosmic sources. However, because skeletal strength depends on trabecular and cortical bone, accurate assessment of strength requires analysis of both bone compartments. The objective of the present study was to examine various properties of cortical bone in mice following exposure to multiple types of spaceflight-relevant radiation. Nine-week old, female C57BL/6 mice were sacrificed 110 days after exposure to a single, whole body, 2 Gy dose of gamma, proton, carbon, or iron radiation. Femora were evaluated with biomechanical testing, microcomputed tomography, quantitative histomorphometry, percent mineral content, and micro-hardness analysis. Compared to non-irradiated controls, there were significant differences compared to carbon or iron radiation for only fracture force, medullary area and mineral content. A greater differential effect based on linear energy transfer (LET) level may be present: high-LET (carbon or iron) particle irradiation was associated with a decline in structural properties (maximum force, fracture force, medullary area, and cortical porosity) and mineral composition compared to low-LET radiation (gamma and proton). Bone loss following irradiation appears to be largely specific to trabecular bone and may indicate unique biological microenvironments and microdosimetry conditions. However, the limited time points examined and non-haversian skeletal structure of the mice employed highlight the need for further investigation.

  17. Spaceflight-relevant types of ionizing radiation and cortical bone: Potential LET effect?

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Shane A J; Bandstra, Eric R; Travis, Neil D; Nelson, Gregory A; Bourland, J Daniel; Pecaut, Michael J; Gridley, Daila S; Willey, Jeffrey S; Bateman, Ted A

    2008-01-01

    Extended exposure to microgravity conditions results in significant bone loss. Coupled with radiation exposure, this phenomenon may place astronauts at a greater risk for mission-critical fractures. In a previous study, we identified a profound and prolonged loss of trabecular bone (29-39%) in mice following exposure to an acute, 2 Gy dose of radiation simulating both solar and cosmic sources. However, because skeletal strength depends on trabecular and cortical bone, accurate assessment of strength requires analysis of both bone compartments. The objective of the present study was to examine various properties of cortical bone in mice following exposure to multiple types of spaceflight-relevant radiation. Nine-week old, female C57BL/6 mice were sacrificed 110 days after exposure to a single, whole body, 2 Gy dose of gamma, proton, carbon, or iron radiation. Femora were evaluated with biomechanical testing, microcomputed tomography, quantitative histomorphometry, percent mineral content, and micro-hardness analysis. Compared to non-irradiated controls, there were significant differences compared to carbon or iron radiation for only fracture force, medullary area and mineral content. A greater differential effect based on linear energy transfer (LET) level may be present: high-LET (carbon or iron) particle irradiation was associated with a decline in structural properties (maximum force, fracture force, medullary area, and cortical porosity) and mineral composition compared to low-LET radiation (gamma and proton). Bone loss following irradiation appears to be largely specific to trabecular bone and may indicate unique biological microenvironments and microdosimetry conditions. However, the limited time points examined and non-haversian skeletal structure of the mice employed highlight the need for further investigation. PMID:19122806

  18. In vitro non-enzymatic ribation reduces post-yield strain accommodation in cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Willett, Thomas L; Sutty, Sibi; Gaspar, Anne; Avery, Nick; Grynpas, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation (NEG) and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) may contribute to bone fragility in various diseases, ageing, and other conditions by modifying bone collagen and causing degraded mechanical properties. In this study, we sought to further understand how collagen modification in an in vitro non-enzymatic ribation model leads to loss of cortical bone toughness. Previous in vitro studies using non-enzymatic ribation reported loss of ductility in the cortical bone. Increased crosslinking is most commonly blamed for these changes; however, some studies report positive correlations between measures of total collagen crosslinking and work-to-fracture/toughness measurements whilst correlations between general NEG and measures of ductility are often negative. Fifteen bone beam triplets were cut from bovine metatarsi. Each provided one native non-incubated control, one incubated control and one ribated specimen. Incubation involved simulated body fluid±ribose for fourteen days at 37°C. Pentosidine and pyridinoline crosslinks were measured using HPLC. Three-point bending tests quantified mechanical properties. Fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The effects of ribation on bone collagen molecular stability and intermolecular connectivity were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and hydrothermal isometric tension testing. Ribation caused increased non-enzymatic collagen modification and pentosidine content (16mmol/mol collagen) and inferior post-yield mechanical behaviour, especially post-yield strain and flexural toughness. Fracture surfaces were smoother with less collagen fibril deformation or tearing than observed in controls. In the ribated group only, pentosidine content and thermomechanical measures of crosslinking were positively correlated with measures of strain accommodation and energy absorption before failure. Non-enzymatic ribation and the resulting modifications reduce cortical bone pseudo

  19. Spaceflight-relevant types of ionizing radiation and cortical bone: Potential LET effect?

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Shane A.J.; Bandstra, Eric R.; Travis, Neil D.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Pecaut, Michael J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Willey, Jeffrey S.; Bateman, Ted A.

    2008-01-01

    Extended exposure to microgravity conditions results in significant bone loss. Coupled with radiation exposure, this phenomenon may place astronauts at a greater risk for mission-critical fractures. In a previous study, we identified a profound and prolonged loss of trabecular bone (29−39%) in mice following exposure to an acute, 2 Gy dose of radiation simulating both solar and cosmic sources. However, because skeletal strength depends on trabecular and cortical bone, accurate assessment of strength requires analysis of both bone compartments. The objective of the present study was to examine various properties of cortical bone in mice following exposure to multiple types of spaceflight-relevant radiation. Nine-week old, female C57BL/6 mice were sacrificed 110 days after exposure to a single, whole body, 2 Gy dose of gamma, proton, carbon, or iron radiation. Femora were evaluated with biomechanical testing, microcomputed tomography, quantitative histomorphometry, percent mineral content, and micro-hardness analysis. Compared to non-irradiated controls, there were significant differences compared to carbon or iron radiation for only fracture force, medullary area and mineral content. A greater differential effect based on linear energy transfer (LET) level may be present: high-LET (carbon or iron) particle irradiation was associated with a decline in structural properties (maximum force, fracture force, medullary area, and cortical porosity) and mineral composition compared to low-LET radiation (gamma and proton). Bone loss following irradiation appears to be largely specific to trabecular bone and may indicate unique biological microenvironments and microdosimetry conditions. However, the limited time points examined and non-haversian skeletal structure of the mice employed highlight the need for further investigation. PMID:19122806

  20. A morphometric and biomechanic comparison of titanium implants inserted in rabbit cortical and cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Sennerby, L; Thomsen, P; Ericson, L E

    1992-01-01

    The removal torques for screw-shaped pure titanium implants inserted in rabbit tibia and the femoral part of the knee joint and the tissue response to these implants, as quantitated with light microscopic morphometry on ground sections, were compared after 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. The bone surrounding the femoral intra-articular implants was mostly cancellous, while cortical bone was formed around the tibial implants. The torque needed to remove the intra-articular implants increased with time, but there was no such increase for the tibial implants. At 6 weeks, significantly less torque was needed to remove the intra-articular implants in spite of the fact that significantly more bone was found in the threads of these implants as compared with the tibial implants. When calculating the amount of bone in threads situated in the cortical and subchondral passage, more was found in the threads of the tibial implants, which corresponded to the higher removal torque. Additional light microscopic observations on implants unscrewed after 12 months in rabbit tibia indicated that rupture occurred between the implant surface and calcified bone. Findings indicate that the resistance to unscrewing is dependent on the amount of compact bone surrounding a titanium implant. PMID:1398826

  1. In vivo imaging of rat cortical bone porosity by synchrotron phase contrast micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, I. V.; Belev, G.; Zhu, N.; Chapman, L. D.; Cooper, D. M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes adaptive and pathological changes throughout life. Direct longitudinal tracking of this remodeling process holds great promise for improving our understanding of bone development, maintenance and senescence. The application of in vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has enabled longitudinal tracking of trabecular bone microarchitecture with commercially available scanners generally operating in the 10-20 µm voxel range with absorbed doses reported between 0.5 and 1 Gy. Imaging of cortical bone microarchitecture (porosity) requires higher resolution and thus in vivo imaging of these structures has not been achieved due to excessive radiation dose. In this study we tested the hypothesis that synchrotron propagation phase contrast micro-CT can enable in vivo imaging of cortical porosity in rats at doses comparable to those currently employed for trabecular bone imaging. Synchrotron imaging experiments were conducted at the Canadian Light Source using the bending magnet beamline of the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility. Protocol optimization (propagation distance, projection number) was conducted ex vivo on rat (Sprague-Dawley) forelimbs with dose determined by ion chamber and lithium fluoride crystal thermoluminescent dosimeters. Comparative ex vivo imaging was performed using laboratory in vivo scanning systems, identifying a range of doses between 1.2-3.6 Gy for common protocols. A final in vivo synchrotron protocol involving a 2.5 Gy dose was implemented with live rats. The resulting images demonstrated improved delineation of cortical porosity through the improved edge enhancement effect of phase contrast, opening the door to novel experimental studies involving the longitudinal tracking of remodeling.

  2. In vivo imaging of rat cortical bone porosity by synchrotron phase contrast micro computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Pratt, I V; Belev, G; Zhu, N; Chapman, L D; Cooper, D M L

    2015-01-01

    Cortical bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes adaptive and pathological changes throughout life. Direct longitudinal tracking of this remodeling process holds great promise for improving our understanding of bone development, maintenance and senescence. The application of in vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has enabled longitudinal tracking of trabecular bone microarchitecture with commercially available scanners generally operating in the 10-20 µm voxel range with absorbed doses reported between 0.5 and 1 Gy. Imaging of cortical bone microarchitecture (porosity) requires higher resolution and thus in vivo imaging of these structures has not been achieved due to excessive radiation dose. In this study we tested the hypothesis that synchrotron propagation phase contrast micro-CT can enable in vivo imaging of cortical porosity in rats at doses comparable to those currently employed for trabecular bone imaging. Synchrotron imaging experiments were conducted at the Canadian Light Source using the bending magnet beamline of the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility. Protocol optimization (propagation distance, projection number) was conducted ex vivo on rat (Sprague-Dawley) forelimbs with dose determined by ion chamber and lithium fluoride crystal thermoluminescent dosimeters. Comparative ex vivo imaging was performed using laboratory in vivo scanning systems, identifying a range of doses between 1.2-3.6 Gy for common protocols. A final in vivo synchrotron protocol involving a 2.5 Gy dose was implemented with live rats. The resulting images demonstrated improved delineation of cortical porosity through the improved edge enhancement effect of phase contrast, opening the door to novel experimental studies involving the longitudinal tracking of remodeling. PMID:25489926

  3. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P < 0.05) in longitudinal bone length (6%), middiaphyseal cross-sectional area (20%), and the amount of newly accreted bone collagen (28%) in the total pool of middiaphyseal bone collagen. Cortical bone density, mean hydroxyapatite crystal size, and the calcium and collagen contents (microgram/mm3) were significantly smaller in the GH group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the processes regulating new collagen accretion, bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  4. Modalities for Visualization of Cortical Bone Remodeling: The Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Kimberly D.; Cooper, David M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bone’s ability to respond to load-related phenomena and repair microdamage is achieved through the remodeling process, which renews bone by activating groups of cells known as basic multicellular units (BMUs). The products of BMUs, secondary osteons, have been extensively studied via classic two-dimensional techniques, which have provided a wealth of information on how histomorphology relates to skeletal structure and function. Remodeling is critical in maintaining healthy bone tissue; however, in osteoporotic bone, imbalanced resorption results in increased bone fragility and fracture. With increasing life expectancy, such degenerative bone diseases are a growing concern. The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of BMUs and their correlation to function, however, are not well-characterized and little is known about the specific mechanisms that initiate and regulate their activity within cortical bone. We believe a key limitation has been the lack of 3D information about BMU morphology and activity. Thus, this paper reviews methodologies for 3D investigation of cortical bone remodeling and, specifically, structures associated with BMU activity (resorption spaces) and the structures they create (secondary osteons), spanning from histology to modern ex vivo imaging modalities, culminating with the growing potential of in vivo imaging. This collection of papers focuses on the theme of “putting the ‘why’ back into bone architecture.” Remodeling is one of two mechanisms “how” bone structure is dynamically modified and thus an improved 3D understanding of this fundamental process is crucial to ultimately understanding the “why.” PMID:26322017

  5. Fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation rate of short fiber reinforced epoxy composites for analogue cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Chong, Alexander C M; Miller, Forrest; Buxton, McKee; Friis, Elizabeth A

    2007-08-01

    Third-generation mechanical analogue bone models and synthetic analogue cortical bone materials manufactured by Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc. (PRL) are popular tools for use in mechanical testing of various orthopedic implants and biomaterials. A major issue with these models is that the current third-generation epoxy-short fiberglass based composite used as the cortical bone substitute is prone to crack formation and failure in fatigue or repeated quasistatic loading of the model. The purpose of the present study was to compare the tensile and fracture mechanics properties of the current baseline (established PRL "third-generation" E-glass-fiber-epoxy) composite analogue for cortical bone to a new composite material formulation proposed for use as an enhanced fourth-generation cortical bone analogue material. Standard tensile, plane strain fracture toughness, and fatigue crack propagation rate tests were performed on both the third- and fourth-generation composite material formulations using standard ASTM test techniques. Injection molding techniques were used to create random fiber orientation in all test specimens. Standard dog-bone style tensile specimens were tested to obtain ultimate tensile strength and stiffness. Compact tension fracture toughness specimens were utilized to determine plane strain fracture toughness values. Reduced thickness compact tension specimens were also used to determine fatigue crack propagation rate behavior for the two material groups. Literature values for the same parameters for human cortical bone were compared to results from the third- and fourth-generation cortical analogue bone materials. Tensile properties of the fourth-generation material were closer to that of average human cortical bone than the third-generation material. Fracture toughness was significantly increased by 48% in the fourth-generation composite as compared to the third-generation analogue bone. The threshold stress intensity to propagate the crack

  6. Interfacial fracture toughness between bovine cortical bone and cements.

    PubMed

    Lucksanasombool, P; Higgs, W A J; Higgs, R J E D; Swain, M V

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the bonding strength of the interfaces within the cemented arthroplasty system, various mechanical tests have been used. Conventional push-out and pull-out tests cannot reveal the actual bonding property of the interface because of the significant influence of surface roughness on the measured adhesion and the failure to account for the mismatch of elastic modulus across the interface. An alternative fracture mechanics approach, which considers the mix of opening and shear modes of the crack tip loading associated with the testing system and the elastic mismatch of materials across the interface, was used to evaluate the bonding ability of various cements. The four-point bend interfacial delamination test by Charalambides et al. (J. Appl. Mech. 56 (1989) 77; Mech. Mater. 8 (1990) 269) was used to quantify the bonding ability of cements. This method is arguably more suitable since the applied loading mode is comparable to the nature of loading within the prosthetic system, which is primarily bending. The bovine bone specimens were polished to mirror finish to eliminate bonding by mechanical interlocking. The results revealed minimal bonding for the conventional bone cement (PMMA) whereas substantial bonding was evident for the glass-ionomer cements tested. However, only the conventional glass-ionomer cements showed evidence of bonding on testing, while the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (poly-HEMA) did not. The latter appeared to debond before testing because of excessive expansion stresses associated with swelling in water. PMID:12527256

  7. Solid-State Quantitative (1)H and (31)P MRI of Cortical Bone in Humans.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Alan C; Wehrli, Felix W

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a pivotal role for assessment of the musculoskeletal system. It is currently the clinical modality of choice for evaluation of soft tissues including cartilage, ligaments, tendons, muscle, and bone marrow. By comparison, the study of calcified tissue by MRI is still in its infancy. In this article, we review the potential of the modality for assessment of cortical bone properties known to be affected in degenerative bone disease, with focus on parameters related to matrix and mineral densities, and porosity, by means of emerging solid-state (1)H and (31)P MRI techniques. In contrast to soft tissues, the MRI signal in calcified tissues has very short lifetime, on the order of 100 μs to a few milliseconds, demanding customized imaging approaches that allow capture of the signal almost immediately after excitation. The technologies described are suited for quantitatively imaging human cortical bone in specimens as well as in vivo in patients on standard clinical imagers, yielding either concentrations in absolute units when measured against a reference standard, or more simply, in the form of surrogate biomarkers. The two major water fractions in cortical bone are those of collagen-bound and pore water occurring at an approximately 3:1 ratio. Collagen-bound water density provides a direct quantitative measure of osteoid density. While at an earlier stage of development, quantification of mineral phosphorus by (31)P MRI yields mineral density and, together with knowledge of matrix density, should allow quantification of the degree of bone mineralization. PMID:27048472

