Sample records for cortisol adrenocorticotropic hormone

  1. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    del Rosario González-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle. PMID:22210998

  2. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Independent Cushing Syndrome with Bilateral Cortisol-Secreting Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Eu Jeong; Hong, A Ram; Kim, Ye An; Bae, Jae Hyun; Chang, Mee Soo

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was incidentally found to have bilateral adrenal masses, 2.8 cm in diameter on the right, and 2.3 cm and 1.7 cm in diameter on the left, by abdominal computed tomography. The patient had a medical history of hypertension, which was not being controlled by carvedilol, at a dose of 25 mg daily. She presented with signs and symptoms that suggested Cushing Syndrome. We diagnosed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing Syndrome based on the results of basal and dynamic hormone tests. Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) was performed to localize a functioning adrenal cortical mass. AVS results were consistent with hypersecretion of cortisol from both adrenal glands, with a cortisol lateralization ratio of 1.1. Upon bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy, bilateral ACTH-independent adrenal adenomas were found. The patient's signs and symptoms of Cushing Syndrome improved after surgery just as the blood pressure was normalized. After surgery, the patient was started on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy. PMID:24396667

  3. Technical note: comparison of salivary and serum cortisol concentrations after adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge in ewes.

    PubMed

    Yates, D T; Ross, T T; Hallford, D M; Yates, L J; Wesley, R L

    2010-02-01

    An ACTH challenge was conducted to determine if salivary cortisol concentration reflects serum cortisol concentration in ewes. Twelve yearling ewes (64.0 +/- 1.2 kg) were administered ACTH (100 IU, intravenously) or saline. Serum and salivary samples were collected at 30-min intervals for 2 h before ACTH administration, at 15-min intervals for 2 h after treatment, and at 30-min intervals for an additional 3 h, and cortisol concentration was determined by RIA. Although ewes responded to ACTH and saline, cortisol concentration was greater (P < 0.001) in ACTH-treated ewes from 15 to 120 min and tended to be greater (P = 0.054) at 150 min after challenge in serum. In saliva, cortisol concentration was greater (P < 0.001) in ACTH-treated ewes from 30 to 120 min and tended to be greater (P = 0.092) at 15 min after challenge. No difference was observed between ACTH-treated ewes and controls for time to peak serum cortisol concentration (P = 0.126) and time to peak salivary cortisol concentration (P = 0.109), or between saliva and serum for time to peak cortisol concentration (P = 0.220) and return to baseline cortisol concentration (P = 0.341). The serum (P = 0.009) and salivary (P = 0.050) cortisol areas under the curve between 0 and 150 min were greater for ACTH-treated ewes than controls, and serum (P = 0.002) and salivary (P < 0.001) cortisol return to baseline concentration was longer for ACTH-treated ewes. The correlation coefficient between serum and salivary cortisol concentrations was 0.88 (P < 0.001). These data indicate that salivary cortisol concentration is closely related to serum cortisol concentration and that the former may represent a suitable noninvasive alternative to blood collection for measurement of cortisol in sheep. PMID:19854993

  4. Increased cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone in chronically stressed pigs: influence of housing conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cede J. J. G. Janssens; F. A. Helmond; V. M. Wiegant

    1994-01-01

    In a longitudinal experiment, the influence of tethered housing (a condition of chronic stress) on the reactivity of the adrenal cortex to exogenous ACTH was investigated in gilts. To that end, the plasma cortisol response to synthetic ACTH (1-24; 10 pgkg of BW; i.v. bolus injection via a permanent catheter) was determined before and after prolonged tethered housing. Two systems

  5. ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the adrenal glands are functioning normally, then cortisol levels will rise with the ACTH stimulation. If cortisol levels don' ... metapyrone). Some drugs and conditions can cause ACTH levels to rise, including amphetamines, insulin, levodopa, metoclopramide, and RU 486. ...

  6. Adrenocorticotropic hormone but not high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or salivary cortisol was a predictor of adrenal insufficiency in patients with septic shock.

    PubMed

    Festti, Josiane; Grion, Cintia Magalhães Carvalho; Festti, Luciana; Mazzuco, Tânia Longo; Lima-Valassi, Helena Pantelion; Brito, Vinícius Nahime; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Carrilho, Alexandre José Faria

    2014-07-01

    Relative adrenal insufficiency in sepsis has been extensively debated on; however, accurate diagnosis and therapeutic intervention remain controversial. The authors aimed to evaluate adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), salivary cortisol, total cortisol and estimated plasma-free cortisol, cholesterol, and lipoproteins as predictors of adrenal insufficiency in patients within 24 h of septic shock diagnosis. This prospective study evaluated all hospitalized patients older than 18 years who developed septic shock and were using vasoactive drugs within 24 h of diagnosis. Blood and saliva samples were drawn at baseline and 60 min (T60) after 250 ?g tetracosactide intravenous injection. Patients were divided into two groups: responders (? [T60 minus baseline] total cortisol >9 ?g/dL) and nonresponders (? total cortisol ? 9 ?g/dL or baseline total cortisol <10 ?g/dL). The latter group was considered to have adrenal insufficiency. A total of 7,324 hospitalized patients were monitored, and 34 subjects with septic shock were included in the analysis. Adrenal insufficiency was found in 32.4%. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and salivary cortisol did not differ between groups. Estimated plasma-free cortisol was not better than total plasma cortisol in estimating adrenal function. Baseline endogenous ACTH was higher in nonresponders than responders (55.5 pg/mL vs. 18.3 pg/mL, respectively; P = 0.01). The cutoff ACTH value that discriminated patients with adrenal insufficiency was 31.5 pg/mL. Thus, endogenous ACTH measured within 24 h of septic shock diagnosis could predict adrenal response to tetracosactide. PMID:24667620

  7. High-end normal adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels are associated with specific cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric obesity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and in particular cortisol, has been reported to be involved in obesity-associated metabolic disturbances in adults and in selected populations of adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between morning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese Caucasian children and adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study of 450 obese children and adolescents (aged 4 to 18 years) was performed in a tertiary referral center. ACTH, cortisol, cardiovascular risk factors (fasting and post-challenge glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, and hypertension) and insulin resistance were evaluated. All analyses were corrected for confounding factors (sex, age, puberty, body mass index), and odds ratios were determined. Results ACTH and cortisol levels were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin resistance. Cortisol, but not ACTH, was also positively associated with LDL-cholesterol. When adjusted for confounding factors, an association between ACTH and 2 h post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose was revealed. After stratification according to cardiovascular risk factors and adjustment for possible confounding factors, ACTH levels were significantly higher in subjects with triglycerides ?90th percentile (P <0.02) and impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (P <0.001). Higher cortisol levels were found in subjects with blood pressure ?95th percentile and LDL-cholesterol ?90th percentile. Overall, the highest tertiles of ACTH (>5.92 pmol/l) and cortisol (>383.5 nmol/l) although within the normal range were associated with increases in cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Conclusions In obese children and adolescents, high morning ACTH and cortisol levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. High ACTH levels are associated with high triglyceride levels and hyperglycemia, while high cortisol is associated with hypertension and high LDL-cholesterol. These specific relationships suggest complex mechanisms through which the HPA axis may contribute to metabolic impairments in obesity, and merit further investigations. PMID:23425018

  8. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

  13. Aldosterone-to-renin and cortisol-to-adrenocorticotropic hormone ratios in healthy dogs and dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Shahram; Galac, Sara; Boer, Peter; Robben, Joris H; Teske, Erik; Kooistra, Hans S

    2006-01-01

    In dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism, hypocortisolism and hypoaldosteronism usually are present, but these deficiencies also may occur in isolated forms. The diagnosis is commonly made by measuring plasma cortisol concentration before and after stimulation with ACTH, thereby ignoring aldosterone. In search of an alternative approach that would include assessment of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid production, 2 pairs of endocrine variables were measured: (1) plasma concentration of cortisol and ACTH, and (2) plasma aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity. In addition, the cortisol-to-ACTH ratio (CAR) and the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) were calculated. Reference intervals were established in a population of 60 healthy dogs. In these dogs, CAR ranged from 1.1 to 26.1 and ARR ranged from 0.1 to 1.5. The variables were compared with those of 22 dogs with spontaneous primary hypoadrenocorticism. Plasma concentration of cortisol and ACTH in both groups of dogs overlapped, whereas CAR did not. Similarly, plasma aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity overlapped, whereas ARR did not. These observations indicate that measurement of these endogenous variables (in one blood sample) allows the specific diagnoses of primary hypocortisolism and primary hypoaldosteronism. PMID:16734089

  14. Cellular/Molecular Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Enhances the Masculinity of

    E-print Network

    Stoddard, Philip

    potential; excitability; plasticity; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); electric organ; cAMP; stressCellular/Molecular Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Enhances the Masculinity of an Electric by which weakly electric fish couple socially regulated and stress-regulated brain pathways to unique

  15. Case of adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with possible adrenal hypersensitivity to angiotensin II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshio Nakamura; Yonsu Son; Yasuhiro Kohno; Dai Shimono; Naomitsu Kuwamura; Hiroyuki Koshiyama; Hironobu Sasano; Tadashi Matsuda

    2001-01-01

    With increasing case reports, it has been indicated that some cases with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent macronodular\\u000a adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) show abnormal responses in cortisol to various stimulation tests. Here we report a case of AIMAH\\u000a that showed an aberrant response to angiotensin II via AT1 receptor in cortisol hypersecretion. A 53-yr-old man was admitted\\u000a to our division seeking further examinations

  16. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Dependent Cushing’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El-Shafie, Omayma T.; Al-Saffi, Nooralddin; Al-Sajwani, Ahmed; Woodhouse, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) overproduction is usually due to a pituitary tumour which is often not visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, ACTH overproduction may be due to an ectopic source. This study aimed to develop a simple non-invasive technique to differentiate these sources. Methods: This study took place in King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between 1988 and 2012. Serum cortisol levels were measured in nine patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome before and during a 72-hour trial of octreotide. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) scans. MRI scans were performed on six patients. Results: CT scans were abnormal in three patients with ectopic ACTH production. MRI scans showed that three patients had pituitary microadenomas. Serum cortisol levels returned to normal in those with confirmed ectopic ACTH production. No response was found in the other six patients. Conclusion: A 72-hour trial of octreotide is recommended for patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome and a normal pituitary MRI. This trial will be a useful alternative to petrosal sinus sampling. PMID:25685371

  17. Effect of physical training on the responses of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone during prolonged exhausting exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izumi Tabata; Yoriko Atomi; Yoshiteru Mutoh; Mitsumasa Miyashita

    1990-01-01

    Summary  The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training on the responses of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentration during low-intensity prolonged exercise. Five subjects who had fasted for 12 h cycled at the same absolute intensity that elicited 50% of pre-training maximal oxygen uptake (\\u000a$$\\\\dot V$$\\u000aO2max), either until exhaustion or for up

  18. Abnormal adrenal responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone in hyperandrogenic women.

    PubMed

    Gibson, M; Lackritz, R; Schiff, I; Tulchinsky, D

    1980-01-01

    The plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone (D), androstenedione (A), pregnenolone (delta 5P), progesterone (P), 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17-delta 5P), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-P), 11-deoxycortisol (S), and cortisol (F) were measured before, and 30 and 60 minutes after, a bolus intravenous injection of 25 units of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in nine normal women and in fifteen patients with a variety of manifestations of androgen excess. Patients with androgen excess demonstrated significantly higher mean baseline levels of T, D, A, delta 5P, 17-delta 5P, and 17-P. After a bolus intravenous injection of 25 units of ACTH, higher-than-normal increments were noted for the following steroids: delta 5P (one patient), 17-delta 5P (one patient), D (two patients), P (one patients), 17-P (two patients), and S (two patients). Following ACTH injections, the ratios of increments in plasma steroid pairs were computed to estimate the efficiency of several adrenal enzymes, and evidence suggesting partial deficiency of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase delta 4-5 isomerase (five patients) and 11 beta-hydroxylase (five patients) was found. In addition, 6 of the 15 patients with androgen excess exhibited an abnormally high increment in D relative to the increment in F. The data show that apparent abnormalities in adrenal steroid biosynthesis are a frequent occurrence in patients with hyperandrogenism. PMID:6243265

  19. A case of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency: a rare but possible cause of hypercalcemia

    PubMed Central

    Harano, Yumi; Kitano, Atsuko; Akiyama, Yurika; Kotajima, Lisa; Honda, Kazufumi; Arioka, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of epigastric pain, nausea, and weight loss. One year before, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. During the postoperative chemotherapy, she developed epigastric pain and nausea. As a result, she gradually lost 12 kg of her body weight. We performed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, which revealed mild erosive gastritis. After the treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, her symptoms persisted. Before the admission, mild hypercalcemia was pointed out. Fluid replacement didn’t improve hypercalcemia. We assessed adrenocortical function, which showed that her serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone were decreased. Through loading tests, we established diagnosis of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency. She was treated with hydrocortisone. Soon after the treatment, her serum calcium level returned to normal and her symptoms improved. In a case of hypercalcemia unresponsive to fluid replacement, we recommend ruling out adrenal insufficiency after excluding more common diseases which induce hypercalcemia. PMID:25870516

  20. Case of adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with possible adrenal hypersensitivity to angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Son, Y; Kohno, Y; Shimono, D; Kuwamura, N; Koshiyama, H; Sasano, H; Matsuda, T

    2001-06-01

    With increasing case reports, it has been indicated that some cases with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) show abnormal responses in cortisol to various stimulation tests. Here we report a case of AIMAH that showed an aberrant response to angiotensin II via AT1 receptor in cortisol hypersecretion. A 53-yr-old man was admitted to our division seeking further examinations for the possible diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. He had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and physical stigmata, such as moon face and central obesity. His plasma ACTH level was undetectable, and plasma cortisol level was high. Plasma cortisol showed no normal diurnal rhythm and was not suppressed after the administration of 8 mg of dexamethasone. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated nodular enlargement of bilateral adrenal glands. He was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome owing to AIMAH. An injection of arginine vasopressin (AVP) increased plasma cortisol and aldosterone levels, whereas ACTH remained undetectable. After 4 h in an upright position, plasma cortisol and aldosterone levels were increased. Pretreatment with candesartan, angiotensin II receptor AT1 antagonist, blocked the increase in plasma cortisol level. These results suggested a possibility of adrenal hypersensitivity to angiotensin II and AVP in cortisol secretion. Bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. The histological findings of the specimen were compatible with AIMAH. In summary, we have made the first report on a case of AIMAH with possible hypersensitivity to angiotensin II. PMID:11572327

  1. Cortisol blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a steroid (glucocorticoid) hormone produced by the adrenal gland. Cortisol can also be measured using a urine ... is a glucocorticoid (steroid) hormone released from the adrenal gland in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This is ...

  2. Cortisol urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a steroid (glucocorticoid) hormone produced by the adrenal gland. Cortisol can also be measured using a blood ... is a glucocorticoid (steroid) hormone released from the adrenal gland in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH ). This is ...

  3. Enhanced Suppression of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Responses to Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function and Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Tests after Stressful Life Events in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takatoshi Hikichi; Jotaro Akiyoshi; Shugo Ichioka; Yoshihiro Tanaka; Jusen Tsuru; Shinjirou Goto; Hirotaka Matsushita; Hiroaki Hanada; Koichi Isogawa; Haruo Nagayama

    2007-01-01

    Background: It is commonly believed that there exists a relationship between the outcome of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test, the combined dexamethasone\\/corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX\\/CRH) test and stressful life events (SLEs) in major depressive disorder. Objective: SLEs influence the TRH and DEX\\/CRH tests in major depressive disorder when administered at the time of admission and improvement. Methods: The TRH and DEX\\/CRH tests

  4. Adrenocorticotropic hormone versus prednisolone in the treatment of infantile spasms post vigabatrin failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kevin; Snead, O Carter; Boyd, Jennifer; Go, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The Child Neurology Society/American Academy of Neurology practice parameter has recommended adrenocorticotropic hormone or vigabatrin in the short-term treatment of infantile spasms. When vigabatrin is unavailable or ineffective and adrenocorticotropic hormone is not a treatment option because of the prohibitive cost, other forms of corticosteroids have been considered in the treatment of infantile spasms. This retrospective study reviewed the Hospital for Sick Children's experience with the short-term effectiveness of prednisolone versus adrenocorticotropic hormone in patients with infantile spasms who have failed vigabatrin. The results showed that while adrenocorticotropic hormone was more likely to lead to short-term spasm freedom, there was no difference in the likelihood of longer-term spasm resolution without relapse. These findings can guide clinicians in the treatment of infantile spasms post vigabatrin failure. PMID:24965788

  5. Effects of shipping, handling, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and epinephrine on alpha-tocopherol content of bovine blood.

    PubMed

    Sconberg, S; Nockels, C F; Bennett, B W; Bruyninckx, W; Blancquaert, A M; Craig, A M

    1993-08-01

    In 2 studies, plasma, erythrocyte, and neutrophil alpha-tocopherol concentrations were monitored in beef cattle after shipping, handling, and sample collection. On the basis of alpha-tocopherol results, an additional 2 studies were designed to measure the effects of administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and epinephrine on the alpha-tocopherol concentration in the aforementioned blood constituents and on creatine kinase (CK) activity in Holstein calves. In the first of these studies, 15 beef cattle that had recently arrived at the feedlot consumed feed supplemented daily with 1,000 IU of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Values for initial blood samples indicated that CK activity was high. Although plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration indicated that vitamin supplementation was adequate, RBC and neutrophil alpha-tocopherol values were generally nondetectable. After 4 weeks of supplementation, plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration increased (P < 0.05), and neutrophil and RBC alpha-tocopherol values became measurable in most of the cattle. In the second study, 6 beef heifers had decreased (P < 0.05) plasma, RBC, and neutrophil alpha-tocopherol values after multiple periods of handling and blood sample collection. In the third and fourth studies, 10 tamed Holstein heifer calves, 5 of which were administered ACTH and epinephrine to simulate stress effects on blood alpha-tocopherol concentrations and CK activity. In study 3, the vitamin E-adequate heifers had increased blood CK (P < 0.001) activity and cortisol (P < 0.01) concentration, and decreased (P < 0.05) neutrophil alpha-tocopherol concentration after hormone injections.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8214897

  6. System identification of cortisol secretion : characterizing pulsatile dynamics

    E-print Network

    Faghih, Rose Taj

    2014-01-01

    Cortisol controls the body's metabolism and response to inflammation and stress. Cortisol is released in pulses from the adrenal glands in response to pulses of adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH) released from the anterior ...

  7. Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone production

    PubMed Central

    Nagarur, Amulya; Kerr, Darcy A.; Lauter, Kelly B.; Padmanabhan, Arun; Raghavan, Srivatsan; Pallais, Juan C.; Fenves, Andrew Z.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a 71-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, lower-extremity edema, recent unintentional weight loss, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Serum cortisol levels remained elevated after overnight high-dose dexamethasone suppression. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small mass in the head of the pancreas with scattered liver metastases. Both endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic biopsy and liver biopsy revealed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor. These lesions did not show significant uptake on octreotide scan. Medical management and hepatic artery chemoembolization were attempted. Ultimately, the patient underwent bilateral adrenalectomy, but died within 4 months of symptom onset secondary to postoperative complications. PMID:25552797

  8. Positive gallium scan in the syndrome of opsoclonus-myoclonus treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Gumbinas; Edward S. Gratz; Gerald S. Johnston; Allen D. Schwartz

    1984-01-01

    The syndrome of opsoclonus and myoclonus may be the first presenting symptom of neuroblastoma. The disorder is often controlled by treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). A child with this disorder and treated with ACTH gel had abnormal uptake of ⁶⁷Ga in both adrenal glands during studies to attempt to detect an occult neuroblastoma. Repeat ⁶⁷Ga scans proved to be normal

  9. Early hyperbaric oxygen therapy inhibits aquaporin 4 and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with blast-induced craniocerebral injury?

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Jian; Liu, Jiachuan; Wang, Jinbiao; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Chunlin; Yang, Yanyan; Sun, Wenjiang; Xu, Shaonian

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, rabbits were treated with hyperbaric oxygen for 1 hour after detonator-blast- induced craniocerebral injury. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly reduced aquaporin 4 expression and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with craniocerebral injury. Aquaporin 4 expression was positively correlated with adrenocorticotropic hormone expression. These findings indicate that early hyperbaric oxygen therapy may suppress adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion by inhibiting aquaporin 4 expression. PMID:25624795

  10. Effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and insulin on the phagocytic capacity of Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Köhidai, L; Lovas, B; Csaba, G

    1995-06-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and insulin negatively influenced the phagocytic activity of Tetrahymena. The two hormones had diverse effects after 4 hr of treatments on no-test-particle containing, "0-cells". At this time the number of "0 cells" was significantly lower in the ACTH-treated groups, while in the insulin-treated groups there was an increase of "0-cells" compared to the control and to the results of the starting experiment. Considering previous results, when small molecular weight hormones, if did at all, positively influenced phagocytosis in Tetrahymena, the experiments call the attention to the differences caused by the size of the signal molecules. In the light of the literary data on hormone effects to phagocytosis in mammals and men, the similarity of the effects in species being very far from each other in evolution, could be concluded. PMID:7580811

  11. Positive gallium scan in the syndrome of opsoclonus-myoclonus treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Gumbinas, M.; Gratz, E.S.; Johnston, G.S.; Schwartz, A.D.

    1984-09-01

    The syndrome of opsoclonus and myoclonus may be the first presenting symptom of neuroblastoma. The disorder is often controlled by treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). A child with this disorder and treated with ACTH gel had abnormal uptake of /sup 67/Ga in both adrenal glands during studies to attempt to detect an occult neuroblastoma. Repeat /sup 67/Ga scans proved to be normal once the ACTH was discontinued and the patient was treated with prednisone. It is concluded that ACTH stimulation of normal adrenal tissue was responsible for these abnormal findings.

  12. [Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-producing Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor Presenting as Cushing Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Daisuke; Sawada, Takahiro; Ebisui, Osamu; Kito, Katsumi; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    The patient was a 57-year-old female who felt muscle weakness and visited a physician. Hypokalemia was pointed out, and she was referred to our hospital for detailed examination and treatment. Hormone-related tests and imaging were performed, and the patient was diagnosed as Cushing syndrome. Moreover, an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing tumor was suspected. The whole body was examined to find a tumor, but no apparent lesion was found, except for a small nodule of 5-mm in size was present in the right middle pulmonary lobe on chest computed tomography (CT). It was decided to perform surgical resection for both diagnosis and treatment. Pathological diagnosis was a typical carcinoid. On immunostaining, ACTH-positive cells were detected, and the lesion was definitely diagnosed as an ectopic ACTH-producing tumor. Since the ACTH level after surgery returned to normal, the lesion was concluded to be completely excised. PMID:25743348

  13. Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency due to probable lymphocytic hypophysitis in a woman

    PubMed Central

    Kacem, Faten Hadj; Charfi, Nadia; Mnif, Mouna Feki; Kamoun, Mahdi; Akid, Faouzi; Mnif, Fatma; Naceur, Basma Ben; Rekik, Nabila; Mnif, Zainab; Abid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    We report a 22-year-old woman who presented with asthenia, weight loss and hypotension in which extensive pituitary and adrenal investigations were diagnostic of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (IAD) of pituitary origin. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamus and pituitary showed a normal-sized pituitary, with no mass lesion. The diagnosis of IAD probably secondary to lymphocytic hypophysitis (LYH) was made. IAD is able to be the way of presentation of LYH, although the disease could or could not turn into a panhypopituitarism. Prompt recognition of this potentially fatal condition is important because of the availability of effective treatment. Indeed, regular endocrine and imaging follow up is important for patients with IAD and normal initial pituitary imaging results to detect early new-onset pituitary hormones deficiencies or imaging abnormalities. PMID:24251125

  14. Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency due to probable lymphocytic hypophysitis in a woman.

    PubMed

    Kacem, Faten Hadj; Charfi, Nadia; Mnif, Mouna Feki; Kamoun, Mahdi; Akid, Faouzi; Mnif, Fatma; Naceur, Basma Ben; Rekik, Nabila; Mnif, Zainab; Abid, Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    We report a 22-year-old woman who presented with asthenia, weight loss and hypotension in which extensive pituitary and adrenal investigations were diagnostic of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (IAD) of pituitary origin. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamus and pituitary showed a normal-sized pituitary, with no mass lesion. The diagnosis of IAD probably secondary to lymphocytic hypophysitis (LYH) was made. IAD is able to be the way of presentation of LYH, although the disease could or could not turn into a panhypopituitarism. Prompt recognition of this potentially fatal condition is important because of the availability of effective treatment. Indeed, regular endocrine and imaging follow up is important for patients with IAD and normal initial pituitary imaging results to detect early new-onset pituitary hormones deficiencies or imaging abnormalities. PMID:24251125

  15. Modulation of the Oxidative Burst in Trout Myeloid Cells by Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Catecholamines: Mechanisms of Action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Bayne; Sharon Levy

    The oxidative burst of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) phagocytes was previously found to be differentially modulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the catecholamine receptor agonists phenylephrine and isoproterenol. From data obtained using both luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LECL) and ferricytochrome C (cyt C) reduction to measure oxidative burst kinetics, we postulated that the observed modula- tion was mediated by affects on enzymes

  16. Space weightlessness and hormonal changes in human subjects and experimental animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from spaceflight and bed rest studies are briefly described and the difficulties in interpreting these results are discussed. Growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, insulin, aldosterone, and other hormones are addressed.

  17. Multiple Sclerosis, Relapses, and the Mechanism of Action of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Amy Perrin; Ben-Zacharia, Aliza; Harris, Colleen; Smrtka, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) are disruptive and frequently disabling for patients, and their treatment is often a challenge to clinicians. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of MS and development of new treatments for long-term management of MS, options for treating relapses have not changed substantially over the past few decades. Corticosteroids, a component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that modulate immune responses and reduce inflammation, are currently the mainstay of relapse treatment. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel is another treatment option. Although it has long been assumed that the efficacy of ACTH in treating relapses depends on the peptide’s ability to increase endogenous corticosteroid production, evidence from research on the melanocortin system suggests that steroidogenesis may only partly account for ACTH influences. Indeed, the melanocortin peptides [ACTH and ?-, ?-, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH)] and their receptors (Melanocortin receptors, MCRs) exert multiple actions, including modulation of inflammatory and immune mediator production. MCRs are widely distributed within the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues including immune cells (e.g., macrophages). This suggests that the mechanism of action of ACTH includes not only steroid-mediated indirect effects, but also direct anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating actions via the melanocortin system. An increased understanding of the role of the melanocortin system, particularly ACTH, in the immune and inflammatory processes underlying relapses may help to improve relapse management. PMID:23482896

  18. Serum corticosterone response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation in Florida sandhill cranes.

    PubMed

    Ludders, J W; Langenberg, J A; Czekala, N M; Erb, H N; McCormick, H

    1998-10-01

    Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement in an enclosure for 7 days, 6 hr a day. On day 8, cranes were catheterized and then confined in an enclosure. Venous blood (2 ml) was collected through the catheter and an attached IV line immediately before (-60 min) and 60 min after (0 min) confinement. Using a randomization table and a restricted cross-over experimental design, cranes were injected intravenously with either saline (control) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; cosyntropin, Cortrosyn; 0.25 mg). At 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection, blood samples were collected and assayed for corticosterone. The cranes receiving ACTH increased their serum corticosterone concentrations as much as fivefold above baseline concentrations. Serum corticosterone concentrations remained significantly elevated for approximately 60 min after ACTH stimulation. Physical restraint and catheterization caused an increase in serum corticosterone almost comparable to that induced by ACTH stimulation. In cranes injected with saline, serum corticosterone decreased within 1 hr after physical restraint and catheterization, and remained at lower levels throughout the remaining 5 hr of confinement. PMID:9813840

  19. Involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor and adrenocorticotropic hormone in the ovarian maturation, seawater acclimation, and induced spawning of Liza ramada.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Shaaban A; Mousa, Mostafa A

    2006-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution and activities of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immunoreactive (ir) cells in the brain and pituitary of Liza ramada during ovarian maturation, seawater acclimation, and induction of spawning. Using immunohistochemistry, we detected that CRF-ir cell bodies exist in different brain regions: medulla oblongata (MO), midbrain tegmentum, habenula, nucleus preopticus (NPO), and in a ventral hypothalamic region corresponding to the nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLTP). In the pituitary gland, we detected some ACTH-producing cells in the rostral pars distalis (RPD) containing CRF immunoreactivity. The synthetic and secretory activity of CRF-ir cells in the NPO and MO as well as ACTH-ir cells in the pituitary were enhanced during ovarian maturation. During seawater acclimation, CRF-ir cells in the NPO and MO and ACTH-ir cells in the pituitary showed dramatic increases in their synthetic activity. These cells showed dramatic increase in their secretory activity during spawning induced by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) injection in L. ramada. Finally, hormonally induced ovulation was accompanied with elevation of plasma cortisol and depletion of CRF and ACTH immunoreactivity within the brain and the pituitary gland, respectively. Taken together, our findings suggest that mature breeders of L. ramada may respond to stress resulting from ovarian maturation, and seawater acclimation as well as induced spawning. Mechanisms include enhancement of the synthetic and/or secretory activity of CRF-ir cells in the NPO and MO as well as ACTH-ir cells in the pituitary gland along with a rise in plasma cortisol during ovulation, supporting the possible role of these hormones during stress and reproduction in L. ramada. PMID:16376890

  20. Short-term effects of cortisol implantation on blood biochemistry and thyroid hormones in previtellogenic great sturgeon Huso huso.

    PubMed

    Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of implanted cortisol on various aspects of intermediary metabolism of great sturgeon, Huso huso. Prior to experimentation all fish were examined using an endoscope to observe the stage of ovarian development. Subsequently, the 3-year-old female fish in the previtellogenic stage (mean body weight of 6759±53.2g) were intraperitoneally implanted with cocoa butter pellets containing cortisol to mimic the effects of chronic stress. The implant doses were 0 (C0; as control), 5 (C5) and 50 (C50) mg cortisol/kg body weight. Blood samples were taken every seven days during the four weeks of the experiment and analyzed for cortisol, glucose, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), total protein, total lipid, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cholesterol and triglyceride content. Growth was reduced in all experimental groups and was not affected by cortisol treatment. Surprisingly, serum cortisol levels were higher in the C5 group than in the C50 throughout the experiment. A significant increase in glucose levels was observed in the cortisol-implanted fish from day 14 onwards. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant increase in serum T3 and T4 levels. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose also showed increases in serum ACTH, total lipid and cholesterol levels throughout a 28-day experimental period. The present study reveals that the negative effects of endoscopic surgery remain for at least four weeks and that a sustained-release implant of cortisol to mimic the effects of chronic stress affects metabolic responses. Since the adverse effects of endoscopic surgery on sturgeon welfare can be amplified by cortisol, special attention should be paid to the potential effects of chronic stress on sturgeon in culture. PMID:25289995

  1. Heart Failure Caused by Atrial Fibrillation in a Patient with Isolated Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Deficiency and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Maemura, Ryo; Kajiya, Takashi; Koriyama, Nobuyuki; Lee, Souki

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 75-year-old female patient with a history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis who presented with congestive heart failure caused by atrial fibrillation associated with isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. This is the first case of the combination of these complex conditions. Clinical conditions in a patient with isolated ACTH deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be variable. Thus, it is sometimes difficult to establish a diagnosis. The mechanism underlying heart failure may be complex in some cases. Various conditions can affect patients simultaneously. Therefore, making a proper diagnosis is necessary to improve the patient's prognosis.

  2. EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE ADMINISTRATION ON PLASMA CORTICOSTERONE CONCENTRATIONS IN AMERICAN BLACK DUCKS (ANAS RUBRIPES)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucy H. Spelman; W. James Fleming; Gary S. Davis; Michael K. Stoskopf

    1995-01-01

    A protocol for the adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) stimulation test in American black ducks (Anas rubripes) was established with synthetic ACTH, cosyntropin (Cortrosyn#{174});ACTH stimulation testing was conducted on 31 adult ducks (14 males, 17 females) in September 1993. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were measured on heparinized blood samples collected 30 mm, and 1, 2, and 4 hr post-injection. In comparison with saline controls,

  3. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1?mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3?h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15?mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6?h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group. PMID:24773147

  4. Low dose adrenocorticotropic hormone test and adrenal insufficiency in critically ill acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Shashidhar, P. K.; Shashikala, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Prevalence of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is not uncommon in HIV infected population. However, AI is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice because many patients have non-specific symptoms and signs. Critical illness in such patients further complicates the evaluation of adrenal function. A 1?gm ACTH test can be used for diagnosis, since it results in more physiological levels of ACTH. A serum cortisol of <18 ?g/dL, 30 or 60-minutes after ACTH test has been accepted as indicative of AI, but many experts advocate the normal cortisol response should exceed 25 ?g/dL, in critically ill patients. Aim: To determine the prevalence of AI in critically ill AIDS patients, by using 1 ?g ACTH test and also, to compare the diagnostic criteria for adrenal insufficiency between cortisol response of <18 ?g/dL and <25 ?g/dL. Settings and Design: This prospective study was done in the Department of Medicine. Materials and Methods: After taking blood for basal plasma cortisol from AIDS affected fifty adult men and women aged over 18 yrs, 1 ?g ACTH was given intravenously, and blood samples were again collected at 30 and 60 minutes for plasma cortisol estimation. Statistical analysis: It was done by Mann-Whitney test. Results: Prevalence of AI was 74% (37 patients) and 92% (46 patients), when the peak stimulated cortisol level of <18 ?g/dL and <25 ?g/dL, respectively, was used. Conclusion: AI is more prevalent in critically ill AIDS patients. Hence, this test can be performed for early intervention and better management. PMID:22629505

  5. Effect of exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone administration on plasma corticosterone concentrations in American black ducks (Anas rubripes).

    PubMed

    Spelman, L H; Fleming, W J; Davis, G S; Stoskopf, M K

    1995-04-01

    A protocol for the adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) stimulation test in American black ducks (Anas rubripes) was established with synthetic ACTH, cosyntropin (Cortrosyn); ACTH stimulation testing was conducted on 31 adult ducks (14 males, 17 females) in September 1993. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were measured on heparinized blood samples collected 30 min, and 1, 2, and 4 hr post-injection. In comparison with saline controls, cosyntropin (0.25 mg/duck) produced a two- to three-fold increase in corticosterone 30 min after administration. Maximal concentrations ranged from 132 to 312 ng/ml and occurred between 1 and 2 hr post-injection. Corticosterone concentrations declined to basal, pre-injection values after 4 hr. Endogenous ACTH release in response to handling stress was evident in control ducks after saline injection but did not interfere with interpretation of the stimulation test. Recommendations for the ACTH stimulation test in black ducks include a 30 min acclimatization period for recently captured or relocated ducks and determination of plasma corticosterone concentration 1 to 2 hr following intramuscular injection with 0.25 mg cosyntropin. PMID:8583629

  6. Stress hormones in Ménière's disease and acoustic neuroma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen C. Horner; Yves Cazals

    2005-01-01

    Stress has been postulated to trigger or contribute to inner ear pathologies but there is little objective evidence. We investigated stress hormones in Ménière's patients and patients with acoustic neuroma. Data were compared with those from a control group of patients with facial spasm. We assayed classic stress hormones including adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin.We found a strong

  7. [The hormonal state of pregnancy: modification of cortisol and testosterone].

    PubMed

    Laudat, M H; Guilhaume, B; Blot, P; Fournier, C; Giauque, J P; Luton, J P

    1987-01-01

    The pattern of cortisol and testosterone levels during the normal pregnancy was investigated by measuring these hormones in the same 19 healthy pregnant women at 11th to 19th, 24th to 29th and 34th to 39th week post amenorrhea. We noted the well-known increase in total plasma cortisol and testosterone, due to the elevated concentration of their transport protein, i.e., Corticosteroid Binding Globulin (CBG) and Testosterone Estradiol Binding Globulin (TeBG), consecutive to the increase in plasma oestrogens. Morning (8h) and evening salivary cortisol (20 h) values, which are a good reflect of free plasma cortisol, were found increased since the second trimester of pregnancy, with a conserved circadian cycle. 24 h urinary free cortisol was slightly increased since the first trimester, yet remaining within the normal range; in the late pregnancy it reached sometimes higher levels. "Vesperal" urinary cortisol measured on a collected urine sample between 20 h and 24 h was higher in pregnant women since the beginning of pregnancy as compared to that of non pregnant women. Levels of salivary free testosterone measured in a few patients appeared similar to that of non-pregnant controls. We also report the data obtained in two pregnant women with Cushing's syndrome due to an adrenocortical carcinoma which showed a strong elevation of urinary and salivary free cortisol while a pregnant woman with a luteoma had a lower level as compared to normal pregnant. Moreover these three patients had a marked increase in free salivary testosterone opposite to normal pregnant women. PMID:2821869

  8. Gene array and real time PCR analysis of the adrenal sensitivity to adrenocorticotropic hormone in pig

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Dominique; Liaubet, Laurence; SanCristobal, Magali; Mormède, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Background Variability in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been shown to be influenced by genetic factors and related to great metabolic differences such as obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate molecular bases of genetic variability of the adrenal sensitivity to ACTH, a major source of variability, in Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs, MS being reported to exhibit higher basal cortisol levels, response to ACTH and fatness than LW. A pig cDNA microarray was used to identify changes in gene expression in basal conditions and in response to ACTH stimulation. Results Genotype and/or ACTH affected the expression of 211 genes related to transcription, cell growth/maintenance, signal transduction, cell structure/adhesion/extra cellular matrix and protein kinase/phosphatase activity. No change in the expression of known key regulator proteins of the ACTH signaling pathway or of steroidogenic enzymes was found. However, Mdh2, Sdha, Suclg2, genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway, were over-expressed in MS pigs. Higher TCA cycle activity in MS than in LW may thus result in higher steroidogenic activity and thus explain the typically higher cortisol levels in MS compared to LW. Moreover, up-regulation of Star and Ldlr genes in MS and/or in response to ACTH suggest that differences in the adrenal function between MS and LW may also involve mechanisms requisite for cholesterol supply to steroidogenesis. Conclusion The present study provides new potential candidate genes to explain genetic variations in the adrenal sensitivity to ACTH and better understand relationship between HPA axis activity and obesity. PMID:18304307

  9. A Case Report of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone to Treat Recurrent Focal Segmental Glomerular Sclerosis Post-Transplantation and Biomarker Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Siddiq; Larson, Derek S.; Naimi, Nima; Ashraf, Muhammad; Culiberk, Nancy; Liapis, Helen; Wei, Changli; Reiser, Jochen; Brennan, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recurrent focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (rFSGS) in renal transplant recipients (RTR) is difficult to predict and treat. Early rFSGS is likely from circulating factors and preformed antibodies. Methods: We present the case of a 23-year-old white man who presented with rFSGS and acute renal failure, requiring dialysis 9-months after a 1-haplotype matched living-related transplant. We retrospectively analyzed serum samples from various clinical stages for rFSGS biomarkers: serum glomerular albumin permeability (Palb), soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) serum level with suPAR-?3 integrin signaling on human podocytes, and angiotensin II type I receptor-antibody (AT1R-Ab) titer. Results: All biomarkers were abnormal at 1-year pre-transplant prior to initiation of dialysis and at the time of transplant. After initiation of hemodialysis, ?3 integrin activity on human podocytes, in response to patient serum, as well as AT1R-Ab were further elevated. At the time of biopsy-proven recurrence, all biomarkers were abnormally high. One week after therapy with aborted plasmapheresis (secondary to intolerance), and high dose steroids, the Palb and suPAR-?3 integrin activity remained significantly positive. After 12-weeks of treatment with high-dose steroids, rituximab, and galactose, the patient remained hemodialysis-dependent. Three-months after his initial presentation, we commenced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, Acthar® Gel), 80 units subcutaneously twice weekly. Four-weeks later, he was able to discontinue dialysis. After 8-months of maintenance ACTH therapy, his serum creatinine stabilized at 1.79?mg/dL with <1?g of proteinuria. Conclusion: ACTH therapy was associated with improvement in renal function within 4?weeks. The use of rFSGS biomarkers may aid in predicting development of rFSGS.

  10. A phenomenological model for circadian and sleep allostatic modulation of plasma cortisol concentration

    E-print Network

    HORMONE in the regulation of human metab- olism and stress response, and its dysregulation is manifested in psychological disorders such as depression and posttrau- matic stress disorder (PTSD) (19, 39) and in metabolic cortex. The secretion of cortisol is regulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), whose release from

  11. Low-dose synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone-analog therapy for nephrotic patients: results from a single-center pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lorusso, Paolo; Bottai, Anna; Mangione, Emanuela; Innocenti, Maurizio; Cupisti, Adamasco; Egidi, Maria Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This report describes our experience using a low-dose synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analog for patients affected by nephrotic syndrome who had not responded to or had relapsed after steroid and immunosuppressive treatments. Patients and methods Eighteen adult nephrotic patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min were recruited. Histological pictures included ten of membranous nephropathy, three of membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis, three of minimal change, and two of focal segmental glomerular sclerosis. All patients received the synthetic ACTH analog tetracosactide 1 mg intramuscularly once a week for 12 months. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, serum lipids, albumin, glucose, and potassium were determined before and during the treatment. Results One of the 18 patients discontinued the treatment after 1 month because of severe fluid retention, and two patients were lost at follow-up. Complete remission occurred in six cases, while partial remission occurred in four cases (55.5% responder rate). With respect to baseline, after 12 months proteinuria had decreased from 7.24±0.92 to 2.03±0.65 g/day (P<0.0001), and serum albumin had increased from 2.89±0.14 to 3.66±0.18 g/dL (P<0.0001). Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol had decreased from 255±17 to 193±10 mg/dL (P=0.01), and from 168±18 to 114±7 mg/dL (P=0.03), respectively. No cases of severe worsening of renal function, hyperglycemia, or hypokalemia were observed, and no admissions for cardiovascular or infectious events were recorded. Conclusion Tetracosactide administration at the dosage of 1 mg intramuscularly per week for 12 months seems to be an acceptable alternative for nephrotic patients unresponsive or relapsing after steroid-immunosuppressive regimens. Further studies should be planned to assess the effect of this low-dose ACTH regimen also in nephrotic patients not eligible for kidney biopsy or immunosuppressive protocols. PMID:25709493

  12. Investigation of the serum levels of anterior pituitary hormones in male children with autism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The neurobiological basis of autism remains poorly understood. The diagnosis of autism is based solely on behavioural characteristics because there are currently no reliable biological markers. To test whether the anterior pituitary hormones and cortisol could be useful as biological markers for autism, we assessed the basal serum levels of these hormones in subjects with autism and normal controls. Findings Using a suspension array system, we determined the serum levels of six anterior pituitary hormones, including adrenocorticotropic hormone and growth hormone, in 32 drug-naive subjects (aged 6 to 18 years, all boys) with autism, and 34 healthy controls matched for age and gender. We also determined cortisol levels in these subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone and cortisol were significantly higher in subjects with autism than in controls. In addition, there was a significantly positive correlation between cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in autism. Conclusion Our results suggest that increased basal serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone accompanied by increased cortisol and growth hormone may be useful biological markers for autism. PMID:22011527

  13. Hormones: commentary. Riding the physiological roller coaster: adaptive significance of cortisol stress reactivity to social contexts.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Peres, Jeremy C; Dismukes, Andrew R; Lee, Yoojin; Phan, Jenny M

    2014-02-01

    The authors conjecture that to understand normal stress regulation, including cortisol stress reactivity, it is important to understand why these biomarkers are released and what they function to accomplish within the individual. This perspective holds that high (or rising) cortisol has advantages and disadvantages that must be understood within a context to understand how individual differences unfold. This perspective is juxtaposed with a popular vantage point of this stress hormone or of stress exposure that emphasizes the deleterious consequences or problems of this hormone. While the costs and benefits of cortisol are emphasized for normal stress regulation, this dynamic context-dependent purpose of stress hormones should extend to the development of psychopathology as well. This functional and dynamic view of cortisol is helpful for interpreting why Tackett and colleagues (2014) appear to observe advantageous cortisol recovery from stress in individuals with elevated personality disorder symptoms. PMID:24344886

  14. Effects of benzyl glucoside and chlorogenic acid from Prunus mume on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and catecholamine levels in plasma of experimental menopausal model rats.

    PubMed

    Ina, Hiroji; Yamada, Kenji; Matsumoto, Kosai; Miyazaki, Toshio

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of benzyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (BG) and chlorogenic acid (CA), the constituents of the fruit of Prunus mume, for relieving tension in experimental menopausal model rats (M-rats) caused by ether stress, the effects of BG and CA on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and catecholamine (adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine) levels were examined in the plasma of M-rats. Caffeic acid, quinic acid, and rosmarinic acid, which are compounds structurally related to CA, were also examined. BG obviously recovered catecholamine levels decreased by ether stress and increased dopamine to high levels. On the other hand, CA significantly decreased the ACTH level increased by ether stress and showed the greatest effect of all compounds. These results suggest that BG and CA may contribute to relieving the tension in M-rats caused by ether stress. PMID:14709918

  15. Lower serum transcortin (CBG) in major depressed females: relationships with baseline and postdexamethasone cortisol values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Maes; A. Van Gastel; P. Blockx; M. Martin; P. Cosyns; S. Scharpé; R. Ranjan; R. Desnyder

    1996-01-01

    This study has been carried out to examine (i) transcortin or corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the major glucocorticoid transport protein, in major depressed versus minor depressed and normal subjects; and (ii) the relationships between CBG and basal and postdexamethasone cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) values. Serum CBG was significantly lower in major depressed than in minor depressed subjects and normal

  16. Antibody that blocks stimulation of cortisol secretion by adrenocorticotrophic hormone in Addison's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kendall-Taylor, Pat; Lambert, Ann; Mitchell, Robert; Robertson, William R

    1988-01-01

    To investigate whether Addison's disease may in some cases be due to the blocking of adrenocorticotrophic hormone's action at the adrenal cortex by antibodies IgG isolated from a woman with Addison's disease associated with the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I was studied. Its effects on guinea pig adrenal cells in vitro were investigated and compared with those of IgG from three normal subjects and IgG obtained commercially. IgG from the patient inhibited the stimulation of cortisol secretion by adrenocorticotrophic hormone by 77 (SD 2)% and 57 (12)% at concentrations of 0·5 and 0·05 g/l, respectively; IgG prepared five months after she had started treatment with replacement steroids inhibited cortisol secretion by 74 (1)% (0·5 g/l) and 51 (15)% (0·05 g/l). The other IgGs had no inhibitory effects. The IgG from the patient and that obtained commercially did not inhibit the stimulation of cortisol secretion by dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate or precursors of cortisol. None of the IgGs bound to adrenocorticotrophic hormone. These results suggest that the IgG from the patient acted against the receptor for adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and its presence may explain the patient's raised concentrations of adrenocorticotrophic hormone, failure to respond to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and normal basal cortisol concentrations. Addison's disease may thus in some instances be a receptor antibody disease. PMID:2839266

  17. Cortisol level measurements in fingernails as a retrospective index of hormone production.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Miki, Keiichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Mitani, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Toru; Fuchu, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

    2015-04-01

    The cortisol level in fingernails may reflect the hormone's cumulative production over a long period, but the notions have not been fully established. In this study, we investigated the association of cortisol in fingernails with cortisol accumulation over a long period (hair cortisol) and over a relatively short period (salivary cortisol). In study 1, hair and fingernail samples were collected from 58 middle-aged and elderly men. The cortisol level in hair samples was moderately associated with the level in fingernail samples (r=0.29, p<0.05 and rs=0.36, p<0.01). In study 2, 37 workers provided 4 saliva samples over the course of one day (at awakening, 30min after awakening, before lunch, and after work) and another set a month later. Further, the workers were asked to provide fingernail samples during a six-month period. We found that the cortisol level in saliva over the whole day (area under the curve for cortisol) was moderately associated with the cortisol level measured in fingernail samples that were collected 4 months (r=0.43, p<0.05 and rs=0.50, p<0.01) and 5 months later (r=0.45, p<0.05 and rs=0.53, p<0.01). These results indicated that the cortisol level in fingernail samples might retrospectively represent hormone production during a given period. The cortisol level in fingernail samples may be useful in the investigation of the link between psychosocial stress and health. PMID:25662340

  18. Salivary Concentration of Progesterone and Cortisol Significantly Differs Across Individuals After Correcting for Blood Hormone Values

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O’Connor, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18–34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between-individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025

  19. Effects of growth hormone replacement therapy on levels of cortisol and cortisol-binding globulin in hypopituitary adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Tschop; H Lahner; H Feldmeier; H Grasberger; K M Morrison; O E Janssen; A F Attanasio; C J Strasburger

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine if human growth hormone (hGH) replacement therapy alters pharmaco- kinetics of hydrocortisone (CS) substitution in hypopituitary adults. Design: To this aim, we analysed serum and salivary CS profiles 270 min after oral CS administration at baseline and 6 and 12 months after initiation of hGH replacement therapy. Methods: Serum IGF-I, cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and

  20. Hormonal contraceptive use diminishes salivary cortisol response to psychosocial stress and naltrexone in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; King, Andrea C.; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Lovallo, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of hormonal contraception (HC) may affect salivary cortisol levels at rest and in response to a pharmacological or stress challenge. Therefore, the current study used a secondary data analysis to investigate the effect of HC on salivary cortisol levels in response to the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a psychosocial stressor, and also across the diurnal curve. Two hundred and nine women (n = 72 using hormonal contraception; HC+) completed a two-session stress response study that consisted of a stress day, in which they were exposed to public speaking and mental arithmetic, and a rest day, in which unstimulated cortisol levels were measured to assess the diurnal rhythm. A subset of seventy women (n = 24 HC+) also completed a second study in which they were administered oral naltrexone (50 mg) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind fashion. Women who were HC+ had a significantly reduced salivary cortisol response to both the psychosocial stressor (p < 0.001) and naltrexone (p < 0.05) compared to HC? women. Additionally, HC+ women had a significantly altered morning diurnal cortisol rhythm (p < 0.01), with a delayed peak and higher overall levels. The results of the current study confirm that HC attenuates salivary cortisol response to a psychosocial stressor and mu-opioid receptor antagonism, and also alters the morning diurnal cortisol curve. PMID:23672966

  1. Blood plasma collected after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration during the preovulatory period in the sow negatively affects in vitro fertilization by disturbing spermatozoa function.

    PubMed

    González, R; Kumaresan, A; Bergqvist, A S; Sjunnesson, Y C B

    2015-04-15

    Successful fertilization is essential for reproduction and might be negatively affected by stressful events, which could alter the environment where fertilization occurs. The aim of the study was to determine whether an altered hormonal profile in blood plasma caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration could affect in vitro fertilization in the pig model. In experiment 1, gametes were exposed for 24 hours to plasma from ACTH-treated, non-ACTH-treated sows, or medium with BSA. Fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst rates were lower in the ACTH group compared with the no ACTH or BSA control groups (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, the exposure of matured oocytes for 1 hour before fertilization to the same treatments did not have an impact on their ability to undergo fertilization or on embryo development. In experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated for 0, 1, 4, and 24 hours under the same conditions. There was no effect of treatment on sperm viability. The percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa remained higher in the ACTH group compared with the non-ACTH-treated group through the incubation period (P < 0.001). Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP) patterns were also affected by treatment (P < 0.001). The presence of an atypical PTP pattern was higher in the ACTH group at all the analyzed time points compared with the BSA and no ACTH groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this altered environment may not affect oocyte competence but might affect the sperm fertilizing ability through alterations in the acrosome reaction and correct sequence of PTP patterns. PMID:25623229

  2. Large-Dose Intrathecal Sufentanil Prevents the Hormonal Stress Response During Major Abdominal Surgery: A Comparison with Intravenous Sufentanil in a Prospective Randomized Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Borgdorff; Traian I. Ionescu; Peter L. Houweling; Johannes T. A. Knape

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of large-dose intrathecal sufentanil (ITS) for major abdominal surgery on the hormonal stress response. Forty patients were randomly allocated to re- ceive either IV sufentanil (IVS) or 150 g of ITS as part of general anesthesia. In the IVS group, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations were larger than baseline and the ITS group, 60 min

  3. The relationship of sex hormones and cortisol with cognitive functioning in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Halari, R; Kumari, V; Mehrotra, R; Wheeler, M; Hines, M; Sharma, T

    2004-09-01

    Gonadal as well as stress hormones have recently been implicated in pathophysiology and sex differences in onset, prognosis and treatment of schizophrenia. The present study investigated the effects of serum levels of oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone and cortisol on neuropsychological functioning and psychopathology in a group of 37 patients (17 women, 20 men) with schizophrenia. Neuropsychological measures included tests of attention, verbal abilities, language, memory, executive functioning, motor and speed of information processing. The results showed that oestrogen and age was associated with low positive symptom scores, and within gender, cortisol predicted poor performance on the information processing domain in men. These findings demonstrate that cortisol, in addition to the commonly reported effects of oestrogen, influences neuropsychological functioning in schizophrenia with differential effects on specific domains of cognitive functioning and underscore the need for further investigation of the modulating role of hormones on neuropsychological functioning in schizophrenia. PMID:15358980

  4. Cortisol and antidiuretic hormone responses to stress in cardiac surgical patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasu Oka; Shigeharu Wakayama; Tsutomu Oyama; Louis R. Orkin; Ronald M. Becker; M. Donald Blaufox; Robert W. M. Frater

    1981-01-01

    The hormonal responses to anaesthesia and cardiac surgery were studied in patients undergoing valve or coronary bypass surgery.\\u000a Marked increases in antidiuretic hormone levels as a result of surgical stress were seen, and were of approximately equal\\u000a magnitude in both groups. Although both groups also showed marked increases in plasma cortisol levels in response to operations,\\u000a this response appeared to

  5. Sleep, Dreams, and Memory Consolidation: The Role of the Stress Hormone Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert…

  6. Sleep, dreams, and memory consolidation: The role of the stress hormone cortisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica D. Payne; Lynn Nadel

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert influence on many of the brain systems involved in

  7. The effect of floor type or relocation on calves’ pulsatile growth hormone and cortisol secretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Hänninen; P. Løvendahl; A. M. De Passillé; J. Rushen

    2006-01-01

    To examine if hard floor or relocation to a new room affects the pulsatile secretion of growth hormone (GH) and cortisol in calves, we housed individually 12 calves on concrete floors and 12 on rubber mats for 67–74 days. Half of the calves in each pen were relocated to an identical but strange room. Serial blood samples were taken 24

  8. Adenyl Cyclase and Hormone Action, I. Effects of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, Glucagon, and Epinephrine on the Plasma Membrane of Rat Fat Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Bar; O. Hechter

    1969-01-01

    A large number of hormones, of diverse molecular structure, evoke characteristic responses in target cells via the intermediary 3',5'-AMP, the specificity of hormone action upon cell type being achieved by selective stimulation of adenyl cyclase. In the fat cells of rat adipose tissue, adenyl cyclase is stimulated by a number of hormones of disparate molecular structure, posing the question whether

  9. Hormones, behavior, and social network analysis: exploring associations between cortisol, testosterone, and network structure.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, Olga; Clemans, Katherine H; Out, Dorothée; Granger, Douglas A

    2014-08-01

    We used a new interdisciplinary paradigm of social network analysis (SNA) to investigate associations between hormones and social network structures. We examine these biobehavioral processes and test hypotheses about how hormones are associated with social network structures using exponential random graph modeling (ERGM) in a cohort of first-year students (n=74; 93% female; M age=27 years) from a highly competitive, accelerated nursing program. Participants completed friendship nominations and as a group simultaneously donated saliva (later assayed for cortisol and testosterone). ERGM analyses revealed that salivary cortisol levels were inversely associated with the number of outgoing ties (i.e., network activity). By contrast, testosterone was not related to friendship network structure. Integration of SNA and salivary bioscience creates a novel approach to understanding hormone-behavior relationships within the context of human social ecologies. PMID:25072982

  10. Fuel oil-induced adrenal hypertrophy in ranch mink (Mustela vison): effects of sex, fuel oil weathering, and response to adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Mohr, F C; Lasley, B; Bursian, S

    2010-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources can be a cause of stress for free-ranging wildlife. The response of wildlife to chemical contaminants requires that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis be precisely regulated to allow for proper glucocorticoid-mediated adaptive responses. Chronic oral exposure to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil causes the development of adrenal hypertrophy in male ranch mink (Mustela vison) without increasing serum or fecal glucocorticoid concentrations. This hypertrophy is an adaptive response to fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To determine if the same phenomenon occurs in female mink or male mink exposed to artificially weathered fuel oil, female mink were fed 0 ppm (mineral oil) or 420 ppm fuel oil and male mink were exposed to 0 ppm, 420 ppm fuel oil, or 480 ppm artificially weathered fuel oil in the diet for 60-62 days. At the end of the exposure, serum glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed along with body and organ weight measurements. Fecal glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed at time points throughout the exposure. Male mink fed fuel oil or weathered fuel oil and female mink fed fuel oil had adrenal enlargement without any significant increases in the serum or fecal concentration of glucocorticoids, which is consistent with fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To address the physiological consequences of adrenal insufficiency, fuel oil-exposed male mink were administered an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Fuel oil-exposed animals had a smaller incremental increase in serum glucocorticoid concentration after ACTH challenge compared to control animals. Our findings provide further evidence that the HPA axis of fuel oil-exposed animals is compromised and, therefore, not able to respond appropriately to the diverse stressors found in the environment. PMID:20090023

  11. Expression of aldosterone synthase and adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor in adrenal incidentalomas from normotensive and hypertensive patients: Distinguishing subclinical or atypical primary aldosteronism from adrenal incidentaloma.

