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Sample records for cortisol adrenocorticotropic hormone

  1. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    del Rosario Gonzlez-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vzquez-Chagoyn, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle. PMID:22210998

  2. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol during early and late alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Esel, E; Sofuoglu, S; Aslan, S S; Kula, M; Yabanoglu, I; Turan, M T

    2001-01-01

    Endogenous opioid peptides are thought to participate in the phenomena of alcohol tolerance and withdrawal. Since in the pituitary gland, beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are produced from the same precursor molecule, pro-opiomelanocortin, it may be expected that alterations in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels should parallel changes in plasma beta-EP levels during alcohol withdrawal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations of beta-EP, ACTH and cortisol secretion patterns in alcohol-dependent patients with heavy intake in the early withdrawal period and, if any, whether these changes remained stable on long-term withdrawal. Twenty-two hospitalized male patients (mean age +/- SD: 43.45 +/- 9.22 years, mean daily amount of alcohol +/- SD: 421.59 +/- 116.57 g) who were diagnosed to have alcohol withdrawal and 20 age-matched healthy men (mean age +/- SD: 38.35 +/- 7.63 years) were included in the study. Morning and night levels of plasma beta-EP, ACTH and cortisol were measured in the patients during the early (first week) and late (fourth week) withdrawal periods following alcohol cessation, and only once in the control subjects. It was found that both morning beta-EP and morning ACTH levels were reduced during both early and late withdrawals, whereas cortisol levels were increased in early withdrawal and normalized towards the late withdrawal period. The finding that beta-EP deficiency continued despite withdrawal symptoms subsiding in patients suggests that their beta-EP deficiency is independent of the withdrawal syndrome and that reduced beta-EP activity may be a trait contributing to alcohol craving. PMID:11704624

  3. Quantifying Pituitary-Adrenal Dynamics and Deconvolution of Concurrent Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Data by Compressed Sensing.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Adler, Gail K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Brown, Emery N

    2015-10-01

    Pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is governed by pulsatile release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. In return, cortisol has a negative feedback effect on ACTH release. Simultaneous recording of ACTH and cortisol is not typical, and determining the number, timing, and amplitudes of pulsatile events from simultaneously recorded data is challenging because of several factors: 1) stimulator ACTH pulse activity, 2) kinematics of ACTH and cortisol, 3) the sampling interval, and 4) the measurement error. We model ACTH and cortisol secretion simultaneously using a linear differential equations model with Gaussian errors and sparse pulsatile events as inputs to the model. We propose a novel framework for recovering pulses and parameters underlying the interactions between ACTH and cortisol. We recover the timing and amplitudes of pulses using compressed sensing and employ generalized cross validation for determining the number of pulses. We analyze serum ACTH and cortisol levels sampled at 10-min intervals over 24 h from ten healthy women. We recover physiologically plausible timing and amplitudes for these pulses and model the feedback effect of cortisol. We recover 15 to 18 pulses over 24 h, which is highly consistent with the results of another cortisol data analysis approach. Modeling the interactions between ACTH and cortisol allows for accurate quantification of pulsatile events, and normal and pathological states. This could lay the basis for a more physiologically-based approach for administering cortisol therapeutically. The proposed approach can be adapted to deconvolve other pairs of hormones with similar interactions. PMID:25935025

  4. Ethnic differences in adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol and corticotropin-releasing hormone during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Laura M; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A

    2007-06-01

    Significant ethnic disparities exist in reproductive outcomes. A potential contributing factor may be the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and placenta during pregnancy. In the present study, levels of cortisol, ACTH and CRH were determined longitudinally from the plasma of 310 African American, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women at 18-20, 24-26 and 30-32 weeks' gestation. During pregnancy, African American women exhibited lower levels of cortisol than non-Hispanic women and higher levels of ACTH than Hispanic women. The trajectory of CRH increase also differed by ethnicity, with African Americans exhibiting the lowest levels both early and late in pregnancy. Higher levels of cortisol at 18-20 weeks were associated with higher levels of CRH at 30-32 weeks among the African American and Hispanic women, but not among non-Hispanic women. Ethnic differences persisted when adjusting statistically for sociodemographic and biomedical factors. The findings are consistent with the possibility that ethnic disparities in adverse birth outcomes may be due, in part, to differences in HPA axis and placental function. PMID:17537545

  5. High-end normal adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels are associated with specific cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric obesity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and in particular cortisol, has been reported to be involved in obesity-associated metabolic disturbances in adults and in selected populations of adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between morning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese Caucasian children and adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study of 450 obese children and adolescents (aged 4 to 18 years) was performed in a tertiary referral center. ACTH, cortisol, cardiovascular risk factors (fasting and post-challenge glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, and hypertension) and insulin resistance were evaluated. All analyses were corrected for confounding factors (sex, age, puberty, body mass index), and odds ratios were determined. Results ACTH and cortisol levels were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin resistance. Cortisol, but not ACTH, was also positively associated with LDL-cholesterol. When adjusted for confounding factors, an association between ACTH and 2 h post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose was revealed. After stratification according to cardiovascular risk factors and adjustment for possible confounding factors, ACTH levels were significantly higher in subjects with triglycerides ?90th percentile (P <0.02) and impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (P <0.001). Higher cortisol levels were found in subjects with blood pressure ?95th percentile and LDL-cholesterol ?90th percentile. Overall, the highest tertiles of ACTH (>5.92 pmol/l) and cortisol (>383.5 nmol/l) although within the normal range were associated with increases in cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Conclusions In obese children and adolescents, high morning ACTH and cortisol levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. High ACTH levels are associated with high triglyceride levels and hyperglycemia, while high cortisol is associated with hypertension and high LDL-cholesterol. These specific relationships suggest complex mechanisms through which the HPA axis may contribute to metabolic impairments in obesity, and merit further investigations. PMID:23425018

  6. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system... Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a device intended to measure adrenocorticotropic hormone in...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system... Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a device intended to measure adrenocorticotropic hormone in...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system... Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a device intended to measure adrenocorticotropic hormone in...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system... Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a device intended to measure adrenocorticotropic hormone in...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system... Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a device intended to measure adrenocorticotropic hormone in...

  11. Radioactive probes for adrenocorticotropic hormone receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, K.; Romovacek, H.; Stehle, C.J.; Finn, F.M.; Bothner-By, A.A.; Mishra, P.K.

    1986-03-25

    Our attempts to develop adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogues that can be employed for ACTH receptor identification and isolation began with the synthesis of ACTH fragments containing N epsilon-(dethiobiotinyl)lysine (dethiobiocytin) amide in position 25 to be used for affinity chromatographic purification of hormone-receptor complexes on Sepharose-immobilized avidin resins. Because labeling ACTH or ACTH fragments by conventional iodination techniques destroys biological activity due to oxidation of Met4 and incorporation of iodine into Tyr2, we have prepared (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24, (Phe2,Nle4,biocytin25)ACTH1-25 amide, and (Phe2,Nle4,dethiobiocytin25)ACTH1-25 amide by conventional synthetic techniques. The HPLC profiles and amino acid analyses of the final products indicate that the materials are of a high degree of purity. The amount of tertiary butylation of the Trp residue in the peptides was assessed by NMR and was found to be less than 0.5%. All three peptides are equipotent with the standard ACTH1-24 as concerns their ability to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP formation in bovine adrenal cortical cells. Iodination of (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24, with iodogen as the oxidizing agent, has been accomplished without any detectable loss of biological activity. The mono- and diiodo derivatives of (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24 have been prepared, separated by HPLC, and assayed for biological activity. Both peptides have the full capacity to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP production in bovine adrenal cortical cells.

  12. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests in healthy foals from birth to 12 weeks of age

    PubMed Central

    Wong, David M.; Vo, Dai Tan; Alcott, Cody J.; Stewart, Allison J.; Peterson, Anna D.; Sponseller, Brett A.; Hsu, Walter H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate total baseline plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations, and ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations in foals from birth to 12 wk of age. Plasma (baseline) cortisol and ACTH concentrations were measured in 13 healthy foals at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Each foal received cosyntropin (0.1 ?g/kg) intravenously. Plasma cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline), and 30, and 60 min after cosyntropin administration at birth and at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Compared with baseline, cortisol concentration increased significantly 30 min after administration of cosyntropin on all days. Cortisol concentration was highest at birth, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, compared with all other days. With the exception of birth measurements, cortisol concentration was significantly higher on day 84, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, when compared with all other days. Baseline plasma ACTH was lowest at birth when compared with concentrations on days 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 42, 56, and 84. Administration of 0.1 ?g/kg of cosyntropin, IV, reliably induces cortisol secretion in healthy foals. Differences in the magnitude of response to cosyntropin are observed depending on the age of the foal. These data should serve as a reference for the ACTH stimulation test in foals and should be useful in subsequent studies to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy and critically ill foals. PMID:19337398

  13. Limited Diagnostic Utility of Plasma Adrenocorticotropic Hormone for Differentiation between Adrenal Cushing Syndrome and Cushing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hong, A Ram; Kim, Jung Hee; Hong, Eun Shil; Kim, I Kyeong; Park, Kyeong Seon; Ahn, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Wan; Shin, Chan Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Measurement of the plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level has been recommended as the first diagnostic test for differentiating between ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (CS) and ACTH-dependent CS. When plasma ACTH values are inconclusive, a differential diagnosis of CS can be made based upon measurement of the serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) level and results of the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDST). The aim of this study was to assess the utility of plasma ACTH to differentiate adrenal CS from Cushing' disease (CD) and compare it with that of the HDST results and serum DHEA-S level. Methods We performed a retrospective, multicenter study from January 2000 to May 2012 involving 92 patients with endogenous CS. The levels of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) after the HDST, and serum DHEA-S were measured. Results Fifty-seven patients had adrenal CS and 35 patients had CD. The area under the curve of plasma ACTH, serum DHEA-S, percentage suppression of serum cortisol, and UFC after HDST were 0.954, 0.841, 0.950, and 0.997, respectively (all P<0.001). The cut-off values for plasma ACTH, percentage suppression of serum cortisol, and UFC after HDST were 5.3 pmol/L, 33.3%, and 61.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of plasma ACTH measurement were 84.2% and 94.3%, those of serum cortisol were 95.8% and 90.6%, and those of UFC after the HDST were 97.9% and 96.7%, respectively. Conclusion Significant overlap in plasma ACTH levels was seen between patients with adrenal CS and those with CD. The HDST may be useful in differentiating between these forms of the disease, especially when the plasma ACTH level alone is not conclusive. PMID:26248856

  14. Effect of Price Increase of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone on Treatment Practices of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Carter D.; Benke, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone putatively constitutes the most efficacious treatment for infantile spasms. Adrenocorticotropic hormone in the United States is an orphan drug, made by a single manufacturer. The price of adrenocorticotropic hormone increased almost 14-fold on August 27, 2007. We sought to evaluate the impact of this price increase on treatment practices at our institution, using a retrospective chart review of all children with infantile spasms treated during 2007-2009. We identified 97 patients whose spasms were treated using antiepileptic drugs, and we determined the length of stay for those hospitalized to initiate adrenocorticotropic hormone. Patients before the price increase were more likely to have been treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone as first medication, and were hospitalized 2.2 0.5 S.D. days for initiation. Patients after the price increase were more likely to have been treated initially with oral antiepileptic drugs rather than adrenocorticotropic hormone (P < 0.002). Those commencing adrenocorticotropic hormone after the price increase were hospitalized significantly longer (5.1 0.6 days S.D., P < 0.001). Treatment choices need to be evidence-based, but other factors often influence them. PMID:20691936

  15. Adrenocorticotropic hormone versus prednisolone in the treatment of infantile spasms post vigabatrin failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kevin; Snead, O Carter; Boyd, Jennifer; Go, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The Child Neurology Society/American Academy of Neurology practice parameter has recommended adrenocorticotropic hormone or vigabatrin in the short-term treatment of infantile spasms. When vigabatrin is unavailable or ineffective and adrenocorticotropic hormone is not a treatment option because of the prohibitive cost, other forms of corticosteroids have been considered in the treatment of infantile spasms. This retrospective study reviewed the Hospital for Sick Children's experience with the short-term effectiveness of prednisolone versus adrenocorticotropic hormone in patients with infantile spasms who have failed vigabatrin. The results showed that while adrenocorticotropic hormone was more likely to lead to short-term spasm freedom, there was no difference in the likelihood of longer-term spasm resolution without relapse. These findings can guide clinicians in the treatment of infantile spasms post vigabatrin failure. PMID:24965788

  16. Cushing syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Aniszewski, J P; Young, W F; Thompson, G B; Grant, C S; van Heerden, J A

    2001-07-01

    Cushing syndrome (CS) caused by ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production (EA) poses major challenges diagnostically by mimicking the pituitary-dependent form of CS and therapeutically by producing severe, life-threatening hypercortisolemia. This retrospective follow-up study describes the clinical characteristics and course of EA in a large referral center. Computer-based cross-index codes for EA, CS, and bilateral adrenalectomy were used to identify patients treated at the Mayo Clinic between 1956 and 1998. EA was confirmed in 106 patients. Gender distribution showed a slight female predominance (61:45). Bronchial carcinoid was the most frequent cause of EA (25%), followed by islet cell cancer (16%), small-cell lung carcinoma (11%), medullary thyroid cancer (8%), disseminated neuroendocrine tumor of unknown primary source (7%), thymic carcinoid (5%), pheochromocytoma (3%), disseminated gastrointestinal carcinoid (1%), and other tumors (8%). No tumor was found in 16% of patients. Altogether, 28 patients were managed medically, and the others underwent curative tumor resection (13 patients) or bilateral adrenalectomy (65 patients). Surgically treated patients had longer survival, but this was most likely affected by treatment bias. The diagnoses of CS and ACTH-secreting neoplasm were usually concurrent, although, there were remarkable cases in which the two conditions were diagnosed several years apart. Curative resection of the tumor producing EA was possible in a small proportion of patients (12%). When curative resection is not possible, patients who are reasonable surgical candidates are likely to benefit from adrenalectomy. Additional experience with bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy should increase the number of patients who benefit from adrenal-directed surgery. PMID:11572035

  17. Linkage of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency to the corticotropin releasing hormone locus using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kyllo, J.H.; Collins, M.M.; Vetter, K.L.

    1996-03-29

    Genetic screening techniques using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms were applied to investigate the molecular nature of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. We hypothesize that this rare cause of hypocortisolism shared by a brother and sister with two unaffected sibs and unaffected parents is inherited as an autosomal recessive single gene mutation. Genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis controlling cortisol sufficiency were investigated for a causal role in this disorder. Southern blotting showed no detectable mutations of the gene encoding pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the ACTH precursor. Other candidate genes subsequently considered were those encoding neuroendocrine convertase-1, and neuroendocrine convertase-2 (NEC-1, NEC-2), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Tests for linkage were performed using polymorphic di- and tetranucleotide simple sequence repeat markers flanking the reported map locations for POMC, NEC-1, NEC-2, and CRH. The chromosomal haplotypes determined by the markers flanking the loci for POMC, NEC-1, and NEC-2 were not compatible with linkage. However, 22 individual markers defining the chromosomal haplotypes flanking CRH were compatible with linkage of the disorder to the immediate area of this gene of chromosome 8. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the ACTH deficiency in this family is due to an abnormality of CRH gene structure or expression. These results illustrate the useful application of high density genetic maps constructed with simple sequence repeat markers for inclusion/exclusion studies of candidate genes in even very small nuclear families segregating for unusual phenotypes. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Metabolic responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) vary with life-history stage in adult male northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, David C; Somo, Derek A; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-08-01

    Strong individual and life-history variation in serum glucocorticoids has been documented in many wildlife species. Less is known about variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness and its impact on metabolism. We challenged 18 free-ranging adult male northern elephant seals (NES) with an intramuscular injection of slow-release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) over 3 sample periods: early in the breeding season, after 70+ days of the breeding fast, and during peak molt. Subjects were blood sampled every 30 min for 2h post-injection. Breeding animals were recaptured and sampled at 48 h. In response to the ACTH injection, cortisol increased 4-6-fold in all groups, and remained elevated at 48 h in early breeding subjects. ACTH was a strong secretagogue for aldosterone, causing a 3-8-fold increase in concentration. Cortisol and aldosterone responses did not vary between groups but were correlated within individuals. The ACTH challenge produced elevations in plasma glucose during late breeding and molting, suppressed testosterone and thyroid hormone at 48 h in early breeding, and increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids and ketoacids during molting. These data suggest that sensitivity of the HPA axis is maintained but the metabolic impacts of cortisol and feedback inhibition of the axis vary with life history stage. Strong impacts on testosterone and thyroid hormone suggest the importance of maintaining low cortisol levels during the breeding fast. These data suggest that metabolic adaptations to extended fasting in NES include alterations in tissue responses to hormones that mitigate deleterious impacts of acute or moderately sustained stress responses. PMID:24798580

  19. Mechanisms of action of adrenocorticotropic hormone and other melanocortins relevant to the clinical management of patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Berkovich, Regina; Catania, Anna; Lisak, Robert P; Zaidi, Mone

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic benefits of adrenocorticotropic hormone in multiple sclerosis are usually ascribed to its corticotropic actions. Evidence is presented that adrenocorticotropic hormone, approved for multiple sclerosis relapses, acts via corticosteroid-independent melanocortin pathways to engender down-modulating actions on immune-system cells and the cytokines they synthesize. Immune response-dampening effects are also brought about by agent-induced neurotransmitters that inhibit immunocytes. The likelihood that adrenocorticotropic hormone promotes microglial quiescence and counteracts glucocorticoid-mediated bone resorption is discussed. PMID:23034287

  20. Hormonal regulation of focal adhesions in bovine adrenocortical cells: induction of paxillin dephosphorylation by adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Vilgrain, I; Chinn, A; Gaillard, I; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1998-01-01

    A study of bovine adrenocortical cell shape on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge showed that the cells round up and develop arborized processes. This effect was found to be (1) specific for ACTH because angiotensin II and basic fibroblast growth factor have no effect; (2) mediated by a cAMP-dependent pathway because forskolin reproduces the effect of the hormone; (3) inhibited by sodium orthovanadate, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, but unchanged by okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor; and (4) correlated with a complete loss of focal adhesions. Biochemical studies of the focal-adhesion-associated proteins showed that pp125fak, vinculin (110 kDa) and paxillin (70 kDa) were detected in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction from adrenocortical cells. During cell adhesion on fibronectin as substratum, two major phosphotyrosine-containing proteins of molecular masses 125 and 68 kDa were immunodetected in the same fraction. A dramatic decrease in the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins was observed within 60 min after treatment with ACTH. No change in pp125fak tyrosine phosphorylation nor in Src activity was detected. In contrast, paxillin was found to be tyrosine-dephosphorylated in a time-dependent manner in ACTH-treated cells. Sodium orthovanadate completely prevented the effect of ACTH. These observations suggest a possible role for phosphotyrosine phosphatases in hormone-dependent cellular regulatory processes. PMID:9601084

  1. Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone production

    PubMed Central

    Nagarur, Amulya; Kerr, Darcy A.; Lauter, Kelly B.; Padmanabhan, Arun; Raghavan, Srivatsan; Pallais, Juan C.; Fenves, Andrew Z.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a 71-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, lower-extremity edema, recent unintentional weight loss, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Serum cortisol levels remained elevated after overnight high-dose dexamethasone suppression. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small mass in the head of the pancreas with scattered liver metastases. Both endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic biopsy and liver biopsy revealed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor. These lesions did not show significant uptake on octreotide scan. Medical management and hepatic artery chemoembolization were attempted. Ultimately, the patient underwent bilateral adrenalectomy, but died within 4 months of symptom onset secondary to postoperative complications. PMID:25552797

  2. Failure of functional imaging with gallium-68-DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide positron emission tomography to localize the site of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The diagnostic efficacy of biochemical and imaging modalities for investigating the causes of Cushing's syndrome are limited. We report a case demonstrating the limitations of these modalities, especially the inability of functional imaging to help localize the site of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. Case presentation A 37-year-old Arabian woman presented with 12 months of progressive Cushing's syndrome-like symptoms. Biochemical evaluation confirmed adrenocorticotropic hormone -dependent Cushing's syndrome. However, the anatomical site of her excess adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion was not clearly delineated by further investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging of our patient's pituitary gland failed to demonstrate the presence of an adenoma. Spiral computed tomography of her chest only revealed the presence of a non-specific 7 mm lesion in her left inferobasal lung segment. Functional imaging, including a positron emission tomography scan using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose and gallium-68-DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide, also failed to show increased metabolic activity in the lung lesion or in her pituitary gland. Our patient was commenced on medical treatment with ketoconazole and metyrapone to control the clinical features associated with her excess cortisol secretion. Despite initial normalization of her urinary free cortisol excretion rate, levels began to rise eight months after commencement of medical treatment. Repeated imaging of her pituitary gland, chest and pelvis again failed to clearly localize a source of her excess adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. The bronchial nodule was stable in size on serial imaging and repeatedly reported as having a nonspecific appearance of a small granuloma or lymph node. We re-explored the treatment options and endorsed our patient's favored choice of resection of the bronchial nodule, especially given that her symptoms of cortisol excess were difficult to control and refractory. Subsequently, our patient had the bronchial nodule resected. The histological appearance of the lesion was consistent with that of a carcinoid tumor and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the tumor stained strongly positive for adrenocorticotropic hormone. Furthermore, removal of the lung lesion resulted in a normalization of our patient's 24-hour urinary free cortisol excretion rate and resolution of her symptoms and signs of hypercortisolemia. Conclusion This case report demonstrates the complexities and challenges in diagnosing the causes of adrenocorticotropic hormone -dependent Cushing's syndrome. Functional imaging may not always localize the site of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. PMID:21861919

  3. Effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and insulin on the phagocytic capacity of Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Köhidai, L; Lovas, B; Csaba, G

    1995-06-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and insulin negatively influenced the phagocytic activity of Tetrahymena. The two hormones had diverse effects after 4 hr of treatments on no-test-particle containing, "0-cells". At this time the number of "0 cells" was significantly lower in the ACTH-treated groups, while in the insulin-treated groups there was an increase of "0-cells" compared to the control and to the results of the starting experiment. Considering previous results, when small molecular weight hormones, if did at all, positively influenced phagocytosis in Tetrahymena, the experiments call the attention to the differences caused by the size of the signal molecules. In the light of the literary data on hormone effects to phagocytosis in mammals and men, the similarity of the effects in species being very far from each other in evolution, could be concluded. PMID:7580811

  4. Early hyperbaric oxygen therapy inhibits aquaporin 4 and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with blast-induced craniocerebral injury?