  8. Micro-Computed Tomography of Fatigue Microdamage in Cortical Bone Using a Barium Sulfate Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Huijie; Wang, Xiang; Ross, Ryan D.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of microdamage during fatigue can lead to increased fracture susceptibility in bone. Current techniques for imaging microdamage in bone are inherently destructive and two-dimensional. Therefore, the objective of this study was to image the accumulation of fatigue microdamage in cortical bone using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) with a barium sulfate (BaSO4) contrast agent. Two symmetric notches were machined on the tensile surface of bovine cortical bone beams in order to generate damage ahead of the stress concentrations during four-point bending fatigue. Specimens were loaded to a specified number of cycles or until one notch fractured, such that the other notch exhibited the accumulation of microdamage prior to fracture. Microdamage ahead of the notch was stained in vitro by precipitation of BaSO4 and imaged using micro-CT. Reconstructed images showed a distinct region of bright voxels around the notch tip or along propagating cracks due to the presence of BaSO4, which was verified by backscattered electron imaging and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The shape of the stained region ahead of the notch tip was consistent with principal strain contours calculated by finite element analysis. The relative volume of the stained region was correlated with the number of loading cycles by non-linear regression using a power-law. This study demonstrates new methods for the non-destructive and three-dimensional detection of fatigue microdamage accumulation in cortical bone in vitro, which may be useful to gain further understanding into the role of microdamage in bone fragility. PMID:18443659

  9. Pore network microarchitecture influences human cortical bone elasticity during growth and aging.

    PubMed

    Bala, Yohann; Lefèvre, Emmanuelle; Roux, Jean-Paul; Baron, Cécile; Lasaygues, Philippe; Pithioux, Martine; Kaftandjian, Valérie; Follet, Hélène

    2016-10-01

    Cortical porosity is a major determinant of bone strength. Haversian and Volkmann׳s canals are׳seen' as pores in 2D cross-section but fashion a dynamic network of interconnected channels in 3D, a quantifiable footprint of intracortical remodeling. Given the changes in bone remodeling across life, we hypothesized that the 3D microarchitecture of the cortical pore network influences its stiffness during growth and ageing. Cubes of cortical bone of 2 mm side-length were harvested in the distal 1/3 of the fibula in 13 growing children (mean age±SD: 13±4 yrs) and 16 adults (age: 75±13 yrs). The cubes were imaged using desktop micro-CT (8.14µm isotropic voxel size). Pores were segmented as a solid to assess pore volume fraction, number, diameter, separation, connectivity and structure model index. Elastic coefficients were derived from measurements of ultrasonic bulk compression and shear wave velocities and apparent mass density. The pore volume fraction did not significantly differ between children and adults but originates from different microarchitectural patterns. Compared to children, adults had 42% (p=0.033) higher pore number that were more connected (Connective Density: +205%, p=0.001) with a 18% (p=0.007) lower pore separation. After accounting for the contribution of pore volume fraction, axial elasticity in traction-compression mode was significantly correlated with better connectivity in growing children and with pore separation among adults. The changes in intracortical remodeling across life alter the distribution, size and connectedness of the channels from which cortical void fraction originates. These alterations in pore network microarchitecture participate in changes in compressive and shear mechanical behavior, partly in a porosity-independent manner. The assessment of pore volume fraction (i.e., porosity) provides only a limited understanding of the role of cortical void volume fraction in its mechanical properties. PMID:27389322

  10. Stochastic multiscale modelling of cortical bone elasticity based on high-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, Vittorio; Gagliardi, Davide; Desceliers, Christophe; Bousson, Valérie; Laredo, Jean-Denis; Peyrin, Françoise; Haïat, Guillaume; Naili, Salah

    2016-02-01

    Accurate and reliable assessment of bone quality requires predictive methods which could probe bone microstructure and provide information on bone mechanical properties. Multiscale modelling and simulation represent a fast and powerful way to predict bone mechanical properties based on experimental information on bone microstructure as obtained through X-ray-based methods. However, technical limitations of experimental devices used to inspect bone microstructure may produce blurry data, especially in in vivo conditions. Uncertainties affecting the experimental data (input) may question the reliability of the results predicted by the model (output). Since input data are uncertain, deterministic approaches are limited and new modelling paradigms are required. In this paper, a novel stochastic multiscale model is developed to estimate the elastic properties of bone while taking into account uncertainties on bone composition. Effective elastic properties of cortical bone tissue were computed using a multiscale model based on continuum micromechanics. Volume fractions of bone components (collagen, mineral, and water) were considered as random variables whose probabilistic description was built using the maximum entropy principle. The relevance of this approach was proved by analysing a human bone sample taken from the inferior femoral neck. The sample was imaged using synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. 3-D distributions of Haversian porosity and tissue mineral density extracted from these images supplied the experimental information needed to build the stochastic models of the volume fractions. Thus, the stochastic multiscale model provided reliable statistical information (such as mean values and confidence intervals) on bone elastic properties at the tissue scale. Moreover, the existence of a simpler "nominal model", accounting for the main features of the stochastic model, was investigated. It was shown that such a model does exist, and its relevance

  11. Micropillar fabrication on bovine cortical bone by direct-write femtosecond laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yong C.; Altman, Katrina J.; Farson, Dave F.; Flores, Katharine M.

    2009-11-01

    We investigated fabrication of cylindrical micropillars on bovine cortical bone using direct-write femtosecond laser ablation. The ablation threshold of the material was measured by single-pulse ablation tests, and the incubation coefficient was measured from linear scanned ablation tests. A motion system was programmed to apply multiple layers of concentric rings of pulses to machine pillars of various diameters and heights. The diameter of the top surface of the pillar was found to steadily decrease due to incubation of damage from successive layers of pulses during the machining process. Pillar top diameter was predicted based on a paraxial beam fluence approximation and single-pulse ablation threshold and incubation coefficient measurements. Pillar diameters predicted as successive layers of pulses were applied were well-matched to experiments, confirming that femtosecond laser ablation of the cortical bone was well-modeled by single-pulse ablation threshold measurements and an incubation coefficient.

  12. The binding of calcium and yttrium ions to a glycoprotein from bovine cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P. A.; Peacocke, A. R.

    1967-01-01

    The binding of Ca2+ and Y3+ to an acidic glycoprotein from bovine cortical bone, bone sialoprotein, was determined from the titration curves at I 0·2 in the presence and absence of the cations. The binding of Y3+ was greater than that of Ca2+. The value for the association constant, k, for the interaction with Y3+ increased with pH, from log k 2·93 at pH3·4 to log k 3·50 at pH4·4, and the number of binding sites/mol. increased from 4·6 at pH3·4 to 9·1 at pH4·4. It is proposed that the binding site consists of three carboxyl groups, but it is likely that the binding is a strong electrostatic interaction rather than a co-ordination linkage. A chondroitin sulphate–protein complex also extracted from bovine cortical bone interacted with Y3+ and Ca2+ to a similar extent as did bone sialoprotein. It is suggested that these materials are present in bone at the resting and resorbing surfaces and that they contribute to the deposition of yttrium, americium and plutonium at these sites. PMID:16742544

  13. Influence of tool geometry on drilling performance of cortical and trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Tuijthof, G J M; Frühwirt, C; Kment, C

    2013-08-01

    Minimally invasive surgery poses high demands on tool design. The goal was to measure the influence of drill bit geometry on maximum thrust forces required for drilling, and compare this relative to the known influence of feed rate and bone composition. Blind holes were drilled perpendicular to the iliac crest up to 10 mm depth in cadaveric pelvic bones of 20 pigs (adolescent) and 11 goats (full grown) with eight substantially different drill bits of ∅ 3-3.2 mm. Subsequently, boreholes were drilled perpendicular to the ilium with the same drill bits at three different feed rates (0.58 mm/s, 0.83 mm/s, 1.08 mm/s). The mean maximum thrust force ranges from 10 to 110 N for cortical bone, and from 3 to 65 N for trabecular bone. The results show that both drill bit geometry and feed rate have a significant influence on the maximum thrust forces, with a dominant influence of drill bit geometry in terms of shape of the flutes, sharpness of cutting edges and value of point angle. The differences in thrust forces between cortical and trabecular bone are substantial for all measured conditions. The measured values can be used for drill design. PMID:23298783

  14. Tensile material properties of human tibia cortical bone effects of orientation and loading rate.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Andrew R; McNally, Craig; Manoogian, Sarah J; Duma, Stefan M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify effects of both specimen orientation and loading rate on the tensile material properties for human tibia cortical bone in a controlled study. This study presents 25 human tibia cortical bone coupon tests obtained from the mid-diaphysis of two fresh frozen male human cadavers: 11 axial and 14 lateral. The primary component for the tension coupon testing was a high rate servo-hydraulic Material Testing System (MTS) with a custom slack adaptor. The specimen were loaded at a constant strain rate of approximately 0.05 strains/s, 0.5 strains/s, or 5.0 strains/s. Axial specimens were found to have a significantly larger ultimate stress and ultimate strain compared to lateral specimens for all loading rates, and a significantly larger modulus for low and high loading rates. This finding illustrates the anisentropic behavior of bone over a range of strain rates, which is attributed to the microstructure of the bone and the osteon orientation along the long axis of the bone. With respect to loading rate, both axial and lateral specimens showed significant increases in the modulus and significant decreases in ultimate strain with increased loading rate. Although not significant, axial specimens showed another traditional viscoelastic trend, with ultimate stress increasing with increased loading rate. PMID:19141952

  15. Variability in reference point microindentation and recommendations for testing cortical bone: location, thickness and orientation heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Coutts, L V; Jenkins, T; Li, T; Dunlop, D G; Oreffo, R O C; Cooper, C; Harvey, N C; Thurner, P J

    2015-06-01

    Reference Point Indentation (RPI) has been proposed as a new clinical tool to aid the diagnosis of Osteoporosis. This study has examined the performance of the tool within entire femurs to improve the understanding of the mechanical properties of bone and also to guide future RPI testing to optimize repeatability of results obtained using the technique. Human, bovine, porcine and rat femurs were indented along three longitudinal axes: anterior and posterior: medial and lateral as well as around the circumference of the femoral head and neck. Cortical and subchondral bone thickness was measured using CT and radiography. The study shows that in some samples, bone is too thin to support the high loads applied with the technique and in these cases, RPI values are highly influenced by thickness. The technique will be useful in the mid-shaft region where cortical thickness is greatest, providing previously established guidelines are followed to optimize measurement repeatability, including performing multiple measurements per sample and investigating multiple samples. The study has also provided evidence that RPI values vary significantly with test site, hence mechanical properties should not be inferred from RPI findings alone away from the test site, even within the same bone. In conclusion, RPI appears to be a useful tool for scientific investigation; however further work is required to examine the feasibility of using RPI for assessing differences between healthy and diseased bone in a clinical setting. PMID:25837158

  16. Effect of Aging on the Toughness of Human Cortical Bone: Evaluation by R-Curves

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, J

    2004-10-08

    Age-related deterioration of the fracture properties of bone, coupled with increased life expectancy, are responsible for increasing incidence of bone fracture in the elderly, and hence, an understanding of how its fracture properties degrade with age is essential. The present study describes ex vivo fracture experiments to quantitatively assess the effect of aging on the fracture toughness properties of human cortical bone in the longitudinal direction. Because cortical bone exhibits rising crack-growth resistance with crack extension, unlike most previous studies the toughness is evaluated in terms of resistance-curve (R-curve) behavior, measured for bone taken from wide range of age groups (34-99 years). Using this approach, both the ex vivo crack-initiation and crack-growth toughness are determined and are found to deteriorate with age; the initiation toughness decreases some 40% over six decades from 40 to 100 years, while the growth toughness is effectively eliminated over the same age range. The reduction in crack-growth toughness is considered to be associated primarily with a degradation in the degree of extrinsic toughening, in particular involving crack bridging in the wake of the crack.

  17. The Effect of Osteoporosis Treatments on Fatigue Properties of Cortical Bone Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Garry R.; Chen, Julia T.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.; MacLeay, Jennifer; Pluhar, G. Elizabeth; Boskey, Adele L.; van der Meulen, Marjolein C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are commonly prescribed for treatment of osteoporosis. Long-term use of bisphosphonates has been correlated to atypical femoral fractures (AFF). AFFs arise from fatigue damage to bone tissue that cannot be repaired due to pharmacologic treatments. Despite fatigue being the primary damage mechanism of AFFs, the effects of osteoporosis treatments on fatigue properties of cortical bone are unknown. To examine if fatigue-life differences occur in bone tissue after different pharmacologic treatments for osteoporosis, we tested bone tissue from the femurs of sheep given a metabolic acidosis diet to induce osteoporosis, followed by treatment with a selective estrogen reception modulator (raloxifene), a bisphosphonate (alendronate or zoledronate), or parathyroid hormone (teriparatide, PTH). Beams of cortical bone tissue were created and tested in four-point bending fatigue to failure. Tissues treated with alendronate had reduced fatigue life and less modulus loss at failure compared to other treatments, while tissue treated with PTH had a prolonged fatigue life. No loss of fatigue life occurred with zoledronate treatment despite its greater binding affinity and potency compared to alendronate. Tissue mineralization measured by microCT did not explain the differences seen in fatigue behavior. Increased fatigue life with PTH suggests that current treatment methods for AFF could have beneficial effects for restoring fatigue life. These results indicate that fatigue life differs with each type of osteoporosis treatment. PMID:25642445

  18. Effect of a hypergravity environment on cortical bone elasticity in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohles, S. S.; Bowers, J. R.; Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R. Jr

    1996-01-01

    There is considerable interest in determining whether hypergravity can be used as a countermeasure for microgravity-induced bone loss. This study was conducted on 20 immature male rats in order to investigate possible elastic adaptations of cortical bone in rapidly growing rats exposed to chronic hypergravity. Ten rats were continuously centrifuged for 14 days at twice gravitational acceleration (2G) on a 12.75 foot radius centrifuge and 10 rats concurrently acted as stationary controls. The effect of hypergravity on the elastic characteristics of cortical bone was quantified via ultrasonic wave propagation. Propagation velocities of longitudinal and shear waves were measured through cubic cortical specimens from the posterior femoral diaphyses. Density was measured with an Archimedes' technique. The orthotropic elastic properties were calculated and used to compare the difference between groups. Results showed an average increase in both the Young's moduli (Eii, + 2.2%) and shear moduli (Gij, + 4.3%) with a statistically significant increase only in G12 (+15.7%, P = 0.046). The ratio of transverse to axial strain (Poisson's ratio, nuij) demonstrated statistically significant changes in nu12, nu21, nu13, and nu31 (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that although slight elastic changes were incurred via a hypergravity environment, the treatment level or duration in this study do not dramatically perturb the normal elastic behavior of cortical bone and that dramatic biomechanical differences noted in previous studies were due more to structural changes than material elasticity changes. Hypergravity applied post facto to a microgravity environment would offer further illucidation of this method as treatment for a degenerative spaceflight experience.