    PubMed

    Cao, C X; Yang, X C; Gao, Y X; Zhuang, M; Wang, K P; Sun, L J; Wang, X S

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTH-R) and their regulating transcription factors in adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) from normotensive and hypertensive patients to distinguish subclinical or atypical primary aldosteronism (PA) from AIs. Total RNA was extracted from 8 normal adrenal cortices (NAs), 46 AIs, 15 aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) and 6 idiopathic hyperaldosteronisms (IHAs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression of CYP11B2, ACTH-R, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) and dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, critical region on the X chromosome, gene-1 (DAX-1) in the different tissues. The AI hypertensive subgroup displayed increased plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and PAC/PRA ratio (ARR) and decreased plasma renin activity (PRA) compared to the normotensive group. CYP11B2, ACTH-R and SF1 mRNAs were signi?cantly higher in the APA group compared to the other groups, and gradually increased in AI hypertensive samples. DAX-1 mRNA was expressed faintly in PA compared with NA. In normotensive-AI samples, DAX-1 mRNA was higher compared to PA and AI hypertensive samples. Significant differences in gene expression levels in AIs were observed between probable and improbable PA patients. Immunohistochemical results were consistent with those of real-time PCR. Plasma aldosterone levels were positively correlated with CYP11B2, ACTH-R and SF1 mRNA and inversely correlated with DAX-1 mRNA. In conclusion, a significant number of hypertensive-AI patients may have subclinical forms of PA. CYP11B2, ACTH-R and their regulating transcription factors may be noteworthy in distinguishing subclinical PA from AIs. PMID:23023242

  12. Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and vasopressin in normal adrenal glands and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs.

    PubMed

    Galac, S; Kars, V J; Klarenbeek, S; Teerds, K J; Mol, J A; Kooistra, H S

    2010-07-01

    Hypercortisolism caused by an adrenocortical tumor (AT) results from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent hypersecretion of glucocorticoids. Studies in humans demonstrate that steroidogenesis in ATs may be stimulated by ectopic or overexpressed eutopic G protein-coupled receptors. We report on a screening of 23 surgically removed, cortisol-secreting ATs for the expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH), gastric-inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and vasopressin (V(1a), V(1b), and V(2)). Normal adrenal glands served as control tissues. Abundance of mRNA for these receptors was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), and the presence and localization of these receptors were determined by immunohistochemistry. In both normal adrenal glands and ATs, mRNA encoding for all receptors was present, although the expression abundance of the V(1b) receptor was very low. The mRNA expression abundance for GIP and V(2) receptors in ATs were significantly lower (0.03 and 0.01, respectively) than in normal adrenal glands. The zona fasciculata of normal adrenal glands stained immunonegative for the GIP receptor. In contrast, islands of GIP receptor-immunopositive cells were detected in about half of the ATs. The zona fasciculata of both normal adrenal glands and AT tissue were immunopositive for LH receptor; in ATs in a homogenous or heterogenous pattern. In normal adrenal glands, no immunolabeling for V(1b)R and V(2) receptor was present, but in ATs, V(2) receptor-immunopositive cells were detected. In conclusion, QPCR analysis did not reveal overexpression of LH, GIP, V(1a), V(1b), or V(2) receptors in the ATs. However, the ectopic expression of GIP and V(2) receptor proteins in tumorous zona fasciculata tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting ATs. PMID:20399066

  13. Sex differences in cortisol response to Corticotropin Releasing Hormone challenge over puberty: Pittsburgh Pediatric Neurobehavioral Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective Consistent sex differences in regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis have been shown in animal models and emerge over puberty. However, parallel work in humans is lacking despite implications for elucidating the emergence of sex differences in depression over puberty. We investigated sex differences in HPA response to corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) challenge over puberty in a carefully screened normative sample. Methods Participants were 68 healthy children (41% girls), ages 6–16, with no personal or family history of psychiatric disorder. Pubertal maturation was determined by Tanner staging. Following 24 hours of adaptation, 9–10 plasma cortisol samples were collected over 30–40 minutes pre-infusion baseline, 1 ?g/kg CRH infusion, and 90–180 minutes post-infusion recovery. Thirty-seven participants completed 2+ CRH challenges allowing inclusion of cross-sectional and longitudinal data in all analyses. The influence of gender and pubertal maturation on parameters of cortisol response to CRH challenge was investigated using nonlinear mixed model metholodogy. Results Girls showed increasing total cortisol output following CRH challenge over puberty, while boys showed little change in total cortisol output over puberty. Increased cortisol output in girls was explained by slower reactivity and recovery rates leading to prolonged time to reach peak cortisol and delayed return to baseline over puberty. Girls also showed increasing baseline cortisol over puberty, while boys showed declining baseline over puberty. Conclusion Results reveal subtle normative sex differences in the influence of pubertal maturation on HPA regulation at the pituitary level. This normative shift may tip the balance towards stress response dysregulation in girls at high risk for depression, and may represent one potential mechanism underlying elevated rates of depression among pubescent girls. PMID:21489699

  14. Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears

    PubMed Central

    TØ, Bechshøft; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Muir, DCG; Letcher, RJ; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS; Jenssen, BM; Villanger, GD

    2012-01-01

    The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, ?-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p?-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. PMID:22575327

  15. Morning Cortisol Levels Affected by Sex and Pubertal Status in Children and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Sarah L.; Seiler, Kelly J.; Jacobson, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Morning cortisol levels are frequently used as screening tests for adrenal insufficiency in both adults and children. Reports differ on the specificity of this measurement. The present study was undertaken to determine whether sex or pubertal status affected morning cortisol values. Methods: We measured morning cortisol levels and performed low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test in 35 healthy male and female subjects (ages 6-34) ranging in Tanner stage (TS) from TS 1 to TS 5. Testing was initiated at 08:00 after an overnight fast. Morning serum total cortisol, free cortisol, cortisol-binding globulin, estradiol (males and females), and testosterone (males) were obtained. Results: Morning total and free cortisol levels were significantly higher in TS 5 participants than in prepubertal children. Using a morning cortisol of 248 nmol/L todefine a normal value, 19/21(90%) of healthy TS 5 subjects exhibit normal values. In contrast, 0/8 TS 1 healthy subjects exhibited a value greater than 248 nmol/L (p=0.0005). We also observed sex differences in morning cortisol levels in pubertal but not in prepubertal subjects. We observed sex differences in morning cortisol levels in TS 5 individuals. Conclusions: Morning cortisol measurements may be more useful as screening tests for adrenal function in adults than in children. TS and sex may be considered in the decision to screen for adrenal insufficiency using morning cortisol or whether to proceed directly to stimulation testing. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23748059

  16. Stress, rejection, and hormones: Cortisol and progesterone reactivity to laboratory speech and rejection tasks in women and men

    PubMed Central

    Gaffey, Allison E.; Wirth, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Stress and social rejection have important impacts on health. Among the mechanisms implicated are hormonal systems such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which produces cortisol in humans. Current research employs speech stressors and social rejection stressors to understand hormonal responses in a laboratory setting. However, it is not clear whether social rejection stressors elicit hormonal reactivity. In addition to cortisol, progesterone has been highlighted as a potential stress- and affiliation-related hormone in humans. In the present study, 131 participants (70 men and 61 women) were randomly assigned to be exposed to one of four conditions: standardized speech stressor; speech control; social rejection task; or a control (inclusion) version of the social rejection task. Saliva samples were collected throughout the study to measure cortisol and progesterone. As hypothesized, we found the expected increase in cortisol in the speech stressor, and we also found that the social rejection task did not increase cortisol, underscoring the divergence between unpleasant experiences and HPA axis activity. However, we did not find evidence for progesterone increase either during the speech- or social rejection tasks. Compared with past studies on progesterone and stress in humans, the present findings present a mixed picture. Future work is needed to delineate the contexts and types of manipulations which lead to progesterone increases in humans. PMID:25580228

  17. Life events are positively associated with luteinizing hormone in middle age adult men: role of cortisol as a third variable.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Bibiana; Machulsky, Nahuel Fernandez; Grosman, Halina; Gonzalez, Diego; Oneto, Adriana; Repetto, Esteban M; Mesch, Viviana; Nolazco, Carlos; Mazza, Osvaldo; Gidron, Yori; Berg, Gabriela

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have tested the relationship between chronic stress and sex hormones, but inconsistent results have been found. One possibility is that this association may depend on other biological factors. This study examined the relationship between stressful life events (LE) and sex hormones in men, and whether cortisol is involved in this relationship. From a total number of 2906 men who completed a screening for the early detection of prostate cancer, 139 healthy men (mean?±?SD age, 57.8?±?5.7 years) were included in this study. Participants were assessed with the Holmes and Rahe questionnaire in relation to their experience of LE during the previous 1-5 years. Salivary and serum cortisol was measured at 08:00-09:00?h, as well as luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone, epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE). LE weight sum and LE number positively correlated with LH (r?=?0.293, p?=?0.004; r?=?0.220, p?=?0.031, respectively). In a multiple regression analysis, LE-sum explained an additional and significant 10.4% of the variance in LH levels, after statistically controlling for the effects of age, waist circumference (WC) and BMI (F(1,90)?=?6.61, p?cortisol interacted with LE in relation to total testosterone. In men with high cortisol values (?15.4?µg/dl), there was a statistically significant positive relationship between LE number and total testosterone levels (p?=?0.05), while LE were unrelated to total testosterone in men with low cortisol. LE correlated with sex hormones, predicting LH values, and in men with high cortisol levels shows a possible moderator effect of cortisol on the relationship between LE and total testosterone. PMID:24881484

  18. Differences between diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in healthy female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oskis, A; Clow, A; Thorn, L; Loveday, C; Hucklebridge, F

    2012-01-01

    The adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) share a common secretagogue: adrenocorticotropic hormone; however, secretion of these hormones can be dissociated suggesting subtle individual regulation at the level of the adrenal gland. We examined differences in the diurnal patterns of cortisol and DHEA secretion in healthy adolescent girls, with the aim of informing the possibility of exploiting these differences to aid interpretation of data from clinical populations in which these patterns can become dysregulated. Fifty-six healthy females aged 10-18 years provided saliva samples at 0 and 30 min (morning samples) and 12 h post-awakening on 2 consecutive weekdays. For morning salivary cortisol in relation to morning DHEA concentrations, correlational analysis revealed only a trend (p = 0.054). Similarly, the association between evening cortisol and DHEA was characterised as a trend (p = 0.084). Mean morning DHEA concentrations showed more day-to-day consistency than equivalent cortisol samples (r = 0.829 for DHEA and 0.468 for cortisol; z = 3.487, p < 0.0005). Unlike the cortisol pattern, characterised by a marked awakening response (cortisol awakening response, CAR), a significant rise in DHEA concentration post-awakening was not evident. Finally, there was a strong association between morning and evening concentrations of DHEA, not found for cortisol. The study shows differences in cortisol and DHEA secretion in the post-awakening period and informs work that seeks to examine correlates of dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function. Parallel examination of both hormones enables enhanced interpretation of aberrant patterns of the CAR, i.e. an exploration of whether dysregulation affects both hormones (reflecting overall steroidogenic capacity) or cortisol alone (CAR-specific mechanisms). PMID:21790345

  19. Validation of a cortisol enzyme immunoassay and characterization of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Heintz, Matthew R; Santymire, Rachel M; Parr, Lisa A; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring concentrations of stress hormones is an important tool for behavioral research and conservation for animals both in the wild and captivity. Glucocorticoids can be measured in mammals as an indicator of stress by analyzing blood, feces, urine, hair, feathers, or saliva. The advantages of using saliva for measuring cortisol concentrations are three-fold: it is minimally invasive, multiple samples can be collected from the same individual in a short timeframe, and cortisol has a relatively short response time in saliva as compared with other materials. The purpose of this study was to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge as a physiological validation for an enzyme immunoassay to measure salivary cortisol in chimpanzees and (2) characterize the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in chimpanzees. We determined that salivary cortisol concentrations peaked 45 min following the ACTH challenge, which is similar to humans. Also, salivary cortisol concentrations peaked early in the morning and decreased throughout the day. We recommend that saliva collection may be the most effective method of measuring stress reactivity and has the potential to complement behavioral, cognitive, physiological, and welfare studies. PMID:21538448

  20. Effects of Divalproex Sodium on 5HT1A Receptor Function in Healthy Human Males: Hypothermic, Hormonal, and Behavioral Responses to Ipsapirone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I-Shin Shiah; Lakshmi N Yatham; Raymond W Lam; Athanasios P Zis

    1997-01-01

    Hypothermic and hormonal responses to a challenge with a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist ipsapirone are considered to provide an index of 5-HT1A receptor function in humans. To examine the effects of divalproex sodium (DVP) on 5-HT1A receptor function in humans, we measured the hypothermic, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) cortisol, and behavioral responses to ipsapirone in 10 healthy male volunteers. After obtaining

  1. Higher n?3 fatty acids are associated with more intense fenfluramine-induced ACTH and cortisol responses among cocaine-abusing men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laure Buydens-Branchey; Marc Branchey; Joseph R. Hibbeln

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that diets supplemented with or deficient in n?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could influence serotonergic neurotransmission, but information about their effects on the serotonergic function of humans is scant. Therefore, simultaneous assessments of n?3 PUFAs and of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol responses to challenges with the serotonin (5-HT) probe d,l-fenfluramine (FEN) were performed in

  2. Characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone in primiparous, postpartum, anovular, suckled, beef cows exposed acutely to bulls

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The physiological mechanism by which bulls stimulate resumption of ovarian cycling activity in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows after calving may involve the concurrent activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian (HPO) axis and hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, the objectives of this experiment were to determine if characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH) in postpartum, anovular, beef cows are influenced by acute exposure to bulls. The null hypotheses were that daily, temporal characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns do not differ between cows exposed acutely to bulls or steers. Methods Sixteen cows were assigned randomly 67 +/- 4 (+/- SE) after calving to be exposed to bulls (EB, n = 8) or steers (ES, n = 8) 5 h daily for 9 d (D 0 to 8). Blood samples were collected daily from each cow via jugular catheters at 15-min intervals for 6 h from 1000 to 1600 h each day. The 5-h exposure period began 1 h after the start of the intensive bleeding period. Characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns (mean, baseline, pulse frequency, pulse amplitude, and pulse duration) were identified by PULSAR analyses. Results Mean cortisol concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) in cows in both treatments from D 0 to D 2. Thereafter, mean cortisol concentrations stabilized and did not differ (P > 0.10) between EB and ES cows. The decrease in mean cortisol concentrations in EB and ES cows from D 0 to D 2 was attributed to cows acclimatizing to intensive blood sampling and handling procedures. Consequently, analyses for characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns included D 2 through 8 only. Cortisol mean and baseline concentrations, and pulse amplitude did not differ (P > 0.10) between EB and ES cows. However, cortisol pulse duration tended to be longer (P = 0.09) and pulse frequency was lower (P = 0.05) in EB than ES cows. LH pulse frequency was greater (P = 0.06) in EB than ES cows. All other characteristics of LH concentration patterns did not differ (P > 0.10) between EB and ES cows. Characteristics of cortisol concentration patterns were not related to characteristics of LH concentration patterns for ES cows (P > 0.10). However, as cortisol pulse amplitude increased, LH pulse amplitude decreased (b1 = -0.04; P < 0.05) for EB cows. Conclusions In conclusion, exposing primiparous, postpartum, anovular, suckled cows to bulls for 5-h daily over a 9-d period did not alter mean concentrations of cortisol or LH compared to mean concentrations of cortisol and LH in cows exposed to steers. However, exposing cows to bull in this manner altered characteristics of temporal patterns of both LH and cortisol by increasing LH pulse frequency and decreasing cortisol pulse frequency. Interestingly, in cows exposed to bulls, as amplitude and frequency of cortisol pulses decreased, amplitudes of LH pulses increased and frequency of LH pulses tended to increase. Thus, the physiological mechanism of the biostimulatory effect of bulls may initially involve modification of the HPA axis and these changes may facilitate activation of the HPO axis and resumption of ovulatory cycles in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows. PMID:20642864

  3. Effects of Cortisol and Growth Hormone on Lipolysis in Human Adipose Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MALIN OTTOSSON; PETER LONNROTH; PER BJORNTORP; STAFFAN EDEN

    The in vitro effects of cortisol and GH on basal and stimulated lipolysis in human adipose tissue were studied using a tissue incu- bation technique. After preincubation for 3 days in control medium containing insulin, adipose tissue pieces were exposed to cortisol for 3 days. GH was added to the cortisol-containing medium during the last 24 h (day 6). Adipocytes

  4. Hexarelin, a Synthetic Growth-Hormone Releasing Peptide, Shows No Interaction with Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and Vasopressin on Adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol Secretion in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuela Arvat; Barbara Maccagno; Josefina Ramunni; Lidia di Vito; Fabio Broglio; Romano Deghenghi; Franco Camanni; Ezio Ghigo

    1997-01-01

    Hexarelin (HEX) is a synthetic growth-hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP) which acts via specific receptors at both the pituitary and the hypothalamic level to stimulate GH release both in animals and in man. Like other GHRPs, HEX possesses also significant prolactin-and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) cortisol-releasing activity, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are even less clear. To clarify the mechanisms by which HEX

  5. Effect of stocking density on growth and serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and cortisol in Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Liu, Zidong; Xie, Congxin

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of different stocking densities on growth and serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and cortisol in Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii. Fish were reared at low, medium, and high stocking densities (initial experimental densities were 0.30, 0.75, and 1.78 kg m(-2), respectively) for 70 days. The results showed that high stocking density had negative effects on growth and feeding efficiency, and altered serum levels of thyroid hormones and cortisol in Amur sturgeon. A significant decrease in specific growth rate was observed as stocking density was increased. The feeding rate decreased significantly in the medium and high density groups, indicating that high stocking density reduced the food consumption of sturgeon. Food conversion ratio increased with increasing stocking density, suggesting that high stocking density might inhibit fish growth through decreasing food conversion efficiency. Serum concentrations of total triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and free triiodothyronine were inversely related to stocking densities, whereas serum total thyroxine level of sturgeon stocked at different densities remained stable. Also, higher stocking density resulted in an elevation of serum cortisol level, indicating that the sturgeon stocked at the higher density experienced density-dependent physiological stress. These results suggest growth suppression caused by high stocking density might be related to both crowding stress and the declines in peripheral circulating levels of thyroid hormones, as well as associated with the reductions in both food consumption and food conversion efficiency. PMID:21717129

  6. Serum concentrations of cortisol induced by exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are not predictive of residual feed intake (RFI) in Brahman cattle.

    E-print Network

    Agado, Bryan Joseph

    2011-01-11

    associated with RFI. Brahman bulls (n=12) (390±19 kg BW) and heifers (n=12) (334±12 kg BW), age 15±1 mon, with established RFI values were used. To establish RFI, after the calves were weaned, they were evaluated in separate 70 d test periods for each gender...

  7. Effects of ghrelin on psychopathology, sleep and secretion of cortisol and growth hormone in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Michael; Schüssler, Petra; Dresler, Martin; Schmidt, Doreen; Yassouridis, Alexander; Uhr, Manfred; Steiger, Axel

    2011-03-01

    Ghrelin showed antidepressant-like effects in mice. Furthermore, ghrelin influences sleep and the activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and somatotropic axis in healthy humans as indicated by increased cortisol and growth hormone (GH) plasma levels. Both sleep and the activity of these endocrine axes are disturbed in depression. We therefore studied the impact of ghrelin on psychopathology, sleep and secretion of cortisol and GH in patients with major depression. Depressive symptoms as assessed by a validated self rating scale ('Befindlichkeits-Skala', [mental state scale]), secretion profiles of cortisol and GH and sleep-EEGs were determined in 14 unmedicated patients with major depression (7 women) twice, receiving 50 ?g ghrelin or placebo at 22:00, 23:00, 00:00, and 01:00 hours. Overall, depressive symptoms did not change significantly after ghrelin administration (placebo: 37 ± 8; ghrelin: 33 ± 10, p = 0.178). However, there was an improvement at trend level in men (placebo: 36 ± 9 to ghrelin: 30 ± 9, p = 0.093) but not in women. In men, ghrelin was associated with less time awake (placebo: 149.0 ± 11.1; ghrelin: 88.0 ± 12.2 min, p = 0.029) and more non-REM sleep (placebo: 263.2 ± 24.1; ghrelin: 304.9 ± 14.1 min, p = 0.027), in women with less REM sleep (placebo: 108.6 ± 15.7; ghrelin: 74.1 ± 13.8 min, p = 0.031) and longer REM latency (placebo: 49.9 ± 6.5; ghrelin: 85.6 ± 14.1 min, p = 0.019). In both sexes, ghrelin caused strong transient increases of GH and cortisol. In conclusion, our study may provide some initial indication that ghrelin can exert antidepressant effects in patients with major depression. Ghrelin strongly affected sleep and secretion of GH and cortisol in a partly different way as previously reported in healthy subjects. PMID:20888580

  8. Diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol and DHEA in adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2012-11-01

    Although there is well-documented evidence for hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in anorexia nervosa (AN), there has been little research into secretory patterns of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in this condition. The cortisol awakening response (CAR), a prominent and discrete feature of the cortisol cycle, has not been extensively explored in adolescent AN. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min and 12 h post-awakening on two consecutive weekdays from eight female adolescents with clinically diagnosed AN and 41 healthy control (HC) age-matched females. Adolescent AN patients had greater salivary cortisol and DHEA concentrations than HC girls at all points. Increased hormone secretion was unrelated to body mass index. However, despite hypersecretion of both hormones, the circadian pattern including the CAR paralleled that of the HC group. Findings from this preliminary study confirm dysregulation of HPA axis function in adolescent AN as evidenced by hypersecretion of both cortisol and DHEA, which share the common secretagogue adrenocorticotropic hormone. However, the parallel diurnal profiles for AN and HC participants, including the CAR, may indicate hypersecretion per se rather than differential regulation of the diurnal pattern of these two adrenal steroids in AN. PMID:22356124

  9. Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L

    2013-12-01

    Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling. PMID:24080086

  10. The relationship between insulin, insulin resistance, parathyroid hormone, cortisol, testosterone, and thyroid function tests in the presence of nephrolithiasis: a comprehensive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Halit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that hormonal factors such as levels of insulin, cortisol, testosterone, and insulin resistance are related with increased nephrolithiasis (NL). However, no previous study has evaluated the relationship between insulin, insulin resistance, thyroid hormones, cortisol, intact parathyroid hormone and testosterone levels with the presence of NL in a comprehensive manner. Materials and methods All patients underwent the following procedures: history taking, physical examination, biochemical analysis [including measurement of levels of insulin, thyroid hormones, cortisol, and total testosterone (for male patients only)], urine analysis, 24–hour urine collection to measure urinary protein, sodium excretion, and creatinine clearance. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA–INDEX). The presence of NL was determined by ultrasonography. Results The study was composed of 136 patients. In total, 30 patients had NL. Patients with NL were more likely to be older, male, obese, and smokers. Uric acid and HOMA–INDEX were also higher in patients with NL. In the whole group, only insulin (Odds ratio:1.128, CI:1.029–1.236, P:0.01) but not other hormones, and HOMA–INDEX were related with the presence of NL. In males, none of the hormones including total testosterone were associated with NL. Conclusions Only levels of insulin, but not other hormones were associated with the presence of NL in a group of patients with suspicion of NL. More studies are needed to highlight the mechanisms regarding NL and hormone levels. PMID:24982784

  11. a0005 Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone, Family of Robert J. Denver

    E-print Network

    Denver, Robert J.

    on corticotropin [also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)] secre- tion from the anterior pituitary gland. ACTH is the primary pituitary regulator of adrenal glucocorticoid biosynthesis and secretion. Members hypothalami that was capable of stimulating pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) se- cretion

  12. Inhibitory effects of ?-endorphin on cortisol release from goldfish (Carassius auratus) head kidney: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Mizusawa, Kanta; Arai, Yuta; Chiba, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    ?-Endorphin (?-END) is an endogenous opioid peptide derived from the common precursor proopiomelanocortin, together with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Although the roles of ACTH and MSH in fish are well known, the roles of circulating ?-END have not been elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the biological roles of ?-END in the goldfish. First, we cloned the cDNAs of the delta opioid receptor (DOR), kappa opioid receptor (KOR), and mu opioid receptor (MOR) from the brain of the goldfish. Second, we analyzed the tissues that expressed these genes by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Among the several tissues that contained the opioid gene transcripts, the mRNAs of DOR, KOR, and MOR were detected in interrenal cells of the head kidney, which produce cortisol. On the basis of these results, the effects of ?-END on cortisol release were examined in vitro. ?-END alone suppressed the basal release of cortisol in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, ?-END inhibited the cortisol-releasing activity of ACTH1-24. Therefore, it is probable that the role of ?-END in the interrenal cells is the suppression of cortisol release. Interestingly, the suppression of cortisol release was not observed with N-acetyl-?-END, indicating that acetylation decreases the activity of ?-END in interrenal cells. PMID:24837496

  13. Synchronization of daily rhythms of locomotor activity and plasma glucose, cortisol and thyroid hormones to feeding in Gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata) under a light–dark cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Montoya; J. F. López-Olmeda; A. B. S. Garayzar; F. J. Sánchez-Vázquez

    2010-01-01

    Food availability is far from constant but tends to be cyclic, and fish therefore show a variety of circadian rhythms which can be entrained to feeding time. The aim of this study was to investigate the synchronization to mealtimes of behavioral (locomotor activity), metabolic (glucose) and endocrine (cortisol and thyroid hormones) daily rhythms in gilthead seabream. To this end, fish

  14. The influence od melatonin receptors antagonists, luzindole and 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4-P-PDOT), on melatonin-dependent vasopressin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release from the rat hypothalamo-hypophysial system. In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, M; Roszczyk, M; Kowalczyk, E; Stempniak, B

    2014-12-01

    Melatonin exerts its biological role acting via G protein-coupled membrane receptors - MT1 and MT2, as well as through cytoplasmic and/or nuclear receptors. Melatonin has previously been shown to change vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion dependently on its concentration. To determine whether the response of vasopressinergic neurones to different concentrations of melatonin is mediated through the membrane MT1 and/or MT2 receptors, the influence of luzindole - an antagonist of both MT1 and MT2 receptors, and 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4-P-PDOT) - a selective MT2 receptor antagonist, on melatonin-dependent AVP release from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial (H-NH) system was studied in vitro (melatonin at the concentrations of 10(-9), 10(-7) and 10(-3) M) and in vivo (melatonin at the concentrations of 10(-9) and 10(-7) M). Moreover, the second goal of this study was to find out whether melatonin receptors MT1 and/or MT2 are involved in the regulation of ACTH and corticosterone secretion into the blood. We have demonstrated that melatonin, at the concentrations of 10(-9) and 10(-7) M, significantly inhibited AVP secretion from isolated rat H-NH explants when antagonists solvent (i.e. 0.1% DMSO) was present in the medium. Neither luzindole, nor 4-P-PDOT, applied without melatonin, did influence AVP release in vitro. Luzindole applied together with melatonin (10(-7) M and 10(-9) M) significantly suppressed melatonin-dependent effect, while 4-PPDOT did not eliminate the inhibitory influence of 10(-7) M and 10(-9) M melatonin on AVP secretion from isolated rat H-NH explants. Melatonin at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased AVP release when the H-NH explants were incubated in the medium containing luzindole or 4-P-PDOT. Under present experimental in vivo conditions, infused intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) melatonin, at a concentration close to its physiological level in the blood, significantly diminished AVP secretion into the blood, however, at higher concentration (10(-7) M) it remained inactive in this process. Moreover, melatonin at both concentrations of 10(-9) M and 10(-7) M, was able to inhibit AVP secretion into the blood (and increase its neurohypophysial content) when animals were previously i.c.v. injected with 4-P-PDOT, but not with luzindole. Blood plasma concentration of ACTH was diminished significantly by 10(-7) M melatonin in DMSO-infused, but not in luzindole- or 4-P-PDOT-injected rats, however, it remained inactive in modifying the corticosterone blood plasma concentrations in any of the studied subgroups. The present study demonstrates that subtype MT1 membrane receptor may contribute to the inhibitory effect of physiological concentration of melatonin on functional regulation of vasopressinergic neurones in the rat. However, for the stimulatory effect of pharmacological dose of the hormone on AVP secretion in vitro, mechanisms different from membrane MT1/MT2 receptors are involved. The present experiment do not determines whether MT1 and/or MT2 receptors affect the function of the rat pituitary-adrenal cortex axis. PMID:25554981

  15. Anesthetic management of emergent laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy in a patient with a life-threatening cortisol crisis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankur; Subramaniam, Rajeshwari; Misra, Mahesh; Joshiraj, Bandi; Krishnan, Gopi; Varma, Prerna; Kishore, Shyam

    2015-01-15

    Cushing syndrome may rarely present with life-threatening hypercortisolism, manifested by hypertension, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and edema. If medical treatment proves ineffective in ameliorating the symptoms, emergent rescue adrenalectomy may be the only way to relieve the crisis. We describe the anesthetic management of a patient with an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting tumor, whose condition was rapidly deteriorating due to severe cortisol excess, and emergent adrenalectomy was the only available therapeutic modality. Despite severe metabolic derangement, edema, and incipient respiratory failure, emergent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed and the patient improved sufficiently to undergo surgery for the ectopic lesion without incident. PMID:25611000

  16. Cardiovascular, biochemical, and hormonal responses to intravenous sedation with local analgesia versus general anesthesia in patients undergoing oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Hempenstall, P D; Campbell, J P; Bajurnow, A T; Reade, P C; McGrath, B; Harrison, L C

    1986-06-01

    The effects of intravenous conscious sedation and general anesthesia on a number of stress variables were compared in healthy patients undergoing oral surgery. In the intravenous sedation group only the levels of plasma growth hormone and prolactin rose significantly. In the general anesthesia group significant rises were seen in heart rate; systolic blood pressure; mean arterial pressure; levels of plasma adrenaline, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, and prolactin; and levels of blood glucose, all indicative of a stress response. This study demonstrates that oral surgery under intravenous conscious sedation with local analgesia is associated with less patient stress than is oral surgery under general anesthesia. PMID:3009759

  17. Plasma Ghrelin in Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating Disorder: Relations with Eating Patterns and Circulating Concentrations of Cortisol and Thyroid Hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonso Troisi; Giorgio Di Lorenzo; Ilaria Lega; Manfredi Tesauro; Aldo Bertoli; Roberto Leo; Micaela Iantorno; Chiara Pecchioli; Stefano Rizza; Mario Turriziani; Renato Lauro; Alberto Siracusano

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the relations between plasma ghrelin concentrations, eating patterns, and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. The patterns of disordered eating behavior were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). In women with eating disorders, but not in

  18. Dopaminergic function and the cortisol response to dexamethasone in psychotic depression.

    PubMed

    Duval, F; Mokrani, M C; Crocq, M A; Bailey, P E; Diep, T S; Correa, H; Macher, J P

    2000-02-01

    1. It has been hypothesized that psychotic symptoms in depression may be due to increased dopamine activity secondary to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis overactivity. 2. To test this hypothesis, the authors examined the cortisol response to dexamethasone suppression test (DST, 1 mg orally) and multihormonal responses to apomorphine (APO, 0.75 mg s.c.)--a dopamine agonist--in 150 drug-free hospitalized patients with DSM-IV major depressive episode with psychotic features (MDEP, n=35), major depressive episode without psychotic features (MDE, n=74), or schizophrenia paranoid type (SCZ, n=41), and 27 hospitalized healthy controls (HCs). 3. MDEPs showed increased activity of the HPA system (i.e. higher post-DST cortisol levels) than HCs, SCZs and MDEs. However, there were no differences in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone (GH) responses to APO between MDEPs and MDEs and HCs. On the other hand, SCZs showed lower APO-induced ACTH stimulation and a higher rate of blunted GH than HCs, MDEs and MDEPs, suggesting a functional alteration of the hypothalamic dopamine receptors in SCZs. 4. In the total sample and in each diagnostic group, DST suppressors and non-suppressors showed no differences in hormonal responses to APO. 5. These results suggest a lack of causal link between HPA axis hyperactivity and dopamine dysregulation. In contrast to schizophrenia, psychotic symptoms in depression seem not to be related to dopamine function dysregulation. PMID:10800744

  19. Hormonal regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats: the testosterone to cortisol ratio.

    PubMed

    Crowley, M A; Matt, K S

    1996-01-01

    This study determined the influence that the catabolic hormone, corticosterone (C), and the anabolic hormone, testosterone (T), had in regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy using the rat hind limb ablation model. Specifically, the ratio of T:C (TCR) was manipulated via hormone implants and injections and concentrations measured to evaluate the relative contribution of each hormone to skeletal muscle protein balance. Skeletal muscle growth was measured 16 days after gastrocnemius muscle ablation. Elevations in plasma concentrations of C (via daily C injections, 50 mg kg*kg(-1) body mass) resulted in TCR of 0.007 that was less than the control group TCR of 0.249. In this C-injected group, whole body and skeletal muscle atrophy was elicited-this being greater in the fast-twitch plantaris muscle than in the slow-twitch soleus muscle. The overloaded leg resisted the C-induced atrophy. Castration of animals (TCR 0.024) resulted in less whole body and skeletal muscle growth. However, elevations in plasma concentrations of T (two groups, with TCR of 1.35 and 1.64) did not result in significantly greater muscle growth. Furthermore, T was also ineffective in antagonizing the C-induced atrophy in a group that received both T implants and C injections. This group had a TCR of 0.175 that was similar to the control group ratio of 0.249 that received no manipulations. We concluded that glucocorticoids were able to induce pronounced atrophy, but at the same time overloaded muscles were able to over-ride the glucocorticoid signal. Plasma concentrations of C were a better predictor of muscle growth/atrophy than T and/or the TCR. In addition, it is suggested that the volume of contractile activity of the muscle is perhaps an important determinant of C-induced atrophy, because less atrophy occurs in the more active slow twitch muscles. PMID:8861671

  20. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K63.a,b: Non-peptide hormones in serum: cortisol and progesterone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S-C Tai, Susan; Duewer, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate many life functions. Deviations from normal hormone levels can have serious health consequences. Accurate measurement of hormone levels in serum can be beneficial in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating a number of diseases. Two steroid hormones, cortisol and progesterone, were selected by the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) to evaluate its member Institutes' measurement capabilities for this important class of measurand. Serum concentrations of cortisol range from 30 ng/mL to 230 ng/mL. Serum concentrations of progesterone in adult females range from 0.15 ng/mL to 25 ng/mL but can rise to approx230 ng/mL during pregnancy. The ability to measure cortisol is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones at concentration levels similar to cortisol. The ability to measure progesterone is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones with similar functional groups and concentration levels, such as testosterone. Pilot studies CCQM-P77.a and CCQM-P77.b on the determination of cortisol and progesterone in human serum were completed in 2006. There was good agreement among the results reported by participants who used isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (ID/MS) with either gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC). In 2007 the OAWG decided to proceed with key comparison (KC) CCQM-K63.a, cortisol in human serum, and CCQM-K63.b, progesterone in human serum. Thus, following established OAWG procedure, only results from participants that (1) used an ID/MS-based method, (2) participated in the relevant pilot study, and (3) used a metrologically traceable primary standard were to be eligible for use in calculating the key comparison reference value (KCRV) for each measurand. Six laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.a and eight laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.b. The same pooled frozen female serum material was used in both of the KCs. The mean value for the six ID/MS-based cortisol results is 100.4 ng/g with a relative standard deviation (%RSD) of 1.1%. The mean value for the seven ID/MS-based progesterone originally reported results is 2.83 with a %RSD of 1.8%. While a number of the reported results were not eligible to be used in establishing the KCRVs, the KCRVs as estimated from just the eligible results agree very well with these means. The excellent among-participant agreement indicates that ID/MS-based measurement procedures can provide precise and true results for steroid hormones at levels greater than about 1 ng/g. The progesterone result reported by a laboratory using a non-isotopically labelled internal standard was about 11% larger than the KCRV. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  1. Effects of growth hormone deficiency and rhGH replacement therapy on the 6ß-hydroxycortisol\\/free cortisol ratio, a marker of CYP3A activity, in growth hormone-deficient children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blanca Sinués; Esteban Mayayo; Ana Fanlo; María L. Bernal; Pilar Bocos; Elena Bello; Jose I. Labarta; Angel Ferrández-Longás

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of both growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and rhGH replacement therapy on CYP3A activity as well as the potential influence of gender. Methods The sample consisted of 35 GHD children (16 males and 19 females), aged 2.9–13.1 years, and a control group of 35 healthy children matched for age and sex. The urinary ratio 6?-hydroxycortisol\\/free cortisol was

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Testosterone, Cortisol and Empathy

    E-print Network

    Maestripieri, Dario

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Testosterone, Cortisol and Empathy: Evidence for the Dual-Hormone Hypothesis hormone hypothesis posits that basal cortisol and testosterone have a joint effect on motivational testosterone manifest more in indi- viduals with low basal cortisol levels. Whether this hypothesis applies

  3. Effects of Music Listening on Cortisol Levels and Propofol Consumption during Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fuermetz, Julian; Sack, Ulrich; Bauer, Katrin; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Wiegel, Martin; Kaisers, Udo X.; Heinke, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study explores effects of instrumental music on the hormonal system (as indicated by serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone), the immune system (as indicated by immunoglobulin A) and sedative drug requirements during surgery (elective total hip joint replacement under spinal anesthesia with light sedation). This is the first study investigating this issue with a double-blind design using instrumental music. Methodology/Principal Findings: Patients (n?=?40) were randomly assigned either to a music group (listening to instrumental music), or to a control group (listening to a non-musical placebo stimulus). Both groups listened to the auditory stimulus about 2?h before, and during the entire intra-operative period (during the intra-operative light sedation, subjects were able to respond lethargically to verbal commands). Results indicate that, during surgery, patients of the music group had a lower propofol consumption, and lower cortisol levels, compared to the control group. Conclusion/Significance: Our data show that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels (reflecting stress-reducing effects) and reduces sedative requirements to reach light sedation. PMID:21716581

  4. The effects of running and meditation on beta-endorphin, corticotropin-releasing hormone and cortisol in plasma, and on mood.

    PubMed

    Harte, J L; Eifert, G H; Smith, R

    1995-06-01

    The relations between three hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, beta-endorphin (beta-EP), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and cortisol, and mood change were examined in 11 elite runners and 12 highly trained mediators matched in age, sex, and personality. Despite metabolic differences between running and meditation, we predicted that mood change after these activities would be similar when associated with similar hormonal change. Compared to pre-test and control values, mood was elevated after both activities but not significantly different between the two groups at post-test. There were significant elevations of beta-EP and CRH after running and of CRH after meditation, but no significant differences in CRH increases between groups. CRH was correlated with positive mood changes after running and mediation. Cortisol levels were generally high but erratic in both groups. We conclude that positive affect is associated with plasma CRH immunoreactivity which itself is significantly associated with circulating beta-EP supporting a role for CRH in the release of beta-EP. Increased CRH immunoreactivity following meditation indicates, however, that physical exercise is not an essential requirement for CRH release. PMID:7669835

  5. Comparison of total and salivary cortisol in a low-dose ACTH (Synacthen) test: influence of three-month oral contraceptives administration to healthy women.

    PubMed

    Sim?nková, K; Stárka, L; Hill, M; Kríz, L; Hampl, R; Vondra, K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of low-dose combined oral contraception (COC) on basal and stimulated (1 microg ACTH test) levels of serum and salivary cortisol (F), cortisone and on basal serum cortisol binding globulin (CBG), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), dehydroepiadrosterone (DHEA) and calculated free cortisol in healthy young women. Three-month administration of COC resulted in 1) significant increase of basal (454.0+/-125.0 to 860.9+/-179.7 nmol/l) and ACTH-stimulated serum cortisol in 30th min (652.3+/-60.5 to 1374.1+/-240.6 nmol/l); 2) no significant change of basal (15.4+/-7.3 to 18.9+/-8.5 nmol/l) and ACTH-stimulated salivary cortisol at the 30th min (32.4+/-8.8 to 32.9+/-9.0 nmol/l); 3) no significant change of basal serum cortisone (38,8+/-7.68 to 45.2+/-24.2 nmol/l) and ACTH-stimulated cortisone at the 30th (34.8+/-10.9 to 47.0+/-35.7 nmol/l); 4) significant increase of basal ACTH (17.2+/-9.0 to 38.2+/-29.4 ng/l), CBG (991.0+/-161.0 to 2332.0+/-428.0 nmol/l), and 5) no significant change of basal DHEA (24.6+/-15.7 to 22.6+/-11.7 micromol/l) and calculated basal value for free cortisol (22.8+/-14.9 to 19.2+/-6.9 nmol/l). In conclusions, higher basal and ACTH-stimulated serum cortisol were found after three-month administration of COC, while basal and stimulated salivary cortisol were not significantly affected. Therefore, salivary cortisol can be used for assessment of adrenal function in women regularly using COC. PMID:18271677

  6. Order effects of combined strength and endurance training on testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and IGF-1 binding protein 3 in concurrently trained men.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Claudio; Vilaça-Alves, José; Fernandes, Helder M; Saavedra, Francisco J; Pinto, Ronei S; dos Reis, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent training (CT) has been widely used in fitness centers to simultaneously optimize cardiovascular and neuromuscular fitness, and induce a high-energy expenditure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of 2 different orders of CT on hormonal responses in concurrently trained men. Fourteen men (mean ± SD: 24.7 ± 5.1 years) were randomly divided into 2 groups: endurance training followed by strength (ES, n = 7) and strength training followed by endurance (SE, n = 7). Serum concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and IGF-1 binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) were measured before and after both training orders. A significant interaction between exercise order and time was only found in the IGFBP-3 levels (p = 0.022). The testosterone and IGFBP-3 concentrations significantly increased in the ES group after the exercise trainings (57.7 ± 35.1%, p = 0.013 and 17.0 ± 15.5%, p = 0.032, respectively) but did not change significantly in the SE group (15.5 ± 36.6%, p = 0.527 and -4.2 ± 13.9%, p = 0.421, respectively). Conversely, cortisol and growth hormone concentrations significantly increased in both ES (169.2 ± 191.0%, p = 0.021 and 13,296.8 ± 13,009.5%, p = 0.013, respectively) and SE (92.2 ± 81.5%, p = 0.017 and 12,346.2 ± 9714.1%, p = 0.001, respectively) groups compared with baseline values. No significant correlations were found between the changes in the hormonal concentrations. In conclusion, these results suggest that immediately postexercise testosterone and IGFPB-3 responses are significantly increased only after the ES order. Therefore, an ES training order should be prescribed if the main focus of the training intervention is to induce an acute postexercise anabolic environment. PMID:25028991

  7. Higher n-3 fatty acids are associated with more intense fenfluramine-induced ACTH and cortisol responses among cocaine-abusing men.

    PubMed

    Buydens-Branchey, Laure; Branchey, Marc; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2011-08-15

    Preclinical studies have shown that diets supplemented with or deficient in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could influence serotonergic neurotransmission, but information about their effects on the serotonergic function of humans is scant. Therefore, simultaneous assessments of n-3 PUFAs and of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol responses to challenges with the serotonin (5-HT) probe d,l-fenfluramine (FEN) were performed in 25 cocaine-abusing men and 12 control subjects. Cocaine abusers were tested 18 days after their admission to a closed ward. ACTH and cortisol were measured in plasma samples collected on two testing days separated by 48 h following the random administration of 60 mg of FEN or placebo. Fatty acids were measured in the first test day samples. Patients' FEN-induced ACTH rises were significantly and positively correlated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Patients' cortisol rises were positively and significantly correlated with EPA but not with DHA. There were no significant correlations between hormonal responses and pre-hospitalization cocaine use parameters. Control subjects' responses to FEN were not correlated with any PUFA. In conclusion, higher EPA and DHA levels were associated with a more intense FEN-induced ACTH response and higher EPA levels with a more intense cortisol response in cocaine-abusing men withdrawn from cocaine but not in control subjects. These findings support and expand existing evidence that EPA and DHA could influence 5-HT function in some human subgroups. PMID:21658782

  8. Adrenocorticotrope Deficiency with Clinical Evidence for Late Onset in Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency Caused by a Homozygous 301–302delAG Mutation of the PROP1 Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lamesch; S. Neumann; R. Pfäffle; W. Kiess; R. Paschke

    2002-01-01

    Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) can be caused by mutation of the pituitary transcription factors POU1F1 or PROP1. More recently mutations in the HESX1, the LHX3 and LHX4 transcription factor genes have also been described as a cause in patients with CPHD. In most patients the disorder is characterized by an impaired production of GH, TSH, PRL and gonadotropins. In

  9. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Identification. A cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system is a device intended to measure the cortisol hormones secreted by the adrenal gland in plasma and urine. Measurements of cortisol are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identification. A cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system is a device intended to measure the cortisol hormones secreted by the adrenal gland in plasma and urine. Measurements of cortisol are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Identification. A cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system is a device intended to measure the cortisol hormones secreted by the adrenal gland in plasma and urine. Measurements of cortisol are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identification. A cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system is a device intended to measure the cortisol hormones secreted by the adrenal gland in plasma and urine. Measurements of cortisol are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Identification. A cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system is a device intended to measure the cortisol hormones secreted by the adrenal gland in plasma and urine. Measurements of cortisol are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  14. Effects of acute and chronic methylphenidate administration on beta-endorphin, growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol in children with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Weizman, R; Dick, J; Gil-Ad, I; Weitz, R; Tyano, S; Laron, Z

    1987-06-01

    The effect of 5 mg/p.o. methylphenidate (MPH) challenge on beta-endorphin (beta-EP), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (Prl) and cortisol was investigated in 16 children suffering from attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH) before and after 4 weeks MPH treatment. The study population consisted of 13 males and 3 females aged 6-11 years. All patients were drug free for at least 3 months prior to investigation. The severity of ADDH symptomatology and response to MPH chronic treatment was assessed using parent/teacher abbreviated Conners rating scale. Blood samples for beta-EP, cortisol, Prl and GH were drawn before initiation of treatment (basal pre-treatment level), 2 hours after MPH challenge, 4 weeks after MPH treatment (basal post-treatment level) and 2 hours after re-challenge with MPH. Chronic MPH treatment resulted in a decrease in basal Prl levels (5.5 +/- 2.8 vs 3.7 +/- 1.9 ng/ml; p less than 0.05). Pre-treatment challenge stimulates significantly both beta-EP (15.0 +/- 7.5 vs 12.5 +/- 5.3 pmol/l; p less than 0.05) and cortisol secretion (20.6 +/- 6.6 vs 12.6 +/- 5.8 micrograms/dl; p less than 0.05), and suppressed Prl secretion (4.0 +/- 1.5 vs 5.5 +/- 2.8 ng/ml; p less than 0.05). Re-challenge with MPH enhanced beta-EP levels (14.9 +/- 8.6 vs 10.6 +/- 5.0 pmol/l; p less than 0.05) but failed to affect cortisol, Prl and GH secretion. The acute and chronic neuroendocrine effects of MPH administration might be related to its dopaminergic and adrenergic agonistic activity. It might be that the stimulatory effect of single and repeated acute MPH administration on beta-EP release contributes to the beneficial effect of MPH treatment in ADDH children. PMID:3035307

  15. Psychological reactivity to laboratory stress is associated with hormonal responses in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Manzur, Angelica M.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Spiegel, David; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study examined associations between psychological reactivity and hormonal responses to a standardized laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) in postmenopausal women. METHODS Forty postmenopausal women ages 50–74 completed anxiety and mood assessments prior to and following the TSST. Blood samples were drawn across multiple time points for assessment of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and DHEA. RESULTS As expected, significant increases in anxiety and negative affect and decreases in positive affect were observed from pre- to post-TSST; however, the magnitude of change in anxiety and mood varied considerably across individuals. Analyses indicated that greater increases in anxiety and negative affect from pre- to post-TSST were associated with higher levels of cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA, controlling for race, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Changes in positive affect were not associated with cortisol, ACTH, or DHEA. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that enhanced reactivity to stress is associated with higher hormone levels among postmenopausal women, which could have potential implications for health. PMID:24595153

  16. Hormonal and Behavioral Responses to Stress in Lactating and Non-lactating Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

    2011-01-01

    In several mammalian species, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and behavioral responses to stressors are down-regulated in lactating females, possibly preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have been found to inhibit maternal behavior in lactating common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), raising the question of whether lactating female marmosets also have blunted endogenous responses to stress. Therefore, we compared HPA and behavioral responses to standardized stressors in reproductively experienced female common marmosets that were undergoing ovulatory cycles and that either were (N=7) or were not lactating (N=8). Each marmoset underwent (1) a restraint stressor during the early follicular phase of the ovarian cycle (approximately 5 weeks postpartum for lactating females) and (2) exposure to a simulated hawk predator during the early to mid-luteal phase (approximately 7 weeks postpartum for lactating females). Lactating females were tested in the presence of one of their infants. Blood samples were collected before, during, and immediately after each test for determination of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations. Both stressors caused significant elevations in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and significant decreases in cortisol:ACTH ratios; however, lactating and non-lactating females showed no significant differences in their endocrine or behavioral responses to either stressor, or in baseline ACTH or cortisol levels. These findings suggest that in contrast to several other mammalian species, lactating female marmosets maintain full behavioral and HPA responsiveness to stress, at least in the presence of their infants. PMID:21600906

  17. Cortisol Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the adrenal glands are functioning normally, then cortisol levels will rise with the ACTH stimulation. If they are damaged or not functioning properly, then the cortisol level will be low. A longer version of this ...

  18. Treatment of nephrotic syndrome with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel

    PubMed Central

    Bomback, Andrew S; Tumlin, James A; Baranski, Joel; Bourdeau, James E; Besarab, Anatole; Appel, Alice S; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Appel, Gerald B

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A synthetic adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) analog has shown efficacy in Europe as primary and secondary therapy for nephrotic syndrome, but there is no published experience using the natural, highly purified ACTH gel formulation, available in the United States, for nephrotic syndrome. We therefore investigated the use of ACTH gel for nephrotic syndrome in the United States. Patients and methods: Twenty-one patients with nephrotic syndrome treated with ACTH gel outside of research settings in the United States, with initiation of therapy by December 31, 2009, allowing a minimum 6 months follow-up. We defined complete remission as stable renal function with proteinuria falling to <500 mg/day, and partial remission as stable renal function with >50% reduction in proteinuria from 500 to 3500 mg/day. Results: Twenty-one patients with nephrotic syndrome were treated: 11 with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN), 4 with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), 1 with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), 1 with minimal change disease (MCD), 1 with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, 1 with class V systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) glomerulonephritis, 1 with monoclonal diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis, and 1 with unbiopsied nephrotic syndrome. ACTH was used as primary therapy for 3 patients; the remaining patients had previously failed a mean 2.3 immunosuppressive regimens. Eleven patients achieved a complete or partial remission, with 4 (19%) in complete remission. Of the 11 patients who achieved remission, 9 had iMN, 1 had FSGS, and 1 had IgA nephropathy. Of the 11 patients with iMN, 3 (27%) achieved complete remission and 6 (55%) achieved partial remission despite having previously failed a mean 2.4 therapies. Five patients reported steroid-like adverse effects, but there were no severe infections. The limitations were retrospective data analysis with short-term follow-up. Conclusion: ACTH gel may be a viable treatment option for resistant nephrotic syndrome due to membranous nephropathy. Short-term data suggest that remission rates may approach 80%. PMID:21448451

  19. Growth hormone diVerentially regulates muscle myostatin1 and -2 and increases circulating cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peggy R. Biga; Kenneth D. Cain; Ronald W. Hardy; Gerald T. Schelling; Kenneth Overturf; Steven B. Roberts; Frederick W. Goetz; Troy L. Otta

    Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates muscle growth in vertebrates. Salmonids produce two myostatin transcripts from sepa- rate genes. Surprisingly, quantitative analyses indicate diVerent regulatory mechanisms for the two myostatin genes in rainbow trout. MSTN1 mRNA levels were elevated 26% following recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) treatment, while MSTN2 mRNA levels were reduced 74% compared to controls. MSTN precursor protein (42 kDa)

  20. Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  1. Differential effects of the imidazole derivatives etomidate, ketoconazole and miconazole and of metyrapone on the secretion of cortisol and its precursors by human adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, S W; Bons, E G; Bruining, H A; de Jong, F H

    1987-01-01

    The direct effects of etomidate, ketoconazole, miconazole and metyrapone were investigated on the secretion of cortisol and its precursors by dispersed cells from the adrenal cortex of a normal individual and four patients with Cushing's syndrome. The drugs interfered with adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated cortisol secretion in a dose-dependent way. Desoxycortisol concentrations in the medium were increased after the addition of metyrapone and low doses of etomidate but were suppressed with higher doses of etomidate. The production of 17-hydroxy-progesterone was stimulated by miconazole and metyrapone but was strongly suppressed by the high doses of etomidate. Ketoconazole caused a stimulation of progesterone release, whereas the release of 17-hydroxyprogesterone was suppressed. Finally, the concentration of progesterone was strongly enhanced with high doses of miconazole, whereas etomidate suppressed progesterone production. It is concluded that etomidate at a low concentration (IC50, 10(-8) M) inhibits 11 beta-hydroxylase, whereas, at higher concentrations (10(-7)-10(-6) M), the side-chain cleavage enzyme system is also inhibited; metyrapone is a weaker (IC50, 10(-7) M) but pure 11 beta-hydroxylase inhibitor; miconazole inhibits adrenal 21-hydroxylase at 10(-6) M; and ketoconazole inhibits 17-hydroxylase. Etomidate, ketoconazole, miconazole and metyrapone inhibit cortisol biosynthesis in the human adrenal gland in different manners, which appear to involve the four cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase reactions. Interestingly, these drugs affect corticosteroidogenesis by normal, hyperplastic and adenomatous adrenal cells in a similar manner. PMID:3027305

  2. Comparative Analysis of Clinical, Hormonal and Morphological Studies in Patients with Neuroendocrine ACTH-Producing Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Kolesnikova, G. S.; Lapshina, A. M.; Voronkova, I. A.; Marova, E. I.; Arapova, S. D.; Goncharov, N. P.; Dedov, I. I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the problem of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) with clinical symptoms of hypercorticism caused by hypersecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by tumour cells. In most cases (85%), the tumours were localized in the pituitary gland (Cushing's disease); 15% of the patients had an extrapituitary tumour that manifest as an ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS). Comparative analysis of clinical, hormonal, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics of pituitary and extrapituitary ACTH-secreting NET was performed. It included 46 patients with CD and 38 ones exhibiting ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS). Results of the study suggest differences between CD and EAS in terms of the severity of clinical manifestations and duration of the disease. Hormonal studies showed that EAS unlike CD was associated with high plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, late-evening salivary cortisol and daily urinary free cortisol, the absence of a 60% or greater reduction of cortisol in the HDDST test, and the presence of a low (less than 2) ACTH gradient in response to desmopressin administration with catheterization of cavernous sinuses. The study of morphofunctional characteristics of the removed NET demonstrated the ability of both pituitary and extrapituitary NETs to express ACTH as well as GH, PRL, LH, and FSH. The angiogenic markers (CD31 and VEGF) were detected with equal frequency regardless of the NET localization. The histological structure of all corticotropinomas suggested their benign origin, but extrapituitary NETs were represented by different morphological types with varying malignancy, invasiveness, and metastatic properties. A higher cell proliferation potential (Ki-67) was documented for NET in patients presenting with an ectopic ACTH secretion compared to those having corticotropinomas. PMID:23509456

  3. Testosterone, but not IGF-1, LH, prolactin or cortisol, may serve as antler-stimulating hormone in red deer stags (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Bartos, Ludek; Schams, Dieter; Bubenik, George A

    2009-04-01

    The role of androgens and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in antler growth has been disputed. We predicted that the secretory of IGF-1 may be associated with an acceleration of body growth rather than with antler growth. Furthermore we anticipated a relationship between the increase of testosterone and the progress of antler growth. If IGF-1 is involved in the stimulation of antler growth, this should be more obvious in young than in mature stags. Eight two-year-old red deer stags (Cervus elaphus), and twelve adult red deer stags were blood sampled and the length of their velvet antlers was measured in one-week intervals during the period of antler growth. Concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, IGF-1, luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin were determined in plasma by enzyme immunoassay or radioimmunoassay. Antler growth per day was primarily dependent on changes in testosterone concentration per day in both groups of stags. As expected, only in two-year-old stags we detected a possible role of IGF-1 in the antler growth regulation, but that was not in agreement with previously published studies. Nevertheless, this effect was still utilized in interaction with testosterone. In addition to total antler length, only concentrations of testosterone and LH were significantly higher in adult males in comparison to two-year-old males. Our present results lead us to conclude that it is not IGF-1 but testosterone which is responsible for the intensity of antler growth in subadult and adult red deer stags. PMID:19124089

  4. Association between exposure to rotating night shift versus day shift using levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and cortisol and other sex hormones in women.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; García-Unzueta, María Teresa; Santos-Benito, María Francisca; Llorca, Javier

    2015-02-01

    The present study aims to compare 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) secretion patterns and levels of cortisol and sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone, DHEA, DHEAS, and testosterone) among rotating night-shift workers and day-shift workers. We performed a cross-sectional study in Cantabria (northern Spain) including 136 women (73 day-shift workers and 63 rotating night-shift workers). Blood and urine samples were obtained after two consecutive working days. Differences in means were estimated using ANCOVA, stratified by menopausal status, ovulation phase, and adjusted for season, age, body mass index, consumption of cigarettes in the last 24?h. aMT6s circadian rhythm was analyzed using the cosinor analysis. The present study showed that rotating night-shift workers had lower excretion of aMT6s than day-shift workers (mesor?=?50.26?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with rotating night shift versus 88.79?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with day shift), lower fluctuation (amplitude?=?45.24?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in rotating night-shift workers versus 79.71?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in day-shift workers), and a later acrophase (aMT6s peak time: 08:31 in rotating night-shift workers versus 07:13?h in day-shift workers). Additionally, women with rotating night shift had higher estradiol and progesterone levels, compared to day workers, especially in the follicular phase on the menstrual cycle. PMID:25216206

  5. Fecal cortisol metabolite levels in free-ranging North American red squirrels: Assay validation and the effects of reproductive condition.