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Jian; Liu, Jiachuan; Wang, Jinbiao; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Chunlin; Yang, Yanyan; Sun, Wenjiang; Xu, Shaonian

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, rabbits were treated with hyperbaric oxygen for 1 hour after detonator-blast- induced craniocerebral injury. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly reduced aquaporin 4 expression and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with craniocerebral injury. Aquaporin 4 expression was positively correlated with adrenocorticotropic hormone expression. These findings indicate that early hyperbaric oxygen therapy may suppress adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion by inhibiting aquaporin 4 expression. PMID:25624795

  5. Early hyperbaric oxygen therapy inhibits aquaporin 4 and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with blast-induced craniocerebral injury.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jian; Liu, Jiachuan; Wang, Jinbiao; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Chunlin; Yang, Yanyan; Sun, Wenjiang; Xu, Shaonian

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, rabbits were treated with hyperbaric oxygen for 1 hour after detonator-blast- induced craniocerebral injury. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly reduced aquaporin 4 expression and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with craniocerebral injury. Aquaporin 4 expression was positively correlated with adrenocorticotropic hormone expression. These findings indicate that early hyperbaric oxygen therapy may suppress adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion by inhibiting aquaporin 4 expression. PMID:25624795

  6. Severe Hypokalaemia, Hypertension, and Intestinal Perforation in Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karacaer, Cengiz; Açikgöz, Seyyid Bilal; Aydemir, Yusuf; Tamer, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is a rare cause of the Cushing’s syndrome. The occurrence of the ectopic ACTH syndrome presenting with severe hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypertension has been highlighted in case reports. However, presentation with lower gastrointestinal perforation is not known. We report the case of a 70-year-old male patient with severe hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypertension, and colonic perforation as manifestations of an ACTH-secreting small cell lung carcinoma. Ectopic ACTH syndrome should be kept in mind as a cause of hypokalaemia, hypertension, and intestinal perforation in patients with lung carcinoma. PMID:26894113

  7. Hypofibrinogenemia caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone for infantile spasms: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Atsushi; Araya, Nami; Akasaka, Manami; Mizuma, Kanako; Asami, Maya; Tanifuji, Sachiko; Chida, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 7-month-old boy who developed hypofibrinogenemia (66.6 mg/dL; reference value, 170-405 mg/dL) during adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy for infantile spasms. Although the patient showed no clinical signs of a bleeding diathesis, we recommend that plasma fibrinogen levels should be monitored during ACTH therapy, which should be discontinued when fibrinogen levels fall below hemostatic levels (60.0mg/dL) or when bleeding tendencies are recognized. PMID:24735983

  8. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients With Infantile Spasm and the Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gencpinar, Pinar; Kocabas, Abdullah; Duman, zgr; Dndar, Nihal Olga; Haspolat, Senay; Kardelen, F?rat

    2016-02-01

    Infantile spasm is an age-dependent epileptic-encephalopathy syndrome. Cardiac autonomic function is frequently altered in epilepsy. In this study, we examined heart rate variability in patients with infantile spasm before and after treatment. Nineteen patients with infantile spasm and 13 healthy comparisons were enrolled in the study. Cardiac rhythm was recorded with a Holter device for 24 hours before adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (Synacthen depot) and B6 vitamin administration and 1 month after treatment. Heart rate variability analysis found lower heart rate variability parameters in patients with infantile spasm at the onset of the syndrome, prior to treatment with ACTH. The time domain parameters of heart rate variability values showed a statistically significant increase following ACTH treatment. Our data suggest that patients with infantile spasm exhibit lower heart rate variability parameters, and the treatment of spasms with ACTH and B6 together diminished the autonomic dysfunction in our cohort. PMID:25953826

  9. A Case of Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Syndrome in Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chaiho; Lee, Jinhee; Ryu, Seongyul; Lee, Hwa Young; Shin, Ah Young; Kim, Ju Sang; Ahn, Joong Hyun; Kang, Hye Seon

    2015-10-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which originated from neuroendocrine tissue, can develop into paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes, such as Cushing syndrome, because of an inappropriate secretion of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This paraneoplastic syndrome is known to be a poor prognostic factor in SCLC. The reason for poor survival may be because of a higher risk of infection associated with hypercortisolemia. Therefore, early detection and appropriate treatment for this syndrome is necessary. But the diagnosis is challenging and the source of ACTH production can be difficult to identify. We report a 69-year-old male patient who had severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypertension as manifestations of an ACTH-secreting small cell carcinoma of the lung. He was treated with ketoconazole and spironolactone to control the ACTH dependent Cushing syndrome. He survived for 15 months after chemotherapy, which is unusual considering the poor outcome of the ectopic ATH syndrome associated with SCLC. PMID:26508941

  10. A Case of Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Syndrome in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Chaiho; Lee, Jinhee; Ryu, Seongyul; Lee, Hwa Young; Shin, Ah Young; Kim, Ju Sang; Ahn, Joong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which originated from neuroendocrine tissue, can develop into paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes, such as Cushing syndrome, because of an inappropriate secretion of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This paraneoplastic syndrome is known to be a poor prognostic factor in SCLC. The reason for poor survival may be because of a higher risk of infection associated with hypercortisolemia. Therefore, early detection and appropriate treatment for this syndrome is necessary. But the diagnosis is challenging and the source of ACTH production can be difficult to identify. We report a 69-year-old male patient who had severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypertension as manifestations of an ACTH-secreting small cell carcinoma of the lung. He was treated with ketoconazole and spironolactone to control the ACTH dependent Cushing syndrome. He survived for 15 months after chemotherapy, which is unusual considering the poor outcome of the ectopic ATH syndrome associated with SCLC. PMID:26508941

  11. Multiple Sclerosis, Relapses, and the Mechanism of Action of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Amy Perrin; Ben-Zacharia, Aliza; Harris, Colleen; Smrtka, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) are disruptive and frequently disabling for patients, and their treatment is often a challenge to clinicians. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of MS and development of new treatments for long-term management of MS, options for treating relapses have not changed substantially over the past few decades. Corticosteroids, a component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that modulate immune responses and reduce inflammation, are currently the mainstay of relapse treatment. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel is another treatment option. Although it has long been assumed that the efficacy of ACTH in treating relapses depends on the peptides ability to increase endogenous corticosteroid production, evidence from research on the melanocortin system suggests that steroidogenesis may only partly account for ACTH influences. Indeed, the melanocortin peptides [ACTH and ?-, ?-, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH)] and their receptors (Melanocortin receptors, MCRs) exert multiple actions, including modulation of inflammatory and immune mediator production. MCRs are widely distributed within the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues including immune cells (e.g., macrophages). This suggests that the mechanism of action of ACTH includes not only steroid-mediated indirect effects, but also direct anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating actions via the melanocortin system. An increased understanding of the role of the melanocortin system, particularly ACTH, in the immune and inflammatory processes underlying relapses may help to improve relapse management. PMID:23482896

  12. Space weightlessness and hormonal changes in human subjects and experimental animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from spaceflight and bed rest studies are briefly described and the difficulties in interpreting these results are discussed. Growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, insulin, aldosterone, and other hormones are addressed.

  13. Influence of dopamine energic pharmacology drugs on secretion of the adrenocorticotropic hormone from the hypophysis.

    PubMed

    Milkov, V; Pironcheva, G; Miteva, K; Russev, G; Zlatarev, S

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the role of dopamine as a neuromediator in the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion, investigations were carried out with dopaminergic pharmacology drugs on male white Wistar rats. In the first series of experiments, the effects of 200 mg/kg body wt L-DOPA, of the combination of 200 mg/kg L-DOPA and 50 mg/kg body wt carbidopa, and of 2.5 mg/kg body wt bromocriptine, after a single intraperitoneal injection of ACTH in the serum of rats after 30, 90 and 120 min, following the injection, were studied. In the second series of experiments, the effect of 200 mg/kg body wt L-DOPA, of the combination of 200 mg/kg body wt L-DOPA and 50 mg/kg body wt carbidopa, of 1 mg/kg body wt bromocriptine, after intraperitoneal injection, on the concentration of ACTH in the serum within 7 days, were assessed. The inhibition of agonists of dopamine after ACTH secretion with repeated application has been shown. Using a radioimmunology assay with test kits, the amount of ACTH in the serum was determined. PMID:10955829

  14. Comparison of Ultraviolet Photodissociation and Collision Induced Dissociation of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, Scott A.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to better characterize the fragmentation pathways promoted by ultraviolet photoexcitation in comparison to collision induced dissociation (CID), six adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) peptides in a range of charge states were subjected to 266 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD), 193 nm UVPD, and CID. Similar fragment ions and distributions were observed for 266 nm UVPD and 193 nm UVPD for all peptides investigated. While both UVPD and CID led to preferential cleavage of the Y-S bond for all ACTH peptides [except ACTH (1-39)], UVPD was far less dependent on charge state and location of basic sites for the production of C-terminal and N-terminal ions. For ACTH (1-16), ACTH (1-17), ACTH (1-24), and ACTH (1-39), changes in the distributions of fragment ion types ( a, b, c, x, y, z, and collectively N-terminal ions versus C-terminal ions) showed only minor changes upon UVPD for all charge states. In contrast, CID displayed significant changes in the fragment ion type distributions as a function of charge state, an outcome consistent with the dependence on the number and location of mobile protons that is not prominent for UVPD. Sequence coverages obtained by UVPD showed less dependence on charge state than those determined by CID, with the latter showing a consistent decrease in coverage as charge state increased.

  15. Comparison of Ultraviolet Photodissociation and Collision Induced Dissociation of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Peptides.

    PubMed

    Robotham, Scott A; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to better characterize the fragmentation pathways promoted by ultraviolet photoexcitation in comparison to collision induced dissociation (CID), six adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) peptides in a range of charge states were subjected to 266 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD), 193 nm UVPD, and CID. Similar fragment ions and distributions were observed for 266 nm UVPD and 193 nm UVPD for all peptides investigated. While both UVPD and CID led to preferential cleavage of the Y-S bond for all ACTH peptides [except ACTH (1-39)], UVPD was far less dependent on charge state and location of basic sites for the production of C-terminal and N-terminal ions. For ACTH (1-16), ACTH (1-17), ACTH (1-24), and ACTH (1-39), changes in the distributions of fragment ion types (a, b, c, x, y, z, and collectively N-terminal ions versus C-terminal ions) showed only minor changes upon UVPD for all charge states. In contrast, CID displayed significant changes in the fragment ion type distributions as a function of charge state, an outcome consistent with the dependence on the number and location of mobile protons that is not prominent for UVPD. Sequence coverages obtained by UVPD showed less dependence on charge state than those determined by CID, with the latter showing a consistent decrease in coverage as charge state increased. PMID:26122515

  16. The central anorexigenic mechanism of adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the caudal hypothalamus in chicks.

    PubMed

    Shipp, Steven L; Yi, Jiaqing; Dridi, Sami; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), consisting of 39 amino acids, is most well-known for its involvement in an organism's response to stress. It also participates in satiety, as exogenous ACTH causes decreased food intake in rats. However, its anorexigenic mechanism is not well understood in any species and its effect on appetite is not reported in the avian class. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate central ACTH's effect on food intake and to elucidate the mechanism mediating this response using broiler chicks. Chicks that received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 1, 2, or 4 nmol of ACTH reduced food intake, under both ad libitum and 180 min fasted conditions. Water intake was also reduced in ACTH-injected chicks under both feeding conditions, but when measured without access to feed it was not affected. Blood glucose was not affected in either feeding condition. Following ACTH injection, c-Fos immunoreactivity was quantified in key appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei including the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the parvo- and magno-cellular portions of the paraventricular nucleus. ACTH-injected chicks had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the VMH, LH, and ARC. Hypothalamus was collected at 1h post-injection, and real-time PCR performed to measure mRNA abundance of some appetite-associated factors. Neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, glutamate decarboxylase 1, melanocortin receptors 2-5, and urocortin 3 mRNA abundance was not affected by ACTH treatment. However, expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), urotensin 2 (UT), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and orexin (ORX), and melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) mRNA decreased in the hypothalamus of ACTH-injected chicks. In conclusion, ICV ACTH causes decreased food intake in chicks, and is associated with VMH, LH, and ARC activation, and a decrease in hypothalamic mRNA abundance of CRF, UT, AgRP, ORX and MC1R. PMID:26297349

  17. Short-term effects of cortisol implantation on blood biochemistry and thyroid hormones in previtellogenic great sturgeon Huso huso.

    PubMed

    Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of implanted cortisol on various aspects of intermediary metabolism of great sturgeon, Huso huso. Prior to experimentation all fish were examined using an endoscope to observe the stage of ovarian development. Subsequently, the 3-year-old female fish in the previtellogenic stage (mean body weight of 675953.2g) were intraperitoneally implanted with cocoa butter pellets containing cortisol to mimic the effects of chronic stress. The implant doses were 0 (C0; as control), 5 (C5) and 50 (C50) mg cortisol/kg body weight. Blood samples were taken every seven days during the four weeks of the experiment and analyzed for cortisol, glucose, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), total protein, total lipid, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cholesterol and triglyceride content. Growth was reduced in all experimental groups and was not affected by cortisol treatment. Surprisingly, serum cortisol levels were higher in the C5 group than in the C50 throughout the experiment. A significant increase in glucose levels was observed in the cortisol-implanted fish from day 14 onwards. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant increase in serum T3 and T4 levels. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose also showed increases in serum ACTH, total lipid and cholesterol levels throughout a 28-day experimental period. The present study reveals that the negative effects of endoscopic surgery remain for at least four weeks and that a sustained-release implant of cortisol to mimic the effects of chronic stress affects metabolic responses. Since the adverse effects of endoscopic surgery on sturgeon welfare can be amplified by cortisol, special attention should be paid to the potential effects of chronic stress on sturgeon in culture. PMID:25289995

  18. Case of multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B with probable ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting liver metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurozumi, Akira; Okada, Yosuke; Arao, Tadashi; Nakamoto, Yuji; Togashi, Kaori; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2013-09-01

    A 31 year old woman was diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2B at 10 years old. Dark pigmentation gradually developed on her skin and her serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was high, suggesting concurrent ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS). Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) loading test ruled out Cushing's disease and supported the diagnosis of EAS. Multiple low attenuation mass in the liver was observed in a computed tomography (CT) scan, and was suspected as ectopic ACTH-secreting metastatic tumor from medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). ACTH production by MTC is relatively rare, particularly in patients with MEN; patients with ectopic ACTH-secreting liver metastatic tumor from MTC in MEN 2B have never been reported previously. PMID:24077587

  19. [Stress-protective effect of the KKRR synthetic peptide corresponding to the 15-18 sequence of human adrenocorticotropic hormone].

    PubMed

    Sadovnikov, V B; Sazhin, A I; Zolotarev, Iu A; Navolotskaia, E V

    2009-01-01

    The activity of the KKRR synthetic peptide corresponding to the 15-18 sequence of human adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and its analogues KKKK, RRRR, RRKK, kKRR, KkRR, KKrR, and KKRr (amino acid residues of the D configuration are designated by small letters) was studied in vivo on rats under cold and heat shock. Intranasal administration of the KKRR peptide at doses of 2-10 microg/animal 1 day before the shock was found to prevent a dramatic increase in the level of corticosterone in rat adrenal glands and blood plasma caused by the temperature effect. Amino acid substitutions in the KKRR peptide were shown to result in an abrupt decrease in its activity. The peptide analogues exhibit a low stress-protective activity and had a low affinity for the ACTH receptor. PMID:19377519

  20. Peripheral blood corticotropin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cytokine (Interleukin Beta, Interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels after high- and low-dose total-body irradiation in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Girinsky, T.A.; Pallardy, M.; Comoy, E.; Benassi, T.; Roger, R.; Ganem, G.; Socie, G.; Cossett, J.M.; Magdelenat, H.

    1994-09-01

    Total-body irradiation (TBI) induces an increase in levels of granulocytes and cortisol in blood. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we studied 26 patients who had TBI prior to bone marrow transplantation. Our findings suggest that only a high dose of TBI (10 Gy) was capable of activating the hypothalamopituitary area since corticotropin-releasing factor and blood adrenocorticotropic hormone levels increased at the end of the TBI. There was a concomitant increase in the levels of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor in blood, suggesting that these cytokines might activate the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis. Interleukin 1 was not detected. Since vascular injury is a common after radiation treatment, it is possible that interleukin 6 was secreted by endothelial cells. The exact mechanisms of the production of cyctokines induced by ionizing radiation remain to be determined. 25 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: Data from two preliminary studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaffey, Allison E.; Wirth, Michelle M.; Hoks, Roxanne M.; Jahn, Allison L.; Abercrombie, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants’ cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 hours. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 hours. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC vs. women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group. PMID:24773147

  2. Low dose adrenocorticotropic hormone test and adrenal insufficiency in critically ill acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Shashidhar, P. K.; Shashikala, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Prevalence of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is not uncommon in HIV infected population. However, AI is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice because many patients have non-specific symptoms and signs. Critical illness in such patients further complicates the evaluation of adrenal function. A 1μgm ACTH test can be used for diagnosis, since it results in more physiological levels of ACTH. A serum cortisol of <18 μg/dL, 30 or 60-minutes after ACTH test has been accepted as indicative of AI, but many experts advocate the normal cortisol response should exceed 25 μg/dL, in critically ill patients. Aim: To determine the prevalence of AI in critically ill AIDS patients, by using 1 μg ACTH test and also, to compare the diagnostic criteria for adrenal insufficiency between cortisol response of <18 μg/dL and <25 μg/dL. Settings and Design: This prospective study was done in the Department of Medicine. Materials and Methods: After taking blood for basal plasma cortisol from AIDS affected fifty adult men and women aged over 18 yrs, 1 μg ACTH was given intravenously, and blood samples were again collected at 30 and 60 minutes for plasma cortisol estimation. Statistical analysis: It was done by Mann-Whitney test. Results: Prevalence of AI was 74% (37 patients) and 92% (46 patients), when the peak stimulated cortisol level of <18 μg/dL and <25 μg/dL, respectively, was used. Conclusion: AI is more prevalent in critically ill AIDS patients. Hence, this test can be performed for early intervention and better management. PMID:22629505

  3. [West syndrome: clinical and electroencephalographic follow up of 70 patients and response to its treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone, prednisone, vigabatrin, nitrazepam and valproate].

    PubMed

    Antoniuk, S A; Bruck, I; Spessatto, A; Halick, S M; de Bruyn, L R; Meister, E; de Paola, D

    2000-09-01

    In a retrospective study we assessed the outcome of the criptogenic and symptomatic forms of West syndrome and evaluated the efficacy of adrenocorticotropic hormone, vigabatrin, prednisone, valproate and nitrazepam in the spasms control. Seventy patients were follwed up by 2 years. Twelve (17%) were criptogenics and 58 (83%) symptomatics. In criptogenic group significantly more patients were in regular school classes and with normal motor development, better control of seizure, less tendency to evoluate to Lennox Gastaut syndrome and 83. 3% had control of spasms (72.4% of patients from symptomatic group had control of spasms). Adrenocorticotropic hormone and vigabatrin were the most efective drugs, with 68.75% and 60% of spasms control, respectivelly, when used as first line of therapy and 75% and 50%, respectivelly, as second line of therapy. PMID:10973110

  4. Gene array and real time PCR analysis of the adrenal sensitivity to adrenocorticotropic hormone in pig

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Dominique; Liaubet, Laurence; SanCristobal, Magali; Mormde, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Background Variability in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been shown to be influenced by genetic factors and related to great metabolic differences such as obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate molecular bases of genetic variability of the adrenal sensitivity to ACTH, a major source of variability, in Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs, MS being reported to exhibit higher basal cortisol levels, response to ACTH and fatness than LW. A pig cDNA microarray was used to identify changes in gene expression in basal conditions and in response to ACTH stimulation. Results Genotype and/or ACTH affected the expression of 211 genes related to transcription, cell growth/maintenance, signal transduction, cell structure/adhesion/extra cellular matrix and protein kinase/phosphatase activity. No change in the expression of known key regulator proteins of the ACTH signaling pathway or of steroidogenic enzymes was found. However, Mdh2, Sdha, Suclg2, genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway, were over-expressed in MS pigs. Higher TCA cycle activity in MS than in LW may thus result in higher steroidogenic activity and thus explain the typically higher cortisol levels in MS compared to LW. Moreover, up-regulation of Star and Ldlr genes in MS and/or in response to ACTH suggest that differences in the adrenal function between MS and LW may also involve mechanisms requisite for cholesterol supply to steroidogenesis. Conclusion The present study provides new potential candidate genes to explain genetic variations in the adrenal sensitivity to ACTH and better understand relationship between HPA axis activity and obesity. PMID:18304307

  5. Do Patients Require Inpatient Admission to Receive Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)? A Survey of US-Based Prescribers.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Charuta; Berg, Anne T; Wirrell, Elaine

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to determine variation in treatment of newly diagnosed infantile spasms, focusing on details of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration using a Redcap questionnaire sent to members of the Child Neurology Society. Two hundred fifty-seven members responded. Eighty-four percent prescribers used ACTH to treat infantile spasms. Seventy-six percent always admit patients. There is no difference between prescriber type (epileptologist or other) and prescriber location (state-funded or non-state-funded hospital) for decision to admit. Electroencephalographic (EEG) confirmation of spasms and education for injection were the commonest reasons to admit. Only 45% of prescribers accurately estimated the cost of ACTH. Participants in the hospital vial program were significantly more likely to always admit patients for ACTH than those who did not participate in such a program (P = .02). Although having the hospital sample vial allows time to complete investigation of infantile spasms and eliminates delays in initiating ACTH, it adds significantly to the cost of therapy. PMID:25999302

  6. Inhibitory effects of trichostatin A on adrenocorticotropic hormone production and proliferation of corticotroph tumor AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Yuki; Kageyama, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Aya; Desaki, Rie; Takayasu, Shinobu; Niioka, Kanako; Murasawa, Shingo; Ishigame, Noriko; Asari, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Daimon, Makoto

    2015-12-27

    Cushing's disease is primarily caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenomas. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) expression, a hallmark of pituitary tumors, stimulates pituitary cell proliferation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in regulating gene transcription and HDAC inhibitors induce cellular differentiation and suppress tumor cell proliferation. HDAC inhibitors also repress PTTG1 mRNA levels. Trichostatin A (TSA) is a potent cell-permeable HDAC inhibitor that blocks cell cycle progression. In the present study, we determined the effect of TSA on ACTH production and cellular proliferation in mouse AtT-20 corticotroph tumor cells. TSA decreased proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels in AtT-20 cells and reduced ACTH levels in the culture medium of these cells. The TSA-induced decreases in POMC mRNA levels were not modulated when TSA and dexamethasone were simultaneously administered. Drug treatment also decreased AtT-20 cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and increased the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase using flow cytometry. TSA decreased PTTG1 mRNA levels. Furthermore, PTTG1 knockdown inhibited cellular proliferation. Its knockdown also inhibited POMC mRNA and ACTH levels. TSA inhibits ACTH production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation. TSA may inhibit cellular proliferation, and ACTH synthesis and secretion by decreasing PTTG1 expression. PMID:26497760

  7. Selective suppression of renal Na+/H+ exchanger isoform-3 by prolonged stimulation of rats with adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Khan, I; Cheng, B