  19. [Structure and solidity of new bone in a cortical gliding hole by implanted leg screw (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hutzschenreuter, P; Claes, L

    1976-07-23

    Leg screws were implanted in 30 tibia diaphysis. 112 days later in the gliding hole there was new lamellar bone round of the screw head, neck of screw and into the both first screw threads. After screw explantation we measured in 8 cases the solidity of the new bone. Under conditions of tension measurement, we use 341 N per millimeter cortical thread surfaces to put out all new bone from the gliding hole. The results of these tension measurements were cylindric fragments. The remodelling into the gliding hole seems to be the results of static stress and dynamic compensation for reaching a defect in living cortical bone. PMID:962685

  20. The resistance of cortical bone tissue to failure under cyclic loading is reduced with alendronate.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Devendra; Geissler, Joseph R; Allen, Matthew R; Burr, David B; Fritton, J C

    2014-07-01

    Bisphosphonates are the most prescribed preventative treatment for osteoporosis. However, their long-term use has recently been associated with atypical fractures of cortical bone in patients who present with low-energy induced breaks of unclear pathophysiology. The effects of bisphosphonates on the mechanical properties of cortical bone have been exclusively studied under simple, monotonic, quasi-static loading. This study examined the cyclic fatigue properties of bisphosphonate-treated cortical bone at a level in which tissue damage initiates and is accumulated prior to frank fracture in low-energy situations. Physiologically relevant, dynamic, 4-point bending applied to beams (1.5 mm × 0.5 mm × 10 mm) machined from dog rib (n=12/group) demonstrated mechanical failure and micro-architectural features that were dependent on drug dose (3 groups: 0, 0.2, 1.0mg/kg/day; alendronate [ALN] for 3 years) with cortical bone tissue elastic modulus (initial cycles of loading) reduced by 21% (p<0.001) and fatigue life (number of cycles to failure) reduced in a stress-life approach by greater than 3-fold with ALN1.0 (p<0.05). While not affecting the number of osteons, ALN treatment reduced other features associated with bone remodeling, such as the size of osteons (-14%; ALN1.0: 10.5±1.8, VEH: 12.2±1.6, ×10(3) μm2; p<0.01) and the density of osteocyte lacunae (-20%; ALN1.0: 11.4±3.3, VEH: 14.3±3.6, ×10(2) #/mm2; p<0.05). Furthermore, the osteocyte lacunar density was directly proportional to initial elastic modulus when the groups were pooled (R=0.54, p<0.01). These findings suggest that the structural components normally contributing to healthy cortical bone tissue are altered by high-dose ALN treatment and contribute to reduced mechanical properties under cyclic loading conditions. PMID:24704262

  1. The Resistance of Cortical Bone Tissue to Failure under Cyclic Loading is Reduced with Alendronate

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Devendra; Geissler, Joseph R.; Allen, Matthew R.; Burr, David B.; Fritton, J. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are the most prescribed preventative treatment for osteoporosis. However, their long-term use has recently been associated with atypical fractures of cortical bone in patients who present with low-energy induced breaks of unclear pathophysiology. The effects of bisphosphonates on the mechanical properties of cortical bone have been exclusively studied under simple, monotonic, quasi-static loading. This study examined the cyclic fatigue properties of bisphosphonate-treated cortical bone at a level in which tissue damage initiates and is accumulated prior to frank fracture in low-energy situations. Physiologically relevant, dynamic, 4-point bending applied to beams (1.5 mm × 0.5 mm × 10 mm) machined from dog rib (n=12/group) demonstrated mechanical failure and micro-architectural features that were dependent on drug dose (3 groups: 0, 0.2, 1.0 mg/kg/day; Alendronate [ALN] for 3 years) with cortical bone tissue elastic modulus (initial cycles of loading) reduced by 21% (p<0.001) and fatigue life (number of cycles to failure) reduced in a stress-life approach by greater than 3-fold with ALN1.0 (p<0.05). While not affecting the number of osteons, ALN treatment reduced other features associated with bone remodeling, such as the size of osteons (−14%, ALN1.0: 10.5±1.8, VEH: 12.2±1.6, ×103 µm2; p<0.01) and the density of osteocyte lacunae (−20%; ALN1.0: 11.4±3.3, VEH: 14.3±3.6, ×102 #/mm2; p<0.05). Furthermore, the osteocyte lacunar density was directly proportional to initial elastic modulus when the groups were pooled (R=0.54, p<0.01). These findings suggest that the structural components normally contributing to healthy cortical bone tissue are altered by high-dose ALN treatment and contribute to reduced mechanical properties under cyclic loading conditions. PMID:24704262

  2. Material properties of human rib cortical bone from dynamic tension coupon testing.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Andrew R; McNally, Craig; Kennedy, Eric A; Manoogian, Sarah J; Rath, Amber L; Ng, Tracy P; Stitzel, Joel D; Smith, Eric P; Duma, Stefan M; Matsuoka, Fumio

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop material properties of human rib cortical bone using dynamic tension coupon testing. This study presents 117 human rib cortical bone coupon tests from six cadavers, three male and three female, ranging in age from 18 to 67 years old. The rib sections were taken from the anterior, lateral, and posterior regions on ribs 1 through 12 of each cadaver's rib cage. The cortical bone was isolated from each rib section with a low speed diamond saw, and milled into dog bone shaped tension coupons using a small computer numerical control machine. A high-rate servo-hydraulic Material Testing System equipped with a custom slack adaptor, to provide constant strain rates, was used to apply tension loads to failure at an average rate of 0.5 strains/sec. The elastic modulus, yield stress, yield strain, ultimate stress, ultimate strain, and strain energy density were determined from the resulting stress versus strain curves. The overall average of all cadaver data gives an elastic modulus of 13.9 GPa, a yield stress of 93.9 MPa, a yield strain of 0.88 %, an ultimate stress of 124.2 MPa, an ultimate strain of 2.7 %, and a strain energy density of 250.1 MPa-microstrain. For all cadavers, the plastic region of the stress versus strain curves was substantial and contributed approximately 60 % to the strain energy and over 80 % in the tests with the 18 year old cadaver. The rib cortical bone becomes more brittle with increasing age, shown by an increase in the modulus (p < 0.01) and a decrease in peak strain (p < 0.01). In contrast to previous three-bending tests on whole rib and rib cortical bone coupons, there were no significant differences in material properties with respect to rib region or rib level. When these results are considered in conjunction with the previous three-point bending tests, there is regional variation in the structural response of the human rib cage, but this variation appears to be primarily a result of changes in the

  3. Bone marrow ablation demonstrates that excess endogenous parathyroid hormone plays distinct roles in trabecular and cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Jing; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2012-07-01

    Mice null for Cyp27b1, which encodes the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase [1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice], lack 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] and have hypocalcemia and high parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Intermittent, exogenous PTH is anabolic for bone. To determine the effect of the chronic excess endogenous PTH on osteogenesis and bone turnover, bone marrow ablations (BMX) were performed in tibiae and femurs of 6-week-old 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice and in wild-type (WT) controls. Newly formed bone tissue was analyzed at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after BMX. BMX did not alter the higher levels of PTH in 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice. In the marrow cavity, trabecular volume, osteoblast number, alkaline phosphatase-positive areas, type I collagen-positive areas, bone formation-related genes, and protein expression levels all increased significantly after BMX in 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice, compared with WT. Osteoclast numbers and surface and ratio of RANKL/OPG-relative mRNA levels decreased significantly after BMX in 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice, compared with WT. In the cortex, alkaline phosphatase-positive osteoblasts and osteoclast numbers increased significantly after BMX in 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice, compared with WT. These results demonstrate that chronic excess endogenous PTH exerts an anabolic role in trabecular bone by stimulating osteogenic cells and reducing bone resorption, but plays a catabolic role in cortical bone by enhancing bone turnover with an increase in resorption. PMID:22640808

  4. Investigation of hyperelastic models for nonlinear elastic behavior of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, M; Ghoreishi, M; Narooei, K

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the hyperelastic models of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone were investigated and appropriate models were developed. Using uniaxial compression test data, the strain energy versus stretch was calculated and the appropriate hyperelastic strain energy functions were fitted on data in order to calculate the material parameters. To obtain the mechanical behavior in other loading conditions, the hyperelastic strain energy equations were investigated for pure shear and equi-biaxial tension loadings. The results showed the Mooney-Rivlin and Ogden models cannot predict the mechanical response of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone accurately, while the general exponential-exponential and general exponential-power law models have a good agreement with the experimental results. To investigate the sensitivity of the hyperelastic models, a variation of 10% in material parameters was performed and the results indicated an acceptable stability for the general exponential-exponential and general exponential-power law models. Finally, the uniaxial tension and compression of cortical femur bone were studied using the finite element method in VUMAT user subroutine of ABAQUS software and the computed stress-stretch curves were shown a good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:26953961

  5. Automated classification of mandibular cortical bone on dental panoramic radiographs for early detection of osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiba, Kazuki; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Fukui, Tatsumasa; Hara, Takeshi; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Findings on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) have shown that mandibular cortical index (MCI) based on the morphology of mandibular inferior cortex was significantly correlated with osteoporosis. MCI on DPRs can be categorized into one of three groups and has the high potential for identifying patients with osteoporosis. However, most DPRs are used only for diagnosing dental conditions by dentists in their routine clinical work. Moreover, MCI is not generally quantified but assessed subjectively. In this study, we investigated a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system that automatically classifies mandibular cortical bone for detection of osteoporotic patients at early stage. First, an inferior border of mandibular bone was detected by use of an active contour method. Second, regions of interest including the cortical bone are extracted and analyzed for its thickness and roughness. Finally, support vector machine (SVM) differentiate cases into three MCI categories by features including the thickness and roughness. Ninety eight DPRs were used to evaluate our proposed scheme. The number of cases classified to Class I, II, and III by a dental radiologist are 56, 25 and 17 cases, respectively. Experimental result based on the leave-one-out cross-validation evaluation showed that the sensitivities for the classes I, II, and III were 94.6%, 57.7% and 94.1%, respectively. Distribution of the groups in the feature space indicates a possibility of MCI quantification by the proposed method. Therefore, our scheme has a potential in identifying osteoporotic patients at an early stage.

  6. Effects of fatigue induced damage on the longitudinal fracture resistance of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Lloyd; Codrington, John; Parkinson, Ian

    2014-07-01

    As a composite material, cortical bone accumulates fatigue microdamage through the repetitive loading of everyday activity (e.g. walking). The accumulation of fatigue microdamage is thought to contribute to the occurrence of fragility fractures in older people. Therefore it is beneficial to understand the relationship between microcrack accumulation and the fracture resistance of cortical bone. Twenty longitudinally orientated compact tension fracture specimens were machined from a single bovine femur, ten specimens were assigned to both the control and fatigue damaged groups. The damaged group underwent a fatigue loading protocol to induce microdamage which was assessed via fluorescent microscopy. Following fatigue loading, non-linear fracture resistance tests were undertaken on both the control and damaged groups using the J-integral method. The interaction of the crack path with the fatigue induced damage and inherent toughening mechanisms were then observed using fluorescent microscopy. The results of this study show that fatigue induced damage reduces the initiation toughness of cortical bone and the growth toughness within the damage zone by three distinct mechanisms of fatigue-fracture interaction. Further analysis of the J-integral fracture resistance showed both the elastic and plastic component were reduced in the damaged group. For the elastic component this was attributed to a decreased number of ligament bridges in the crack wake while for the plastic component this was attributed to the presence of pre-existing fatigue microcracks preventing energy absorption by the formation of new microcracks. PMID:24715332

  7. The analysis and compensation of cortical thickness effect on ultrasonic backscatter signals in cancellous bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Ta, Dean; Hu, Bo; Le, Lawrence H.; Wang, Weiqi

    2014-09-01

    To determine the influence of the overlying cortical shell on ultrasonic backscatter signal in cancellous bone, ultrasonic backscatter simulations were carried out by a three dimensional finite difference time domain method. The simulated signals were obtained for various cortical thickness (CTh) and three central frequencies (1, 2.25, and 3.5 MHz). The integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), integrated transmission coefficient, and apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) were calculated from the signals. The results showed that the IRC oscillated with amplitudes decreasing with increasing CTh and the amplitudes diminished gradually when CTh was over 2.18 mm. The AIB fluctuated and decreased as the CTh increased (R = -0.72 ˜ -0.90, p < 0.05), and the amplitudes were much smaller when the CTh was over 2.18 mm. After removing the multiple reflections in the cortical shell, the corresponding AIB (referred as AIB-c) decreased and the fluctuations were smaller (R = -0.80 ˜ -0.96, p < 0.05). An explicit compensation method for the cortical effect was proposed. No significant correlations were observed between the CTh and the compensated AIB (CAIB: R = -0.19 ˜ 0.26, p > 0.05, and CAIB-c: R = -0.09 ˜ -0.00, p > 0.05, respectively), and the fluctuations in CAIB-c were also reduced. The results demonstrated that the effect of cortical thickness on backscatter signals was removed by the compensation method proposed in this study.

  8. The pitfall of treating low bone turnover: Effects on cortical porosity.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Maria Julia C L N; Karohl, Cristina; Elias, Rosilene M; Barreto, Fellype C; Barreto, Daniela Veit; Canziani, Maria Eugenia F; Carvalho, Aluizio B; Jorgetti, Vanda; Moyses, Rosa M A

    2016-10-01

    Although it is recognized that cortical bone contributes significantly to the mechanical strength of the skeleton, little is known about this compartment from bone biopsy studies, particularly in CKD patients. In addition, there is no prospective data on the effects of CKD-MBD therapy on cortical porosity (Ct.Po). This is a post hoc analysis on data from a randomized controlled trial on the effects of different phosphate binders on bone remodelling. Therapy was adjusted according to the first biopsy, and included sevelamer or calcium acetate, calcitriol and changes in calcium dialysate concentration. We measured Ct.Po at baseline and one year after. Fifty-two patients (46±13years old, 67% women and 60% white) were enrolled. Ct.Po was already high at baseline in 85% of patients [30% (17, 46)] and correlated with PTH (p=0.001). Low bone turnover was seen in 28 patients (54.9%). After one-year treatment, PTH increased in patients with low turnover, as intended. However, increased Ct.Po was seen in 49 patients (94%). This increase correlated with the delta of phosphate (p=0.015) and the delta of PTH (p=0.03); it was also higher among non-white patients than in white patients (p=0.039). The risk of increase in Ct.Po was 4.5 higher among non-white patients. Adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the delta of Ct.Po was dependent on delta PTH and race (r(2)=0.193). We concluded that in an attempt to increase bone turnover, the increase in PTH levels might be associated with higher cortical porosity, particularly in non-white patients. Whether this finding leads to a high risk of fracture deserves further investigation. PMID:27424935

  9. Quantitative ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI of human cortical bone: correlation with porosity and biomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Bae, Won C; Chen, Peter C; Chung, Christine B; Masuda, Koichi; D'Lima, Darryl; Du, Jiang

    2012-04-01

    In this study we describe the use of ultrashort echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate short and long T2* components as well as the water content of cortical bone. Fourteen human cadaveric distal femur and proximal tibia were sectioned to produce 44 rectangular slabs of cortical bone for quantitative UTE MR imaging, microcomputed tomography (µCT), and biomechanical testing. A two-dimensional (2D) UTE pulse sequence with a minimal nominal TE of 8 µseconds was used together with bicomponent analysis to quantify the bound and free water in cortical bone using a clinical 3T scanner. Total water concentration was measured using a 3D UTE sequence together with a reference water phantom. UTE MR measures of water content (total, free, and bound), T2* (short and long), and short and long T2* fractions were compared with porosity assessed with µCT, as well as elastic (modulus, yield stress, and strain) and failure (ultimate stress, failure strain, and energy) properties, using Pearson correlation. Porosity significantly correlated positively with total (R(2)  = 0.23; p < 0.01) and free (R(2)  = 0.31; p < 0.001) water content as well as long T2* fraction (R(2)  = 0.25; p < 0.001), and negatively with short T2* fraction and short T2* (R(2)  = 0.24; p < 0.01). Failure strain significantly correlated positively with short T2* (R(2)  = 0.29; p < 0.001), ultimate stress significantly correlated negatively with total (R(2)  = 0.25; p < 0.001) and bound (R(2)  = 0.22; p < 0.01) water content, and failure energy significantly correlated positively with both short (R(2)  = 0 30; p < 0.001) and long (R(2)  = 0.17; p < 0.01) T2* values. These results suggest that UTE MR measures are sensitive to the structure and failure properties of human cortical bone, and may provide a novel way of evaluating cortical bone quality. PMID:22190232

  10. Female Mice Lacking Estrogen Receptor-α in Hypothalamic Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) Neurons Display Enhanced Estrogenic Response on Cortical Bone Mass

    PubMed Central

    Farman, H. H.; Windahl, S. H.; Westberg, L.; Isaksson, H.; Egecioglu, E.; Schele, E.; Ryberg, H.; Jansson, J. O.; Tuukkanen, J.; Koskela, A.; Xie, S. K.; Hahner, L.; Zehr, J.; Clegg, D. J.; Lagerquist, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens are important regulators of bone mass and their effects are mainly mediated via estrogen receptor (ER)α. Central ERα exerts an inhibitory role on bone mass. ERα is highly expressed in the arcuate (ARC) and the ventromedial (VMN) nuclei in the hypothalamus. To test whether ERα in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, located in ARC, is involved in the regulation of bone mass, we used mice lacking ERα expression specifically in POMC neurons (POMC-ERα−/−). Female POMC-ERα−/− and control mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with vehicle or estradiol (0.5 μg/d) for 6 weeks. As expected, estradiol treatment increased the cortical bone thickness in femur, the cortical bone mechanical strength in tibia and the trabecular bone volume fraction in both femur and vertebrae in OVX control mice. Importantly, the estrogenic responses were substantially increased in OVX POMC-ERα−/− mice compared with the estrogenic responses in OVX control mice for cortical bone thickness (+126 ± 34%, P < .01) and mechanical strength (+193 ± 38%, P < .01). To test whether ERα in VMN is involved in the regulation of bone mass, ERα was silenced using an adeno-associated viral vector. Silencing of ERα in hypothalamic VMN resulted in unchanged bone mass. In conclusion, mice lacking ERα in POMC neurons display enhanced estrogenic response on cortical bone mass and mechanical strength. We propose that the balance between inhibitory effects of central ERα activity in hypothalamic POMC neurons in ARC and stimulatory peripheral ERα-mediated effects in bone determines cortical bone mass in female mice. PMID:27254004

  11. Female Mice Lacking Estrogen Receptor-α in Hypothalamic Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) Neurons Display Enhanced Estrogenic Response on Cortical Bone Mass.