    PubMed

    Dantzer, Ben; McAdam, Andrew G; Palme, Rupert; Fletcher, Quinn E; Boutin, Stan; Humphries, Murray M; Boonstra, Rudy

    2010-06-01

    Patterns in stress hormone (glucocorticoid: GC) levels and their relationship to reproductive condition in natural populations are rarely investigated. In this study, we (1) validate an enzyme-immunoassay to measure fecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) levels in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and (2) examine relationships between FCM levels and reproductive condition in a free-ranging red squirrel population. Injected radiolabeled cortisol was entirely metabolized and excreted in both the urine (mean+/-SE; 70.3+/-0.02%) and feces (29.7+/-0.02%), with a lag time to peak excretion in the feces of 10.9+/-2.3h. Our antibody reacted with several cortisol metabolites, and an adrenocorticotropic injection significantly increased FCM levels above baseline levels at 8h post-injection. Relative to baseline levels, manipulation by handling also tended to increase FCM levels at 8h post-manipulation, but this difference was not significant. FCM levels did not differ significantly between samples frozen immediately and 5h after collection. Reproductive condition significantly affected FCM levels in free-ranging females (pregnant>lactating>post-lactating>non-breeding) but not males (scrotal testes vs. abdominal testes). Among females with known parturition dates, FCM levels increased during gestation, peaked at parturition, and declined during lactation. The difference between pregnant and lactating females was therefore dependent upon when the fecal samples were obtained during these periods, suggesting caution in categorizing reproductive stages. This study demonstrates the utility of fecal hormone metabolite assays to document patterns of glucocorticoid levels in free-ranging animals. PMID:20346362

  6. Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing

    E-print Network

    Dahleh, Munther A.

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the ...

  7. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone: Two-week stability, interhormone correlations, and effects of time of day, menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptive use

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    Salivary testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone: Two-week stability, interhormone correlations Accepted 2 October 2009 Keywords: Testosterone Cortisol Progesterone Steroid hormones Stability Test, we tested the reliability of testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone levels across two weeks

  8. Circadian Rhythms of Glucocorticoid Hormone Actions in Target Tissues: Potential Clinical Implications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tomoshige Kino (NIH; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development REV)

    2012-10-02

    Organisms face unforeseen short- and long-term changes in the environment (stressors). To defend against these changes, organisms have developed a stress system that includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which employs glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) for signal transduction. In addition, organisms live under the strong influence of day-night cycles and, hence, have also developed a highly conserved circadian clock system for adjusting their activities to recurring environmental changes. This regulatory system creates and maintains internal circadian rhythmicity by employing a self-oscillating molecular pacemaker composed of the Clock-Bmal1 heterodimer and other transcription factors. The circadian clock consists of a central master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain hypothalamus and peripheral slave clocks in virtually all organs and tissues. The HPA axis and the circadian clock system communicate with each other at multiple levels. The central clock controls the HPA axis, creating the diurnal oscillation of circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, and the HPA axis adjusts the circadian rhythmicity of the peripheral clocks in response to various stressors through the GR. Further, Clock-Bmal1 regulates the response to glucocorticoids in peripheral tissues through acetylation of the GR, possibly antagonizing the biologic actions of diurnally fluctuating circulating cortisol. Importantly, dysregulation in the clock system and the HPA axis may cause similar pathologic manifestations—including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease—by uncoupling circulating cortisol concentrations from tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids.

  9. Sex hormone profiles in pedophilic and incestuous men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reuben A. Lang; Pierre Flor-Henry; Roy R. Frenzel

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-eight pedophiles, 45 incest offenders, and 44 community controls with no history of sexual or violent crime were compared on eight hormones: androstenedione, cortisol, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, and testosterone, and on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Results showed that sex offenders had elevated levels of four hormones: androstenedione, cortisol, estradiol and

  10. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

  11. Fecal cortisol metabolite levels in free-ranging North American red squirrels: Assay validation and the effects of reproductive condition

    E-print Network

    Dantzer, Ben

    of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M1C 1A4 a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 25.9 ± 2.3 h. Our antibody reacted with several cortisol metabolites, and an adrenocorticotropic injec

  12. Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone: A Regulator of Human Melanocyte Physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian Hunt

    1995-01-01

    Although the melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is well-recognised as a pigmentary hormone in animals, its role in human pigmentation is still a matter for conjecture, not least because cultured human melanocytes have proved to be relatively refractory to the peptide. However, recent work has shown that human melanocytes can respond to MSH peptides and the related adrenocorticotropic hormone. While the pigmentary

  13. Sex hormones in pedophiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bain; R. Langevin; S. Hucker; R. Dickey; P. Wright; C. Schonberg

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-six pedophiles and 16 nonviolent nonsex offenders were compared on baseline values of Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, estradiol, dehydroenpiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and cortisol. Pedophiles had significantly higher levels of LH and FSH but lower levels of testosterone. There were no significant differences on the remaining hormones. When age and substance abuse were controlled, LH and FSH

  14. EFFECT OF FASTING ON NYCHTHEMERAL CONCENTRATIONS OF PLASMA GROWTH HORMONE (GH), INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I (IGF-I), AND CORTISOL IN CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to characterize the effect of fasting verses satiety feeding on plasma concentrations of GH, IGF-I, and cortisol over a nychthemeron. Channel catfish fingerlings were acclimated for two weeks under a 12L:12D photoperiod, then fed or fasted for 21 d. On day 21, blood sa...

  15. A case of low cortisol-binding globulin: use of plasma free cortisol in interpretation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis tests.

    PubMed

    Davidson, James S; Bolland, Mark J; Croxson, Michael S; Chiu, Weldon; Lewis, John G

    2006-05-01

    We investigated a patient with suspected hypopituitarism who showed subnormal cortisol responses to stimulation tests with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and hypoglycaemia, but normal ACTH and 11-deoxycortisol responses in the metyrapone test. Cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and was used to calculate plasma free cortisol and free cortisol index. The patient had a low plasma CBG concentration. Reinterpreted in terms of free cortisol and free cortisol index, his responses to ACTH were normal. We conclude that despite subnormal total cortisol responses to ACTH and hypoglycaemia, the patient had a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Measurement of CBG concentration and calculation of free cortisol or free cortisol index can help avoid false interpretations of dynamic tests of the HPA axis based on plasma total cortisol. PMID:16704764

  16. Electrochemical sensing of cortisol: a recent update.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aparajita; Kaushik, Ajeet; Kumar, Rajesh; Nair, Madhavan; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Psychological stress caused by everyday lifestyle contributes to health disparities experienced by individuals. It affects many biomarkers, but cortisol - "a steroid hormone" - is known as a potential biomarker for psychological stress detection. Abnormal levels of cortisol are indicative of conditions such as Cushing's syndrome Addison's disease, adrenal insufficiencies and more recently post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Chromatographic techniques, which are traditionally used to detect cortisol, are a complex system requiring multistep extraction/purification. This limits its application for point-of-care (POC) detection of cortisol. However, electrochemical immunosensing of cortisol is a recent advancement towards POC application. This review highlights simple, low-cost, and label-free electrochemical immunosensing platforms which have been developed recently for sensitive and selective detection of cortisol in bio-fluids. Electrochemical detection is utilized for the detection of cortisol using Anti-Cortisol antibodies (Anti-Cab) covalently immobilized on nanostructures, such as self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and polymer composite, for POC integration of sensors. The observed information can be used as a prototype to understand behavioral changes in humans such as farmers and firefighters. Keeping the future directions and challenges in mind, the focus of the BioMEMS and Microsystems Research Group at Florida International University is on development of POC devices for immunosensing, integration of these devices with microfluidics, cross validation with existing technologies, and analysis of real sample. PMID:24723204

  17. Testosterone, cortisol, and psychopathic traits in men and women.

    PubMed

    Welker, Keith M; Lozoya, Elianna; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Neumann, Craig S; Carré, Justin M

    2014-04-22

    Cortisol and testosterone are theorized to independently and jointly influence antisocial behaviors. The current research examined the independent and interactive effects of baseline testosterone and cortisol on individual differences in psychopathic traits in a relatively large non-clinical sample (N=237). Participants completed the Self-Report Psychopathy - Short Form (SRP; Paulhus, Neumann, & Hare, in press) and provided saliva samples. Analyses indicated that testosterone and cortisol were positively correlated with psychopathic traits in men, but beyond these effects, cortisol moderated the relationship between testosterone and psychopathy in men. The relationship between testosterone and psychopathy within men was positive when cortisol levels were high, but negative when cortisol levels were low. These results have implications for work surrounding the dual hormone hypothesis and suggest that nonclinical variability in psychopathy can be predicted by baseline testosterone and cortisol. PMID:24631306

  18. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  19. Variation in the ovine cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge is predominantly determined by signalling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    SciTech Connect

    You Qiumei [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Karrow, Niel A. [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: nkarrow@uoguelph.ca; Cao Honghe [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Rodriguez, Alexander [Department of Clinical Studies, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Mallard, Bonnie A. [Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Boermans, Herman J. [Department of Biomedical Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Bi-directional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is designed, in part, to maintain or restore homeostasis during physiological stress. Exposure to endotoxin during Gram-negative bacterial infection for example, elicits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). The secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids subsequently down regulates the host inflammatory response, minimizing potential tissue damage. Sequence and epigenetic variants in genes involved in regulating the neuroendocrine and immune systems are likely to contribute to individual differences in the HPAA response, and this may influence the host anti-inflammatory response to toxin exposure and susceptibility to inflammatory disease. In this study, high (HCR) and low (LCR) cortisol responders were selected from a normal population of 110 female sheep challenged iv with Escherichia coli endotoxin (400 ng/kg) to identify potential determinants that contribute to variation in the cortisol response phenotype. This phenotype was stable over several years in the HCR and LCR animals, and did not appear to be attributed to differences in expression of hepatic immune-related genes or systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Mechanistic studies using corticotrophin-releasing factor (0.5 {mu}g/kg body weight), arginine vasopressin (0.5 {mu}g/kg), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (0.5 {mu}g/kg) administered iv demonstrated that variation in this phenotype is largely determined by signalling within the HPAA. Future studies will use this ovine HCR/LCR model to investigate potential genetic and epigenetic variants that may contribute to variation in cortisol responsiveness to bacterial endotoxin.

  20. Alleviation of cyclic heat stress in broilers by dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide and Lactobacillus-based probiotic: dynamics of cortisol, thyroid hormones, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Sohail, M U; Ijaz, A; Yousaf, M S; Ashraf, K; Zaneb, H; Aleem, M; Rehman, H

    2010-09-01

    Heat stress (HS), one of the major problems of tropical and subtropical countries, adversely affects the production performance of poultry. Keeping this in view, the present study was designed to investigate some of the biological markers of HS in broilers as modulated by dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) and a Lactobacillus-based probiotic (LBP), either alone or in combination. Two hundred fifty 1-d-old-chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups. From d 22, the birds were either kept at the thermoneutral zone (TN) or exposed to HS to the conclusion of study, d 42. Birds were fed either a corn-based basal diet (TN and HS groups) or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS group), 0.1% LBP (HS-LBP group), or their combination. Birds were immunized against Newcastle disease virus on d 4 (intraocular; live attenuated) and d 20 (drinking water; live attenuated) and infectious bursal disease virus on d 8 (intraocular; live intermediate strain) and d 24 (drinking water; live attenuated). Birds were killed on d 42 to collect serum for determination of cortisol, thyroid hormones, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and postvaccinal antibody titers. Results revealed that dietary supplementations decreased (P < 0.05) the serum cortisol and cholesterol concentrations and increased (P < 0.05) thyroxine concentration compared with the HS group without affecting triiodothyronine concentration. The percentage of the C-reactive protein-positive birds was higher (P < 0.05) in the HS group compared with the TN group. Dietary supplementations improved humoral immunity against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bursal disease virus during HS. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of either MOS or LBP alone or in combination can reduce some of the detrimental effects of HS in broilers. PMID:20709978

  1. The cortisol awakening response in context.

    PubMed

    Clow, Angela; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a crucial point of reference within the healthy cortisol circadian rhythm, with cortisol secretion typically peaking between 30 and 45 min post awakening. This chapter reviews the history of investigation into the CAR and highlights evidence that its regulation is relatively distinct from cortisol secretion across the rest of the day. It is initiated by awakening, under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, and "fine tuned" by a direct neural input to the adrenal cortex by the sympathetic nervous system. This chapter also examples the CAR in relation to other awakening-induced processes, such as restoration of consciousness, attainment of full alertness, changes in other hormones, changes in the balance of the immune system, and mobilization of the motor system, and speculates that there is a role for the CAR in these processes. PMID:20970005

  2. Effects of syndyphalin-33 on feed intake and circulating measures of growth hormone, cortisol, and immune cell populations in the recently-weaned pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthetic met-enkephalin syndyphalin-33 (SD-33) increases feed intake in sheep and transiently increases circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep, rats, and pigs. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of SD-33 on recently-weaned pigs. In a preliminary experiment, ...

  3. Social Behavior Correlates of Cortisol Activity in Child Care: Gender Differences and Time-of-Day Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Kathryn; de Haan, Michelle; Campbell, Elizabeth Kipp; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1998-01-01

    Examined relations between social behavior and daily patterns of a stress-sensitive hormone production in preschool children attending center-based child care. For boys, externalizing behavior was positively associated with cortisol reactivity, while internalizing behavior was negatively associated with median (typical) cortisol. Median cortisol…

  4. DPC Coat-A-Count Cortisol modified protocol for saliva

    E-print Network

    Michigan, University of

    DPC Coat-A-Count Cortisol modified protocol for saliva From: Wirth, M. M., Welsh, K., & Schultheiss saliva samples! (Note: Diluted controls should cover the whole range of expected salivary hormone levels for measurement of serum hormones, but not saliva. Thus, calculate the expected concentrations after dilution

  5. Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Adler, Gail K.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Emery N.

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

  6. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Adler, Gail K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2) above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

  7. Development of a formula for estimating plasma free cortisol concentration from a measured total cortisol concentration when elastase-cleaved and intact corticosteroid binding globulin coexist.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong T T; Lewis, John G; Sneyd, James; Lee, Rita S F; Torpy, David J; Shorten, Paul R

    2014-05-01

    Cortisol bound to corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) contributes up to 90% of the total cortisol concentration in circulation. Therefore, changes in the binding kinetics of cortisol to CBG can potentially impact on the concentration of free cortisol, the only form that is responsible for the physiological function of the hormone. When CBG is cleaved into elastase-cleaved CBG (eCBG) by the activity of neutrophil elastase, its affinity for cortisol is reduced. Therefore, when eCBG coexists with intact CBG (iCBG) in plasma, the calculation of free cortisol concentration based on the formulae that considers only one CBG pool with the same affinity for cortisol may be inappropriate. In this study, we developed in vivo and in vitro models of cortisol partitioning which considers two CBG pools, iCBG and eCBG, with different affinities for cortisol, and deduce a new formula for calculating plasma free cortisol concentration. The formula provides better estimates of free cortisol concentration than previously used formulae when measurements of the concentrations of the two CBG forms are available. The model can also be used to estimate the affinity of CBG and albumin for cortisol in different clinical groups. We found no significant difference in the estimated affinity of CBG and albumin for cortisol in normal, sepsis and septic shock groups, although free cortisol was higher in sepsis and septic shock groups. The in vivo model also demonstrated that the concentration of interstitial free cortisol is increased locally at a site of inflammation where iCBG is cleaved to form eCBG by the activity of elastase released by neutrophils. This supports the argument that the cleavage of iCBG at sites of inflammation leads to more lower-affinity eCBG and may be a mechanism that permits the local concentration of free cortisol to increase at these sites, while allowing basal free cortisol concentrations at other sites to remain unaffected. PMID:24373796

  8. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  9. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  10. Lower Baseline Plasma Cortisol and Prolactin together with Increased Body Temperature and Higher mCPP-Induced Cortisol Responses in Men with Pedophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Maes; Dirk van West; Nathalie De Vos; Herman Westenberg; Fran Van Hunsel; Dirk Hendriks; Paul Cosyns; Simon Scharpé

    2001-01-01

    There is some evidence that hormonal and serotonergic alterations may play a role in the pathophysiology of paraphilias. The aims of the present study were to examine: 1) baseline plasma cortisol, plasma prolactin, and body temperature; and 2) cortisol, prolactin, body temperature, as well as behavioral responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and placebo in pedophiles and normal men. Pedophiles showed significantly

  11. Measuring water-borne cortisol in Poecilia latipinna:is the process stressful, can stress be minimized and is cortisol correlated with sex steroid release rates?

    PubMed

    Gabor, C R; Contreras, A

    2012-09-01

    The stress of water-borne hormone collection process was examined in sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna. Baseline release rates of the stress hormone cortisol were measured and minimum confinement time for water sampling was evaluated for a standard 60 min v. a 30 min protocol. A 30 min hormone collection period reflects release rates over 60 min. Potential stress response to confinement in the beaker for the water-borne collection process was tested over 4 days. There was no evidence of stress due to the collection methods, as cortisol release rates did not differ significantly across four sequential days of handling for P. latipinna. Males and females did not differ significantly in baseline cortisol release rates. Baseline cortisol release rates from fish immediately after being collected in the field were also not significantly different than those in the 4 day confinement experiment. After exposure to a novel environment, however, P. latipinna mounted a stress response. Stress may also affect sex steroids and behaviour but cortisol release rates were not significantly correlated with sex steroids [11-ketotestosterone (KT), testosterone, or oestradiol], or mating attempts. The correlation between water-borne release rates and plasma steroid levels was validated for both cortisol and KT. Finally, normalizing cortisol release rates using standard length in lieu of mass is viable and accurate. Water-borne hormone assays are a valuable tool for investigating questions concerning the role of hormones in mediating stress responses and reproductive behaviours in P. latipinna and other livebearing fishes. PMID:22957873

  12. Diurnal Cortisol Dysregulation, Functional Disability, and Depression in Women With Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weinrib, Aliza Z.; Sephton, Sandra E.; DeGeest, Koen; Penedo, Frank; Bender, David; Zimmerman, Bridget; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Sood, Anil K.; Lubaroff, David M.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multiple alterations in circadian rhythms have been observed in cancer patients, including the diurnal rhythm of the adrenal hormone cortisol. Diurnal cortisol alterations have been associated with cancer-related physiological processes as well as psychological stress. Here we investigate alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythm in ovarian cancer patients, and potential links with depression, life stress, and functional disability. METHODS Women (n = 177) with suspected ovarian cancer completed questionnaires and collected salivary cortisol 3× daily for 3 consecutive days before surgery. One hundred women were subsequently diagnosed with ovarian cancer and 77 with benign disease. In addition, healthy women (n = 33) not scheduled for surgery collected salivary cortisol at the same time points. RESULTS Ovarian cancer patients demonstrated significantly elevated nocturnal cortisol (P = .022) and diminished cortisol variability (P = .023) compared with women with benign disease and with healthy women (all P values <.0001). Among ovarian cancer patients, higher levels of nocturnal cortisol and less cortisol variability were significantly associated with greater functional disability, fatigue, and vegetative depression, but not with stress, distress, or depressed affect. There were no significant associations between functional or psychological variables and diurnal cortisol in women with benign disease. CONCLUSIONS Nocturnal cortisol and cortisol variability show significant dysregulation in ovarian cancer patients, and this dysregulation was associated with greater functional disability, fatigue, and vegetative depression. These findings suggest potential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal involvement in functional disability in ovarian cancer, and may have implications for disease progression. PMID:20564155

  13. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Mscisz, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Barchia, I.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene’s Score (GMS) and Kupperman’s Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT). PMID:23675006

  14. Measuring Endocrine (Cortisol) Responses of Zebrafish Peter R. Canavello, Jonathan M. Cachat, Esther C. Beeson,

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    and rats use corticosterone as their main stress hormone, both humans and zebrafish utilize cortisol, rodent endocrine HPA systems utilize corticosterone as the main stress hormone (10). A similar mechanism stress hormone in zebrafish. A negative feedback system acts on the hypothalamus to ensure homeostatic

  15. BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY -ORIGINAL ARTICLE Association of salivary-assessed oxytocin and cortisol levels

    E-print Network

    Weidemann, Christoph

    BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY - ORIGINAL ARTICLE Association of salivary-assessed oxytocin and cortisol in the promotion of attachment behaviour. The hormones cortisol and oxytocin, respec- tively, may be involved on whether levels of oxytocin differ between sleep stages. This study thus investigated the changes in levels

  16. Effects of testosterone administration on nocturnal cortisol secretion in healthy older men.

    PubMed

    Muniyappa, Ranganath; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Harman, S Mitchell; Sorkin, John D; Blackman, Marc R

    2010-11-01

    In animal studies, testosterone decreases, whereas estrogen increases, cortisol production. In one clinical study, short-term testosterone replacement attenuated corticotrophin-releasing hormone-stimulated cortisol secretion during leuprolide-induced hypogonadism in young men. The effects of longer term testosterone treatment on spontaneous cortisol secretion in younger or older men are unknown. In a randomized, double-masked placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of testosterone supplementation (100 mg intramuscular every 2 week) for 26 weeks on nocturnal cortisol secretory dynamics in healthy older men. Testosterone administration increased early morning serum concentrations of free testosterone by 34%, decreased sex hormone-binding globulin by 20%, and did not alter early morning concentrations of cortisol-binding globulin or cortisol compared with placebo treatment. Testosterone did not significantly alter nocturnal mean and integrated cortisol concentrations, cortisol burst frequency, mass/burst, basal secretion, pulsatile cortisol production rate, pattern regularity, or approximate entropy. We conclude that low-dose testosterone supplementation for 26 weeks does not affect spontaneous nocturnal cortisol secretion in healthy older men. PMID:20675620

  17. Acute adrenal crisis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to stress . Cortisol production is regulated by the pituitary gland. This is a small gland behind the nose and under the brain. The pituitary gland releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This is a hormone ...

  18. ACTH (cosyntropin) stimulation test

    MedlinePLUS

    The ACTH stimulation test measures how well the adrenal glands respond to adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH ). ACTH is a ... produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release a hormone called cortisol. The man- ...

  19. Social regulation of cortisol receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Korzan, Wayne J; Grone, Brian P; Fernald, Russell D

    2014-09-15

    In many social species, individuals influence the reproductive capacity of conspecifics. In a well-studied African cichlid fish species, Astatotilapia burtoni, males are either dominant (D) and reproductively competent or non-dominant (ND) and reproductively suppressed as evidenced by reduced gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH1) release, regressed gonads, lower levels of androgens and elevated levels of cortisol. Here, we asked whether androgen and cortisol levels might regulate this reproductive suppression. Astatotilapia burtoni has four glucocorticoid receptors (GR1a, GR1b, GR2 and MR), encoded by three genes, and two androgen receptors (AR? and AR?), encoded by two genes. We previously showed that AR? and AR? are expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the preoptic area (POA), which regulates reproduction, and that the mRNA levels of these receptors are regulated by social status. Here, we show that GR1, GR2 and MR mRNAs are also expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the POA, revealing potential mechanisms for both androgens and cortisol to influence reproductive capacity. We measured AR, MR and GR mRNA expression levels in a microdissected region of the POA containing GnRH1 neurons, comparing D and ND males. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we found D males had higher mRNA levels of AR?, MR, total GR1a and GR2 in the POA compared with ND males. In contrast, ND males had significantly higher levels of GR1b mRNA, a receptor subtype with a reduced transcriptional response to cortisol. Through this novel regulation of receptor type, neurons in the POA of an ND male will be less affected by the higher levels of cortisol typical of low status, suggesting GR receptor type change as a potential adaptive mechanism to mediate high cortisol levels during social suppression. PMID:25013108

  20. [A critical analysis of cortisol measurements: an update].

    PubMed

    Maidana, Patricia; Bruno, Oscar D; Mesch, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Serum cortisol measurement is a very useful tool in the biochemical evaluation of adrenocortical function. Since this hormone circulates in blood mainly linked to binding globulins but is also partially free, it can be measured not only in the blood but also in urine, saliva and other biological fluids and tissues. Basal determinations as well as dynamic testing may be performed to evaluate the circadian variations, to estimate the diurnal cortisol secretion and to analyze its relations with other components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Measurements of cortisol in blood, saliva and urine may reflect the cortisol secretion at the time of sample collection or during a 24 h span. Recently, it has been proposed the determination of cortisol in tissues such as hair and nails like a means of evaluating the hormonal status during prolonged periods. The aim of this paper is to update the methodology for measuring cortisol and its usefulness for the clinical diagnosis of troubles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:24356273

  1. Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor for the detection of salivary cortisol using the Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Hyun Lee, Jung; Kim, MinGin; Kim, Jeongmin; Song, Min-Jung; Jung, Hyo-Il; Lee, Wooyoung

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of a thermal biosensor based on bismuth nanowire that is fabricated for the detection of the human stress hormone cortisol using the Thomson effect. The Bi nanowire was grown using the On-Film Formation of Nanowires (OFF-ON) method. The thermal device was fabricated using photolithography, and the sensing area was modified with immobilized anti-cortisol antibodies conjugated with protein G for the detection of cortisol. The voltages were measured with two probe tips during surface modification to investigate the biochemical reactions in the fabricated thermal biosensor. The Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor exhibited low detection limit and good selectivity for the detection of cortisol.

  2. Evaluation of immune and stress status in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena): can hormones and mRNA expression levels serve as indicators to assess stress?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The harbour porpoise is exposed to increasing pressure caused by anthropogenic activities in its marine environment. Numerous offshore wind farms are planned or under construction in the North and Baltic Seas, which will increase underwater noise during both construction and operation. A better understanding of how anthropogenic impacts affect the behaviour, health, endocrinology, immunology and physiology of the animals is thus needed. The present study compares levels of stress hormones and mRNA expression of cytokines and acute-phase proteins in blood samples of harbour porpoises exposed to different levels of stress during handling, in rehabilitation or permanent human care. Free-ranging harbour porpoises, incidentally caught in pound nets in Denmark, were compared to harbour porpoises in rehabilitation at SOS Dolfijn in Harderwijk, the Netherlands, and individuals permanently kept in human care in the Dolfinarium Harderwijk and Fjord & Belt Kerteminde, Denmark. Blood samples were investigated for catecholamines, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, as well as for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, metanephrine and normetanephrine. mRNA expression levels of relevant cell mediators (cytokines IL-10 and TNF?, acute-phase proteins haptoglobin and C-reactive protein and the heat shock protein HSP70) were measured using real-time PCR. Results Biomarker expression levels varied between free-ranging animals and porpoises in human care. Hormone and cytokine ranges showed correlations to each other and to the health status of investigated harbour porpoises. Hormone concentrations were higher in free-ranging harbour porpoises than in animals in human care. Adrenaline can be used as a parameter for the initial reaction to acute stress situations; noradrenaline, dopamine, ACTH and cortisol are more likely indicators for the following minutes of acute stress. There is evidence for different correlations between production of normetanephrine, metanephrine, cortisol and the expression of IL-10, HSP70 and haptoglobin. Conclusions The expression patterns of the selected molecular biomarkers of the immune system are promising to reflect the health and immune status of the harbour porpoise under different levels of stress. PMID:23866055

  3. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG.

  4. Hair cortisol determination in sows in two consecutive reproductive cycles.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Maria Laura; Nannoni, Eleonora; Govoni, Nadia; Scorrano, Fabrizio; Zannoni, Augusta; Forni, Monica; Martelli, Giovanna; Sardi, Luca

    2014-09-01

    Hair analysis has been proposed as a minimally invasive technique capable of furnishing information regarding the stress response during medium- and long-term periods. Bristle samples were collected from the rump region of sows at three key physiological phases (before delivery - BD; weaning time - WT; pregnancy diagnosis - PD) during consecutive reproductive cycles in order to test swine hair as a reliable matrix of cortisol evaluation. Cortisol was extracted from the bristles and assayed using radioimmunoassay. The highest mean hair cortisol concentrations were demonstrated (p<0.001) at the PD time points (20.1±.95 and 16.29±2.15 pg/mg). Moreover, cortisol was significantly higher (p<0.001) at BD2 (10.48±0.96 pg/mg) as compared to BD1 (5.17±0.51 pg/mg) and WT1 (6.01±0.47 pg/mg). The various physiological phases had a significant effect on cortisol concentration (p<0.00001) with a higher cortisol concentration found during late pregnancy and lactation than in early-mid pregnancy. This could be due not only to the physiological hormonal status, but also to the different housing conditions (single crates vs. group housing). The season of the year was also observed to have an effect (p<0.005), with the lowest cortisol concentration recorded during the hot season. PMID:25152520

  5. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but has been reported to be as high as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The objective of this study was to determine effects of ACTH administration on mimicking a stress response and whether this respon...

  6. Genetic variants in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are associated with concentrations of plasma cortisol, muscle glycogen content, and meat quality traits in male Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Poleti, M D; DeRijk, R H; Rosa, A F; Moncau, C T; Oliveira, P S; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C

    2015-04-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are key components in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis and coordinate the physiological response to stress agents to reestablish homeostasis. Genetic variations of GR (NR3C1) and MR (NR3C2) genes could explain the alterations in animals to adapt to challenges, and therefore, their influence on production traits. The present study aimed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine NR3C1 and NR3C2 genes and explore their associations to relevant traits of beef cattle production. Genotypes and phenotypes were collected from 241 male Nellore cattle (119 noncastrated and 122 castrated surgically) with an average of 24 ± 1.2 mo of age and live weight of 508 ± 39 kg. The traits evaluated were concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, muscle glycogen and lactate content, and pH, color, cooking loss, and shear force of longissimus thoracis measured on the 1st, 7th, and 14th days postmortem. Five SNPs were identified, 2 in the NR3C1 gene and 3 in the NR3C2 gene. There was an associative relationship between the SNP NR3C1_1 g.3293A>G and postmortem plasma concentration of cortisol (P = 0.0008). The SNPs NR3C2_1 g.115T>C and NR3C2_2 g.570T>C were associated with muscle glycogen content (P = 0.0306 and P = 0.0158), postmortem plasma concentration of ACTH (P = 0.0118 and P = 0.0095), and cooking loss of the steak aged 1 d (P = 0.0398 and P = 0.0423). Haplotype analysis showed associations of GR haplotypes with postmortem plasma concentrations of cortisol and MR haplotypes with meat color, cooking losses, muscle glycogen content, and plasma concentrations of ACTH. The associations observed in the present study show that SNPs in GR and MR genes are related with changes of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and metabolic profile in cattle, leading to individual variation in meat quality traits. PMID:25617989

  7. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

  8. Developmental and geographic variation in stress hormones in wild Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi)

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Jill M.

    Developmental and geographic variation in stress hormones in wild Belding's ground squirrels; Cortisol; Stress; Fecal glucocorticoids; Development; Population differences Introduction Adrenal hormones the body during and after the stress response, defined as the cumulative physiological reactions triggered

  9. Association of humoral markers of inflammation and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate or cortisol serum levels in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer H. Straub; Daniela Vogl; Volker Gross; Bernhard Lang; Jürgen Schölmerich; Tilo Andus

    1998-01-01

    Objectives:Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and cortisol are multifunctional adrenal hormones with immunomodulating properties. DHEAS levels were found to be very low in chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to shed more light on the interrelation between DHEAS and cortisol (and humoral markers of inflammation) in chronic inflammatory bowel disease.Methods:DHEAS and cortisol serum levels were measured by ELISA in the serum of

  10. Age and Stress-Induced Changes in Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone mRNA Expression in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell D. Romeo; Ilia N. Karatsoreos; Aaron M. Jasnow; Bruce S. McEwen

    2007-01-01

    In reaction to acute stress, prepubertal (25–28 days of age) animals demonstrate a prolonged adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone response compared to adults (>65 days of age), while after chronic stress, prepubertal animals show a higher peak ACTH and corticosterone response, but a faster return to baseline compared to adults. Differential activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the paraventricular

  11. Effects of long-term cortisol treatments on gonadal development, sex steroids levels and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso.

    PubMed

    Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cortisol implantations on gonadal development, sex steroid levels, and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso. Three groups of 5 fish for each treatment were considered. The experimental groups included: control (capsules containing cocoa butter alone), low cortisol (C(5); 5mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter) and, high cortisol (C(50); 50mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter). The capsules containing hormones and cocoa butter were intraperitoneally implanted into 3-year-old female fish at pre-vitellogenic stage (mean initial body mass 6809.7 ± 73 g) every 6 weeks over a 6-month period from January to June. The serum levels of cortisol, glucose, cholesterol and sex steroids (testosterone and 17?-estradiol) were determined at the initial time and three weeks after each implantation. Oocyte histological characteristics (the diameter and area of the oocyte, the diameter and area of the nucleus and the ratio of the nucleus area to the oocyte area) were measured at the end of the experiment and compared to those at the initial time. Ovarian cortisol content was measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that serum cortisol levels varied in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest cortisol concentrations were observed in C(5)-treated fish throughout the experiment. Serum glucose levels were significantly higher in cortisol-treated groups than those in the control group. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant constant increase in serum cholesterol concentrations. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose showed significant declines in serum testosterone and 17?-estradiol concentrations throughout the experiment. No significant differences were found in oocyte histological characteristics among experimental groups. The cortisol implants elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovarian cortisol content. At the end of trial, body-growth indices were the lowest in C(50)-implanted fish, while the low cortisol dose had no effect on growth relative to the controls. These results indicated that chronic stress induced by cortisol implantation in great sturgeon suppressed gonadal steroidogenesis and somatic growth but had no effect on ovarian growth and development. PMID:22643336

  12. Stress Hormone Changes and Marital Conflict: Spouses Relative Power Makes a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loving, Timothy J.; Heffner, Kathi L.; Kiecoltglaser, Janice K.; Glaser, Ronald; Malarkey, William B.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the impact of relative marital power on 72 newlywed couples' endocrinological responses to marital conflict. Marital power was determined by comparing spouse's reports of dependent love for one another. Less powerful spouses displayed elevated adreno-corticotropic hormone ACTH responses to a conflict discussion. Shared power…

  13. Measuring endocrine (cortisol) responses of zebrafish to stress Peter R. Canavello1

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    - pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. While mice and rats use corticosterone as their main stress hormone, both endocrine HPA systems utilize corticosterone as the main stress hormone [7]. A similar mechanism has beenMeasuring endocrine (cortisol) responses of zebrafish to stress Peter R. Canavello1 , Jonathan M

  14. What Does Their Saliva Say? Salivary Cortisol Levels in Children Exposed to Severe Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.; Schneider, Marissa

    2009-01-01

    Stress is an unavoidable aspect of the human experience. When the brain interprets a situation as stressful, it triggers the release of a hormone called cortisol that acts as a catalyst of the body's "fight or flight" response system. In small amounts this hormone can provide the body with the necessary tools to escape a stressful situation.…

  15. Chromosome 10: gene which creates cortisol, Matt RidleySite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    Interviewee: Matt Ridley DNAi Location:Genome>tour>genome spots>Stress genes Location: chromosome 10 gene name: CYP17 The gene CYP17, located on chromosome 10, is responsible for making an enzyme that converts cholesterol into several different hormones. One of these hormones, cortisol, turns genes on or off to regulate our physical responses to stressful situations.

  16. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  17. Aldosterone-cortisol imbalance immediately after fontan operation with implications for abnormal fluid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Hirofumi; Kuwata, Seiko; Kurishima, Clara; Iwamoto, Yoichi; Ishido, Hirotaka; Masutani, Satoshi; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2014-11-15

    Abnormal water metabolism is frequently observed after Fontan surgery. We hypothesized that patients' adrenal hormones show unique responses immediately after Fontan operation and that such a hormonal profile is related to postoperative hemodynamics and water imbalance. Twenty-eight patients who underwent a Fontan operation (n = 16) or a non-Fontan type operation (n = 12; controls) under cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. Postoperative urine cortisol and aldosterone levels were measured daily to minimize the influence of circadian rhythms and temporal hemodynamic variations. Cortisol excretion was markedly elevated on postoperative day (POD) 0 in controls, consistent with a stress-induced cortisol response. Cortisol excretion was not high on POD 0 in Fontan patients and was markedly lower than that in the controls (444 ± 150 vs 34 ± 6 ?g/m(2)/day, p <0.05), indicating an adrenal insufficiency status. Conversely, aldosterone levels were significantly higher in Fontan patients than in controls immediately after surgery and remained so thereafter. The cortisol-to-aldosterone ratio was significantly lower in Fontan patients on POD 0 (p <0.05 vs controls); low cortisol-to-aldosterone ratios were associated with a longer pleural drainage duration and intensive care unit stay. Daily cortisol and aldosterone levels were significantly associated with postoperative hemodynamics; low cortisol levels correlated with low cardiac and urine outputs, whereas high aldosterone levels correlated with low cardiac output and increased blood pressure and central venous pressure. Thus, aldosterone-to-cortisol imbalance occurred specifically after the Fontan operation. This unique hormonal profile significantly affected patients' postoperative water balance and hemodynamics. Modulation of the adrenal hormone could be useful for reducing postoperative complications after the Fontan operation. PMID:25261875

  18. Cortisol Binding in Uremic Plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Rosman; Renrick Benn; Martin Kay; Eleanor Z. Wallace

    1984-01-01

    We measured cortisol binding to albumin in uremic plasma during a study to see if increased morning plasma free cortisol values, reported previously in chronic renal failure patients, could be explained by binding abnormalities of plasma proteins. Cortisol binding was measured in plasma from chronic renal failure patients and compared to values in normal controls. The unbound and albumin-bound fractions

  19. Hormonal Changes in Mammalian Fathers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine E. Wynne-Edwards

    2001-01-01

    Known and hypothesized relationships between steroid (estradiol, testosterone, and cortisol) and peptide (oxytocin, vasopressin, and prolactin) hormones and the expression of mammalian paternal behavior are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on newly emerging animal models, including nonhuman primates and men, with elaborate paternal behavior repertoires. Currently available data are broadly consistent with a working hypothesis that the expression of parental behavior

  20. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    E-print Network

    Kandasamy, N.; Hardy, B.; Page, L.; Schaffner, M.; Graggaber, J.; Powlson, A. S.; Fletcher, P. C.; Gurnell, M.; Coates, J.

    2014-01-01

    of the study, before (day 0, S1) and 90 min after (day 0, S2) the first dose of hydrocortisone or placebo. The decline in cortisol levels observed in the placebo arm of day 0 is consistent with the normal diurnal rhythm of cortisol secretion. The chronic plot... times a day to sup- press cortisol’s normal diurnal rhythm. We adapted a protocol used with patients suffering adrenal failure, and it proved re- markably accurate: The traders followed in the previous study experienced a 68% increase in cortisol levels...

  1. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (I) Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic Study on Maca using Clinical Laboratory Model on Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Mscisz, A.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Kapczynski, W.; Barchia, I.

    2006-01-01

    Ovariectomized rats were used in a model laboratory study to examine biochemical and pharmacodynamic effects of pre-gelatinized organic preparation of Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (Maca-GO). Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic effects of Maca-GO (250 mg Maca-GO per kg body weight (bw) administered by intubation twice daily) were assessed in a 28 day model laboratory study on ovariectomized (by laparoscopy) Wistar rats with pharmacodynamic tests performed at the conclusion of the trial followed by blood collection for morphology and biochemical tests. Toxicity of Maca-GO used in the study was determined in bioassay on mice and rats. Anti-depressive function (Porsolt’s test) and anxiolytic sedative and cognitive effects (using elevated-plus maze, locomotor activity and passive avoidance tests) were assessed against control (laparotomized female rats with intact ovaries). In addition to blood morphology, the following blood serum constituents were analyzed: Estrogen (E2), Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, and T4), Iron (Fe) and lipid profile (Triglycerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). Analytically-determined non-toxic status of Maca-GO was confirmed in bioassays when applied to mice and rats at levels of 0.5 and up to 15mg/kg bw which shows it safe use in humans with the LD50>15 mg/kg bw. Maca-GO showed a distinctive, (P<0.05) antidepressant-like and sedative effect in ovariectomized rats only, while there was no anxiolytic activity nor disturbance of cognitive function observed in both, test and control animals. Observed in this study balancing effect of Maca-GO on sex hormone levels show its potential as a safe preparation for use in correcting physiological symptoms characteristic in postmenopausal stage with an indication of potentially even more value for its use in pre-menopausal women. PMID:23674989

  2. The increase of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the plasma of chronic fatigue syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite extensive research, no reliable biological marker for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has yet been identified. However, hyperactivation of melanotrophs in the pituitary gland and increased levels of plasma alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) have recently been detected in an animal model of chronic stress. Because CFS is considered to be caused partly by chronic stress events, increased ?-MSH plasma levels may also occur in CFS patients. We therefore examined ?-MSH levels in CFS patients. Methods Fifty-five CFS patients, who were previously diagnosed within 10 years of with the disease, were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy volunteers were studied as controls. Fasting bloods samples were collected in the morning and evaluated for their plasma levels of ?-MSH, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S). Mean levels of ?-MSH were compared between the CFS and control groups using Welch's t test. Results The mean plasma ?-MSH concentration in the CFS group (17.9 ± 1.0 pg/mL) was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (14.5 ± 1.0 pg/mL, p = 0.02). However, there was a wide range of values in the CFS group. The factors correlated with the plasma ?-MSH values were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation. A negative correlation was found between the duration of the CFS and the plasma ?-MSH values (p = 0.04, rs = -0.28), but no correlations with ACTH, cortisol or DHEA-S levels were identified (p = 0.55, 0.26, 0.33, respectively). The CFS patients were divided into two groups: patients diagnosed for ? 5 years' duration, and those diagnosed for 5-10 years' duration. They were compared with the healthy controls using one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests. The mean ?-MSH concentration in the ? 5 years group was 20.8 ± 1.2 pg/mL, which was significantly higher than that in the healthy controls (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the 5-10 year group (15.6 ± 1.4 pg/mL) and the healthy controls. Conclusions CFS patients with a disease duration of ? 5 years had significantly higher levels of ?-MSH in their peripheral blood. ?-MSH could be a potent biological marker for the diagnosis of CFS, at least during the first 5 years after onset of the disease. PMID:20731841

  3. Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Benjamin C.; Smith, Eric A.; O'Connor, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18–82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by ‘showing off’ was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters. PMID:24335989

  4. Impact of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique on Adrenaline and Cortisol Levels in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Vandana, Balakrishnan; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Saraswathy, Lakshmiy Ammal; Sundaram, Karimassery Ramaiyer; Kumar, Harish

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to find out the effect of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique (IAM) on the stress hormones: adrenaline and cortisol. One hundred and fifty healthy subjects were randomized into three groups. Blood was collected at 0 hour, 48 hours, 2 months, and 8 months after the first visit. Adrenaline was analyzed by ELISA and cortisol by Chemiluminescent method. In the IAM, PMR and control groups 44, 44, and 36 came, respectively, for the baseline visit. Within group, cortisol and adrenaline levels reduced in the IAM 48 hours onwards and the fall sustained until 8 months (P < .05). ANCOVA (Repeated measures) on adrenaline taking the four levels of observation showed a highly significant (P = .001) drop in the IAM group. The mean cortisol values between groups were not statistically significant (P = .138). IAM Technique was effective in reducing adrenaline and cortisol levels within group comparisons. PMID:21318156

  5. Stress and reward: long term cortisol exposure predicts the strength of sexual preference.

    PubMed

    Chumbley, J R; Hulme, O; Köchli, H; Russell, E; Van Uum, S; A Pizzagalli, D; Fehr, E

    2014-05-28

    Healthy individuals tend to consume available rewards like food and sex. This tendency is attenuated or amplified in most stress-related psychiatric conditions, so we asked if it depends on endogenous levels of the 'canonical stress hormone' cortisol. We unobtrusively quantified how hard healthy heterosexual men would work to consume erotic images of women versus men and also measured their exposure to endogenous cortisol in the prior two months. We used linear models to predict the strength of sexual preference from cortisol level, after accounting for other potential explanations. Heterosexual preference declines with self-reported anhedonia but increases with long term exposure to endogenous cortisol. These results suggest that cortisol may affect reward-related behavior in healthy adults. PMID:24732415

  6. Salivary Cortisol for Assessment of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl-Johan Törnhage

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cortisol is an important hormone\\/steroid in the regulation of intermediate metabolism and stress. It exists in free (unbound) and protein-bound forms in serum but only in a free form in saliva. The free form is the biologically active one. There is an advanced biofeedback system regulating the cortisol secretion\\/concentration by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Methods: There are many different methods

  7. Analysis of cortisol in hair--state of the art and future directions.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-10-01

    Changes to long-term secretion of the glucocorticoid cortisol are considered to play a crucial role in mediating the link between chronic stress and the development of numerous immune system related diseases. However, obtaining valid assessments of long-term cortisol levels is difficult due to limitations of previous measurement strategies in blood, saliva or urine. This review discusses evidence on a recent methodological development assumed to provide a considerable advancement in this respect: the analysis of cortisol in hair. Being incorporated into the growing hair, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to provide a retrospective reflection of integrated cortisol secretion over periods of several months. Over the past years, supportive evidence has accumulated regarding several fundamental characteristics of HCC, including its validity as an index of long-term systemic cortisol levels, its reliability across repeated assessments and its relative robustness to a range of potential confounding influences. Based on this groundwork, research has now also commenced to utilise HCC for answering more specific questions regarding the role of long-term cortisol secretion in different stress and health-related conditions. The possibility of extending hair analysis to also capture long-term secretion of other steroid hormones (e.g., androgens or estrogens) provides a further intriguing prospect for future research. Given its unique characteristics, the use of hair analysis holds great promise to significantly enhance current understanding on the role of steroid hormones in psychoimmunological research. PMID:22366690

  8. HPA axis genetic variation, cortisol and psychosis in major depression.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, A F; Keller, J; Tennakoon, L; Lembke, A; Williams, G; Kraemer, F B; Sarginson, J E; Lazzeroni, L C; Murphy, G M

    2014-02-01

    Genetic variation underlying hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis overactivity in healthy controls (HCs) and patients with severe forms of major depression has not been well explored, but could explain risk for cortisol dysregulation. In total, 95 participants were studied: 40 patients with psychotic major depression (PMD); 26 patients with non-psychotic major depression (NPMD); and 29 HCs. Collection of genetic material was added one third of the way into a larger study on cortisol, cognition and psychosis in major depression. Subjects were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Blood was collected hourly for determination of cortisol from 1800 to 0900 h and for the assessment of alleles for six genes involved in HPA axis regulation. Two of the six genes contributed significantly to cortisol levels, psychosis measures or depression severity. After accounting for age, depression and psychosis, and medication status, only allelic variation for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene accounted for a significant variance for mean cortisol levels from 1800 to 0100 h (r(2)=0.288) and from 0100 to 0900 h (r(2)=0.171). In addition, GR and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genotypes contributed significantly to psychosis measures and CRHR1 contributed significantly to depression severity rating. PMID:24166410

  9. Nocturnal cortisol and melatonin secretion in primary insomnia.

    PubMed

    Riemann, Dieter; Klein, Torsten; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Feige, Bernd; Horny, Andrea; Hummel, Ruth; Weske, Gesa; Al-Shajlawi, Anam; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2002-12-15

    The present study investigated evening and nocturnal serum cortisol and melatonin concentrations in patients with primary insomnia to test if this clinical condition is accompanied by an increase of cortisol secretion and a simultaneous decrease of nocturnal melatonin production. Ten drug-free patients (4 males, 6 females) with primary insomnia (mean age+/-S.D.: 39.2+/-9.1 years) and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects spent three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with polysomnography. Measurement of cortisol and melatonin (from 19:00 h to 09:00 h) was performed prior to and during the last laboratory night. Contrary to expectation, cortisol secretion did not differ between healthy controls and insomniac patients. On the other hand, nocturnal melatonin production was significantly diminished in insomniac patients. Polysomnographically determined sleep patterns, in contrast to subjective ratings of sleep, demonstrated only minor alterations of sleep in the insomniac group. The lack of increased cortisol secretion in the patients with primary insomnia indicates that results from studies on the biological consequences of experimental sleep loss in healthy subjects cannot be applied to primary insomnia in general, especially if there are only minor objective sleep alterations. In spite of the negligible objective sleep disturbances in the present sample, nocturnal melatonin production was reduced, which tentatively suggests a role for this hormone in primary insomniacs. The pathophysiological significance of this finding is, however, still a matter of debate. PMID:12467942

  10. Estradiol and cortisol interactions in youth externalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Reardon, Kathleen W; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Harden, K Paige; Josephs, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that gonadal and stress hormones interact to shape socially dominant behavior and externalizing psychopathology; however, such work to date has focused exclusively on the testosterone-cortisol interaction, despite expectations that estradiol should be associated with similar behavioral outcomes to testosterone. Here, we present the first empirical test of the hypothesis that adolescent males and females (N=105, ages 13-18) with high estradiol and low cortisol concentrations are at highest risk for externalizing problems, but - replicating previous work - only among adolescents high on pathological personality traits. Parents reported on youth psychopathology and personality, and hormone concentrations were measured via passive drool. Results confirmed the hypothesis: high estradiol was associated with more externalizing behaviors, but only when cortisol was low and personality traits of disagreeableness and emotional instability were high. Further, these associations held when controlling for testosterone concentrations. These findings provide the first empirical evidence of a hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)×hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis interaction that extends the "dual hormone" hypothesis beyond testosterone. PMID:25765756

  11. Effect of Human Growth Hormone on Adrenal Androgens in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Sklar; Robert A. Ulstrom

    1984-01-01

    The effect of human growth hormone (hGH) on adrenal androgen secretion was assessed in 7 patients (5 males, 2 females) with GH deficiency but normal ACTH-cortisol function. Patients ranged in age from 9 5\\/12 to 14 8\\/12 years (median 12 years). Plasma concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids (17-KS) and free cortisol were determined before, during short-term

  12. Stress hormones in accident patients studied before admission to hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Hetz, W; Kamp, H D; Zimmermann, U; von Bohlen, A; Wildt, L; Schuettler, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stress hormone response in traumatised patients studied at the site of injury and on their way to hospital. METHODS: The study was prospective. Blood samples were taken from 77 patients immediately after the arrival of the emergency physician at the site of the accident (t1) and shortly before patients' admission to hospital (t2). Plasma concentrations of beta endorphin, cortisol, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), prolactin, and growth hormone were measured. RESULTS: Trauma in out-of-hospital patients resulted in remarkably increased concentration of growth hormone within minutes. ACTH, cortisol, and prolactin were only moderately increased. No significant correlations were found between hormone levels and blood pressure or heart rate. The plasma ACTH concentration was significantly lower before admission to hospital than immediately after the accident. Plasma cortisol, prolactin, and growth hormone concentrations were not significantly different between the two points of observation. In samples taken immediately after the accident (t1), there was a positive correlation between both beta endorphin and prolactin and the injury severity score, whereas cortisol levels were negatively correlated with injury severity score, suggesting impaired cortisol release from the adrenal cortex after severe injury. At t1 ACTH was correlated with cortisol and beta endorphin. Patients with head injuries had hormone concentrations similar to those without head injuries but with a similar injury severity score from injuries in other parts of the body. CONCLUSIONS: Lower cortisol concentrations in the very severely injured might be due to failure of the adrenal cortex to respond normally to ACTH stimulation. Growth hormone seems to play a major role in the response to trauma, reflecting an immediate stress response. PMID:8832340

  13. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  14. Ecological momentary assessment of maternal cortisol profiles over a multiple-day period predict the length of human gestation

    PubMed Central

    Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Andersen, Judith; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Wadhwa, Pathik D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Biobehavioral models of prenatal stress highlight the importance of the stress-related hormone cortisol. However, the association between maternal cortisol levels and length of human gestation require further investigation because most previous studies have relied on one-time cortisol measures assessed at varying gestational ages. This study assessed whether ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of cortisol sampling improves the ability to predict the length of human gestation. In addition, associations between EMA based measures of psychological state (negative affect) with cortisol levels during pregnancy were assessed. METHODS Over a 4-day period, 25 healthy pregnant women (mean gestational age at assessment 23.4 ± 9.1 weeks) collected 7 salivary samples per day for assessment of cortisol and provided a rating of negative affect every waking hour using an electronic diary. RESULTS Higher salivary cortisol concentrations at awakening and throughout the day (p=.001) as well as a flatter cortisol response to awakening (p=.005) were associated with shorter length of gestation. Women delivering at 36 weeks gestations had 13% higher salivary cortisol levels at awakening than women delivering at 41 weeks gestation. The EMA-based measure of negative affect was associated with higher cortisol throughout the day (p=.006), but not to gestational length (p=.641). The one-time measure of cortisol was not associated with length of gestation, and traditional retrospective recall measures of negative affect were not associated with cortisol. CONCLUSION Our findings support the ecological validity of repeated ambulatory assessments of cortisol in pregnancy and their ability to improve the prediction of adverse birth outcomes. PMID:21700714

  15. Cardiovascular Consequences of Cortisol Excess

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, Judith A; Williamson, Paula M; Mangos, George; Kelly, John J

    2005-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a consequence of primary or, more commonly, secondary oversecretion of cortisol. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Cushing's syndrome, and excess risk remains even in effectively treated patients. The cardiovascular consequences of cortisol excess are protean and include, inter alia, elevation of blood pressure, truncal obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. This review analyses the relationship of cortisol excess, both locally and at tissue level, to these cardiovascular risk factors, and to putative mechanisms for hypertension. Previous studies have examined correlations between cortisol, blood pressure, and other parameters in the general population and in Cushing's syndrome. This review also details changes induced by short-term cortisol administration in normotensive healthy men. PMID:17315601

  16. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  17. Dynamics and Correlation of Serum Cortisol and Corticosterone under Different Physiological or Stressful Conditions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shuai; Miao, Yi-Long; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Sun, Ming-Ju; Li, Hong; Lin, Juan; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2015-01-01

    Although plasma corticosterone is considered the main glucocorticoid involved in regulation of stress responses in rodents, the presence of plasma cortisol and whether its level can be used as an indicator for rodent activation of stress remain to be determined. In this study, effects of estrous cycle stage, circadian rhythm, and acute and chronic (repeated or unpredictable) stressors of various severities on dynamics and correlation of serum cortisol and corticosterone were examined in mice. A strong (r = 0.6–0.85) correlation between serum cortisol and corticosterone was observed throughout the estrous cycle, all day long, and during acute or repeated restraints, chronic unpredictable stress and acute forced swimming or heat stress. Both hormones increased to the highest level on day 1 of repeated-restraint or unpredictable stresses, but after that, whereas the concentration of cortisol did not change, that of corticosterone showed different dynamics. Thus, whereas corticosterone declined dramatically during repeated restraints, it remained at the high level during unpredictable stress. During forced swimming or heat stress, whereas cortisol increased to the highest level within 3 min., corticosterone did not reach maximum until 40 min. of stress. Analysis with HPLC and HPLC-MS further confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum. Taken together, results (i) confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum and (ii) suggested that mouse serum cortisol and corticosterone are closely correlated in dynamics under different physiological or stressful conditions, but, whereas corticosterone was a more adaptation-related biomarker than cortisol during chronic stress, cortisol was a quicker responder than corticosterone during severe acute stress. PMID:25699675

  18. Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

  19. Condition dependent intra-individual repeatability of stress-induced cortisol in a freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Cook, K V; O'Connor, C M; McConnachie, S H; Gilmour, K M; Cooke, S J

    2012-03-01

    The glucocorticoid (GC) stress response is thought to be an individual trait associated with behaviour and life history strategies. Studies exploring such relationships typically assume measured hormone values to be repeatable within an individual. However, repeatability of GCs has proven variable in wild animals and underlying reasons remain unknown. We assessed individual repeatability of circulating stress-induced cortisol, the primary GC in teleost fish, and glucose concentrations in a wild teleost fish held under consistent laboratory conditions. We also tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of intra-individual variability in stress-induced cortisol concentrations ("cortisol variability") is influenced by body condition. Wild-caught bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were subjected to repeated standardized stressors and blood sampled (3 times over 6 days) once cortisol concentrations peaked. Various indicators of fish condition, both whole body and physiological, were also measured. Overall, stress-induced circulating cortisol concentrations were repeatable but stress-induced glucose was not. Cortisol variability was related to Fulton's condition factor and size (eviscerated mass) where smaller fish in poor condition exhibited increased cortisol variability. The findings have implications for the interpretation of studies that examine correlates of GC concentrations as they suggest consistency in stress responsiveness is influenced by factors such as size and condition. PMID:22179071

  20. Association of Salivary Cortisol and Anxiety Levels in Lichen Planus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Paramkusam, Geetha; Pachava, Koteswara Rao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a frequently encountered chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa and skin, where the patients often relate the onset and aggravation of oral symptoms to increased levels of stress. Cortisol, also called as “stress hormone” has been used as an indicator in various stress evaluation studies. Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine any association between anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in OLP patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 OLP patients along with same number of age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Saliva was collected from all the subjects between 9.00 to 9.15 am to avoid diurnal variations of cortisol levels. The saliva samples were analysed for cortisol levels by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Anxiety levels of 40 patients were measured by using Hamilton’s anxiety scale. Student’s t-test was used to compare the anxiety and salivary cortisol levels between both groups. Results: The mean salivary cortisol level of the OLP group showed highly significant difference (p<0.001) from the controls. The mean anxiety scores of the OLP group showed highly significant difference (p<0.001) from the controls. A positive correlation was found between anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in the OLP patients. Conclusion: These findings suggest that anxiety play a vital role in the pathogenesis of OLP, thus besides traditional treatment, psychological support is also needed. PMID:25654018

  1. Stress hormone masculinizes female morphology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah

    2011-02-23

    Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:20659923

  2. Cortisol modifies extinction learning of recently acquired fear in men.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2014-09-01

    Exposure therapy builds on the mechanism of fear extinction leading to decreased fear responses. How the stress hormone cortisol affects brain regions involved in fear extinction in humans is unknown. For this reason, we tested 32 men randomly assigned to receive either 30 mg hydrocortisone or placebo 45 min before fear extinction. In fear acquisition, a picture of a geometrical figure was either partially paired (conditioned stimulus; CS+) or not paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). In fear extinction, each CS was presented again, but no UCS occurred. Cortisol increased conditioned skin conductance responses in early and late extinction. In early extinction, higher activation towards the CS- than to the CS+ was found in the amygdala, hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus. This pattern might be associated with the establishment of a new memory trace. In late extinction, the placebo compared with the cortisol group displayed enhanced CS+/CS- differentiation in the amygdala, medial frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. A change from early deactivation to late activation of the extinction circuit as seen in the placebo group seems to be needed to enhance extinction and to reduce fear. Cortisol appears to interfere with this process thereby impairing extinction of recently acquired conditioned fear. PMID:23945999

  3. Testosterone and cortisol jointly modulate risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Pranjal H; Welker, Keith M; Zilioli, Samuele; Carré, Justin M

    2015-06-01

    Recent theories propose that testosterone should be positively related to risk-taking, but empirical support is mixed. Building on the dual-hormone hypothesis, the present research tested whether testosterone's role in risk-taking depends on cortisol. Study 1 (N=115) tested this hypothesis in a mixed-sex sample with self and informant reports of risk-taking. Study 2 (N=165) tested this hypothesis in a male-only sample with the Balloon Analog Risk Task, a behavioral measure of risk-taking. Across both studies, there was a positive association between basal testosterone and risk-taking among individuals low in basal cortisol but not individuals high in basal cortisol. This pattern emerged in both males and females and across multiple measures of risk-taking (self reports, informant reports, behavior). These studies provide novel empirical support for the claim that testosterone and cortisol jointly regulate risk-taking. Discussion focuses on putative mechanisms as well as implications for real-world risk-taking behaviors. PMID:25813123

  4. Classroom Emotional Support Predicts Differences in Preschool Children's Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Bridget E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; O'Brien, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests children enrolled in full-time child care often display afternoon elevations of the hormone cortisol, which is an indicator of stress. Recent advances in immunoassays allow for measurement of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic sympathetic nervous system from saliva, and measurement…

  5. Modulation of attentional inhibition by norepinephrine and cortisol after psychological stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick D Skosnik; Robert T Chatterton; Tara Swisher; Sohee Park

    2000-01-01

    Two of the most salient physiological responses to stress are increased norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT) activities. However, it is unclear how these neurochemical events affect cognition, especially attention. We examined the effects of mild psychological stress on selective attention, as assessed by the negative priming (NP) paradigm. Salivary measures of the stress hormone CORT and ?-amylase (a correlate of

  6. The influence of temperament on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced secretion of epinephrine and cortisol in bulls.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host's complex reaction to a pathogenic stressor involves interaction of the neural, endocrine, and immune systems. For example, exposure to bacteria stimulates secretion of the stress-related hormones, cortisol (CS) and epinephrine (Epi; 1). Innate and induced secretion of CS and Epi are influe...