    2001-12-01

    Prolonged stimulation with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causes hypertension and increases Na+ intake and urine output in humans and animals. However, its biochemical basis remains to be established. Since renal Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms (NHE) and the sodium pump play an important role in this condition, their levels were examined in rats stimulated with ACTH. Male Wistar rats received daily sc injection of ACTH (30 microg/100 g of body wt) for 4 d. Half of the ACTH-stressed rats were kept for four additional days without injection of ACTH (poststimulation). In a third group, the animals were treated with dexamethasone (50 microg/100 g of body wt) daily for 4 d. A fourth group consisted of unstressed control animals. Levels of NHE proteins were measured by Western blot analysis. Sodium pump activity was assessed by the level of ouabain-sensitive K-stimulated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity (PNP) in the renal cortex. ACTH caused a selective decrease in NHE-3, but not of NHE-1 or alpha-actin levels. Interestingly, this ACTH-induced change was not duplicated in the animals treated with dexamethasone. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated that NHE-3 is located in the renal proximal tubules. PNP activity, on the contrary, was increased in both the ACTH-stimulated and dexamethasone-treated animals. More important, these changes in NHE-3 and PNP activity returned to the control level poststimulation. In conclusion, while PNP upregulation may be mediated by adrenocortical glucocorticoid, a role for glucocorticoids in the suppression of NHE-3 is less clear. These changes might impair renal tubular Na+ reabsorption and hence increase Na+ and water excretion in ACTH stimulation, thus acting as a counterbalance to normalize blood pressure in ACTH-stimulated animals. PMID:11954662

  8. ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) Test

    MedlinePLUS

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  9. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400h, (4) 1600h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles. PMID:26539966

  10. Investigation of the serum levels of anterior pituitary hormones in male children with autism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The neurobiological basis of autism remains poorly understood. The diagnosis of autism is based solely on behavioural characteristics because there are currently no reliable biological markers. To test whether the anterior pituitary hormones and cortisol could be useful as biological markers for autism, we assessed the basal serum levels of these hormones in subjects with autism and normal controls. Findings Using a suspension array system, we determined the serum levels of six anterior pituitary hormones, including adrenocorticotropic hormone and growth hormone, in 32 drug-naive subjects (aged 6 to 18 years, all boys) with autism, and 34 healthy controls matched for age and gender. We also determined cortisol levels in these subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone and cortisol were significantly higher in subjects with autism than in controls. In addition, there was a significantly positive correlation between cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in autism. Conclusion Our results suggest that increased basal serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone accompanied by increased cortisol and growth hormone may be useful biological markers for autism. PMID:22011527

  11. Immunocytochemical increased evidence of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and adrenocorticotropic hormone in human peritumoral lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Aldo; Landolfo, Giovanni; Sassi, Davide; Franchini, Antonella; Ottaviani, Enzo

    2002-03-01

    In the current study, mesenteric and peritumoral lymph nodes surgically removed from patients with colon-rectum cancer were studied. Morphologic and immunocytochemical investigations demonstrated that mesenteric (control) and peritumoral lymph nodes of a same patient showed the same morphologic structure, but a different immunocytochemical pattern. Indeed, an increased immunoreactivity to anti-inducible nitric oxide synthase, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and anti-adrenocorticotropic hormone antibodies in the lymphatic tissue of peritumoral lymph nodes compared with mesenteric lymph nodes was observed. These findings suggest that in colon-rectum cancer, the pathologic event induces an increased expression of the molecules involved in the processes of inflammation and carcinogenesis that occurs earlier than the appearance of morphologic modifications. PMID:11893036

  12. Salivary cortisol and explicit memory in postmenopausal women using hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Duff-Canning, Sarah J

    2016-02-01

    Circulating cortisol levels are known to influence explicit memory in humans and other primates. The present study investigated salivary cortisol and its association with explicit memory performance in 99 postmenopausal women (64 treated with conjugated equine estrogens or estradiol, and 35 matched controls not using any form of hormone therapy). Controls were compared with treated women taking estrogens alone (n=39), or taking estrogens in combination with a progestin (n=25). Mean time on hormone therapy was approximately 5 years, with initiation of treatment in close proximity to the onset of menopause. Explicit memory was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Saliva was collected before (basal or resting sample) and after (post-test sample) completing a set of cognitive tasks. Cortisol was measured using a high-sensitivity radioimmunoassay. Treated women were found to have higher resting cortisol concentrations than controls matched for time of day. Basal cortisol was a modest predictor of learning and memory on the CVLT. Higher cortisol was associated with better recall and fewer memory errors, which is consistent with experimental studies examining explicit memory under small increases in circulating cortisol load. Potential cumulative effects on the central nervous system of sustained exposure to mildly increased cortisol in conjunction with the long-term use of oral estrogens are discussed in the context of aging and dementia. PMID:26630390

  13. Hormonal contraceptive use diminishes salivary cortisol response to psychosocial stress and naltrexone in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; King, Andrea C.; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Lovallo, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of hormonal contraception (HC) may affect salivary cortisol levels at rest and in response to a pharmacological or stress challenge. Therefore, the current study used a secondary data analysis to investigate the effect of HC on salivary cortisol levels in response to the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a psychosocial stressor, and also across the diurnal curve. Two hundred and nine women (n = 72 using hormonal contraception; HC+) completed a two-session stress response study that consisted of a stress day, in which they were exposed to public speaking and mental arithmetic, and a rest day, in which unstimulated cortisol levels were measured to assess the diurnal rhythm. A subset of seventy women (n = 24 HC+) also completed a second study in which they were administered oral naltrexone (50 mg) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind fashion. Women who were HC+ had a significantly reduced salivary cortisol response to both the psychosocial stressor (p < 0.001) and naltrexone (p < 0.05) compared to HC? women. Additionally, HC+ women had a significantly altered morning diurnal cortisol rhythm (p < 0.01), with a delayed peak and higher overall levels. The results of the current study confirm that HC attenuates salivary cortisol response to a psychosocial stressor and mu-opioid receptor antagonism, and also alters the morning diurnal cortisol curve. PMID:23672966

  14. Mapping the human melanocortin 2 receptor (adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor; ACTHR) gene (MC2R) to the small arm of chromosome 18 (18p11. 21-pter)

    SciTech Connect

    Vamvakopoulos, N.C.; Chrousos, G.P. ); Rojas, K.; Overhauser, J. ); Durkin, A.S.; Nierman, W.C. )

    1993-11-01

    The human adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR) was recently cloned and shown to belong to the superfamily of membrane receptors that couple to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and adenylyl cyclase. A genetically heterogeneous (including both X-linked and autosomally recessive forms) congenital syndrome of general hereditary adrenal unresponsiveness to ACTH has been documented in several kindreds. This inherited defect affects one of the steps in the cascade of events of ACTH action on glucocorticoid biosynthesis, without altering mineralocorticoid productions. Since candidate targets for pathophysiological manifestations of deficient responsiveness to ACTH include lesions of the ACTHR gene, the authors undertook to map it to a chromosomal location. They first used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of NIGMS Panel 1 DNA template to assign a 960-bp-long fragment of the human ACTHR gene to chromosome 18. Subsequently, they determined the location of the ACTHR gene within human chromosome 18 by PCR amplification of genomic DNA template from somatic cell hybrids that contain deletions of this chromosome.

  15. Nicotine self-administration diminishes stress-induced norepinephrine secretion but augments adrenergic-responsiveness in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and enhances adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone release

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guoliang; Sharp, Burt M.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic nicotine self-administration augments the thalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to stress. Altered neuropeptide expression within corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributes to this enhanced HPA response to stress. Herein, we determined the role of norepinephrine, a primary regulator of CRF neurons, in the responses to footshock during nicotine self-administration. On day 12-15 of self-administration, microdialysis showed nicotine reduced PVN norepinephrine release by footshock (<50% of saline). Yet, the reduction in footshock-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion due to intra-PVN prazosin (α1 adrenergic antagonist) was significantly greater in rats self-administering nicotine (2-fold) than saline. Additionally, PVN phenylephrine (α1 agonist) stimulated ACTH and corticosterone release to a similar extent in unstressed rats self-administering nicotine or saline. Nicotine self-administration also decreased footshock-induced c-Fos expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)-A2/C2 catecholaminergic neurons that project to the PVN. Therefore, footshock-induced NTS activation and PVN norepinephrine input are both attenuated by nicotine self-administration, yet PVN CRF neurons are more responsive to α1 stimulation, but only during stress. This plasticity in noradrenergic regulation of PVN CRF neurons provides a new mechanism contributing to the HPA sensitization to stress by nicotine self-administration and smoking. PMID:20028457

  16. Mu-opioid receptor A118G polymorphism in healthy volunteers affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis adrenocorticotropic hormone stress response to metyrapone.

    PubMed

    Ducat, Elizabeth; Ray, Brenda; Bart, Gavin; Umemura, Yoshie; Varon, Jack; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2013-03-01

    The mu-opioid receptor encoded by the gene OPRM1 plays a primary role in opiate, alcohol, cocaine and nicotine addiction. Studies using opioid antagonists demonstrate that the mu-opioid receptor (MOP-r) also mediates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response. A common polymorphism in exon one of the MOP-r gene, A118G, has been shown to significantly alter receptor function and MOP-r gene expression; therefore, this variant likely affects HPA-axis responsivity. In the current study, we have investigated whether the presence of the 118AG variant genotype affects HPA axis responsivity to the stressor metyrapone, which transiently blocks glucocorticoid production in the adrenal cortex. Forty-eight normal and healthy volunteers (32 men, 16 women) were studied, among whom nine men and seven women had the 118AG genotype. The 118G allele blunted the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) response to metyrapone. Although there was no difference in basal levels of ACTH, subjects with the 118AG genotype had a more modest rise and resultant significantly lower ACTH levels than those with the prototype 118AA at the 8-hour time point (P < 0.02). We found no significant difference between genders. These findings suggest a relatively greater tonic inhibition at hypothalamic-pituitary sites through the mu-opioid receptor and relatively less cyclical glucocorticoid inhibition in subjects with the 118G allele. PMID:21507151

  17. Blood plasma collected after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration during the preovulatory period in the sow negatively affects in vitro fertilization by disturbing spermatozoa function.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez, R; Kumaresan, A; Bergqvist, A S; Sjunnesson, Y C B

    2015-04-15

    Successful fertilization is essential for reproduction and might be negatively affected by stressful events, which could alter the environment where fertilization occurs. The aim of the study was to determine whether an altered hormonal profile in blood plasma caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration could affect in vitro fertilization in the pig model. In experiment 1, gametes were exposed for 24 hours to plasma from ACTH-treated, non-ACTH-treated sows, or medium with BSA. Fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst rates were lower in the ACTH group compared with the no ACTH or BSA control groups (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, the exposure of matured oocytes for 1 hour before fertilization to the same treatments did not have an impact on their ability to undergo fertilization or on embryo development. In experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated for 0, 1, 4, and 24 hours under the same conditions. There was no effect of treatment on sperm viability. The percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa remained higher in the ACTH group compared with the non-ACTH-treated group through the incubation period (P < 0.001). Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP) patterns were also affected by treatment (P < 0.001). The presence of an atypical PTP pattern was higher in the ACTH group at all the analyzed time points compared with the BSA and no ACTH groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this altered environment may not affect oocyte competence but might affect the sperm fertilizing ability through alterations in the acrosome reaction and correct sequence of PTP patterns. PMID:25623229

  18. Adrenocorticotropic hormone elevates gene expression for catecholamine biosynthesis in rat superior cervical ganglia and locus coeruleus by an adrenal independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Serova, L I; Gueorguiev, V; Cheng, S-Y; Sabban, E L

    2008-06-01

    Classically, upon hypothalamic stimulation, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is released from the pituitary and acts on melanocortin 2 receptors (MC2R) in the adrenal cortex, stimulating glucocorticoid synthesis and release. Our earlier studies suggested that ACTH might have a direct effect on sympathetic ganglia. To analyze further the involvement of ACTH in regulation of gene expression of norepinephrine (NE) biosynthetic enzymes, we examined the effect of bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) of Sprague-Dawley male rats. Fourteen days post-ADX, as expected, plasma ACTH was elevated, and levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and MC2R mRNAs in superior cervical ganglia (SCG), and TH mRNA in locus coeruleus (LC) were increased compared with sham-operated animals. To determine effect of pulsatile elevation of ACTH, corticosterone pellets were implanted to ADX rats. Similar to immobilization (IMO) stress ACTH injections to these animals caused a rise in ACTH in plasma and triggered elevation of TH and DBH mRNAs in SCG and in LC with single and repeated daily injections, and MC2R mRNA in SCG with single injections. To study the effect of ACTH in isolated cells, primary cultures of rat SCG were transfected with TH and DBH promoter constructs and treated with ACTH. In agreement with the in vivo data, ACTH elevated their promoter activities similar to levels triggered by cyclic AMP analog. ACTH in the human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells increased TH and DBH promoter activity and endogenous DBH mRNA levels. The results show that ACTH can have a direct effect on transcription and gene expression of NE biosynthetic enzymes even without contribution of adrenal hormones. PMID:18440707

  19. Enhanced hypoosmoregulatory response to growth hormone after cortisol treatment in immature rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri.

    PubMed

    Madsen, S S

    1990-07-01

    The growth-independent effect of ovine growth hormone (oGH) and oGH + cortisol treatment on seawater (SW) adaptation in immature rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri was investigated. Fish were injected every second day with saline, 2.0 μg oGH/g or 2.0 μg oGH + 8.0 μg cortisol/g for a maximum of 8 injections in freshwater (FW). Subgroups were transferred to 28‰ SW after 4 or 8 injections, and changes in plasma Na(+) and Cl(-), muscle water content and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were measured. In both of the hormone-treated groups retained in FW, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and interlamellar chloride cell density increased. The effects were most pronounced in the oGH + cortisol group after 2 weeks of treatment. After transfer to SW most of the control fish died due to the osmotic stress, whereas in the hormone-treated groups, mortality was low and there was a positive correlation between pretransfer gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and the ability to maintain ionic-osmotic homeostasis after SW transfer. After two weeks of oGH + cortisol treatment, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was maximal. In contrast, after SW transfer, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity increased further in the oGH-treated group. This group regulated ionic-osmotic parameters less effectively than the oGH + cortisol-treated group. The data indicate that GH and cortisol are important hormones in the regulation of hypoosmoregulatory mechanisms in S. gairdneri. PMID:24220916

  20. Sleep, Dreams, and Memory Consolidation: The Role of the Stress Hormone Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert…

  1. Effect of cannabidiol on plasma prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zuardi, A W; Guimares, F S; Moreira, A C

    1993-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on plasma prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol of 11 normal volunteers who received placebo or CBD at the doses of 300 mg (N = 7) or 600 mg (N = 4), po, in a double-blind manner during two experimental sessions separated by an interval of at least one week. The sessions were held in the morning and consisted of blood collection and application of self-evaluation scales before and after drug injection (-35 to 180 min). Hormonal measurements were performed by radioimmunoassay. Basal prolactin (11.5 +/- 4.3 ng/ml) and growth hormone (1.5 +/- 0.7 ng/ml) levels were unchanged after placebo and CBD. In contrast, plasma cortisol levels decreased significantly during the placebo sessions (basal measurement = 11.0 +/- 3.7 micrograms/dl; 120 min after placebo = 7.1 +/- 3.9 micrograms/dl), in agreement with the normal circadian rhythm of this hormone. This decrease in cortisol levels was significantly attenuated after CBD (basal measurement = 10.5 +/- 4.9 micrograms/dl; 120 min after 300 mg CBD = 9.9 +/- 6.2 micrograms/dl; 120 min after 600 mg CBD = 11.6 +/- 11.6 micrograms/dl). CBD was also found to have a sedative effect as determined by the self-evaluation scales. The present results suggest that CBD interferes with cortisol secretion. PMID:8257923

  2. Sleep, Dreams, and Memory Consolidation: The Role of the Stress Hormone Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert

  3. Testosterone and cortisol jointly regulate dominance: evidence for a dual-hormone hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Pranjal H; Josephs, Robert A

    2010-11-01

    Traditional theories propose that testosterone should increase dominance and other status-seeking behaviors, but empirical support has been inconsistent. The present research tested the hypothesis that testosterone's effect on dominance depends on cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone implicated in psychological stress and social avoidance. In the domains of leadership (Study 1, mixed-sex sample) and competition (Study 2, male-only sample), testosterone was positively related to dominance, but only in individuals with low cortisol. In individuals with high cortisol, the relation between testosterone and dominance was blocked (Study 1) or reversed (Study 2). Study 2 further showed that these hormonal effects on dominance were especially likely to occur after social threat (social defeat). The present studies provide the first empirical support for the claim that the neuroendocrine reproductive (HPG) and stress (HPA) axes interact to regulate dominance. Because dominance is related to gaining and maintaining high status positions in social hierarchies, the findings suggest that only when cortisol is low should higher testosterone encourage higher status. When cortisol is high, higher testosterone may actually decrease dominance and in turn motivate lower status. PMID:20816841

  4. ADENYL CYCLASE AND HORMONE ACTION, I. EFFECTS OF ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, GLUCAGON, AND EPINEPHRINE ON THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF RAT FAT CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Br, H. P.; Hechter, O.

    1969-01-01

    A large number of hormones, of diverse molecular structure, evoke characteristic responses in target cells via the intermediary 3?,5?-AMP, the specificity of hormone action upon cell type being achieved by selective stimulation of adenyl cyclase. In the fat cells of rat adipose tissue, adenyl cyclase is stimulated by a number of hormones of disparate molecular structure, posing the question whether this cell type posesses multiple cyclase systems with distinctive specificities for individual hormones, or a single cyclase with broad specificity to a variety of hormones. Studies of the stimulatory effects of adenocorticotropin, glucagon, and epinephrine upon the adenyl cyclase of the rat fat cell ghosts (plasma membrane sacs) have shown that distinctive selectivity sites for each of these hormones can be differentiated. The ?-adrenergic blocking agent K 592 abolished the stimulatory effect of epinephrine without influencing adenocorticotropin or glucagon; Ca was required for adenocorticotropin action, but not for glucagon or epinephrine. Dose-response curves show that the affinity of hormones to the cyclase system was in the order: glucagon > adenocorticotropin ? epinephrine; the magnitude of cyclase activation by maximal doses of hormones had a reversed order. Combinations of maximal doses of hormones failed to produce additive stimulation. The results show that in the membrane of the fat cell a single catalytic unit of adenyl cyclase is coupled to distinctive selectivity sites for three lipolytic hormones. PMID:4308273

  5. Tipepidine, a non-narcotic antitussive, exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in adrenocorticotropic hormone-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Ogata, Yukino; Honda, Sokichi; Soeda, Fumio; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether tipepidine exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats, which is known as a treatment-resistant depression model, and we studied the pharmacological mechanisms of the effects of tipepidine. Male Wistar rats (5-7 weeks old) were used in this study. Tipepidine (20 and 40mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the immobility time in the forced swimming test in ACTH-treated rats. The anti-immobility effect of tipepidine was blocked by a catecholamine-depleting agent, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (300mg/kg, s.c.), but not by a serotonin-depleting agent, p-chlorophenylalanine. The anti-immobility effect of tipepidine was also blocked by a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.02mg/kg, s.c.) and an adrenaline α2 receptor antagonist, yohimbine (2mg/kg, i.p.). In microdialysis technique, tipepidine (40mg/kg, i.p.) increased the extracellular dopamine level of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in ACTH-treated rats. These results suggest that tipepidine exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in ACTH-treated rats, and that the effect of tipepidine is mediated by the stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors and adrenaline α2 receptors. The results also suggest that an increase in the extracellular dopamine level in the NAc may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of tipepidine in ACTH-treated rats. PMID:26738969

  6. Sex differences in cortisol response to Corticotropin Releasing Hormone challenge over puberty: Pittsburgh Pediatric Neurobehavioral Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective Consistent sex differences in regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis have been shown in animal models and emerge over puberty. However, parallel work in humans is lacking despite implications for elucidating the emergence of sex differences in depression over puberty. We investigated sex differences in HPA response to corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) challenge over puberty in a carefully screened normative sample. Methods Participants were 68 healthy children (41% girls), ages 616, with no personal or family history of psychiatric disorder. Pubertal maturation was determined by Tanner staging. Following 24 hours of adaptation, 910 plasma cortisol samples were collected over 3040 minutes pre-infusion baseline, 1 ?g/kg CRH infusion, and 90180 minutes post-infusion recovery. Thirty-seven participants completed 2+ CRH challenges allowing inclusion of cross-sectional and longitudinal data in all analyses. The influence of gender and pubertal maturation on parameters of cortisol response to CRH challenge was investigated using nonlinear mixed model metholodogy. Results Girls showed increasing total cortisol output following CRH challenge over puberty, while boys showed little change in total cortisol output over puberty. Increased cortisol output in girls was explained by slower reactivity and recovery rates leading to prolonged time to reach peak cortisol and delayed return to baseline over puberty. Girls also showed increasing baseline cortisol over puberty, while boys showed declining baseline over puberty. Conclusion Results reveal subtle normative sex differences in the influence of pubertal maturation on HPA regulation at the pituitary level. This normative shift may tip the balance towards stress response dysregulation in girls at high risk for depression, and may represent one potential mechanism underlying elevated rates of depression among pubescent girls. PMID:21489699

  7. The involvement of thyroid hormones and cortisol in the osmotic acclimation of Solea senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Arjona, F J; Vargas-Chacoff, L; Martn del Ro, M P; Flik, G; Mancera, J M; Klaren, P H M

    2008-02-01

    The peripheral conversion of the prohormone 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine (T4) to the biologically active 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), via enzymatic deiodination by deiodinases, is an important pathway in thyroid hormone metabolism. The aim of this study was to test if thyroid hormones and cortisol, as well as the outer ring deiodination (ORD) metabolic pathway, are involved in the osmoregulatory response of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858). We measured osmoregulatory and endocrine parameters in immature juveniles S. senegalensis acclimated to seawater (SW, 38 per thousand) and that were transferred and allowed to acclimate to different salinities (5 per thousand, 15 per thousand, 38 per thousand and 55 per thousand) for 17 days. An adjustment and a chronic regulatory period were identified following acclimation. The adjustment period immediately follows the transfer, and is characterized by altered plasma osmolalities. During this period, plasma cortisol levels increased while plasma free T4 (fT4) levels decreased. Both hormones levels returned to normal values on day 3 post-transfer. In the adjustment period, renal and hepatic ORD activities had increased concomitantly with the decrease in plasma fT4 levels in fishes transferred to extreme salinities (5 per thousand and 55 per thousand). In the chronic regulatory period, where plasma osmolality returned to normal values, plasma cortisol had increased, whereas plasma fT4 levels decreased in animals that were transferred to salinities other than SW. No major changes were observed in branchial ORD activity throughout the experiment. The inverse relationship between plasma cortisol and fT4 suggests an interaction between these hormones during both osmoregulatory periods while ORD pathway can be important in the short-term adjustment period. PMID:17950731

  8. Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Co-Secreting Tumors in Children and Adolescents Causing Cushing Syndrome: A Diagnostic Dilemma and How to Solve It

    PubMed Central

    Karageorgiadis, Alexander S.; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Biro, Juliana; Keil, Meg F.; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Quezado, Martha M.; Merino, Maria; Schrump, David S.; Kebebew, Electron; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Hunter, Maya K.; Alwazeer, Mouhammad R.; Karaviti, Lefkothea P.; Balazs, Andrea E.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ectopic ACTH/CRH syndrome is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome (CS), especially in children. The localization, work-up, and management of ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors are discussed. Setting: A retrospective study was conducted of patients under 21 years of age evaluated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for CS and diagnosed with ectopic ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors during the period 20092014. Patients: Seven patients with ectopic ACTH/CRH CS are included in this study with a median age 13.6 years (range 121), and 3 are female. Measurements: Clinical, biochemical, radiological features, treatment, and histological findings are described. Results: Seven patients were found to have ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors, all with neuroendocrine features. The site of the primary lesion varied: pancreas (3), thymus (2), liver (1), right lower pulmonary lobe (1). Patients underwent biochemical evaluation for CS, including diurnal serum cortisol and ACTH levels, urinary free cortisol levels (UFC), and CRH stimulation tests. All patients underwent radiological investigations including MRI, CT, and PET scan; imaging with octreotide and 68 gallium DOTATATE scans were performed in individual cases. Five patients underwent inferior petrosal sinus sampling; 4 patients had sampling for ACTH and CRH levels from additional sites. Three patients underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS), and 3 patients required bilateral adrenalectomy. Three patients (43%) died due to metastatic disease, demonstrating the high mortality rate. One of the unique findings in these seven patients is that in each case, their neuroendocrine tumors were ultimately proven to be co-secreting ACTH and CRH. This explains the enigmatic presentation, in which 3 patients initially thought to have Cushing's disease (CD) with corresponding pituitary hyperplasia underwent TSS prior to the correct localization of the causative tumor. Conclusions: Ectopic ACTH/CRH co-secreting tumors are extremely rare in children and adolescents. The diagnosis of this condition is frequently missed and is sometimes confused with CD due to the effect of CRH on the pituitary. PMID:25291050

  9. Expression of somatostatin, dopamine, progesterone and growth hormone receptor mRNA in canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumours.