    PubMed

    Farman, H H; Windahl, S H; Westberg, L; Isaksson, H; Egecioglu, E; Schele, E; Ryberg, H; Jansson, J O; Tuukkanen, J; Koskela, A; Xie, S K; Hahner, L; Zehr, J; Clegg, D J; Lagerquist, M K; Ohlsson, C

    2016-08-01

    Estrogens are important regulators of bone mass and their effects are mainly mediated via estrogen receptor (ER)α. Central ERα exerts an inhibitory role on bone mass. ERα is highly expressed in the arcuate (ARC) and the ventromedial (VMN) nuclei in the hypothalamus. To test whether ERα in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, located in ARC, is involved in the regulation of bone mass, we used mice lacking ERα expression specifically in POMC neurons (POMC-ERα(-/-)). Female POMC-ERα(-/-) and control mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with vehicle or estradiol (0.5 μg/d) for 6 weeks. As expected, estradiol treatment increased the cortical bone thickness in femur, the cortical bone mechanical strength in tibia and the trabecular bone volume fraction in both femur and vertebrae in OVX control mice. Importantly, the estrogenic responses were substantially increased in OVX POMC-ERα(-/-) mice compared with the estrogenic responses in OVX control mice for cortical bone thickness (+126 ± 34%, P < .01) and mechanical strength (+193 ± 38%, P < .01). To test whether ERα in VMN is involved in the regulation of bone mass, ERα was silenced using an adeno-associated viral vector. Silencing of ERα in hypothalamic VMN resulted in unchanged bone mass. In conclusion, mice lacking ERα in POMC neurons display enhanced estrogenic response on cortical bone mass and mechanical strength. We propose that the balance between inhibitory effects of central ERα activity in hypothalamic POMC neurons in ARC and stimulatory peripheral ERα-mediated effects in bone determines cortical bone mass in female mice. PMID:27254004

  12. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Deuerling, Justin M.; Rudy, David J.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm{sup 3}) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm{sup 3} and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0

  13. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis. PMID:18037367

  14. Ultrasonic wave propagation in viscoelastic cortical bone plate coupled with fluids: a spectral finite element study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Naili, Salah

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the ultrasonic wave propagation in the cortical layer of long bones which is known as being a functionally graded anisotropic material coupled with fluids. The viscous effects are taken into account. The geometrical configuration mimics the one of axial transmission technique used for evaluating the bone quality. We present a numerical procedure adapted for this purpose which is based on the spectral finite element method (FEM). By using a combined Laplace-Fourier transform, the vibroacoustic problem may be transformed into the frequency-wavenumber domain in which, as radiation conditions may be exactly introduced in the infinite fluid halfspaces, only the heterogeneous solid layer needs to be analysed using FEM. Several numerical tests are presented showing very good performance of the proposed approach. We present some results to study the influence of the frequency on the first arriving signal velocity in (visco)elastic bone plate. PMID:22288934

  15. Microstrain fields for cortical bone in uniaxial tension: optical analysis method.

    PubMed

    Kim, D G; Brunski, J B; Nicolella, D P

    2005-01-01

    This study employed an optical strain measurement method, called microdisplacements by machine vision photogrammetry (DISMAP), to measure both the global and local strain fields in microtensile specimens of cortical bone subjected to controlled uniaxial tension. The variation of local maximum principal strains was measured within the gauge region of samples as a function of applied tensile stress during testing. High gradients of local strain appeared around microstructural features in stressed bone even while the global strain for the entire gauge region showed a strong linear correlation with increasing tensile stress (r2 = 0.98, p < 0.0001). The highest local strain around microstructural features in bone was 11.5-79.5 times higher than the global strain. PMID:15819483

  16. Dark-field transmission electron microscopy of cortical bone reveals details of extrafibrillar crystals.

    PubMed

    Schwarcz, Henry P; McNally, Elizabeth A; Botton, Gianluigi A

    2014-12-01

    In a previous study we showed that most of the mineral in bone is present in the form of "mineral structures", 5-6nm-thick, elongated plates which surround and are oriented parallel to collagen fibrils. Using dark-field transmission electron microscopy, we viewed mineral structures in ion-milled sections of cortical human bone cut parallel to the collagen fibrils. Within the mineral structures we observe single crystals of apatite averaging 5.8±2.7nm in width and 28±19nm in length, their long axes oriented parallel to the fibril axis. Some appear to be composite, co-aligned crystals as thin as 2nm. From their similarity to TEM images of crystals liberated from deproteinated bone we infer that we are viewing sections through platy crystals of apatite that are assembled together to form the mineral structures. PMID:25449316

  17. Microcomputed tomographic analysis of human condyles in unilateral condylar hyperplasia: increased cortical porosity and trabecular bone volume fraction with reduced mineralisation.

    PubMed

    Karssemakers, L H E; Nolte, J W; Tuinzing, D B; Langenbach, G E J; Raijmakers, P G; Becking, A G

    2014-12-01

    Unilateral condylar hyperplasia or hyperactivity is a disorder of growth that affects the mandible, and our aim was to visualise the 3-dimensional bony microstructure of resected mandibular condyles of affected patients. We prospectively studied 17 patients with a clinical presentation of progressive mandibular asymmetry and an abnormal single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scan. All patients were treated by condylectomy to arrest progression. The resected condyles were scanned with micro-CT (18 μm resolution). Rectangular volumes of interest were selected in 4 quadrants (lateromedial and superoinferior) of the trabecular bone of each condyle. Variables of bone architecture (volume fraction, trabecular number, thickness, and separation, degree of mineralisation, and degree of structural anisotrophy) were calculated with routine morphometric software. Eight of the 17 resected condyles showed clear destruction of the subchondral layer of cortical bone. There was a significant superoinferior gradient for all trabecular variables. Mean (SD) bone volume fraction (25.1 (6) %), trabecular number (1.69 (0.26) mm(-1)), trabecular thickness (0.17 (0.03) mm), and degree of mineralisation (695.39 (39.83) mg HA/cm(3)) were higher in the superior region. Trabecular separation (0.6 (0.16) mm) and structural anisotropy (1.84 (0.28)) were higher in the inferior region. The micro-CT analysis showed increased cortical porosity in many of the condyles studied. It also showed a higher bone volume fraction, greater trabecular thickness and trabecular separation, greater trabecular number, and less mineralisation in the condyles of the 17 patients compared with the known architecture of unaffected mandibular condyles. PMID:25219775

  18. Individual-specific multi-scale finite element simulation of cortical bone of human proximal femur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Kawas, Neal P.; Lutz, Andre; Kardas, Dieter; Nackenhorst, Udo; Keyak, Joyce H.

    2013-07-01

    We present an innovative method to perform multi-scale finite element analyses of the cortical component of the femur using the individual's (1) computed tomography scan; and (2) a bone specimen obtained in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. The method enables study of micro-structural characteristics regulating strains and stresses under physiological loading conditions. The analysis of the micro-structural scenarios that cause variation of strain and stress is the first step in understanding the elevated strains and stresses in bone tissue, which are indicative of higher likelihood of micro-crack formation in bone, implicated in consequent remodeling or macroscopic bone fracture. Evidence that micro-structure varies with clinical history and contributes in significant, but poorly understood, ways to bone function, motivates the method's development, as does need for software tools to investigate relationships between macroscopic loading and micro-structure. Three applications - varying region of interest, bone mineral density, and orientation of collagen type I, illustrate the method. We show, in comparison between physiological loading and simple compression of a patient's femur, that strains computed at the multi-scale model's micro-level: (i) differ; and (ii) depend on local collagen-apatite orientation and degree of calcification. Our findings confirm the strain concentration role of osteocyte lacunae, important for mechano-transduction. We hypothesize occurrence of micro-crack formation, leading either to remodeling or macroscopic fracture, when the computed strains exceed the elastic range observed in micro-structural testing.

  19. An investigation of the mineral in ductile and brittle cortical mouse bone.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Mukadam, Quresh; Saiz, Eduardo; Oldknow, Karla J; Farquharson, Colin; Millán, José Luis; Boyde, Alan; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2015-05-01

    Bone is a strong and tough material composed of apatite mineral, organic matter, and water. Changes in composition and organization of these building blocks affect bone's mechanical integrity. Skeletal disorders often affect bone's mineral phase, either by variations in the collagen or directly altering mineralization. The aim of the current study was to explore the differences in the mineral of brittle and ductile cortical bone at the mineral (nm) and tissue (µm) levels using two mouse phenotypes. Osteogenesis imperfecta model, oim(-/-) , mice have a defect in the collagen, which leads to brittle bone; PHOSPHO1 mutants, Phospho1(-/-) , have ductile bone resulting from altered mineralization. Oim(-/-) and Phospho1(-/-) were compared with their respective wild-type controls. Femora were defatted and ground to powder to measure average mineral crystal size using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and to monitor the bulk mineral to matrix ratio via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD scans were run after TGA for phase identification to assess the fractions of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate. Tibiae were embedded to measure elastic properties with nanoindentation and the extent of mineralization with backscattered electron microscopy (BSE SEM). Results revealed that although both pathology models had extremely different whole-bone mechanics, they both had smaller apatite crystals, lower bulk mineral to matrix ratio, and showed more thermal conversion to β-tricalcium phosphate than their wild types, indicating deviations from stoichiometric hydroxyapatite in the original mineral. In contrast, the degree of mineralization of bone matrix was different for each strain: brittle oim(-/-) were hypermineralized, whereas ductile Phospho1(-/-) were hypomineralized. Despite differences in the mineralization, nanoscale alterations in the mineral were associated with reduced tissue elastic moduli in both pathologies. Results indicated that alterations from normal crystal size

  20. Structural and Mechanical Repair of Diffuse Damage in Cortical Bone in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Seref-Ferlengez, Zeynep; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Kennedy, Oran D.; Philemon, Claudy J.; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

    2014-01-01

    Physiological wear and tear causes bone microdamage at several hierarchical levels, and these have different biological consequences. Bone remodeling is widely held to be the mechanism by which bone microdamage is repaired. However, recent studies showed that unlike typical linear microcracks, small crack damage, the clusters of submicron-sized matrix cracks also known as diffuse damage (Dif.Dx), does not activate remodeling. Thus, the fate of diffuse damage in vivo is not known. To examine this, we induced selectively Dif.Dx in rat ulnae in vivo by using end-load ulnar bending creep model. Changes in damage content were assessed by histomorphometry and mechanical testing immediately after loading (i.e., acute loaded) or at 14 days after damage induction (i.e., survival ulnae). Dif.Dx area was markedly reduced over the 14-day survival period after loading (p<0.02). We did not observe any intracortical resorption and there was no increase in cortical bone area in survival ulnae. The reduction in whole bone stiffness in acute loaded ulnae was restored to baseline levels in survival ulnae (p>0.6). Microindentation studies showed that Dif.Dx caused a highly localized reduction in elastic modulus in diffuse damage regions of the ulnar cortex. Moduli in these previously damaged bone areas were restored to control values by 14 days after loading. Our current findings indicate that small crack damage in bone can be repaired without bone remodeling, and suggest that alternative repair mechanisms exist in bone to deal with submicron-sized matrix cracks. Those mechanisms are currently unknown and further investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which this direct repair occurs. PMID:25042459

  1. Structural and mechanical repair of diffuse damage in cortical bone in vivo.

    PubMed

    Seref-Ferlengez, Zeynep; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Kennedy, Oran D; Philemon, Claudy J; Schaffler, Mitchell B

    2014-12-01

    Physiological wear and tear causes bone microdamage at several hierarchical levels, and these have different biological consequences. Bone remodeling is widely held to be the mechanism by which bone microdamage is repaired. However, recent studies showed that unlike typical linear microcracks, small crack damage, the clusters of submicron-sized matrix cracks also known as diffuse damage (Dif.Dx), does not activate remodeling. Thus, the fate of diffuse damage in vivo is not known. To examine this, we induced selectively Dif.Dx in rat ulnae in vivo by using end-load ulnar bending creep model. Changes in damage content were assessed by histomorphometry and mechanical testing immediately after loading (ie, acute loaded) or at 14 days after damage induction (ie, survival ulnae). Dif.Dx area was markedly reduced over the 14-day survival period after loading (p < 0.02). We did not observe any intracortical resorption, and there was no increase in cortical bone area in survival ulnae. The reduction in whole bone stiffness in acute loaded ulnae was restored to baseline levels in survival ulnae (p > 0.6). Microindentation studies showed that Dif.Dx caused a highly localized reduction in elastic modulus in diffuse damage regions of the ulnar cortex. Moduli in these previously damaged bone areas were restored to control values by 14 days after loading. Our current findings indicate that small crack damage in bone can be repaired without bone remodeling, and they suggest that alternative repair mechanisms exist in bone to deal with submicron-sized matrix cracks. Those mechanisms are currently unknown and further investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which this direct repair occurs. PMID:25042459

  2. The Role of Water Compartments in the Material Properties of Cortical Bone

    PubMed Central

    Granke, Mathilde; Does, Mark D.; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2015-01-01

    Comprising ~20% of the volume, water is a key determinant of the mechanical behavior of cortical bone. It essentially exists in 2 general compartments: within pores and bound to the matrix. The amount of pore water – residing in vascular-lacunar-canalicular space – primarily reflects intracortical porosity (i.e., open spaces within the matrix largely due to Haversian canals and resorption sites), and as such, is inversely proportional to most mechanical properties of bone. Movement of water according to pressure gradients generated during dynamic loading likely confers hydraulic stiffening to the bone as well. Nonetheless, bound water is a primary contributor to mechanical behavior of bone in that it is responsible for giving collagen the ability to confer ductility or plasticity to bone (i.e., allows deformation to continue once permanent damage begins to form in the matrix) and decreases with age along with fracture resistance. Thus, dehydration by air-drying or by solvents with less hydrogen bonding capacity causes bone to become brittle, but interestingly, it also increases stiffness and strength across the hierarchical levels of organization. Despite the importance of matrix hydration to fracture resistance, little is known about why bound water decreases with age in hydrated human bone. Using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), both bound and pore water concentrations in bone can be measured ex vivo because the proton relaxation times differ between the two water compartments giving rise to two distinct signals. There are also emerging techniques to measure bound and pore water in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). NMR/MRI-derived bound water concentration is positively correlated with both strength and toughness of hydrated bone, and may become a useful clinical marker of fracture risk. PMID:25783011

  3. The Role of Water Compartments in the Material Properties of Cortical Bone.

    PubMed

    Granke, Mathilde; Does, Mark D; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2015-09-01

    Comprising ~20% of the volume, water is a key determinant of the mechanical behavior of cortical bone. It essentially exists in two general compartments: within pores and bound to the matrix. The amount of pore water-residing in the vascular-lacunar-canalicular space-primarily reflects intracortical porosity (i.e., open spaces within the matrix largely due to Haversian canals and resorption sites) and as such is inversely proportional to most mechanical properties of bone. Movement of water according to pressure gradients generated during dynamic loading likely confers hydraulic stiffening to the bone as well. Nonetheless, bound water is a primary contributor to the mechanical behavior of bone in that it is responsible for giving collagen the ability to confer ductility or plasticity to bone (i.e., allows deformation to continue once permanent damage begins to form in the matrix) and decreases with age along with fracture resistance. Thus, dehydration by air-drying or by solvents with less hydrogen bonding capacity causes bone to become brittle, but interestingly, it also increases stiffness and strength across the hierarchical levels of organization. Despite the importance of matrix hydration to fracture resistance, little is known about why bound water decreases with age in hydrated human bone. Using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), both bound and pore water concentrations in bone can be measured ex vivo because the proton relaxation times differ between the two water compartments, giving rise to two distinct signals. There are also emerging techniques to measure bound and pore water in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The NMR/MRI-derived bound water concentration is positively correlated with both the strength and toughness of hydrated bone and may become a useful clinical marker of fracture risk. PMID:25783011

  4. Bone Microarchitecture in Men and Women with Diabetes: The Importance of Cortical Porosity.

    PubMed

    Paccou, Julien; Ward, Kate A; Jameson, Karen A; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus; Edwards, Mark H