  7. Prolactin, testosterone and cortisol as possible markers of changes in cardiovascular function associated with urbanization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H W Huisman; J M van Rooyen; N T Malan; F C Eloff; L Malan; P J Laubscher; A E Schutte

    2002-01-01

    People living in large informal settlements in South Africa showed a significant increase in cardio\\/cerebrovascular disease. This study was undertaken to compare the cardiovascular and endocrine parameters of urbanized and rural black female and males. The hormone levels such as prolactin, cortisol and testosterone may also change with urbanization and could make a contribution to the high rate of hypertension.

  8. Sexy thoughts: Effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine L. Goldey; Sari M. van Anders

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of

  9. Catecholamine, STH, Cortisol, Glucagon, Insulin und Sexualhormone bei körperlicher Belastung und Beta 1 Blockade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Kindermann; A. Schnabel; W. M. Schmitt; G. Biro; M. Hippchen

    1982-01-01

    Summary The effects of beta-1-adrenergic blockade (100 mg metoprolol) on metabolism in exercise was examined in 14 healthy males who worked for 50 min on a treadmill at 65% of their maximal exercise capacity. The tests were carried out in a double blind fashion. Glucose and lactate were determined in arterialized capillary blood, free fatty acids, glycerol, growth hormone, cortisol,

  10. Examination of cortisol and state anxiety at an academic setting with and without oral presentation.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Holding oral presentations in a university course is perceived as stressful and can increase stress hormone concentrations and state anxiety. In such a naturalistic setting, further attention should be paid to the relationship between psychological and hormonal measures of acute stress, as well as women's intake of hormonal contraceptives as a potential moderating variable. In the present study, 76 healthy students gave saliva samples before and after their oral presentations in a university course as well as on a second, control day in the same course without giving an oral presentation. Anticipatory state anxiety was rated on both days. Cortisol concentrations as well as state anxiety were substantially higher on the presentation relative to the control day. During the oral presentation, an increase in cortisol concentrations was observed, whereas a decrease occurred on the control day. Nearly the same picture emerged for both variables when looking at men, women taking hormonal contraceptives and free-cycling women separately. A positive correlation was found between the change in anticipatory state anxiety in the presentation compared to the control day and cortisol concentrations before and after the oral presentation. Concluding, oral presentations constitute a potent stressor and do not seem to be substantially different between men, free-cycling women and women taking hormonal contraceptives. Future studies may want to explore changes associated with specific menstrual cycle phases and with specific hormonal contraceptives. PMID:25407296

  11. Cortisol Binding in Uremic Plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Rosman; Renrick Benn; Martin Kay; Jean Tito; Eleanor Z. Wallace

    1984-01-01

    Increased morning plasma free cortisol levels have been reported previously in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. To see whether binding abnormalities of plasma proteins contributed to the increase in morning free cortisol, binding characteristics of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) were studied in pooled plasma from CRF patients and normal subjects. Using an isocolloidosmolar equilibrium dialysis method the unbound, albumin-bound, and CBG-bound

  12. INFLUENCE OF GLUCOCORTICOSTEROID HORMONES ON IMMUNE FUNCTIONS OF NORMAL AND CUSHING’S SYNDROME HORSES

    E-print Network

    Gutierrez, Kaitlin A.

    2011-08-04

    to the effect of both synthetic (Dexamethasone) and naturally occurring (cortisol) glucocorticosteroid hormones. The glucocorticosteroid receptor antagonist RU486 decreases the unfavorable effects of hypercortisolemia. This study was designed to see if RU486...

  13. Genome Wide Association Identifies Common Variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 Locus Influencing Plasma Cortisol and Corticosteroid Binding Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G.; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Hill, Lesley A.; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H.; Velders, Fleur P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kaakinen, Marika; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Bakker, Stephen J. L.; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N.; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Matthews, Stephen G.; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F.; Strachan, Mark W. J.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30–60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding ?1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:25010111

  14. Genome wide association identifies common variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influencing plasma cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Jennifer L; Hayward, Caroline; Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Hill, Lesley A; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H; Velders, Fleur P; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Kaakinen, Marika; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M; Evans, David M; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Bakker, Stephen J L; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P F; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Matthews, Stephen G; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F; Strachan, Mark W J; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R

    2014-07-01

    Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30-60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding ?1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:25010111

  15. Effects of Interleukin1 on Hormone Release from Normal Rat Pituitary Cells in Primary Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Uehara; Steven Gillis; Akira Arimura

    1987-01-01

    The present study was performed mainly to determine whether interleukin-1 (IL-1), a polypeptide produced by immunologically activated monocytes, plays a physiological role in the regulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) using primary monolayer cultures of rat anterior pituitary cells. Neither human IL-1? nor IL-1? stimulated the ACTH release from normal pituitary cells in concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 nM IL-1?

  16. Aldosterone synthase inhibition: cardiorenal protection in animal disease models and translation of hormonal effects to human subjects.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Joël; Rigel, Dean F; Watson, Catherine; Jeng, Arco Y; Fu, Fumin; Beil, Michael; Liu, Jing; Chen, Wei; Hu, Chii-Whei; Leung-Chu, Jennifer; LaSala, Daniel; Liang, Guiqing; Rebello, Sam; Zhang, Yiming; Dole, William P

    2014-12-10

    BackgroundAldosterone synthase inhibition provides the potential to attenuate both the mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent and independent actions of aldosterone. In vitro studies with recombinant human enzymes showed LCI699 to be a potent, reversible, competitive inhibitor of aldosterone synthase (K i¿=¿1.4¿±¿0.2 nmol/L in humans) with relative selectivity over 11ß-hydroxylase.MethodsHormonal effects of orally administered LCI699 were examined in rat and monkey in vivo models of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and angiotensin-II-stimulated aldosterone release, and were compared with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone in a randomized, placebo-controlled study conducted in 99 healthy human subjects. The effects of LCI699 and eplerenone on cardiac and renal sequelae of aldosterone excess were investigated in a double-transgenic rat (dTGR) model overexpressing human renin and angiotensinogen.ResultsRat and monkey in vivo models of stimulated aldosterone release predicted human dose¿ and exposure¿response relationships, but overestimated the selectivity of LCI699 in humans. In the dTGR model, LCI699 dose-dependently blocked increases in aldosterone, prevented development of cardiac and renal functional abnormalities independent of blood pressure changes, and prolonged survival. Eplerenone prolonged survival to a similar extent, but was less effective in preventing cardiac and renal damage. In healthy human subjects, LCI699 0.5 mg selectively reduced plasma and 24 h urinary aldosterone by 49¿±¿3% and 39¿±¿6% respectively (Day 1, mean¿±¿SEM; P¿<¿0.001 vs placebo), which was associated with natriuresis and an increase in plasma renin activity. Doses of LCI699 greater than 1 mg inhibited basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol. Eplerenone 100 mg increased plasma and 24 h urinary aldosterone while stimulating natriuresis and increasing renin activity. In contrast to eplerenone, LCI699 increased the aldosterone precursor 11-deoxycorticosterone and urinary potassium excretion.ConclusionsThese results provide new insights into the cardiac and renal effects of inhibiting aldosterone synthase in experimental models and translation of the hormonal effects to humans. Selective inhibition of aldosterone synthase appears to be a promising approach to treat diseases associated with aldosterone excess. PMID:25491597

  17. Cortisol Levels and Longitudinal Cortisol Change as Predictors of Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested cortisol-emotion relationships, little is known regarding the effect of anxiety type on cortisol levels or relationships between anxiety and longitudinal cortisol change in adolescents. The authors examine the differential relationship of cortisol levels with generalized and social anxiety and relationships…

  18. Influence of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-infusion on acid-base balance and blood physiological variables in broiler chickens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic selection has been a primary factor in growing broilers to heavier weights more efficiently. However, the genetic potentiality of poultry may not be utilized fully due to environmental constraints. The combination of external conditions (biological and physiological) such as weather and clim...

  19. Treatment of moderately to severely active systemic lupus erythematosus with adrenocorticotropic hormone: a single-site, open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    Montroy, T

    2014-01-01

    Background Alternative therapeutic options are needed for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) not adequately controlled with or intolerant to traditional treatments. This study evaluated the efficacy of Acthar® Gel (ACTH(1-39)) for reducing active SLE severity among patients receiving underlying conventional maintenance therapies. Methods Ten females (mean age?=?49 yrs, disease duration?=?7 yrs, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2000 [SLEDAI-2?K]?=?10) currently on maintenance self-administered ACTH(1–39) gel 1?mL (80?U/mL) for 7–15 days and were assessed weekly for 28 days. Outcome measures included Physician and Patient Global Assessments, SLEDAI-2?K, Lupus Quality of Life scale, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue) scale, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. Student’s t-test compared data obtained at days 7, 14, and 28 with those from baseline. Results The primary endpoint of SLEDAI-2?K improvement was reached at all observation times (p?

  20. The role of endogenous interleukin-1 in stress-induced adrenal activation and adrenalectomy-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone hypersecretion.

    PubMed

    Goshen, I; Yirmiya, R; Iverfeldt, K; Weidenfeld, J

    2003-10-01

    To examine the role of IL-1 in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, mice with knockout of the IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1rKO) were exposed to psychological and metabolic stressors. When exposed to mild stressors (auditory stress or a low dose of 2-deoxyglucose), IL-1rKO mice displayed a significantly diminished corticosterone secretion, compared with wild-type (WT) controls. In response to more severe stressors (60-min restraint or a high dose of 2-deoxyglucose), both groups exhibited a similar increase in corticosterone secretion. To examine the role of IL-1 in HPA axis feedback regulation, serum ACTH levels were measured after adrenalectomy (ADX) in IL-1rKO mice and in mice with transgenic overexpression of IL-1 receptor antagonist within the brain (IL-1raTG). As expected, WT controls exhibited ADX-induced ACTH hypersecretion, whereas IL-1rKO and IL-1raTG mice showed no increase in ACTH levels, suggesting that brain IL-1 has a critical role in ADX-associated ACTH hypersecretion. Similarly, WT mice that were chronically exposed to IL-1ra in utero displayed a diminished ADX-induced ACTH hypersecretion, compared with vehicle-treated controls, suggesting a developmental role of IL-1 in HPA axis regulation. In conclusion, our results suggest that endogenous IL-1 plays a critical role in HPA axis activation after stress and ADX. PMID:12960098

  1. Adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma with oncocytic features: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Falk, Nadja K; Weissferdt, Annikka; Habra, Mouhammed A; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2015-04-01

    Thymic neuroendocrine carcinomas are the most common mediastinal neuroendocrine tumor. These malignancies are not often diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA), as they are more commonly diagnosed by biopsy or excision. We describe a case of a FNA of a paratracheal mass from a 38-year-old man who presented with Cushing syndrome. A low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma with oncocytic features was diagnosed, which was later confirmed by excision of the thymus, anterior mediastinal and paratracheal soft tissue, and lymph nodes. Oncocytic features in these tumors are a rare finding and bring metastatic medullary thyroid carcinomas as well as other metastases into the differential diagnosis. The prognosis of neuroendocrine carcinomas in this location is worse than neuroendocrine carcinomas in other areas, and close follow-up is recommended. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:329-334. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25354884

  2. Diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol across the adolescent period in healthy females.

    PubMed

    Oskis, A; Loveday, C; Hucklebridge, F; Thorn, L; Clow, A

    2009-04-01

    When examining the diurnal profile of the hormone cortisol in children and adolescents developmental issues are particularly relevant. Previous findings regarding relationships between cortisol secretory activity and reproductive (pubertal) maturation lack clarity and may reflect methodological inconsistencies between studies. This study examined the diurnal cortisol profile across female adolescence, with a particular focus on an obvious and unique marker of development: menarche. In a cross-sectional design, 61 healthy female adolescents aged 9-18 years (mean age 13.89 years, S.D.+/-2.72) collected eight saliva samples per day on two consecutive weekdays. Samples were collected at awakening, 15, 30 and 45min and 3, 6, 9 and 12h post-awakening in order to capture both the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the subsequent period of decline. Demographic information was recorded and participants also completed the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Patterns of cortisol secretion exhibited good intra-individual stability across the two sampling days. Participants evidenced a robust diurnal pattern, with cortisol levels peaking approximately 30-45min post-awakening (the CAR) and steadily declining concentrations over the remainder of the day. Differences according to developmental status (in terms of whether or not participants had experienced first menses: menarche) were observed in the time of peak secretion of the CAR, and these distinct patterns could not be accounted for by group differences in demographic, situational or psychological characteristics measured in this study. This effect for the CAR was associated with the onset of menarche alone, unlike cortisol levels over the remainder of the day. For those who had undergone menarche, were older and of greater BMI, cortisol levels remained higher over the day. There was a significant difference in cortisol concentrations at 6h post-awakening between pre- and post-menarche groups. Again, these differences in daytime cortisol secretory activity could not be attributed to situational or psychological factors. Establishing patterns of cortisol secretion in healthy female adolescents provides an important baseline from which to investigate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) physiology, measured via salivary cortisol, in adolescent populations with known or suspected psychopathology. PMID:18952383

  3. Salivary concentrations of cortisol and testosterone and prediction of performance in a professional triathlon competition.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, Cláudio Heitor; Garcia, Marcia Carvalho; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations in professional male athletes during a short triathlon competition using non-invasive methods, and to determine whether these hormone concentrations could be accurate predictors of performance. Eight adult male athletes (age, mean ± SEM: 27.8 ± 3.2 years; body mass index: 21.66 ± 0.42) in a professional triathlon team volunteered to participate in this study. Saliva samples were taken on the competition day and 7 days after competition on a rest day. The performance of the athletes was assessed by their rank order in the competition. Salivary cortisol concentrations were greater on the competition day than on the rest day in the early morning, immediately after waking up, 30 min later, immediately before the start of the competition, and later in the evening. Testosterone concentrations were greater on the competition day in the morning and in the evening. The diurnal rhythm of both cortisol and testosterone concentrations was maintained on both days and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C ratio) was similar between days. The performance of the athletes was positively correlated with salivary cortisol concentration in the early morning of the competition day, but was not correlated with testosterone concentrations at any of the time points. In conclusion, early morning salivary cortisol concentration, but not T/C ratio, could be used to predict performance in athletes during a professional triathlon competition. PMID:22128832

  4. Cortisol mediates the effects of stress on the contextual dependency of memories.

    PubMed

    van Ast, Vanessa A; Cornelisse, Sandra; Meeter, Martijn; Kindt, Merel

    2014-03-01

    Stress is known to exert considerable impact on learning and memory processes. Typically, human studies have investigated memory for single items (e.g., pictures, words), but it remains unresolved how exactly stress may alter the storage of memories into their original encoding context (i.e., memory contextualization). Since neurocircuitry underlying memory contextualization processes is sensitive to the well-known stress hormone cortisol, we here investigated whether cortisol mediates stress effects on memory contextualization. Forty healthy young men were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress or control group. Ten minutes after stress manipulation offset, participants were instructed to learn and remember neutral and negative words, each of which was depicted against a unique background picture. Approximately 24h later, memory was tested by means of cued retrieval and recognition tasks. To assess memory contextualization half of the words were tested in intact item-contexts pairs, and half in rearranged item-context combinations. Recognition data showed that cortisol, but no other indices of stress such as heart rate or subjective stress, mediated the effects of stress on contextualization of neutral and negative memories. The mediation analysis further showed that stress resulted in increases in cortisol and that cortisol was positively related to memory contextualization, but unrelated to other measures of memory. Thus, there seems to be a specific role for cortisol in the integration of a central memory into its surrounding context. PMID:24495611

  5. Salivary cortisol in ambulatory assessment--some dos, some don'ts, and some open questions.

    PubMed

    Kudielka, Brigitte M; Gierens, Andrea; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Wüst, Stefan; Schlotz, Wolff

    2012-05-01

    The impact of stress on health and disease is an important research topic in psychosomatic medicine. Because research on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation under controlled laboratory studies lacks ecological validity, it needs to be complemented by a research program that includes momentary ambulatory assessment. The measurement of salivary cortisol offers the possibility to trace the free steroid hormone concentrations in ambulant settings. Therefore, in this article, we first discuss the role of salivary cortisol in ambulatory monitoring. We start with a brief description of HPA axis regulation, and we then consider cortisol assessments in other organic materials, followed by a presentation of common salivary markers of HPA axis regulation suitable for ambulatory assessment. We further provide an overview on assessment designs and sources of variability within and between subjects (intervening variables), acknowledge the issue of (non)compliance, and address statistical aspects. We further give an overview of associations with psychosocial and health-related variables relevant for ambulatory assessment. Finally, we deal with preanalytical aspects of laboratory salivary cortisol analysis. The relative simplicity of salivary cortisol assessment protocols may lead to an overoptimistic view of the robustness of this method. We thus discuss several important issues related to the collection and storage of saliva samples and present empirical data on the stability of salivary cortisol measurements over time. PMID:22582339

  6. Sex-specific consequences of experimental cortisol elevation in pre-reproductive wild largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Constance M; Nannini, Michael; Wahl, David H; Wilson, Samantha M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Cooke, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Experimental implants were used to investigate the effect of elevated cortisol (the primary stress hormone in teleost fish) on energetic and physiological condition prior to reproduction in male and female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Fish were wild-caught from lakes in Illinois, and held in experimental ponds for the duration of the study. Between 9 and 13 days after cortisol treatment, and immediately prior to the start of the reproductive period, treated and control animals were sampled. Females exhibited lower muscle lipid content, lower liver glycogen content, and higher hepatosomatic indices than males, regardless of treatment. Also, cortisol-treated females had higher hepatosomatic indices and lower final mass than control females, whereas males showed no differences between treatment groups. Finally, cortisol-treated females had higher gonadal cortisol concentrations than control females. In general, we found evidence of reduced energetic stores in female fish relative to male fish, likely due to timing differences in the allocation of resources during reproduction between males and females. Perhaps driven by the difference in energetic reserves, our data further suggest that females are more sensitive than males to elevated cortisol during the period immediately prior to reproduction. PMID:23165965

  7. Growth hormone secretion during sleep

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Y.; Kipnis, D. M.; Daughaday, W. H.

    1968-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin, cortisol, and glucose were measured during sleep on 38 nights in eight young adults. Blood was drawn from an indwelling catheter at 30-min intervals; EEG and electrooculogram were recorded throughout the night. In seven subjects, a plasma GH peak (13-72 m?g/ml) lasting 1.5-3.5 hr appeared with the onset of deep sleep. Smaller GH peaks (6-14 m?g/ml) occasionally appeared during subsequent deep sleep phases. Peak GH secretion was delayed if the onset of sleep was delayed. Subjects who were awakened for 2-3 hr and allowed to return to sleep exhibited another peak of GH secretion (14-46 m?g/ml). Peak GH secretion was not correlated with changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and cortisol. The effects of 6-CNS-active drugs on sleep-related GH secretion were investigated. Imipramine (50 mg) completely abolished GH peaks in two of four subjects, whereas chlorpromazine (30 mg), phenobarbital (97 mg), diphenylhydantoin (90 mg), chlordiazepoxide (20 mg), and isocarboxazid (30 mg) did not inhibit GH peaks. Altered hypothalamic activity associated with initiation of sleep results in a major peak of growth hormone secretion unrelated to hypoglycemia or changes in cortisol and insulin secretion. PMID:5675428

  8. Fitness and behavioral correlates of pre-stress and stress-induced plasma cortisol titers in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) upon arrival at spawning grounds

    E-print Network

    Hinch, Scott G.

    and individual variation in glucocorticoid (GC) stress hormone levels because reproductive behaviors are highly reserved. Introduction Individual variation in glucocorticoid (GC) stress hormones are thought to mediateFitness and behavioral correlates of pre-stress and stress-induced plasma cortisol titers in pink

  9. Alterations Produced by Cortisol in the Spontaneous Activity and Responsiveness to Sensory Stimuli of Single Cells in the Tuberal Hypothalamus of the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Nagler; N. Conforti; S. Feldman

    1973-01-01

    The effects of cortisol on the spontaneous activity of single cells in the tuberal hypothalamus and their responsiveness to photic, acoustic, and sciatic stimulation were studied in rats. The over-all rate of firing of the spontaneous activity of the majority of the units was changed significantly by the hormone, with approximately equal numbers showing facilitation and inhibition. The hormone also

  10. Born to Yawn? Understanding Yawning as a Warning of the Rise in Cortisol Levels: Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Background Yawning consistently poses a conundrum to the medical profession and neuroscientists. Despite neurological evidence such as parakinesia brachialis oscitans in stroke patients and thermo-irregulation in multiple sclerosis patients, there is considerable debate over the reasons for yawning with the mechanisms and hormonal pathways still not fully understood. Cortisol is implicated during yawning and may link many neurological disorders. Evidence was found in support of the Thompson cortisol hypothesis that proposes cortisol levels are elevated during yawning just as they tend to rise during stress and fatigue. Objectives To investigate whether saliva cortisol levels rise during yawning and, therefore, support the Thompson cortisol hypothesis. Methods We exposed 20 male and female volunteers aged between 18 and 53 years to conditions that provoked a yawning response in a randomized controlled trial. Saliva samples were collected at the start and again after the yawning response, or at the end of the stimuli presentations if the participant did not yawn. In addition, we collected electromyographic data of the jaw muscles to determine rest and yawning phases of neural activity. Yawning susceptibility scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and demographic and health details were also collected from each participant. A comprehensive data set allowed comparison between yawners and nonyawners, as well as between rest and yawning phases. Collecting electromyographic data from the yawning phase is novel, and we hope this will provide new information about neuromuscular activity related to cortisol levels. Exclusion criteria included chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart conditions, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. We compared data between and within participants. Results In the yawning group, there was a significant difference between saliva cortisol samples (t 10 = –3.071, P = .01). Power and effect size were computed based on repeated-measures t tests for both the yawning and nonyawning groups. There was a medium effect size for the nonyawners group (r = .467) but low power (36%). Results were similar for the yawners group: medium effect size (r = .440) and low power (33%). Conclusions There was significant evidence in support of the Thompson cortisol hypothesis that suggests cortisol levels are elevated during yawning. A further longitudinal study is planned to test neurological patients. We intend to devise a diagnostic tool based on changes in cortisol levels that may assist in the early diagnosis of neurological disorders based on the data collected. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 61942768; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN61942768/61942768 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6A75ZNYvr) PMID:23611879

  11. Hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in lactating and non-lactating female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in lactating and non-lactating female common marmosets hormone Cortisol Lactation Maternal care Parental care Stress In several mammalian species, hypothalamic preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have

  12. Associations Among Physiological and Subjective Sexual Response, Sexual Desire, and Salivary Steroid Hormones in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari M. van Anders; Lori Brotto; Janine Farrell; Morag Yule

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Few studies have examined how sexual arousal influences healthy premenopausal women's hormones, limiting our understanding of basic physiology and our ability to transfer knowledge from clinical and nonhuman populations. Aim. To examine how sexual arousal and steroid hormones (testosterone (T), cortisol (C), estradiol (E)) were linked, to see whether hormone levels influenced and\\/or changed in response to sexual arousal

  13. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

  14. Pancreatic endocrine function in cortisol-treated thyroidectomized calves.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, S R; Edwards, A V; Fielding, A S

    1981-01-01

    1. Pancreatic endocrine function has been investigated in thyroidectomized calves given exogenous cortisol (2.0 mg.kg-1.day-1) in order to produce overt signs of diabetes. 2. Whenever this diabetic syndrome was induced it was associated with falling plasma insulin concentrations. A few days later, there was a significant rise in the post-absorptive concentration of both pancreatic glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in the arterial plasma. Elevated levels of both hormones invariably persisted until the animals were given thyroxine. 3. Each of the pancreatic endocrine responses to cortisol was reversed by daily administration of thyroxine (25 microgram.kg-1. day-1) and the plasma glucose concentration was restored to normal within a few days. 4. Starvation was found to be an extremely effective way of reducing both the plasma glucose and glucagon concentration of diabetic calves without apparently affecting the concentration of either insulin of PP. 5. Neurally mediated release of insulin in response to 2-deoxyglucose, but not of either pancreatic glucagon or PP, was found to be defective in diabetic calves and recovered in response to thyroxine. 6. These results suggest that the primary defect that leads to the development of this diabetic syndrome in cortisol-treated thyroidectomized calves is failure of insulin release but that this is associated with consequential changes in the rates at which both glucagon and PP are released from the pancreas. PMID:7033502

  15. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (p<.001). Positive correlations between the cortisol concentration in the first hair segment and each indicator of training volume were found (all p<.01). These data suggest that repeated physical stress of intensive training and competitive races among endurance athletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research. PMID:21944954

  16. Prolactin and growth hormone in fish osmoregulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sakamoto, T.; McCormick, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    Prolactin is an important regulator of multiple biological functions in vertebrates, and has been viewed as essential to ion uptake as well as reduction in ion and water permeability of osmoregulatory surfaces in freshwater and euryhaline fish. Prolactin-releasing peptide seems to stimulate prolactin expression in the pituitary and peripheral organs during freshwater adaptation. Growth hormone, a member of the same family of hormones as prolactin, promotes acclimation to seawater in several teleost fish, at least in part through the action of insulin-like growth factor I. In branchial epithelia, development and differentiation of the seawater-type chloride cell (and their underlying biochemistry) is regulated by GH, IGF-I, and cortisol, whereas the freshwater-type chloride cell is regulated by prolactin and cortisol. In the epithelia of gastrointestinal tract, prolactin induces cell proliferation during freshwater adaptation, whereas cortisol stimulates both cell proliferation and apoptosis. We propose that control of salinity acclimation in teleosts by prolactin and growth hormone primarily involves regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation (the latter including upregulation of specific ion transporters), and that there is an important interaction of these hormones with corticosteroids. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Diurnal Cortisol Rhythms in Preadolescents: The Role of Parental Psychosocial Risk and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities experience persistent health disparities due in part to their exposure to chronic SES and psychosocial risk. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its hormonal end product, cortisol, are believed to mediate the associations between chronic stress and poor health. In this study, racial/ethnic differences in diurnal salivary cortisol rhythms in 179 preadolescent youths and the contributing roles of SES risk, psychosocial risk, perceived discrimination, harsh parenting, and parental monitoring were examined. The analyses revealed racial/ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms, with African Americans having significantly flatter morning-to-evening cortisol slopes than Caucasians and with Latinos having significantly lower evening cortisol levels than Caucasians. Greater psychosocial risk and less parental monitoring were associated with flatter cortisol slopes. Racial/ethnic differences on the cortisol measures persisted when controlling for SES, psychosocial risk, and parenting quality. The need to assess chronic risk across the lifespan and disentangle possible genetic from environmental contributors is discussed. PMID:22414445

  18. Adrenal secretion during major depression in 8- to 16-year-olds, I. Altered diurnal rhythms in salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at presentation.

    PubMed

    Goodyer, I M; Herbert, J; Altham, P M; Pearson, J; Secher, S M; Shiers, H M

    1996-03-01

    The association between basal cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its sulphate (DHEAS) and major depression was investigated in 8- to 16-year-olds. Eighty-two subjects with major depression, 25 non-depressed psychiatric cases and 40 community controls were systematically assessed for current mental state and hormone levels at 08.00, 12.00 and 20.00 h, assayed from salivary samples collected over a 48 h period. The average mean of the two time points was compared between the three groups. Evening cortisol hypersecretion and morning DHEA hyposecretion were significantly, and independently, associated with major depression. High evening cortisol (> 0.594 ng/mL) and low morning DHEA (< 0.200 ng/mL) identified subgroups of depressives with different types of adrenal hormone dysregulation. The association between high evening cortisol or low morning DHEA and MDD was not affected by either age or gender. PMID:8685281

  19. Children's hair cortisol as a biomarker of stress at school entry.

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, Marleen G; Vermeer, Harriet J; Linting, Mariëlle; Noppe, Gerard; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-11-01

    Quantification of cortisol in scalp hair seems a promising measurement for long-term cortisol levels, and thereby a biomarker for stress. We examined hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in children when first entering elementary school. Participants were 42 children (45% boys) with a mean age of 4.2 years (SD?=?0.42 months). Hair samples (?5?cm) were collected 2 months after school entry. Hair analysis was conducted using two 2-cm long segments, reflecting the first 2 months of school attendance (the scalp-near segment) and 2 months prior to school entry. HCC were higher after school entry than before, especially for fearful children. Alterations in HCC were not moderated by experience in group daycare before school entry. Thus, HCC suggest that starting elementary school is accompanied by increased stress hormone levels in young (in particular fearful) children. PMID:23786528

  20. Seasonal Changes in CRF-I and Urotensin I Transcript Levels in Masu Salmon: Correlation with Cortisol Secretion During Spawning

    PubMed Central

    Westring, Christian G.; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Ueda, Hiroshi; Urano, Akihisa; Dores, Robert M.; Sher, Anna A.; Danielson, Phillip B.

    2008-01-01

    Pacific salmon employ a semelparous reproductive strategy where sexual maturation is followed by rapid senescence and death. Cortisol overproduction has been implicated as the central physiologic event responsible for the post-spawning demise of these fish. Cortisol homeostasis is regulated through the action of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. These include corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin-I (UI). In the present study, masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) were assayed for changes in the levels CRF-I and UI mRNA transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results were compared to plasma cortisol levels in juvenile, adult, and spawning masu salmon to identify specific regulatory factors that appear to be functionally associated with changes in cortisol levels. Intramuscular implantation of GnRH analog (GnRHa) capsules was also used to determine whether GnRH influences stress hormone levels. In both male and female masu salmon, spawning fish experienced a 5–7 fold increase in plasma cortisol levels relative to juvenile non-spawning salmon. Changes in CRF-I mRNA levels were characterized by 1–2 distinctive short-term surges in adult masu salmon. Conversely, seasonal changes in UI mRNA levels displayed broad and sustained increases during the pre-spawning and spawning periods. The increases in UI mRNA levels were positively correlated (R2 = 0.21 male and 0.26 female, p<0.0001) with levels of plasma cortisol in the pre-spawning and spawning periods. Despite the importance of GnRH in sexual maturation and reproduction, the administration of GnRHa to test animals failed to produce broad changes in CRF-I, UI or plasma cortisol levels. These findings suggest a more direct role for UI than for CRF-I in the regulation of cortisol levels in spawning Pacific salmon. PMID:17499738

  1. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  2. Study of progesterone and cortisol concentrations in the Italian Friesian claw.

    PubMed

    Comin, A; Peric, T; Magrin, L; Corazzin, M; Cornacchia, G; Prandi, A

    2014-09-01

    The present research was conducted to study progesterone and cortisol concentrations in the claw of cattle and to verify whether the cattle claw could be considered an efficient matrix to provide retrospective information regarding progesterone and cortisol concentrations related to pregnancy and peripartum periods. These 2 steroids are involved in hoof growth. The study was performed on 32 calves and 24 pregnant milking cows of the Holstein breed, which were clinically healthy and lacking any claw disorders. Samples of at least 0.5cm in thickness were taken from the sole. Progesterone and cortisol concentrations were determined by RIA. The cortisol concentration in the horny shoe of calves from 0 to 30 d of age was significantly higher than the concentration at 31 to 60 and 61 to 120 d of age. Conversely, the progesterone concentration showed no statistically significant difference in relation to age. The horn progesterone concentrations recorded in the milking dairy cows at 7 mo of pregnancy showed high variability in the horizontal sections of the sole (the individual coefficient of variation ranged between 0.09 and 1.11). In 6 cows, genuine extreme values (genuine outliers) of the progesterone level were found. Moreover, significant differences existed among the progesterone concentrations of the sole's transverse sections. We detected a significant positive correlation between the weight of the horn samples after freeze-drying and their weight after hydration. The cortisol and progesterone levels in soaked horn samples were found to be significantly lower than in the same dry samples. These results show that cortisol and progesterone can be measured in the cattle claw horn. The claws of mature dairy cows could not be used as a matrix to provide a retrospective measure of cumulative hormone secretion, whereas the analysis of the calves' claw horns showed retrospective hormonal information similar to hair samples. PMID:24952784

  3. RIA analysis for estradiol, testosterone and cortisol in feedyard playa lakes and non-feedyard playa lakes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to compare the levels of 17B-estradiol, testosterone, and cortisol hormones in bottom sediment (muck) and water of seven feedyard (FY) playas and three non-feedyard playas. Four liters of water and 500 grams of muck were collected from 4 equal distant sites from each p...

  4. RESPONSIVENESS OF GILL Na+\\/K+ATPase TO CORTISOL IS RELATED TO GILL CORTICOSTEROID RECEPTOR CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE RAINBOW TROUT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. MARK SHRIMPTON; STEPHEN D. MCCORMICK

    A positive relationship between receptor concentration and tissue responsiveness is an often-assumed and rarely tested principle in endocrinology. In salmonids, seasonal changes in levels of plasma cortisol and gill corticosteroid receptors (CRs) during the spring indicate a potential role for this hormone in the parr-smolt transformation. It is not known whether these seasonal changes result in alterations in gill responsiveness

  5. Examining Infants' Cortisol Responses to Laboratory Tasks among Children Varying in Attachment Disorganization: Stress Reactivity or Return to Baseline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the…

  6. Heat stress, plasma concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and cortisol, mood state and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    McMorris, Terry; Swain, Jon; Smith, Marcus; Corbett, Jo; Delves, Simon; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Potter, Julia

    2006-08-01

    The primary aims of this paper were to examine the effect of heat stress on working memory, choice reaction time and mood state, and to investigate the relationship between heat induced changes in plasma concentrations of selected neurotransmitters and hormones, and cognition. Heat stress resulted in a deterioration of performance on a central executive task (random movement generation) but not on verbal and spatial recall, and choice reaction time tasks. Perceptions of vigour decreased and fatigue increased following exposure to heat stress. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and 5-hydroxytryptamine significantly increased following exposure to heat. Regression analyses showed that percent body mass loss and change from baseline (Delta) concentrations of cortisol, post-exposure to heat, were significant predictors of Delta random movement generation and Delta fatigue. A secondary purpose was to examine the effect of recovery on cognition and mood. Following recovery, the performance of the central executive task was poorer than pre-treatment. Mood states, catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations returned to pre-treatment values, but cortisol fell to a level significantly lower. Regression correlations showed that Delta adrenaline and Delta scores, post-recovery, on the central executive task were significantly correlated. Delta noradrenaline correlated significantly with Delta fatigue. It was concluded that heat stress results in deterioration in the performance of central executive tasks and perceptions of mood state, and that this can be predicted by changes in body mass loss and plasma concentrations of the hormones cortisol and adrenaline. PMID:16309771

  7. Aldosterone and cortisol affect the risk of sudden cardiac death in haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Drechsler, Christiane; Ritz, Eberhard; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan; Schönfeld, Stephan; Blouin, Katja; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Hammer, Fabian; Krane, Vera; März, Winfried; Allolio, Bruno; Fassnacht, Martin; Wanner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background Sudden cardiac death is common and accounts largely for the excess mortality of patients on maintenance dialysis. It is unknown whether aldosterone and cortisol increase the incidence of sudden cardiac death in dialysis patients. Methods and results We analysed data from 1255 diabetic haemodialysis patients participating in the German Diabetes and Dialysis Study (4D Study). Categories of aldosterone and cortisol were determined at baseline and patients were followed for a median of 4 years. By Cox regression analyses, hazard ratios (HRs) were determined for the effect of aldosterone, cortisol, and their combination on sudden death and other adjudicated cardiovascular outcomes. The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 8 years (54% male). Median aldosterone was <15 pg/mL (detection limit) and cortisol 16.8 µg/dL. Patients with aldosterone levels >200 pg/mL had a significantly higher risk of sudden death (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.69) compared with those with an aldosterone <15 pg/mL. The combined presence of high aldosterone (>200 pg/mL) and high cortisol (>21.1 µg/dL) levels increased the risk of sudden death in striking contrast to patients with low aldosterone (<15 pg/mL) and low cortisol (<13.2 µg/dL) levels (HR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.32–6.21). Furthermore, all-cause mortality was significantly increased in the patients with high levels of both hormones (HR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.01–2.62). Conclusions The joint presence of high aldosterone and high cortisol levels is strongly associated with sudden cardiac death as well as all-cause mortality in haemodialysed type 2 diabetic patients. Whether a blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor decreases the risk of sudden death in these patients must be examined in future trials. PMID:23211232

  8. Supraphysiological cortisol elevation alters the response of wild bluegill sunfish to subsequent stressors.

    PubMed

    McConnachie, Sarah H; O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Iwama, George K; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-06-01

    Wild fish are frequently exposed to multiple stressors, but the influence of previous or ongoing stress on an animal's subsequent response is poorly understood. Using wild-caught bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) as a model, we used exogenous hormone implants to experimentally raise circulating cortisol in a group of fish for ?10 days. We also maintained sham-treated and control groups of fish. We subjected all animals to a secondary stressor in the form of either a heat challenge or fasting challenge. We compared survival, body condition, and plasma-borne indicators of physiological status among cortisol-treated, sham-treated, and control groups following the secondary stressor. In order to compare short- and long-term effects of cortisol treatment, we initiated the secondary stressor either 4 or 30 days following initial cortisol treatment. Cortisol-treated fish succumbed to the fasting challenge sooner than sham-treated and control fish at both 4 and 30 days. Interestingly, cortisol-treated fish lost equilibrium sooner than sham-treated and control fish during the heat challenge when conducted at 30 days, but not at 4 days. These results demonstrate that multiple simultaneous stressors have cumulative effects on bluegill sunfish. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological cortisol doses alter the long-term responses of bluegill sunfish to additional challenges, even after apparent recovery. Such cumulative and long-term effects may be an important factor in mediating the response of wild animals to natural and anthropogenic stressors, and should be considered in ecological studies. PMID:25363581

  9. Validation of a simple method of estimating plasma free cortisol: Role of cortisol binding to albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard I. Dorin; Hemanth K. Pai; Jui T. Ho; John G. Lewis; David J. Torpy; Frank K. Urban; Clifford R. Qualls

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To develop, optimize, and validate a generalized mass action, equilibrium solution that incorporates measured concentrations of albumin as well as cortisol binding globulin (CBG) to estimate free cortisol.

  10. Abnormal cortisol awakening response predicts worse cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Aas, M.; Dazzan, P.; Mondelli, V.; Toulopoulou, T.; Reichenberg, A.; Di Forti, M.; Fisher, H. L.; Handley, R.; Hepgul, N.; Marques, T.; Miorelli, A.; Taylor, H.; Russo, M.; Wiffen, B.; Papadopoulos, A.; Aitchison, K. J.; Morgan, C.; Murray, R. M.; Pariante, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment, particularly in memory and executive function, is a core feature of psychosis. Moreover, psychosis is characterized by a more prominent history of stress exposure, and by dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. In turn, stress exposure and abnormal levels of the main HPA axis hormone cortisol are associated with cognitive impairments in a variety of clinical and experimental samples; however, this association has never been examined in first-episode psychosis (FEP). Method In this study, 30 FEP patients and 26 controls completed assessment of the HPA axis (cortisol awakening response and cortisol levels during the day), perceived stress, recent life events, history of childhood trauma, and cognitive function. The neuropsychological battery comprised general cognitive function, verbal and non-verbal memory, executive function, perception, visuospatial abilities, processing speed, and general knowledge. Results Patients performed significantly worse on all cognitive domains compared to controls. In patients only, a more blunted cortisol awakening response (that is, more abnormal) was associated with a more severe deficit in verbal memory and processing speed. In controls only, higher levels of perceived stress and more recent life events were associated with a worse performance in executive function and perception and visuospatial abilities. Conclusions These data support a role for the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol awakening response, in modulating cognitive function in patients with psychosis; however, this association does not seem to be related to the increased exposure to psychosocial stressors described in these patients. PMID:20529412

  11. Catecholamine and Cortisol Levels during Sleep in Women with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Robert L.; Jarrett, Monica E.; Cain, Kevin C.; Jun, Sang-Eun; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are hyper-responsive to environmental, physical, and visceral stimuli. IBS patients also frequently report poor sleep quality. This study compared serum cortisol and plasma catecholamine levels during sleep between women with IBS (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 31), and among subgroups within the IBS sample based on predominant stool patterns, IBS-diarrhea (n = 14), IBS-constipation (n = 7), and IBS-alternators (n = 9). Cortisol was measured from serial blood samples drawn every 20 minutes, and catecholamines every hour, in a sleep laboratory from 8 PM until awakening. Because of the varied sleep schedules of the individual participants, each subject’s hormone series time base was referenced with respect to their onset of Stage-2 sleep. Overall, there were no significant differences in cortisol or catecholamine patterns between women with IBS and controls, nor were there any group by time interactions. However, women with constipation-predominant IBS demonstrated significantly increased norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol levels throughout the sleep interval, and women with diarrhea-predominant IBS were significantly lower on norepinephrine and cortisol. These results suggest that differences in neuroendocrine levels during sleep among IBS predominant bowel pattern subgroups may be greater than differences between IBS women and controls. Neuroendocrine profiles during sleep may contribute to our understanding of symptom expression in IBS. PMID:19573081

  12. Novelty of the arena impairs the cortisol-related increase in the aggression of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    PubMed

    Serra, Mônica; Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2015-03-15

    The dichotomic effect of a cortisol level rise in vertebrate behavior has been widely observed. Generally, a chronic increase of the hormone level inhibits aggression, while an acute rise increases aggression. However, in this study, we show that this increase in aggression through an acute rise of cortisol also depends on the context in which the agonistic interaction occurs in the tropical fish matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. We combined two factors: the type of housing (resident or non-resident in the trial arena) and the level of cortisol at the beginning of the fight (normal level - control, or high level - hydrocortisone-treated fish). The cortisol treatment increased the aggressiveness in the resident fish, but this effect was not observed in the non-resident fish, which fought in an unknown arena. The novelty of the arena may have elicited an "alerted state" in the non-resident fish; in this situation the fight was not the priority, and the cortisol effect in aggression could be impaired by a conflict between motivational systems (fear and aggression). In our knowledge, in fish, the increase of aggression promoted by an acute rise in cortisol levels was always tested and observed in a resident context, and the inhibition of cortisol effect in the agonist behavior is demonstrated for the first time. As the cortisol effect in aggression is observed in several taxa, the inhibition of aggressiveness increased by the novelty of the arena should be investigated in other groups to clarify the dynamics of this effect of cortisol in animal behavior. PMID:25578544

  13. [Is free plasmatic cortisol measurement useful in intensive care unit?].

    PubMed

    Dolomie-Fagour, L; Corcuff, J-B

    2008-01-01

    Serum cortisol free fraction is responsible for its physiological function. Determination of serum total cortisol concentration does not allow accurate evaluation of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis when there is a quantitative variation in serum transcortin. Although free cortisol can be assayed by salivary or urinary cortisol measurements, these methods can not be easily applied in intensive care units. Free plasmatic cortisol measurement could provide a better reflect of circulating cortisol in patients with critical illness whom have a decreased concentration of binding proteins and whom adrenal status is an important prognostic factor. Free cortisol can be measured after separation from bound cortisol, calculated with equation based on equilibrium binding or evaluated by cortisol/CBG ratio. In various studies, free plasmatic cortisol allows in critical care patients a better appreciation of adrenal status than total cortisol and be more differential than total cortisol increment after stimulation with synacthen used to diagnose "relative adrenal insufficiency". PMID:18227002

  14. Adrenal Steroid Hormones and Metaphyseal Bone in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Remer; Kai R. Boye; Michaela F. Hartmann; Christina Neu; Eckhard Schoenau; Friedrich Manz; Stefan A. Wudy

    2004-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives: The responses of metaphyseal bone tissue to physiological variations of endogenous adrenal steroid hormones during childhood are unclear. Therefore, we studied potential hormonal influences in children before the appearance of pubic hair (onset of pubarche). Methods: Excretions of major glucocorticoid metabolites (C21), cortisol, sum of adrenarchal dehydroepiandrosterone and its immediate 16-hydroxylated metabolites (DHEA&M), and 5-androstene-3?,17?-diol (hermaphrodiol) were analyzed in

  15. Therapeutic Effects of Pre-Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon) used as a Non-Hormonal Alternative to HRT in Perimenopausal Women - Clinical Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mscisz, A.; Kedzia, B.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Roots of cruciferous plant Lepidium peruvianum Chacon cultivated in high plateaus of Andes and known under its common name Maca, have been traditionally-used as an energizing vegetable with therapeutic properties for both men and women. Maca has been recognized by natives of Peru as herbal remedy helping to treat conditions affecting menopausal women. Objective: The effects of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO) on quantitative physiological responses and alleviation of symptoms contributing to menopausal discomfort in perimenopausal women was examined. Methods: In this, four months, double blind, crossover, randomized pilot trial, monthly measurements of the following blood serum constituents were taken: Estrogen (E2), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, T4), minerals (Ca, K, Fe) and lipid profile (Triglicerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). In monthly interviews conducted by gynecologist, body weight and blood pressure were registered and Menopausal Index according to Kupperman’s was determined. Toxicity of Maca -GO determined on rats showed its safe use at the level of 7.5mg/kg body weight. A group of 20 women (aged 41-50 years), who fulfilled criteria of being in perimenopausal stage (E2 above 40pg/ml and FSH below 30IU/ml), were randomly allocated to two even groups, one receiving for two months Maca-GO and the other Placebo capsules followed by a crossover with treatment change for another two months period. All participants signed informed consent to participate. Two 500mg hard capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo were self-administered by participants twice daily with meals (total 2g/day). Results: Two months administration of Maca-GO significantly alleviated symptoms of discomfort observed in majority of women involved in the study (74%-87%) as assessed by Kupperman’s Menopausal index. This was associated with significant increase in E2 and FSH, Progesterone and ACTH levels, and reduction in blood pressure, body weight, Triglycerides and Cholesterol levels. There was a distinctive placebo effect observed at the beginning of the study. Conclusions: The results showed that in addition to reduction in body weight, blood pressure and increasing serum HDL and Iron, pre-gelatinized Maca-GO may be a valuable non-hormonal plant preparation for balancing levels of hormones (FSH, E2, PG and ACTH) and alleviating negative physiological and psychological symptoms (frequency of hot flushes, incidence in night sweating, interrupted sleep pattern, nervousness, depression and heart palpitations) experienced by women in perimenopausal stage. It appears that Maca-GO may act as a toner of hormonal processes, leading to alleviation of discomfort felt by perimenopausal women, hence, its potential use as non-hormonal alternative to HRT program. PMID:23674976

  16. Fitness and behavioral correlates of pre-stress and stress-induced plasma cortisol titers in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) upon arrival at spawning grounds.

    PubMed

    Cook, K V; McConnachie, S H; Gilmour, K M; Hinch, S G; Cooke, S J

    2011-11-01

    Semelparous Pacific salmon (Onchorynchus spp.) serve as an excellent model for examining the relationships between life history, behavior and individual variation in glucocorticoid (GC) stress hormone levels because reproductive behaviors are highly variable between individuals and failure to reproduce results in zero fitness. Pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) were intercepted upon arrival at the spawning grounds across three time periods. Pre-stress and stress-induced plasma cortisol concentrations were assessed in relation to behavior, longevity and reproductive success. Results revealed differences between sexes and with arrival time. The study period marked a year of high reproductive success and only nine females (12% of sample) failed to spawn. Female pre-spawn mortalities were characterized by significantly elevated stress-induced cortisol concentrations and decreased longevity as well as pre-stress cortisol above the normal range in pink salmon from the study area. Interestingly, reproductive behaviors were only associated with pre-stress cortisol levels. For females, aggression and mate interaction time were reduced in individuals with elevated pre-stress cortisol concentrations. In males, a similar negative relationship between pre-stress cortisol concentration and mate interaction time was detected. The observed behavioral correlations are likely a factor of social status where dominant individuals, known to have higher reproductive success, are characterized by lower cortisol levels relative to subordinate conspecifics. Findings show both elevated pre-stress and stress-induced cortisol concentrations at arrival to the spawning grounds to be associated with reduced survival. PMID:21839080

  17. Measuring cortisol in human psychobiological studies.

    PubMed

    Levine, Ari; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth; Lewis, John G; Weller, Aron

    2007-01-30

    The steroid cortisol is an extensively studied and important variable in developmental and other behavioral studies. Cortisol has been assayed by various methods using a range of substrates including blood, saliva, and urine. Cortisol in blood exists in two forms. While most is bound to carrier proteins, a small portion exists in a soluble free form. The informed choice of cortisol fraction and measurement method is critical for research. Such choices should be influenced by understanding the characteristics of the various cortisol fractions, along with their binding proteins' biological functions and relationship to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The goal of this paper is to familiarize researchers with key points for evaluating the choice of total and free cortisol in research as well reviewing various options for measuring free cortisol. These points are raised with special emphasis on their significance during pregnancy and the post-partum. Such information may prove useful in informing researcher's cortisol-related protocols and in the interpretation of cortisol data. PMID:17055006

  18. Salivary Cortisol Can Replace Free Serum Cortisol Measurements in Patients With Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Orlander, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a renewed interest in adrenal function during severe sepsis. Most studies have used total serum cortisol levels; however, only free serum cortisol is biologically active. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of salivary cortisol levels as a surrogate for free serum cortisol levels during septic shock. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with septic shock were studied to determine the correlation between total serum cortisol and salivary cortisol to free serum cortisol levels. Thirty-eight patients were included in the salivary to free serum cortisol correlation. Salivary cortisol level was tested by enzyme immunoassay. Serum total cortisol, free cortisol, and cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) levels were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, equilibrium analysis, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Results: The mean ± SD age was 56.6 ± 18.5 years. Fifty-seven percent were women. APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II score median was 26, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II median was 61, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment median was 13. The correlation between salivary and free serum cortisol levels was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89; P < .0001). The correlation between free serum cortisol and total serum cortisol levels was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.78-0.92; P < .0001). The mean ± SD free serum cortisol level was 2.27 ± 1.64 ?g/dL. The mean ± SD salivary cortisol level was 2.60 ± 2.69 ?g/dL. The mean ± SD total serum cortisol level was 21.56 ± 8.71 ?g/dL. The mean ± SD CBG level was 23.54 ± 8.33 mg/dL. Conclusions: Salivary cortisol level can be used as a surrogate of free serum cortisol level in patients with septic shock with very good correlation. Salivary cortisol testing is noninvasive, easy to perform, and can be conducted daily. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00523198; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:21816912

  19. The effects of threatened social evaluation of the physique on cortisol activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen A. Martin Ginis; Heather A. Strong; Shawn M. Arent; Steven R. Bray

    2012-01-01

    Social self preservation theory asserts that situations high in social-evaluative threat elicit increases in cortisol, a hormone released by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Most tests of the theory have examined threats associated with social evaluation of a performance. Two experiments examined the effects of threatened social evaluation of one's physique. In Experiments 1 (n?=?50) and 2 (n?=?40), participants allocated to an

  20. Novel Human Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Variant with Low Cortisol-Binding Affinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AGNES EMPTOZ-BONNETON; PATRICE COUSIN; KOJI SEGUCHI; GEORGE V. AVVAKUMOV; CHANTAL BULLY; GEOFFREY L. HAMMOND; MICHEL PUGEAT

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is the plasma transport pro- tein that regulates the access of glucocorticoid hormones to target cells. Genetic deficiencies of CBG are rare, and only a single human CBG variant (Trancortin Leuven) has been related so far to decreased cortisol-binding affinity. We report here on a 43-yr-old woman, re- ferred for chronic asthenia and hypotension, with repeatedly low

  1. Associations of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with urinary measures of cortisol and catecholamines in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Seeman, Teresa; Shea, Steven; Shrager, Sandi; Tadros, Sameh

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Stress hormones have been hypothesized to contribute to the social patterning of cardiovascular disease but evidence of differences in hormone levels across social groups is scant. Purpose To examine the associations of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines and determine whether these associations are modified by race/ethnicity. Methods Measures of cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine were obtained on 12-h overnight urine specimens from 942 White, African American and Hispanic participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Linear regression was used to examine associations of income-wealth index, education, depression, anger, anxiety and chronic stress with the four hormones after adjustment for covariates. Results Higher income-wealth index was associated with lower levels of urinary cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, medication use, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol use. Education and psychosocial factors were not associated with urinary stress hormone levels in the full sample. However, there was some evidence of effect modification by race: SES factors were more strongly inversely associated with cortisol in African Americans than in other groups and anger was inversely associated with catecholamines in African Americans but not in the other groups. Conclusions Lower SES as measured by income-wealth index in a multi-ethnic sample is associated with higher levels of urinary cortisol and catecholamines. Heterogeneity in these associations by race/ethnicity warrants further exploration. PMID:24495614

  2. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: comparison to salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L; Ross, Randal G; Natvig, Crystal L; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2011-08-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair cortisol provides a simple way to monitor total cortisol release over an extended period of time. Hair cortisol levels were determined from each trimester (15, 26 and 36 weeks gestation) and 3 months postpartum. Hair cortisol levels were compared to diurnal salivary cortisol collected over 3 days (3 times/day) at 14, 18, 23, 29, and 34 weeks gestational age and 6 weeks postpartum from 21 pregnant women. Both salivary and hair cortisol levels rose during pregnancy as expected. Hair cortisol and diurnal salivary cortisol area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were also correlated throughout pregnancy. Levels of cortisol in hair are a valid and useful tool to measure long-term cortisol activity. Hair cortisol avoids methodological problems associated with collection other cortisol measures such as plasma, urine, or saliva and is a reliable metric of HPA activity throughout pregnancy reflecting total cortisol release over an extended period. PMID:21397617

  3. Influence of cortisol on the attachment and metamorphosis of larval Utterbackia imbecillis on bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus).