    PubMed

    Kool, Miriam M J; Galac, Sara; van der Helm, Noortje; Spandauw, Catharina G; Kooistra, Hans S; Mol, Jan A

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumours (AT) in dogs are characterised by uncontrolled growth and excessive cortisol secretion. Dysregulated hormone receptor expression might be involved in tumour growth and hypersecretion of cortisol. The relative mRNA expression of growth hormone receptor, progesterone receptor, somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-3) and dopamine receptors (DRD1-2 and DRD5) was evaluated in 36 canine ATs and 15 adrenal glands obtained from healthy dogs. Compared with normal adrenal tissue, DRD2 mRNA expression was relatively lower in carcinomas, while SSTR1 mRNA expression was lower in both adenomas and carcinomas. Both of these features might contribute to loss of inhibition of tumour growth and upregulation of cortisol secretion. In canine ATs that had recurred within 30 months of surgical adrenalectomy, a marked increase in expression of DRD1 mRNA was observed. Targeting of specific hormone receptors, expressed by ATs, might be exploited for therapy. PMID:26143682

  10. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. PMID:25776460

  11. Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears

    PubMed Central

    TØ, Bechshøft; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Muir, DCG; Letcher, RJ; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS; Jenssen, BM; Villanger, GD

    2012-01-01

    The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, α-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p′-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. PMID:22575327

  12. Renal tubular acidosis complicated with hyponatremia due to cortisol insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Yushi; Onoue, Tomoaki; Inoue, Hideki; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical insufficiency such as occurs in Addison's disease causes hyponatremia and renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Hyponatremia results from both aldosterone and cortisol insufficiency. RTA is due to aldosterone insufficiency. The involvement of cortisol in RTA is unclear. Here, we report a woman in her 70s who was admitted to our hospital with severe hyponatremia (106 mEq/l) and RTA. The patient exhibited low plasma cortisol levels with little response to rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone loading. In contrast, the plasma aldosterone concentration was maintained at or above the normal range. Hydrocortisone replacement greatly improved both the hyponatremia and RTA. This case suggests that both aldosterone and cortisol are involved in acid secretion from the kidney. PMID:26609420

  13. Renal tubular acidosis complicated with hyponatremia due to cortisol insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Yushi; Onoue, Tomoaki; Inoue, Hideki; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2015-11-01

    Adrenocortical insufficiency such as occurs in Addison's disease causes hyponatremia and renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Hyponatremia results from both aldosterone and cortisol insufficiency. RTA is due to aldosterone insufficiency. The involvement of cortisol in RTA is unclear. Here, we report a woman in her 70s who was admitted to our hospital with severe hyponatremia (106 mEq/l) and RTA. The patient exhibited low plasma cortisol levels with little response to rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone loading. In contrast, the plasma aldosterone concentration was maintained at or above the normal range. Hydrocortisone replacement greatly improved both the hyponatremia and RTA. This case suggests that both aldosterone and cortisol are involved in acid secretion from the kidney. PMID:26609420

  14. Effects of handling regime and sex on changes in cortisol, thyroid hormones and body mass in fasting grey seal pups.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kimberley A; Moss, Simon E W; Pomeroy, Paddy; Speakman, John R; Fedak, Mike A

    2012-01-01

    Survival of seal pups may be affected by their ability to respond appropriately to stress. Chronic stress can adversely affect secretion of cortisol and thyroid hormones, which contribute to the control of fuel utilisation. Repeated handling could disrupt the endocrine response to stress and/or negatively impact upon mass changes during fasting. Here we investigated the effects of handling regime on cortisol and thyroid hormone levels, and body mass changes, in fasting male and female grey seal pups (Halichoerus grypus). Females had higher thyroid hormone levels than males throughout fasting and showed a reduction in cortisol midway through the fast that was not seen in males. This may reflect sex-specific fuel allocation or development. Neither handling frequency nor cumulative contact time affected plasma cortisol or thyroid hormone levels, the rate of increase in cortisol over the first five minutes of physical contact or the pattern of mass loss during fasting in either sex. The endocrine response to stress and the control of energy balance in grey seal pups appear to be robust to repeated, short periods of handling. Our results suggest that routine handling should have no additional impact on these animals than general disturbance caused by researchers moving around the colony. PMID:21945943

  15. Stress, rejection, and hormones: Cortisol and progesterone reactivity to laboratory speech and rejection tasks in women and men

    PubMed Central

    Gaffey, Allison E.; Wirth, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Stress and social rejection have important impacts on health. Among the mechanisms implicated are hormonal systems such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which produces cortisol in humans. Current research employs speech stressors and social rejection stressors to understand hormonal responses in a laboratory setting. However, it is not clear whether social rejection stressors elicit hormonal reactivity. In addition to cortisol, progesterone has been highlighted as a potential stress- and affiliation-related hormone in humans. In the present study, 131 participants (70 men and 61 women) were randomly assigned to be exposed to one of four conditions: standardized speech stressor; speech control; social rejection task; or a control (inclusion) version of the social rejection task. Saliva samples were collected throughout the study to measure cortisol and progesterone. As hypothesized, we found the expected increase in cortisol in the speech stressor, and we also found that the social rejection task did not increase cortisol, underscoring the divergence between unpleasant experiences and HPA axis activity. However, we did not find evidence for progesterone increase either during the speech- or social rejection tasks. Compared with past studies on progesterone and stress in humans, the present findings present a mixed picture. Future work is needed to delineate the contexts and types of manipulations which lead to progesterone increases in humans. PMID:25580228

  16. Elevated maternal cortisol early in pregnancy predicts third trimester levels of placental corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH): priming the placental clock.

    PubMed

    Sandman, Curt A; Glynn, Laura; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Wadhwa, Pathik; Garite, Thomas; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Hobel, Calvin

    2006-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the intervals when placental corticotrophic-releasing hormone (CRH) was most responsive to maternal cortisol. A sample of 203 women each were evaluated at 15, 19, 25 and 31 weeks gestation and followed to term. Placental CRH and maternal adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), B-endorphin and cortisol were determined from plasma. CRH levels increased faster and were higher in women who delivered preterm compared with women who delivered at term (F3,603 = 5.73, p < .001). Simple effects indicated that CRH levels only at 31 weeks predicted preterm birth (F1,201 = 5.53, p = .02). Levels of cortisol were higher in women who delivered preterm at 15 weeks gestation (F1,201 = 4.45, p = .03) with a similar trend at 19 weeks gestation. Hierarchical regression suggested that the influence on birth outcome of maternal cortisol early in pregnancy was mediated by its influence on placental CRH at 31 weeks. Elevated cortisol at 15 weeks predicted the surge in placental CRH at 31 weeks (R = .49, d.f. = 1,199, Fchange = 61.78, p < .0001). Every unit of change in cortisol (microg/dl) at 15 weeks was associated with a 34 unit change of CRH (pg/ml) at 31 weeks. These findings suggested that early detection of stress signals by the placenta stimulated the subsequent release of CRH and resulted in increased risk for preterm delivery. PMID:16309788

  17. Effects of cortisol and thyroid hormone on peripheral outer ring deiodination and osmoregulatory parameters in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Arjona, Francisco J; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Martn Del Ro, Mara P; Flik, Gert; Mancera, Juan M; Klaren, Peter H M

    2011-03-01

    The thyroid gland in fish mainly secretes the thyroid prohormone 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine (T?), and extrathyroidal outer ring deiodination (ORD) of the prohormone to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T?) is pivotal in thyroid hormone economy. Despite its importance in thyroid hormone metabolism, factors that regulate ORD are still largely unresolved in fish. In addition, the osmoregulatory role of T? is still a controversial issue in teleosts. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the ORD pathway by cortisol and T? in different organs (liver, kidney, and gills) of Solea senegalensis and the involvement of T? in the control of branchial and renal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, a prime determinant of the hydromineral balance in teleosts. Animals were treated with i.p. slow-release coconut oil implants containing cortisol or T?. Hepatic and renal ORD activities were up-regulated in cortisol-injected animals. T?-treated fish showed a prominent decrease in plasma-free T? levels, whereas ORD activities did not change significantly. Branchial and renal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities were virtually unaffected by T?, but were transiently up-regulated by cortisol. We conclude that cortisol regulates local T? bioavailability in S. senegalensis via ORD in an organ-specific manner. Unlike T?, cortisol appears to be directly implicated in the up-regulation of branchial and renal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities. PMID:21212093

  18. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  19. ACTH-stimulated cortisol release from head kidney of rainbow trout is modulated by glucose concentration.

    PubMed

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Alvarez, Rosa; Lpez-Patio, Marcos A; Mguez, Jess M; Flik, Gert; Soengas, Jos L

    2013-02-15

    To assess the hypothesis that cortisol release in rainbow trout is modulated by glucose levels, we first evaluated cortisol release [basal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-regulated] by head kidney tissue superfused with medium reflecting hypoglycaemic, normoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic conditions. Next, cortisol release from head kidney fragments in static incubations was assessed in parallel with changes in parameters related to cortisol synthesis (mRNA abundance of StAR, P450scc, 3?HSD and 11?H) and the GK-mediated glucosensing mechanism (levels of glycogen and glucose, activities of GK, GSase and PK, and mRNA levels of GK, GLUT-2, Kir6.x-like and SUR-like). We then evaluated the effects of two inhibitors of glucose transport, cytochalasin B and phlorizin, on cortisol production and glucosensing mechanisms. The ACTH-induced release of cortisol proved to be modulated by glucose concentration such that increased release occurs under high glucose levels, and decreased ACTH-stimulated cortisol release occurs when glucose transport is inhibited by cytochalasin B. The release of cortisol can be associated with increased synthesis as enhanced mRNA abundance of genes related to cortisol synthesis was also noted in high glucose medium. Specific GK immunoreactivity in the cortisol-producing cells (not in chromaffin cells) further substantiates GK-mediated glucosensing in cortisol production. In contrast, no changes compatible with those of glucose levels and cortisol release/synthesis in the presence of ACTH were noted for any other putative glucosensor mechanisms based on LXR, SGLT-1 or Gnat3. These combined results are the first evidence for a mechanism in fish linking the synthesis and release of a non-pancreatic hormone like cortisol with circulating glucose levels. The relationship was evident for the regulated (ACTH-dependent) pathway and this suggests that under acute stress conditions glucose is important for the regulation of cortisol synthesis and release. PMID:23077165

  20. Impact of Adiposity and Fat Distribution on the Dynamics of Adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Pereira, Alberto M; Veldhuis, Johannes D

    2014-12-01

    Obesity impacts many hormonal systems, including pituitary hormones, as well as insulin and leptin. In this review we discuss articles which investigate the influence of obesity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Different techniques have been used to assess the function of the HPA-axis in obesity, including measuring fasting and/or late evening levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and (free) cortisol in plasma and saliva, studying feedback with dexamethasone or cortisol, and evaluating responsiveness of the system to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) or ACTH 1-29. In addition, more elaborate studies investigated 24-h secretion patterns, analyzed with deconvolution techniques to quantitate pulsatile secretion rates of cortisol and less often ACTH. Other investigators used timed infusions of labeled cortisol for the estimation of the 24-h secretion rate, clearance rate and distribution volume. Many studies relied on the 24-h urinary excretion of free cortisol, but for quantitation of the 24-h secretion, measurement of all cortisol-derived metabolites is required. Several studies have applied modern liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry techniques to measure these metabolites. The picture emerging from all these studies is that, first, ACTH secretion is amplified, likely via enhanced forward drive; and, second, serum cortisol levels are normal or even low, associated with a normal 24-h cortisol secretion per liter distribution volume determined by deconvolution, but enhanced when based on the increased total distribution volume associated with obesity. Increased cortisol secretion was also established by isotope dilution studies and reports based on the measurement of all urinary cortisol metabolites. The responsiveness of the adrenal gland to ACTH is diminished. The studies do not address quantitative aspects of cortisol-cortisone metabolism on individual organs, including liver, central and peripheral fat, intestine, skin, and muscle. PMID:26626915

  1. Localization of the genes encoding the melanocortin-2 (Adrenocorticotropic hormone) and melanocortin-3 receptors to chromosomes 18p11. 2 and 20q13. 2-q13. 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gantz, I.; Tashiro, Takao; Konda, Yoshitaka; Shimoto, Yoshimasa; Miwa, Hiroto; Munzert, G.; Barcroft, C.; Glover, T.; Yamada, Tadataka )

    1993-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and [alpha]-, [beta]-, and [gamma]-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) are products of propiomelanocortin post-translational processing. These compounds are collectively labeled as melanocortins (MC). Aside from their established effects on the regulation of the adrenal cortex (ACTH) and melanocytes ([alpha]-MSH), the melanocortins have been implicated in a broad array of physiological events. Melanocortins mediate their effects through cell membrane receptors belonging to the superfamily of seven transmembrane G-protein-linked receptors. Using the technique of polymerase chain reaction with primers based on conserved areas of the seven transmembrane G-protein-linked receptor family, the authors recently isolated an [open quotes]orphan[close quotes] subfamily of this receptor group. Within the past year, two of these receptors were identified as specific for [alpha]-MSH (MC1) and ACTH (MC2). They have recently described a third melanocortin receptor (MC3) that appears to recognize the core heptapeptide sequence of melanocortins with equal potency and efficacy and identified its presence in the brain, placenta, and gut. Using the FISH technique, they localized the ACTH and the melanocortin-3 receptors to chromosome loci 18p11.2 and 20q12.3-q13.2, respectively. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Elevated free cortisol index in pregnancy: possible regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nolten, W E; Rueckert, P A

    1981-02-15

    Biologically active plasma free cortisol increases markedly in pregnancy. In this investigation the free cortisol index (FFI) in the plasma of pregnant and nonpregnant women was measured by a charcoal adsorption technique. The circadian FFI patterns were virtually identical in the two groups, but in gravid women there was a substantial and sustained elevation of the FFI. Sequential studies during gestation and post partum revealed increasing responsiveness of the maternal adrenal glands to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and decreasing suppressibility of the FFI by dexamethasone as pregnancy advanced. Persistence of normal circadian rhythmicity in spite of a continuously elevated FFI and resistance to dexamethasone suppression suggest control of cortisol secretion by normal regulatory mechanisms in pregnancy with resetting of the maternal feedback mechanisms to higher levels. This resetting and the lack of manifestations of cortisol excess in pregnancy might result from tissue refractoriness to cortisol. Elevated free cortisol would be needed to maintain homeostasis. The necessary increase in the production of cortisol could be facilitated by an enhanced responsiveness of the maternal adrenal glands to ACTH. PMID:6258437

  3. Daily fluctuations in the plasma cortisol level of children with rheumatoid arthritis before and after treatment with tetracosactrin ('Cortrosyn Depot') and corticosteroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkova, V

    1977-01-01

    Daily fluctuations in plasma cortisol levels were studied in three groups of children with rheumatoid arthritis. One group was untreated with hormones, the second treated with a depot preparation of tetracosactrin, and the third group with corticosteroid hormones. The results obtained were compared with the rhythm in normal children. The daily plasma cortisol fluctuations in children with rheumatoid arthritis who did not receive hormonal treatment differed from those of normal children by the presence of two distinct and characteristic cortisol levels: a peak between 8 a.m. and 12 noon and a minimal level between 4 p.m. and midnight (with a gradual rise after 4 p.m.). The curve of the daily cortisol rhythm in children with rheumatoid arthritis after tetracosactrin treatment was characteristic of the curve in normal children. Steroidtreated children with rheumatoid arthritis had virtually unchanged plasma cortisol concentrations throughout the day. PMID:191230

  4. Characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone in primiparous, postpartum, anovular, suckled, beef cows exposed acutely to bulls

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The physiological mechanism by which bulls stimulate resumption of ovarian cycling activity in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows after calving may involve the concurrent activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian (HPO) axis and hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, the objectives of this experiment were to determine if characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH) in postpartum, anovular, beef cows are influenced by acute exposure to bulls. The null hypotheses were that daily, temporal characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns do not differ between cows exposed acutely to bulls or steers. Methods Sixteen cows were assigned randomly 67 +/- 4 (+/- SE) after calving to be exposed to bulls (EB, n = 8) or steers (ES, n = 8) 5 h daily for 9 d (D 0 to 8). Blood samples were collected daily from each cow via jugular catheters at 15-min intervals for 6 h from 1000 to 1600 h each day. The 5-h exposure period began 1 h after the start of the intensive bleeding period. Characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns (mean, baseline, pulse frequency, pulse amplitude, and pulse duration) were identified by PULSAR analyses. Results Mean cortisol concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) in cows in both treatments from D 0 to D 2. Thereafter, mean cortisol concentrations stabilized and did not differ (P > 0.10) between EB and ES cows. The decrease in mean cortisol concentrations in EB and ES cows from D 0 to D 2 was attributed to cows acclimatizing to intensive blood sampling and handling procedures. Consequently, analyses for characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns included D 2 through 8 only. Cortisol mean and baseline concentrations, and pulse amplitude did not differ (P > 0.10) between EB and ES cows. However, cortisol pulse duration tended to be longer (P = 0.09) and pulse frequency was lower (P = 0.05) in EB than ES cows. LH pulse frequency was greater (P = 0.06) in EB than ES cows. All other characteristics of LH concentration patterns did not differ (P > 0.10) between EB and ES cows. Characteristics of cortisol concentration patterns were not related to characteristics of LH concentration patterns for ES cows (P > 0.10). However, as cortisol pulse amplitude increased, LH pulse amplitude decreased (b1 = -0.04; P < 0.05) for EB cows. Conclusions In conclusion, exposing primiparous, postpartum, anovular, suckled cows to bulls for 5-h daily over a 9-d period did not alter mean concentrations of cortisol or LH compared to mean concentrations of cortisol and LH in cows exposed to steers. However, exposing cows to bull in this manner altered characteristics of temporal patterns of both LH and cortisol by increasing LH pulse frequency and decreasing cortisol pulse frequency. Interestingly, in cows exposed to bulls, as amplitude and frequency of cortisol pulses decreased, amplitudes of LH pulses increased and frequency of LH pulses tended to increase. Thus, the physiological mechanism of the biostimulatory effect of bulls may initially involve modification of the HPA axis and these changes may facilitate activation of the HPO axis and resumption of ovulatory cycles in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows. PMID:20642864

  5. Women's intercollegiate athletic competition: cortisol, testosterone, and the dual-hormone hypothesis as it relates to status among teammates.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Casto, Kathleen V

    2013-06-01

    Recent research suggests that testosterone and cortisol jointly regulate dominance motivation and, perhaps, the status relationships that are affected by it. For this article, the results of six different studies of women's intercollegiate athletic competition were combined to give a sample size of almost ninety women for whom we had before- and after-competition values for salivary cortisol and testosterone for at least one and sometimes two competitions. For many of these women, we had surveys that allowed us to assess their status with teammates. In no matter what sport (soccer, softball, volleyball, and tennis) levels of salivary cortisol and testosterone increased when women participated in athletic competition. Salivary levels of C and T appear to rise in parallel during competition and increases in levels of one hormone are significantly related to increases in the other. Salivary levels of these hormones typically decreased for teammates who did not play but watched the competition from the sidelines. For women who played in two competitions, individual differences in the positive effect of competition on cortisol and testosterone were conserved from one competition to the next, affirming the personal consistency of endocrine responses to competition. Status with teammates was positively related to before-competition levels of testosterone, but only for women with relatively low before-competition levels of cortisol. This result provides novel support for the "dual-hormone hypothesis" as it relates to predicting social status in women's athletic teams - natural social groups of individuals who know each other and whose social hierarchy has evolved over the course of practice and play for at least one and, in some cases, several years of intercollegiate athletic competition. PMID:23523743

  6. Growth hormone differentially regulates muscle myostatin1 and -2 and increases circulating cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Biga, Peggy R; Cain, Kenneth D; Hardy, Ronald W; Schelling, Gerald T; Overturf, Kenneth; Roberts, Steven B; Goetz, Frederick W; Ott, Troy L

    2004-08-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates muscle growth in vertebrates. Salmonids produce two myostatin transcripts from separate genes. Surprisingly, quantitative analyses indicate different regulatory mechanisms for the two myostatin genes in rainbow trout. MSTN1 mRNA levels were elevated 26% following recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) treatment, while MSTN2 mRNA levels were reduced 74% compared to controls. MSTN precursor protein (42kDa) levels were elevated in rbGH treated fish compared to controls. In addition, circulating cortisol levels were elevated 71% following rbGH treatment compared to controls. In treated and control fish, cortisol levels were elevated 245% at day 0 compared to subsequent days. Treated fish exhibited cortisol levels 207% higher than controls at 0.5 day, and remained at least 50% higher for 7 days following treatment. This pattern of change was positively correlated to MSTN1 mRNA levels. This is the first time a direct relationship has been reported between GH, cortisol, and myostatin. In addition, following rbGH administration, myosin protein concentrations in skeletal muscle samples increased, suggesting that GH regulates expression of the most abundant muscle protein. These results indicate the two myostatin genes are differentially regulated and may possess different functions in rainbow trout muscle, and suggests a possible interaction between GH, cortisol, and muscle growth. PMID:15242749

  7. A comparative study of serum growth hormone and plasma cortisol levels in stimulation tests with insulin and propranolol-glucagon.