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) captures novel aspects of bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density and offers the ability to measure bone microarchitecture, but data relating measures obtained from this technique to diabetic status are inconsistent in women and lacking in men. Here, we report an analysis from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study, where we were able to study associations between bone microarchitecture from HR-pQCT of distal radius and distal tibia in 332 participants (177 men and 155 women) aged 72.1-81.4 years with or without diabetes mellitus (DM); n = 29 (18 men and 11 women) and n = 303, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed separately for women and men. The mean (SD) age of participants was 76.4 (2.6) and 76.1 (2.5) years in women and men, respectively. Participants with DM differed significantly in terms of weight in both women (70.4 ± 12.3 vs. 80.3 ± 18.3 kg; p = 0.015) and men (81.7 ± 11.4 vs. 92.8 ± 16.3 kg; p < 0.001) but no differences were found in height, smoking status, alcohol intake, social class and physical activity among women or men. Analyses in women revealed that cortical pore volume (Ct.Po.V) was higher in participants with DM and close to statistical significance for cortical porosity (Ct.Po) (β = 0.76 [0.12, 1.41] z-score, p = 0.020 and β = 0.62 [-0.02, 1.27] z-score, p = 0.059, respectively) at the distal radius. Adjustment for weight did not materially affect the relationship described for Ct.Po.V (β = 0.74 [0.09, 1.39], p = 0.027) and Ct.Po (β = 0.65 [-0.01, 1.30], p = 0.053) at the distal radius. After adjustment for weight, analyses in men revealed that Ct.Po and Ct.Po.V were higher in participants with DM (β = 0.57 [0.09, 1.06] z-score, p = 0.021 and β = 0.48 [0.01, 0.95] z-score, p = 0.044, respectively) at the distal tibia. Analyses of distal radial and tibial trabecular bone parameters according to diabetic status

  5. Osteoblast-derived WNT16 represses osteoclastogenesis and prevents cortical bone fragility fractures

    PubMed Central

    Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Henning, Petra; Liu, Xianwen; Nagano, Kenichi; Saito, Hiroaki; Börjesson, Anna E; Sjögren, Klara; Windahl, Sara H; Farman, Helen; Kindlund, Bert; Engdahl, Cecilia; Koskela, Antti; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Eriksson, Emma E; Zaman, Farasat; Hammarstedt, Ann; Isaksson, Hanna; Bally, Marta; Kassem, Ali; Lindholm, Catharina; Sandberg, Olof; Aspenberg, Per; Sävendahl, Lars; Feng, Jian Q; Tuckermann, Jan; Tuukkanen, Juha; Poutanen, Matti; Baron, Roland; Lerner, Ulf H; Gori, Francesca; Ohlsson, Claes

    2015-01-01

    The WNT16 locus is a major determinant of cortical bone thickness and nonvertebral fracture risk in humans. The disability, mortality and costs caused by osteoporosis-induced nonvertebral fractures are enormous. We demonstrate here that Wnt16-deficient mice develop spontaneous fractures as a result of low cortical thickness and high cortical porosity. In contrast, trabecular bone volume is not altered in these mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that WNT16 is osteoblast derived and inhibits human and mouse osteoclastogenesis both directly by acting on osteoclast progenitors and indirectly by increasing expression of osteoprotegerin (Opg) in osteoblasts. The signaling pathway activated by WNT16 in osteoclast progenitors is noncanonical, whereas the pathway activated in osteoblasts is both canonical and noncanonical. Conditional Wnt16 inactivation revealed that osteoblast-lineage cells are the principal source of WNT16, and its targeted deletion in osteoblasts increases fracture susceptibility. Thus, osteoblast-derived WNT16 is a previously unreported key regulator of osteoclastogenesis and fracture susceptibility. These findings open new avenues for the specific prevention or treatment of nonvertebral fractures, a substantial unmet medical need. PMID:25306233

  6. Osteoblast-derived WNT16 represses osteoclastogenesis and prevents cortical bone fragility fractures.

    PubMed

    Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Henning, Petra; Liu, Xianwen; Nagano, Kenichi; Saito, Hiroaki; Börjesson, Anna E; Sjögren, Klara; Windahl, Sara H; Farman, Helen; Kindlund, Bert; Engdahl, Cecilia; Koskela, Antti; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Eriksson, Emma E; Zaman, Farasat; Hammarstedt, Ann; Isaksson, Hanna; Bally, Marta; Kassem, Ali; Lindholm, Catharina; Sandberg, Olof; Aspenberg, Per; Sävendahl, Lars; Feng, Jian Q; Tuckermann, Jan; Tuukkanen, Juha; Poutanen, Matti; Baron, Roland; Lerner, Ulf H; Gori, Francesca; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-11-01

    The WNT16 locus is a major determinant of cortical bone thickness and nonvertebral fracture risk in humans. The disability, mortality and costs caused by osteoporosis-induced nonvertebral fractures are enormous. We demonstrate here that Wnt16-deficient mice develop spontaneous fractures as a result of low cortical thickness and high cortical porosity. In contrast, trabecular bone volume is not altered in these mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that WNT16 is osteoblast derived and inhibits human and mouse osteoclastogenesis both directly by acting on osteoclast progenitors and indirectly by increasing expression of osteoprotegerin (Opg) in osteoblasts. The signaling pathway activated by WNT16 in osteoclast progenitors is noncanonical, whereas the pathway activated in osteoblasts is both canonical and noncanonical. Conditional Wnt16 inactivation revealed that osteoblast-lineage cells are the principal source of WNT16, and its targeted deletion in osteoblasts increases fracture susceptibility. Thus, osteoblast-derived WNT16 is a previously unreported key regulator of osteoclastogenesis and fracture susceptibility. These findings open new avenues for the specific prevention or treatment of nonvertebral fractures, a substantial unmet medical need. PMID:25306233

  7. A Piece of the Puzzle: The Bone Health Index of the BoneXpert Software Reflects Cortical Bone Mineral Density in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schündeln, Michael M.; Marschke, Laura; Bauer, Jens J.; Hauffa, Pia K.; Schweiger, Bernd; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Lahner, Harald; Poeppel, Thorsten D.; Kiewert, Cordula; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Grasemann, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Suspected osteopathology in chronically ill children often necessitates the assessment of bone mineral density. The most frequently used methods are dual-energy X-ray-absorption (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). The BoneXpert software provides an automated radiogrammatic method to assess skeletal age from digitalized X-rays of the left hand. Furthermore, the program calculates the Bone Health Index (BHI), a measure of cortical thickness and mineralization, which is obtained from indices of three metacarpal bones. In our study, we analyzed the manner in which BHI information provided by BoneXpert compares with DXA or pQCT measurements in youths. Study Design The BHI was retrospectively obtained using digitalized X-rays of the left hand and compared with the results of 203 corresponding DXA readings (Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare) of the lumbar vertebrae and femur as well as 117 pQCT readings (XCT 900, Stratec) of the distal radius. Results The BHI values showed a strong positive correlation with the DXA readings at each and all lumbar vertebrae (L1 –L4: r = 0.73; P < 0.0001). The age-adjusted Z-score of L1 –L4 and the height-adjusted score showed a positive correlation with the BHI-SDS (standard deviation score, r = 0.23; P < 0.002 and r = 0.27; P < 0.001, respectively). Total bone mineral density, as assessed via pQCT, also positively correlated with the BHI (r = 0.39; P < 0.0001), but the trabecular values displayed only a weak correlation. Conclusions The BHI obtained using BoneXpert can be a useful parameter in the assessment of bone health in children in most cases. This technique provides observer-independent information on cortical thickness and mineralization based on X-ray imaging of the hands. PMID:27014874

  8. Transcriptional profiling of cortical versus cancellous bone from mechanically-loaded murine tibiae reveals differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Natalie H; Schimenti, John C; Ross, F Patrick; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical loading is an anabolic stimulus that increases bone mass, and thus a promising method to counteract osteoporosis-related bone loss. The mechanism of this anabolism remains unclear, and needs to be established for both cortical and cancellous envelopes individually. We hypothesized that cortical and cancellous bone display different gene expression profiles at baseline and in response to mechanical loading. To test this hypothesis, the left tibiae of 10-week-old female C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to one session of axial tibial compression (9N, 1200cycles, 4Hz triangle waveform) and euthanized 3 and 24h following loading. The right limb served as the contralateral control. We performed RNA-seq on marrow-free metaphyseal samples from the cortical shell and the cancellous core to determine differential gene expression at baseline (control limb) and in response to load. Differential expression was verified with qPCR. Cortical and cancellous bone exhibited distinctly different transcriptional profiles basally and in response to mechanical loading. More genes were differentially expressed with loading at 24h with more genes downregulated at 24h than at 3h in both tissues. Enhanced Wnt signaling dominated the response in cortical bone at 3 and 24h, but in cancellous bone only at 3h. In cancellous bone at 24h many muscle-related genes were downregulated. These findings reveal key differences between cortical and cancellous genetic regulation in response to mechanical loading. Future studies at different time points and multiple loading sessions will add to our knowledge of cortical and cancellous mechanotransduction with the potential to identify new targets for mouse genetic knockout studies and drugs to treat osteoporosis. PMID:26876048

  9. Relationship Between the Thickness of Cortical Bone at Maxillary Mid-palatal Area and Facial Height Using CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Johari, Masume; Kaviani, Farzaneh; Saeedi, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Orthodontic mini-implants have been incorporated into orthodontic treatment modalities. Adequate bone at mini-implant placement site can influence the success or failure of anchorage. The present study was to determine the thickness of cortical bone in the maxillary mid-palatal area at predetermined points for the placement of orthodontic mini-implants using Cone Beam CT technique in order to evaluate the relationship of these values with the facial height. Materials and Methods : A total of 161 patients, consisting of 63 males (39.13%) and 98 females (60.87%), were evaluated in the present study; 38% of the subjects had normal facial height, 29% had short face and 33% had long face. In order to determine which patient belongs to which facial height category, i.e. normal, long or short, two angular and linear evaluations were used: the angle between S-N and Go-Me lines and the S-Go/N-Me ratio. Twenty points were evaluated in all the samples. First the incisive foramen was located. The paracoronal cross-sections were prepared at distances of 4, 8, 16 and 24 mm from the distal wall of the incisive foramen and on each cross-section the mid-sagittal and para-sagittal areas were determined bilaterally at 3- and 6-mm distances (a total of 5 points). The thicknesses of the cortical plate of bone were determined at the predetermined points. Results : There was a significant relationship between the mean cortical bone thickness and facial height (p<0.01), with significantly less thickness in long faces compared to short faces. However, the thickness of cortical bone in normal faces was similar to that in long and short faces. Separate evaluation of the points showed that at point a16 subjects with short faces had thicker cortical bone compared to subjects with long and normal faces. At point b8 in long faces, the thickness of the cortical bone was significantly less than that in short and normal faces. At point d8, the thickness of the cortical bone in

  10. Fracture length scales in human cortical bone: the necessity of nonlinear fracture models.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q D; Cox, Brian N; Nalla, Ravi K; Ritchie, R O

    2006-03-01

    Recently published data for fracture in human humeral cortical bone are analyzed using cohesive-zone models to deal with the nonlinear processes of material failure. Such models represent the nonlinear deformation processes involved in fracture by cohesive tractions exerted by the failing material along a fracture process zone, rather than attributing all damage to a process occurring at a single point, as in conventional linear-elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). The relationship between the tractions and the net displacement discontinuity across the process zone is hypothesized to be a material property for bone. To test this hypothesis, the cohesive law was evaluated by analyzing published load vs. load-point displacement data from one laboratory; the calibrated law was then used to predict similar data taken for a different source of bone using a different specimen geometry in a different laboratory. Further model calculations are presented to illustrate more general characteristics of the nonlinear fracture of bone and to demonstrate in particular that LEFM is not internally consistent for all cases of interest. For example, the fracture toughness of bone deduced via LEFM from test data is not necessarily a material constant, but will take different values for different crack lengths and test configurations. LEFM is valid when the crack is much longer than a certain length scale, representative of the length of the process zone in the cohesive model, which for human cortical bone ranges from 3 to 10mm. Since naturally occurring bones and the specimens used to test them are not much larger than this dimension for most relevant orientations, it is apparent that only nonlinear fracture models can give an internally consistent account of their fracture. The cohesive law is thus a more complete representation of the mechanics of material failure than the single-parameter fracture toughness and may therefore provide a superior measure of bone quality. The analysis of

  11. Glycation of Human Cortical and Cancellous Bone Captures Differences in the Formation of Maillard Reaction Products between Glucose and Ribose

    PubMed Central

    Sroga, Grażyna E.; Siddula, Alankrita; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    To better understand some aspects of bone matrix glycation, we used an in vitro glycation approach. Within two weeks, our glycation procedures led to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) at the levels that corresponded to approx. 25–30 years of the natural in vivo glycation. Cortical and cancellous bones from human tibias were glycated in vitro using either glucose (glucosylation) or ribose (ribosylation). Both glucosylation and ribosylation led to the formation of higher levels of AGEs and pentosidine (PEN) in cancellous than cortical bone dissected from all tested donors (young, middle-age and elderly men and women). More efficient glycation of bone matrix proteins in cancellous bone most likely depended on the higher porosity of this tissue, which facilitated better accessibility of the sugars to the matrix proteins. Notably, glycation of cortical bone from older donors led to much higher AGEs levels as compared to young donors. Such efficient in vitro glycation of older cortical bone could result from aging-related increase in porosity caused by the loss of mineral content. In addition, more pronounced glycation in vivo would be driven by elevated oxidation processes. Interestingly, the levels of PEN formation differed pronouncedly between glucosylation and ribosylation. Ribosylation generated very high levels of PEN (approx. 6- vs. 2.5-fold higher PEN level than in glucosylated samples). Kinetic studies of AGEs and PEN formation in human cortical and cancellous bone matrix confirmed higher accumulation of fluorescent crosslinks for ribosylation. Our results suggest that in vitro glycation of bone using glucose leads to the formation of lower levels of AGEs including PEN, whereas ribosylation appears to support a pathway toward PEN formation. Our studies may help to understand differences in the progression of bone pathologies related to protein glycation by different sugars, and raise awareness for excessive sugar supplementation in food

  12. The Bindex(®) ultrasound device: reliability of cortical bone thickness measures and their relationship to regional bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Martin; Felser, Sabine; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Pollex, Johannes; Skripitz, Ralf; Herlyn, Philipp K E; Fischer, Dagmar-C; Bruhn, Sven; Schober, Hans-Christof; Zschorlich, Volker; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The Bindex(®) quantitative ultrasound (QUS) device is currently available and this study analyzed (I) its relative and absolute intra- and inter-session reliability and (II) the relationship between the data provided by Bindex(®)-QUS and the bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at corresponding skeletal sites in young and healthy subjects (age: 25.0  ±  3.6 years). Bindex(®)-QUS calculates a density index on the basis of the thickness of cortical bone measured at the distal radius and the distal plus proximal tibia. The data show a very good relative and absolute intra- (ICC  =  0.977, CV  =  1.5%) and inter-session reliability (ICC  =  0.978, CV  =  1.4%) for the density index. The highest positive correlations were found between cortical thickness and BMD for the distal radius and distal tibia (r  ⩾  0.71, p  <  0.001). The data indicate that the Bindex(®)-QUS parameters are repeatable within and between measurement sessions. Furthermore, the measurements reflect the BMD at specific skeletal sites. Bindex(®)-QUS might be a useful tool for the measurement of skeletal adaptations. PMID:27511629

  13. Constant strain rate compression of bovine cortical bone on the Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar.