    PubMed

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitaker, Brian; Galvez, Fernando

    2011-04-01

    The larvae of unionid freshwater mussels (i.e., glochidia) undergo a parasitic stage requiring their attachment to the external epithelia of fish hosts, where they metamorphose into free-living juveniles. We describe the physiological effects in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) of infection with glochidia from the paper pondshell (Utterbackia imbecillis). Glochidia accumulation on bluegill increased dramatically at concentrations of 2000 glochidia liter(-1) and above, reaching a maximum attachment density of about 30 glochidia g(-1) fish at 4000 glochidia liter(-1). Plasma cortisol was the most sensitive indicator of biological effect to glochidial exposure, increasing significantly in hosts exposed to 2000 glochidia liter(-1) or greater. Glochidia were 31% more likely to undergo successful juvenile metamorphosis when attached to bluegill with elevated plasma cortisol, largely due to the enhanced survivorship of these larvae during the first 48 h after infection. We tested the hypothesis that glochidial attachment and juvenile metamorphosis were stimulated directly by plasma cortisol in fish hosts. Bluegill were given an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol, then infected with 1000 glochidia liter(-1) at 48 h after hormone supplementation. Cortisol-injected fish had a 42% increase in the number of attached glochidia g(-1) fish and a 28% increase in larval metamorphosis compared to sham-injected and control fish. We provide evidence that cortisol enhances glochidial metamorphosis on hosts by improving the retention of attached glochidia. This study gives insights into the influence of host physiology on glochidial attachment and juvenile mussel transformation. PMID:21551446

  4. Adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone rhythms in male golden hamsters on long and short days

    SciTech Connect

    Ottenweller, J.E.; Tapp, W.N.; Pitman, D.L.; Natelson, B.H. (Veterans Administration Center, East Orange, NJ (USA) New Jersey Medical School, Newark (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormones were measured at 4-h intervals around the clock in male hamsters on long (14:10-h light-dark cycle) and short (10:14-h light-dark cycle) days. Plasma corticosterone, cortisol, thyroxine (T{sub 4}), triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and testosterone rhythms were present on long days. The only one of these hormones to have a significant rhythm on short days was cortisol, but even its amplitude was suppressed compared with the cortisol rhythm on long days. Short days also lowered mean plasma levels of cortisol, T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, and testosterone. Finally, short days raised the ratio of corticosterone to cortisol and lowered the ratio of T{sub 4} to T{sub 3}. Both ratios had significant rhythms on long days but not on short days. Because of the many interactions among adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone axes, it is unclear whether the primary effect of short days is on one of these endocrine systems or on another factor that has separate effects on each of the hormone rhythms that was measured. Nonetheless, it is clear that a major effect of short day lengths in hamsters is to suppress hormone rhythms. Explanations of photoperiodic effects that depend on endocrine mediation should take this into account.

  5. Effects of prolactin, adrenocorticotrophin, neurohypophysial peptides, cortisol, and androgens on some osmoregulatory parameters of the hypophysectomized catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (bloch).

    PubMed

    Parwez, I; Goswami, S V

    1985-04-01

    Daily injections of ovine prolactin (PRL), cortisol acetate (FA), arginine vasotocin (AVT), and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), at doses ranging from 0.1 to 500 mU/g, 0.2 to 25 micrograms/g, 0.01 to 0.02 micrograms/g, and 5 to 10 mU/g respectively, for 5 days elevated plasma osmolarity and plasma sodium levels in the 3-day hypophysectomized catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis maintained in tap water. PRL enhanced urine production and decreased urine osmolarity and sodium concentration. Administration of FA and AVT increased urine output as well as urine osmolarity and sodium concentration, thereby resulting in severe natriuresis. Simultaneous administration of PRL and FA to hypophysectomized catfish restored plasma osmolarity and sodium concentration to normal levels even in the presence of increased urinary salt loss. However, if the fishes were maintained in deionized water, administration of PRL and FA had no effect on plasma osmolarity or plasma sodium levels suggesting that these hormones increase plasma osmotic pressure by stimulating active uptake of salts from the external medium. Neither PRL nor AVT evoked any increase in plasma cortisol level indicating that their effects on catfish osmoregulation are not mediated through cortisol production. Isotocin, testosterone, and delta 4-androstenedione had no effect on any of the plasmatic or urinary parameters. It is concluded that prolactin, cortisol, and AVT are the principal hormones for osmoionic homeostasis in this catfish and that they act through independent mechanisms. PMID:2985466

  6. Growth hormone excess and the effect of octreotide in cats with diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. I. Slingerland; G. Voorhout; A. Rijnberk; H. S. Kooistra

    2008-01-01

    In this prospective study 16 cats with diabetes mellitus were examined for concurrent acromegaly by measuring plasma growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary fossa. Additionally, the effects of octreotide administration on the plasma concentrations of glucose, GH, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol were measured.Five cats were diagnosed

  7. Cortisol secretory activity in older people in relation to positive and negative well-being.

    PubMed

    Evans, P; Forte, D; Jacobs, C; Fredhoi, C; Aitchison, E; Hucklebridge, F; Clow, A

    2007-01-01

    Secretion of the hormone cortisol, a physiological correlate of affect, has been studied mostly in relation to negative states, especially stress. By contrast, policy initiatives aimed at older populations now routinely emphasise well-being and a 'positive ageing' perspective. In this study, we examined diurnal salivary cortisol profiles from 50 active seniors recruited into a wider community research project (mean age 74 years; 34 F/16 M). Participants' wrist activity was continuously monitored by actimeters in their homes over a 48 h period. During this time two diurnal cycles of cortisol data were collected (8 samples per day); with actimeter data providing a compliance check in regard to timing of self-administered saliva collections. Prior to the trial, participants had completed the GHQ-30 which was scored separately to yield both positive and negative well-being scores which matched closely normative data from over 6000 cases in a large survey. Our data suggest that positive and negative psychological well-being are quite strongly and inversely correlated. However, neither on their own was associated with basal levels of cortisol. Rather, for cortisol secretion in the 45-min period following awakening, but not during the rest of the day, we found a significant interaction between positive and negative well-being (p<0.024). Further analysis of this interaction showed that among participants low on negative well-being, higher positive well-being was significantly associated with lower cortisol; equally, among participants high on positive well-being, lower negative well-being was significantly associated with lower cortisol. Thus, a powerful synergy seemed to be operating in this early morning period such that cortisol secretion was 27% lower in participants with both higher-than-average positive well-being and lower-than-average negative well-being (comprising 34% of the sample). We conclude that cortisol secretion in the first 45 min following awakening is distinct from the rest of the day and most able to discriminate well-being states. PMID:17689873

  8. Salivary cortisol lower in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wahbeh, Helané; Oken, Barry S

    2013-04-01

    Altered cortisol has been demonstrated to be lower in those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in most studies. This cross-sectional study evaluated salivary cortisol at waking and 30 minutes after, and at bedtime in 51 combat veterans with PTSD compared to 20 veterans without PTSD. It also examined the relationship of cortisol to PTSD symptoms using 2 classifications: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and the more recent 4-factor classification proposed for DSM-5. The PTSD group had lower cortisol values than the control group, F(6, 69) = 3.35, p = .006. This significance did not change when adding age, body mass index, smoking, medications affecting cortisol, awakening time, sleep duration, season, depression, perceived stress, service era, combat exposure, and lifetime trauma to the model. Post hoc analyses revealed that the PTSD group had lower area-under-the-curve ground and waking, 30 min, and bedtime values; the cortisol awakening response and area-under-the-curve increase were not different between groups. The 4-factor avoidance PTSD symptom cluster was associated with cortisol, but not the other symptom clusters. This study supports the finding that cortisol is lower in people with PTSD. PMID:23529862

  9. Effects of Cortisol on the Intestinal Mucosal Immune Response during Cohabitant Challenge with IPNV in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Niklasson, Lars; Sundh, Henrik; Olsen, Rolf-Erik; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Skjødt, Karsten; Nilsen, Tom O.; Sundell, Kristina Snuttan

    2014-01-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes high incidence of disease in salmonids during the first period after SW transfer. During this period as well as during periods of stress, cortisol levels increase and indications of a relationship between IPNV susceptibility and cortisol have been suggested. The intestine is an entry route and a target tissue for IPNV displaying severe enteritis and sloughing of the mucosa in infected fish. The mechanisms behind effects of the virus on the intestinal tissue and the impact of cortisol on the effect remain unclear. In the present study, Atlantic salmon post smolts treated with or without slow release cortisol implants were subjected to a cohabitant IPNV challenge. Analysis of genes and proteins related to the innate and acquired immune responses against virus was performed 6 days post-challenge using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. An increased mRNA expression of anti-viral cytokine interferon type I was observed in the proximal intestine and head kidney as a response to the viral challenge and this effect was suppressed by cortisol. No effect was seen in the distal intestine. T-cell marker CD3 as well as MHC-I in both intestinal regions and in the head kidney was down regulated at the mRNA level. Number of CD8? lymphocytes decreased in the proximal intestine in response to cortisol. On the other hand, mRNA expression of Mx and IL-1? increased in the proximal intestine and head kidney in IPNV challenged fish in the presence of cortisol suggesting that the immune activation shifts in timing and response pathway during simulated stress. The present study clearly demonstrates that IPNV infection results in a differentiated epithelial immune response in the different intestinal regions of the Atlantic salmon. It also reveals that the epithelial immune response differs from the systemic, but that both are modulated by the stress hormone cortisol. PMID:24809845

  10. LUTEINIZING HORMONE CORRELATES WITH ADRENAL FUNCTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Aditi R.; Seely, Ellen W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In postmenopausal women, a relationship between luteinizing hormone (LH) and cortisol levels has been suggested. Furthermore, LH receptors on the adrenal gland have been shown to mediate ACTH-independent Cushing's Syndrome. In contrast, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors have not been found on the adrenal gland. Our objective was to explore the relationship of LH with adrenal function in postmenopausal women, as assessed by 24-hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) and aldosterone excretion rate (AER). Methods Participants were studied at single time point in the fasting state in the Clinical Research Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital. We studied 36 postmenopausal women in sodium balance to control for variation in endogenous levels of plasma renin activity and angiotensin II. Serum cortisol, aldosterone, LH and FSH levels were measured, as were 24-hour UFC and AER. Correlations were performed by calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Serum LH correlated significantly with log-transformed UFC (r = 0.43, p=0.01) and inversely with log AER (r = ?0.50, p= 0.002). We found no correlation of serum LH with serum cortisol or aldosterone, nor did we find correlation of FSH with these parameters. Conclusions In postmenopausal women, serum LH levels correlate significantly with UFC (positively) and AER (negatively). LH stimulation may induce subtle shifts in adrenal function towards cortisol secretion. PMID:22713862

  11. Intraindividual stability of hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Tobias; Steudte, Susann; Miller, Robert; Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    The analysis of cortisol in human hair constitutes a promising method for the retrospective assessment of cumulative cortisol secretion over extended periods of time. An implicit assumption underlying the use of this method is that in the absence of major life changes hair cortisol concentrations show a high level of intraindividual stability, i.e. single hair cortisol assessments exhibit considerable trait-specificity and are only to a smaller extent influenced by state-dependent factors. Here, we present data from two independent studies examining patterns of intraindividual stability in hair cortisol levels. In study I, 45 participants were examined at two sampling points carried out one year apart from each other. In study II, 64 individuals provided data at three sampling points which occurred at two-month intervals. In both studies, at each time point hair was sampled and relevant psychosocial and hair-related variables were assessed. Results of both studies consistently revealed strong test-retest associations for repeated hair cortisol measurements ('r's between 0.68 and 0.79, 'p's <0.0001). Findings of structural equation modelling applied to data of study II showed that single hair cortisol assessments comprise a strong trait component, explaining between 59 and 82% of variance, and are only to a lesser extent influenced by state-related factors. Only inconsistent evidence for covariation of changes in hair cortisol concentrations and simultaneous changes in perceived stress or other relevant variables was seen across the two studies. The current findings suggest a considerable degree of intraindividual stability in hair cortisol levels which highlights the utility of this method for obtaining trait estimates of long-term cortisol secretion in psychoneuroendocrinological research. PMID:21917384

  12. Cortisol dynamics are associated with electrocardiographic abnormalities following the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    July, Julius; As’ad, Suryani; Suhadi, F. X. Budhianto; Islam, Andi A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are common following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It probably represents cardiovascular stress after SAH. Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess cortisol dynamics in relation to the ECG abnormality and disease course of SAH. Settings and Design: The study follows a consecutive cohort of aneurysmal SAH patients, who underwent surgery within 72 hours of onset, and they were followed up for 10 days. Materials and Methods: Serum cortisols, cortisol-binding globulin (CGB), adenocorticotropic hormone were measured (between 08.00-09.00 hours) preoperatively and then on postoperative days (PODs) 2, 4, 7, and 10. Electrocardiographs (ECG) were recorded on initial assessment and after surgery on daily basis in ICU. ECG abnormalities will be followed up by measurement of cardiac troponin T to quantify the myocyte necrosis. Statistical Analysis Used: Logistic regression analysis using commercial available software STATA 9. Results: A total of 44 patients (20 M and 24 F) were eligible for the cohort analysis. Average patient age is 52.02 years (52.02 ± 11.23), and 86% (6/44) arrived with World Federation of Neurosurgical Society Scale grade 3 or better. The ECG abnormality was found in 10 cases (22.7%), but the abnormal TnT (>1 ?g/l) were found in eight cases, and two cases contribute to the mortality. The ECG abnormalities are significantly associated with total cortisol on day 4 (P < 0.05) and free cortisol on day 2 (P = 0.0065). Conclusions: Elevated levels of morning cortisol within the first four days after surgery are associated with the ECG abnormality. PMID:23233777

  13. Increased cortisol levels in hair of recent Ecstasy/MDMA users.

    PubMed

    Parrott, A C; Sands, H R; Jones, L; Clow, A; Evans, P; Downey, L A; Stalder, T

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has revealed an acute 8-fold increase in salivary cortisol following self-administrated Ecstasy/MDMA in dance clubbers. It is currently not known to what extent repeated usage impacts upon activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis over a more prolonged period of time. This study investigated the integrated cortisol levels in 3-month hair samples from recent Ecstasy/MDMA users and non-user controls. One hundred and one unpaid participants (53 males, 48 females; mean age 21.75 years) completed the University of East London recreational drug use questionnaire, modified to cover the past 3-months of usage. They comprised 32 light recent Ecstasy/MDMA users (1-4 times in last 3 months), 23 recent heavy MDMA users (+5 times in last 3 months), and 54 non-user controls. Volunteers provided 3 cm hair samples for cortisol analysis. Hair cortisol levels were observed to be significantly higher in recent heavy MDMA users (mean = 55.0 ± 80.1 pg/mg), compared to recent light MDMA users (19.4 ± 16.0 pg/mg; p=0.015), and to non-users (13.8 ± 6.1 pg/mg; p<0.001). Hence the regular use of Ecstasy/MDMA was associated with almost 4-fold raised hair cortisol levels, in comparison with non-user controls. The present results are consistent with the bio-energetic stress model for Ecstasy/MDMA, which predicts that repeated stimulant drug use may increase cortisol production acutely, and result in greater deposits of the hormone in hair. These data may also help explain the neurocognitive, psychiatric, and other psychobiological problems of some abstinent users. Future study design and directions for research concerning the psychoneuroendocrinological impact of MDMA are also discussed. PMID:24333019

  14. Hormones, Nicotine and Cocaine: Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Nancy K.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels, and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (two min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine’s sustained positive effects (< 20 min), ratings of “High” and “Rush” began to decrease within one or two puffs of a high nicotine cigarette while nicotine levels were increasing. Peak nicotine levels increased progressively after each of three successive cigarettes smoked at 60 min intervals, but the magnitude of the subjective effects ratings and peak ACTH and cortisol levels diminished. Only DHEA increased consistently after successive cigarettes. The possible influence of neuroactive hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse, and implications for treatment of these addictive disorders is discussed. PMID:19835877

  15. Cortisol Is Not Associated with Telomere Shortening or Chromosomal Instability in Human Lymphocytes Cultured under Low and High Folate Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Caroline; Christensen, Helen; Fenech, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress and nutritional deficiencies are factors that impact negatively on human health and disease risk. Chronic stress has been associated with accelerated leukocyte telomere shortening in numerous cohorts, however, a mechanistic link has proven elusive. This study tested the hypotheses that chronic exposure to the stress hormone, cortisol, causes telomere shortening and chromosome instability (CIN) in vitro, and that these effects would be further exacerbated by folate (vitamin B9) deficiency. Primary human lymphocytes were maintained in vitro for 12 days in medium containing either 25 nM folic acid (FA(low)) or 100 nM FA (FA(high)), together with either 0, 400, 1000 or 3500 nM cortisol. The interactive effects of cortisol and FA were examined by comparing telomere length (TL), biomarkers of DNA damage, and cytostasis. At day 12 TL was 5-17% longer in lymphocytes cultured in FA(low) conditions (mean ± SD;10.2% ± 1.6), compared with those in FA(high) medium (9.1% ± 1, p = 0.02). Refuting the hypothesis, TL was consistently greater in the presence of cortisol. The effect of FA deficiency on the frequency of DNA damage was significant for nucleoplasmic bridges, circular nuclei, micronuclei and nuclear buds, (p < 0.0001 – 0.001). The effect of cortisol, however, was negligible, only reaching statistical significance for the frequency of fused nuclei (p = 0.04). Cortisol was significantly associated with reduced cell division and growth and had an apparent protective effect on cell viability in the FA(low) conditions. Conclusions: Both chronic cortisol exposure, and folate deficiency, resulted in telomere elongation, however, the effect of cortisol was marginal relative to that of folate. Cortisol was not associated with increased chromosomal instability, but caused a significant reduction in cell division and growth. Together these results indicate that cortisol is not directly genotoxic and that the telomere shortening associated with increased psychological stress in vivo may not be explained by a direct effect of cortisol. PMID:25748629

  16. Relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs over a 24 h period

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    1 Relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and the free index (FCI, the ratio of cortisol to CBG) was evaluated in eight 8-wk old pigs over a 24 h period was apparent for total cortisol, free cortisol, percent free cortisol, pCBG, and the FCI. Total cortisol (P

  17. Hormonal regulation of leucine catabolism in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jian; Feng, Dingyuan; Zhang, Yongliang; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Li, Xilong; Yao, Kang; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-09-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are actively taken up and catabolized by the mammary gland during lactation for syntheses of glutamate, glutamine and aspartate. Available evidence shows that the onset of lactation is associated with increases in circulating levels of cortisol, prolactin and glucagon, but decreases in insulin and growth hormone. This study determined the effects of physiological concentrations of these hormones on the catabolism of leucine (a representative BCAA) in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Cells were incubated at 37 °C for 2 h in Krebs buffer containing 3 mM D-glucose, 0.5 mM L-leucine, L-[1-14C]leucine or L-[U-14C]leucine, and 0-50 ?U/mL insulin, 0-20 ng/mL growth hormone 0-200 ng/mL prolactin, 0-150 nM cortisol or 0-300 pg/mL glucagon. Increasing extracellular concentrations of insulin did not affect leucine transamination or oxidative decarboxylation, but decreased the rate of oxidation of leucine carbons 2-6. Elevated levels of growth hormone dose dependently inhibited leucine catabolism, ?-ketoisocaproate (KIC) production and the syntheses of glutamate plus glutamine. In contrast, cortisol and glucagon increased leucine transamination, leucine oxidative decarboxylation, KIC production, the oxidation of leucine 2-6 carbons and the syntheses of glutamate plus glutamine. Prolactin did not affect leucine catabolism in the cells. The changes in leucine degradation were consistent with alterations in abundances of BCAA transaminase and phosphorylated levels of branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase. Reductions in insulin and growth hormone but increases in cortisol and glucagon with lactation act in concert to stimulate BCAA catabolism for glutamate and glutamine syntheses. These coordinated changes in hormones may facilitate milk production in lactating mammals. PMID:22707151

  18. Timing of Fetal Exposure to Stress Hormones: Effects on Newborn Physical and Neuromuscular Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin J.; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the specific periods during pregnancy in which human fetal exposure to stress hormones affects newborn physical and neuromuscular maturation. Blood was collected from 158 women at 15, 19, 25, and 31 weeks’ gestation. Levels of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and maternal cortisol were determined from plasma. Newborns were evaluated with the New Ballard Maturation Score. Results indicated that increases in maternal cortisol at 15, 19, and 25 weeks and increases in placental CRH at 31 weeks were significantly associated with decreases in infant maturation among males (even after controlling for length of gestation). Results also suggested that increases in maternal cortisol at 31 weeks were associated with increases in infant maturation among females, although these results were not significant after controlling for length of gestation. Findings suggest that stress hormones have effects on human fetal neurodevelopment that are independent of birth outcome. PMID:18335490

  19. Cortisol and antidepressant effects of yoga

    PubMed Central

    Thirthalli, J.; Naveen, G. H.; Rao, M. G.; Varambally, S.; Christopher, R.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Hypercortisolemia is well-known in depression and yoga has been demonstrated earlier to reduce the parameters of stress, including cortisol levels. Aim: We aimed to find the role of yoga as an antidepressant as well as its action on lowering the serum cortisol levels. Settings and Design: An open-labeled study consisting of three groups (yoga alone, yoga along with antidepressant medication and antidepressant medication alone) was conducted at a tertiary care psychiatry hospital. Methodology: Out-patient depressives who were not suicidal were offered yoga as a possible antidepressant therapy. A validated yoga module was used as therapy taught over a month and to be practiced at home daily. Patients were free to choose the drugs if their psychiatrist advised. Patients (n=54) were rated on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) with serum cortisol measurements at baseline and after 3 months. In 54 patients, assessments and blood test results were both available. 19 each received yoga alone or with drugs and 16 received drugs only. Healthy comparison subjects (n=18) too underwent morning cortisol measurements once. Results: Serum cortisol was higher in depressives compared with controls. In the total sample, the cortisol level dropped significantly at the end of treatment. More patients in the yoga groups had a drop in cortisol levels as compared to drug-only group. In the yoga-only group, the cortisol drop correlated with the drop in HDRS score (antidepressant effect). Conclusion: The findings support that yoga may act at the level of the hypothalamus by its ‘anti-stress’ effects (reducing the cortisol), to bring about relief in depression. PMID:24049209

  20. Ethnic discrimination predicts poor self-rated health and cortisol in pregnancy: Insights from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2015-03-01

    Despite growing research emphasis on understanding the health effects of ethnic discrimination, little work has focused on how such exposures may influence a woman's biology and health during pregnancy. Understanding such effects is important given evidence that maternal stress experience in pregnancy can have long term effects on offspring health. Here we present data evaluating the relationship between perceived discrimination, self-rated health, and the stress hormone cortisol measured in late pregnancy among a diverse sample of women living in Auckland, New Zealand (N = 55). We also evaluated possible intergenerational impacts of maternal discrimination on stress reactivity in a subset of offspring (N = 19). Pregnant women were recruited from two antenatal care clinics in Auckland. Women were met in their homes between 34 and 36 weeks gestation, during which time a prenatal stress questionnaire was administered and saliva samples (morning and evening from two days) were obtained. Offspring cortisol reactivity was assessed at the standard six week postnatal vaccination visit. We found that 34% of women reported having experienced ethnic discrimination, with minority and immigrant women being more likely to report being angry or upset in response to discrimination experience compared with NZ-born women of European descent. Women reporting discrimination experience had worse self-rated health, higher evening cortisol and gave birth to infants with higher cortisol reactivity, all independent of ethnicity and material deprivation. These findings suggest that discrimination experience can have biological impacts in pregnancy and across generations, potentially contributing to the ethnic gradient in health. PMID:25589034

  1. Melatonin and cortisol assessment of circadian shifts in astronauts before flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Putcha, L.; Chen, Y. M.; Baker, E.

    1995-01-01

    Melatonin and cortisol were measured in saliva and urine samples to assess the effectiveness of a 7-day protocol combining bright-light exposure with sleep shifting in eliciting a 12-hr phase-shift delay in eight U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts before launch. Baseline acrophases for 15 control subjects with normal sleep-wake cycles were as follows: cortisol (saliva) at 0700 (0730 in urine); melatonin (saliva) at 0130 (6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate at 0230 in urine). Acrophases of the astronaut group fell within 2.5 hr of these values before the treatment protocols were begun. During the bright-light and sleep-shifting treatments, both absolute melatonin production and melatonin rhythmicity were diminished during the first 3 treatment days; total daily cortisol levels remained constant throughout the treatment. By the fourth to sixth day of the 7-day protocol, seven of the eight crew members showed phase delays in all four measures that fell within 2 hr of the expected 11- to 12-hr shift. Although cortisol and melatonin rhythms each corresponded with the phase shift, the rhythms in these two hormones did not correspond with each other during the transition.

  2. Impulsivity, risk taking, and cortisol reactivity as a function of psychosocial stress and personality in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Finy, M Sima; Bresin, Konrad; Korol, Donna L; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-11-01

    Although adolescence is characterized by hormonal changes and increased disinhibited behaviors, explanations for these developmental changes that include personality and environmental factors have not been fully elucidated. We examined the interactions between psychosocial stress and the traits of negative emotionality and constraint on impulsive and risk-taking behaviors as well as salivary cortisol reactivity in 88 adolescents. In terms of behavioral outcomes, analyses revealed that negative emotionality and constraint were protective of impulsivity and risk taking, respectively, for adolescents in the no-stress condition; personality did not relate to either behavior in the stress condition. Low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition engaged in less risk taking than low-constraint adolescents in the no-stress condition, whereas there was no effect of stress group for high-constraint adolescents. In terms of cortisol reactivity, analyses revealed that low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition exhibited greater cortisol reactivity compared to high-constraint adolescents, which suggests that low-constraint adolescents mobilize greater resources (e.g., increased cognitive control, heightened attention to threat) in stressful situations relative to nonstressful ones. These results demonstrate that two facets of disinhibition and cortisol reactivity are differentially affected by psychosocial stress and personality (and their interactions) in adolescents. PMID:24713465

  3. The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The levels of several hormones fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle and are also affected by sleep, feeding, and general behavior. The regulation and metabolism of several hormones are influenced by interactions between the effects of sleep and the intrinsic circadian system; growth hormone, melatonin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin levels are highly correlated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity. There are also endogenous circadian mechanisms that serve to regulate glucose metabolism and similar rhythms pertaining to lipid metabolism, regulated through the actions of various clock genes. Sleep disturbance, which negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism, is also associated with obesity, insulin insensitivity, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and appetite dysregulation. Circadian disruption, typically induced by shift work, may negatively impact health due to impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis, reversed melatonin and cortisol rhythms, and loss of clock gene rhythmicity.

  4. Facial attractiveness is related to women's cortisol and body fat, but not with immune responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Markus J; Coetzee, Vinet; Moore, Fhionna R; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Krama, Tatjana; Kivleniece, Inese; Krams, Indrikis

    2013-08-23

    Recent studies suggest that facial attractiveness indicates immune responsiveness in men and that this relationship is moderated by stress hormones which interact with testosterone levels. However, studies testing whether facial attractiveness in women signals their immune responsiveness are lacking. Here, we photographed young Latvian women, vaccinated them against hepatitis B and measured the amount of specific antibodies produced, cortisol levels and percentage body fat. Latvian men rated the attractiveness of the women's faces. Interestingly, in women, immune responsiveness (amount of antibodies produced) did not predict facial attractiveness. Instead, plasma cortisol level was negatively associated with attractiveness, indicating that stressed women look less attractive. Fat percentage was curvilinearly associated with facial attractiveness, indicating that being too thin or too fat reduces attractiveness. Our study suggests that in contrast to men, facial attractiveness in women does not indicate immune responsiveness against hepatitis B, but is associated with two other aspects of long-term health and fertility: circulating levels of the stress hormone cortisol and percentage body fat. PMID:23697641

  5. Absence of detectable melatonin and preservation of cortisol and thyrotropin rhythms in tetraplegia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitzer, J. M.; Ayas, N. T.; Shea, S. A.; Brown, R.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The human circadian timing system regulates the temporal organization of several endocrine functions, including the production of melatonin (via a neural pathway that includes the spinal cord), TSH, and cortisol. In traumatic spinal cord injury, afferent and efferent circuits that influence the basal production of these hormones may be disrupted. We studied five subjects with chronic spinal cord injury (three tetraplegic and two paraplegic, all neurologically complete injuries) under stringent conditions in which the underlying circadian rhythmicity of these hormones could be examined. Melatonin production was absent in the three tetraplegic subjects with injury to their lower cervical spinal cord and was of normal amplitude and timing in the two paraplegic subjects with injury to their upper thoracic spinal cord. The amplitude and the timing of TSH and cortisol rhythms were robust in the paraplegics and in the tetraplegics. Our results indicate that neurologically complete cervical spinal injury results in the complete loss of pineal melatonin production and that neither the loss of melatonin nor the loss of spinal afferent information disrupts the rhythmicity of cortisol or TSH secretion.

  6. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause Share: Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol ... take HT for symptom relief.) What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  7. Hormone studies in females with androgenic hairloss.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J B; Lindmaier, A; Trenz, A; Schurz, B; Spona, J

    1991-01-01

    Reports on hormone analysis in androgenic hairloss in the female show partly contradicting results. Elevated as well as normal-range androgen levels have been found. The present study aimed at the investigation of a possibly more differentiated hormonal constellation by hormone analysis and additional determination of the hypophyseal level by the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test. In 46 female patients with androgenic hairloss blood sampling for hormone analysis was performed. Determination of the androgens testosterone (T), androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), 17-hydroxy-progesterone acetate (17-OHP) and free testosterone (FT), of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2), cortisol (F) and the hypophyseal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was performed by standard radioimmunoassay methods. The TRH-test is based on feedback mechanisms between the hypothalamic TRH which stimulates hypophyseal TSH and PRL release. Thus, even mild forms of hypothyroidism or hyperprolactinaemia can be detected. The control group for the TRH test consisted of 45 volunteer females without hairloss or any other hormonal or menstrual disturbances. Statistical analysis was performed according to the Wilcoxon two-sample test. The results of the study show no significant elevation of androgens in females with androgenic hairloss, but a more complex condition with involvement of the glandula suprarenalis and the hypophyseal level. Significantly elevated TSH levels prior to and after TRH stimulation in the hairloss group indicate that hypothyroidism may be an important hormonal disturbance in androgenic hairloss. Interactions between hypothyroidism and androgen metabolism are possible at various links.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1832134

  8. Value of free cortisol measurement in systemic infection.

    PubMed

    Torpy, D J; Ho, J T

    2007-06-01

    Systemic infection induces an increase in plasma cortisol which accords approximately with illness severity. However, both basal and synthetic ACTH stimulated cortisol levels are not strong predictors of mortality. Moreover, plasma cortisol levels do not readily define those patients who have been clinically observed to respond, with respect to blood pressure elevation, to exogenous hydrocortisone. It is likely that free cortisol, accounting for 6-20% of circulating total (bound plus free) cortisol has most of the life-saving effects on circulation and metabolism in severe sepsis, as corticosteroid-binding globulin bound and albumin-bound cortisol have reduced access to tissues. In addition, sepsis reduces CBG and albumin levels, hence blunting the effect of increasing illness severity on total cortisol. Our recent studies suggest that free cortisol correlates more closely to sepsis severity than total cortisol and that free cortisol levels can be estimated using the plasma CBG and total cortisol, obviating the need for direct free cortisol measurement. Studies directed at determining if free cortisol is a better guide than total cortisol to the need for hydrocortisone supplementation may be of value. PMID:17578761

  9. Intranasal insulin increases regional cerebral blood flow in the insular cortex in men independently of cortisol manipulation.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Thomas M; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Westerhausen, René; Strelzyk, Florian; Larra, Mauro F; Hallschmid, Manfred; Savaskan, Egemen; Oitzl, Melly S; Busch, Hans-Peter; Naumann, Ewald; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    Insulin and cortisol play a key role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, appetite, and satiety. Little is known about the action and interaction of both hormones in brain structures controlling food intake and the processing of neurovisceral signals from the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we assessed the impact of single and combined application of insulin and cortisol on resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the insular cortex. After standardized periods of food restriction, 48 male volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either 40 IU intranasal insulin, 30 mg oral cortisol, both, or neither (placebo). Continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) sequences were acquired before and after pharmacological treatment. We observed a bilateral, locally distinct rCBF increase after insulin administration in the insular cortex and the putamen. Insulin effects on rCBF were present regardless of whether participants had received cortisol or not. Our results indicate that insulin, but not cortisol, affects blood flow in human brain structures involved in the regulation of eating behavior. PMID:23907764

  10. Noninvasive Measurement of Steroid Hormones in Zebrafish Holding-Water

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Ana S.; Faustino, Ana I.; Cabral, Eduarda M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a new animal model in neuroendocrinology and behavior (e.g., stress physiology and ecotoxicology studies). In these areas, the concentrations of steroid hormones in the blood are often used to study the endocrinological status of individuals. However, due to the small body size of zebrafish, blood sampling is difficult to perform and the amount of plasma obtained per sample for assaying hormones is very small (ca. 1–5??L), and therefore most studies have been using whole-body hormone concentrations, which implies sacrificing the individuals and hampers sequential sampling of the same individual. Here a noninvasive method to assay steroid hormones from zebrafish holding-water, based on the fact that steroids are released into the fish holding-water through the gills by passive diffusion, is validated. Cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (KT) were measured in water samples and compared to plasma levels in the same individuals. Cortisol released to holding-water correlates positively with plasma concentrations, but there was a lack of correlation between KT water and circulating levels. However, KT levels showed a highly significant sex difference that can be used to noninvasively sex individuals. An ACTH challenge test demonstrated that an induced increase in circulating cortisol concentration can be reliably detected in holding-water levels, hence attesting the responsiveness of holding-water levels to fluctuations in circulating levels. PMID:23445429

  11. Zinc oxide nanostructures for electrochemical cortisol biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Kaushik, Ajeet; Tracy, Kathryn; Bhansali, Shekhar; Pala, Nezih

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report on fabrication of a label free, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical cortisol immunosensors using one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and two dimensional nanoflakes (ZnO-NFs) as immobilizing matrix. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures (NSs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selective area diffraction (SAED) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) which showed that both ZnO-NRs and ZnO-NFs are single crystalline and oriented in [0001] direction. Anti-cortisol antibody (Anti-Cab) are used as primary capture antibodies to detect cortisol using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increase in cortisol concentration and exhibits a sensitivity of 3.078 K?. M-1 for ZnO-NRs and 540 ?. M -1 for ZnO-NFs. The developed ZnO-NSs based immunosensor is capable of detecting cortisol at 1 pM. The observed sensing parameters are in physiological range. The developed sensors can be integrated with microfluidic system and miniaturized potentiostat to detect cortisol at point-of-care.

  12. Reduced nocturnal ACTH-driven cortisol secretion during critical illness

    PubMed Central

    Boonen, Eva; Meersseman, Philippe; Vervenne, Hilke; Meyfroidt, Geert; Guïza, Fabian; Wouters, Pieter J.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, during critical illness, cortisol metabolism was found to be reduced. We hypothesize that such reduced cortisol breakdown may suppress pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion via feedback inhibition. To test this hypothesis, nocturnal ACTH and cortisol secretory profiles were constructed by deconvolution analysis from plasma concentration time series in 40 matched critically ill patients and eight healthy controls, excluding diseases or drugs that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Blood was sampled every 10 min between 2100 and 0600 to quantify plasma concentrations of ACTH and (free) cortisol. Approximate entropy, an estimation of process irregularity, cross-approximate entropy, a measure of ACTH-cortisol asynchrony, and ACTH-cortisol dose-response relationships were calculated. Total and free plasma cortisol concentrations were higher at all times in patients than in controls (all P < 0.04). Pulsatile cortisol secretion was 54% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.005), explained by reduced cortisol burst mass (P = 0.03), whereas cortisol pulse frequency (P = 0.35) and nonpulsatile cortisol secretion (P = 0.80) were unaltered. Pulsatile ACTH secretion was 31% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.03), again explained by a lower ACTH burst mass (P = 0.02), whereas ACTH pulse frequency (P = 0.50) and nonpulsatile ACTH secretion (P = 0.80) were unchanged. ACTH-cortisol dose response estimates were similar in patients and controls. ACTH and cortisol approximate entropy were higher in patients (P ? 0.03), as was ACTH-cortisol cross-approximate entropy (P ? 0.001). We conclude that hypercortisolism during critical illness coincided with suppressed pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion and a normal ACTH-cortisol dose response. Increased irregularity and asynchrony of the ACTH and cortisol time series supported non-ACTH-dependent mechanisms driving hypercortisolism during critical illness. PMID:24569590

  13. Long-Term Impact of Maternal Substance Use during Pregnancy and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity: Stress Hormone Levels of Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Charles R.; Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Lester, Barry M.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with blunted stress responsivity within the extrauterine environment. This study investigated the association between PCE and diurnal salivary cortisol levels in preadolescent children characterized by high biological and/or social risk (N = 725). Saliva samples were collected at their home. Analyses revealed no group differences in basal evening or morning cortisol levels; however, children with higher degrees of PCE exhibited blunted overnight increases in cortisol, controlling for additional risk factors. Race and caregiver depression were also associated with diurnal cortisol patterns. While repeated PCE may contribute to alterations in the normal or expected stress response later in life, sociodemographic and environmental factors are likewise important in understanding hormone physiology, especially as more time elapses from the PCE. Anticipating the potential long-term medical, developmental, or behavioral effects of an altered ability to mount a normal protective cortisol stress response is essential in optimizing the outcomes of children with PCE. PMID:21546861

  14. Hormone therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doctor will recommended one of the following schedules: Cyclic hormone therapy is often recommended when a woman ... 5 days. There may be monthly bleeding with cyclic therapy. Continuous, combined therapy involves taking estrogen and ...

  15. Cognitive response to estradiol in postmenopausal women is modified by high cortisol.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura D; Asthana, Sanjay; Cholerton, Brenna A; Wilkinson, Charles W; Plymate, Stephen R; Green, Pattie S; Merriam, George R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Cherrier, Monique M; Kletke, Monica L; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-04-01

    Estradiol has potent favorable effects on brain function and behavior in animals while in human trials, the results are inconsistent. A number of potential mediating variables influencing response to estradiol have been proposed to account for this variability, 1 of which includes stress. We conducted a placebo-controlled study to examine joint and independent effects of estradiol and elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol on cognition and biomarkers of aging and neurodegenerative disease. Thirty-nine healthy postmenopausal women (56-84 years) received 0.10 mg/dL of transdermal 17?-estradiol (E2) or placebo for 8 weeks. During the last 4 days of the trial, subjects also received 90 mg/day (30 mg 3×/day) of oral hydrocortisone (CORT) to induce stress-level elevations in cortisol, or a matched placebo. The 4 groups thus included placebo (placebo patch/placebo pill), CORT-alone (placebo patch/hydrocortisone), E2-alone (estradiol patch/placebo pill), and E2+CORT (estradiol patch/hydrocortisone). Eight weeks of E2 increased plasma estradiol by 167%, and 4 days of CORT increased plasma cortisol by 119%. Overall, E2 had favorable effects on verbal memory (p = 0.03), working memory (p = 0.02), and selective attention (p = 0.04), and the magnitude of these effects was attenuated for E2+CORT. E2-alone and E2+CORT had opposing effects on plasma levels of the amyloid-? (A?) biomarker (A?40/42 ratio, p < 0.05), with the more favorable response observed for E2-alone. CORT-induced increases in insulin-like growth factor-1 were blunted by E2 coadministration. Our findings indicate that cognitive and physiological responses to estradiol are adversely affected by elevated stress hormone levels of cortisol in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:21855173

  16. Cognitive response to estradiol in postmenopausal women is modified by high cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura D; Asthana, Sanjay; Cholerton, Brenna A; Wilkinson, Charles W; Plymate, Stephen R; Green, Pattie S; Merriam, George R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Cherrier, Monique M; Kletke, Monica L; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol has potent favorable effects on brain function and behavior in animals while in human trials, the results are inconsistent. A number of potential mediating variables influencing response to estradiol have been proposed to account for this variability, one of which includes stress. We conducted a placebo-controlled study to examine joint and independent effects of estradiol and elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol on cognition and biomarkers of aging and neurodegenerative disease. Thirty-nine healthy postmenopausal women (56-84 yrs) received 0.10 mg/d of transdermal 17?-estradiol (E2) or placebo for eight weeks. During the last four days of the trial, subjects also received 90 mg/d (30 mg TID) of oral hydrocortisone (CORT) to induce stress-level elevations in cortisol, or a matched placebo. The four groups thus included Placebo (placebo patch/placebo pill), CORT-alone (placebo patch/hydrocortisone), E2-alone (estradiol patch/placebo pill), and E2+CORT (estradiol patch/hydrocortisone). Eight weeks of E2 increased plasma estradiol by 167%, and four days of CORT increased plasma cortisol by 119%. Overall, E2 had favorable effects on verbal memory (p=0.03), working memory (p=0.02), and selective attention (p=0.04), and the magnitude of these effects was attenuated for E2+CORT. E2-alone and E2+CORT had opposing effects on plasma levels of the amyloid-? (A?) biomarker (A?40/42 ratio, p<0.05), with the more favorable response observed for E2-alone. CORT-induced increases in insulin-like growth factor-1 were blunted by E2 co-administration. Our findings indicate that cognitive and physiological responses to estradiol are adversely affected by elevated stress hormone levels of cortisol in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:21855173

  17. The costs of dominance: testosterone, cortisol and intestinal parasites in wild male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Male members of primate species that form multi-male groups typically invest considerable effort into attaining and maintaining high dominance rank. Aggressive behaviors are frequently employed to acquire and maintain dominance status, and testosterone has been considered the quintessential physiological moderator of such behaviors. Testosterone can alter both neurological and musculoskeletal functions that may potentiate pre-existing patterns of aggression. However, elevated testosterone levels impose several costs, including increased metabolic rates and immunosuppression. Cortisol also limits immune and reproductive functions. Methods To improve understanding of the relationships between dominance rank, hormones and infection status in nonhuman primates, we collected and analyzed 67 fecal samples from 22 wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Samples were analyzed for cortisol and testosterone levels as well as intestinal parasite prevalence and richness. 1,700 hours of observation data were used to determine dominance rank of each animal. We hypothesized that dominance rank would be directly associated with fecal testosterone and cortisol levels and intestinal parasite burden. Results Fecal testosterone (but not cortisol) levels were directly associated with dominance rank, and both testosterone and cortisol were directly associated with intestinal parasite richness (number of unique species recovered). Dominance rank was directly associated with helminth (but not protozoan) parasite richness, so that high ranking animals had higher testosterone levels and greater helminth burden. Conclusions One preliminary interpretation is that the antagonist pleiotropic effects of androgens and glucocorticoids place a cost on attaining and maintaining high dominance rank in this species. Because of the costs associated with elevated steroid levels, dominance status may be an honest signal of survivorship against helminth parasites. PMID:21143892

  18. Sporadic solitary aldosterone- and cortisol-co-secreting adenomas: endocrine, histological and genetic findings in a subtype of primary aldosteronism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger S Willenberg; Martin Späth; Christiane Maser-Gluth; Rainer Engers; Martin Anlauf; Gabriele Dekomien; Matthias Schott; Sven Schinner; Kenko Cupisti; Werner A Scherbaum

    2010-01-01

    Adrenal adenomas producing both aldosterone and cortisol (A\\/CPAs) have been described in only a few cases. Correct subtype classification is necessary for making therapeutic decisions in primary aldosteronism (PA). Therefore, we studied in detail the clinical, hormonal and histological features of this entity in two patients with A\\/CPAs. We describe two patients with A\\/CPA and present their endocrine evaluations at

  19. Effects of cortisol and angiotensin II on the number and size of juxtaglomerular cells in masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mizuno; N. Misaka; N. Kasahara

    2001-01-01

    The authors previously reported that the number and size of juxtaglomerular cells (JGCs) in the kidney increased during smoltification\\u000a in masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou. In the present study, the effects of cortisol and\\/or angiotensin (Ang) II ([Asn1, Val5]-Ang II) on the JGC number and size in masu salmon were examined to elucidate hormonal regulation of the changes in the JGC\\u000a number and

  20. HEALTH MATTERS Hormonal IUD

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    HEALTH MATTERS Hormonal IUD What is the hormonal IUD? The hormonal IUD is one of two types. The hormonal IUD contains a hormone called progestin. It is easily and quickly inserted into your uterus by a health care provider to prevent pregnancy. How effective is the hormonal IUD? The hormonal IUD

  1. Effects of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in postweaned northern elephant seal pups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups rely on the oxidation of fat stores as their primary source of energy during their 8- to 12-wk postweaning fast; however, potential endocrine mechanisms involved with this increased fat metabolism have yet to be examined. Therefore, 15 pups were serially blood sampled in the field during the first 7 wk of their postweaning fast to examine the changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones (TH), which are involved in fat metabolism in other mammals. Cortisol increased, indicating that it contributed to an increase in lipolysis. Increased total triiodothyronine (tT(3)) and thyroxine (tT(4)) may not reflect increased thyroid gland activity, but rather alterations in hormone metabolism. tT(3)-to-tT(4) ratio decreased, suggesting a decrease in thyroxine (T(4)) deiodination, whereas the negative correlation between total proteins and free T(4) suggests that the increase in free hormone is attributed to a decrease in binding globulins. Changes in TH are most similar to those observed during hibernation than starvation in mammals, suggesting that the metabolic adaptations to natural fasting are more similar to hibernation despite the fact these animals remain active throughout the fasting period.

  2. Third transmembrane domain of the adrenocorticotropic receptor is critical for ligand selectivity and potency.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingkui; Mishra, Vinod; Crasto, Chiquito J; Chen, Min; Dimmitt, Reed; Harmon, Carroll M

    2015-03-20

    The ACTH receptor, known as the melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), plays an important role in regulating and maintaining adrenocortical function. MC2R is a subtype of the melanocortin receptor (MCR) family and has unique characteristics among MCRs. Endogenous ACTH is the only endogenous agonist for MC2R, whereas the melanocortin peptides ?-, ?-, and ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and ACTH are full agonists for all other MCRs. In this study, we examined the molecular basis of MC2R responsible for ligand selectivity using ACTH analogs and MC2R mutagenesis. Our results indicate that substitution of Phe(7) with d-Phe or d-naphthylalanine (d-Nal(2')) in ACTH(1-24) caused a significant decrease in ligand binding affinity and potency. Substitution of Phe(7) with d-Nal(2') in ACTH(1-24) did not switch the ligand from agonist to antagonist at MC2R, which was observed in MC3R and MC4R. Substitution of Phe(7) with d-Phe(7) in ACTH(1-17) resulted in the loss of ligand binding and activity. Molecular analysis of MC2R indicated that only mutation of the third transmembrane domain of MC2R resulted in a decrease in d-Phe ACTH binding affinity and potency. Our results suggest that Phe(7) in ACTH plays an important role in ligand selectivity and that the third transmembrane domain of MC2R is crucial for ACTH selectivity and potency. PMID:25605722

  3. Repeated cocaine administration in marmoset monkeys induces hypervigilance-related behaviors, but no changes in locomotion and cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Cagni, Priscila; Komorowski, Mara; Melo, Gabriela C; Lima, Talita; Tomaz, Carlos; de Souza Silva, Maria A; Huston, Joseph P; Barros, Marilia

    2012-12-01

    Although cocaine induces several behavioral and hormonal effects, little is known about non-contingent repeated administrations in non-human primates. Therefore, we analyzed behavioral (locomotion, vigilance) and hormonal (cortisol) responses of adult black tufted-ear marmosets during repeated administrations and withdrawal trials. The subjects were divided into two groups (saline or cocaine 5mg/kg, ip) and submitted to nine treatment trials and four withdrawal trials in the absence of any treatment in an open-field arena. Blood samples were obtained on five different time points of the procedure to evaluate the effects of repeated cocaine treatment on basal cortisol levels. Cocaine repeatedly administered to drug-naïve marmosets induced a slow-onset hypervigilance effect (i.e., scan - long-lasting sweeping movements of the head directed at the environment; and glance - single rapid movement of the head directed at the environment), with no concomitant change in locomotion. Treatment cessation during withdrawal immediately reversed the cocaine-induced hypervigilance effect. Cortisol levels remained constant throughout the procedure. Therefore, marmosets seem to have a similar behavioral - but not hormonal - response as humans and other nonhuman primates repeatedly injected with cocaine, but differ from rats in their absence of hyperlocomotor activity. The development of hypervigilance with repeated application may constitute a unique measure to assess cocaine-induced changes in behavior in the marmoset and other nonhuman primates. PMID:22921767

  4. Comparison of hormone and electrolyte circadian rhythms in male and female humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. E.; Reilly, T.

    1977-01-01

    Circadian rhythm characteristics in healthy male and female humans were studied at 4-hour intervals for urine volume, cortisol, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), Na, K, Na/K ratios in the urine, as well as plasma cortisol. While plasma and urinary cortisol rhythms were very similar in both sexes, the described rhythms in urine volume, electrolyte, and 5-HIAA excretion differ for the two sexes. The results suggest that sex differences exist in the circadian patterns of important hormone and metabolic functions and that the internal synchrony of circadian rhythms differs for the two sexes. The results seem to indicate that the rhythmical secretion of cortisol does not account for the pattern of Na and K excretion.

  5. Now you see it, now you don't: Testing environments modulate the association between hippocampal volume and cortisol levels in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Shireen; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lord, Catherine; Pruessner, Jens; Lupien, Sonia J

    2014-12-01

    The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis production of the stress hormone cortisol interacts with the hippocampal formation and impacts memory function. A growing interest is to determine whether hippocampal volume (HV) predicts basal and/or reactive cortisol levels in young and older adults. Recent evidence shows that contextual features in testing environments might be stressful and inadvertently induce a stress response in young and/or older populations. This latter result suggests that variations in testing environments might influence associations between HV and cortisol levels in young and older adults. To this end, we investigated 28 healthy young adults (ages 18-35) and 32 healthy older adults (ages 60-75) in two different environments constructed to be more or less stressful for each age group (Favoring-Young versus Favoring-Old conditions). Cortisol levels were repeatedly assessed in each environment, and young and older participants underwent an anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scan for subsequent assessment of HV. Results in both age groups showed that HV was significantly associated with cortisol levels only in the unfavorable stressful testing conditions specific for each age group. This association was absent when testing environments were designed to decrease stress for each age group. These findings are fundamental in showing that unless the nature of the testing environment is taken into consideration, detected associations between HV and cortisol levels in both young and older populations might be confounded by environmental stress. PMID:25112535

  6. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, K.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Raptis, A. E.; Tsiotra, P.; Lambadiari, V.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ), the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS), and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI). Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0). One year later (T1), the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006 < 0.05) and negative among uncontrolled ones (P value = 0.137). Higher values of cortisol correspond to lower scores on extraversion subscale (rp = ?0.223, P value = 0.010). Controlled diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (rsp = ?0.247, P = 0.023). There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (rsp = ?0.220, P = 0.043). Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:25722989

  7. Impact of warning bleeding on the cortisol level in the fetus and neonatal RDS/TTN in cases of placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Tomomi; Sumigama, Seiji; Mano, Yukio; Hua, Li; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2014-07-31

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of hormones in umbilical vein blood that affect the neonatal respiratory function in cases of placenta previa and to evaluate the impact of warning bleeding on the hormone levels and neonatal respiratory outcomes such as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). Methods: We analyzed data obtained from 33 placenta previa cases without fetal or maternal complications at 36-38 weeks of gestation. We measured the levels of hormones such as cortisol, arginine vasopressin, epinephrine and norepinephrine in umbilical vein blood using ELISA. Results: Warning bleeding was found to be a significant factor protecting against neonatal RDS/TTN (p?=?0.049). The cortisol levels in the umbilical vein were significantly higher in the cases of previa with warning bleeding than in those without warning bleeding (p?=?0.020) and significantly higher in the no RDS/TTN cases than in the RDS/TTN cases (p?=?0.040). Conclusions: Warning bleeding increases the cortisol level in cases of placenta previa. We suggest that genital bleeding may induce stress for both the mother and fetus, resulting in increased cortisol production, thus functioning as a protective factor against neonatal respiratory disorders. PMID:25001429

  8. Hormonal response to Taekwondo fighting simulation in elite adolescent athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pilz-Burstein; Y. Ashkenazi; Y. Yaakobovitz; Y. Cohen; L. Zigel; D. Nemet; N. Shamash; A. Eliakim

    2010-01-01

    Exercise training efficiency depends on the training load, as well as on the athlete’s ability to tolerate it. The aim of\\u000a the present study was to evaluate the effect of fighting simulation (3 fights, 6 min each, 30 min rest between fights) on\\u000a anabolic (IGF-I, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone) and catabolic hormones (cortisol) in elite, male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) adolescent

  9. Hormone Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Hormone Foundation, the public education affiliate of The Endocrine Society, "is dedicated to serving as a resource for the public by promoting the prevention, treatment and cure of hormone-related conditions." Visitors to this Web site will find a rich resource of information on menopause, pituitary imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome, testosterone and men's health, breast cancer, and much more. The site has recently added Web pages and downloadable publications addressing menopause management, the pros and cons of menopause treatment, and an explanation of what endocrinologists do. Visitors will also find the latest related news and events, fact sheets, an online physician referral database, and other useful features.