    PubMed

    Andler, W; Biro, G; Bernasconi, S; Giovanelli, G

    1975-09-01

    Insulin and propranolol-glucagon stimulation tests were carried out on 28 children and 5 adolescents and the results of their growth hormone and plasma cortisol estimations were compared. Twenty-nine subjects with normal growth hormone reserves showed a mean maximum rise of 17.4 muU/ml of serum growth hormone in the insulin test whereas the intramuscular injection of glucagon after oral premedication with propranolol produced a rise of 38.5 muU/ml. Five subjects with normal growth hormone reserves showed a reduced hormone output in the insulin stimulation tests but normal response in the propranolol-glucagon stimulation tests. Only one subject showed a poor response in the propranolol-glucagon but normal response in the insulin stimulation test. In 30 subjects with normal adrenocortical function the mean maximum increase of plasma cortisol was 15.6 muU/ml in the insulin - and 14.9 muU/ml in the propranolol-glucagon stimulation tests, respectively. Both methods are suitable for studying the pituitary-adrenocortical interrelationships. The mechanism of the release of glucagon-induced growth hormone is not clear but the fall in blood glucose does not seem to play a major role in the process. A stress-like mechanism is equally unlikely because vegetative symptoms occurred only i a small number of subjects after intramuscular glucagon administration. It is possible that glucagon possesses a releasing-like mechanism which operates in the pituitary itself. PMID:1173985

  8. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections, using a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectrometric detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this method and data obtained with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis), and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH-secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH-secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared with non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis, as expected. This work reveals that a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, including AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity, and specificity of this method support the potential of this basic technology, with further advancement, for assisting surgical decision-making. Graphical Abstract Mass spectrometry based profiling of hormones in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections. PMID:26084546

  9. Profiling of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Arginine Vasopressin in Human Pituitary Gland and Tumor Thin Tissue Sections using Droplet-Based Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie YR

    2015-01-01

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections using a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectral detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system and those data obtained with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis) and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared to non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis as anticipated. This work demonstrates that a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, such as AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity and specificity of the current methodology support the potential of this basic technology with further advancement for assisting surgical decision-making.

  10. [Hormonal aspects in the diagnosis of hirsutism].

    PubMed

    Maleev, A; Milkov, V

    1989-01-01

    Hormones of hypophyseal-adrenal axes were determined in 135 girls with hirsutism. On the basis of changes in the hormonal levels it was established that the syndrome of Stein-Leventhal in 62 girls (54% of the patients) was dependent on luteinizing hormone (LH) and was characterized by an increased index of LH/FSH over 3.0 as well as by an increased level of testosterone; hirsutism in 73 girls (67% of the patients) was dependent on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and was characterized by an increased level of ACTH and cortisol secretion; in the remaining patients hirsutism was a combination of both forms of dependence on LH and ACTH and an increase of hormones of both axes was present or was idiopathic with normal hormonal plasma levels, but with increased skin conversion and metabolic testosterone clearance. PMID:2742087

  11. The role of cortisol and growth hormone in seawater adaptation and development of hypoosmoregulatory mechanisms in sea trout parr (Salmo trutta trutta).

    PubMed

    Madsen, S S

    1990-07-01

    The role of growth hormone (GH) and cortisol in the development of hypoosmoregulatory mechanisms in sea trout parr, Salmo trutta trutta, was investigated by injecting freshwater (FW) yearlings every second day with saline, ovine growth hormone (oGH, 2.0 micrograms/g), cortisol (hydrocortisone hemisuccinate, 8.0 micrograms/g), or oGH + cortisol for a maximum of 14 days. Subgroups of the treated fish were transferred to three-fourths seawater (SW) after 7 or 15 days of treatment and the effects on plasma Na+, Cl-, muscle water content, gill Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity, and gill interlamellar chloride cell density were examined. In FW, gill Na+/K(+)-ATPase chloride cell density, and chloride cell apical to basal length increased by all hormone treatments, most significant by oGH + cortisol treatment. Plasma ions and muscle water content were unaffected in FW. Both SW transfers resulted in considerable mortality (50%) in control fish, whereas few cortisol-treated and no GH-treated or GH + cortisol-treated fish died. Plasma Na+ and Cl- levels increased dramatically (greater than 50%) in control fish and muscle water content decreased (8%) on Day 2 after both transfers. All hormone-treated groups regulated plasma ions and muscle water significantly better than controls in SW, indicating the physiological significance of the treatment. Notably, the oGH + cortisol-treated fish showed only insignificant changes in ion-osmotic homeostasis after SW transfer, suggesting a synergistic effect of the two hormones. It is concluded that treatment with the two hormones increases the salinity tolerance of sea trout parr at a developmental stage where FW life is obligatory. PMID:2162306

  12. Canine plasma cortisol (hydrocortisone) measured by radioimmunoassay: clinical absence of diurnal variation and results of ACTH stimulation and dexamethasone suppression tests.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; Mather, E C

    1978-11-01

    A radioimmunoassay for plasma cortisol (hydrocortisone) was developed and validated for sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, and parallelism. Steroids were extracted with ethyl ether, and cortisol was purified by gel column chromatography prior to assay. [1,2-3H] cortisol and a commercially available sheep antibody to cortisol-21-hemisuccinate were used. Free steriods were separated from bound steroids by centrifugation after adsorption to dextran-coated charcoal. Plasma cortisol was measured by this technique in 6 normal dogs. Circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion was not detected in samples obtained by venipuncture at 8 different hours on 3 separate days, suggesting that adrenal function tests may be started in clinical patients at any time of day. Resting plasma cortisol concentrations averaged 19.4+/-3.0 (SD) ng/ml and ranged from nondetectable (less than 3 ng/ml) to 77.5 ng/ml. Of 144 canine plasma samples, 95% contained less than 50 ng of cortisol/ml. Intramuscular injection of 2.2 units of adrenocorticotropic hormone/kg of body weight caused detectable increase in plasma cortisol concentrations; maximum response (68.3 to 111.6 ng/ml) occurred 1 to 2 hours after injection. Oral administration of dexamethasone suppressed plasma cortisol to nondetectable concentrations for 32 hours in all 6 dogs. PMID:216290

  13. Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L

    2013-12-01

    Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling. PMID:24080086

  14. Sellar gangliocytoma with adrenocorticotropic and prolactin adenoma.

    PubMed

    Kissiedu, Juliana O; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with weight gain, headaches, dizziness, erectile dysfunction and decreased libido. He was found to have elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and prolactin serum levels. The imaging studies revealed a 1.4cm sella/suprasellar mass which was compressing the optic chiasm. Histologic slides of the lesion showed a pituitary adenoma, marked by a proliferation of biphenotypic appearing cells, associated with a gangliocytoma, and marked by a proliferation of atypical appearing neuronal cells arranged against a glial-appearing background. Pituitary adenoma-gangliocytomas are benign combination tumors that rarely occur in the sellar region. Adenomas in this setting are sometimes functional, and rare patients with mixed adenomas (adenomas secreting more than one hormone) have been reported. To our knowledge, there has been only one other report of a combined ACTH and prolactin-producing adenoma with gangliocytoma, reported in a patient who also had acromegaly. In our patient, the immunohistochemical stains demonstrated that the bulk of the adenoma cells stained with prolactin antibody, and scattered clusters of cells within the adenoma stained positively for ACTH. The adenoma did not stain with antibodies to any of the other anterior pituitary hormones. Postoperatively, the elevated prolactin and ACTH levels returned to normal levels and there was no evidence of residual tumor. Adequate sampling and immunohistochemistry are important in rendering a correct diagnosis and in identifying the hormone status of mixed adenoma-gangliocytomas. PMID:26314658

  15. The acute testosterone, growth hormone, cortisol and interleukin-6 response to 164-km road cycling in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Vingren, Jakob L; Budnar, Ronald G; McKenzie, Amy L; Duplanty, Anthony A; Luk, Hui-Ying; Levitt, Danielle E; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the acute endocrine responses to a 164-km road cycling event in a hot environment. Thirty-four male experienced cyclists (49.1 ± 8.3 years, 86.8 ± 12.5 kg, 178.1 ± 5.1 cm) participating in a 164-km road cycling event were recruited. Blood samples were collected within 0.3-2.0 h before the start (PRE: ~0500-0700 h) and immediately following the ride (POST). Samples were analysed for testosterone, growth hormone (GH), cortisol and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The temperature and humidity during the event were 35.3 ± 4.9°C and 47.2 ± 14.0%, respectively. Based on the finishing time, results for the fastest (FAST, 305 ± 10 min) and the slowest (SLOW, 467 ± 31 min) quartiles were compared. At POST, testosterone concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) lower (PRE, 20.8 ± 8.6; POST, 18.2 ± 6.7 nmol · L(-1)), while GH (PRE, 0.3 ± 0.1; POST, 2.3 ± 0.3 µg · L(-1)), cortisol (PRE, 661 ± 165; POST, 1073 ± 260 nmol · L(-1)) and IL-6 (PRE, 4.0 ± 3.4; POST, 22.4 ± 15.2 pg · mL(-1)) concentrations were significantly higher than those at PRE. At POST, GH and cortisol were significantly higher for the FAST group than for the SLOW group (GH, 3.6 ± 2.0 and 1.0 ± 0.8 µg · L(-1); cortisol, 1187 ± 209 and 867 ± 215 nmol · L(-1)). Participation in an ultra-endurance road cycling event in a hot environment induced significant acute changes in concentrations of circulating hormones, with a greater augmentation of GH and cortisol in those completing the ride fastest. PMID:26199143

  16. Discovery of N-[5-(6-Chloro-3-cyano-1-methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-pyridin-3-ylmethyl]-ethanesulfonamide, a Cortisol-Sparing CYP11B2 Inhibitor that Lowers Aldosterone in Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Papillon, Julien P N; Lou, Changgang; Singh, Alok K; Adams, Christopher M; Ksander, Gary M; Beil, Michael E; Chen, Wei; Leung-Chu, Jennifer; Fu, Fumin; Gan, Lu; Hu, Chii-Whei; Jeng, Arco Y; LaSala, Daniel; Liang, Guiqing; Rigel, Dean F; Russell, Kerry S; Vest, John A; Watson, Catherine

    2015-12-10

    Human clinical studies conducted with LCI699 established aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) inhibition as a promising novel mechanism to lower arterial blood pressure. However, LCI699's low CYP11B1/CYP11B2 selectivity resulted in blunting of adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated cortisol secretion. This property of LCI699 prompted its development in Cushing's disease, but limited more extensive clinical studies in hypertensive populations, and provided an impetus for the search for cortisol-sparing CYP11B2 inhibitors. This paper summarizes the discovery, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic data in preclinical species and human subjects of the selective CYP11B2 inhibitor 8. PMID:26540564

  17. Salivary cortisol in pregnant women suffering from blood and injection phobia.

    PubMed

    Lilliecreutz, Caroline; Theodorsson, Elvar; Sydsj, Gunilla; Josefsson, Ann

    2011-10-01

    Stress and/or anxiety during pregnancy affect maternal and fetal well-being and can cause premature delivery and postnatal pathology in the child. Women suffering from phobias related to blood and injections are prone to high levels of stress, including anxiety and sometimes panic attacks, during pregnancy. Cortisol is amongst the mediators through which the neurohormonal expressions of maternal psychological factors may be transduced to the fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pregnant women suffering from blood and injection phobia have raised cortisol levels or are characterized by unusual diurnal salivary cortisol profiles compared with healthy controls. The sample consisted of 110 pregnant women with blood and injection phobia and 110 pregnant healthy controls. Both groups provided morning and evening saliva samples in weeks25 and 36 for the assay of cortisol. In gestational week25, when blood was drawn for the mandatory blood testing, extra blood was taken to analyze corticotrophin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol in serum. The diurnal decline in salivary cortisol as well as increased cortisol levels were observed during pregnancy. Pregnant women suffering from blood and injection phobia had a higher output of cortisol compared with women without the phobia (F?=?6.25, df?=?1, p?=?0.014), but no marked difference in the diurnal cortisol rhythm was found between groups. Our findings indicate that untreated blood and injection phobia during pregnancy increases cortisol concentrations. Blood and injection phobia is treatable, and cognitive behavioral therapy can be used. Women with blood and injection phobia during pregnancy therefore need to be recognized and offered treatment without delay in early pregnancy. PMID:21918849

  18. The effect of deep hypothermia on the secretion of thyroid hormones and cortisol and oxygen consumption in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Leppäluoto, J; Huttunen, P; Hirvonen, J

    1981-08-01

    Adult guinea-pigs were exposed to cold (-20 degrees C) to the point of deep hypothermia, and the heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tr) oxygen consumption (V02), serum concentrations of proteins, thyroid hormones (by T3 and T4 radioimmunoassays) and cortisol (by fluorometry) were determined and compared with those obtained from sham-exposed animals (22 degrees C) Vo2, and HR rose to a maximum in 1 h in the cold, but then declined in parallel to Tr for 2-3 h. The cold-exposed animals became unconscious after 2 h and developed cardiac failure in 4 h. At this time serum proteins and T3 concentrations were similar in the cold and sham-exposed animals. Serum T4 was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in the cold-exposed animals than in the sham-exposed animals (45.0 +/- 4.2 nmol/l vs. 28 +/- 1.4 nmol/l). Similarly, the cortisol levels were higher in the cold-exposed animals (1.34 +/- 0.11 mumol/l vs. 0.26 +/- 0.03 mumol/l). Severe cold exposure for 4 h resulted in simultaneous activation of the thyroid gland and adrenal cortex preceded by an increase in oxygen consumption and a decrease in rectal temperature. PMID:7315422

  19. 3,5-Diiodothyronine-mediated transrepression of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene in tilapia. Insights on cross-talk between the thyroid hormone and cortisol signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Puga, Gabriela; Navarrete-Ramírez, Pamela; Mendoza, Arturo; Olvera, Aurora; Villalobos, Patricia; Orozco, Aurea

    2016-04-15

    T3 and cortisol activate or repress gene expression in virtually every vertebrate cell mainly by interacting with their nuclear hormone receptors. In contrast to the mechanisms for hormone gene activation, the mechanisms involved in gene repression remain elusive. In teleosts, the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene or thrb produces two isoforms of TRβ1 that differ by nine amino acids in the ligand-binding domain of the long-TRβ1, whereas the short-TRβ1 lacks the insert. Previous reports have shown that the genomic effects exerted by 3,5-T2, a product of T3 outer-ring deiodination, are mediated by the long-TRβ1. Furthermore, 3,5-T2 and T3 down-regulate the expression of long-TRβ1 and short-TRβ1, respectively. In contrast, cortisol has been shown to up-regulate the expression of thrb. To understand the molecular mechanisms for thrb modulation by thyroid hormones and cortisol, we used an in silico approach to identify thyroid- and cortisol-response elements within the proximal promoter of thrb from tilapia. We then characterized the identified response elements by EMSA and correlated our observations with the effects of THs and cortisol upon expression of thrb in tilapia. Our data show that 3,5-T2 represses thrb expression and impairs its up-regulation by cortisol possibly through a transrepression mechanism. We propose that for thrb down-regulation, ligands other than T3 are required to orchestrate the pleiotropic effects of thyroid hormones in vertebrates. PMID:26820127

  20. Guanosine triphosphate can directly regulate cortisol production by activating Ca(2+)-messenger systems in bovine adrenal fasciculata cells.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Suematsu, Sachiko; Matsuzawa, Yoko; Saito, Jun; Omura, Masao

    2016-01-31

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to stimulate cortisol production in vitro, however, the effect of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) on cortisol production is not known. We studied the effect of GTP on cortisol production and investigated the regulation of intracellular signal transduction systems, including the cyclic AMP-dependent and Ca(2+)-messenger systems, in bovine adrenal fasciculata cells. GTP clearly induced cortisol biosynthesis but only to a level less than half the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced maximum. The binding site for [?-(35)S]-GTP?S was shown to differ completely from that for ATP and also from those for Gs and Gi, as indicated by the fact that binding was not influenced by pretreatment with cholera toxin and pertussis toxin. GTP significantly increased cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) and inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate without affecting cyclic AMP formation. GTP-induced cortisol production was suppressed by H-9 and Calphostin C (specific protein kinase C inhibitors) but not by H-8 and KT5720 (specific inhibitors of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase), suggesting that GTP activates cortisol biosynthesis possibly via a protein kinase C-dependent pathway. Extracellular calcium may be essential for GTP activity since GTP-induced cortisol production was almost completely suppressed in its absence. In conclusion, it can be postulated that GTP-induced steroid secretion in bovine adrenal fasciculata cells is under paracrine or autocrine control. PMID:26560437

  1. Effects of Elevated Circulating Cortisol Concentrations on Maternal Behavior in Common Marmoset Monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Both acute and chronic stress can impair maternal behavior and increase rates of infant abuse in several species. The mechanisms inducing these effects are unknown, but experimental manipulation of circulating corticosterone levels alters maternal behavior in rats, and circulating or excreted cortisol concentrations have been found to correlate either positively or negatively with maternal behavior in humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, therefore, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that both acute and chronic treatment with exogenous glucocorticoids would alter maternal behavior in a primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Multiparous females, approximately 3−5 weeks postpartum, received daily injections of either cortisol (hydrocortisone sodium succinate and hydrocortisone acetate; N = 7) or vehicle (N = 7) for 8 days, and maternal behavior was characterized under baseline conditions as well as during exposure to a noise stressor. Cortisol treatment successfully elevated both morning and afternoon plasma cortisol concentrations and suppressed circulating levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone. In home-cage observations, cortisol-treated females carried their infants significantly less than control mothers, and in noise-stressor tests, several hours after the first cortisol or vehicle treatment, cortisol-treated mothers inspected their infants significantly more often than controls. Aggression towards infants was infrequent and mild, and did not differ between treatment groups. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that cortisol elevations can alter maternal behavior in primates. As these effects were limited in scope, however, they suggest that other stress-responsive hormones or neuropeptides may additionally play a role in mediating the effects of stress on maternal behavior. PMID:19362777

  2. Anesthetic management of emergent laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy in a patient with a life-threatening cortisol crisis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankur; Subramaniam, Rajeshwari; Misra, Mahesh; Joshiraj, Bandi; Krishnan, Gopi; Varma, Prerna; Kishore, Shyam

    2015-01-15

    Cushing syndrome may rarely present with life-threatening hypercortisolism, manifested by hypertension, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and edema. If medical treatment proves ineffective in ameliorating the symptoms, emergent rescue adrenalectomy may be the only way to relieve the crisis. We describe the anesthetic management of a patient with an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting tumor, whose condition was rapidly deteriorating due to severe cortisol excess, and emergent adrenalectomy was the only available therapeutic modality. Despite severe metabolic derangement, edema, and incipient respiratory failure, emergent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed and the patient improved sufficiently to undergo surgery for the ectopic lesion without incident. PMID:25611000

  3. Rank dependent seasonal levels of IGF-1, cortisol and reproductive hormones in male pudu (Pudu puda).

    PubMed

    Bartos, L; Reyes, E; Schams, D; Bubenik, G; Lobos, A

    1998-06-01

    We tested the following hypothesis: when two pudu males share a single pen throughout the year, the dominant animal will have a higher level of IGF-1 than its subordinate pen mate, particularly during the period of increased social friction (e.g. rut and establishment of territories). To test this hypothesis, we used data from six adult males maintained at the University of Concepión, Chile (latitude 36.6 degrees S), and analysed them from the males' dominance point of view. Two males plus eight to ten females were kept in one pen and although we did not specifically measure dominance, the rank position was obvious from frequent encounters between the bucks. Three consecutive blood samples were taken monthly over the period of 1 year. In addition to IGF-1, we also analysed seasonal levels of testosterone, cortisol, prolactin, LH and FSH. The analysis revealed that IGF-1 levels of dominant males were significantly higher than those of subordinate males from September to November (the second part of the antler growing period and time of establishing territories). Testosterone levels were higher and FSH levels were lower in dominant males during the rut. Levels of prolactin were higher in dominant animals in November (summer). Cortisol and LH did not show any significant differences between dominant and subordinate males. This data provides the first evidence indicating the possible link between dominance and blood levels of IGF-1. The functional explanation of such links is discussed. PMID:9773515

  4. Curcumin inhibits bTREK-1 K+ channels and stimulates cortisol secretion from adrenocortical cells

    PubMed Central

    Enyeart, Judith A.; Liu, Haiyan; Enyeart, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express bTREK-1 K+ channels that set the resting membrane potential. Inhibition of these channels by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is coupled to membrane depolarization and cortisol secretion. Curcumin, a phytochemical with medicinal properties extracted from the spice turmeric, was found to modulate both bTREK-1 K+ currents and cortisol secretion from AZF cells. In whole-cell patch clamp experiments, curcumin inhibited bTREK-1 with an IC50 of 0.93?M by a mechanism that was voltage-independent. bTREK-1 inhibition by curcumin occurred through interaction with an external binding site and was independent of ATP hydrolysis. Curcumin produced a concentration-dependent increase in cortisol secretion that persisted for up to 24 h. At a maximally effective concentration of 50 ?M, curcumin increased secretion as much as10-fold. These results demonstrate that curcumin potently inhibits bTREK-1 K+ channels and stimulates cortisol secretion from bovine AZF cells. The inhibition of bTREK-1 by curcumin may be linked to cortisol secretion through membrane depolarization. Since TREK-1 is widely expressed in a variety of cells, it is likely that some of the biological actions of curcumin, including its therapeutic effects, may be mediated through inhibition of these K+ channels. PMID:18406348

  5. Long-Term Hypoxia Enhances Cortisol Biosynthesis in Near-Term Ovine Fetal Adrenal Cortical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Vladimir E.; Kaushal, Kanchan M.; Monau, Tshepo; Myers, Dean A.; Ducsay, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the potential mechanism/mechanisms of previously observed enhanced fetal cortisol secretion following exposure to long-term hypoxia (LTH). Pregnant ewes were maintained at high altitude (3820 m) for approximately the last 100 days of gestation. Between the gestation days of 138 and 141, adrenal glands were collected from LTH and age-matched normoxic control fetuses. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cortisol, and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein were measured in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. Cortisol responses to ACTH were also measured in the presence of the protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor H-89, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), or 22-kDa pro-ACTH. Cortisol output was higher in the LTH group compared to the control (P < .05), following ACTH treatment while the cAMP response was similar in both groups. Although PKA inhibition decreased cortisol production in both groups, however no differences were observed between groups. Western analysis revealed a significant increase in protein expression for StAR in the LTH group (P < .05, compared to control). Proopiomelanocortin and 22-kDa pro-ACTH did not alter the cortisol response to ACTH treatment. Results from the present study taken together with those of previous in vivo studies suggest that the enhanced cortisol output in the LTH group is not the result of differences in cAMP generation or PKA. We conclude that enhanced cortisol production in LTH adrenals is the result of enhanced protein expression of StAR and potential downstream signaling pathways. PMID:21079237

  6. Does aerobic exercise affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal response in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Aysun; Tur, Birkan Sonel; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Oztuna, Derya; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the etiopathogenesis of fibromyalgia is not clear. This study aimed to analyze the effects of a 6-week aerobic exercise program on the HPA axis in patients with fibromyalgia and to investigate the effects of this program on the disease symptoms, patients’ fitness, disability, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty fibromyalgia patients were randomized to Group 1 (stretching and flexibility exercises at home for 6 weeks) and Group 2 (aerobic exercise three times a week and the same at-home exercises as Group 1 for 6 weeks). Serum levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and growth hormone were analyzed at baseline and at the end of, and 1 hr after an exercise stress test. [Results] Group 2 showed better improvement in morning stiffness duration and pain. Growth hormone levels significantly increased after intervention and cortisol levels significantly decreased at time-time interaction in both groups. No significant differences in adrenocorticotropic hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found. [Conclusion] The results of this study seem to support the hypothesis that there is a dysregulation of the HPA axis in patients with FM, and that a six-week exercise program can influence symptoms and affect the HPA axis hormones. PMID:26311959

  7. Does aerobic exercise affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal response in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome?