    PubMed

    Bekker, A; Cloete, T J; Chinsamy-Turan, A; Nurick, G N; Kok, S

    2015-01-01

    Cortical bone is a visco-elastic material which implies that strain rate will affect its response. Although the Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar is an accepted technique for determining the dynamic compressive properties of cortical bone it has been shown that the strain rate of compression does not remain constant throughout the duration of a classical experiment with a uniform striker. This raises concerns as to the measurement of smeared responses. This paper presents a shaped striker technique whereby the incident pulse can be shaped to attain a constant strain rate experiment for bovine bone. Shaped strikers offer benefits such as re-usability and increased test repeatability. A comparison of the stress-strain-strain rate responses attained through classical and constant strain rate experiments shows that the shape of the stress-strain curves from conventional experiments is adversely affected in the portion where the strain rate varies. The dynamic response corridors for the two tests are similar, however the ultimate properties are affected. It is concluded that the strain rate history should be presented with dynamic stress-strain responses since the instantaneous strain rate is a likely contributor to potential constitutive models. PMID:25492009

  14. Regional differences in oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial activity among cortical bone osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Frikha-Benayed, Dorra; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Majeska, Robert J; Schaffler, Mitchell B

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic oxidative stress has been implicated as a cause of osteocyte apoptosis, an essential step in triggering bone remodeling. However, little is known about the oxidative behavior of osteocytes in vivo. We assessed the redox status and distribution of total and active mitochondria in osteocytes of mouse metatarsal cortical bone in situ. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to measure fluorescence of reduced pyridine nucleotides (NADH) under normoxic conditions and acutely following extreme (postmortem) hypoxic stress. Under non-hypoxic conditions, osteocytes exhibited no detectable fluorescence, indicating rapid NADH re-oxidation. With hypoxia, NADH levels peaked and returned to near baseline levels over 3h. Cells near the periosteal surface reached maximum NADH levels twice as rapidly as osteocytes near the mid-cortex, due to the time required to initiate NADH accumulation; once started, NADH accumulation followed a similar exponential relationship at all sites. Osteocytes near periosteal and endosteal bone surfaces also had higher mitochondrial content than those in mid-cortex based on immunohistochemical staining for mitochondrial ATPase-5A (Complex V ATPase). The content of active mitochondria, assessed in situ using the potentiometric dye TMRM, was also high in osteocytes near periosteum, but low in osteocytes near endocortical surfaces, similar to levels in mid-cortex. These results demonstrate that cortical osteocytes maintain normal oxidative status utilizing mainly aerobic (mitochondrial) pathways but respond to hypoxic stress differently depending on their location in the cortex, a difference linked to mitochondrial content. An apparently high proportion of poorly functional mitochondria in osteocytes near endocortical surfaces, where increased apoptosis mainly occurs in response to bone remodeling stimuli, further suggest that regional differences in oxidative function may in part determine osteocyte susceptibility to undergo apoptosis in response

  15. Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance unambiguously quantifies pore and collagen-bound water in cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Henry H.; Wright, Alexander C.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2012-01-01

    Bone water (BW) plays a pivotal role in nutrient transport and conferring bone with its viscoelastic mechanical properties. BW is partitioned between the pore spaces of the Haversian and lacuno-canalicular system, and water predominantly bound to the matrix proteins (essentially collagen). The general model of BW is that the former predominantly experiences fast isotropic molecular reorientation, whereas water in the bone matrix undergoes slower anisotropic rotational diffusion. Here, we provide direct evidence for the correctness of this model and show that unambiguous quantification in situ of these two functionally and dynamically different BW fractions is possible. The approach chosen relies on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of deuterium (2H) that unambiguously separates and quantifies the two fractions on the basis of their distinguishing microdynamic properties. Twenty-four specimens of the human tibial cortex from six donors (3 male, 3 female, ages 27-83 years) were cored and 2H spectra recorded at 62 MHz (9.4 Tesla) on a Bruker Instruments DMX 400 spectrometer after exchange of native BW with 2H2O. Spectra consisted of a doublet signal resulting from quadrupole interaction of water bound to collagen. Doublet splittings were found to depend on the orientation of the osteonal axis with respect to the magnetic field direction (8.2 and 4.3 kHz for parallel and perpendicular orientation, respectively). In contrast, the isotropically reorienting pore-resident water yielded a single resonance line superimposed on the doublet. Nulling of the singlet resonance allowed separation of the two fractions. The results indicate that in human cortical bone 60-80% of detectable BW is collagen-bound. Porosity determined as the difference between total BW and collagen bound water fraction was found to strongly parallel μCT based measurements (R2 = 0.91). Our method provides means for direct validation of emerging relaxation-based measurements of cortical bone porosity by

  16. Osteogenic effect of a gastric pentadecapeptide, BPC-157, on the healing of segmental bone defect in rabbits: a comparison with bone marrow and autologous cortical bone implantation.

    PubMed

    Sebecić, B; Nikolić, V; Sikirić, P; Seiwerth, S; Sosa, T; Patrlj, L; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Konjevoda, P; Jadrijević, S; Perović, D; Slaj, M

    1999-03-01

    Gastrectomy often results in increased likelihood of osteoporosis, metabolic aberration, and risk of fracture, and there is a need for a gastric peptide with osteogenic activity. A novel stomach pentadecapeptide, BPC-157, improves wound and fracture healing in rats in addition to having an angiogenic effect. Therefore, in the present study, using a segmental osteoperiosteal bone defect (0.8 cm, in the middle of the left radius) that remained incompletely healed in all control rabbits for 6 weeks (assessed in 2 week intervals), pentadecapeptide BPC-157 was further studied (either percutaneously given locally [10 microg/kg body weight] into the bone defect, or applied intramuscularly [intermittently, at postoperative days 7, 9, 14, and 16 at 10 microg/kg body weight] or continuously [once per day, postoperative days 7-21 at 10 microg or 10 ng/kg body weight]). For comparison, rabbits percutaneously received locally autologous bone marrow (2 mL, postoperative day 7). As standard treatment, immediately after its formation, the bone defect was filled with an autologous cortical graft. Saline-treated (2 mL intramuscularly [i.m.] and 2 mL locally into the bone defect), injured animals were used as controls. Pentadecapeptide BPC-157 significantly improved the healing of segmental bone defects. For instance, upon radiographic assessment, the callus surface, microphotodensitometry, quantitative histomorphometry (10 microg/kg body weight i.m. for 14 days), or quantitative histomorphometry (10 ng/kg body weight i.m. for 14 days) the effect of pentadecapeptide BPC-157 was shown to correspond to improvement after local application of bone marrow or autologous cortical graft. Moreover, a comparison of the number of animals with unhealed defects (all controls) or healed defects (complete bony continuity across the defect site) showed that besides pentadecapeptide intramuscular application for 14 days (i.e., local application of bone marrow or autologous cortical graft), also

  17. The relation of microdamage to fracture and material property degradation in human cortical bone tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkus, Ozan

    This dissertation investigates the relation of microdamage to fracture and material property degradation of human cortical bone tissue. Fracture resistance and fatigue crack growth of microcracks were examined experimentally and material property degradation was examined through theoretical modeling. To investigate the contribution of microdamage to static fracture resistance, fracture toughness tests were conducted in the transverse and longitudinal directions to the osteonal orientation of normal bone tissue. Damage accumulation was monitored by acoustic emission during testing and was spatially observed by histological observation following testing. The results suggested that the propagation of the main crack involved weakening of the tissue by diffuse damage at the fracture plane and by formation of linear microcracks away from the fracture plane for the transverse specimens. For the longitudinal specimens, growth of the main crack occurred in the form of separations at lamellar interfaces. Acoustic emission results supported the histological observations. To investigate the contribution of ultrastructure to static fracture resistance, fracture toughness tests were conducted after altering the collagen phase of the bone tissue by gamma radiation. A significant decrease in the fracture toughness, Work-to-Fracture and the amount damage was observed due to irradiation in both crack growth directions. For cortical bone irradiated at 27.5kGy, fracture toughness is reduced due to the inhibition of damage formation at and near the crack tip. Microcrack fatigue crack growth and arrest were investigated through observations of surface cracks during cyclic loading. At the applied cyclic stresses, the microcracks propagated and arrested in less than 10,000 cycles. In addition, the microcracks were observed not to grow beyond a length of 150mum and a DeltaK of 0.5MNm-3/2, supporting a microstructural barrier concept. Finally, the contribution of linear microcracks to

  18. Selective laser melting-produced porous titanium scaffolds regenerate bone in critical size cortical bone defects.

    PubMed

    Van der Stok, Johan; Van der Jagt, Olav P; Amin Yavari, Saber; De Haas, Mirthe F P; Waarsing, Jan H; Jahr, Holger; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Patka, Peter; Verhaar, Jan A N; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2013-05-01

    Porous titanium scaffolds have good mechanical properties that make them an interesting bone substitute material for large bone defects. These scaffolds can be produced with selective laser melting, which has the advantage of tailoring the structure's architecture. Reducing the strut size reduces the stiffness of the structure and may have a positive effect on bone formation. Two scaffolds with struts of 120-µm (titanium-120) or 230-µm (titanium-230) were studied in a load-bearing critical femoral bone defect in rats. The defect was stabilized with an internal plate and treated with titanium-120, titanium-230, or left empty. In vivo micro-CT scans at 4, 8, and 12 weeks showed more bone in the defects treated with scaffolds. Finally, 18.4 ± 7.1 mm(3) (titanium-120, p = 0.015) and 18.7 ± 8.0 mm(3) (titanium-230, p = 0.012) of bone was formed in those defects, significantly more than in the empty defects (5.8 ± 5.1 mm(3) ). Bending tests on the excised femurs after 12 weeks showed that the fusion strength reached 62% (titanium-120) and 45% (titanium-230) of the intact contralateral femurs, but there was no significant difference between the two scaffolds. This study showed that in addition to adequate mechanical support, porous titanium scaffolds facilitate bone formation, which results in high mechanical integrity of the treated large bone defects. PMID:23255164

  19. Deformable image registration and 3D strain mapping for the quantitative assessment of cortical bone microdamage.

    PubMed

    Christen, David; Levchuk, Alina; Schori, Stefan; Schneider, Philipp; Boyd, Steven K; Müller, Ralph

    2012-04-01

    The resistance to forming microcracks is a key factor for bone to withstand critical loads without fracturing. In this study, we investigated the initiation and propagation of microcracks in murine cortical bone by combining three-dimensional images from synchrotron radiation-based computed tomography and time-lapsed biomechanical testing to observe microdamage accumulation over time. Furthermore, a novel deformable image registration procedure utilizing digital volume correlation and demons image registration was introduced to compute 3D strain maps allowing characterization of the mechanical environment of the microcracks. The displacement and strain maps were validated in a priori tests. At an image resolution of 740 nm the spatial resolution of the strain maps was 10 μm (MTF), while the errors of the displacements and strains were 130 nm and 0.013, respectively. The strain maps revealed a complex interaction of the propagating microcracks with the bone microstructure. In particular, we could show that osteocyte lacunae play a dual role as stress concentrating features reducing bone strength, while at the same time contributing to the bone toughness by blunting the crack tip. We conclude that time-lapsed biomechanical imaging in combination with three-dimensional strain mapping is suitable for the investigation of crack initiation and propagation in many porous materials under various loading scenarios. PMID:22402165

  20. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONSHIP OF TISSUE BEHAVIOR WITH DAMAGE ACCUMULATION OF HUMAN CORTICAL BONE

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qing; Leng, Huijie; Acuna, Rae; Dong, Xuanliang; Rong, Qiguo; Wang, Xiaodu

    2010-01-01

    Microdamage accumulation has been identified as a major conduit for bone tissues to absorb fracture energy. Due to the poor understanding of its underlying mechanism, however, an adequate constitutive relationship between damage accumulation and the mechanical behavior of bone has not yet been established. In this study, the constitutive relationship between the damage accumulation induced by overload and the evolution of mechanical properties of bone with incremental deformation was established based on the experimental results obtained from a novel progressive loading protocol developed in our laboratory. First, a decayed exponential model was proposed to capture the damage accumulation (modulus loss) with increasing applied strain. Next, a power law function was proposed to represent the progression of plastic deformation with damage accumulation. Finally, a linear combination of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function and Debye function was used to depict the viscoelastic behavior of bone associated with damage accumulation. The results of this study may help develop a constitutive model for predicting the mechanical behavior of cortical bone tissues. PMID:20472239

  1. Novel anatomic adaptation of cortical bone to meet increased mineral demands of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Macica, Carolyn M; King, Helen E; Wang, Meina; McEachon, Courtney L; Skinner, Catherine W; Tommasini, Steven M

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of reproductive adaptations to mineral homeostasis on the skeleton in a mouse model of compromised mineral homeostasis compared to adaptations in control, unaffected mice. During pregnancy, maternal adaptations to high mineral demand include more than doubling intestinal calcium absorption by increasing calcitriol production. However, calcitriol biosynthesis is impaired in HYP mice, a murine model of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). In addition, there is a paucity of mineralized trabecular bone, a primary target of bone resorption during pregnancy and lactation. Because the highest density of mineral is in mature cortical bone, we hypothesized that mineral demand is met by utilizing intracortical mineral reserves. Indeed, analysis of HYP mice revealed dramatic increases in intracortical porosity characterized by elevated serum PTH and type-I collagen matrix-degrading enzyme MMP-13. We discovered an increase in carbonate ion substitution in the bone mineral matrix during pregnancy and lactation of HYP mice, suggesting an alternative mechanism of bone remodeling that maintains maternal bone mass during periods of high mineral demand. This phenomenon is not restricted to XLH, as increased carbonate in the mineral matrix also occurred in wild-type mice during lactation. Taken together, these data suggest that increased intracortical perilacunar mineral turnover also contributes to maintaining phosphate levels during periods of high mineral demand. Understanding the mechanisms of skeletal contribution to mineral homeostasis is important to improving the treatment and prevention of fracture risk and bone fragility for female patients with XLH, but also provides important insight into the role and unique adaptations of the maternal skeleton to the demands of fetal development and the needs of postnatal nutrition. PMID:26825813

  2. Ultrastructural and Nanomechanical Studies of Fresh Bovine and Human Cortical Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Kuangshin; Ortiz, Christine

    2003-03-01

    Cortical bone is a classic example of a complex hierarchical biocomposite with structural features ranging from the mm to the nm scale. Nanoscale ultrastructural and mechanical studies can provide important insights into molecular mechanisms of fracture, resorption, disease, and aging. Fresh adult compact bovine and human bone from the tibia metaphysis and diaphysis were polished down to a 0.05 mm grit size (AlO), partially demineralized with a 42.5etch, followed by 24 hrs of rehydration in phosphate buffered saline (IS=0.15M, pH7.4). Tapping mode atomic force microscopy in air was employed to directly visualize the detailed morphology of osteons, lacunae, canaliculi, cement lines, Haversian canals, type I collagen fibrils, and apatite crystals. Ongoing nanomechanical experiments include high-resolution chemical force spectroscopy with nanosized probe tips functionalized with self-assembled monolayers containing charged end groups (e.g. NH3+, COO-) and nanoindentation.

  3. Fracture properties of growth plate cartilage compared to cortical and trabecular bone in ovine femora.

    PubMed

    Tschegg, E K; Celarek, A; Fischerauer, S F; Stanzl-Tschegg, S; Weinberg, A M

    2012-10-01

    Fracture mechanical parameters (notch tensile strength, specific fracture energy/crack resistance and specific crack initiation energy) of epiphyseal plate cartilage, trabecular bone (metaphysis) and cortical bone (diaphysis) were determined on ovine femur specimens. The fracture behaviour before and after crack initiation was recorded in force-displacement diagrams from wedge splitting tests. Crack propagation was stable both during and after the formation of a principal crack. This is the main advantage of the wedge-splitting method by Tschegg in comparison with tensile tests. Microscopy of the epiphyseal plate during fracture showed fibre elongation and tearing in the crack tip region. The results of this study can help to understand the mechanics of epiphyseal plate injuries and the obtained values can be used for computational simulations and models. PMID:23022566

  4. Avalanche criticality during compression of porcine cortical bone of different ages.

    PubMed

    Baró, Jordi; Shyu, Peter; Pang, Siyuan; Jasiuk, Iwona M; Vives, Eduard; Salje, Ekhard K H; Planes, Antoni

    2016-05-01

    Crack events developed during uniaxial compression of cortical bones cut from femurs of developing pigs of several ages (4, 12, and 20 weeks) generate avalanches. These avalanches have been investigated by acoustic emission analysis techniques. The avalanche energies are power-law distributed over more than four decades. Such behavior indicates the absence of characteristic scales and suggests avalanche criticality. The statistical distributions of energies and waiting times depend on the pig age and indicate that bones become stronger, but less ductile, with increasing age. Crack propagation is equally age-dependent. Older pigs show, on average, larger cracks with a time distribution similar to those of aftershocks in earthquakes, while younger pigs show only statistically independent failure events. PMID:27300967

  5. Some studies on the composition of bovine cortical-bone sialoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, A. T. De B.; Herring, G. M.; Kent, P. W.

    1967-01-01

    1. An analysis of bovine bone sialoprotein, a homogeneous glycoprotein isolated from cortical bone, is presented. 2. Analytical results agree with earlier physical measurements indicating a molecular weight of about 23000. 3. Mild acid hydrolysis and treatment with neuraminidase showed that fucose and sialic acid occupy terminal positions on oligosaccharide chains. 4. Treatment of the sialic acid-free glycoprotein with β-galactosidase showed that much of the galactose occupies a sub-terminal location in the intact glycoprotein. 5. The polypeptide chain is rich in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, threonine and glycine, and has no detectable free terminal amino group. 6. Glycopeptides were studied after proteolytic digestion. 7. It is considered that the carbohydrate moiety is highly branched and is probably linked by an acid- and alkali-stable glycosylamine bond involving aspartic acid. PMID:6049914

  6. Avalanche criticality during compression of porcine cortical bone of different ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baró, Jordi; Shyu, Peter; Pang, Siyuan; Jasiuk, Iwona M.; Vives, Eduard; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Planes, Antoni

    2016-05-01

    Crack events developed during uniaxial compression of cortical bones cut from femurs of developing pigs of several ages (4, 12, and 20 weeks) generate avalanches. These avalanches have been investigated by acoustic emission analysis techniques. The avalanche energies are power-law distributed over more than four decades. Such behavior indicates the absence of characteristic scales and suggests avalanche criticality. The statistical distributions of energies and waiting times depend on the pig age and indicate that bones become stronger, but less ductile, with increasing age. Crack propagation is equally age-dependent. Older pigs show, on average, larger cracks with a time distribution similar to those of aftershocks in earthquakes, while younger pigs show only statistically independent failure events.