  10. Hormonal Sensitivity of Preterm versus Full-Term Infants to the Effects of Maternal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Beaulieu, David; Schwartz, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons were made of differences in the hormonal sensitivity of preterm versus full-term infants to maternal depression, as reflected in children's cortisol levels. In Study 1 (N = 25), a comparison was made between preterm versus healthy full-term children. In Study 2 (N = 80), a comparison was made between preterm infants and full-term infants with mild or moderate medical problems. Preterm infants were found be highly reactive to maternal depression (as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory). That is, they demonstrated higher cortisol levels when paired with depressed mothers and lower cortisol levels when paired with non-depressed mothers. No equivalent effects were found for children who were full-term, even when they had experienced other medical problems at birth. It was concluded that premature infants are exceptionally sensitive to the “emotional climate” in their home environment. As a result, they may manifest very different hormonal outcomes -- with implications for their later development. PMID:17645947

  11. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozzie Orbach; George C. Schussler

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15

  12. Understanding and Assessing Cortisol Levels in Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Nader; Carl F. Weems

    2011-01-01

    Trauma is associated with alterations in cortisol activity and reactivity that may vary in relationship to development, time, predisposition, personality, the nature of a traumatic event, and other circumstances. This article reviews existing research findings related to cortisol in laboratory, general stress, and traumatic conditions. We discuss variables that may influence cortisol activity and reactivity in an effort to discover

  13. Cortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Mommsen; Mathilakath M. Vijayan; Thomas W. Moon

    1999-01-01

    Cortisol is the principal corticosteriod in teleost fishes and its plasma concentrations rise dramatically during stress. The relationship between this cortisol increase and its metabolic consequences are subject to extensive debate. Much of this debate arises from the different responses of the many species used, the diversity of approaches to manipulate cortisol levels, and the sampling techniques and duration. Given

  14. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol…

  15. THE EFFECT OF CHIROPRACTIC MANIPULATION ON SALIVARY CORTISOL LEVELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara L. Whelan; J. Donald Dishman; Jean Burke; Seymour Levine; Veronica Sciotti

    Background: The stress response in humans is a healthy response and is necessary for life. The effects of chiropractic manipulation (CM), if any, on stress are ill-defined. Cortisol has been used as an accurate measure of the stress response system in humans. Salivary cortisol is a noninvasive technique to accurately quantify biologically active cortisol. Objective: To determine whether basal salivary

  16. The effect of chiropractic manipulation on salivary cortisol levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara L. Whelan; J. Donald Dishman; Jean Burke; Seymour Levine; Veronica Sciotti

    2002-01-01

    Background: The stress response in humans is a healthy response and is necessary for life. The effects of chiropractic manipulation (CM), if any, on stress are ill-defined. Cortisol has been used as an accurate measure of the stress response system in humans. Salivary cortisol is a noninvasive technique to accurately quantify biologically active cortisol. Objective: To determine whether basal salivary

  17. Female social and sexual interest across the menstrual cycle: the roles of pain, sleep and hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chrisalbeth J. Guillermo; Heidi A. Manlove; Peter B. Gray; David T. Zava; Chandler R. Marrs

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although research suggests that socio-sexual behavior changes in conjunction with the menstrual cycle, several potential factors are rarely taken into consideration. We investigated the role of changing hormone concentrations on self-reported physical discomfort, sleep, exercise and socio-sexual interest in young, healthy women. METHODS: Salivary hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-DHEAS, progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and estriol) and socio-sexual variables were measured in

  18. Using testosterone and cortisol as biomarker for training individualization in elite basketball: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Schelling, Xavi; Calleja-González, Julio; Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Terrados, Nicolás

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the responses of testosterone and cortisol, with special reference to playing positions, playing time (PT), and phase of the season. We performed a follow-up study during 4 consecutive seasons to investigate the effects of PT, positional role, and phase of the season on anabolic-catabolic biomarkers (plasma total testosterone -TT- and cortisol -C-) on 20 professional male basketball players (27.0 ± 4.2 years; 24.4 ± 1.2 kg·m). First blood samples were collected right after the off-season period and considered as baseline. Samples were taken periodically every 4-6 weeks, always after a 24- to 36-hour break after the last game played. Statistical procedures were nonparametric mainly. Hormonal status was playing position-dependent, power forward (PF) showed the lowest TT values (median ± interquartile range [IQR]; PF: 18.1 ± 4.9; nmol·L), and small forwards showed the highest ones of cortisol (0.55 ± 0.118 ?mol·L). Players who played between 13 and 25 minutes per game showed the highest values of TT (22.8 ± 6.9 nmol·L) and TT/C (47.1 ± 21.2). March and April showed the most catabolic or stressed hormonal state (low TT/C values and high ones of cortisol) and that is necessary to take into account according to PT (>25-minute per game) and specific playing position. Monitoring plasma TT and cortisol is recommended to prevent excessive stress caused by professional basketball season requirements. PMID:25144130

  19. Children's Context Inappropriate Anger and Salivary Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Robin L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2009-01-01

    Some children show emotion that is not consistent with normative appraisal of the context and can therefore be defined as context inappropriate (CI). The authors used individual growth curve modeling and hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine whether CI anger predicts differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, as manifest in salivary cortisol measures. About 23% of the 360 children (ages 6–10 years, primarily 7–8) showed at least 1 expression of CI anger in situations designed to elicit positive affect. Expression of anger across 2 positive assessments was less common (around 4%). CI anger predicted the hypothesized lower levels of cortisol beyond that attributed to context appropriate anger. Boys' CI anger predicted lower morning cortisol and flatter slopes. Results suggest that this novel approach to studying children's emotion across varying contexts can provide insight into affective style. PMID:19702392

  20. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ...

  1. Hormones and cancer 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bresciani, F. (Institute of General Pathology and Oncology, First Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Univ. of Naples, Naples (IT)); King, R.J.B. (Hormone Biochemistry Dept., Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (GB)); Lippman, M.E. (Medicine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (US)); Raynaud, J.P. (Roussel-UCLAF, 75 - Paris (France))

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Hormones and Cancer. Topics covered include: Hormone receptors; Antibodies to hormone receptors; Hormonal regulation of gene expression; Control of cell proliferation; Growth factor; Lung, kidney and gastrointestinal cancer.

  2. Stress and salivary cortisol during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obel, C; Hedegaard, M; Henriksen, T B; Secher, N J; Olsen, J; Levine, S

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening sample of saliva in early pregnancy (median 14th gestational week) and in late pregnancy (median and 30th gestational week). They were asked to report the number of life events experienced during first and second trimester, respectively, and were asked to rate the intensity of the experienced events. Complications related to the pregnancy such as vaginal bleeding and suspected growth retardation were registered and the women were asked about concerns about their pregnancy. The salivary samples were analyzed for cortisol and the levels were higher in late than in early pregnancy. In late pregnancy women exposed to more than one life event or were concerned about pregnancy complications during second trimester had a higher evening cortisol level, whereas morning values were unaffected. After adjustment for smoking women who experienced more than one very stressful life event had 27% higher evening cortisol concentrations (95% confidence intervals: 1-59%). Women with worries about pregnancy complications had 27% (95% confidence intervals: 2-57%) higher levels. In early pregnancy women reporting stressful life events did not have higher evening cortisol levels, but tended to have a blunted morning HPA response. In conclusion, we found differences in the associations between chronic stress in early and late pregnancy and cortisol levels indicating that the response to chronic stress is dependent on the stage of the pregnancy. PMID:15854781

  3. Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M.; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W.; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0–12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

  4. Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Stephen J; Robinson, Eleanor M; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-10-15

    Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0-12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

  5. Prolonged weightlessness effect on postflight plasma thyroid hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Driscoll, T. B.

    1977-01-01

    Blood drawn before and after spaceflight from the nine Skylab astronauts showed a statistically significant increase in mean plasma thyroxine (T-4) of 1.4 micro g/dl and in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of 4 microunits ml. Concurrent triiodothyronine (T-3) levels decreased 27 ng/dl indicating inhibited conversion of T-4 to T-3. The T-3 decrease is postulated to be a result of the increased cortisol levels noted during and following each mission. These results confirm the thyroidal changes noted after the shorter Apollo flights and show that thyroid hormone levels change during spaceflight.

  6. Hormone impostors

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  7. Are we missing a mineralocorticoid in teleost fish? Effects of cortisol, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone on osmoregulation, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and isoform mRNA levels in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Regish, A.; O'Dea, M. F.; Shrimpton, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    It has long been held that cortisol, acting through a single receptor, carries out both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions in teleost fish. The recent finding that fish express a gene with high sequence similarity to the mammalian mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) suggests the possibility that a hormone other than cortisol carries out some mineralocorticoid functions in fish. To test for this possibility, we examined the effect of in vivo cortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and aldosterone on salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA levels of NKA ?1a and ?1b in Atlantic salmon. Cortisol treatment for 6–14 days resulted in increased, physiological levels of cortisol, increased gill NKA activity and improved salinity tolerance (lower plasma chloride after a 24 h seawater challenge), whereas DOC and aldosterone had no effect on either NKA activity or salinity tolerance. NKA ?1a and ?1b mRNA levels, which increase in response to fresh water and seawater acclimation, respectively, were both upregulated by cortisol, whereas DOC and aldosterone were without effect. Cortisol, DOC and aldosterone had no effect on gill glucocorticoid receptor GR1, GR2 and MR mRNA levels, although there was some indication of possible upregulation of GR1 by cortisol (p = 0.07). The putative GR blocker RU486 inhibited cortisol-induced increases in salinity tolerance, NKA activity and NKA ?1a and ?1b transcription, whereas the putative MR blocker spironolactone had no effect. The results provide support that cortisol, and not DOC or aldosterone, is involved in regulating the mineralocorticoid functions of ion uptake and salt secretion in teleost fish.

  8. Stress and cortisol in disaster evacuees: an exploratory study on associations with social protective factors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, David Javier; Weissbecker, Inka; Cash, Elizabeth; Simpson, David M; Daup, Meagan; Sephton, Sandra E

    2015-03-01

    Though cumulative emotional and physical effects of disasters may diminish evacuees' short and long-term mental and physical health, social factors may buffer such consequences. We approached survivors of the October 2007 San Diego, California firestorms. We gathered data during the evacuation and 3 months afterward. Questionnaires measured social support as well as PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Saliva samples were used to assess the stress hormone, cortisol. Analyses, adjusting for age, gender, and socioeconomic status, showed PTSD symptoms were associated with flattening of the diurnal cortisol rhythm during evacuation. Secondary analyses showed those reporting a family emphasis on moral and religious values had lower psychological distress. Though anxiety symptoms had significantly decreased in the overall sample at follow-up, blunted cortisol rhythms persisted among those individuals with continued high anxiety. Results highlight a possible psychological, and perhaps a physiological, benefit of social and existential factors in disaster situations. Future work should explore the role of psychosocial factors and stress physiology in the development of long-term health concerns among individuals exposed to disaster. PMID:25787070

  9. An Optimized Whole-Body Cortisol Quantification Method for Assessing Stress Levels in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chen-Min; Glöck, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids serve important regulatory functions for many physiological processes and are critical mediators of the stress response. The stress response is a set of bodily processes aimed at counteracting a state of threatened homeostasis. Proper stress response is critical for the survival of an animal, however prolonged or abnormal stress response can be detrimental and is implicated in a number of human diseases such as depression and metabolic diseases. To dissect the underlying mechanism of this complex and important response, the zebrafish, Danio rerio offer important advantages such as ease of genetic manipulations and high-throughput behavioral analyses. However, there is a paucity of suitable methods to measure stress level in larval zebrafish. Therefore, an efficient low-cost method to monitor stress hormone levels will greatly facilitate stress research in zebrafish larvae. In this study, we optimized sample collection as well as cortisol extraction methods and developed a home-made ELISA protocol for measuring whole-body cortisol level in zebrafish larvae. Further, using our customized protocols, we characterized the response of larval zebrafish to a variety of stressors. This assay, developed for efficient cortisol quantification, will be useful for systematic and large-scale stress analyses in larval zebrafish. PMID:24223943

  10. Original article Effects of blood sampling procedures, grouping and adrenal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Effects of blood sampling procedures, grouping and adrenal stimulation on stress by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration caused a sharp increase in plasma cortisol levels. However, plasma - stress - plasma parameters - behavioural parameters Résumé ― Effets de divers stress sur quelques

  11. Influence of music training on academic examination-induced stress in Thai adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janejira Laohawattanakun; Supornpim Chearskul; Hattaya Dumrongphol; Nuanchan Jutapakdeegul; Juntima Yensukjai; Nipaporn Khumphan; Songwit Niltiean; Wipawan Thangnipon

    2011-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that academic examinations fulfill the classical requirement of a psychological stressor. Academic examinations represent a stressful challenge to many students, but studies on examination-dependent corticosteroid response, a sensitive physiological indicator of a stress response, are inconsistent. In addition, several studies showed that music can decrease cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and other studies have

  12. Cortisol’s effects on hippocampal activation in depressed patients are related to alterations in memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Abercrombie, Heather C.; Jahn, Allison L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kern, Simone; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Halverson, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Many investigators have hypothesized that brain response to cortisol is altered in depression. However, neural activation in response to exogenously manipulated cortisol elevations has not yet been directly examined in depressed humans. Animal research shows that glucocorticoids have robust effects on hippocampal function, and can either enhance or suppress neuroplastic events in the hippocampus depending on a number of factors. We hypothesized that depressed individuals would show 1) altered hippocampal response to exogenous administration of cortisol, and 2) altered effects of cortisol on learning. In a repeated-measures design, 19 unmedicated depressed and 41 healthy individuals completed two fMRI scans. Fifteen mg oral hydrocortisone (i.e., cortisol) or placebo (order randomized and double-blind) was administered one hour prior to encoding of emotional and neutral words during fMRI scans. Data analysis examined the effects of cortisol administration on 1) brain activation during encoding, and 2) subsequent free recall for words. Cortisol affected subsequent recall performance in depressed but not healthy individuals. We found alterations in hippocampal response to cortisol in depressed women, but not in depressed men (who showed altered response to cortisol in other regions, including subgenual prefrontal cortex). In both depressed men and women, cortisol’s effects on hippocampal function were positively correlated with its effects on recall performance assessed days later. Our data provide evidence that in depressed compared to healthy women, cortisol’s effects on hippocampal function are altered. Our data also show that in both depressed men and women, cortisol’s effects on emotional memory formation and hippocampal function are related. PMID:21220074

  13. [Value of estradiol, progesterone and cortisol binding globulin (CGB) in patients with laryngeal cancer].

    PubMed

    Kruk-Zagajewska, A; Piatkowski, K; Wójtowicz, J G; Kozak, W

    2001-01-01

    The unique feature of larynx cancer epidemiology is great discrepance between men and women morbidity. This difference may be explained not only by exposition to environmental factors but also to endogenous one, i.e. sex hormone levels. In 67 patients operated for larynx cancer there were simultaneously estimated the value of estradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg) and cortisol binding globulin (CBG) in blood serum. The radioimmunological assay (RIA) with specific antibodies and antigens signed by J125 was used. Value of hormones and binding globulin were examined by Spectria sets by Orion Diagnostica. The high value of estradiol and CBG in blood serum was observed. In meaningful number of patients we noted normal value of progesterone. PMID:11868319

  14. Cortisol Response to Embarrassment and Shame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    This study examined individual differences in 4-year-old children's expression of the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment and shame and their relation to differences in cortisol response to stress. Results indicated the presence of two different types of embarrassment--one that reflected negative evaluation of the self, and the other a…

  15. 45. CORTISOL LEVELS ARE CORRELATED WITH HIPPOCAMPAL

    E-print Network

    of PTSD patients when compared to control subjects in the absence of volume loss. This study focuses NAA in PTSD and control subjects. Methods: Eighteen male patients with combat-related PTSD (mean age by sampling morning salivary cortisol pre and post low dose dexamethasone (0.5mg). PTSD symptoms were assessed

  16. State variation in the cortisol awakening response.

    PubMed

    Law, Robin; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Evans, Phil; Clow, Angela

    2013-09-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a much studied but poorly understood aspect of the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion. A Scopus search of "cortisol" and "awakening" reveals 666 publications in this area since 1997 when it was first identified by Pruessner and colleagues as a "reliable biomarker of adrenocortical activity". The primary focus of the majority of these studies is centered on its utility as a biomarker associated with a range of psychosocial, physical and mental health variables. Such studies typically examine differences in the CAR (studied on 1 or 2 days) between healthy participants and other comparator groups of interest. Fewer studies (25 in our estimation) have examined correlates of day-to-day variation in the CAR in healthy participants, informing its role and regulation within the healthy circadian pattern of cortisol secretion. This is the first review to examine these studies which, although limited in number, offer a relatively coherent emerging story about state factors that influence the CAR and the impact of the CAR on daily functioning. Greater understanding of these issues helps illuminate the utility of the CAR as a promising biomarker in psychophysiological and epidemiological research. The review also highlights areas that require greater clarification and points to potentially fruitful areas of further research. PMID:23805796

  17. Friendship network position and salivary cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, Olga; Clemans, Katherine H; Out, Dorothée; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    We employed a social network analysis approach to examine the associations between friendship network position and cortisol levels. The sample consisted of 74 first-year students (93% female, ages 22-38 years, M = 27) from a highly competitive, accelerated Nursing program. Participants completed questionnaires online, and the entire group met at one time to complete a series of sociometric nominations and donated a saliva sample. Saliva was later assayed for cortisol. Metrics derived from directed friendship nominations indexed each student's friendship network status regarding popularity, gregariousness, and degree of interconnectedness. Results revealed that (1) individuals with lower gregariousness status (i.e., lowest number of outgoing ties) had higher cortisol levels, and (2) individuals with higher popularity status (i.e., higher numbers of incoming ties) had higher cortisol levels. Popularity and gregariousness-based network status is significantly associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Implications for prevailing theories of the social determinants of individual differences in biological sensitivity and susceptibility to context are discussed. PMID:23682997

  18. A composite somatotroph-corticotroph pituitary adenoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn L. Apel; Robert J. Wilson; Sylvia L. Asa

    1994-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented with enlargement and weakness of her hands and feet coarsening of facial features, proximal\\u000a muscle weakness, and worsening of her noninsulindependent diabetes mellitus. Serum growth hormone, somatomedin-C, and prolactin\\u000a levels were elevated. Thyroid function test results and serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were within\\u000a normal limits. Luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were both low, suggesting

  19. Somatotroph and Corticotroph Pituitary Adenoma (Double Adenoma) in a Cat with Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperadrenocorticism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Meij; R. H. van der Vlugt-Meijer; T. S. G. A. M. van den Ingh; A. Rijnberk

    2004-01-01

    A 9-year-old castrated male European shorthair cat with insulin-resistant diabetes was referred with the preliminary diagnosis of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, based on measurements of urinary corticoids. Further studies revealed not only resistance of plasma concentrations of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) to suppression by a low dose of dexamethasone, but also elevated plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH)

  20. Effect of dietary vitamin E on cortisol and glucose responses to handling stress in juvenile beluga Huso huso.

    PubMed

    Falahatkar, B; Amlashi, A Safarpour; Conte, F

    2012-03-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E on the physiological response to handling stress in juvenile beluga Huso huso. Fish were fed six experimental diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50,100, 200, or 400 mg Dl-all-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate/kg diet. At the end of the experiment, the fish in each tank were subjected to acute handling and air exposure stress. Cortisol and glucose were measured as the primary hormonal and secondary metabolic responses to the stressors, both before and 3 h after application of the stressors. The growth parameters and feed utilization rates were significantly lower in fish fed the diet not supplemented with vitamin E than in fish fed diets supplemented with vitamin E. Cortisol concentration was not affected by dietary treatment but glucose concentration was. Fish fed vitamin E at 0, 25, 100, and 400 mg/kg diet had higher concentrations of glucose than those fed vitamin E at 50 and 200 mg/kg. However, fish fed diets with 50 and 200 mg/kg exhibited higher growth rates. These results indicate that dietary vitamin E has some effect on plasma glucose but no effect on plasma cortisol. In general, when the stressors were applied to belugas, the glucose and cortisol responses were relatively low. This may be due to higher resistance and lower physiological responses to these types of stressors by this species or by chondrosteans in general. PMID:22779208

  1. Salivary gonadal and adrenal hormone differences in boys and girls with and without disruptive behavior disorders: Contextual variants.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Lorah D; Kolko, David J; Susman, Elizabeth J; Huang, Bin; Stein, Howard; Music, Edvin; Bukstein, Oscar G

    2009-04-01

    Hormone differences by psychopathology group and gender may have implications for understanding disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) and complexities of treatment outcomes. Current theoretical models emphasize contextual differences as moderators of hormone-behavior relations. This baseline report examined: (a) hormone differences in youth with and without DBD, and (b) contextual factors as moderators of behavior problems and hormones. 180 children and adolescents were enrolled (141 boys, mean 9.0+/-1.7 years). DBD participants met criteria for conduct disorder (CD) and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (n=111); 69 were recruited as healthy comparisons (HC). Saliva was collected for testosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione. DBD youth had significantly higher androstenedione than the HC group. There was a group by gender interaction for basal cortisol mean with DBD boys and HC girls having lower cortisol. Moderating effects of contextual variables (e.g., family functioning, delinquent peers) were noted for cortisol and adrenal androgens. Findings argue for considering hormones as an influence on DBD beyond simple direct one-to-one associations. PMID:19428966

  2. Cortisol and Depressive Symptoms in a Population-Based Cohort of Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jennifer M.; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is a relationship between depressive symptoms and cortisol assessed at first morning awakening, 6PM, and 9PM in a population-based sample of midlife women. If this relationship is not linear, we aim to test whether this relationship is nonlinear, only present in those with more severe depressive symptoms, better accounted for by diurnal slope, or only apparent under uncontaminated conditions. Methods We investigated the cross-sectional association between cortisol and depressive symptoms, assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in 408 midlife women (45.7% African-Americans, 54.3% white; mean age = 50.4) participating in the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Results Diurnal cortisol slope is significantly flatter for women with higher CES-D scores than for less depressed women (p<.05 for the interaction). This relationship remains significant even after adjusting for age, smoking status, race, education, income, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), body mass index (BMI), medications, and wake time as well as possibly contaminating factors including physical activity, smoking, eating, or caffeine or alcohol consumption prior to saliva collection. Results using depression assessed categorically (CES-D cutoff ? 16) were similar to those using continuous depression in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses (p=.005 for the interaction of CES-D by time). Conclusions In this population-based sample of midlife women, greater depressive symptoms were associated with a significantly flatter diurnal cortisol slope than those with fewer symptoms, even after adjusting for covariates and possibly contaminating behaviors. PMID:20841562

  3. Effect of synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor. Dose response of plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol.

    PubMed Central

    Orth, D N; Jackson, R V; DeCherney, G S; DeBold, C R; Alexander, A N; Island, D P; Rivier, J; Rivier, C; Spiess, J; Vale, W

    1983-01-01

    Synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was administered to normal male volunteer subjects as an intravenous bolus or 30-s infusion. Doses of CRF ranging from 0.001 to 30 micrograms/kg body wt were administered, and plasma immunoreactive (IR)-ACTH and IR-cortisol concentrations were measured. The threshold dose appeared to be 0.01-0.03 micrograms/kg, the half-maximal dose 0.3-1 micrograms/kg, and the maximally effective dose 3-10 micrograms/kg. Basal concentrations of IR-ACTH and IR-cortisol were 14 +/- 7.6 pg/ml (mean +/- SD) and 5.6 +/- 2.2 micrograms/dl, respectively. IR-ACTH rose as early as 2 min after CRF injection, reached peak levels in 10-15 min, and declined slowly thereafter. IR-cortisol rose at 10 min or later and reached peak levels in 30-60 min. At a dose of 30 micrograms/kg, neither IR-ACTH nor IR-cortisol fell from peak levels of 82 +/- 21 pg/ml (mean +/- SE) and 23 +/- 1.4 micrograms/dl, respectively, during the 2-h course of the experiment, indicating that CRF has a sustained effect on ACTH release and/or a prolonged circulating plasma half-life. There was little or no increase in the levels of other anterior pituitary hormones. At doses of 1 microgram/kg and higher, facial flushing, tachycardia, and, in some subjects, a 15-29-mmHg decline in systemic arterial blood pressure were observed, even though blood volume was replaced and the subjects remained supine. These data indicate that synthetic ovine CRF is a very potent and specific ACTH secretagogue in man. Administered with caution until its vasomotor effects are more fully defined, CRF promises to be a safe and very useful investigative, diagnostic, and, possibly, therapeutic agent in man. Images PMID:6298280

  4. Growth Hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Weltman

    \\u000a Growth hormone (GH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary in a pulsatile pattern. Multiple GH isotypes and oligomers exist\\u000a in plasma in addition to the predominant 22 kD protein.Minor isoforms do not change uniquely in response to exercise. GH activates\\u000a cells by dimerizing receptors and triggering a cascade ofphosphorylation reactions that signal to the nucleus.

  5. An Increased Capacity for Adrenal DHEA Release is Associated with Decreased Avoidance and Negative Mood Symptoms in Women with PTSD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann M Rasmusson; Jitka Vasek; Deborah S Lipschitz; Dolores Vojvoda; Mary Ellen Mustone; Quihu Shi; Gretchen Gudmundsen; Charles A Morgan; Jessica Wolfe; Dennis S Charney

    2004-01-01

    We recently found increased adrenal cortisol responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)1–24 and increased pituitary ACTH and adrenal cortisol responses to corticotropin-releasing factor in premenopausal women with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to healthy nontraumatized subjects. This pattern of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) hyper-reactivity has been previously seen in healthy individuals treated with the antiglucocorticoid mifepristone. We therefore investigated whether endogenous

  6. Hormonal changes associated with the transition between nursing and natural fasting in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Houser, Dorian S.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    To better interpret previously described hormonal changes observed during the natural postweaning fast (2-3 months) endured by pups of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), we compared plasma cortisol, thyroid hormones, and leptin in pups (n=5) measured during nursing and fasting periods. Blood samples were taken at four times; early (9 days postpartum) and late (18-22 days postpartum) nursing, and early (second week postweaning) and late (eighth week postweaning) fasting. Plasma cortisol increased 39% between early and late nursing and almost 4-fold by late fasting. After the early nursing period, cortisol and body mass were negatively correlated (y=28.3-0.19 x; R=0.569; p=0.027). Total thyroxine (tT(4)), free T(4) (fT(4)), total triiodothyronine (tT3) and reverse T(3) (rT(3)) were greatest at early nursing and reduced by late nursing and remained so throughout the fast, with the exception of tT(4), which increased between late nursing (17.7+/-2.1 ng mL(-1)) and late fasting (30.1+/-2.8 ng mL(-1)) periods. Leptin remained unaltered among the four sampling periods and was not correlated with body mass. Pups appear to exhibit a shift in the relationship between cortisol and body mass suggesting a potential role for cortisol in the regulation of body fat. The higher concentrations of tT(3) and tT(4) during early nursing may reflect enhanced growth and development during this period, however the increase late in fasting is likely physiologically insignificant and an artifact of reduced metabolic clearance of these hormones. Transition of the pups from nursing to fasting states is characterized by a striking lack of change in cortisol, thyroid hormones, and leptin suggesting that any metabolic alterations associated with this transition may occur independent of these hormones.

  7. A day-centered approach to modeling cortisol: Diurnal cortisol profiles and their associations among U.S. adults

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Almeida, David M.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Loken, Eric; Pieper, Carl F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Diurnal cortisol is a marker of HPA-axis activity that may be one of the biological mechanisms linking stressors to age-related health declines. The current study identified day-centered profiles of diurnal cortisol among 1,101 adults living in the United States. Participants took part in up to four consecutive days of salivary cortisol collection, assessed at waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch, and before bedtime. Growth Mixture Modeling with latent time basis was used to estimate common within-day trajectories of diurnal cortisol among 2,894 cortisol days. The 3-class solution provided the best model fit, showing that the majority of study days (73%) were characterized by a Normative cortisol pattern, with a robust cortisol awakening response (CAR), a steep negative diurnal slope, coupled with low awakening and bedtime levels. Relative to this profile, diurnal cortisol on the remainder of days appeared either Elevated throughout the day (20% of days) or Flattened (7% of days). Relative to the Normative trajectory, the Elevated trajectory was distinguished by a higher morning cortisol level, whereas the Flattened trajectory was characterized by a high bedtime level, with weaker CAR and diurnal slope parameters. Relative to the Normative profile, Elevated profile membership was associated with older age and cigarette smoking. Greater likelihood of the Flattened cortisol pattern was observed among participants who were older, male, smoked cigarettes, used medications that are known to affect cortisol output, and reported poorer health. The current study demonstrates the value of a day-centered Growth Mixture Modeling approach to the study of diurnal cortisol, showing that deviations from the classic robust rhythm of diurnal cortisol are associated with older age, male sex, use of medications previously shown to affect cortisol levels, poorer health behaviors, and poorer self-reported health. PMID:23770247

  8. A day-centered approach to modeling cortisol: diurnal cortisol profiles and their associations among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, Natalia O; Almeida, David M; Dmitrieva, Julia; Loken, Eric; Pieper, Carl F

    2013-10-01

    Diurnal cortisol is a marker of HPA-axis activity that may be one of the biological mechanisms linking stressors to age-related health declines. The current study identified day-centered profiles of diurnal cortisol among 1101 adults living in the United States. Participants took part in up to four consecutive days of salivary cortisol collection, assessed at waking, 30min post-waking, before lunch, and before bedtime. Growth mixture modeling with latent time basis was used to estimate common within-day trajectories of diurnal cortisol among 2894 cortisol days. The 3-class solution provided the best model fit, showing that the majority of study days (73%) were characterized by a Normative cortisol pattern, with a robust cortisol awakening response (CAR), a steep negative diurnal slope, coupled with low awakening and bedtime levels. Relative to this profile, diurnal cortisol on the remainder of days appeared either elevated throughout the day (20% of days) or flattened (7% of days). Relative to the normative trajectory, the elevated trajectory was distinguished by a higher morning cortisol level, whereas the flattened trajectory was characterized by a high bedtime level, with weaker CAR and diurnal slope parameters. Relative to the normative profile, elevated profile membership was associated with older age and cigarette smoking. Greater likelihood of the flattened cortisol pattern was observed among participants who were older, male, smoked cigarettes, used medications that are known to affect cortisol output, and reported poorer health. The current study demonstrates the value of a day-centered growth mixture modeling approach to the study of diurnal cortisol, showing that deviations from the classic robust rhythm of diurnal cortisol are associated with older age, male sex, use of medications previously shown to affect cortisol levels, poorer health behaviors, and poorer self-reported health. PMID:23770247

  9. Within-adolescent coupled changes in cortisol with DHEA and testosterone in response to three stressors during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Dorn, Lorah; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    It is hypothesized that Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal axes function together to maintain adaptive functioning during stressful situations differently in adolescence than the characteristic inverse relations found in adulthood. We examined within-person correlated changes (coupling) in cortisol, DHEA and testosterone in response to parent-adolescent conflict discussion, social performance, and venipuncture paradigms. Data are derived from two samples of boys and girls from the Northeastern US (213 adolescents aged 11–16, M=13.7, SD=1.5 years; 108 adolescents aged 9–14, M=11.99, SD=1.55) using different biological sampling vehicles (saliva and blood). Results consistently show that across samples, vehicles, and contexts, cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone are positively coupled in response to environmental stimuli. Findings underscore the importance of considering the effects of multiple hormones together in order to further our understanding of the biological underpinnings of behavior, especially during adolescence, as adolescence is a developmental transition period that may be qualitatively different from adulthood in terms of hormone functioning. PMID:24495606

  10. Within-adolescent coupled changes in cortisol with DHEA and testosterone in response to three stressors during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Dorn, Lorah D; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2014-03-01

    It is hypothesized that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes function together to maintain adaptive functioning during stressful situations differently in adolescence than the characteristic inverse relations found in adulthood. We examined within-person correlated changes (coupling) in cortisol, DHEA and testosterone in response to parent-adolescent conflict discussion, social performance, and venipuncture paradigms. Data are derived from two samples of boys and girls from the Northeastern US (213 adolescents aged 11-16, M=13.7, SD=1.5 years; 108 adolescents aged 9-14, M=11.99, SD=1.55) using different biological sampling vehicles (saliva and blood). Results consistently show that across samples, vehicles, and contexts, cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone are positively coupled in response to environmental stimuli. Findings underscore the importance of considering the effects of multiple hormones together in order to further our understanding of the biological underpinnings of behavior, especially during adolescence, as adolescence is a developmental transition period that may be qualitatively different from adulthood in terms of hormone functioning. PMID:24495606

  11. Behavioral and physiological responses of a wild teleost fish to cortisol and androgen manipulation during parental care.

    PubMed

    Dey, Cody J; O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Cooke, Steven J

    2010-09-01

    Proximate mediators of reproductive behaviors in vertebrates have a long history of study. In fishes, relatively few studies have focused on hormonal control of parental care, despite a comprehensive background on the general physiology of fishes, and the frequent occurrence of parental care behaviors. Studies on this taxon have repeatedly found that the relationships between androgens and paternal care do not follow the predictions made in the avian and mammalian literature. Glucocorticoids may also have a role in mediating parental behaviors, possibly through their role as regulators of metabolism. As such, we investigated the role of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and cortisol in mediating parental effort of male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) by manipulating hormone titers in wild fish. In smallmouth bass, males spawn annually with a single female and defend a single brood for up to 30 days. Treatment of parental fish with cyproterone acetate (CYA; an androgen receptor antagonist) resulted in a decrease in nest defense in response to a simulated brood predator; however, no changes in nest success, nest tending or biochemical indicators of nutritional status were detected. Treatment with exogenous cortisol did not change parental behavior, but did increase the rate of nest failure, possibly owing to the energetic cost of chronically elevated cortisol concentrations. We discuss these findings in the context of resource-driven trade-offs and highlight life history as an important factor controlling parental effort in species with costly parental care behaviors. PMID:20615409

  12. Cortisol and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wiel, Nicolle M.H.; van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Matthys, Walter; Snoek, Heddeke; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Basal cortisol and cortisol stress responsivity are valuable biological characteristics of children with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). In this study, the predictive value of cortisol to outcome of intervention was investigated. Method: Basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels under stress were studied in 22 children with DBD…

  13. Extraction and Analysis of Cortisol from Human and Monkey Hair

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

  14. Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

  15. Gene expression in Atlantic salmon skin in response to infection with the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, cortisol implant, and their combination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The salmon louse is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes major economic losses in the aquaculture industry of Atlantic salmon. This host displays a high level of susceptibility to lice which can be accounted for by several factors including stress. In addition, the parasite itself acts as a potent stressor of the host, and outcomes of infection can depend on biotic and abiotic factors that stimulate production of cortisol. Consequently, examination of responses to infection with this parasite, in addition to stress hormone regulation in Atlantic salmon, is vital for better understanding of the host pathogen interaction. Results Atlantic salmon post smolts were organised into four experimental groups: lice + cortisol, lice + placebo, no lice + cortisol, no lice + placebo. Infection levels were equal in both treatments upon termination of the experiment. Gene expression changes in skin were assessed with 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR at the chalimus stage 18 days post infection at 9°C. The transcriptomic effects of hormone treatment were significantly greater than lice-infection induced changes. Cortisol stimulated expression of genes involved in metabolism of steroids and amino acids, chaperones, responses to oxidative stress and eicosanoid metabolism and suppressed genes related to antigen presentation, B and T cells, antiviral and inflammatory responses. Cortisol and lice equally down-regulated a large panel of motor proteins that can be important for wound contraction. Cortisol also suppressed multiple genes involved in wound healing, parts of which were activated by the parasite. Down-regulation of collagens and other structural proteins was in parallel with the induction of proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix (MMP9 and MMP13). Cortisol reduced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in formation of various tissue structures, regulators of cell differentiation and growth factors. Conclusions These results suggest that cortisol-induced stress does not affect the level of infection of Atlantic salmon with the parasite, however, it may retard repair of skin. The cortisol induced changes are in close concordance with the existing concept of wound healing cascade. PMID:22480234

  16. Decreased hair cortisol concentrations in generalised anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Steudte, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Dettenborn, Lucia; Klumbies, Elisabeth; Foley, Paul; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2011-04-30

    Previous research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) has suggested a general hypercortisolism. These studies have mostly relied on salivary, plasma or urinary assessments, reflecting cortisol secretion over short time periods. The current study utilised the novel method of cortisol assessment in hair to obtain a retrospective index of cortisol secretion over a prolonged period of time. Hair cortisol levels were determined in 15 GAD patients and in 15 age- and gender-matched controls. In addition, participants collected six saliva samples (on awakening, +30 min, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00 h and at bedtime) on two consecutive weekdays for the assessment of the diurnal cortisol profile. Results revealed significantly lower (50-60%) cortisol levels in the first and second 3-cm hair segments of GAD patients compared to those of controls. No significant between-group differences were seen in diurnal cortisol profiles. The hair cortisol findings tentatively suggest that under naturalistic conditions GAD is associated with hypocortisolism. If corroborated by future research, this demonstrates the important qualities of cortisol measurement in hair as an ecologically valid, retrospective index of long-term cortisol secretion and as a marker for psychiatric disorders associated with hypo- or hypercortisolism. PMID:20889215

  17. Adaptive and maladaptive cortisol responses to pediatric obesity.

    PubMed

    Soros, Arlette; Zadik, Zvi; Chalew, Stuart

    2008-09-01

    The recent unprecedented increase of childhood obesity has led to an alarming rise in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) among these children. The process underlying the progression from simple obesity to T2D is not well understood. Cortisol is a candidate factor in the pathogenesis of T2D, as it can exacerbate insulin resistance and provoke other disturbances of the metabolic syndrome. The 24-h integrated concentration (IC) of cortisol is suppressed in non-diabetic obese children compared to lean children. This difference in IC-cortisol is not due to changes in cortisol binding globulin or plasma cortisol to cortisone ratio between groups. In obese individuals, IC-cortisol suppression disappears with age after adolescence, which corresponds with increasing occurrence of T2D and other metabolic disorders of obesity. We consider the IC-cortisol levels of lean insulin sensitive children to be metabolically inappropriate for obese insulin resistant children. Thus, we hypothesize that suppression of IC-cortisol is an important adaptive response to obesity (cortisol adaptive suppression) in childhood that prevents pediatric T2D while failure to suppress IC-cortisol (cortisol suppression failure) exacerbates insulin resistance and contributes to the development of T2D. In further support of this hypothesis is early pilot data suggesting that cortisol suppression failure occurs in obese children with impaired fasting glucose levels. The mechanism(s) underlying cortisol adaptive suppression, how and why these mechanism(s) fail are unknown. Elucidation of these mechanisms may lead to interventions to prevent the development of T2D and its complications in obese individuals. PMID:18547740

  18. Hair cortisol measurement in mitotane-treated adrenocortical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Manenschijn, L; Quinkler, M; van Rossum, E F C

    2014-04-01

    The only approved drug for the treatment of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is mitotane. Mitotane is adrenolytic and therefore, hydrocortisone replacement therapy is necessary. Since mitotane increases cortisol binding globulin (CBG) and induces CYP3A4 activity, high doses of hydrocortisone are thought to be required. Evaluation of hydrocortisone therapy in mitotane-treated patients has been difficult since there is no good marker to evaluate hydrocortisone therapy. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a novel method that offers the opportunity to measure long-term cortisol levels. Our aim was to evaluate whether hair cortisol measurements could be useful in evaluating recent hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. Hair cortisol levels were measured in 15 mitotane-treated ACC patients on hydrocortisone substitution and 96 healthy individuals. Cortisol levels were measured in 3?cm hair segments, corresponding to a period of 3 months. Hair cortisol levels were higher in ACC patients compared to healthy individuals (p<0.0001). Seven ACC patients (47%) had hair cortisol levels above the reference range. None of the patients had hair cortisol levels below normal. In contrast to hydrocortisone doses (?=0.03, p=0.93), hair cortisol levels were associated with BMI (?=0.53, p=0.042). There was no correlation between hair cortisol levels and hydrocortisone doses (?=0.41, p=0.13). Almost half of the ACC patients had high hair cortisol levels, suggesting long-term over-substitution of hydrocortisone in some of the patients, whereas none of the patients was under-substituted. Hair cortisol measurements might be useful in long-term monitoring hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. PMID:24627099

  19. Stronger pharmacological cortisol suppression and anticipatory cortisol stress response in transient global amnesia.

    PubMed

    Griebe, Martin; Nees, Frauke; Gerber, Benjamin; Ebert, Anne; Flor, Herta; Wolf, Oliver T; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24?h. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence, it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure) in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress, and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p?=?0.027). The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p?=?0.008 and 0.010 respectively), as well as prior to and after the control condition (p?=?0.022 and 0.024, respectively). The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p?=?0.021) and anxiety (p?=?0.007), but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA. PMID:25805980

  20. Stronger Pharmacological Cortisol Suppression and Anticipatory Cortisol Stress Response in Transient Global Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Griebe, Martin; Nees, Frauke; Gerber, Benjamin; Ebert, Anne; Flor, Herta; Wolf, Oliver T.; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G.; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24?h. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence, it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure) in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress, and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p?=?0.027). The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p?=?0.008 and 0.010 respectively), as well as prior to and after the control condition (p?=?0.022 and 0.024, respectively). The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p?=?0.021) and anxiety (p?=?0.007), but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA.

  1. The cortisol and androgen pathways cross talk in high temperature-induced masculinization: the 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase as a key enzyme.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Juan Ignacio; Hattori, Ricardo Shohei; Kishii, Ai; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel

    2012-12-01

    In many ectotherm species the gonadal fate is modulated by temperature early in life [temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD)] but the transducer mechanism between temperature and gonadal differentiation is still elusive. We have recently shown that cortisol, the glucocorticoid stress-related hormone in vertebrates, is involved in the TSD process of pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis. Particularly, all larvae exposed to a male-producing temperature (MPT, 29 C) after hatching showed increased whole-body cortisol and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT; the main bioactive androgen in fish) levels and developed as males. Moreover, cortisol administration at an intermediate, mixed sex-producing temperature (MixPT, 24 C) caused increases in 11-KT and in the frequency of males, suggesting a relation between this glucocorticoid and androgens during the masculinization process. In order to clarify the link between stress and masculinization, the expression of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd)11b2, glucocorticoid receptors gr1 and gr2, and androgen receptors ar1 and ar2 was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR and in situ hybridization in larvae reared at MPT, MixPT, and female-producing temperature (FPT, 17 C) during the sex determination period. We also analyzed the effects of cortisol treatment in larvae reared at MixPT and in adult testicular explants incubated in vitro. MPT and cortisol treatment produced significant increases in hsd11b2 mRNA expression. Also, gonadal explants incubated in the presence of cortisol showed increases of 11-KT levels in the medium. Taken together these results suggest that cortisol promotes 11-KT production during high temperature-induced masculinization by modulation of hsd11b2 expression and thus drives the morphogenesis of the testes. PMID:23041673

  2. Cortisol-Induced Masculinization: Does Thermal Stress Affect Gonadal Fate in Pejerrey, a Teleost Fish with Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination?

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Ricardo S.; Fernandino, Juan I.; Kishii, Ai; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kinno, Tomomi; Oura, Miho; Somoza, Gustavo M.; Yokota, Masashi; Strüssmann, Carlos A.; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Background Gonadal fate in many reptiles, fish, and amphibians is modulated by the temperature experienced during a critical period early in life (temperature-dependent sex determination; TSD). Several molecular processes involved in TSD have been described but how the animals “sense” environmental temperature remains unknown. We examined whether the stress-related hormone cortisol mediates between temperature and sex differentiation of pejerrey, a gonochoristic teleost fish with marked TSD, and the possibility that it involves glucocorticoid receptor- and/or steroid biosynthesis-modulation. Methodology/Principal Findings Larvae maintained during the period of gonadal sex differentiation at a masculinizing temperature (29°C; 100% males) consistently had higher cortisol, 11-ketotestoterone (11-KT), and testosterone (T) titres than those at a feminizing temperature (17°C; 100% females). Cortisol-treated animals had elevated 11-KT and T, and showed a typical molecular signature of masculinization including amh upregulation, cyp19a1a downregulation, and higher incidence of gonadal apoptosis during sex differentiation. Administration of cortisol and a non-metabolizable glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist (Dexamethasone) to larvae at a “sexually neutral” temperature (24°C) caused significant increases in the proportion of males. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest a role of cortisol in the masculinization of pejerrey and provide a possible link between stress and testicular differentiation in this gonochoristic TSD species. Cortisol role or roles during TSD of pejerrey seem(s) to involve both androgen biosynthesis- and GR-mediated processes. These findings and recent reports of cortisol effects on sex determination of sequential hermaphroditic fishes, TSD reptiles, and birds provide support to the notion that stress responses might be involved in various forms of environmental sex determination. PMID:19662094

  3. Effects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone concentrations assessed in saliva.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Oliver C

    2013-01-01

    Sugarless chewing gum is a frequently used stimulant to collect saliva samples for hormone analyses. This study tested the effect of sugarless chewing gum on cortisol, testosterone, and progesterone concentrations measured in saliva samples collected from 8 individuals at different times of the day (morning, evening) and under different collection conditions (gum, no gum) as well as in a saliva pool and water, either untreated or treated with chewing gum. Sugarless chewing gum raised all progesterone concentrations by 20 to 40pg/mL, corresponding to a twofold increase, relative to no-gum controls and attenuated salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations. It is recommended that the use of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant should be avoided with saliva samples. PMID:23220228

  4. Different methods to estimate serum free cortisol: a comparison during cortisol tetracosactide testing.

    PubMed

    Brossaud, Julie; Gatta, Blandine; Tabarin, Antoine; Corcuff, Jean-Benoît

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background: Serum cortisol is routinely quantified by immunoassays. In intensive care units serum free cortisol (FC) determination has been described as a better indicator of survival than total cortisol (TC). To estimate FC different methods are available including saliva sampling. We compared five methods to estimate FC, before and after an ACTH stimulating test in patients suspected of adrenal insufficiency. Method: Serum and saliva was collected from 130 patients from the Endocrine Department of a university hospital before and after tetracosactide injection for TC determination. FC was estimated: after serum ultrafiltration, quadratic (Coolens') or cubic (Dorin's) equations, using TC/cortisol-binding globulin concentrations ratio or using cortisol concentration determination in saliva. Results: FC concentrations obtained by different techniques were significantly correlated and Passing-Bablok regressions showed no deviation from linearity between salFC and filtFC or quadFC. Using the routine assumption that the patients were correctly diagnosed using a post-tetracosactide TC threshold of 550 nmol/L the FC methods generating the best ROC curves were salFC and filtFC or cubFC 30 min after tetracosactide injection. Conclusions: FC concentrations obtained by different techniques are significantly but not similarly correlated with TC. As, salFC and filtFC are more convenient to perform than methods involving CBG assays and are better correlated to TC during tetracosactide tests they may be preferred as FC surrogate assays. PMID:25381955

  5. Cortisol levels in fetal scalp, maternal, and umbilical cord plasma.

    PubMed

    Sybulski, S; Goldsmith, W J; Maughan, G B

    1975-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cortisol levels in the fetal circulation prior to delivery. Fetal scalp plasma cortisol levels during labor were significantly lower than those in maternal peripheral plasma but significantly higher than those in cord plasma at delivery. Cortisol levels in fetal scalp plasma did not correlate significantly with those in either maternal or cord plasma. The greater cortisol concentrations in fetal scalp plasma relative to those in cord plasma could have been transient increases caused by fetal adrenal response to the stress of the scalp sampling procedure. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels in maternal and cord plasma, which may mean that a considerable part of the cortisol in the fetal circulation at delivery is of maternal origin. PMID:808778

  6. Temporal features of elevated hair cortisol among earthquake survivors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Zhong, Ping; Xie, Qiaozhen; Wang, Haiyang; Jin, Jing; Deng, Huihua; Lu, Zuhong

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect on hair cortisol level of a chronic stress response from the Wenchuan earthquake, and to explore the temporal features of elevated hair cortisol. We recruited two cohorts of earthquake survivors: cohort A consisted of 12 male adults and 8 females and cohort B of 20 male adolescents, with 23 and 29 participants as controls, respectively. Their hair samples closest to the scalp were assayed with mass spectrometry to determine cortisol content. Results revealed that hair cortisol content in survivors of cohort A was significantly higher than in the control. For survivors of cohort B, hair cortisol levels increased 6 and 22 weeks after the earthquake and decreased 43 weeks after the outburst. In conclusion, the chronic stress response elicited by the earthquake resulted in elevated hair cortisol. Timing since the earthquake outburst played an important role in the long-term response of the HPA axis to a major acute stressor. PMID:24611842

  7. Use of Salivary Cortisol Measurements in Young Infants: A Note of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnano, Catherine L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Findings indicate that high cortisol levels and interfering substances in formula and breast milk could contaminate salivary cortisol measurements in young infants. To insure accurate results, appropriate controls should be taken for salivary cortisol measurements of young infants. (RH)

  8. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  9. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    Thyroid Hormone Treatment Thyroid hormone is used in two situations: to replace the function of the thyroid gland, which ... working as they should. Definition, Therapy & Treatment Thyroid hormone replacement therapy Many people have a thyroid gland ...

  10. Growth hormone test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... increased growth patterns called acromegaly in adults and gigantism in children. Too little growth hormone can cause ... high level of growth hormone may indicate: Acromegaly Gigantism Growth hormone resistance Pituitary tumor A low level ...

  11. Hypothesis of the neuroendocrine cortisol pathway gene role in the comorbidity of depression, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gragnoli, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Depression, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are often comorbid. Depression per se increases the risk for T2D by 60%. This risk is not accounted for by the use of antidepressant therapy. Stress causes hyperactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, by triggering the hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to release the adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), which causes the adrenal secretion of cortisol. Depression is associated with an increased level of cortisol, and CRH and ACTH at inappropriately “normal” levels, that is too high compared to their expected lower levels due to cortisol negative feedback. T2D and MetS are also associated with hypercortisolism. High levels of cortisol can impair mood as well as cause hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and other traits typical of T2D and MetS. We hypothesize that HPA axis hyperactivation may be due to variants in the genes of the CRH receptors (CRHR1, CRHR2), corticotropin receptors (or melanocortin receptors, MC1R-MC5R), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), and of the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), and that these variants may be partially responsible for the clinical association of depression, T2D and MetS. In this review, we will focus on the correlation of stress, HPA axis hyperactivation, and the possible genetic role of the CRHR1, CRHR2, MCR1–5, NR3C1, and NR3C2 receptors and FKBP5 in the susceptibility to the comorbidity of depression, T2D, and MetS. New studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized role of these genes in the clinical association of depression, T2D, and MetS. PMID:24817815

  12. Hypothesis of the neuroendocrine cortisol pathway gene role in the comorbidity of depression, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gragnoli, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Depression, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are often comorbid. Depression per se increases the risk for T2D by 60%. This risk is not accounted for by the use of antidepressant therapy. Stress causes hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, by triggering the hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to release the adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), which causes the adrenal secretion of cortisol. Depression is associated with an increased level of cortisol, and CRH and ACTH at inappropriately "normal" levels, that is too high compared to their expected lower levels due to cortisol negative feedback. T2D and MetS are also associated with hypercortisolism. High levels of cortisol can impair mood as well as cause hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and other traits typical of T2D and MetS. We hypothesize that HPA axis hyperactivation may be due to variants in the genes of the CRH receptors (CRHR1, CRHR2), corticotropin receptors (or melanocortin receptors, MC1R-MC5R), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), and of the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), and that these variants may be partially responsible for the clinical association of depression, T2D and MetS. In this review, we will focus on the correlation of stress, HPA axis hyperactivation, and the possible genetic role of the CRHR1, CRHR2, MCR1-5, NR3C1, and NR3C2 receptors and FKBP5 in the susceptibility to the comorbidity of depression, T2D, and MetS. New studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized role of these genes in the clinical association of depression, T2D, and MetS. PMID:24817815

  13. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PLASMA CORTISOL, CORTICOSTEROID-BINDING GLOBULIN (CBG), AND THE FREE CORTISOL INDEX (FCI) IN PIGS OVER A 24 H PERIOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between plasma free cortisol and the free cortisol index (FCI, the ratio of cortisol to CBG) was evaluated in eight 8-wk old pigs over a 24 h period and in response to administration of saline or ACTH. A high (P < 0.001) correlation was found between actual free cortisol and the FCI...

  14. Relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs over a 24 h period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Adcock; H. G. Kattesh; M. P. Roberts; A. M. Saxton; J. A. Carroll

    Summary The relationship between plasma free cortisol and the free cortisol index (FCI, the ratio of cortisol to CBG) was evaluated in eight 8-wk old pigs over a 24 h period and in response to administration of saline or ACTH. A high (P<.001) correlation was found between actual free cortisol and the FCI in both saline (r = 0.73) and

  15. Changes in cardiovascular risk factors and hormones during a comprehensive residential three month kriya yoga training and vegetarian nutrition.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T; Wijga, A; Von Zur Mühlen, A; Brabant, G; Wagner, T O

    1997-01-01

    In participants of a comprehensive residential three month yoga and mediation training programme living on a low fat lacto-vegetarian diet changes in cardiovascular risk factors and hormones were studied. Substantial risk factor reduction was found. Body mass index, total serum and LDL cholesterol, fibrinogen, and blood pressure were significantly reduced especially in those with elevated levels. Urinary excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, aldosterone, as well as serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were reduced, while cortisol excretion increased significantly. PMID:9401632

  16. Estimation of Maximal Cortisol Secretion Rate in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Zhi; Qualls, Clifford R.; Urban, Frank K.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Cortisol secretion is related to ACTH concentration by a sigmoidal dose-response curve, in which high ACTH concentrations drive maximal cortisol secretion rates (CSRmax). Objective: We sought to estimate CSRmax and free cortisol half-life in healthy humans (n = 21) using numerical methods applied to data acquired during cosyntropin (250 ?g) stimulation. We also evaluated the effect of overnight dexamethasone (DEX; 1 mg) vs. placebo on estimates of CSRmax and free cortisol half-life. Design: This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized order of overnight DEX vs. placebo, cosyntropin (250 ?g) stimulation with frequent serum cortisol sampling and computer-assisted numerical analysis. Setting: The study was conducted at a single academic medical center. Participants: Twenty-one healthy adult subjects (15 females and six males), mean aged 46 yr, participated in the study. Intervention: Intervention in the study included DEX vs. placebo pretreatment, cosyntropin (250 ?g) iv with frequent cortisol sampling. Main Outcome Measures: CSRmax and free cortisol half-life estimates, R2 for goodness of fit, were measured. Results: Mean ± sd CSRmax was 0.44 ± 0.13 nm/second, with free cortisol half-life of 2.2 ± 1.1 min. DEX did not significantly affect estimates of CSRmax or free cortisol half-life. Our model accounts for most of the variability of measured cortisol concentrations (overall R2 = 90.9 ±11.0%) and was more accurate (P = 0.004) during DEX suppression (R2 = 94.6 ± 4.6%) compared with placebo (R2 = 87.2 ± 8.7%). Conclusions: Application of a mass-action model under conditions of cosyntropin stimulation provides a relatively simple method for estimation CSRmax that accurately predicts measured cortisol concentrations. DEX administration did not significantly affect estimates of CSRmax or free cortisol half-life. PMID:22337905

  17. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass. PMID:12530732

  18. The effects of an anticipated challenge on diurnal cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Wetherell, Mark A; Lovell, Brian; Smith, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In healthy, non-challenged individuals, the secretion of cortisol typically follows a diurnal profile characterized by a peak in the period following waking (cortisol awakening response) and a gradual decline throughout the day. In addition, cortisol secretion is increased in response to acutely stressful stimuli, particularly stressors involving social evaluation. The current study is the first to assess the impact of an anticipated acute laboratory stressor upon the typical diurnal pattern of HPA activation and relationship to acute cortisol secretion. A sample of 23 healthy young adults provided salivary cortisol samples at four time points (immediately upon awakening, 30-min post-awakening, 1200?h and before bed) on 2 consecutive days. On the second day, participants attended the laboratory and undertook an anticipated acute socially evaluative stressor immediately following provision of their 1200?h saliva sample. Heart rate, blood pressure and mood were recorded immediately before and after the stressor and at 10 and 20?min post-stressor along with additional salivary cortisol samples. Typical patterns of cortisol secretion were observed on both days and exposure to the laboratory stressor was associated with the expected increases in cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure and negative mood. However, significant differences in diurnal cortisol secretion were observed between the two days with greater secretion, in particular, during the period following awakening, evident on the day of the anticipated laboratory stressor. Furthermore, secretion of cortisol during the period following awakening was positively related to secretion during the acute reactivity periods. This is the first study to integrate a laboratory stressor into a typical day and assess its impact on indices of diurnal cortisol secretion in an ambulatory setting. The current findings support the notion that the cortisol awakening response is associated with anticipation of the upcoming day and the subsequent demands required of the individual. PMID:25472822

  19. Relationship between midweek training measures of testosterone and cortisol concentrations and game outcome in professional rugby union matches.