    PubMed

    Genc, Aysun; Tur, Birkan Sonel; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Oztuna, Derya; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the etiopathogenesis of fibromyalgia is not clear. This study aimed to analyze the effects of a 6-week aerobic exercise program on the HPA axis in patients with fibromyalgia and to investigate the effects of this program on the disease symptoms, patients' fitness, disability, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty fibromyalgia patients were randomized to Group 1 (stretching and flexibility exercises at home for 6 weeks) and Group 2 (aerobic exercise three times a week and the same at-home exercises as Group 1 for 6 weeks). Serum levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and growth hormone were analyzed at baseline and at the end of, and 1 hr after an exercise stress test. [Results] Group 2 showed better improvement in morning stiffness duration and pain. Growth hormone levels significantly increased after intervention and cortisol levels significantly decreased at time-time interaction in both groups. No significant differences in adrenocorticotropic hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found. [Conclusion] The results of this study seem to support the hypothesis that there is a dysregulation of the HPA axis in patients with FM, and that a six-week exercise program can influence symptoms and affect the HPA axis hormones. PMID:26311959

  8. Effects of ginseng ingestion on growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor 1 responses to acute resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Youl Kang, Ho; Hwan Kim, Seung; Jun Lee, Woen; Byrne, Heidi K

    2002-05-01

    Ginseng, an herbal plant, has been ingested by many athletes in Oriental regions of the world in order to improve stamina and to facilitate rapid recovery from injuries. However, adequate investigation has not been conducted to examine the ergogenic effects of ginseng. To examine the effects of ginseng supplements on hormonal status following acute resistance exercise, eight male college students were randomly given water (control; CON) or 20 g of ginseng root extract (GIN) treatment immediately after a standardized exercise bout. Venous blood samples were drawn before and immediately after exercise and at 4 time points during a 2-hour recovery period. Human growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The responses of plasma hormones following ginseng consumption were not significant between CON and GIN treatments during the 2-hour recovery period. These results do not support the use of ginseng to promote an anabolic hormonal status following resistance exercise. PMID:11991768

  9. Oxytocin, vasopressin, prostaglandin F(2alpha), luteinizing hormone, testosterone, estrone sulfate, and cortisol plasma concentrations after sexual stimulation in stallions.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, M C; Tosi, U; Villani, M; Govoni, N; Faustini, M; Kindahl, H; Madej, A; Carluccio, A

    2010-03-01

    This experiment was designed to determine the effects of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (VP), 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PG-metabolite), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), estrone sulfate (ES), and cortisol (C) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 14 light horse stallions (Equus caballus) of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. Blood samples were collected at 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 min before estrous mare exposure, at erection, at ejaculation, and at 3, 6, and 9 min after ejaculation. Afterwards, blood sampling was performed every 10 min for the following 60 min. Sexual activity determined an increase in plasma concentrations of OT, VP, C, PG-metabolite, and ES and caused no changes in LH and T concentrations. The finding of a negative correlation between C and VP at erection, and between C and T before erection and at the time of erection, could be explained by a possible inhibitory role exerted by C in the mechanism of sexual arousal described for men. PMID:20022362

  10. Serotonin directly stimulates cortisol secretion from the interrenals in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jan E; Porteus, Cosima S; Bernier, Nicholas J

    2013-10-01

    While serotonin (5-HT) can stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal stress axis in fish, the specific site(s) of 5-HT action are poorly understood. In this study, goldfish (Carassius auratus) were injected intraperitoneally with either saline or the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT at a dose of 100 or 400 ?g/kg body weight and sampled 1.5 and 8 h post-injection. Relative to unhandled controls, the saline and 100 ?g/kg 8-OH-DPAT treatments elicited similar transient 5- to 7-fold increases in plasma cortisol and the 400 ?g/kg 8-OH-DPAT dosage resulted in a sustained 16-fold increase in cortisol levels. Although the 5-HT1A receptor is expressed in the brain preoptic area (POA), the pituitary and the head kidney, neither the saline nor the 8-OH-DPAT treatments affected the mRNA abundance of POA corticotropin-releasing factor and pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin or plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. To assess the direct actions of 5-HT on cortisol secretion relative to those of ACTH, head kidney tissue were superfused with 10(-7)M 5-HT, ACTH or a combined 5-HT/ACTH treatment. Overall, the ACTH and 5-HT/ACTH treatments resulted in higher peak cortisol and total cortisol release than in the 5-HT treatment but the response time to peak cortisol release was shorter in the combined treatment than in either the 5-HT or ACTH alone treatments. Both 8-OH-DPAT and cisapride, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, also stimulated cortisol release in vitro and their actions were reversed by selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists, respectively. Finally, double-labeling with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase and anti-5-HT revealed that the chromaffin cells of the head kidney contain 5-HT. Thus, in goldfish, 5-HT can directly stimulate cortisol secretion from the interrenals via multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes and the chromaffin cells may be involved in the paracrine regulation of cortisol secretion via 5-HT. PMID:24013027

  11. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K63.a,b: Non-peptide hormones in serum: cortisol and progesterone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S-C Tai, Susan; Duewer, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate many life functions. Deviations from normal hormone levels can have serious health consequences. Accurate measurement of hormone levels in serum can be beneficial in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating a number of diseases. Two steroid hormones, cortisol and progesterone, were selected by the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) to evaluate its member Institutes' measurement capabilities for this important class of measurand. Serum concentrations of cortisol range from 30 ng/mL to 230 ng/mL. Serum concentrations of progesterone in adult females range from 0.15 ng/mL to 25 ng/mL but can rise to approx230 ng/mL during pregnancy. The ability to measure cortisol is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones at concentration levels similar to cortisol. The ability to measure progesterone is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones with similar functional groups and concentration levels, such as testosterone. Pilot studies CCQM-P77.a and CCQM-P77.b on the determination of cortisol and progesterone in human serum were completed in 2006. There was good agreement among the results reported by participants who used isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (ID/MS) with either gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC). In 2007 the OAWG decided to proceed with key comparison (KC) CCQM-K63.a, cortisol in human serum, and CCQM-K63.b, progesterone in human serum. Thus, following established OAWG procedure, only results from participants that (1) used an ID/MS-based method, (2) participated in the relevant pilot study, and (3) used a metrologically traceable primary standard were to be eligible for use in calculating the key comparison reference value (KCRV) for each measurand. Six laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.a and eight laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.b. The same pooled frozen female serum material was used in both of the KCs. The mean value for the six ID/MS-based cortisol results is 100.4 ng/g with a relative standard deviation (%RSD) of 1.1%. The mean value for the seven ID/MS-based progesterone originally reported results is 2.83 with a %RSD of 1.8%. While a number of the reported results were not eligible to be used in establishing the KCRVs, the KCRVs as estimated from just the eligible results agree very well with these means. The excellent among-participant agreement indicates that ID/MS-based measurement procedures can provide precise and true results for steroid hormones at levels greater than about 1 ng/g. The progesterone result reported by a laboratory using a non-isotopically labelled internal standard was about 11% larger than the KCRV. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  12. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated cortisol response to an acute stressor. PMID:24269985

  13. Desoxycorticosterone in normal pregnancy. II. Cortisol-dependent fluctuations in free plasma desoxycorticosterone.

    PubMed

    Nolten, W E; Lindheimer, M D; Oparil, S; Rueckert, P A; Ehrlich, E N

    1979-03-15

    Desoxycorticosterone (DOC) secretion increases during pregnancy. Administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) to women during the third trimester of pregnancy was noted previously to result in marked sodium retention, while aldosterone excretion declined. Since urinary tetrahydrodesoxycorticosterone increased substantially, sodium retention resulting from ACTH was ascribed to enhanced DOC secretion. Surprisingly, the elevated plasma DOC in late pregnancy failed to respond consistently to ACTH. Effects of ACTH upon total plasma concentrations and free indexes of DOC and cortisol were studied in pregnant women in the third trimester. As a result of ACTH, plasma cortisol and the free cortisol index increased strikingly; the plasma free DOC index rose markedly in those subjects in whom the total plasma DOC level was not altered appreciably and was unchanged or even increased slightly in the few subjects in whom the total DOC level decreased. The results support the proposition that the plasma free DOC fraction is increased because of displacement from corticosteroid-binding globulin by the ACTH-induced increment in cortisol. Resultant elevations of free DOC would not be evident from customary measurements of the total DOC concentration but, nonetheless, could contribute to sodium retention and also would be available for hepatic metabolism. PMID:218456

  14. Elevations in sex hormones in dogs with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS).

    PubMed

    Carter, Renee T; Oliver, Jack W; Stepien, Rebecca L; Bentley, Ellison

    2009-01-01

    Dogs diagnosed with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) commonly are presented with concurrent clinical, physical, and historical findings consistent with hyperadreno-corticism (HAC) at the time of vision loss. Thirteen dogs diagnosed with SARDS on the basis of complete ophthalmic examination and extinguished bright-flash electroretinogram were evaluated for steroid hormonal abnormalities. Signalment, case history, physical examination, and clinicopathological findings were recorded. Serum cortisol and sex-hormone concentrations were measured before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. Clinical signs of HAC, systemic hypertension, and proteinuria were commonly found in dogs with SARDS. Elevations in one or more sex hormones were found in 11 (85%) of 13 dogs (95% confidence interval [CI] 65% to 100%); cortisol was elevated in nine (69%) of 13 dogs (95% CI 44% to 94%). A minority of dogs (three [23%] of 13; 95% CI 0.2% to 46%) exhibited only an increase in adrenal sex hormones. Only one dog had completely normal ACTH stimulation test results. Symptoms of HAC were associated with abnormal ACTH stimulation results. Routine ACTH stimulation testing to evaluate cortisol and sex hormones, blood pressure screening, and urinalysis are recommended in these animals. PMID:19723843

  15. Suppression of cortisol responses to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and the occurrence of side effects attributable to glucocorticoid excess, in cats during therapy with megestrol acetate and prednisolone.

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, D J; Watson, A D; Howe, C J; Caterson, I D

    1987-01-01

    The major purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of prednisolone and megestrol acetate in cats on the adrenal cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone during drug administration at dose rates employed for management of some inflammatory feline dermatoses. Prednisolone (at least 2 mg/kg/day) and megestrol acetate (5 mg/cat/day) were each administered orally to seven cats from days 1 to 16. Three additional cats received no therapy. Basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, food and water intake, hematology, blood biochemistry, urinalyses, and hepatic and cutaneous histology were studied in all cats before, during, and two weeks following the end of treatment. Cats given prednisolone or megestrol acetate had significant suppression of stimulated cortisol levels on day 8. This change was more marked on day 15, when the suppression in cats given megestrol acetate was also significantly more severe than in those receiving prednisolone. Recovery of adrenal reserve was considered present on day 30 in six of seven cats given prednisolone, but in only three of seven receiving megestrol acetate. Eosinopenia, glycosuria and hepatocyte swelling from glycogen deposition were occasionally recorded in treated cats of both groups, providing additional circumstantial evidence for glucocorticoid activity of megestrol acetate in cats. It is advised that abrupt withdrawal of prednisolone or megestrol acetate therapy be avoided in this species to reduce the chance of precipitating clinical signs of hypoadrenocorticism, even after treatment for as little as one week. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3032391

  16. Order effects of combined strength and endurance training on testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and IGF-1 binding protein 3 in concurrently trained men.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Claudio; Vilaa-Alves, Jos; Fernandes, Helder M; Saavedra, Francisco J; Pinto, Ronei S; dos Reis, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent training (CT) has been widely used in fitness centers to simultaneously optimize cardiovascular and neuromuscular fitness, and induce a high-energy expenditure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of 2 different orders of CT on hormonal responses in concurrently trained men. Fourteen men (mean SD: 24.7 5.1 years) were randomly divided into 2 groups: endurance training followed by strength (ES, n = 7) and strength training followed by endurance (SE, n = 7). Serum concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and IGF-1 binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) were measured before and after both training orders. A significant interaction between exercise order and time was only found in the IGFBP-3 levels (p = 0.022). The testosterone and IGFBP-3 concentrations significantly increased in the ES group after the exercise trainings (57.7 35.1%, p = 0.013 and 17.0 15.5%, p = 0.032, respectively) but did not change significantly in the SE group (15.5 36.6%, p = 0.527 and -4.2 13.9%, p = 0.421, respectively). Conversely, cortisol and growth hormone concentrations significantly increased in both ES (169.2 191.0%, p = 0.021 and 13,296.8 13,009.5%, p = 0.013, respectively) and SE (92.2 81.5%, p = 0.017 and 12,346.2 9714.1%, p = 0.001, respectively) groups compared with baseline values. No significant correlations were found between the changes in the hormonal concentrations. In conclusion, these results suggest that immediately postexercise testosterone and IGFPB-3 responses are significantly increased only after the ES order. Therefore, an ES training order should be prescribed if the main focus of the training intervention is to induce an acute postexercise anabolic environment. PMID:25028991

  17. Assessing the presence of abnormal regulation of cortisol secretion by membrane hormone receptors: in vivo and in vitro studies in patients with functioning and non-functioning adrenal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, C; Ballarè, E; Mantovani, G; Ambrosi, B; Spada, A; Barbetta, L; Colombo, P; Travaglini, P; Loli, P; Beck-Peccoz, P

    2004-08-01

    Regulation of cortisol secretion by aberrant hormone receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. In this study, the topic was evaluated by combining in vivo and in vitro approaches. Cortisol responses to various stimuli (standard meal, GnRH + TRH, cisapride, vasopressin, glucagon) were assessed in 6 patients with clinical or subclinical adrenal Cushing's syndrome, and non-functioning adrenal adenoma in two cases. Abnormal responses were observed in three patients with Cushing's syndrome; one patient showed a gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)-dependent cortisol rise after meal, together with responses after GnRH and cisapride; the second patient showed an LH-dependent cortisol response to GnRH, and in the third cortisol rose after cisapride. The pattern of receptor expression performed by RT-PCR showed that while GIP-R was only expressed in tumor from the responsive patient, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 receptor and LH-R were also present in normal adrenal tissues and tissues from non-responsive patients. Interestingly, an activating mutation of Gsalpha gene was identified in one of these tumors. Therefore, cortisol responses to agents operating via Gs protein coupled receptors (in one case associated with Gsalpha mutation) were found in Cushing's patients, while these responses were absent in the others. The finding of receptor expression in normal and non-responsive tumors suggests that different mechanisms are probably involved in inducing in vivo cortisol responses. PMID:15326569

  18. Effects of different spawning agents on serum levels of reproductive steroid hormones and cortisol level in adult female Barbus sharpeyi (Gunther, 1874).

    PubMed

    Mohammadian, Takavar; Malekpouri, Pedram; Zare, Mojtaba; Zainodini, Mohammad Anwar

    2015-12-01

    The question of whether, as hormone therapies, spawning agents differ from each other to induce physiological pathways of gametogenesis and oocyte maturation in fish remains important, because it could modify undesirable changes, regulated by endocrine systems of individual fish. A series of experimental treatments were applied to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) in which female bunnei (Barbus sharpeyi) fish respond differently to hormone therapies. Female broodstocks were injected twice (with 12 h interval) by three different treatments namely A, B and C. The treatment A received carp pituitary extract (CPE) + luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs (LHRHα2) (0.5 mg CPE kg(-1) BW for first injection and 2 mg CPE kg(-1) BW + 10 µg LHRHα2 kg(-1) for second injection), treatment B received CPE (0.5 and 3.5 mg kg(-1) BW), and treatment C received ovaprim (0.1 and 0.15 ml kg(-1) BW). Blood samples were collected at four different time intervals, including prior to injections, 6 h after first injection, 6 h after second injection and at the time of spawning, and serum steroid hormones, including testosterone, progesterone and estradiol-17β as well as cortisol, were measured. Results showed significant increases in serum estradiol-17β following all treatments, but the most profound response was found in treatments A and B. Testosterone was higher in larger broodfish than in small-sized broodfish (>1.5 vs. <1.5 kg) in all treatments. CPE led to higher concentration of testosterone rather than two other treatments. CPE also increases the progesterone following first injection and approximately remains unchanged till the end of experiment. Change in progesterone level was only significant after second injection of ovaprim as well as after spawning compared with previous time. Linear regression analyses indicated that cortisol had adverse effects on progesterone and testosterone levels of weight group <1.5 kg. These results suggest that among inducing agents, applied here, CPE can provide more reasonable response in reproduction of female B. sharpeyi. PMID:26164861

  19. Desoxycorticosterone in normal pregnancy. I. Sequential studies of the secretory patterns of desoxycorticosterone, aldosterone, and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Nolten, W E; Lindheimer, M D; Oparil, S; Ehrlich, E N

    1978-10-15

    Plasma concentrations of desoxycorticosterone (DOC) and aldosterone are markedly elevated in pregnancy. Although DOC secretion in nongravid women has been assumed to be dependent mainly on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), in a previous study of women in the third trimester of pregnancy it was found to be unresponsive to ACTH, dexamethasone, and variations in salt intake. In this study plasma DOC, aldosterone, and cortisol levels, as well as their responses to ACTH stimulation and overnight dexamethasone suppression, were observed sequentially in seven normal women during the course of pregnancy and at three months post partum. Plasma DOC, aldosterone, and cortisol levels rose substantially during gestation, but increments in DOC did not necessarily coincide with those of the other two. Responses of all three corticosteroids to ACTH were enhanced during the first two trimesters compared to the nongravid state; DOC became unresponsive in the third trimester, while aldosterone and cortisol rose to an even greater extent. Elevated maternal DOC was not decreased significantly by dexamethasone at any stage of pregnancy, while plasma cortisol was suppressed. Nonsuppressibility of DOC with dexamethasone and also the lack of correlation of the rise in DOC with the increase in cortisol during the course of pregnancy suggest that increased DOC secretion in pregnancy does not arise from ACTH-dependent pathways of the maternal adrenal. The loss of responsiveness of DOC to ACTH in the third trimester suggests that the maternal adrenals have undergone an alteration in their steroidogenic response to ACTH, but also may indicate that their output of DOC has reached a maximal rate. PMID:212954

  20. Psychological reactivity to laboratory stress is associated with hormonal responses in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Manzur, Angelica M.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Spiegel, David; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study examined associations between psychological reactivity and hormonal responses to a standardized laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) in postmenopausal women. METHODS Forty postmenopausal women ages 50–74 completed anxiety and mood assessments prior to and following the TSST. Blood samples were drawn across multiple time points for assessment of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and DHEA. RESULTS As expected, significant increases in anxiety and negative affect and decreases in positive affect were observed from pre- to post-TSST; however, the magnitude of change in anxiety and mood varied considerably across individuals. Analyses indicated that greater increases in anxiety and negative affect from pre- to post-TSST were associated with higher levels of cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA, controlling for race, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Changes in positive affect were not associated with cortisol, ACTH, or DHEA. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that enhanced reactivity to stress is associated with higher hormone levels among postmenopausal women, which could have potential implications for health. PMID:24595153

  1. INSULIN, GLUCOSE, CORTISOL, GROWTH HORMONE AND PROLACTIN RESPONSES TO ORAL L-ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION TO LACTATING SOWS UNDER HEAT STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to determine whether dietary arginine (Arg) decreases weight loss of lactating sows via regulation of key metabolic hormones. Sows were exposed to a thermoneutral (TN = 20º C) or hot (HT = 29.4º C) environment and fed one of three dietary treatments in a 2 x 3 factori...

  2. Reduced cortisol in the absence of bacterial infection in patients with hepatitis B virus cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Yu, H-W; Li, J; Zhu, Y-K; Wang, K-F; Jia, L; Meng, Q-H

    2015-01-01

    In liver cirrhosis with bacterial infection, hepatoadrenal syndrome has been described recently as a progressive impairment in the adrenocortical reserve, with deficient production or action of glucocorticoids resulting in adrenal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of cortisol in hepatitis B virus (HBV) cirrhosis patients in the absence of bacterial infection. Fasting peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 107 patients with HBV cirrhosis in the absence of bacterial infection and 18 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection at 7 a.m. in the morning. The carbohydrate, cortisol-binding globulin, routine chemistry, liver function, and hepatitis B indicators were tested, and free cortisol was calculated. Cortisol (COR) levels were 18.72 6.60 ?g/dL in the CHB group and 14.20 7.55 ?g/dL in the HBV cirrhosis group (P = 0.002). COR levels were 15.11 5.56, 14.88 6.96, and 12.68 8.36 ?g/dL in Child-Pugh class A, B, and C cirrhotic patients, respectively (P = 0.006). Adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were 35.42 24.49, 26.57 15.72, and 19.65 10.72 pg/mL in Child-Pugh class A, B, and C cirrhotic patients, respectively (P = 0.000). Patients with HBV cirrhosis had significantly lower serum COR levels compared with those of CHB patients, even if they are in the absence of bacterial infection. COR levels negatively correlated with Child-Pugh scores. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis might be damaged in patients with HBV cirrhosis. PMID:26214477

  3. Ecological correlates of cortisol levels in two bat species with contrasting feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Lewanzik, Daniel; Kelm, Detlev H; Greiner, Sabine; Dehnhard, Martin; Voigt, Christian C

    2012-05-15

    The immediate release of adrenal glucocorticoids can be crucial for an animal's survival when facing a stressor, but constantly elevated or exceptionally high glucocorticoid levels are usually detrimental for health. Although baseline and maximal secretion of glucocorticoids are regulated within narrow ranges within species, plasma glucocorticoid levels vary largely across vertebrates. We asked what ecological factors affect baseline plasma cortisol levels (CortI) and maximum levels (CortMax) following a physiological challenge through administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Specifically, we studied whether seasonal fluctuations in food abundance correlate with the capacity of cortisol increases in two phyllostomid bat species with contrasting feeding habits: the sanguinivorous vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the frugivorous short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). Both species coexist in habitats with various levels of seasonality (dry and rainforest). On a seasonal basis, resource abundance is more stable for vampire than for fruit bats, but previous studies suggested that daily foraging success may vary more for vampire than for fruit bats. CortI and CortMax varied seasonally in C. perspicillata from dry and rainforests, with the exception of CortMax in rainforest bats. Although we expected food availability to be stable year-round for vampire bats, we found CortI and CortMax of vampires to be higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Also, we found CortMax to be higher in vampires from the rainforest than in those from the dry forest. CortMax of vampires were among the highest measured for a free-ranging mammal; a pattern that could be related to the species' vulnerability to starvation. We conclude that food availability modulates cortisol levels in free-ranging species that face seasonally fluctuating resources; in species, however, that benefit from food which is constantly abundant, other factors than food may become more important in modulating cortisol levels. PMID:22429728

  4. Increased cortisol release and transport stress do not influence semen quality and testosterone release in pony stallions.