  7. Effect of trabecular bone loss on cortical strain rate during impact in an in vitro model of avian femur

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Tal; Gefen, Amit

    2006-01-01

    Background Osteoporotic hip fractures occur due to loss of cortical and trabecular bone mass and consequent degradation in whole bone strength. The direct cause of most fractures is a fall, and hence, characterizing the mechanical behavior of a whole osteopenic bone under impact is important. However, very little is known about the mechanical interactions between cortical and trabecular bone during impact, and it is specifically unclear to what extent epiphyseal trabecular bone contributes to impact resistance of whole bones. We hypothesized that trabecular bone serves as a structural support to the cortex during impact, and hence, loss of a critical mass of trabecular bone reduces internal constraining of the cortex, and, thereby, decreases the impact tolerance of the whole bone. Methods To test this hypothesis, we conducted cortical strain rate measurements in adult chicken's proximal femora subjected to a Charpy impact test, after removing different trabecular bone core masses to simulate different osteopenic severities. Results We found that removal of core trabecular bone decreased by ~10-fold the cortical strain rate at the side opposite to impact (p < 0.01), i.e. from 359,815 ± 1799 μm/m per second (mean ± standard error) for an intact (control) specimen down to 35,997 ± 180 μm/m per second where 67% of the total trabecular bone mass (~0.7 grams in adult chicken) were removed. After normalizing the strain rate by the initial weight of bone specimens, a sigmoid relation emerged between normalized strain rate and removed mass of trabecular bone, showing very little effect on the cortex strain rate if below 10% of the trabecular mass is removed, but most of the effect was already apparent for less than 30% trabecular bone loss. An analytical model of the experiments supported this behavior. Conclusion We conclude that in our in vitro avian model, loss of over 10% of core trabecular bone substantially altered the deformation response of whole bone to impact

  8. Cortical Bone Water Concentration: Dependence of MR Imaging Measures on Age and Pore Volume Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Seifert, Alan C.; Rad, Hamidreza Saligheh; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Sun, Wenli; Lam, Shing Chun Benny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To quantify bulk bone water to test the hypothesis that bone water concentration (BWC) is negatively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) and is positively correlated with age, and to propose the suppression ratio (SR) (the ratio of signal amplitude without to that with long-T2 suppression) as a potentially stronger surrogate measure of porosity, which is evaluated ex vivo and in vivo. Materials and Methods Human subject studies were conducted in compliance with institutional review board and HIPAA regulations. Healthy men and women (n = 72; age range, 20–80 years) were examined with a hybrid radial ultrashort echo time magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence at 3.0 T, and BWC was determined in the tibial midshaft. In a subset of 40 female subjects, the SR was measured with a similar sequence. Cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD) was measured by means of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (CT). The method was validated against micro-CT–derived porosity in 13 donor human cortical bone specimens. Associations among parameters were evaluated by using standard statistical tools. Results BWC was positively correlated with age (r = 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22, 0.73; P = .002) and negatively correlated with vBMD at the same location (r = −0.57; 95% CI: −0.76, −0.29; P < .001). Data were suggestive of stronger associations with SR (r = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.81, P < .001 for age; r = −0.67, 95% CI: −0.82, −0.43, P < .001 for vBMD; P < .001 for both), indicating that SR may be a more direct measure of porosity. This interpretation was supported by ex vivo measurements showing SR to be strongly positively correlated with micro-CT porosity (r = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.96; P < .001) and with age (r = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.96; P < .001). Conclusion The MR imaging–derived SR may serve as a biomarker for cortical bone porosity that is potentially superior to BWC, but corroboration in larger cohorts is indicated. © RSNA, 2014 PMID

  9. The effect of sterilization on the dynamic mechanical properties of paired rabbit cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Russell, Nick; Rives, Alain; Bertollo, Nicky; Pelletier, Matthew Henry; Walsh, William Robert

    2013-06-21

    The optimal sterilization method for load bearing allografts remains a clinical concern. Recently, supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatments have been shown to be capable of terminally sterilizing a range of bacteria and viruses, while preserving the static mechanical properties of cortical bone. This study evaluated the effect of SCCO2 treatment compared with two doses of gamma irradiation, on clinically relevant dynamic mechanical properties of cortical bone. Quasi-static testing was also performed to compare the impairment of treatment. Whole paired adult rabbit humeri were dissected and randomly assigned into either SCCO2 Control, SCCO2 Additive or gamma irradiation at 10 or 25kGy treatment groups. The bones were treated and mechanically tested in three-point bending, with the lefts acting as controls for the treated rights. Maximum load, energy to failure and stiffness were evaluated from static tests. The number of cycles to failure was determined for fatigue at 6-60% of the ultimate load. This study found that SCCO2 treatment with or without additive did not alter static or dynamic mechanical properties. Gamma irradiation had a deleterious dose dependent effect, with statistically significant (p<0.05) reductions in all static mechanical parameters at 25kGy. This effect was increased in fatigue with statistically significant decreases in both the 10 and 25kGy dose groups. This study highlights the expediency of SCCO2 treatment for load bearing bone allograft processing as terminal sterilization can be achieved while maintaining both the quasi-static and dynamic mechanical properties of the graft. PMID:23664240

  10. Periosteal PTHrP Regulates Cortical Bone Remodeling During Fracture Healing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meina; Nasiri, Ali R; Broadus, Arthur E; Tommasini, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is widely expressed in the fibrous outer layer of the periosteum (PO), and the PTH/PTHrP type I receptor (PTHR1) is expressed in the inner PO cambial layer. The cambial layer gives rise to the PO osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs) that model/remodel the cortical bone surface during development as well as during fracture healing. PTHrP has been implicated in the regulation of PO modeling during development, but nothing is known as regards a role of PTHrP in this location during fracture healing. We propose that PTHrP in the fibrous layer of the PO may be a key regulatory factor in remodeling bone formation during fracture repair. We first assessed whether PTHrP expression in the fibrous PO is associated with PO osteoblast induction in the subjacent cambial PO using a tibial fracture model in PTHrP-lacZ mice. Our results revealed that both PTHrP expression and osteoblast induction in PO were induced 3 days post-fracture. We then investigated a potential functional role of PO PTHrP during fracture repair by performing tibial fracture surgery in 10-week-old CD1 control and PTHrP conditional knockout (PTHrP cKO) mice that lack PO PTHrP. We found that callus size and formation as well as woven bone mineralization in PTHrP cKO mice were impaired compared to that in CD1 mice. Concordant with these findings, functional enzyme staining revealed impaired OB formation and OC activity in the cKO mice. We conclude that deleting PO PTHrP impairs cartilaginous callus formation, maturation and ossification as well as remodeling during fracture healing. These data are the initial genetic evidence suggesting that PO PTHrP may induce osteoblastic activity and regulate fracture healing on the cortical bone surface. PMID:26164475

  11. Lack of deleterious effect of slow-release sodium fluoride treatment on cortical bone histology and quality in osteoporotic patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, J. E.; Antich, P. P.; Sakhaee, K.; Prior, J.; Gonzales, J.; Gottschalk, F.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of intermittent slow-release sodium fluoride (SRNaF) and continuous calcium citrate therapy on cortical bone histology, reflection ultrasound velocity (material strength) and back-scattered electron image analysis (BEI) in 26 osteoporotic patients before and following therapy. All measurements were made on transiliac crest bone biopsies obtained before and following 2 years of therapy in each patient. For all 26 patients there were no significant changes in cortical bone histomorphometric parameters. In 15 patients in whom bone material quality was assessed by reflection ultrasound, there was no change in velocity (4000 +/- 227 SD to 4013 +/- 240 m/s). BEI disclosed no mineralization defects or the presence of woven bone. Mean atomic number (density) of bone increased slightly, but significantly (9.261 +/- 0.311 to 9.457 +/- 0.223, P = 0.031). While these changes are less marked than those observed for cancellous bone, they indicate that this form of therapy does not adversely affect cortical bone remodelling.

  12. Induction of fully stabilized cortical bone defects to study intramembranous bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Razidlo, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bone is a regenerative tissue with an innate ability to self-remodel in response to environmental stimuli and the need to repair damage. Rodent models of fracture healing, and in particular genetic mouse models, can be used to study the contributions of specific molecular switches to skeletal repair, as well as to recreate and exacerbate biological development and repair mechanisms in postnatal skeletons. Here, we describe methodology for producing fully stabilized, single-cortex defects in mouse femurs to study mechanisms of intramembranous bone regeneration. PMID:25331051

  13. Early injury to cortical and cancellous bone from induction chemotherapy for adolescents and young adults treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Orgel, E; Mueske, N M; Wren, T A L; Gilsanz, V; Butturini, A M; Freyer, D R; Mittelman, S D

    2016-04-01

    Diminished bone density and skeletal fractures are common morbidities during and following therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). While cumulative doses of osteotoxic chemotherapy for ALL have been reported to adversely impact bone density, the timing of onset of this effect as well as other changes to bone structure is not well characterized. We therefore conducted a prospective cohort study in pre-adolescent and adolescent patients (10-21years) newly diagnosed with ALL (n=38) to explore leukemia-related changes to bone at diagnosis and the subsequent impact of the first phase of chemotherapy ("Induction"). Using quantitative computerized tomography (QCT), we found that pre-chemotherapy bone properties were similar to age- and sex-matched controls. Subsequently over the one month Induction period, however, cancellous volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) decreased markedly (-26.8%, p<0.001) with sparing of cortical vBMD (tibia -0.0%, p=0.860, femur -0.7%, p=0.290). The tibia underwent significant cortical thinning (average cortical thickness-1.2%, p<0.001; cortical area-0.4%, p=0.014), while the femur was less affected. Areal BMD (aBMD) concurrently measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) underestimated changes from baseline as compared to vBMD. Biochemical evidence revealed prevalent Vitamin D insufficiency and a net resorptive state at start and end of Induction. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that significant alterations to cancellous and cortical bone develop during the first month of treatment, far earlier during ALL therapy than previously considered. Given that osteotoxic chemotherapy is integral to curative regimens for ALL, these results provide reason to re-evaluate traditional approaches toward chemotherapy-associated bone toxicity and highlight the urgent need for investigation into interventions to mitigate this common adverse effect. PMID:26851412

  14. Studies on deformational behavior of miniaturized cortical bone specimens using finite element simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, N. K.; Sehgal, D. K.; Pandey, R. K.

    2014-10-01

    Miniature specimen test technique provides a way of obtaining mechanical properties of components or structures while consuming an amount of material that is very small relative to that required for full-size conventional specimen. This technique is very helpful especially in the case of bone mechanics as bone properties are heterogeneous and anisotropic in nature and it is difficult to obtain standard size of specimen for mechanical testing. In the present study an effort is made to simulate punch specimen setup using mechanical properties of the cortical femur bone material for miniature specimen while considering its nature to be transversely isotropic. The samples were taken in both longitudinal as well as transverse direction. The various load displacement curves and contour profiles obtained for different thicknesses of the miniature specimen using finite element simulation were compared with each other. The values of load at breakaway point were obtained for different cases of miniature specimen. It is anticipated that these values can be further used to evaluate yield strength of the bone material in different cases.

  15. Analysis of micro fracture in human Haversian cortical bone under compression.

    PubMed

    Jonvaux, J; Hoc, T; Budyn, E

    2012-09-01

    A procedure to investigate local stress intensity factors in human Haversian cortical bone under compression is presented. The method combines a customised experimental setting for micro-compression tests of millimetric bone specimens and a finite element contact model conforming to the bone morphology that tracks advancing microcracks. The non-interpenetration conditions along the crack edges are ensured by penalty constraints of which the parameters are optimised for minimum contact pressure error with respect to the crack orientations. A cohesive crack opening law is implemented in the wake of the crack tips to remain consistent with the progressive tearing of collagen fibrils. The displacement solution is searched by a Newton-Raphson scheme containing a double loop first on the displacements and second on the frictional contact and cohesive condition updates at the crack interfaces. The experimental Dirichlet boundary conditions are acquired by digital image cross-correlation of bone light microscopy observations and then imported into the model. The local mechanical elastic moduli are measured by nanoindentation and microextensometry. The comparison of the macroscopic stress-strain numerical response with the experiment reveals the existence of narrow diffuse damaged zones near the major cracks where the local stress intensity factors can be calculated. PMID:22941926

  16. Effect of aging on the toughness of human cortical bone:Evaluation by R-curves

    SciTech Connect

    Nalla, Ravi K.; Kruzic, Jamie J.; Kinney, John H.; Ritchie,Robert O.

    2005-04-05

    Age-related deterioration of the fracture properties ofbone, coupled with increased life expectancy, is responsible forincreasing incidence of bone fracture in the elderly, and hence, anunderstanding of how its fracture properties degrade with age isessential. The present study describes ex vivo fracture experiments toquantitatively assess the effect of aging on the fracture toughnessproperties of human cortical bone in the longitudinal direction. Becausecortical bone exhibits rising crack-growth resistance with crackextension, unlike most previous studies, the toughness is evaluated interms of resistance-curve (R-curve) behavior, measured for bone takenfrom wide range of age groups (34-99 years). Using this approach, boththe ex vivo crack-initiation and crack-growth toughness are determinedand are found to deteriorate with age; the initiation toughness decreasessome 40 percent over 6 decades from 40 to 100 years, while the growthtoughness is effectively eliminated over the same age range. Thereduction in crack-growth toughness is considered to be associatedprimarily with a degradation in the degree of extrinsic toughening, inparticular, involving crack bridging in the wake of thecrack.

  17. Nanoscale Examination of Microdamage in Sheep Cortical Bone Using Synchrotron Radiation Transmission X-Ray Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Garry R.; Kim, Grace; Ingraffea, Anthony R.; Andrews, Joy C.; Pianetta, Piero; van der Meulen, Marjolein C. H.

    2013-01-01

    Microdamage occurs in bone through repeated and excessive loading. Accumulation of microdamage weakens bone, leading to a loss of strength, stiffness and energy dissipation in the tissue. Imaging techniques used to examine microdamage have typically been limited to the microscale. In the current study microdamage was examined at the nanoscale using transmission x-ray microscopy with an x-ray negative stain, lead-uranyl acetate. Microdamage was generated in notched and unnotched beams of sheep cortical bone (2×2×20 mm), with monotonic and fatigue loading. Bulk sections were removed from beams and stained with lead-uranyl acetate to identify microdamage. Samples were sectioned to 50 microns and imaged using transmission x-ray microscopy producing projection images of microdamage with nanoscale resolution. Staining indicated microdamage occurred in both the tensile and compressive regions. A comparison between monotonic and fatigue loading indicated a statistically significant greater amount of stain present in fatigue loaded sections. Microdamage occurred in three forms: staining to existing bone structures, cross hatch damage and a single crack extending from the notch tip. Comparison to microcomputed tomography demonstrated differences in damage morphology and total damage between the microscale and nanoscale. This method has future applications for understanding the underlying mechanisms for microdamage formation as well as three-dimensional nanoscale examination of microdamage. PMID:23472121

  18. Propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang Il; Choi, Bok Kyoung

    2014-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom. The velocities of the guided waves in a 5-mm-thick acrylic plate were measured by using the axial transmission technique. A pure A0 Lamb mode could be successfully launched in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate through a time reversal process of Lamb waves, consistent with the fact that the time reversal process can automatically compensate for the dispersive nature of Lamb waves. The experimental velocities of the slow guided wave (SGW) and the time-reversed Lamb wave were found to be in reasonable agreement with the theoretical group velocity of the A0 Lamb mode, suggesting that both the SGW and the time-reversed Lamb wave excited in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate correspond to the A0 Lamb mode. These results suggest that the time reversal process of Lamb waves can be usefully applied to noninvasive characterization of long cortical bones.