    PubMed

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Cook, Christian J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response of salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations across selected midweek skill-based training sessions and their association with subsequent match outcome 3 days later. Twenty-two rugby union players were assessed for salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations before and after a midweek training session over 6 consecutive weeks. The relative percentage change (response) in the testosterone and cortisol concentration and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio was also determined. Game-day analysis consisted of prematch testosterone concentrations and match outcome. Data were pooled across the winning (n = 3) and losing (n = 3) outcomes. The midweek pretraining T/C ratio was significantly lower (p < 0.01) before a win than a loss and the increase in the pre- to post-T/C ratio before a win was significant (p < 0.001). The increase in the pre- to post-testosterone concentration before a win was also shown to be significant (p < 0.01). However, the relative changes in testosterone before games that were won were not statistically different to that of games lost (p > 0.01). Significant relationships were also demonstrated between game-day pre-testosterone concentrations and the midweek cortisol response (r = -0.90, p = 0.01) and midweek T/C ratio response (r = 0.90, p = 0.01). In conclusion, a midweek measurement of the T/C ratio against a skill-based training session seems to show some potential as an early indicator of subsequent successfully executed performances in competitive rugby union. If this work is subsequently validated, further monitoring of midweek hormone concentrations in response to a mixed psychological-physical training session may assist with assessing competitive readiness leading up to competition. PMID:24936894

  20. Serum cortisol concentrations in horses with colic.

    PubMed

    Mair, T S; Sherlock, C E; Boden, L A

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated cortisol concentrations in horses with colic. In humans with septic shock, high cortisol levels are associated with an increased risk of death. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum total cortisol concentrations (STCCs) in horses with colic to those without colic, and to assess whether the STCC relates to the pathological nature or outcome of the disease. STCCs were determined at presentation in horses with colic and in systemically healthy 'control' horses. Horses with colic were grouped based on clinical and clinico-pathological parameters at admission, treatment, lesion type and location, and outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed using two different outcome measures: (a) whether the horse had colic or not (yes vs. no), and (b) horse STCC (?200?nmol/L vs.?<200?nmol/L). Horses were more likely to have colic if they presented with high STCCs (?200?nmol/L compared with <200?nmol/L). Horses with colic and with STCCs??200nmol/L were more likely to have moderate or severe colic signs (compared with mild colic) and heart rates?>45 beats per min (compared with ?45 beats per min). It was concluded that colic in horses is associated with elevated STCCs, and increased STCC in horses with colic appears to relate to the severity of the disease. STCCs may provide additional decision-making and prognostic information in horses with colic but further studies are required to avoid misinterpretations associated with the wide variation in STCCs. PMID:24986316

  1. Relative adrenal insufficiency as a predictor of disease severity and mortality in severe septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Dalegrave, Daniele; Silva, Rafael Lockshin; Becker, Maicon; Gehrke, Lísia Varella; Friedman, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if cortisol responses to 250 µg of intravenously administered adrenocorticotropic hormone are related to disease severity and, hence, mortality. Methods This is a retrospective study in a medical-surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. We studied 69 consecutive patients with septic shock over a 1-yr period; these patients underwent a short 250-µg adrenocorticotropic hormone test because they exhibited >6 hours of progressive hemodynamic instability requiring repeated fluid challenges and vasopressor treatment to maintain blood pressure. The test was performed by intravenously injecting 250 µg of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone and measuring cortisol immediately before injection, 30 minutes post-injection and 60 minutes post-injection. Results The mean APACHE II score was 22±7. The intensive care unit mortality rate at day 28 was 55%. Median baseline cortisol levels (19 [11-27] µg/dL versus 24 [18-34] µg/dL, p=0.047) and median baseline cortisol/albumin ratios (7.6 [4.6-12.3] versus 13.9 [8.8-18.5]; p=0.01) were lower in survivors than in non-survivors. Responders and non-responders had similar baseline clinical data and outcomes. The variables that were significantly correlated with outcome based on the area under the ROC curves (AUC) were APACHE II (AUC=0.67 [0.535 to 0.781]), baseline cortisol (µg/dl) (AUC=0.662 [0.536 to 0.773], peak cortisol (µg/dl) (AUC=0.642 [0.515 to 0.755]) and baseline cortisol/albumin (AUC=0.75 [0.621 to 0.849]). Conclusions Increased basal cortisol is associated with mortality and disease severity. Cortisol responses upon adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation were not related to outcome. The cortisol/albumin ratio does not predict unfavorable outcomes better than total cortisol levels or help to improve the accuracy of the adrenocorticotropic hormone test. PMID:23917934

  2. Cortisol analysis of hair of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke; Hayashi, Misato; Suzuki, Juri

    2013-12-01

    In addition to behavioral evaluations, stress assessments are also important for measuring animal welfare. Assessments of long-term stress are particularly important given that prolonged stress can affect physical health and reproduction. The use of hair cortisol as a marker of long-term stress has been increasing, but there has not yet been any report on the use of such methods with chimpanzees. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish and validate a methodology for analyzing hair cortisol in captive chimpanzees. In the first experiment, hair was removed from the arms of nine chimpanzees living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS) and the regrown hair was sampled 3 months later. Fecal samples were collected periodically during the hair-growth period. The results showed that hair cortisol level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Although the correlation between hair and fecal cortisol levels was not significant, the individual with the highest hair cortisol concentration also had the highest fecal cortisol concentration. These results suggest that hair cortisol may reflect long-term stress in chimpanzees. In the second experiment, we investigated the physiological factors affecting hair cortisol concentrations. We cut hair from the arms, sides, and backs of 25 chimpanzees living at the KS and the Primate Research Institute. The results revealed that cortisol varied based on source body part and hair whiteness. Therefore, we recommend that hair should always be collected from the same body part and that white hair should be avoided as much as possible. PMID:24013009

  3. Cognitive-behavioral stress management reduces distress and 24-hour urinary free cortisol output among symptomatic HIV-infected gay men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Antoni; Stacy Cruess; Dean G. Cruess; Mahendra Kumar; Susan Lutgendorf; Gail Ironson; Elizabeth Dettmer; Jessie Williams; Nancy Klimas; Mary Ann Fletcher; Neil Schneiderman

    2000-01-01

    Background  Stress management interventions can reduce symptoms of distress as well as modulate certain immune system components in persons\\u000a infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These effects may occur in parallel with reductions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal\\u000a (HPA) axis hormones such as cortisol, which has been related in other work to a down-regulation of immune system components\\u000a relevant to HIV infection. The present

  4. Über das Verhalten von ACTH und Cortisol im Blut von Normalen und von Kranken mit primärer und sekundärer Störung der Nebennierenrindenfunktion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Retiene; A. Espinoza; K. H. Marx; E. F. Pfeiffer

    1965-01-01

    Bei Stoffwechselgesunden sowie bei Cushing-Kranken mit operativ bestätigter bilateraler Nebennierenrinden-Hyperplasie wurden vergleichende Untersuchungen des Cortisol- und ACTH-Blutspiegels im 24-Std-Verlauf durchgeführt. Die ACTH-Blutspiegel wurden meist anhand des Corticosteronanstieges im NNV-Blut hypophysektomierter Ratten gemessen. Bei Gesunden fand sich eine für beide Hormone völlig gleichsinnige Tagesrhythmik, die durch einen relativ hohen morgendlichen Gipfel sowie niedrigste Werte um Mitternacht ausgezeichnet war. Die Rhythmik von

  5. A secretagogin locus of the mammalian hypothalamus controls stress hormone release.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Roman A; Alpár, Alán; Zhang, Ming-Dong; Zeisel, Amit; Calas, André; Landry, Marc; Fuszard, Matthew; Shirran, Sally L; Schnell, Robert; Dobolyi, Árpád; Oláh, Márk; Spence, Lauren; Mulder, Jan; Martens, Henrik; Palkovits, Miklós; Uhlen, Mathias; Sitte, Harald H; Botting, Catherine H; Wagner, Ludwig; Linnarsson, Sten; Hökfelt, Tomas; Harkany, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical hormonal cascade along the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis orchestrates bodily responses to stress. Although corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), produced by parvocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and released into the portal circulation at the median eminence, is known to prime downstream hormone release, the molecular mechanism regulating phasic CRH release remains poorly understood. Here, we find a cohort of parvocellular cells interspersed with magnocellular PVN neurons expressing secretagogin. Single-cell transcriptome analysis combined with protein interactome profiling identifies secretagogin neurons as a distinct CRH-releasing neuron population reliant on secretagogin's Ca(2+) sensor properties and protein interactions with the vesicular traffic and exocytosis release machineries to liberate this key hypothalamic releasing hormone. Pharmacological tools combined with RNA interference demonstrate that secretagogin's loss of function occludes adrenocorticotropic hormone release from the pituitary and lowers peripheral corticosterone levels in response to acute stress. Cumulatively, these data define a novel secretagogin neuronal locus and molecular axis underpinning stress responsiveness. PMID:25430741

  6. The hormonal response to stress is not modified by the dramatic decrease in prolactin plasma concentration during surgery for microprolactinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Guieu; H Dufour; C Devaux; T Brue; J P Rosso; F Grisoli; M Grino; A Enjalbert; D Begoud; N Broder; H Rochat; P Jaquet

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIIVESTo determine the endocrine response to surgical stress in a homogeneous population of 36 women with microprolactinomas, particularly to evaluate the effect of the sharp decrease in plasma prolactin on stress induced hormonal secretion. In addition, the effects of exogenous opiates on prolactin secretion were studied.METHODSThe plasma kinetics of cortisol, prolactin, ACTH, GH, and ?-endorphin like immunoreactivity (?-ELI) were analysed

  7. EFFECT OF THERAPEUTIC AND DOUBLE THERAPEUTIC DOSES OF IVERMECTIN ON OXIDATIVE STATUS AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN MALE RABBITS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Hafez El-Far

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the biochemical alterations of oxida tive status and male sexual hormones, thyroid hormo nes, cortisol, liver function and kidney function; sixty male New Zealand White rabbits were equally allott ed according to their body weight into two groups. Con trol samples were collected before subcutaneous injection of rabbits by ivermectinin Therapeutic (T D) and Double Therapeutic Doses (DTD).

  8. Interaction between cadmium exposure and infection with the intestinal parasite Moniliformis moniliformis (Acanthocephala) on the stress hormone levels in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sures; G. Scheef; B. Klar; W. Kloas; H. Taraschewski

    2002-01-01

    The impact of an infection with the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis and a simultaneous Cd-exposure on the stress hormone levels of rats was studied. Immediately after the application of cadmium to some rats, cortisol levels in all groups of rats, as quantified by radioimmunoassay (RIA), significantly increased. However, infections with M. moniliformis as well as the uptake of Cd reduced significantly the

  9. Effect of anabolic implants on adrenal cortisol synthesis in feedlot beef cattle implanted early or late in the finishing phase.

    PubMed

    Gifford, C A; Branham, K A; Ellison, J O; Gómez, B I; Lemley, C O; Hart, C G; Krehbiel, C R; Bernhard, B C; Maxwell, C L; Goad, C L; Hallford, D M; Hernandez Gifford, J A

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of anabolic steroids to increase growth rate in beef cattle impacts adrenal glucocorticoid production. The mechanism by which combination androgen and estrogen implants reduce cortisol biosynthesis in heifers is not clear. The objective of this study was to identify whether pituitary or adrenal gene expression and liver enzyme activity may contribute to altered serum cortisol concentrations in heifers receiving a combination implant. On d 0 of a 122-d finishing phase, 187 predominantly Angus heifers (361 kg) approximately 14 months old were randomly assigned to one of three implant groups: (1) non-implanted control, (2) implanted at the beginning of the finishing phase (d 0; early implant) with a combination implant (200mg TBA+20mg E2; Revalor 200®), and (3) implanted during the late stage of the finishing phase (d 56; late implant) with Revalor 200®. At d 56, body weight (BW) was greater (P<0.0001) for the early implanted heifers (456 ± 1.9 kg) compared to 437 and 435 (± 1.8) kg for control and late implanted heifers, respectively. Final BW (d 122) was similar between both implanted groups and heavier than non-implanted controls (P<0.0001). Serum cortisol was similar among groups at d 0 (P=0.86) however, by d 28 heifers receiving the combination implant had reduced (P<0.05) serum cortisol concentrations (31.2 ng/mL) compared to controls (49.4 ng/mL) and late (48.2 ng/mL) groups. On d 84 cortisol was similar (P=0.75) among implanted heifers and was less (P<0.01) than non-implanted heifers. Expression of pituitary and adrenal genes involved in glucocorticoid synthesis was evaluated at d 28/29 or 84/85; however, despite decreased serum cortisol in implanted heifers, no change in mRNA expression was demonstrated. Liver CYP3A enzyme activity at d 28/29 was decreased 59% in early implanted heifers compared to control heifers (P=0.01). Additionally, at d 84/85 AKR1C activity was greatest (P=0.01) in control heifers compared to both implanted groups. Data suggest that components of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are influenced by exposure to exogenous hormones and this should be recognized when considering cortisol levels as a marker for stress response. PMID:25447333

  10. Hormones as “difference makers” in cognitive and socioemotional aging processes

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Kamin, Hayley; Diaz, Vanessa; Cohen, Ronald A.; MacDonald, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems—cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin—as “difference makers” in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: (1) examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; (2) exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and (3) considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions. PMID:25657633

  11. Levels and circadian rhythmicity of plasma ACTH, cortisol, and ?-endorphin as a function of family history of alcoholism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Gianoulakis; Xing Dai; Joseph Thavundayil; Thomas Brown

    2005-01-01

    Rationale  Individuals with a family history of alcoholism may present a dysfunction in the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal\\u000a (HPA) axis that predates the development of alcoholism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The present study investigated the hypothesis that this HPA-axis dysfunction is associated with alterations in the pattern\\u000a of the circadian (24 h) secretions of adrenal corticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and ?-endorphin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Men with [high risk (HR)

  12. Free cortisol index is better than serum total cortisol in determining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal status in patients undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    le Roux, C W; Chapman, G A; Kong, W M; Dhillo, W S; Jones, J; Alaghband-Zadeh, J

    2003-05-01

    Serum total cortisol has traditionally been used for the interpretation of tests of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Approximately 80% of total cortisol is bound to cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), and variation in CBG significantly affects serum total cortisol levels. Reliable assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reserve is difficult in severely ill patients, because CBG falls substantially during the acute phase response. The free cortisol index (FCI), defined as the ratio of total cortisol/CBG, correlates well with serum free cortisol. We evaluated the FCI in the context of severe stress and the acute phase response by measuring total cortisol and CBG pre- and postoperatively in 31 patients undergoing major elective surgery. Serum total cortisol increased by 55% from 453 +/- 35.2 (mean +/- SEM) nmol/liter (range, 88-882) to 700 +/- 47.2 (range, 294-1631) nmol/liter. Serum CBG decreased by 30% from 45 +/- 1.7 (range, 26.6-64.1) to 31.4 +/- 1.62 (range, 16.1-51.9) mg/liter, but FCI increased by 130% from 10 +/- 0.8 (range, 2-18) to 23 +/- 1.7 (range, 13-58) nmol/mg. In seven patients (23%), postoperative serum total cortisol was less than 500 nmol/liter, but their postoperative CBG levels were significantly lower than levels in the rest of the group (P < 0.01). However, there was no difference in the FCI between this subgroup and the rest of the group. This study demonstrates the importance of CBG measurement and the calculation of FCI for the interpretation of serum total cortisol in situations where CBG changes significantly. PMID:12727952

  13. Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R

    2014-06-22

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  14. The awakening cortisol response and blood glucose levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. H. Hucklebridge; A. Clow; T. Abeyguneratne; P. Huezo-Diaz; P. Evans

    1999-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is characterized by a marked circadian cycle with heightened activity in the morning. This is synchronized to awakening such that free cortisol increases two to three fold in the first thirty to forty five minutes following awakening — the awakening cortisol response. It has been suggested that this activity, by mobilizing energy reserves prepares the body for

  15. Reactivity and Regulation in Cortisol and Behavioral Responses to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Douglas; Lewis, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Examined relations between reactivity (peak response) and regulation (response dampening) in 6-month-olds' cortisol and behavioral responses to inoculation. Found that reactivity and regulation were unrelated for both cortisol and behavior, suggesting both measures are needed to characterize more accurately infant response to stress. Found…

  16. Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…

  17. Assessing Salivary Cortisol in Studies of Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Eve B.; Granger, Douglas A.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Laird, Brandi

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated the susceptibility of radioimmunoassays (RIA) for saliva cortisol to interference effects caused by oral stimulants (drink mix crystals) used to facilitate saliva collection in studies with children. Found that oral stimulants artificially inflated estimated cortisol concentrations, with the magnitude of the interference-effect…

  18. Measuring Salivary Cortisol in the Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian A. Kalman, Ruth E. Grahn (Conneticut College; )

    2004-05-07

    This article descibes an ethical experimental module of human biological parameters. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit measures human salivary cortisol levels, which can rise due to circadian and environmental changes. This easy to use sampling kit is described as an ideal procedure for students in behavioral neurobiology or physiological psychology laboratory class to examine cortisol levels.

  19. Cortisol Release in Infants in Response to Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Thomas, David

    1990-01-01

    Data provide strong evidence that studies of stress and cortisol release in infants must take into account basal level, circadian rhythm, and behavioral effects and employ appropriate statistical procedures. Participants were infants of two, four, and six months of age from whom salivary cortisol was obtained before and 15 minutes after an…

  20. Father Contributions to Cortisol Responses in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months…

  1. Suppressing the Morning Rise in Cortisol Impairs Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning…

  2. The Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) in 2-to

    E-print Network

    The Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) in 2- to 4-Year-Old Children: Effects of Acute Nighttime Sleep Restriction, Wake Time, and Daytime Napping ABSTRACT: The cortisol awakening response (CAR suggest the CAR is smaller in children than adults, well- controlled research in early childhood is scarce

  3. SexSpecific Consequences of Experimental Cortisol Elevation

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    SexSpecific Consequences of Experimental Cortisol Elevation in PreReproductive Wild Largemouth Bass) on energetic and physiological condition prior to reproduction in male and female largemouth bass (Micropterus of experimental cortisol elevation in prereproductive wild largemouth bass. J. Exp. Zool. 319A:23­31. J. Exp. Zool

  4. Steroid Hormones and Steroid Hormone Binding Globulins in Cerebrospinal Fluid Studied in Individuals with Intact and with Disturbed Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siegfried Schwarz; Peter Pohl

    1992-01-01

    We measured in simultaneously withdrawn cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 56 endocrinologically grossly normal patients the concentrations of several lipophilic unconjugated steroids [i.e. dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, cortisol, progesterone, testosterone] and their hydrophilic counterparts, i.e. DHEA-sulfate, or hydrophilic binding proteins, i.e. albumin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG). CSF levels of total (i.e. free plus protein-bound) DHEA,

  5. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2013-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method. PMID:23239176

  6. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels during an assessment procedure correlate differently with risk-taking measures in male and female police recruits

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Ruud; Taris, Ruben; Scheppink, Bianca; de Haan, Lydia; Verster, Joris C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent laboratory studies have shown that men display more risk-taking behavior in decision-making tasks following stress, whilst women are more risk-aversive or become more task-focused. In addition, these studies have shown that sex differences are related to levels of the stress hormone cortisol (indicative of activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis): the higher the levels of cortisol the more risk-taking behavior is shown by men, whereas women generally display more risk-aversive or task-focused behavior following higher levels of cortisol. Here, we assessed whether such relationships hold outside the laboratory, correlating levels of cortisol obtained during a job-related assessment procedure with decision-making parameters in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) in male and female police recruits. The CGT allows for discriminating different aspects of reward-based decision-making. In addition, we correlated levels of alpha-amylase [indicative of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary-axis (SAM)] and decision-making parameters. In line with earlier studies men and women only differed in risk-adjustment in the CGT. Salivary cortisol levels correlated positively and strongly with risk-taking measures in men, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation in women. In contrast, and less strongly so, salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with risk-taking in women, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation with risk-taking in men. Collectively, these data support and extend data of earlier studies indicating that risky decision-making in men and women is differently affected by stress hormones. The data are briefly discussed in relation to the effects of stress on gambling. PMID:24474909

  7. Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS Hormone assays Oliver: Schultheiss, O. C., Schiepe, A., & Rawolle, M. (2012). Hormone assays. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long Association. #12;Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 2 Hormone assays Hormones can be assayed from

  8. The cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin protects the cortisol response.

    PubMed

    Ruijters, Erik J B; Haenen, Guido R M M; Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt

    2014-01-01

    Various health benefits of the cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EC) have been attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency. In the present study we investigated whether EC is able to prevent deterioration of the anti-inflammatory effect of the glucocorticoid (GC) cortisol in the presence of oxidative stress. It was found that cortisol reduces inflammation in differentiated monocytes. Oxidative stress extinguishes the anti-inflammatory effect of cortisol, leading to cortisol resistance. EC reduces intracellular oxidative stress as well as the development of cortisol resistance. This further deciphers the enigmatic mechanism of EC by which it exerts its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action. The observed effect of the cocoa flavanol EC will especially be of relevance in pathophysiological conditions with increased oxidative stress and consequential GC resistance and provides a fundament for the rational use of dietary antioxidants. PMID:24269961

  9. Hormonally functional ovarian neoplasms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence M. Roth; Steven D. Billings

    2000-01-01

    Hormonally functional ovarian neoplasms are those tumors that secrete one or more hormones that are clinically manifested\\u000a in the patient. The hormone production may have implications for the diagnosis, management, or treatment of the patient. Hormonally\\u000a functional ovarian neoplasms include tumors that belong to various histologic categories and produce a variety of hormonal\\u000a effects. Functional ovarian tumors most commonly produce

  10. Effect of aminoglutethimide on urinary cortisol and cortisol metabolites in adolescents with Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zachmann, M; Gitzelmann, R P; Zagalak, M; Prader, A

    1977-07-01

    The effect of aminoglutethimide (AG) 4 X 250 mg (670 mg/m2 daily by mouth) on the excretion of the free cortisol (radio-immunoassay) and of its metabolites THE, THF-allo THF, cortolone and beta-cortolone (gas chromatography on capillary column) was studied monthly during 3-5 months in four adolescents (one girl, three boys) aged 15.9-18 years with Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, but without evidence of a pituitary tumour. Under AG, all compounds decreased to a minimum after 1-2 months. The decrease of THE- THF-allo THF was most marked, followed by cortolone-beta-cortolone and free cortisol. The sum of the conjugated metabolites was normalized, but free cortisol remained high. A rebound was noted after 3-5 months of continued treatment. This was associated with clinical relapse (weight gain, increasing blood pressure). With AG, a non-steroidal peak appeared on the chromatograms. It is concluded that: (1) AG is only temporarily effective in diminishing the excretion of cortisol and its metabolites; (2) paradoxical increments of 17-ketosteroids as reported from colorimetric analysis are non-specific and are probably due to the non-steroidal peak; and (3) AG appears to modify steroid catabolizing liver enzymes (inhibition of 5beta-reductase and/or 3alpha-dehydrogenase, possibly stimulation of 20alpha- and 20beta-dehydrogenases). This could increase the biological half-life of cortisol and contribute to the clinical rebound, which is due to increased ACTH-secretion. Because of its excellent short-term effects, AG appears to be useful to prepare patients for bilateral adrenalectomy. PMID:880734

  11. Early hormonal changes affect the catabolic response to trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, P Q; Lowe, K A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine how temporary insulin suppression might alter the catabolic effects of cortisol, glucagon, and epinephrine. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The metabolic responses to injury include hypermetabolism, accelerated net skeletal muscle protein breakdown, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. These alterations are associated with increased stress hormone concentrations. Insulin elaboration is usually suppressed immediately after an injury but is abundant later during convalescence. An infusion of hydrocortisone, glucagon, and epinephrine increases both stress hormone concentrations and insulin levels. It induces many of the metabolic alterations seen in critically ill patients, but it does not affect net muscle breakdown. METHODS: Seven healthy adults received a stress hormone infusion for 3 days in two separate studies. During one study they, also received an infusion of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide (0.005 micrograms/kg/min), to suppress insulin elaboration for the first 24 hours. During the other study (control), insulin was permitted to rise unchecked. RESULTS: Stress hormone concentrations, hypermetabolism (+/- 20% above basal), and leukocytosis were similar during both study periods. When insulin elaboration was temporarily suppressed, whole-body nitrogen loss was increased during the first 48 hours, and the efflux of amino acids from the forearm after 72 hours of infusion was 60% greater than the control level. CONCLUSIONS: Temporary insulin suppression during physiologic increases in stress hormone concentrations amplified whole-body nitrogen loss and led to the development of accelerated net skeletal muscle protein breakdown. Early hormonal changes after an injury may affect the development of later catabolic responses. PMID:8215639

  12. Melanotroph pituitary adenoma in a cat with diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Meij; R. H. van der Vlugt-Meijer; T. S. G. A. M. van den Ingh; G. Flik; A. Rijnberk

    2005-01-01

    A 13-year-old male, castrated, crossbred cat was referred for insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. The cat had a ravenous appetite and a dull coat. Basal urinary corticoid\\/creatinine ratios were normal. In the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test there was no suppression of the (nonelevated) plasma cortisol concentration, whereas the (nonelevated) plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentration declined to low values. Basal plasma alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone

  13. Glucocorticoid receptors in major depression: relevance to pathophysiology and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmine M Pariante; Andrew H Miller

    2001-01-01

    %Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis has been reliably observed in patients with major depression. One of the primary features of this HPA axis hyperactivity is reduced sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone on the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol during the dexamethasone suppression test and, more recently, the dexamethasone–corticotropin-releasing hormone test. Because the effects of

  14. Husbandry of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and the cortisol stress response.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Michail; Digka, Nikoletta; Theodoridi, Antonia; Campo, Aurora; Barsakis, Konstantinos; Skouradakis, Gregoris; Samaras, Athanasios; Tsalafouta, Alexandra

    2013-12-01

    The effect of common husbandry conditions (crowding, social environment, water quality, handling, and background color) on the cortisol stress response in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, was investigated to check the usefulness of zebrafish as a model organism in aquaculture research. In addition, a noninvasive methodology for assessing stress was evaluated. Zebrafish showed a fast cortisol response with high values at 30 min that returned to basal levels within 2 h of poststress. There was a significant positive correlation between trunk cortisol concentrations and the free water cortisol rate (r(2)=0.829-0.850, p<0.001), indicating that measurement of the water-borne cortisol release rate may serve as a noninvasive and reliable stress indicator at the population level. Crowding resulted in 13- to 21-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations compared with controls. However, even at low stocking density (2-5 fish/L), the maintenance cost was higher than the one at higher densities (10 fish/L) due to the formation of dominance hierarchies. The background color affected trunk cortisol concentrations, with fish exposed to brighter backgrounds (green and white) showing 3- to 8-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations than fish exposed to a black background or transparent aquaria. Fish exposed to high stocking densities for 2 h or 5 days had similar high mean trunk cortisol levels, indicating that exposure of fish for the period of 2 h to a specific stressor may represent a chronic situation in zebrafish. It is concluded that adult laboratory zebrafish had a preference for a transparent or black background aquarium, at a number of 10 individuals per 2 L of available water volume, to express their normal behavior and avoid increased cortisol stress reaction. PMID:23886279

  15. Assessment of the stress response in Columbian ground squirrels: laboratory and field validation of an enzyme immunoassay for fecal cortisol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Bosson, Curtis O; Palme, Rupert; Boonstra, Rudy

    2009-01-01

    Stress responses play a critical role in the ecology and demography of wild animals, and the analysis of fecal hormone metabolites is a powerful noninvasive method to assess the role of stress. We characterized the metabolites of injected radiolabeled cortisol in the urine and feces of Columbian ground squirrels and validated an enzyme immunoassay for measuring fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) with a 5 alpha-3beta,11 beta-diol structure by stimulation and suppression of adrenocortical activity and by evaluation of the circadian pattern of FCM excretion. In addition, we also evaluated the impact of capture, handling, and acclimation to the laboratory on FCM. Cortisol is highly metabolized, with virtually none being excreted, and of the radiolabeled cortisol injected, 31% was recovered in urine and 6.5% in feces. The lag time between cortisol injection and its appearance in urine and feces was 4.5 +/- 0.82 (SE) h and 7.0 +/- 0.53 (SE) h, respectively. FCM levels varied over the day, reflecting circadian variation in endogenous cortisol. Dexamethasone decreased FCM levels by 33%, and ACTH increased them by 255%. Trapping and housing initially increased FCM levels and decreased body mass, but these reversed within 3-7 d, indicating acclimation. Finally, FCM levels were modestly repeatable over time (r=0.57) in wild, live trapped, nonbreeding animals, indicating that FCMs provide a measure of the squirrel's stress-axis state. This assay provides a robust noninvasive assessment of the stress response of the Columbian ground squirrel and will facilitate an integration of its life history and physiology. PMID:19335228

  16. Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Miller, L L; Hontela, A

    2011-06-01

    Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na(2)SO(3)) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC(50)>2000mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC(50)=8.7mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC(50)=90.4mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. PMID:21466817

  17. Maternal and Umbilical Artery Cortisol at Birth: Relationships With Epidural Analgesia and Newborn Alertness

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Aleeca F.; White-Traut, Rosemary; Wang, Edward C.; Schwertz, Dorie

    2013-01-01

    Background Newborn alertness soon after birth facilitates mother–infant interaction and may be related to umbilical cortisol levels. Yet, little is known about whether epidural analgesia influences umbilical cortisol at birth. Aim The aims of this study were to explore relationships between exposure to epidural analgesia and maternal and umbilical cortisol; maternal and umbilical cortisol levels at birth; and umbilical cortisol and infant alertness after birth. Method Forty women were self-selected to unmedicated or epidural labors in this pilot study. Maternal saliva and infant umbilical artery (UA) plasma at birth were enzyme immunoassayed for cortisol. Infant alertness was assessed nearly 1 hr after birth. Results Maternal cortisol was higher in the unmedicated versus epidural group (p = .003). Umbilical cortisol was not related to epidural analgesia exposure but was related to duration of labor (higher cortisol with longer labors; p = .026). Maternal cortisol level explained 55% of the variance in umbilical cortisol in the unmedicated group (p = .002), but there was no significant shared variance in the epidural sample (p = .776). There was a positive correlation (r2 = .17, p = .008) between umbilical cortisol and infant alertness. Latina infants demonstrated a higher frequency of alertness than Black infants. In multivariate analysis, umbilical cortisol (p = .049) and race/ethnicity (p = .024) remained significant predictors of infant alertness. Conclusions Our findings indicate that higher umbilical cortisol is related to greater infant alertness soon after birth. While epidural analgesia did not directly relate to infant cortisol, other factors contributed to higher umbilical cortisol. PMID:21719528

  18. Differential expression of two glucocorticoid receptors in seabass (teleost fish) head kidney after exogeneous cortisol inoculation.

    PubMed

    Vazzana, Mirella; Vizzini, Aiti; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Celi, Monica; Salerno, Giuseppina; Parrinello, Nicolò

    2010-09-01

    Stressful conditions include a prompt release of corticosteroid hormones which can mediate gene expression through glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Since two seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) GRs have been cloned and sequenced from peritoneal cavity cells (DlGR1) and liver (DlGR2), a comparative amino acid sequence analysis that included Haplochromis burtoni HbGRs, was carried out and homologies disclosed. The DlGR1 and DlGR2 deduced aminoacid sequences showed 61% identity (I) and 70% similarity (S). Moreover, DlGR2 was similar to HbGR2b (69% I, 73% S), and the DlGR1 to HbGR1 (72% I, 78% S). In addition, we examined the expression of the DlGRs after exogeneous cortisol inoculation into the peritoneal cavity, mimicking stress effects. At various times after the administration (3 h, 24 h, 1 week), gene expressions was evaluated in head kidney by real-time PCR. In addition, immunoblotting and densitometry analyses were performed with anti-DlGR1 antibodies. Although sea bass head kidney expressed both DlGR1 and DlGR2 they were differentially modulated by intraperitoneal implant of exogeneous cortisol. PMID:20460166

  19. Clinical anxiety, cortisol and interleukin-6: Evidence for specificity in emotion–biology relationships

    PubMed Central

    O'Donovan, Aoife; Hughes, Brian M.; Slavich, George M.; Lynch, Lydia; Cronin, Marie-Therese; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Malone, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety confers increased risk for inflammatory diseases, and elevated inflammatory activity in anxious individuals may contribute to this increased risk. One complication, however, is that anxiety could be associated with inflammatory activity either through a specific anxiety pathway or through a more general negative emotionality pathway. To investigate, we measured levels of the stress hormone cortisol, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as depression and neuroticism, in clinically anxious and non-anxious adults. Compared with non-anxious participants, clinically anxious participants exhibited significantly lower levels of morning cortisol and significantly higher levels of IL-6, independent of age, sex, and depressive symptoms. These group differences were robust when controlling for neuroticism. Conversely, the groups had equivalent levels of CRP in all analyses. Results are indicative of anxiety-specific effects on inflammatory activity, and highlight a pathway by which anxiety may increase risk for inflammatory diseases. PMID:20227485

  20. Changes in plasma cortisol and catecholamine concentrations in response to massage in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Acolet, D; Modi, N; Giannakoulopoulos, X; Bond, C; Weg, W; Clow, A; Glover, V

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical and clinical response to massage in preterm infants was assessed. Eleven stable infants, of 29 weeks' median gestational age, median birth weight 980 g, and median postnatal age 20 days, were studied. Blood samples were obtained for the determination of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol 45 minutes before the start of massage and approximately one hour after completion of massage. Cortisol, but not catecholamine, concentrations decreased consistently after massage (median difference -35.8 nmol/l; 95% confidence interval -0.5 to -94.0, Wilcoxon matched pairs). There was a slight decrease in skin temperature (median difference -0.36 degrees C, 95% confidence interval -0.09 to -0.65) but there was no change in oxygenation or oxygen requirement. This study has shown that it is possible to detect an objective hormonal change following a supposedly 'non-therapeutic' intervention in preterm infants. The development of such methods of assessment are likely to be of particular relevance in the extremely immature or ill neonate in whom behavioural evaluation cannot play more than a limited part. Images PMID:8439193

  1. Effect of training on blood volume and plasma hormone concentrations in the elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. F.; Convertino, V. A.; Wood, C. E.; Graves, J. E.; Lowenthal, D. T.; Pollock, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 6 months of endurance training on resting plasma (PV) and blood volume (BV), and resting hormone and electrolyte concentrations in the elderly. Thirty-eight elderly men and women (ages 60-82 yr) were assigned to endurance exercise training (N = 29) or to control (N = 9) groups. Resting plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, vasopressin, aldosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, sodium, potassium, and protein were measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of 26 wk of training. PV measurement was performed using the Evan's blue dye technique. Endurance training consisted of uphill treadmill walking or stairclimbing exercise 3 times.wk-1, 30-45 min.d-1, at 75-84% of maximal heart rate reserve. The exercise group increased VO2max by 11.2% (P < or = 0.05) and increased resting PV and BV by 11.2% and 12.7% (P < or = 0.05), respectively. Hormone and electrolyte levels in the exercise group remained unchanged; all variables were unchanged in the control group. These results are similar to findings in younger individuals. Because plasma hormone concentrations were maintained despite a chronically elevated BV, endurance training in healthy, elderly subjects may be associated with a resetting of volume receptors.

  2. Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standard clinical chemistry analyzers, thus allowing even small clinical laboratories to do analysis on-site. One limitation of steroid hormone immunoassays is interference caused by compounds with structural similarity to the target steroid of the assay. Interfering molecules include structurally related endogenous compounds and their metabolites as well as drugs such as anabolic steroids and synthetic glucocorticoids. Methods Cross-reactivity of a structurally diverse set of compounds were determined for the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assays for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. These data were compared and contrasted to package insert data and published cross-reactivity studies for other marketed steroid hormone immunoassays. Cross-reactivity was computationally predicted using the technique of two-dimensional molecular similarity. Results The Roche Elecsys Cortisol and Testosterone II assays showed a wider range of cross-reactivity than the DHEA sulfate, Estradiol II, and Progesterone II assays. 6-Methylprednisolone and prednisolone showed high cross-reactivity for the cortisol assay, with high likelihood of clinically significant effect for patients administered these drugs. In addition, 21-deoxycortisol likely produces clinically relevant cross-reactivity for cortisol in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may produce clinically relevant cross-reactivity in 11?-hydroxylase deficiency or following metyrapone challenge. Several anabolic steroids may produce clinically significant false positives on the testosterone assay, although interpretation is limited by sparse pharmacokinetic data for some of these drugs. Norethindrone therapy may impact immunoassay measurement of testosterone in women. Using two-dimensional similarity calculations, all compounds with high cross-reactivity also showed a high degree of similarity to the target molecule of the immunoassay. Conclusions Compounds producing cross-reactivity in steroid hormone immunoassays generally have a high degree of structural similarity to the target hormone. Clinically significant interactions can occur with structurally similar drugs (e.g., prednisolone and cortisol immunoassays; methyltestosterone and testosterone immunoassays) or with endogenous compounds such as 21-deoxycortisol that can accumulate to very high concentrations in certain disease conditions. Simple similarity calculations can help triage compounds for future testing of assay cross-reactivity. PMID:25071417

  3. Hormonal changes during 17 days of head-down bed-rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Arnaud, Sara B.; Monk, Timothy H.; Claustrat, Bruno; Gharib, Claude; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette

    2003-01-01

    We investigated in six men the impact of 17 days of head-down bed rest (HDBR) on the daily rhythms of the hormones involved in hydroelectrolytic regulation. This HDBR study was designed to mimic a real space flight. Urine samples were collected at each voiding before, during and after HDBR. Urinary excretion of Growth Hormone (GH), Cortisol, 6 Sulfatoxymelatonin, Normetadrenaline (NMN) and Metadrenaline (NM) was determined. A decrease in urinary cortisol excretion during the night of HDBR was noted. For GH, a rhythm was found before and during HDBR. The rhythm of melatonin, evaluated with the urine excretion of 6 Sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S), the main hepatic metabolite, persisted throughout the experiment without any modification to the level of phase. A decrease during the night was noted for normetadrenaline urinary derivates, but only during the HDBR.

  4. The effect of aggressive rosuvastatin treatment on steroid hormone production in men with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2014-04-01

    Most steroid hormones are produced from cholesterol contained in low-density lipoproteins, which is uptaken by the gonads and adrenal cortex, and used as a substrate for steroidogenesis. Theoretically, in states associated with very low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, cholesterol conversion to steroid hormones may be impaired. The study included 15 men with coronary artery disease, in whom initial statin treatment had been unsuccessful and therefore was replaced with rosuvastatin (20-40 mg daily). Although in 11 patients, rosuvastatin decreased plasma LDL cholesterol levels to below 70 mg/dL, the drug only moderately reduced testosterone levels and increased gonadotropin levels, as well as insignificantly increased plasma ACTH levels. Aggressive rosuvastatin treatment did not affect plasma cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels, and urine free cortisol. Our results suggest that intensive rosuvastatin treatment is associated with only small changes in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis. PMID:24330280

  5. Plant-Hormones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Long Ashton Research Station -- part of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (UK) -- will close in March 2003, but its online resource Plant-Hormones will continue to provide general information and references on gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, and other hormone groups. Additionally, this Web site provides a link to a listserver for plant hormone scientists, a discussion forum "intended to promote communication between professionals in the plant hormone field." Plant-Hormones also lists job vacancies, meetings announcements, and Web links for botany and molecular biology resources, while offering an online directory of plant hormone researchers searchable by country.

  6. Cortisol, cytokines, and hippocampal volume interactions in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Sudheimer, Keith D.; O'Hara, Ruth; Spiegel, David; Powers, Bevin; Kraemer, Helena C.; Neri, Eric; Weiner, Michael; Hardan, Antonio; Hallmayer, Joachim; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2014-01-01

    Separate bodies of literature report that elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol negatively affect hippocampal structure and cognitive functioning, particularly in older adults. Although interactions between cytokines and cortisol occur through a variety of known mechanisms, few studies consider how their interactions affect brain structure. In this preliminary study, we assess the impact of interactions between circulating levels of IL-1Beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and waking cortisol on hippocampal volume. Twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults underwent blood draws for quantification of circulating cytokines and saliva collections to quantify the cortisol awakening response. Hippocampal volume measurements were made using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Elevated levels of waking cortisol in conjunction with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. In addition, independent of cortisol, higher levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were also associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. These data provide preliminary evidence that higher cortisol, in conjunction with higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are associated with smaller hippocampal volume in older adults. We suggest that the dynamic balance between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and inflammation processes may explain hippocampal volume reductions in older adults better than either set of measures do in isolation. PMID:25071562

  7. Childhood trauma and diurnal cortisol disruption in fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weissbecker, Inka; Floyd, Andrea; Dedert, Eric; Salmon, Paul; Sephton, Sandra

    2006-04-01

    Adults with fibromyalgia syndrome report high rates of childhood trauma. Neuroendocrine abnormalities have also been noted in this population. Exploratory analyses tested relationships between retrospective reports of childhood trauma and diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among 85 women with fibromyalgia. Subjects with fibromyalgia completed self-reports of childhood physical, sexual and emotional abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect. Recent major life events, current perceptions of stress, and depressive symptoms were also assessed. Salivary cortisol was collected six times per day for two consecutive days to assess diurnal rhythm, awakening response and mean cortisol levels. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed, controlling for age, relevant medications, life events, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms. Childhood physical abuse predicted flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms as well as greater cortisol responses to awakening. Sexual abuse was a second predictor of increased awakening cortisol responses. Patients with a history of trauma had markedly low levels of cortisol at the time of first awakening, partly explaining the results. These findings suggest that severe traumatic experiences in childhood may be a factor of adult neuroendocrine dysregulation among fibromyalgia sufferers. Trauma history should be evaluated and psychosocial intervention may be indicated as a component of treatment for fibromyalgia. PMID:16274933

  8. The Impact of PTSD Treatment on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Maria L.; Feeny, Norah; Zoellner, Lori; Delahanty, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; however, limited research has examined whether cortisol levels change following successful PTSD treatment. The current study examined the impact of successful PTSD treatment on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Method Twenty-nine adults participating in a treatment trial for chronic PTSD provided saliva samples (upon waking, and 30, 45, and 60-min post-waking) before and after receiving either prolonged exposure therapy or sertraline. PTSD responder status (i.e., loss or retention of a PTSD diagnosis) served as the predictor variable. Outcome measures included area under the curve with respect to ground and increase, reflecting total cortisol output and HPA axis reactivity, respectively. Results A series of hierarchical regressions revealed no significant main effects of PTSD responder status for either CAR outcome. However, a significant gender by treatment response interaction for cortisol reactivity revealed that female treatment non-responders displayed higher cortisol reactivity following treatment than female responders, whereas cortisol reactivity did not change pre- to post-treatment for male responders. Findings remained after controlling for age, trauma history, baseline medication status, baseline PTSD, and baseline depressive symptoms. Conclusion Loss of a PTSD diagnosis may contribute to decreased cortisol reactivity in females. Neuroendocrine changes following treatment may emerge only for specific subgroups, highlighting the importance of exploring treatment moderators. PMID:25327949

  9. Approaches to salivary cortisol collection and analysis in infants.

    PubMed

    Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota D; Letourneau, Nicole; Azar, Rima

    2014-10-01

    Salivary cortisol is becoming more commonly utilized as a biologic marker of stress in observational studies and intervention research. However, its use with infants (12 months of age or younger) is less widespread and poses some special challenges to researchers. In order to decide on the most suitable collection procedure for salivary cortisol in infants, a number of criteria should be considered. This article will aid investigators interested in integrating salivary cortisol measurement into their research studies by presenting (1) an overview of the patterns of cortisol secretion in infancy including the development of diurnal rhythm and response to stress; (2) a comparison of the most commonly used approaches for collecting salivary cortisol samples in infants including cotton rope, syringe aspiration technique, filter paper, hydrocellulose microsponge, and the Salimetrics children's swab; (3) a discussion of the factors contributing to heightened cortisol variability in infancy and how these can be limited; (4) analytical issues associated with cortisol measurement; and (5) examples of criteria to consider when choosing a saliva sampling method and lab for conducting assays. PMID:24136995

  10. Acute Effects of Bright Light Exposure on Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Christopher M.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Cajochen, Christian; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Multisynaptic neural and endocrine pathways from the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus have been hypothesized to communicate circadian and photic information to the adrenal glands. In humans, light exposure has been reported to have no effect, increase, or decrease cortisol levels. These inconsistent findings in humans may be related to differences among studies including the intensity (?500 to 5500 lux), duration (15 min to 4 h), and circadian phase of light exposure. The authors assessed the influence of exposure to bright light on cortisol levels in humans during the rising and descending phases of the circadian rhythm of cortisol, that is, when cortisol levels are high. Twenty healthy men and women were studied using a within-subject research design. Subjects were studied in an environment free of time cues for 9 to 10 days. Subjects received a 6.7-h exposure of bright light (?10,000 lux; equivalent to ambient light intensity just after sunrise or just before sunset) or dim light (?3 lux; equivalent to candlelight) during the biological night and morning. Bright light exposure significantly reduced plasma cortisol levels at both circadian phases studied, whereas dim light exposure had little effect on cortisol levels. The finding of an acute suppressive effect of bright light exposure on cortisol levels supports the existence of a mechanism by which photic information can acutely influence the human adrenal glands. PMID:20484692

  11. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone growth hormone, oestradiol, testosterone

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone growth hormone, oestradiol, testosterone of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, North Humberside, England. Summary. The concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH), oestra- diol, testosterone and androstenedione were determined in weekly blood

  12. Interventions to improve cortisol regulation in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Katie A; Shonkoff, Jack P

    2014-02-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with physiologic dysregulation across multiple biological systems; however, relatively little is known about whether these changes are reversible with intervention. The objective of this review was to examine evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy cortisol regulation in children. We selected articles from English-language publications in PubMed and EBSCO databases through 2012. Two independent reviewers assessed articles against eligibility criteria. Eligible studies were randomized controlled or quasi-experimental studies designed to improve relationships, environments, or psychosocial functioning in children and examined cortisol as an outcome. We identified 19 articles. There was substantial heterogeneity across studies with regard to age, selection criteria, intervention design, cortisol assessment, and follow-up duration. Eighteen of the 19 articles reported at least 1 difference in baseline cortisol, diurnal cortisol, or cortisol responsivity between intervention and control participants. Importantly, however, there was remarkable inconsistency with regard to how the interventions influenced cortisol. Therefore, studies that included a low-risk comparison group (n = 8) provided critical insight, and each found some evidence that postintervention cortisol levels in the intervention group approximated the low-risk comparison group and differed from children receiving usual care. In conclusion, existing studies show that cortisol activity can be altered by psychosocial interventions. These findings are promising, not only because they indicate physiologic plasticity that can be leveraged by interventions but also because they suggest it may be possible to repair regulatory systems after childhood adversity, which could inform strategies for reducing health disparities and promoting lasting improvements in health. PMID:24420810

  13. Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Theoretically, the physiological response to stress should inhibit the sexual response. This has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models, and correlationally in studies of human reproduction. It is reasonable to expect, then, that the stress response would be blunted during sexual arousal, and several researchers have found a pattern of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim In the present study, we explored individual differences in women’s cortisol response to sexual arousal in a laboratory setting. We also examined how cortisol response in the laboratory related to a validated measure of sexual arousal functioning in real life. Main Outcome Measures Cortisol levels were measured in saliva via enzyme immunoassay. Subjective arousal was measured by a self-report questionnaire, and genital arousal was measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Methods Subjective and physiological responses to an erotic film were assessed in 30 women. Saliva samples were taken at baseline and following the film. Results The majority of women (N = 20) showed a decrease in cortisol; nine women showed an increase in response to an erotic film. The women who showed an increase in cortisol had lower scores on the Arousal, Desire, and Satisfaction domains of the Female Sexual Function Index. Genital arousal in the laboratory was not related to cortisol change. Conclusions Women who show an increase in cortisol in response to sexual stimuli in the laboratory have lower levels of functioning in certain areas of their sexual life compared with women who show a decrease in cortisol. Stress related to sexual performance may interfere with sexual arousal. PMID:18624961

  14. Interventions to Improve Cortisol Regulation in Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Shonkoff, Jack P.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with physiologic dysregulation across multiple biological systems; however, relatively little is known about whether these changes are reversible with intervention. The objective of this review was to examine evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy cortisol regulation in children. We selected articles from English-language publications in PubMed and EBSCO databases through 2012. Two independent reviewers assessed articles against eligibility criteria. Eligible studies were randomized controlled or quasi-experimental studies designed to improve relationships, environments, or psychosocial functioning in children and examined cortisol as an outcome. We identified 19 articles. There was substantial heterogeneity across studies with regard to age, selection criteria, intervention design, cortisol assessment, and follow-up duration. Eighteen of the 19 articles reported at least 1 difference in baseline cortisol, diurnal cortisol, or cortisol responsivity between intervention and control participants. Importantly, however, there was remarkable inconsistency with regard to how the interventions influenced cortisol. Therefore, studies that included a low-risk comparison group (n = 8) provided critical insight, and each found some evidence that postintervention cortisol levels in the intervention group approximated the low-risk comparison group and differed from children receiving usual care. In conclusion, existing studies show that cortisol activity can be altered by psychosocial interventions. These findings are promising, not only because they indicate physiologic plasticity that can be leveraged by interventions but also because they suggest it may be possible to repair regulatory systems after childhood adversity, which could inform strategies for reducing health disparities and promoting lasting improvements in health. PMID:24420810

  15. Short-term incubation of equine laminar veins with cortisol and insulin alters contractility in vitro: possible implications for the pathogenesis of equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Keen, J A; McGorum, B C; Hillier, C; Nally, J E

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of cortisol and insulin, hormones that affect both glycaemic status and vascular function, on the in vitro contractility of isolated healthy equine small laminar veins. Small veins (150-500 ?m) draining the digital laminae from healthy horses or ponies were investigated by wire myography. Concentration response curves were constructed for noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the presence of either cortisol (10(-6 ) m) or insulin (1000 ?IU/mL). Cortisol significantly increased the maximum contractility of laminar veins to the vasoconstrictors NA and 5-HT but decreased the maximal contraction to ET-1. Insulin decreased the contractility of vessels to PE and ET-1. It is possible that short-term cortisol excess could enhance venoconstrictor responses to 5-HT and NA in laminar veins in vivo, thereby predisposing to laminitis. Additionally, a reduction in the ability of insulin to counteract alpha-adrenoreceptor and ET-1-mediated contraction, likely to occur in subjects with insulin resistance, may further exacerbate venoconstriction in animals prone to laminitis. These mechanisms may also predispose horses with disorders such as equine Cushing's disease and equine metabolic syndrome to laminitis. PMID:22943152

  16. Hormonal effects on the secretion and glycoform profile of corticosteroid-binding globulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Mihrshahi; John G. Lewis; Sinan O. Ali

    2006-01-01

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a plasma glycoprotein that is primarily synthesized in the liver and binds cortisol and progesterone with high affinity. In this study, a CBG secreting hepatocellular carcinoma derived cell line (HepG2) was used to investigate the hormonal regulation of hepatic CBG synthesis. HepG2 cells were grown for 72h in 30, 300 and 3000nM concentrations of estradiol (E2),

  17. Seasonal variation of steroid hormone levels in an intertidal-nesting fish, the vocal plainfin midshipman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Sisneros; Paul M. Forlano; Rosemary Knapp; Andrew H. Bassa

    2004-01-01

    This study characterized the seasonal variation of the steroid hormones testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17?-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) as they relate to the gonadal development and reproductive behavior of the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus. The plainfin midshipman is a deep-water teleost that seasonally migrates into the shallow intertidal zone where type I, or “singing,” males build nests, acoustically

  18. Relationship of Plasma Growth Hormone to Slow-Wave Sleep in African Sleeping Sickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manny W. Radomski; Alain Buguet; Félix Doua; Pascal Bogui; Philippe Tapie

    1996-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is a unique disease model of disrupted circadian rhythms in the sleep-wake cycle and cortisol and prolactin secretion. This study examined the temporal relationship between growth hormone (GH) secretion and the sleep-wake cycle in 8 infected African patients and 6 healthy indigenous African subjects. Twenty-four-hour sleep patterns were recorded by polysomnography and hourly blood samples

  19. Sex differences in acute hormonal and subjective response to naltrexone: The impact of menstrual cycle phase.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel J O; King, Andrea C

    2015-02-01

    Women often exhibit larger hormonal and subjective responses to opioid receptor antagonists than men, but the biological mechanisms mediating this effect remain unclear. Among women, fluctuations in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) across the menstrual cycle (MC) affect the endogenous opioid system. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to compare acute naltrexone response between women in the early follicular phase of the MC (low E2 and P4), women in the luteal phase of the MC (high E2 and P4), and men. Seventy healthy controls (n=46 women) participated in two morning sessions in which they received 50mg naltrexone or placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Women were randomized to complete both sessions in either the early follicular (n=23) or luteal phase of the MC. Serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), and subjective response were assessed upon arrival to the laboratory and at regular intervals after pill administration. In luteal and early follicular women but not men, naltrexone (vs. placebo) increased serum cortisol and prolactin levels from baseline; however, the naltrexone-induced increases in these hormones were significantly greater in luteal women than early follicular women. Additionally, only luteal women demonstrated an increase from baseline in salivary cortisol levels and the severity of adverse drug effects in response to naltrexone. In sum, the results indicate that luteal phase women are more sensitive to acute hormonal and subjective effects of naltrexone than early follicular women and men. These findings may have important implications for the use of naltrexone in women. PMID:25459893

  20. Faecal cortisol metabolites in Bengal (Panthera tigris tigris) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Parnell, Tempe; Clark, Giles; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-12-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) faces a great risk of extinction as its wild numbers have plummeted due to poaching and habitat destruction so ex-situ conservation programs are becoming ever more necessary. Reliable non-invasive biomarkers of the stress hormone (cortisol) are necessary for assessing the health and welfare of tigers in captivity. To our knowledge, non-invasive stress endocrinology methods have not been tested as widely in tigers. The first aim of this study was to describe and validate a faecal cortisol metabolite enzyme-immmunoassay (FCM EIA) for two tiger sub-species, the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). Individual tigers (n=22) were studied in two large Zoos in Queensland, Australia (Dreamworld Theme Park and Australia Zoo). Fresh faecal samples (<12 h old) were collected each morning from both Zoos over a study period of 21 days. Biological validation was conducted separately by collecting feces 5 days before and 5 days after blood was taken from four male and five female tigers. Results showed that mean FCM levels increased by 138% and 285% in the male and female tigers within 1 day after bloods were taken, returning to baseline in 5 days. Laboratory validations of the FCM EIA were done using an extraction efficiency test and parallelism. Results showed >89% recovery of the cortisol standard that was added to tiger faecal extract. We also obtained parallel displacement of the serially diluted cortisol standard against serially diluted tiger faecal extract. Our second aim was to determine whether the FCM levels were significantly different between tiger sub-species and sex. Results showed no significant difference in mean FCM levels between the Bengal and Sumatran tiger sub-species. Mean levels of FCMs were significantly higher in females than in male tigers. Those male and female tigers with reported health issues during the study period expressed higher FCM levels than the reportedly healthy tigers. Interestingly, those tigers that took part in some activity (such as walks, photos, presentations and guest feeds) expressed moderately higher FCM levels at Dreamworld and lower FCM levels at Australia Zoo in comparison to those tigers that did not take part in such activities. These results indicate potential habituation in some tigers for routine activity through specialized training and pre-conditioning. In conclusion, the FCM EIA described in this study provides a reliable non-invasive method for evaluating the stress status of tigers in Zoos. PMID:24140710

  1. Effect of three day bed-rest on circulatory and hormonal responses to active orthostatic test in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubala, P.; Smorawinski, J.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Circulatory and hormonal parameters were measured in endurance-trained athletes and control subjects during orthostatic tolerance tests conducted prior to and after three days of bed rest. Heart rate and blood pressure changes due to bed rest appeared to be the same in both groups. Hormonal changes, however, were different between the two groups, with the athletes having decreased sympathoadrenal activity and increased plasma renin activity. Untrained subjects had changes in cortisol secretion only.