    PubMed

    Deichsel, Katharina; Pasing, Stephanie; Erber, Regina; Ille, Natascha; Palme, Rupert; Aurich, Jrg; Aurich, Christine

    2015-07-01

    The use of breeding stallions for equestrian competitions requires that fertility is not negatively affected by competition or transport to the competition site. In this study, effects of cortisol release induced by road transport (600 km), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration (3 0.5 mg synthetic ACTH) and placebo treatment on semen quality and testosterone release were investigated in Shetland stallions (N = 13) using a crossover design. Saliva for cortisol and blood for testosterone analysis were collected for 10 weeks after treatments. Semen was collected daily for 5 days directly after treatments and twice weekly for another 9 weeks. Total sperm count, sperm morphology, motility, and membrane integrity were analyzed. We hypothesized that elevated cortisol decreases testosterone concentration and semen quality. Cortisol concentrations increased in response to transport and ACTH (P < 0.001) but not control treatments (peak concentration, transport: 7.6 2.4, ACTH: 13.7 1.5, control: 3.8 0.9 ng/mL). No treatment effects on testosterone existed. Total sperm count decreased with daily semen collections in week 1 (P < 0.01) but did not differ between the treatments. The percentage of motile, progressively motile, membrane-intact, and morphologically defective spermatozoa did not change over time from Days 2 to 6, and there existed no differences between the treatments. In conclusion, road transport evoked a stress response which was mimicked by ACTH treatment. Both treatments had no effect on testosterone release and semen quality. Testicular function in stallions is apparently well protected against transiently elevated cortisol concentrations, and stallions can be transported over longer distances without negatively affecting their fertility. PMID:25794840

  5. Pigment-dispersing activities and cortisol-releasing activities of melanocortins and their receptors in xanthophores and head kidneys of the goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Chiba, Hiroaki; Mizusawa, Kanta; Suzuki, Nobuo; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2011-09-15

    The five subtypes of melanocortin receptors (MCRs) mediate the functions of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In fish, these hormones are involved in pigment dispersion and cortisol release, respectively. α-MSH-related peptides exhibit ACTH-like activity in certain fishes. We recently found that multiple Mcr transcripts are expressed in some cell types in the barfin flounder, which is related to regulation of α-MSH activities. Similar results were also observed for the cortisol-releasing activity of α-MSH-related peptides in the head kidney. The present study was undertaken to assess relationship between the expression of multiply expressed Mcrs and α-MSH activities using goldfish. We also determined if α-MSH-related peptides exhibit ACTH-like activity in goldfish. The transcripts of Mc1r, but not those of other subtypes, were observed in xanthophores. α-MSH, which has an acetyl group at the N-terminus, was found to disperse pigment in a dose-dependent manner in xanthophores. This potency was found to be slightly greater than that of desacetyl-α-MSH. These results support our findings that MCR has a higher affinity for α-MSH when single Mcr subtype is expressed. On the other hand, transcripts of Mc2r, but not those of other subtypes, were observed in the head kidney. ACTH(1-24)-stimulated cortisol release was observed in a dose-dependent manner, while α-MSH-related peptides showed no activity. It therefore appears that MC2R also acts as an ACTH-specific receptor in goldfish and that association of α-MSH-related peptides upon release of cortisol is uncommon in fishes. PMID:21784075

  6. Non-invasive monitoring of stress hormones in the bat Eptesicus isabellinus - Do fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations correlate with survival?

    PubMed

    Kelm, Detlev H; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Dehnhard, Martin; Ibáñez, Carlos

    2016-01-15

    Chronic stress may negatively impact fitness and survival in wildlife. Stress hormone analysis from feces is a non-invasive tool for identifying stressors and deducing about individual and population level fitness. Although many bat populations are endangered, fecal stress hormone analysis has not been established in bats as a method for focusing conservation efforts. The isabelline serotine bat, Eptesicus isabellinus, is exposed to human disturbance as its roosts are mostly found in anthropogenic structures. Moreover, this bat is host to various diseases and survival rates between colonies may vary significantly. To validate the analysis of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites, we applied an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge and tested four different enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for measuring glucocorticoid concentrations. Cortisol and its metabolites showed the highest increase in blood and feces after the ACTH challenge, but corticosterone and its metabolites also increased significantly. Baseline fecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) concentrations did not increase until 1.5h after the animals were captured, which is a convenient time lag for sample collection from captured animals. We furthermore compared baseline FCM concentrations between five colonies of E. isabellinus in Andalusia, Spain, and tested for their correlation with survival rates. FCM concentrations did not vary between colonies, but FCM levels increased with the animals' age. FCM analysis may prove a useful tool for identifying bat colonies that experience uncommon environmental stress. However, inter-individual variation in hormone secretion, due to factors such as age, may require additional information to properly interpret differences in hormone concentrations. PMID:26673871

  7. Subjective Sleep Quality and hormonal modulation in long-term yoga practitioners.

    PubMed

    Vera, Francisca M; Manzaneque, Juan M; Maldonado, Enrique F; Carranque, Gabriel A; Rodriguez, Francisco M; Blanca, Maria J; Morell, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Yoga represents a fascinating mind-body approach, wherein body movements (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama) and meditation are integrated into a single multidimensional practice. Numerous beneficial mental and physical effects have been classically ascribed to this holistic ancient method. The purpose of the present study has been to examine the effects of long-term yoga practice on Subjective Sleep Quality (SSQ) and on several hormonal parameters of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Twenty-six subjects (16 experimental and 10 controls) were recruited to be part of the study. Experimental subjects were regular yoga practitioners with a minimum of 3 years of practice. Blood samples for the quantification of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) were drawn from all subjects. Likewise, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was employed to assess SSQ. As statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test was performed. The yoga group displayed lower PSQI scores and higher blood cortisol levels than control subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that long-term yoga practice is associated with significant psycho-biological differences, including better sleep quality as well as a modulatory action on the levels of cortisol. These preliminary results suggest interesting clinical implications which should be further researched. PMID:19482233

  8. Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  9. Determination of steroid hormones in a human-serum reference material by isotope dilution--mass spectrometry: A candidate definitive method for cortisol

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, D.G.; Patterson, M.B.; Culbreth, P.H.; Fast, D.M.; Holler, J.S.; Sampson, E.J.; Bayse, D.D.

    1984-05-01

    We report a method, based on isotope dilution--mass spectrometry, for determining cortisol in a pooled specimen of human serum. Isotopically labeled cortisol is added to 5.0 mL of serum so that the molar concentrations of labeled cortisol and unlabeled cortisol are approximately equal. The specimen and two calibration standards are extracted with dichloromethane, and the extracted cortisol is converted to the methoxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivative. Samples and standards are analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry by monitoring the peak areas for m/z 605 and 608. The cortisol concentration is calculated by linear interpolation between the two bracketing standards. Variances of data collected during six weeks showed that the overall coefficient of variation (CV) was 0.69% (n . 32); the within-vial CV, 0.63%; the among-vial CV, 0.22%; and the among-day CV, 0.15% (means . 3.973 nmol/vial). Method specificity was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic as well as C/sub 8/ mini-column cleanup of samples before derivation, by alternative ion monitoring at m/z 636 and 639, and by negative-ion chemical ionization at m/z 459 and 462. Derivatives of all observed degradation products of cortisol under basic, neutral, and acidic conditions did not interfere.

  10. Determination of steroid hormones in a human-serum reference material by isotope dilution--mass spectrometry: a candidate definitive method for cortisol.

    PubMed

    Patterson, D G; Patterson, M B; Culbreth, P H; Fast, D M; Holler, J S; Sampson, E J; Bayse, D D

    1984-05-01

    We report a method, based on isotope dilution--mass spectrometry, for determining cortisol in a pooled specimen of human serum. Isotopically labeled cortisol is added to 5.0 mL of serum so that the molar concentrations of labeled cortisol and unlabeled cortisol are approximately equal. The specimen and two calibration standards are extracted with dichloromethane, and the extracted cortisol is converted to the methoxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivative. Samples and standards are analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry by monitoring the peak areas for m/z 605 and 608. The cortisol concentration is calculated by linear interpolation between the two bracketing standards. Variances of data collected during six weeks showed that the overall coefficient of variation (CV) was 0.69% (n = 32); the within-vial CV, 0.63%; the among-vial CV, 0.22%; and the among-day CV, 0.15% (means = 3.973 nmol/vial). Method specificity was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic as well as C8 mini-column cleanup of samples before derivation, by alternative ion monitoring at m/z 636 and 639, and by negative-ion chemical ionization at m/z 459 and 462. Derivatives of all observed degradation products of cortisol under basic, neutral, and acidic conditions did not interfere. PMID:6370495

  11. Circadian Rhythms of Glucocorticoid Hormone Actions in Target Tissues: Potential Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kino, Tomoshige

    2013-01-01

    Organisms face unforeseen short- and long-term changes in the environment (stressors). To defend against these changes, organisms have developed a stress system that includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which employs glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) for signal transduction. In addition, organisms live under the strong influence of day-night cycles and, hence, have also developed a highly conserved circadian clock system for adjusting their activities to recurring environmental changes. This regulatory system creates and maintains internal circadian rhythmicity by employing a self-oscillating molecular pacemaker composed of the Clock-Bmal1 heterodimer and other transcription factors. The circadian clock consists of a central master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain hypothalamus and peripheral slave clocks in virtually all organs and tissues. The HPA axis and the circadian clock system communicate with each other at multiple levels. The central clock controls the HPA axis, creating the diurnal oscillation of circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, and the HPA axis adjusts the circadian rhythmicity of the peripheral clocks in response to various stressors through the GR. Further, Clock-Bmal1 regulates the response to glucocorticoids in peripheral tissues through acetylation of the GR, possibly antagonizing the biologic actions of diurnally fluctuating circulating cortisol. Importantly, dysregulation in the clock system and the HPA axis may cause similar pathologic manifestations—including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease—by uncoupling circulating cortisol concentrations from tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. PMID:23033538

  12. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

  13. Using Cox cluster processes to model latent pulse location patterns in hormone concentration data.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Nichole E; Grunwald, Gary K; Johnson, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Many hormones, including stress hormones, are intermittently secreted as pulses. The pulsatile location process, describing times when pulses occur, is a regulator of the entire stress system. Characterizing the pulse location process is particularly difficult because the pulse locations are latent; only hormone concentration at sampled times is observed. In addition, for stress hormones the process may change both over the day and relative to common external stimuli. This potentially results in clustering in pulse locations across subjects. Current approaches to characterizing the pulse location process do not capture subject-to-subject clustering in locations. Here we show how a Bayesian Cox cluster process may be adapted as a model of the pulse location process. We show that this novel model of pulse locations is capable of detecting circadian rhythms in pulse locations, clustering of pulse locations between subjects, and identifying exogenous controllers of pulse events. We integrate our pulse location process into a model of hormone concentration, the observed data. A spatial birth-and-death Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used for estimation. We exhibit the strengths of this model on simulated data and adrenocorticotropic and cortisol data collected to study the stress axis in depressed and non-depressed women. PMID:26553914

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the TSST than do women during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. PMID:26773400

  15. Effect of salinity changes on olfactory memory-related genes and hormones in adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Lim, Sang-Gu; Jeong, Minhwan; Jin, Deuk-Hee; Choi, Cheol Young

    2015-09-01

    Studies of memory formation have recently concentrated on the possible role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NRs). We examined changes in the expression of three NRs (NR1, NR2B, and NR2C), olfactory receptor (OR), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) during salinity change (seawater?50% seawater?freshwater). NRs were significantly detected in the diencephalon and telencephalon and OR was significantly detected in the olfactory epithelium. The expression of NRs, OR, and ACTH increased after the transition to freshwater. We also determined that treatment with MK-801, an antagonist of NRs, decreased NRs in telencephalon cells. In addition, a reduction in salinity was associated with increased levels of dopamine, ACTH, and cortisol (in vivo). Reductions in salinity evidently caused NRs and OR to increase the expression of cortisol and dopamine. We concluded that memory capacity and olfactory imprinting of salmon is related to the salinity of the environment during the migration to spawning sites. Furthermore, salinity affects the memory/imprinting and olfactory abilities, and cortisol and dopamine is also related with olfactory-related memories during migration. PMID:25933936

  16. Dissociated neural effects of cortisol depending on threat escapability.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Estrella R; van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A; Terburg, David

    2015-11-01

    Evolution has provided us with a highly flexible neuroendocrine threat system which, depending on threat imminence, switches between active escape and passive freezing. Cortisol, the "stress-hormone", is thought to play an important role in both fear behaviors, but the exact mechanisms are not understood. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging we investigated how cortisol modulates the brain's fear systems when humans are under virtual-predator attack. We show dissociated neural effects of cortisol depending on whether escape from threat is possible. During inescapable threat cortisol reduces fear-related midbrain activity, whereas in anticipation of active escape cortisol boosts activity in the frontal salience network (insula and anterior cingulate cortex), which is involved in autonomic control, visceral perception and motivated action. Our findings suggest that cortisol adjusts the human neural threat system from passive fear to active escape, which illuminates the hormone's crucial role in the adaptive flexibility of fear behaviors. PMID:26248899

  17. Electrochemical Sensing of Cortisol: A Recent Update

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aparajita; Kaushik, Ajeet; Kumar, Rajesh; Nair, Madhavan; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress caused by everyday life style contributes to health disparities experience by individuals. It affects many biomarkers, but cortisol a steroid hormone is known as a potential biomarker for psychological stress detection. Abnormal levels of cortisol, is indicative of conditions such as Cushings syndrome Addisons disease, adrenal insufficiencies and more recently post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Chromatographic techniques, which are traditionally used to detect cortisol, are a complex system requiring multistep extraction/purification. This limits its application for point-of-care (POC) detection of cortisol. However, electrochemical immunosensing of cortisol is a recent advancement towards POC application. This review highlights simple, low-cost, and label-free electrochemical immunosensing platforms which have been developed recently for sensitive and selective detection of cortisol in biofluids. Electrochemical detection is utilized for the detection of cortisol using Anti-Cortisol antibodies (Anti-Cab) covalently immobilized on nanostructures such as self-assembled monolayer (SAM), polymer composite, etc. for POC integration of sensors. The observed information can be used as prototype to understand behavioral changes in humans in case to case such as farmers, fire fighters, etc. Keeping the future directions and challenges in mind the focus of the BioMEMS and Microsystems Research Group at Florida International University is on development of POC devices for immunosensing, integration of these devices with microfluidics, cross validation with existing technologies, and analysis of real sample. PMID:24723204

  18. Electrochemical sensing of cortisol: a recent update.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aparajita; Kaushik, Ajeet; Kumar, Rajesh; Nair, Madhavan; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Psychological stress caused by everyday lifestyle contributes to health disparities experienced by individuals. It affects many biomarkers, but cortisol - "a steroid hormone" - is known as a potential biomarker for psychological stress detection. Abnormal levels of cortisol are indicative of conditions such as Cushing's syndrome Addison's disease, adrenal insufficiencies and more recently post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Chromatographic techniques, which are traditionally used to detect cortisol, are a complex system requiring multistep extraction/purification. This limits its application for point-of-care (POC) detection of cortisol. However, electrochemical immunosensing of cortisol is a recent advancement towards POC application. This review highlights simple, low-cost, and label-free electrochemical immunosensing platforms which have been developed recently for sensitive and selective detection of cortisol in bio-fluids. Electrochemical detection is utilized for the detection of cortisol using Anti-Cortisol antibodies (Anti-Cab) covalently immobilized on nanostructures, such as self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and polymer composite, for POC integration of sensors. The observed information can be used as a prototype to understand behavioral changes in humans such as farmers and firefighters. Keeping the future directions and challenges in mind, the focus of the BioMEMS and Microsystems Research Group at Florida International University is on development of POC devices for immunosensing, integration of these devices with microfluidics, cross validation with existing technologies, and analysis of real sample. PMID:24723204

  19. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  20. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a

  1. Adrenal steroid hormones and ethanol self-administration in male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Christa M.; Park, Byung; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormones have neuroactive metabolites with receptor activity similar to ethanol. Objectives The present study related HPA hormones in naïve monkeys to ethanol self-administration. Methods Morning plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, deoxycorticosterone (DOC), aldosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured longitudinally in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) induced to drink ethanol followed by access to ethanol (4% w/v, in water) and water 22 hours/day for 12 months. Results During ethanol access, DOC increased among non-heavy (average intake over 12 months ≤ 3.0 g/kg/day, n = 23) but not heavy drinkers (> 3.0 g/kg/day, n = 9), aldosterone was greater among heavy drinkers after 6 months. The ratio of DOC/aldosterone decreased only among heavy drinkers after 6 or12 months of ethanol self-administration. ACTH only correlated significantly with DHEA-S, the ratio of cortisol/DHEA-S and DOC after the onset of ethanol access, the former two just in heavy drinkers. Baseline hormones did not predict subsequent ethanol intake over 12 months, but baseline DOC correlated with average blood-ethanol concentrations (BEC), among all monkeys and heavy drinkers as a group. During ethanol access, aldosterone and DOC correlated and tended to correlate, respectively, with 12-month average ethanol intake. Conclusions Ethanol self-administration lowered ACTH and selectively altered its adrenocortical regulation. Mineralocorticoids may compensate for adrenocortical adaptation among heavy drinkers and balance fluid homeostasis. As DOC was uniquely predictive of future BEC) and not water intake, to the exclusion of aldosterone, GABAergic neuroactive metabolites of DOC may be risk factors for binge drinking to intoxication. PMID:24781519

  2. Coffee, stress and cortisol in nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Harris, Anette; Ursin, Holger; Murison, Robert; Eriksen, Hege R

    2007-05-01

    According to cognitive activation theory, long-lasting work demands without rest or lack of coping may lead to sustained activation and pathology. Cortisol is one of the most important stress hormones in humans and increased basal levels of cortisol are considered a valid marker for sustained activation. In order to investigate this association further, we investigate the relationships between salivary cortisol profiles, job stress, work load (effort/reward, demand/control) and health (subjective health complaints and health-related quality of life) in a population of health care workers. Forty-four women filled in a questionnaire and collected five saliva samples on two consecutive working days (1: wake-up time, 2: wake-up time+30 min, 3: wake-up time+45 min, 4: 1500 h and 5: 2200 h). There was no relationship between psychosocial factors at work and cortisol levels in the morning (cortisol level at wake-up time and awakening cortisol response (ACR)). Only the confounding variable tobacco reached a significant level in the hierarchical regressions analyses. Our significant findings are limited to the afternoon decline and the evening values. The decrease during the day relates to decision authority, physical functioning, general health, and vitality in the single, unadjusted regression analyses. The decrease also relates to coffee intake, which we included originally as a confounding variable. In the final hierarchical regression of the evening values, only decision authority and coffee were significantly related to cortisol levels in the evening. PMID:17350175

  3. Variation in the ovine cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge is predominantly determined by signalling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    SciTech Connect

    You Qiumei; Karrow, Niel A. Cao Honghe; Rodriguez, Alexander; Mallard, Bonnie A.; Boermans, Herman J.

    2008-07-01

    Bi-directional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is designed, in part, to maintain or restore homeostasis during physiological stress. Exposure to endotoxin during Gram-negative bacterial infection for example, elicits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). The secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids subsequently down regulates the host inflammatory response, minimizing potential tissue damage. Sequence and epigenetic variants in genes involved in regulating the neuroendocrine and immune systems are likely to contribute to individual differences in the HPAA response, and this may influence the host anti-inflammatory response to toxin exposure and susceptibility to inflammatory disease. In this study, high (HCR) and low (LCR) cortisol responders were selected from a normal population of 110 female sheep challenged iv with Escherichia coli endotoxin (400 ng/kg) to identify potential determinants that contribute to variation in the cortisol response phenotype. This phenotype was stable over several years in the HCR and LCR animals, and did not appear to be attributed to differences in expression of hepatic immune-related genes or systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Mechanistic studies using corticotrophin-releasing factor (0.5 {mu}g/kg body weight), arginine vasopressin (0.5 {mu}g/kg), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (0.5 {mu}g/kg) administered iv demonstrated that variation in this phenotype is largely determined by signalling within the HPAA. Future studies will use this ovine HCR/LCR model to investigate potential genetic and epigenetic variants that may contribute to variation in cortisol responsiveness to bacterial endotoxin.

  4. [Epilepsy and hormones].