  19. Geometric-attributes-based segmentation of cortical bone slides using optimized neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hage, Ilige S; Hamade, Ramsey F

    2016-05-01

    In cortical bone, solid (lamellar and interstitial) matrix occupies space left over by porous microfeatures such as Haversian canals, lacunae, and canaliculi-containing clusters. In this work, pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNN) were used to automatically distinguish the microfeatures present in histology slides of cortical bone. The networks' parameters were optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO). When forming the fitness functions for the PSO, we considered the microfeatures' geometric attributes-namely, their size (based on measures of elliptical perimeter or area), shape (based on measures of compactness or the ratio of minor axis length to major axis length), and a two-way combination of these two geometric attributes. This hybrid PCNN-PSO method was further enhanced for pulse evaluation by combination with yet another method, adaptive threshold (AT), where the PCNN algorithm is repeated until the best threshold is found corresponding to the maximum variance between two segmented regions. Together, this framework of using PCNN-PSO-AT constitutes, we believe, a novel framework in biomedical imaging. Using this framework and extracting microfeatures from only one training image, we successfully extracted microfeatures from other test images. The high fidelity of all resultant segments was established using quantitative metrics such as precision, specificity, and Dice indices. PMID:26104115

  20. Overexpression of DMP1 Accelerates Mineralization and Alters Cortical Bone Biomechanical Properties in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Ankush; Albazzaz, Michael; Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A.; Inoue, Nozomu; Miller, Lisa M.; Acerbo, Alvin; George, Anne; Sumner, Dale R.

    2011-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) is a key regulator of biomineralization. Here, we examine changes in structural, geometric, and material properties of cortical bone in a transgenic mouse model overexpressing DMP1. Micro-computed tomography and three-point bending were performed on 90 femora of wild type and transgenic mice at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. Fourier transform infrared imaging was performed at 2 months. We found that the transgenic femurs were longer (p<0.01), more robust in cross-section (p<0.05), stronger (p<0.05), but had less post-yield strain and displacement (p<0.01), and higher tissue mineral density (p<0.01) than the wild type femurs at 1 and 2 months. At 2 months, the transgenic femurs also had a higher mineral-to-matrix ratio (p<0.05) and lower carbonate substitution (p<0.05) compared to wild type femurs. These findings indicate that increased mineralization caused by overexpressing DMP1 led to increased structural cortical bone properties associated with decreased ductility during the early post-natal period. PMID:22100074

  1. Experimental multiscale measurements for the mechanical identification of a cortical bone by digital image correlation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Manh-Tu; Allain, Jean-Marc; Gharbi, Hakim; Desceliers, Christophe; Soize, Christian

    2016-10-01

    The implementation of the experimental methodology by optical measurements of mechanical fields, the development of a test bench, the specimen preparation, the experimental measurements, and the digital image correlation (DIC) method, have already been the object of research in the context of biological materials. Nevertheless, in the framework of the experimental identification of a mesoscopic stochastic model of the random apparent elasticity field, measurements of one specimen is required at both the macroscopic scale and the mesoscopic scale under one single loading. The nature of the cortical bone induces some difficulties, as no single speckled pattern technique is available for simultaneously obtaining the displacement at the macroscopic scale and at the mesoscopic scale. In this paper, we present a multiscale experimental methodology based on (i) an experimental protocol for one specimen of a cortical bone, (ii) its measuring bench, (iii) optical field measurements by DIC method, (iv) the experimental results, and (v) the multiscale experimental identification by solving a statistical inverse problem. PMID:27348148

  2. Assessment of the effect of reduced compositional heterogeneity on fracture resistance of human cortical bone using finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Demirtas, Ahmet; Curran, Erin; Ural, Ani

    2016-10-01

    The recent reports of atypical femoral fracture (AFF) and its possible association with prolonged bisphosphonate (BP) use highlighted the importance of a thorough understanding of mechanical modifications in bone due to bisphosphonate treatment. The reduced compositional heterogeneity is one of the modifications in bone due to extensive suppression of bone turnover. Although experimental evaluations suggested that compositional changes lead to a reduction in the heterogeneity of elastic properties, there is limited information on the extent of influence of reduced heterogeneity on fracture resistance of cortical bone. As a result, the goal of the current study is to evaluate the influence of varying the number of unique elastic and fracture properties for osteons, interstitial bone, and cement lines on fracture resistance across seven different human cortical bone specimens using finite element modeling. Fracture resistance of seven human cortical bone samples under homogeneous and three different heterogeneous material levels was evaluated using a compact tension test setup. The simulation results predicted that the crack volume was the highest for the models with homogeneous material properties. Increasing heterogeneity resulted in a lower amount of crack volume indicating an increase in fracture resistance of cortical bone. This reduction was observed up to a certain level of heterogeneity after which further beneficial effects of heterogeneity diminished suggesting a possible optimum level of heterogeneity for the bone tissue. The homogeneous models demonstrated limited areas of damage with extensive crack formation. On the other hand, the heterogeneity in the material properties led to increased damage volume and a more variable distribution of damage compared to the homogeneous models. This resulted in uncracked regions which tended to have less damage accumulation preventing extensive crack propagation. The results also showed that the percent osteonal area

  3. Comparison of mechanical and ultrasound elastic modulus of ovine tibial cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Grant, Caroline A; Wilson, Lance J; Langton, Christian; Epari, Devakar

    2014-07-01

    Finite element models of bones can be created by deriving geometry from an X-ray CT scan. Material properties such as the elastic modulus can then be applied using either a single or set of homogeneous values, or individual elements can have local values mapped onto them. Values for the elastic modulus can be derived from the CT density values using an elasticity versus density relationship. Many elasticity-density relationships have been reported in the literature for human bone. However, while ovine in vivo models are common in orthopaedic research, no work has been done to date on creating FE models of ovine bones. To create these models and apply relevant material properties, an ovine elasticity-density relationship needs to be determined. Using fresh frozen ovine tibias the apparent density of regions of interest was determined from a clinical CT scan. The bones were the sectioned into cuboid samples of cortical bone from the regions of interest. Ultrasound was used to determine the elastic modulus in each of three directions - longitudinally, radially and tangentially. Samples then underwent traditional compression testing in each direction. The relationships between apparent density and both ultrasound, and compression modulus in each direction were determined. Ultrasound testing was found to be a highly repeatable non-destructive method of calculating the elastic modulus, particularly suited to samples of this size. The elasticity-density relationships determined in the longitudinal direction were very similar between the compression and ultrasound data over the density range examined. A clear difference was seen in the elastic modulus between the longitudinal and transverse directions of the bone samples, and a transverse elasticity-density relationship is also reported. PMID:24793408

  4. The effect of strain rate on fracture toughness of human cortical bone: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Ural, Ani; Zioupos, Peter; Buchanan, Drew; Vashishth, Deepak

    2011-10-01

    Evaluating the mechanical response of bone under high loading rates is crucial to understanding fractures in traumatic accidents or falls. In the current study, a computational approach based on cohesive finite element modeling was employed to evaluate the effect of strain rate on fracture toughness of human cortical bone. Two-dimensional compact tension specimen models were simulated to evaluate the change in initiation and propagation fracture toughness with increasing strain rate (range: 0.08-18 s(-1)). In addition, the effect of porosity in combination with strain rate was assessed using three-dimensional models of micro-computed tomography-based compact tension specimens. The simulation results showed that bone's resistance against the propagation of a crack decreased sharply with increase in strain rates up to 1 s(-1) and attained an almost constant value for strain rates larger than 1 s(-1). On the other hand, initiation fracture toughness exhibited a more gradual decrease throughout the strain rates. There was a significant positive correlation between the experimentally measured number of microcracks and the fracture toughness found in the simulations. Furthermore, the simulation results showed that the amount of porosity did not affect the way initiation fracture toughness decreased with increasing strain rates, whereas it exacerbated the same strain rate effect when propagation fracture toughness was considered. These results suggest that strain rates associated with falls lead to a dramatic reduction in bone's resistance against crack propagation. The compromised fracture resistance of bone at loads exceeding normal activities indicates a sharp reduction and/or absence of toughening mechanisms in bone during high strain conditions associated with traumatic fracture. PMID:21783112

  5. Precision of nanoindentation protocols for measurement of viscoelasticity in cortical and trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Hanna; Nagao, Shijo; Małkiewicz, Marta; Julkunen, Petro; Nowak, Roman; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2010-08-26

    Nanoindentation has recently gained attention as a characterization technique for mechanical properties of biological tissues, such as bone, on the sub-micron level. However, optimal methods to characterize viscoelastic properties of bones are yet to be established. This study aimed to compare the time-dependent viscoelastic properties of bone tissue obtained with different nanoindentation methods. Bovine cortical and trabecular bone samples (n=8) from the distal femur and proximal tibia were dehydrated, embedded and polished. The material properties determined using nanoindentation were hardness and reduced modulus, as well as time-dependent parameters based on creep, loading-rate, dissipated energy and semi-dynamic testing under load control. Each loading protocol was repeated 160 times and the reproducibility was assessed based on the coefficient of variation (CV). Additionally, three well-characterized polymers were tested and CV values were calculated for reference. The employed methods were able to characterize time-dependent viscoelastic properties of bone. However, their reproducibility varied highly (CV 9-40%). The creep constant increased with increasing dwell time. The reproducibility was best with a 30s creep period (CV 18%). The dissipated energy was stable after three repeated load cycles, and the reproducibility improved with each cycle (CV 23%). The viscoelastic properties determined with semi-dynamic test increased with increase in frequency. These measurements were most reproducible at high frequencies (CV 9-10%). Our results indicate that several methods are feasible for the determination of viscoelastic properties of bone material. The high frequency semi-dynamic test showed the highest precision within the tested nanoindentation protocols. PMID:20478559

  6. Individual-specific multi-scale finite element simulation of cortical bone of human proximal femur

    SciTech Connect

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Kardas, Dieter; Nackenhorst, Udo; Keyak, Joyce H.

    2013-07-01

    We present an innovative method to perform multi-scale finite element analyses of the cortical component of the femur using the individual’s (1) computed tomography scan; and (2) a bone specimen obtained in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. The method enables study of micro-structural characteristics regulating strains and stresses under physiological loading conditions. The analysis of the micro-structural scenarios that cause variation of strain and stress is the first step in understanding the elevated strains and stresses in bone tissue, which are indicative of higher likelihood of micro-crack formation in bone, implicated in consequent remodeling or macroscopic bone fracture. Evidence that micro-structure varies with clinical history and contributes in significant, but poorly understood, ways to bone function, motivates the method’s development, as does need for software tools to investigate relationships between macroscopic loading and micro-structure. Three applications – varying region of interest, bone mineral density, and orientation of collagen type I, illustrate the method. We show, in comparison between physiological loading and simple compression of a patient’s femur, that strains computed at the multi-scale model’s micro-level: (i) differ; and (ii) depend on local collagen-apatite orientation and degree of calcification. Our findings confirm the strain concentration role of osteocyte lacunae, important for mechano-transduction. We hypothesize occurrence of micro-crack formation, leading either to remodeling or macroscopic fracture, when the computed strains exceed the elastic range observed in micro-structural testing.

  7. Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography of fatigue microdamage accumulation in human cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Matthew D; Li, Jiliang; Turnbull, Travis L; Burr, David B; Niebur, Glen L; Roeder, Ryan K

    2011-03-01

    Conventional methods used to image and quantify microdamage accumulation in bone are limited to histological sections, which are inherently invasive, destructive, two-dimensional, and tedious. These limitations inhibit investigation of microdamage accumulation with respect to volumetric spatial variation in mechanical loading, bone mineral density, and microarchitecture. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate non-destructive, three-dimensional (3-D) detection of microdamage accumulation in human cortical bone using contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and to validate micro-CT measurements against conventional histological methods. Unloaded controls and specimens loaded in cyclic uniaxial tension to a 5% and 10% reduction in secant modulus were labeled with a precipitated BaSO₄ stain for micro-CT and basic fuchsin for histomorphometry. Linear microcracks were similarly labeled by BaSO₄ and basic fuchsin as shown by backscattered electron microscopy and light microscopy, respectively. The higher X-ray attenuation of BaSO₄ relative to the bone extracellular matrix provided enhanced contrast for the detection of damage that was otherwise not able to be detected by micro-CT prior to staining. Therefore, contrast-enhanced micro-CT was able to nondestructively detect the presence, 3-D spatial location, and accumulation of fatigue microdamage in human cortical bone specimens in vitro. Microdamage accumulation was quantified on segmented micro-CT reconstructions as the ratio of BaSO₄ stain volume (SV) to total bone volume (BV). The amount of microdamage measured by both micro-CT (SV/BV) and histomorphometry (Cr.N, Cr.Dn, Cr.S.Dn) progressively increased from unloaded controls to specimens loaded to a 5% and 10% reduction in secant modulus (p < 0.001). Group means for micro-CT measurements of damage accumulation were strongly correlated to those using histomorphometry (p < 0.05), validating the new methods. Limitations of the new

  8. The Behavior of Water in Collagen and Hydroxyapatite Sites of Cortical Bone: Fracture, Mechanical Wear, and Load Bearing Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gul-E-Noor, Farhana; Singh, Chandan; Papaioannou, Antonios; Sinha, Neeraj; Boutis, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cortical bone, which is largely comprised of collagen, hydroxyapatite, and water, are known to hinge on hydration. Recently, the characteristics of water in bone have drawn attention as potential markers of bone quality. We report on the dynamics, diffusion, population, and exchange of water in cortical bone by NMR relaxation and diffusion methodologies. Relaxation measurements over timescales ranging from 0.001 to 4.2 s reveal two distinguishable water environments. Systematic exposure to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or collagenase reveals one peak in our 2D relaxation map belonging to water present in the hydroxyapatite rich environment, and a second peak with shorter relaxation times arising from a collagen rich site. Diffusion-T2 measurements allowed for direct measurement of the diffusion coefficient of water in all observable reservoirs. Further, deuterium relaxation methods were applied to study cortical bone under an applied force, following mechanical wear or fracture. The tumbling correlation times of water reduce in all three cases, indicating that water dynamics may be used as a probe of bone quality. Lastly, changes in the relative populations and correlation times of water in bone under an applied force suggest that load bearing occurs largely in the collagen rich environment and is reversible. PMID:26659838

  9. Statistical shape analysis of clavicular cortical bone with applications to the development of mean and boundary shape models.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2013-09-01

    During car collisions, the shoulder belt exposes the occupant's clavicle to large loading conditions which often leads to a bone fracture. To better understand the geometric variability of clavicular cortical bone which may influence its injury tolerance, twenty human clavicles were evaluated using statistical shape analysis. The interior and exterior clavicular cortical bone surfaces were reconstructed from CT-scan images. Registration between one selected template and the remaining 19 clavicle models was conducted to remove translation and rotation differences. The correspondences of landmarks between the models were then established using coordinates and surface normals. Three registration methods were compared: the LM-ICP method; the global method; and the SHREC method. The LM-ICP registration method showed better performance than the global and SHREC registration methods, in terms of compactness, generalization, and specificity. The first four principal components obtained by using the LM-ICP registration method account for 61% and 67% of the overall anatomical variation for the exterior and interior cortical bone shapes, respectively. The length was found to be the most significant variation mode of the human clavicle. The mean and two boundary shape models were created using the four most significant principal components to investigate the size and shape variation of clavicular cortical bone. In the future, boundary shape models could be used to develop probabilistic finite element models which may help to better understand the variability in biomechanical responses and injuries to the clavicle. PMID:23810082

  10. Cortical Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    El-Maouche, Diala; Collier, Suzanne; Prasad, Mala; Reynolds, James C; Merke, Deborah P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies reveal that bone mineral density (BMD) in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is mostly in the osteopenic range and is associated with lifetime glucocorticoid dose. The forearm, a measure of cortical bone density, has not been evaluated. Objective We aimed to evaluate BMD at various sites, including the forearm, and the factors associated with low BMD in CAH patients. Methods Eighty CAH adults (47 classic, 33 nonclassic) underwent dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry and laboratory and clinical evaluation. BMD Z-scores at the AP spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearm, and whole body were examined in relation to phenotype, body mass index, current glucocorticoid dose, average 5-year glucocorticoid dose, vitamin D, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Results Reduced BMD (T-score < −1 at hip, spine, or forearm) was present in 52% and was more common in classic than nonclassic patients (P = .005), with the greatest difference observed at the forearm (P = .01). Patients with classic compared to nonclassic CAH, had higher 17-hydroxyprogesterone (P = .005), lower DHEAS (P = .0002), and higher non-traumatic fracture rate (P = .0005). In a multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, sex, height standard deviation, phenotype, and cumulative glucocorticoid exposure, higher DHEAS was independently associated with higher BMD at the spine, radius, and whole body. Conclusion Classic CAH patients have lower BMD than nonclassic patients, with the most affected area being the forearm. This first study of forearm BMD in CAH patients suggests that low DHEAS may be associated with weak cortical bone independent of glucocorticoid exposure. PMID:24862755