  2. Circulating cortisol & related steroids following ketoconazole challenge in Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Dash, R J; Khandekar, S; Lata, V; Bhansali, A

    1990-06-01

    Circulating levels of cortisol, 17 alpha hydroxy progesterone and delta 4 androstenedione were analysed by specific radioimmunoassays in 11 patients with Cushing's disease before and at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24# h following an oral dose of 400 mg ketoconazole. A significant fall in cortisol (26 - 79.6%, 59.8 +/- 18.7 SEM), delta 4 androstenedione (21.5 - 63.3%, 47.8 +/- 4.87) with a concomitant rise in 17 alpha hydroxy progesterone (113 - 218%, 116 +/- 11.43) were noted, suggesting inhibition of 17, 20 desmolase and 11 beta-hydroxylase enzymes in cortisol biosynthetic pathway. PMID:2401536

  3. Diurnal Cortisol Levels and Cortisol Response in Youths with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per E. Gustafsson; Per A. Gustafsson; Tord Ivarsson; Nina Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Recent results indicate a role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although childhood onset is common, the HPA axis has scarcely been studied in young OCD subjects. Therefore, the present study aimed at examining basal and response levels of salivary cortisol in a sample of young OCD subjects. Methods: Twenty-three children and adolescents

  4. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Print and Share (PDF 102KB) En ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  5. [Primary adrenocortical micronodular dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Dumi?, M; Ille, J; Batinica, S; Caci?, M; Cvitanovi?, M; Marinovi?, B; Plavsi?, V; Lukenda, M; Radica, A

    1999-01-01

    Two girls (11 and 13 years old) with Cushing's syndrome due to primary adrenocortical micronodular dysplasia (PAMD) are presented. High plasma cortisol concentrations, elevated urinary free cortisol and 17-ketogenic steroids excretion, in addition to low or normal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels pointed towards independent adrenal cortisol hypersecretion. In both girls bilateral adrenalectomy was performed, followed by replacement therapy with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Pathohistological findings of otherwise enlarged adrenal glands, showed characteristic small nodules measuring 1-2 mm, composed of cells resembling those of zona fasciculata, with abundant, clear cytoplasm. Our younger patient fulfilled the criteria of "Carney complex", because beside PAMD she has had the lentigines. PMID:10377697

  6. Evaluation of the saliva cortisol levels in patients under prosthetic treatment due to functional disorders of the masticatory organ.

    PubMed

    Pihut, M; Dziurkowska, E; Wisniewska, G; Szewczyk, M; Bieganska, J

    2015-02-01

    One of the main etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction is stress and psychoemotional disorders. During stressful situations, there is an increase in the level of cortisol, the so-called stress hormone. Literature data indicate the existence of a correlation between blood cortisol levels and its amount in the saliva. This spurred an inspiration to undertake open, non-randomised studies, the objective of which was to conduct a comparative assessment of the saliva cortisol levels in patients with functional disorders of the masticatory system and in healthy volunteers, as well as to compare the results of cortisol levels with the results of survey-based tests with the use of Endler and Parker's CISS survey. Cortisol level was assessed due to its association with stress present in the body as one of the primary etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction, and hence the association of elevated cortisol levels assessed in the morning with the occurrence of dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system. The subject of the study is a group of 30 patients, of both sexes, aged between 20 and 46, who reported to the Dental Prosthetic Out-Patient Clinic of the Institute of Dentistry, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, for prosthetic treatment due to the painful form of functional masticatory organ disorders. The control group consisted of 30 subjects, aged between 19 and 41, in whom dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system were excluded. Collection of saliva for testing was performed at a fixed hour (9 am) into plastic test tubes with a stopper. Immediately after collection, the saliva was frozen at the temperature of -18°C. The assessment of the cortisol levels was conducted by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection at the Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Laboratory Medicine of the Gdansk Medical University. Moreover, a 20-minute psychological test was conducted with the use of the CISS (coping inventory for stressful situations) survey in order to assess the patients in terms of their abilities to cope with stressful situations. The results obtained were submitted to a statistical analysis based on the conventional calculation procedures. The test group revealed significantly higher cortisol levels compared with the results obtained by the control group. The findings of the CISS survey confirmed the predominance of the emotion-focused strategy of coping with stressful situations in the test group. The results support the view that the psychoemotional factor is, to a considerable extent, conducive to the development of functional disorders. The elevated cortisol levels in patients with psychological disorders concur with the findings by other authors. The results obtained confirm that psychoemotional disorders may be one of the etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunctions. The CISS survey, which was not used in similar studies before, makes it possible to obtain information on the subject's method of coping with stress, thus allowing for the initiation of a relevant psychological therapy aiding the prosthetic treatment. PMID:25716974

  7. The hidden dimensions of the competition effect: basal cortisol and basal testosterone jointly predict changes in salivary testosterone after social victory in men.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2012-11-01

    Dominance struggles appear to affect hormone concentrations in many mammalian species, such that higher concentrations of testosterone are seen in winners of competitions, compared to losers. This so-called, "competition effect" has received inconsistent empirical support, suggesting that additional psychological (e.g., mood), situational (i.e., nature of the competition) and physiological (e.g., cortisol) variables might intervene in modulating testosterone fluctuations after social contests. We investigated possible interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis in predicting transient changes in testosterone after social victory or defeat on a familiar competitive task. In particular, the present study examined the dual-hormone hypothesis - proposing that baseline cortisol potently modulates the competition effect (Mehta and Josephs, 2010) - in a sample of healthy young men engaged in head-to-head competition on a widely played commercial videogame, Tetris. We found a significant interaction between HPG and HPA axes status and the competition effect on testosterone in the randomly assigned videogame winners, such that winners with a pre-competition combination of high baseline testosterone and low baseline cortisol exhibited significantly greater post-competition testosterone concentrations. The randomly assigned videogame losers showed significantly decreased post-competition levels of testosterone. Possible biological and evolutionary mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are discussed. PMID:22520298

  8. The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function. PMID:21195074

  9. Anticipation of a psychosocial stressor differentially influences ghrelin, cortisol and food intake among emotional and non-emotional eaters.

    PubMed

    Raspopow, Kate; Abizaid, Alfonso; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2014-03-01

    Negative emotions trigger eating in some individuals (emotional eaters) possibly by influencing stress hormones that contribute to eating regulation (e.g., cortisol), or eating-related peptides (e.g., ghrelin) signaling food initiation. The present study assessed whether stressor-elicited cortisol and ghrelin changes would differ between emotional and non-emotional eaters, and whether eating would influence these neuroendocrine responses. Undergraduate women (N=103) who completed measures of emotional eating, were assigned to anticipate either a stressful (public speaking) or non-stressful event. During this period, participants were or were not offered food. Blood samples were taken continuously over a 40-min period to assess changes of cortisol and ghrelin levels, and mood was assessed after the anticipation period. Baseline ghrelin levels were lower in emotional than non-emotional eaters, and this relation was mediated by percent body fat. Ghrelin levels were elevated among women anticipating a stressor, compared to those in the control condition. Additionally, the normal decline of ghrelin following food consumption was not apparent among emotional eaters. Although food intake was not tied to hormone responses, reported hunger was associated with greater food intake for women in the stressor condition. It was suggested that emotional eating coupled with subjective feelings of hunger, might contribute to eating in response to an acute stressor. Additionally, feedback mechanisms controlling the normalization of ghrelin levels might be disturbed in emotional eaters. The similarity of the ghrelin profile of emotional eaters to that of binge eaters and obese individuals, raises the possibility that disturbed ghrelin response might be a risk factor for such conditions. PMID:24295926

  10. Hormonal changes and couple bonding in consensual sadomasochistic activity.

    PubMed

    Sagarin, Brad J; Cutler, Bert; Cutler, Nadine; Lawler-Sagarin, Kimberly A; Matuszewich, Leslie

    2009-04-01

    In two studies, 58 sadomasochistic (SM) practitioners provided physiological measures of salivary cortisol and testosterone (hormones associated with stress and dominance, respectively) and psychological measures of relationship closeness before and after participating in SM activities. Observed activities included bondage, sensory deprivation, a variety of painful and pleasurable stimulation, verbal and non-verbal communication, and expressions of caring and affection. During the scenes, cortisol rose significantly for participants who were bound, receiving stimulation, and following orders, but not for participants who were providing stimulation, orders, or structure. Female participants who were bound, receiving stimulation, and following orders also showed increases in testosterone during the scenes. Thereafter, participants who reported that their SM activities went well showed reductions in physiological stress (cortisol) and increases in relationship closeness. Among participants who reported that their SM activities went poorly, some showed decreases in relationship closeness whereas others showed increases. The increases in relationship closeness combined with the displays of caring and affection observed as part of the SM activities offer support for the modern view that SM, when performed consensually, has the potential to increase intimacy between participants. PMID:18563549

  11. Effects of flumazenil on recovery sleep and hormonal secretion after sleep deprivation in male controls.

    PubMed

    Seifritz, E; Hemmeter, U; Trachsel, L; Lauer, C J; Hatzinger, M; Emrich, H M; Holsboer, F; Holsboer-Trachsler, E

    1995-08-01

    The effects of flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist, on the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and neuroendocrine secretion in early morning recovery sleep (0500-0800 hours) following sleep deprivation (SD; 2300-0500 hours) were studied in seven healthy men. SD induced an increase in slow wave sleep (SWS), a decrease in sleep onset latency (SOL), an enhancement of EEG delta and theta power in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, an increase in plasma human growth hormone (GH) concentration, and a decrease in plasma cortisol levels in recovery sleep (0500-0800 hours). Plasma GH, but neither plasma cortisol nor adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentration was attenuated during SD as compared to sleep (2300-0445 hours). The administration of flumazenil (3 x 1 mg intravenously) during recovery sleep resulted in an inhibition in SWS, an increase in stage 2 sleep, a selective reduction in delta and theta power, and a tendency to prolongation of SOL. Plasma GH concentration was decreased but plasma cortisol and ACTH remained unaffected. Since the SD-induced changes in sleep EEG and plasma GH secretion were antagonized by flumazenil, it is suggested that electrophysiological and hormonal effects of SD are mediated at least in part through GABAergic mechanisms. PMID:8539326

  12. Do newborn vocalizations affect the behavioral and hormonal responses of nonreproductive male common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)?

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Maricele Nascimento; Mota, Maria Teresa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Parental care in mammals is influenced by sensory stimuli from infants, such as sight and sound, and by changes in the hormone levels of caretakers. To determine the responsiveness of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) adult males with and without previous experience in caretaking to newborn sensory cues, we exposed twelve males to infant vocalization recordings and assessed their hormonal and behavioral responses. Males were placed in the testing cage for 10 min under two conditions: (a) control condition (exposure to adult conspecific vocalization recordings), and (b) experimental condition (exposure to infant vocalization recordings). We recorded the frequency of approach towards the sound source, the time spent near it and locomotion frequency of males in the cage under both conditions. Blood samples were collected after each test for cortisol, measured by the enzyme immunoassay method. Infant vocalization affects the behavioral and hormonal responses of non-reproductive male common marmosets. All males approached and spent more time near the sound source and showed an increase in locomotion during infant vocalization exposure compared to the control condition. Successive exposure to infant vocalization increased the responsiveness in inexperienced males. Cortisol levels were significantly higher following infant vocalization exposure compared to the control condition. These findings support the assumption that sound stimuli from the newborn are critical in initiating and maintaining caretaker responsiveness and that cortisol seems to be important for alertness to sensory stimuli, modulating their motivation to interact with infants. PMID:24394953

  13. Acute hormonal responses of a high impact physical exercise session in early postmenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Kemmler; L. Wildt; K. Engelke; R. Pintag; M. Pavel; B. Bracher; J. Weineck; W. Kalender

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a single bout of exercise on hormones affecting bone metabolism was studied in 25 early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. The complex training session was performed between 8:00 a.m. and 9:05 a.m. Serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), total testosterone, free testosterone, 17-estradiol, cortisol, human growth hormone (hGH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were determined.

  14. TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS 2 AND 4, AND ACUTE PHASE CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION IN DEXAMETHASONE AND GROWTH HORMONE TREATED DAIRY CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle that are exposed to growth hormone stimulants and to stressors that cause cortisol release may have altered immune responses, reducing resistance to disease. Toll-like receptors and acute phase cytokines direct the early response to pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine ch...

  15. Assessment of Salivary Hormones

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    and behavior are differentiated. "Organizational effects" are lasting influ- ences that hormones exert on an individual's sex hormones (e.g., Graham & Desjardins, 1980; Roney, Lukaszewski, & Simmons, 2007); or when17 3 Assessment of Salivary Hormones Oliver C. Schultheiss Steven J. Stanton A Primer on Concepts

  16. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the child's growth curve on a growth chart . Children with growth hormone deficiency have a slow or flat rate of ... Growth hormone therapy does not work for all children. Left untreated, growth hormone deficiency may lead to short stature and delayed ...

  17. Hormones and Migraines

    MedlinePLUS

    Home » Hormones and Migraine Hormones and Migraine Submitted by Admin on Thu, 2007-10-25 16:06 Migraine occurs more often in women than in ... their menstrual cycle supports this link between female hormone changes and migraine headaches. Attacks may occur several ...

  18. Hormonally active ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Scully, R E

    1997-01-01

    Steroid-hormone-producing ovarian tumors include those in which the neoplastic cells secrete hormones as well as a wide variety of tumors in which the neoplastic cells stimulate the ovarian stroma or adjacent hilus cells to become hormonally active. PMID:9474877

  19. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  20. Acute Serum Hormone Levels: Characterization and Prognosis after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Emily H.; Niyonkuru, Christian; Ozawa, Haishin; Loucks, Tammy L.; Dobos, Julie A.; Brett, Christopher A.; Santarsieri, Martina; Dixon, C. Edward; Berga, Sarah L.; Fabio, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies report the neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids on multiple mechanisms of injury, with the clinical assumption that women have hormonally mediated neuroprotection because of the endogenous presence of these hormones. Other literature indicates that testosterone may exacerbate injury. Further, stress hormone abnormalities that accompany critical illness may both amplify or blunt sex steroid levels. To better understand the role of sex steroid exposure in mediating TBI, we 1) characterized temporal profiles of serum gonadal and stress hormones in a population with severe TBI during the acute phases of their injury; and 2) used a biological systems approach to evaluate these hormones as biomarkers predicting global outcome. The study population was 117 adults (28 women; 89 men) with severe TBI. Serum samples (n=536) were collected for 7 days post-TBI for cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Hormone data were linked with clinical data, including acute care mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at 6 months. Hormone levels after TBI were compared to those in healthy controls (n=14). Group based trajectory analysis (TRAJ) was used to develop temporal hormone profiles that delineate distinct subpopulations in the cohort. Structural equations models were used to determine inter-relationships between hormones and outcomes within a multivariate model. Compared to controls, acute serum hormone levels were significantly altered after severe TBI. Changes in the post-TBI adrenal response and peripheral aromatization influenced hormone TRAJ profiles and contributed to the abnormalities, including increased estradiol in men and increased testosterone in women. In addition to older age and greater injury severity, increased estradiol and testosterone levels over time were associated with increased mortality and worse global outcome for both men and women. These findings represent a paradigm shift when thinking about the role of sex steroids in neuroprotection clinically after TBI. PMID:21488721

  1. Cortisol Response Following Exposure Treatment for PTSD in Rape Victims

    PubMed Central

    Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Astin, Millie C.; Kelley, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study examined changes in salivary cortisol levels pre-to-post-treatment in adult female rape victims diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) randomly assigned to be treated with either Prolonged Exposure Therapy or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, session 3, and session 9. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol levels was observed in individuals classified as treatment responders in both treatment conditions. Findings suggest that successful exposure-based treatments for PTSD which result in trauma-related and depressive symptom reduction may impact the action of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as measured by changes in level of salivary cortisol from pre-to-post-treatment. PMID:20526437

  2. Cortisol Response Following Exposure Treatment for PTSD in Rape Victims.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Astin, Millie C; Kelley, Mary

    2010-06-01

    This study examined changes in salivary cortisol levels pre-to-post-treatment in adult female rape victims diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) randomly assigned to be treated with either Prolonged Exposure Therapy or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, session 3, and session 9. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol levels was observed in individuals classified as treatment responders in both treatment conditions. Findings suggest that successful exposure-based treatments for PTSD which result in trauma-related and depressive symptom reduction may impact the action of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as measured by changes in level of salivary cortisol from pre-to-post-treatment. PMID:20526437

  3. Cortisol differentially affects memory in young and elderly men.

    PubMed

    Wolf, O T; Convit, A; McHugh, P F; Kandil, E; Thorn, E L; De Santi, S; McEwen, B S; de Leon, M J

    2001-10-01

    Nine young and 11 elderly men participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study (0.5 mg/kg cortisol or intravenous placebo). Participants learned a word list before cortisol administration, and delayed recall was then tested. A 2nd word list was learned and recalled after drug administration. In addition, the Paragraph Recall Test and tests measuring working memory (Digit Span), attention (timed cancellation), and response inhibition (Stroop Color and Word Test) were administered at 2 time points after drug administration. Cortisol reduced recall from the word list learned before treatment in both groups but did not influence recall of the list learned after treatment. In contrast, Digit Span performance was decreased by cortisol in young but not elderly participants. The possibility that differential age-associated brain changes might underlie the present results is discussed. PMID:11584913

  4. Cortisol Function Among Early School-aged Homeless Children

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, J. J.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Herbers, Janette E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Masten, Ann S.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Homelessness represents a context of extreme poverty and risk for child development. This study compared the relative influence of two classes of risk in the context of homelessness. Levels of socioeconomic resource-related risk and negative lifetime events were examined with respect to morning cortisol levels and cortisol response to a set of cognitive tasks. Participants were 66 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years staying in an emergency shelter for families. Adversities largely reflecting family level negative life events predicted higher levels of morning cortisol and differences in initial level and change over the course of the session of cognitive tasks. In contrast, a socioeconomic cumulative risk score was not associated with morning or session-related differences in cortisol. PMID:20022181

  5. Depressive rumination alters cortisol decline in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-07-01

    Depressive rumination - a central characteristic of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) - is a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy that prolongs sad mood and depressive episodes. Considerable research demonstrates the emotional and behavioral consequences of depressive rumination, yet few studies investigate its effect on neuroendocrine functioning. The current study examined the effect of an emotion regulation manipulation on the trajectory of cortisol concentrations among individuals with MDD and healthy controls (CTL). Sadness was induced via forced failure. Participants then were randomly assigned to a depressive rumination or distraction emotion regulation induction. MDDs in the rumination condition exhibited less cortisol decline compared to MDDs in the distraction condition and compared to CTLs in either condition. Findings suggest that depressive rumination alters the trajectory of cortisol secretion in MDD and may prolong cortisol production. Results thereby provide important insights into the interaction of biological and psychological factors through which distress contributes to MDD. PMID:24835412

  6. Salivary Cortisol and Cold Pain Sensitivity in Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Kathryn M; Strachan, Eric; Dansie, Elizabeth; Crofford, Leslie J; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Poeschla, Brian; Succop, Annemarie; Noonan, Carolyn; Afari, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of knowledge about the link between cortisol and pain sensitivity. Purpose We examined the association of salivary cortisol with indices of cold pain sensitivity in 198 female twins and explored the role of familial confounding. Methods Three-day saliva samples were collected for cortisol levels and a cold pressor test was used to collect pain ratings and time to threshold and tolerance. Linear regression modeling with generalized estimating equations examined the overall and within-pair associations. Results Lower diurnal variation of cortisol was associated with higher pain ratings at threshold (p = 0.02) and tolerance (p < 0.01). The relationship of diurnal variation with pain ratings at threshold and tolerance was minimally influenced by familial factors (i.e., genetics and common environment). Conclusions Understanding the genetic and non-genetic mechanisms underlying the link between HPA axis dysregulation and pain sensitivity may help to prevent chronic pain development and maintenance. PMID:23955075

  7. Blood levels of corticosteroid-binding globulin, total cortisol and unbound cortisol in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif Dibbelt; Peter Schmucker

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a persistent rise in serum cortisol concentrations after cardiac surgery. To further investigate this finding and to evaluate the effect of hemodilution that occurs with the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), concentrations of cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), total and unbound cortisol, and packed cell volume (PCV) were studied in 28 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  8. From molecule to market: steroid hormones and financial risk-taking

    PubMed Central

    Coates, John M.; Gurnell, Mark; Sarnyai, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial decision-making. Here, we survey research on steroid hormones and their cognitive effects, and examine potential links to trader performance in the financial markets. Preliminary findings suggest that cortisol codes for risk and testosterone for reward. A key finding of this endocrine research is the different cognitive effects of acute versus chronic exposure to hormones: acutely elevated steroids may optimize performance on a range of tasks; but chronically elevated steroids may promote irrational risk-reward choices. We present a hypothesis suggesting that the irrational exuberance and pessimism observed during market bubbles and crashes may be mediated by steroid hormones. If hormones can exaggerate market moves, then perhaps the age and sex composition among traders and asset managers may affect the level of instability witnessed in the financial markets. PMID:20026470

  9. Concerns Regarding Hair Cortisol as a Biomarker of Chronic Stress in Exercise and Sport Science

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Pühse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.

    2012-01-01

    Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes’ elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels. Key points Hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive and painless means to capture long-term cortisol secretion. Individuals expected to have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to trauma) have increased hair cortisol. Preliminary evidence shows that exercisers have higher hair cortisol levels as well. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol secretion mediates stress-related effects on health and performance. There is a great dearth of knowledge about the relationship between sport, exercise and hair cortisol. PMID:24150065

  10. Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Mossink, Joram C. L.; Verkuil, Bart; Burger, Andreas M.; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Brosschot, Jos F.

    2015-01-01

    One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-h ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit, and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 min thereafter (cortisol awakening response). Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems. PMID:25713550

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea and neurocognitive performance: the role of cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Kate M.; Kamat, Rujvi; Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder with multiple consequences including negative effects on neurocognitive function. Several domains of cognitive function are impaired in OSA patients, but the mechanisms through which this sleep disorder results in impairment are not clear. Given the well-known effects of cortisol on cognitive function, in particular memory, the dysregulating effects of OSA on cortisol levels is hypothesized as a potential pathway leading to cognitive impairment. Methods Fifty-five participants with OSA (mean apnea-hypopnea index [AHI], 30.3) were assessed over 2 days. Over a 24-hour period, blood was collected every 2 hours to examine cortisol levels. The following night, sleep was monitored with polysomnography (PSG). Participants were given a battery of neurocognitive tests, which assessed 7 cognitive domains. Results OSA severity assessed by oxygen desaturation index (ODI) was associated with 24-hour cortisol levels. AHI, ODI, and nighttime cortisol levels were associated with global deficit scores (GDS) in cognitive functioning, particularly in domains of learning, memory, and working memory (P<.05 for all). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that nighttime cortisol accounted for 9% to 16% of variance in learning (P=.018), memory (P=.003), and working memory (P=.016) domains, though apnea severity did not significantly predict any additional variance. Conclusions In our sample of patients with OSA, nocturnal cortisol levels were associated with neuropsychologic functioning above and beyond the influence of covariates and apnea severity. These findings suggest that OSA-related alterations in cortisol activity may partially explain the pathophysiology of neuropsychologic impairments in sleep apnea. PMID:24269133

  12. Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    Mossink, Joram C L; Verkuil, Bart; Burger, Andreas M; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Brosschot, Jos F

    2015-01-01

    One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-h ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit, and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 min thereafter (cortisol awakening response). Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems. PMID:25713550

  13. Cortisol, insulin and leptin during space flight and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Most ground based models for studying muscle atrophy and bone loss show reasonable fidelity to the space flight situation. However there are some differences. Investigation of the reasons for these differences can provide useful information about humans during space flight and aid in the refinement of ground based models. This report discusses three such differences, the relationships between: (i) cortisol and the protein loss, (ii) cortisol and ACTH and (iii) leptin, insulin and food intake.

  14. Individual differences in the diurnal cycle of cortisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua M. Smyth; Margit C. Ockenfels; Amy A. Gorin; Delwyn Catley; Laura S. Porter; Clemens Kirschbaum; Dirk H. Hellhammer; Arthur A. Stone

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated individual differences in the diurnal cycle of cortisol and explored their relation to several psychosocial variables and to upper-respiratory symptoms. Cortisol and daily experience were assessed for 2 days in 109 healthy employed and unemployed community residents (mean age = 36.4 ± 12.1, 69% female); self-report upper respiratory illness (URI) symptoms were assessed for an additional 10

  15. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-06-01

    Worse cognitive performance in older people has been associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation (in particular, higher cortisol levels). Analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a novel method to measure long-term cortisol exposure, and its relationship with cognition in healthy older people has not yet been studied. We investigated whether HCC (measured in hair scalp) and diurnal salivary cortisol levels (awakening, 30min after awakening, and evening, across two days) were related to cognitive performance (assessed with the Trail-making Test A and B, Digit Span Forward and Backward, word list-RAVLT and Stories subtest of the Rivermead) in 57 healthy older people (mean age=64.75 years, SD=4.17). Results showed that lower HCC were consistently related to worse working memory, learning, short-term verbal memory (RAVLT first trial and immediate recall) and long-term verbal memory. In contrast, higher mean levels and higher diurnal area under the curve of diurnal salivary cortisol were related to worse attention and short-term verbal memory (immediate story recall), respectively. Interestingly, a higher ratio of mean levels of diurnal salivary cortisol over HCC were related to worse performance on working memory and short-term verbal memory, suggesting that those individuals with lower long-term cortisol exposure might be more vulnerable to the negative effect of HPA-axis dysregulation on these cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that both low long-term cortisol exposure and a possible dysregulation of the diurnal rhythm of the HPA-axis may account, at least in part, for the inter-individual variability in cognitive performance in healthy older people. PMID:24767624

  16. Elevation of the cortisol\\/dehydroepiandrosterone ratio in schizophrenia patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ritsner; Rachel Maayan; Anatoly Gibel; Rael D Strous; Ilan Modai; Abraham Weizman

    2004-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative DHEA-S are neurosteroids, produced in the brain, and neuroactive steroids, produced in the adrenals and affecting the brain. We compared the ratios of serum cortisol\\/DHEA or DHEA-S in schizophrenia patients with normal subjects, and determined the correlation of these ratios with psychopathology and distress. Early morning plasma concentrations of DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol were

  17. Was sind hormone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlson, P.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the meaning of the term hormone has changed during the last decades. Morphological studies of secreting cells lead Feyrter to the concept of paracrine action of some hormones. While endocrine regulators are blood-borne, paracrine messengers reach their target cells through the diffusion in the intracellular space. Though it is rather difficult to draw a line between true hormones and hormone-like substances, valid definitions for endocrine and paracrine regulatory systems can be given. The term ‘hormonal control’ should be restricted to endocrine systems. For effectors acting by paracrine mechanisms, the term paramone is proposed in this article.

  18. Reference range for serum cortisol in well preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Heckmann, M.; Wudy, S.; Haack, D.; Pohlandt, F.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To establish a reference range for serum cortisol concentrations in preterm infants with a gestational age of less than 30weeks during the first two weeks of life.?METHODS—Infants were prospectively classified by the following exclusion criteria: surfactant administration, arterial hypotension, acute or uncontrolled infection, ventricular haemorrhage II° or above, serum glucose < 2.2 mmol/l, exchange transfusion, stress as a result of any kind of examination or nursing for at least 4 hours before blood sampling. The cortisol value was measured once using radioimmunoassay in each infant.?RESULTS—In appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants (n = 37, median gestational age 27.7 weeks, median birthweight 1030 g) the distribution of the cortisol concentrations was non-Gaussian. These had a nearly normal distribution, when log10 values of the data were used. The points determined by mean (2 SD) on the logarithmic scale were transformed back to the original units to provide a reference range: 73-562 nmol/l. Gestational age was significantly (p = 0.033) associated with cortisol values (log10) with a regression coefficient (standard error) of ?0.045 (0.020). Small for gestational age (SGA) infants (n = 8) had significantly higher cortisol values (median 357 nmol/l) than AGA infants (median 199 nmol/l) (p=0.028).?CONCLUSIONS—There is a strictly defined reference range of serum cortisol concentrations in AGA preterm infants.?? PMID:10525017

  19. Sleep and cortisol interact to support memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Bennion, Kelly A; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Payne, Jessica D

    2015-03-01

    Separate lines of research have demonstrated that rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can the occurrence of sleep soon after encoding. For the first time, we demonstrate that pre-learning cortisol interacts with sleep to benefit memory consolidation, particularly for negative arousing items. Resting cortisol levels during encoding were positively correlated with subsequent memory, but only following a period of sleep. There was no such relation following a period of wakefulness. Using eye tracking, we further reveal that for negative stimuli, this facilitative effect may arise because cortisol strengthens the relationship between looking time at encoding and subsequent memory. We suggest that elevated cortisol may "tag" attended information as important to remember at the time of encoding, thus enabling sleep-based processes to optimally consolidate salient information in a selective manner. Neuroimaging data suggest that this optimized consolidation leads to a refinement of the neural processes recruited for successful retrieval of negative stimuli, with the retrieval of items attended in the presence of elevated cortisol and consolidated over a night of sleep associated with activity in the amygdala and vmPFC. PMID:24072888

  20. Noisy spit: parental noncompliance with child salivary cortisol sampling.

    PubMed

    Smith, Victoria C; Dougherty, Lea R

    2014-05-01

    Studies assessing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in young children commonly involve parental collection of salivary cortisol in ambulatory settings. However, no data are available on the compliance of parents in collecting ambulatory measures of children's salivary cortisol. This study examined the effects of parental compliance on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slopes in a sample of preschool-age children (ages 3-5). Eighty-one parents were instructed to collect their child's salivary cortisol samples upon their child's waking, 30 and 45?min post-waking and before bedtime on two weekdays. Subjective parental compliance was assessed using parent-report, and objective parental compliance was assessed using an electronic monitoring device. Rates of compliance were higher based on parent-report than electronic monitoring. Parental noncompliance as indicated by electronic monitoring was associated with higher waking cortisol and lower CAR. Findings suggest the need to incorporate electronic monitoring of parental compliance into developmental neuroendocrine research, especially when assessing the CAR. PMID:23754778

  1. MDMA, cortisol, and heightened stress in recreational ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Andrew C; Montgomery, Cathy; Wetherell, Mark A; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-09-01

    Stress develops when an organism requires additional metabolic resources to cope with demanding situations. This review will debate how recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can increase some aspects of acute and chronic stress in humans. Laboratory studies on the acute effects of MDMA on cortisol release and neurohormone levels in drug-free regular ecstasy/MDMA users have been reviewed, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic changes in anxiety, stress, and cognitive coping is debated. In the laboratory, acute ecstasy/MDMA use can increase cortisol levels by 100-200%, whereas ecstasy/MDMA-using dance clubbers experience an 800% increase in cortisol levels, because of the combined effects of the stimulant drug and dancing. Three-month hair samples of abstinent users revealed cortisol levels 400% higher than those in controls. Chronic users show heightened cortisol release in stressful environments and deficits in complex neurocognitive tasks. Event-related evoked response potential studies show altered patterns of brain activation, suggestive of increased mental effort, during basic information processing. Chronic mood deficits include more daily stress and higher depression in susceptible individuals. We conclude that ecstasy/MDMA increases cortisol levels acutely and subchronically and that changes in the HPA axis may explain why recreational ecstasy/MDMA users show various aspects of neuropsychobiological stress. PMID:25014666

  2. The Effect of the Lunar Cycle on Fecal Cortisol Metabolite Levels and Foraging Ecology of Nocturnally and Diurnally Active Spiny Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-01-01

    We studied stress hormones and foraging of nocturnal Acomys cahirinus and diurnal A. russatus in field populations as well as in two field enclosures populated by both species and two field enclosures with individuals of A. russatus alone. When alone, A. russatus individuals become also nocturnally active. We asked whether nocturnally active A. russatus will respond to moon phase and whether this response will be obtained also in diurnally active individuals. We studied giving-up densities (GUDs) in artificial foraging patches and fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Both species exhibited elevated fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraged to higher GUDs in full moon nights; thus A. russatus retains physiological response and behavioral patterns that correlate with full moon conditions, as can be expected in nocturnal rodents, in spite of its diurnal activity. The endocrinological and behavioral response of this diurnal species to moon phase reflects its evolutionary heritage. PMID:21829733

  3. The effect of the lunar cycle on fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraging ecology of nocturnally and diurnally active spiny mice.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Roee; Dayan, Tamar; Levy, Ofir; Schubert, Iris; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-01-01

    We studied stress hormones and foraging of nocturnal Acomys cahirinus and diurnal A. russatus in field populations as well as in two field enclosures populated by both species and two field enclosures with individuals of A. russatus alone. When alone, A. russatus individuals become also nocturnally active. We asked whether nocturnally active A. russatus will respond to moon phase and whether this response will be obtained also in diurnally active individuals. We studied giving-up densities (GUDs) in artificial foraging patches and fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Both species exhibited elevated fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraged to higher GUDs in full moon nights; thus A. russatus retains physiological response and behavioral patterns that correlate with full moon conditions, as can be expected in nocturnal rodents, in spite of its diurnal activity. The endocrinological and behavioral response of this diurnal species to moon phase reflects its evolutionary heritage. PMID:21829733

  4. Hormonal changes with lower body negative pressure on the 6th day in microgravity in one cosmonaut.

    PubMed

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H G; Noskov, V; Jezova, D; Sauseng-Fellegger, G; Fueger, G F; Sukhanov, Y; König, E M; Zambo-Polz, C; Barowitsch, C; Viehböck, F

    1993-11-01

    We measured volume regulating and stress hormones (AVP, aldosterone, ANP, c-GMP, angiotensin II, PRA, epinephrine, norepinephrine, ACTH, cortisol) in venous blood twice during a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) maneuver in one cosmonaut (31 years, 75 kg, 180 cm) preflight (supine), inflight (6th d in orbit), and on the 4th d (supine) after a 10-d flight. Antecubital blood was taken at the beginning (3 min: "a") and after ceasing (2 min: "b") 40 min LBNP (-15/-30/-35 mm Hg for 15/15/10 min). At the beginning of LBNP, no big changes of resting hormone levels are to be expected. Comparison of "a" values: Inflight, there was a 4-5-fold increase in vasopressin and epinephrine, a slight increase in aldosterone, ANP, norepinephrine, cortisol and ACTH, and a decrease in PRA levels. Postflight, vasopressin was almost as much increased as inflight, and aldosterone and ANP levels were higher than pre- or inflight. PRA, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were moderately increased, whereas ACTH and angiotensin II were diminished. Comparison of "b" to "a" values (2 min after LBNP to 3 min intra-LBNP): Preflight, ANP, PRA, and epinephrine rose more than 100%. The inflight response was higher for aldosterone but lower for all other volume active hormones. Postflight, the increase in PRA was pronounced, whereas little change occurred in other hormones. Cortisol and ACTH fell similarly during LBNP under all conditions. In summary, the data provide evidence that not only the endocrine status but also the neuroendocrine responsiveness to stimulation; i.e., the hormone response during cardiovascular load, are altered by the stay in microgravity and readaptation to normal conditions. PMID:8280031

  5. Mapping the human corticotropin releasing hormone binding protein gene (CRHBP) to the long arm of chromosome 5 (5q11.2-q13.3)

    SciTech Connect

    Vamvakopoulos, N.C. [Univ. of Thessaly School of Medicine, Larisa (Greece)] [Univ. of Thessaly School of Medicine, Larisa (Greece); Sioutopoulou, T.O. [Univ. of Athens Medical School (Greece)] [Univ. of Athens Medical School (Greece); Durkin, S.A. [American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD (United States)] [American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Unexpected stimulation or stress activates the heat shock protein (hsp) system at the cellular level and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the level of the whole organism. At the molecular level, these two systems communicate through the functional interaction between hsp90 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) system regulates the mammalian stress response by coordinating the activity of the HPA axis. It consists of the 41-amino-acid-long principal hypothalamic secretagogue for pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), CRH, its receptor (CRHR), and its binding protein (CRHBP). Because of its central role in the coordination of stress response and whole body homeostasis, the CRH system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroendocrine and psychiatric disease. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  6. What Are the Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... woman who is not pregnant or breastfeeding Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) may cause: ... with weight gain in children Irregular menses Growth Hormone Too much growth hormone may cause: Headache Some ...

  7. Hair cortisol and cortisol awakening response are associated with criteria of the metabolic syndrome in opposite directions.

    PubMed

    Kuehl, Linn K; Hinkelmann, Kim; Muhtz, Christoph; Dettenborn, Lucia; Wingenfeld, Katja; Spitzer, Carsten; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wiedemann, Klaus; Otte, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Findings on the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and metabolic risk are equivocal. Different methods of measuring HPA activity might indicate adverse vs. beneficial effects of HPA activity on metabolic risk thus contributing to heterogenous findings. In this study, we aimed to determine whether (1) the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) as a marker of awakening-induced activation of the HPA axis and (2) hair cortisol as a marker of long-term cortisol secretion are associated with criteria of the metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recruited 41 healthy individuals (26 women, mean age: 41.2 years) and 44 patients with major depression (28 women, 41.4 years) and assessed CAR and hair cortisol values as well as all criteria of the metabolic syndrome (abdominal obesity, blood pressure, plasma glucose, triglycerides and high-density cholesterol levels) according to the International Diabetes Federation. CAR and hair cortisol values were divided into tertiles. Across groups, participants with hair cortisol or hair cortisone in the highest tertile showed significantly more criteria of the metabolic syndrome compared to participants in the medium or low tertile (F2,64=3.37, p=.04). These results were corroborated by significant positive correlations between mean hair cortisol values with waist circumference (r=.29, p=.03), triglycerides (r=.34, p=.01) and systolic blood pressure (r=.29, p=.04) and between mean hair cortisone and triglycerides (r=.46, p<.01). In contrast, mean CAR values correlated negatively with diastolic (r=-.29, p=.03) and systolic blood pressure (r=-.32, p=.02). Our results indicate that higher hair cortisol and hair cortisone levels but lower CAR values are associated with an unfavorable metabolic and cardiovascular risk profile. PMID:25462908

  8. Towards Engineering Hormone-Binding Globulins as Drug Delivery Agents

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wee Lee; Zhou, Aiwu; Read, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of many diseases such as cancer requires the use of drugs that can cause severe side effects. Off-target toxicity can often be reduced simply by directing the drugs specifically to sites of diseases. Amidst increasingly sophisticated methods of targeted drug delivery, we observed that Nature has already evolved elegant means of sending biological molecules to where they are needed. One such example is corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the major carrier of the anti-inflammatory hormone, cortisol. Targeted release of cortisol is triggered by cleavage of CBG's reactive centre loop by elastase, a protease released by neutrophils in inflamed tissues. This work aimed to establish the feasibility of exploiting this mechanism to carry therapeutic agents to defined locations. The reactive centre loop of CBG was altered with site-directed mutagenesis to favour cleavage by other proteases, to alter the sites at which it would release its cargo. Mutagenesis succeeded in making CBG a substrate for either prostate specific antigen (PSA), a prostate-specific serine protease, or thrombin, a key protease in the blood coagulation cascade. PSA is conspicuously overproduced in prostatic hyperplasia and is, therefore, a good way of targeting hyperplastic prostate tissues. Thrombin is released during clotting and consequently is ideal for conferring specificity to thrombotic sites. Using fluorescence-based titration assays, we also showed that CBG can be engineered to bind a new compound, thyroxine-6-carboxyfluorescein, instead of its physiological ligand, cortisol, thereby demonstrating that it is possible to tailor the hormone binding site to deliver a therapeutic drug. In addition, we proved that the efficiency with which CBG releases bound ligand can be increased by introducing some well-placed mutations. This proof-of-concept study has raised the prospect of a novel means of targeted drug delivery, using the serpin conformational change to combat the problem of off-target effects in the treatment of diseases. PMID:25426859

  9. Early Response Roles for Prolactin Cortisol and Circulating and Cellular Levels of Heat Shock Proteins 72 and 90? in Severe Sepsis and SIRS

    PubMed Central

    Vardas, K.; Apostolou, K.; Briassouli, E.; Goukos, D.; Psarra, K.; Botoula, E.; Tsagarakis, S.; Magira, E.; Routsi, C.; Nanas, S.; Briassoulis, G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP) and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS) or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) compared to healthy subjects (H). Methods. Patients with early (first 48?hrs) SS (n = 29) or SIRS (n = 29) admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90?, eHSP72) and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90?) were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Results. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90? levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P < 0.003). ACTH and eHSP72 were significantly higher in SS and SIRS compared to H (P < 0.005). SS monocytes expressed lower iHSP72 MFI levels compared to H (P = 0.03). Prolactin was related with SAPS III and APACHE II scores and cortisol with eHSP90?, IL-6, and lactate (P < 0.05). In SS and SIRS eHSP90? was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Conclusion. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90?, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases. PMID:25243181

  10. Highly selective and automated online SPE LC-MS(3) method for determination of cortisol and cortisone in human hair as biomarker for stress related diseases.

    PubMed

    Quinete, Natalia; Bertram, Jens; Reska, Marcus; Lang, Jessica; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Hair analysis has been increasingly used to establish long-term biomarkers of exposure to both endogenous and exogenous substances, with a special emphasis on steroidal hormones. Hair cortisol and cortisone have been associated to physiological and psychological strains, anxiety and depression. Hair is a very complex matrix, which might jeopardize analyte detection at low concentrations. A new, highly selective and sensitive method based on fragments of second order, MS(3) (MS/MS/MS), was developed and validated for the analysis of hair cortisol and cortisone. An online solid phase extraction was performed on a C8 restricted access material (RAM) phase following by separation on a reversed-phase C18 column using methanol and 0.02% ammonium hydroxide as mobile phase. The developed method required minimal sample preparation and the injection of only 50µL of sample leading to a LOQ of 2pgmg(-1). Good linear responses were observed in the range 2-200pgmg(-1) (R(2)>0.99) and extraction recoveries ranged between 77-125% and 70-123% for cortisol and cortisone, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were between 1.4 and 14%. In order to evaluate the applicability of the method, preliminary tests (N=33) were conducted in 3cm hair samples (close to scalp) of healthy volunteers with an age range of 4-63. Average concentrations in hair were 12.7±14pgmg(-1) and 41.6±42pgmg(-1) for cortisol and cortisone, respectively. Further investigations on cortisol and cortisone as biomarkers for chronic psychological strain will be assessed as a next step. PMID:25618673

  11. Biological sex and menstrual cycle phase modulation of cortisol levels and psychiatric symptoms in a non-clinical sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Walder, Deborah J; Statucka, Marta; Daly, Maureen P; Axen, Kathleen; Haber, Margalit

    2012-05-30

    Prior research examined the complex, bidirectional interplay of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes and their roles in (clinical) cognitive/behavioral functions. Less well understood are contemporaneous relationships in non-clinical samples. This pilot study explored cortisol in relation to psychiatric symptoms/personality as a function of self-reported menstrual cycle phase and sex differences in a non-clinical, young adult sample. Consistent with literature and hypotheses, cortisol levels were lowest during early-follicular, intermediary during late-follicular, and highest during mid-luteal phases (not significant), and greater among males than early-follicular females. An acute stressor uniformly affected cortisol across phases and sex, though magnitude and time course differed. Psychiatric symptoms were greater among early-follicular/late-follicular females versus males, and early-follicular and/or late-follicular versus mid-luteal. Contrary to hypotheses, positive psychotic-like symptoms were greater among males than (mid-luteal) females. Cortisol inversely related to early-follicular symptoms, and directly related to late-follicular/mid-luteal symptoms. Results suggest menstrual cycle phase modulates non-clinical psychiatric symptomatology and HPA activity. Findings tentatively bolster a dimensional/continuum model of psychopathology with implications for understanding neurobiological underpinnings and risk/protective factors for mental/physical health conditions, particularly those marked by sex differences and neuroendocrine dysfunction (depression/schizophrenia/Alzheimer's/multiple sclerosis). We speculate a dose-response cortisol effect on symptoms, modulated by endogenous gonadal hormones via gene expression. PMID:22364929

  12. Determination of urinary cortisol, cortisone and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin using dilute and shoot ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sniecinska-Cooper, Anna Maria; Shah, Ajit Jesang; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Iles, Ray Kruse; Butler, Stephen Andrew; Bayford, Richard

    2015-01-26

    Human sleep is a natural part of every individual's life. Clear relationship between sleep and endocrine system has been already established. In particular, melatonin and cortisol are known to affect and regulate sleep/wake patterns. Here we report the development of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous measurement of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (MT6s), cortisol and cortisone in urine. A separate method was developed for measurement of creatinine in urine. These levels were used to normalise the levels of analytes. First void morning urine samples were collected from 24 healthy volunteers. Samples were diluted 1:1 in water prior to injection onto reversed-phase C18 column and analysed using UHPLC-MS/MS method. Linear calibrations were obtained for all analytes with correlation coefficient in the range 0.998-0.999. The observed concentration was found to be in the range 92-105% for cortisol, 92-107% for cortisone and between 93 and 120% for MT6s of the reference levels. The total run time of 6 min with all peaks of interest eluting within 3 min was obtained. This demonstrates the feasibility of utilising the method for large multi-scale studies, where high throughput is required for studying the circadian rhythm of melatonin and cortisol secretion. These hormones play significant role in circadian rhythm and sleep/wake cycle; therefore it is important to monitor the levels of these endocrine markers in individuals suffering from sleep disorders. It is also beneficial with clinical applications to analyse melatonin and cortisol simultaneously in order to assess their interrelationships of these substances, such as their effect on diurnal rhythm and sleep. PMID:25531866

  13. Plasma cortisol and prolactin secretion rhythms in cattle under varying external environments and management techniques.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Mizuna; Matsuura, Akihiro; Yamazaki, Atusi; Irimajiri, Mami; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Kushibiki, Shiro; Singu, Hroyuki; Kasuya, Etsuko; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Hodate, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The secretion rhythms of plasma cortisol (CORT) and prolactin (PRL), hormones related to stress responsiveness and biological rhythm and controlled by light and temperature, were investigated under varying external environments and different management techniques. Serial blood samples were collected from female cattle reared in free-stall and freely fed (FF) conditions (n = 4) or in tie-stall and restricted feeding (RF) conditions (hay and concentrate twice daily, n = 4). Plasma CORT and PRL concentrations, eating behavior, and environmental parameters were analyzed. Cyclic patterns for each parameter were examined using spectral analysis, and correlations between CORT, PRL and other parameters were investigated using cross-spectral analysis. Under FF conditions, CORT secretion was not related to the lighting intensity and eating behavior. However, under RF conditions, the CORT secretion rhythm showed a distinct correlation with lighting intensity and eating behavior. Under FF conditions, the PRL secretion rhythm was similar in all seasons. However, under RF conditions, the PRL rhythm oscillated with high frequency in summer and low frequency in winter, indicating a seasonal change in rhythm. The present study demonstrates that hormone secretion rhythms change under different environments and management techniques. PMID:23829645

  14. Acutely elevated vasopressin increases circulating concentrations of cortisol and aldosterone in fasting northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo; Talamantes, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The physiological actions of vasopressin (VP) in marine mammals are not well defined. To help elucidate its hormonal and renal effects in this group of mammals, northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups (N=7; 99+/-4 kg) were first infused with 0.9% saline (control; 220 ml), followed 24 h later with VP (as a 20 ng kg(-1) bolus, then 2 ng kg(-1) min(-1) for approximately 35 min in 225+/-16 ml saline). During both control and VP periods, blood samples were collected prior to infusion, and 15, 30, 60, 120 min and 24 h after infusion to examine the hormonal responses of the pups to VP. Renal responses were quantified from 24 h urine samples obtained prior to infusion (control) and 24 h post-infusion. Compared to the control period, infusion of VP increased plasma concentrations of cortisol over a 120 min period and aldosterone over 30 min, while plasma renin activity (PRA) was decreased for a 120 min period. The plasma urea:creatinine ratio was elevated following infusion of VP. Urine output and osmotic clearance were increased by 69+/-18% (mean +/- S.E.M.) and 36+/-10%, respectively, but free water clearance and glomerular filtration rate were not significantly altered 24 h post-infusion of VP. Solute (osmolality, Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-)) excretion and fractional excretion of electrolytes were also increased when compared to control values. The increase in cortisol concentration suggests that VP may possess corticotropin releasing hormone-like activity in elephant seals. If osmotic diuresis and natriuresis are typical consequences of elevated [VP] in fasting pups, then not increasing VP normally during the fast may serve as a protective mechanism to avoid the potential loss of Na(+) induced by elevated [VP]. Therefore, under natural fasting conditions, pups may be highly sensitive to small changes in [VP], resulting in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance.

  15. Modulatory mechanisms of cortisol effects on emotional learning and memory: Novel perspectives

    PubMed Central

    van Ast, Vanessa A.; Cornelisse, Sandra; Marin, Marie-France; Ackermann, Sandra; Garfinkel, Sara; Abercrombie, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary It has long been known that cortisol affects learning and memory processes. Despite a wealth of research dedicated to cortisol effects on learning and memory, the strength or even directionality of the effects often vary. A number of the factors that alter cortisol’s effects on learning and memory are well-known. For instance, effects of cortisol can be modulated by emotional arousal and the memory phase under study. Despite great advances in understanding factors that explain variability in cortisol’s effects, additional modulators of cortisol effects on memory exist that are less widely acknowledged in current basic experimental research. The goal of the current review is to disseminate knowledge regarding less well-known modulators of cortisol effects on learning and memory. Since several models for the aetiology of anxiety, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), incorporate stress and the concomitant release of cortisol as important vulnerability factors, enhanced understanding of mechanisms by which cortisol exerts beneficial as opposed to detrimental effects on memory is very important. Further elucidation of the factors that modulate (or alter) cortisol’s effects on memory will allow reconciliation of seemingly inconsistent findings in the basic and clinical literatures. The present review is based on a symposium as part of the 42nd International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology Conference, New York, USA, that highlighted some of those modulators and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:23845515

  16. Psychosocial environment and health: methodological variability of the salivary cortisol measurements.

    PubMed

    Maina, Giovanni; Bovenzi, Massimo; Palmas, Antonio; Rossi, Federica; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2012-08-13

    Salivary cortisol offers a novel approach to understand the relationship between psychosocial environment and health. This study examines the intra-individual relationships among indicators of the cortisol circadian rhythm and investigates the influence of determinants affecting the day-to-day variability of the cortisol measures. Over three weekdays, 87 healthy subjects (63 females and 24 males) collected saliva samples at seven time points to assess the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and to evaluate the post morning cortisol profile. The generalized estimating equations method was used to explore the relations between repeated cortisol measures and potential determinants (sociodemographic, health, and sampling factors) influencing salivary cortisol levels. Younger age, being smoker, and sampling on a working day were associated with higher at awakening and total cortisol excretion in the morning period. Higher overall cortisol excretion and cortisol increase in the first hour of the day were found for adherents to sampling procedure. Higher educational level was found associated with greater total cortisol excretion in the morning and post morning period, while a flatter diurnal slope was found in smokers. Results are consistent with the knowledge that the circadian cortisol rhythm is differentially determined by situational factors and that results obtained in the early morning hour are of crucial importance corroborating the evidence that the CAR is a highly state-dependent phenomenon. These data indicate that many confounding factors need to be controlled when using salivary cortisol as biomarker of the mind-health interrelationship. PMID:21896319

  17. Measuring cortisol in hair and saliva from dogs: coat color and pigment differences.

    PubMed

    Bennett, A; Hayssen, V

    2010-10-01

    Cortisol concentrations are frequently measured from a variety of sources including blood, saliva, urine, and feces to quantify stress in dogs. However, a need still exists for less intrusive collection methods in domestic animals and for more efficient means of measuring basal cortisol. The objectives of the present study were to minimize restraint for saliva sampling, to validate hair for basal cortisol measurement in dogs, and to determine concentrations of cortisol within the hair shaft and in relation to hair color. Using food luring, 79% of dogs required no restraint for saliva collection. Salivary and hair cortisol concentrations were positively correlated (P = 0.001), thus validating hair as a medium for basal cortisol quantification. Black dogs had less cortisol than nonblack dogs (P = 0.039) in hair, but not saliva. Across dogs, the average amount of cortisol did not differ between proximal and distal hair sections (P = 0.348). However, for 7 of the 9 dogs, more cortisol was present in the distal portions of the hair. We observed a difference in cortisol concentrations among hairs of different colors from individual dogs (P = 0.001). From the same 7 x 7 cm ischiatic patch from the same dog, black (eumelanin) hairs were consistently lower in cortisol than yellow (pheomelanin) hairs, and cortisol concentrations of agouti hairs were intermediate. This is the first evidence that hair of different colors might sequester cortisol differently. PMID:20705413

  18. Hair analysis provides a historical record of cortisol levels in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thomson, S; Koren, G; Fraser, L-A; Rieder, M; Friedman, T C; Van Uum, S H M

    2010-02-01

    The severity of Cushing's Syndrome (CS) depends on the duration and extent of the exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Current measurements of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine reflect systemic cortisol levels at the time of sample collection, but cannot assess past cortisol levels. Hair cortisol levels may be increased in patients with CS, and, as hair grows about 1 cm/month, measurement of hair cortisol may provide historical information on the development of hypercortisolism. We attempted to measure cortisol in hair in relation to clinical course in six female patients with CS and in 32 healthy volunteers in 1 cm hair sections. Hair cortisol content was measured using a commercially available salivary cortisol immune assay with a protocol modified for use with hair. Hair cortisol levels were higher in patients with CS than in controls, the medians (ranges) were 679 (279-2500) and 116 (26-204) ng/g respectively (P<0.001). Segmental hair analysis provided information for up to 18 months before time of sampling. Hair cortisol concentrations appeared to vary in accordance with the clinical course. Based on these data, we suggest that hair cortisol measurement is a novel method for assessing dynamic systemic cortisol exposure and provides unique historical information on variation in cortisol, and that more research is required to fully understand the utility and limits of this technique. PMID:19609841

  19. Blood levels of corticosteroid-binding globulin, total cortisol and unbound cortisol in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Roth-Isigkeit, A K; Dibbelt, L; Schmucker, P

    2000-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a persistent rise in serum cortisol concentrations after cardiac surgery. To further investigate this finding and to evaluate the effect of hemodilution that occurs with the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), concentrations of cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), total and unbound cortisol, and packed cell volume (PCV) were studied in 28 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. All patients received a standardized general anesthetic using a balanced technique with sufentanil, isoflurane, and midazolam. Blood was collected preoperatively, intraoperatively during CPB, and postoperatively in the evenings on the day of surgery and on the first and second postoperative day. Cortisol and CBG concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay and were used to calculate the fraction of unbound cortisol. Serum CBG and cortisol concentrations corrected for hemodilution were significantly higher than non-corrected values. Perioperatively, CBG measurements were significantly intercorrelated. Intraoperatively, total and unbound cortisol concentrations were not significantly increased compared to preoperative values. Postoperatively up to the end of the study period serum concentrations of total and unbound cortisol were significantly increased compared to baseline values. Our results suggest that hemodilution occurs in all patients during cardiac surgery and continues up to the second postoperative day. This may lead to an underestimation of serum cortisol and CBG concentrations in patients undergoing heart surgery with CPB. Intraoperatively, concentrations of total and unbound cortisol were not significantly elevated. The postoperative rise in serum total cortisol concentration was accompanied by an increase in unbound cortisol concentration. The postoperative increase of unbound cortisol concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB was largely due to an increase in cortisol secretion. PMID:10978730

  20. Association of 24-hour cortisol production rates, cortisol-binding globulin, and plasma-free cortisol levels with body composition, leptin levels, and aging in adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Jonathan Q; Brandon, David D; Isabelle, Lorne M; Loriaux, D Lynn; Samuels, Mary H

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the hypothesis that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity as measured by 24-h cortisol production rate (CPR) and plasma levels of free cortisol is linked to increased body fat in adults, and that increased cortisol levels with aging results from increased CPR. Fifty-four healthy men and women volunteers with a wide range of body mass indexes and ages underwent measurement of CPR by isotope dilution measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, cortisol-binding globulin, and free cortisol in pooled 24-h plasma, body composition, and leptin. Cortisol clearance rates were determined from the 10-h disappearance curves of hydrocortisone after steady-state infusion in a separate group of lean and obese subjects with adrenal insufficiency. Although CPR significantly increased with increasing body mass index and percentage body fat, free cortisol levels remained independent of body composition and leptin levels due to increased cortisol clearance rates. CPR and free cortisol levels were, however, significantly higher in men than women. In addition, 24-h plasma free cortisol levels were increased with age in association with increased CPR, independent of body size. This increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity may play a role in the alterations in body composition and central fat distribution in men vs. women and with aging. PMID:14715862