    PubMed

    Motta, E

    2000-01-01

    The paper contains a review of reports concerned with how for hormones, epileptic seizures and antiepileptic drugs can be influenced by one another. Hormones influence brain excitability but, on the other hand, both epileptic seizures and antiepileptic drugs may alter hormone secretion and metabolism. Effect of hormones on seizures--Experimental studies revealed the properties which inhibit or stimulate convulsive reactivity of different hormones. Progesterone, testosterone, adrenocorticotropin and desoxycorticosterone are responsible for an increase in seizure threshold, while estradiol, cortisol and thyroid hormones cause a reduction. Effect of seizures on hormones--Epileptic seizures, chiefly tonic-clonic, also complex partial and sometimes simple partial seizures, result in "the hormonal storm". Immediately after an epileptic seizure, an increase is found in serum concentrations of prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropin, triidothyronine, thyroxin, thyrotropin, luteotropin, follicular stimulating hormone and growth hormone. These changes may persist for two hours, while prolactin concentration even for 24 hours after a seizure. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on hormones--Antiepileptic drugs may affect hypothalamus-pituitary function directly or indirectly through neurotransmitter system. By induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes, some antiepileptic drugs cause acceleration of hormone metabolism, reducing hormone serum concentrations. Moreover, antiepileptic drugs enhance sex hormone binding globulin SHBG/synthesis, increase binding of these hormones and reduce their active fraction concentration in serum. Recognition of the relationship between epilepsy and hormonal system is necessary to obtain better understanding of this disease. PMID:10768143

  5. Maternal Cortisol Mediates Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal Axis Development in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nesan, Dinushan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish (Danio rerio), de novo synthesis of cortisol in response to stressor exposure commences only after hatch. Maternally deposited cortisol is present during embryogenesis, but a role for this steroid in early development is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that maternal cortisol is essential for the proper development of hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis activity and the onset of the stressor-induced cortisol response in larval zebrafish. In this study, zygotic cortisol content was manipulated by microinjecting antibody to sequester this steroid, thereby making it unavailable during embryogenesis. This was compared with embryos containing excess cortisol by microinjection of exogenous steroid. The resulting larval phenotypes revealed distinct treatment effects, including deformed mesoderm structures when maternal cortisol was unavailable and cardiac edema after excess cortisol. Maternal cortisol unavailability heightened the cortisol stress response in post-hatch larvae, whereas excess cortisol abolished the stressor-mediated cortisol elevation. This contrasting hormonal response corresponded with altered expression of key HPI axis genes, including crf, 11B hydroxylase, pomca, and star, which were upregulated in response to reduced cortisol availability and downregulated when embryos had excess cortisol. These findings for the first time underscore a critical role for maternally deposited cortisol in programming HPI axis development and function in zebrafish. PMID:26940285

  6. Maternal Cortisol Mediates Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal Axis Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Nesan, Dinushan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish (Danio rerio), de novo synthesis of cortisol in response to stressor exposure commences only after hatch. Maternally deposited cortisol is present during embryogenesis, but a role for this steroid in early development is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that maternal cortisol is essential for the proper development of hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis activity and the onset of the stressor-induced cortisol response in larval zebrafish. In this study, zygotic cortisol content was manipulated by microinjecting antibody to sequester this steroid, thereby making it unavailable during embryogenesis. This was compared with embryos containing excess cortisol by microinjection of exogenous steroid. The resulting larval phenotypes revealed distinct treatment effects, including deformed mesoderm structures when maternal cortisol was unavailable and cardiac edema after excess cortisol. Maternal cortisol unavailability heightened the cortisol stress response in post-hatch larvae, whereas excess cortisol abolished the stressor-mediated cortisol elevation. This contrasting hormonal response corresponded with altered expression of key HPI axis genes, including crf, 11B hydroxylase, pomca, and star, which were upregulated in response to reduced cortisol availability and downregulated when embryos had excess cortisol. These findings for the first time underscore a critical role for maternally deposited cortisol in programming HPI axis development and function in zebrafish. PMID:26940285

  7. Diurnal Variation of Hormonal and Lipid Biomarkers in a Molecular Epidemiology-Like Setting

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Eugene H. J. M.; Beekhof, Piet K.; van Oostrom, Conny T. M.; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Velickova, Nevenka; Kamcev, Nikola; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; van Steeg, Harry; Rodenburg, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many molecular epidemiology studies focusing on high prevalent diseases, such as metabolic disorders and cancer, investigate metabolic and hormonal markers. In general, sampling for these markers can occur at any time-point during the day or after an overnight fast. However, environmental factors, such as light exposure and food intake might affect the levels of these markers, since they provide input for the internal time-keeping system. When diurnal variation is larger than the inter-individual variation, time of day should be taken into account. Importantly, heterogeneity in diurnal variation and disturbance of circadian rhythms among a study population might increasingly occur as a result of our increasing 24/7 economy and related variation in exposure to environmental factors (such as light and food). Aim The aim of the present study was to determine whether a set of often used biomarkers shows diurnal variation in a setting resembling large molecular epidemiology studies, i.e., non-fasted and limited control possibilities for other environmental influences. Results We show that markers for which diurnal variation is not an issue are adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol and high-density lipoprotein. For all other tested markers diurnal variation was observed in at least one gender (cholesterol, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free fatty acids, low-density lipoprotein, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone, testosterone, triglycerides, total triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone) or could not reliably be detected (human growth hormone). Discussion Thus, studies investigating these markers should take diurnal variation into account, for which we provide some options. Furthermore, our study indicates the need for investigating diurnal variation (in literature or experimentally) before setting up studies measuring markers in routine and controlled settings, especially since time-of-day likely matters for many more markers than the ones investigated in the present study. PMID:26285127

  8. Cortisol content of eggs and larvae of teleosts.

    PubMed

    Hwang, P P; Wu, S M; Lin, J H; Wu, L S

    1992-05-01

    The whole-animal content of the cortisol was measured in embryos and larvae of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), milkfish (Chanos chanos), and yellowfin bream (Acanthropagrus latus) by radioimmunoassay following the validation of an extraction method. The total cortisol content in tilapia was 50.3 +/- 19.1 pg immediately following fertilization, then decreased abruptly and maintained a lower level of 10-17 pg until larval hatching; after hatching the cortisol content increased to 47.2 +/- 11.9 pg by the seventh day. Newly hatched rainbow trout had 60.3 +/- 6.4 pg cortisol and then increased their cortisol level slowly to 83.0 +/- 7.2 pg by the fifth day after hatching. Ayu larvae contained 5.2 pg cortisol immediately following hatching. On the other hand, pelagic milkfish revealed a much lower cortisol level, being undetectable from hatching until the second day and ranging from 0.4 to 3.7 pg from the third to seventh day after hatching. Yellowfin bream, demonstrating a similarity to milkfish, were not found to have any detectable cortisol from hatching until the third day, but presented 1.6-7.7 pg from the fifth to seventh day after hatching. The presence and clearance of cortisol during early development of fertilized eggs of tilapia suggest a maternal origin of the hormone. The amount of cortisol deposited in the larval body of tilapia increased after hatching from 25% to nearly 100% of the total cortisol in whole larvae, while that in the larval yolk sac decreased to an undetectable level, implying that the increased cortisol may be produced or secreted by the larva. The possible role of cortisol in larval development is discussed. PMID:1601267

  9. Prolactin/cortisol ratio in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zoli, Angelo; Ferlisi, Ester Maria; Lizzio, Marco; Altomonte, Lorenzo; Mirone, Luisa; Barini, Angela; Scuderi, Flavia; Bartolozzi, F; Magaro, Mario

    2002-06-01

    Prolactin (PRL) and glucocorticoids are hormones involved in the regulation of the immune system. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory condition that presents a diurnal rhythm of disease activity. PRL/cortisol ratio, and IL-1beta and TNF-alpha levels were determined in patients with RA and in control subjects at 0600, 1000, 1400, 1800, 2200, and 0200 hours. In patients with RA we observed higher PRL/cortisol ratio at 0200 hours, whereas IL-1beta and TNF-alpha reached their highest serum levels at 0200 and 0600 hours. In patients with RA we observed an imbalance in favor of proinflammatory hormones as opposed to levels of antiinflammatory hormones during nocturnal hours together with increased levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha of the diurnal rhythm of disease activity. PMID:12114312

  10. Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Adler, Gail K.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Emery N.

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

  11. Social Behavior Correlates of Cortisol Activity in Child Care: Gender Differences and Time-of-Day Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Kathryn; de Haan, Michelle; Campbell, Elizabeth Kipp; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1998-01-01

    Examined relations between social behavior and daily patterns of a stress-sensitive hormone production in preschool children attending center-based child care. For boys, externalizing behavior was positively associated with cortisol reactivity, while internalizing behavior was negatively associated with median (typical) cortisol. Median cortisol

  12. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Weerth, Carolina de

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood. PMID:26352482

  13. Stress-related hormones modulate cytokine expression in the head kidney of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Castillo, Juan; Teles, Mariana; Mackenzie, Simon; Tort, Lluis

    2009-09-01

    Neuro-endocrine and immune systems closely interact in fish, and their regulation is crucial for the maintenance of good health of cultured fish. We have used the seabream head kidney to study whether stress-related hormones can modulate the immune response. For this purpose, the effects of adrenaline, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-beta1 were determined by means of quantitative real-time PCR on isolated head kidney cells. ACTH (150 ng mL(-1)) caused an acute increase of TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA levels as well as an inhibition of IL-1beta expression. The expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-beta1 was also increased, although in a lower extent. Adrenaline (1 muM) early effects were only clear inhibiting IL-1beta expression but not TNF-alpha, IL-6 or TGF-beta1 mRNA levels, while a longer exposure to the hormone inhibited all cytokines. Moreover, cortisol (50 and 100 ng mL(-1)) reduced the expression of all cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated IL-1beta expression and inhibited that of the anti-inflammatory TGF-beta1, although it was ineffective on TNF-alpha and IL-6. In addition, adrenaline and cortisol decreased the LPS-stimulated IL-1beta expression, further demonstrating their previously reported anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of ACTH and LPS, on the other hand, did not affect LPS-stimulated IL-1beta expression but was effective increasing TNF-alpha expression. Taking all these results in consideration, we conclude that the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the seabream head kidney is highly influenced by stress-related hormones, thus indicating an important role for the endocrine system in the modulation of the immune response in teleost fish. PMID:19591943

  14. Cortisol and GH: odd and controversial ideas.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Martine; Guinot, Michel; Le Bouc, Yves

    2007-10-01

    Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis represents a physiological response to the energetic, metabolic, vascular, and sometimes neurophysiologic or psychological needs of exercise. Long-lasting increased and (or) decreased secretion of cortisol (the end-product of the HPA axis) or of GH is detrimental to health. This suggests that the activity of these hormonal axes is finely tuned toward homeostasia, tolerating limited prolonged homeostatic disruption. However, the relationships between exercise training and cortisol and GH secretion are full of odd and controversial ideas. In this review, the relationships between HPA axis adaptation to exercise training or disadaptation with overtraining will be discussed, with an emphasis on the limitation on the current measures used to profile hormonal activity. Knowledge of these relationships between cortisol and GH responses to exercise is an important tool to fight against doping with glucocorticoids and GH, and their health-damaging consequences. PMID:18059614

  15. ACTH, cortisol and prolactin in active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zoli, A; Lizzio, M M; Ferlisi, E M; Massafra, V; Mirone, L; Barini, A; Scuderi, F; Bartolozzi, F; Magaró, M

    2002-08-01

    Prolactin (PRL) and glucocorticoids are hormones involved in the regulation of the immune system. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory condition that presents a diurnal rhythm of disease activity. ACTH, PRL, cortisol, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha circadian rhythms have been studied in active RA (aRA) to evaluate a possible relationship between the neuroendocrine system and immunological activity in rheumatoid patients. ACTH, PRL, cortisol, PRL/cortisol ratio and IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha levels were determined in aRA patients and in control subjects at 6.00, 10.00, 14.00, 18.00, 22.00 and 02.00 h. In aRA patients we observed lower ACTH and cortisol levels at 22.00 h and 2.00 h, respectively and higher PRL and PRL/cortisol ratio at 2.00 h when compared to controls. IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha reached their highest serum levels in aRA patients at 2.00 and 6.00 h. This study provides evidence that in aRA there could be a temporary and probably causal relationship between diurnal disease activity, hormonal disequilibrium and cytokine secretion. An imbalance in favour of proinflammatory hormones (PRL and cytokines) as opposed to levels of anti-inflammatory hormones could be responsible for the diurnal rhythm of activity disease observed in aRA patients. PMID:12189455

  16. Cortisol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Neurohormonal Aspects of Bioenergetic Stress in Ecstasy Users

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can affect both neurotransmitter and neurohormonal activity. This review will debate the role of the metabolic activation hormone cortisol for the psychobiological effects of ecstasy/MDMA. Methods The empirical literature on cortisol release following acute MDMA administration and cortisol functioning in drug-free recreational ecstasy/MDMA users will be reviewed. This will be followed by an overview of cortisol as a bioenergetic stress neurohormone, and a debate on how it could be modulating the acute and chronic psychobiological effects of MDMA. Results Cortisol release is increased by stimulatory factors, including physical activity, thermal stress and stimulant drugs. In laboratory studies MDMA leads to an acute cortisol increase of around 150% in sedentary humans. In MDMA-using dance clubbers, the cortisol levels are increased by around 800%, possibly due to the combined factors of stimulant drug, physical exertion and psychosocial stimulation. Regular ecstasy/MDMA users also demonstrate changes in baseline cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, with compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Nonpharmacological research has shown how cortisol is important for psychological aspects such as memory, cognition, sleep, impulsivity, depression and neuronal damage. These same functions are often impaired in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users, and cortisol may be an important modulatory co-factor. Conclusions The energizing hormone cortisol is involved in the psychobiology of MDMA, probably via its effects on energy metabolism. Acute cortisol release may potentiate the stimulating effects of MDMA in dance clubbers. Chronically, cortisol may contribute to the variance in functional and structural consequences of repeated ecstasy usage. PMID:19893332

  17. Effects of testosterone administration on nocturnal cortisol secretion in healthy older men.

    PubMed

    Muniyappa, Ranganath; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Harman, S Mitchell; Sorkin, John D; Blackman, Marc R

    2010-11-01

    In animal studies, testosterone decreases, whereas estrogen increases, cortisol production. In one clinical study, short-term testosterone replacement attenuated corticotrophin-releasing hormone-stimulated cortisol secretion during leuprolide-induced hypogonadism in young men. The effects of longer term testosterone treatment on spontaneous cortisol secretion in younger or older men are unknown. In a randomized, double-masked placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of testosterone supplementation (100 mg intramuscular every 2 week) for 26 weeks on nocturnal cortisol secretory dynamics in healthy older men. Testosterone administration increased early morning serum concentrations of free testosterone by 34%, decreased sex hormone-binding globulin by 20%, and did not alter early morning concentrations of cortisol-binding globulin or cortisol compared with placebo treatment. Testosterone did not significantly alter nocturnal mean and integrated cortisol concentrations, cortisol burst frequency, mass/burst, basal secretion, pulsatile cortisol production rate, pattern regularity, or approximate entropy. We conclude that low-dose testosterone supplementation for 26 weeks does not affect spontaneous nocturnal cortisol secretion in healthy older men. PMID:20675620

  18. Are Breastfed Infants more Resilient?-Feeding Method and Cortisol in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yang; Rao, Sanmati D.; Phillips, Terry M.; Umbach, David M.; Bernbaum, Judy C.; Archer, Janet I.; Rogan, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of feeding method on stress hormone levels in infants is unknown. We studied infants from birth to one year, and found salivary cortisol 40% higher in breastfed infants compared with formula-fed infants. The higher cortisol levels among breastfed children may be involved in the analgesic effect of breastfeeding. PMID:19874763

  19. Social regulation of cortisol receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Korzan, Wayne J.; Grone, Brian P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    In many social species, individuals influence the reproductive capacity of conspecifics. In a well-studied African cichlid fish species, Astatotilapia burtoni, males are either dominant (D) and reproductively competent or non-dominant (ND) and reproductively suppressed as evidenced by reduced gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH1) release, regressed gonads, lower levels of androgens and elevated levels of cortisol. Here, we asked whether androgen and cortisol levels might regulate this reproductive suppression. Astatotilapia burtoni has four glucocorticoid receptors (GR1a, GR1b, GR2 and MR), encoded by three genes, and two androgen receptors (ARα and ARβ), encoded by two genes. We previously showed that ARα and ARβ are expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the preoptic area (POA), which regulates reproduction, and that the mRNA levels of these receptors are regulated by social status. Here, we show that GR1, GR2 and MR mRNAs are also expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the POA, revealing potential mechanisms for both androgens and cortisol to influence reproductive capacity. We measured AR, MR and GR mRNA expression levels in a microdissected region of the POA containing GnRH1 neurons, comparing D and ND males. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we found D males had higher mRNA levels of ARα, MR, total GR1a and GR2 in the POA compared with ND males. In contrast, ND males had significantly higher levels of GR1b mRNA, a receptor subtype with a reduced transcriptional response to cortisol. Through this novel regulation of receptor type, neurons in the POA of an ND male will be less affected by the higher levels of cortisol typical of low status, suggesting GR receptor type change as a potential adaptive mechanism to mediate high cortisol levels during social suppression. PMID:25013108

  20. Work stress models and diurnal cortisol variations: The SALVEO study.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Alain; Juster, Robert-Paul; Durand, Pierre; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess components, subscales, and interactions proposed by the popular Job Demand-Control (JDC), Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS), and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) work stress models in relation to diurnal variation of the stress hormone cortisol. Participants included 401 day-shift workers employed from a random sampling of 34 Canadian workplaces. Questionnaires included the Job Content Questionnaire to measure psychological demands, decision latitude, and social support as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire to measure effort, reward, and overcommitment. Salivary cortisol was collected on 2 working days at awaking, +30 min after awaking, 1400h, 1600h, and bedtime. Multilevel regressions with 3 levels (time of day, workers, workplaces) were performed. Results revealed that JDC, JDCS and ERI interactions were not statistically associated with variations in diurnal cortisol concentrations. By contrast when assessing specific work stress subscales, increased psychological demands were linked to decreased bedtime cortisol, increased job recognition was linked to increased cortisol +30 min after waking and at bedtime, and finally increased overcommitment was linked to increased awakening cortisol and decreased cortisol at 1400h, 1600h, and bedtime. Sex moderation effects principally among men were additionally detected for psychological demands, total social support, and supervisor support. Our findings suggest that components and subsubscales of these popular work stress models rather than theorized interactions are more meaningful in explaining diurnal cortisol variations. In particular, psychological demands, job recognition, overcommitment, and to a lesser extent social support at work are the most significant predictors of diurnal cortisol variation in this large sample of Canadian workers. Importantly, the overall effect sizes of these subscales that explained diurnal cortisol concentrations were weak. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322441

  1. Cortisol urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... response Different diseases, such as Cushing syndrome and Addison disease , can lead to either too much or too ... cortisol A lower than normal level may indicate: Addison disease in which the adrenal glands do not produce ...

  2. Cortisol blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... response Different diseases, such as Cushing syndrome and Addison disease , can lead to either too much or too ... cortisol A lower than normal level may indicate: Addison disease, in which the adrenal glands do not produce ...

  3. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but has been reported to be as high as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The objective of this study was to determine effects of ACTH administration on mimicking a stress response and whether this respon...

  4. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG.

  5. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Mscisz, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Barchia, I.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greenes Score (GMS) and Kuppermans Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT). PMID:23675006

  6. Entrainment of peripheral clock genes by cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Mavroudis, Panteleimon D.; Scheff, Jeremy D.; Calvano, Steve E.; Lowry, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythmicity in mammals is primarily driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), often called the central pacemaker, which converts the photic information of light and dark cycles into neuronal and hormonal signals in the periphery of the body. Cells of peripheral tissues respond to these centrally mediated cues by adjusting their molecular function to optimize organism performance. Numerous systemic cues orchestrate peripheral rhythmicity, such as feeding, body temperature, the autonomic nervous system, and hormones. We propose a semimechanistic model for the entrainment of peripheral clock genes by cortisol as a representative entrainer of peripheral cells. This model demonstrates the importance of entrainer's characteristics in terms of the synchronization and entrainment of peripheral clock genes, and predicts the loss of intercellular synchrony when cortisol moves out of its homeostatic amplitude and frequency range, as has been observed clinically in chronic stress and cancer. The model also predicts a dynamic regime of entrainment, when cortisol has a slightly decreased amplitude rhythm, where individual clock genes remain relatively synchronized among themselves but are phase shifted in relation to the entrainer. The model illustrates how the loss of communication between the SCN and peripheral tissues could result in desynchronization of peripheral clocks. PMID:22510707

  7. Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor for the detection of salivary cortisol using the Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Hyun Lee, Jung; Kim, MinGin; Kim, Jeongmin; Song, Min-Jung; Jung, Hyo-Il; Lee, Wooyoung

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of a thermal biosensor based on bismuth nanowire that is fabricated for the detection of the human stress hormone cortisol using the Thomson effect. The Bi nanowire was grown using the On-Film Formation of Nanowires (OFF-ON) method. The thermal device was fabricated using photolithography, and the sensing area was modified with immobilized anti-cortisol antibodies conjugated with protein G for the detection of cortisol. The voltages were measured with two probe tips during surface modification to investigate the biochemical reactions in the fabricated thermal biosensor. The Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor exhibited low detection limit and good selectivity for the detection of cortisol.

  8. Anti-fatigue activity of Hovenia dulcis on a swimming mouse model through the inhibition of stress hormone expression and antioxidation.

    PubMed

    Na, Chun-Soo; Yoon, Sun Young; Kim, Jin Beom; Na, Dae-Seung; Dong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Hong, Cheol Yi

    2013-01-01

    Hovenia dulcis (H. dulcis) Thunb., which is distributed in Korea, China, and Japan, has been known to show hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects and enhance physical activity. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to determine the anti-fatigue activity of hot-water extract from H. dulcis peduncle, and to find the reason why H. dulcis extract (HDE)-ingested mice had enhanced physical activity against swimming performance. The mice orally administrated with HDE (HDE-mice) dramatically enhanced their swimming time compared to the control mice. HDE significantly decreased serum levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in mice. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were dramatically decreased in gastrocnemius muscle from both 100 mg/kg of HDE (LHDE) and 200 mg/kg of HDE (HHDE)-ingested mice compared to the control mice. The liver activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased in HHDE-mice with increasing tendency in LHDE-mice. In addition, HHDE-mice significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (T-Chol), and triglyceride (TG). These results suggest that HDE had a significant anti-fatigue effect via its anti-stress and antioxidant activities, and thereby enhanced physical activity in swimming performance. PMID:23895162

  9. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

  10. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

  11. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Walter, M; Bentz, D; Schicktanz, N; Milnik, A; Aerni, A; Gerhards, C; Schwegler, K; Vogel, M; Blum, J; Schmid, O; Roozendaal, B; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; de Quervain, D

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce craving, for example, by interfering with addiction memory. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin-dependent patients and to determine whether the effects depend on the daily dose of heroin consumption. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 29 heroin-dependent patients in a stable heroin-assisted treatment setting. A single oral dose of 20 mg of cortisol or placebo was administered 105 min before the daily heroin administration. The primary outcome measure was cortisol-induced change in craving. Secondary measures included anxiety, anger and withdrawal symptoms. For the visual analog scale for craving, we found a significant interaction (P = 0.0027) between study medication and heroin-dose group (that is, daily low, medium or high dose of heroin). Cortisol administration reduced craving in patients receiving a low dose of heroin (before heroin administration: P = 0.0019; after heroin administration: P = 0.0074), but not in patients receiving a medium or high dose of heroin. In a picture-rating task with drug-related pictures, cortisol administration did not affect the ratings for the picture-characteristic craving in all the three heroin-dose groups. Cortisol also did not significantly affect secondary outcome measures. In conclusion, a single administration of cortisol leads to reduced craving in low-dose heroin addicts. The present findings might have important clinical implications with regard to understanding stress effects and regarding treatment of addiction. PMID:26218852

  12. Cortisol-induced hepatic vitellogenin mRNA in Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner).

    PubMed

    Ding, J L; Lim, E H; Lam, T J

    1994-11-01

    Cortisol triggers rapid but transient transcription of the silent vitellogenin (Vg) gene in male Oreochromis aureus, producing short-lived Vg mRNA. Implantation of cocoa butter containing cortisol at 0.8, 8, 20, and 40 micrograms/g fish body wt induced hepatic Vg mRNA within 1 or 2 hr. Implantation of cortisol at the lowest of these dosages (0.8 micrograms/g body wt) produced a transient surge in serum cortisol within 1 hr. This is equivalent to a 30-fold increase over that of the resting male fish in which the endogenous cortisol levels measured 10.5 +/- 2.39 and 11.4 +/- 3.1 ng/ml, respectively, for fish kept communally or singly. Although sham implantation with cocoa butter also resulted in the elevation of serum cortisol, the rise was much more gradual, only reaching a peak after 6 hr. Thus, parameters like the treatment regime, sampling time intervals after implantation, and the interaction between these two factors can significantly affect the serum cortisol concentrations (P = 0.001). Although implantation of cocoa butter with or without cortisol increased serum cortisol, albeit unsynchronized, Vg mRNA was detected only in the hormone-treated group. The profile of Vg mRNA accumulation appeared to coincide with that of serum cortisol, further suggesting the activating effect of exogenous cortisol on Vg gene. Compared with an earlier study on estradiol-induced Vg gene expression, the action of cortisol was more rapid, but transient. This is reflected in the rapid clearance of the cortisol-induced Vg mRNA and, hence, the lack of plasma Vg protein during cortisol treatment. PMID:7851728

  13. Gender differences in acculturation, stress, and salivary cortisol response among former Soviet immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Lisa M; Miller, Arlene Michaels; Schwertz, Dorie; Sorokin, Olga

    2013-06-01

    Post-immigration adaptation is characterized by chronic and acute acculturative stressors. Salivary cortisol is a commonly used hormonal marker of stress, but few studies have investigated its use as an indicator of acculturative stress and adjustment in immigrants. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among predictors of adjustment (environmental and language mastery), self-reported stress outcomes (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, alienation), and salivary cortisol response in immigrants from the former Soviet Union. The sample included 137 married men and women aged 42-80 who lived in the U.S. for 1-13 years. Results indicated that while men and women had similar values for cortisol response, relationships among adjustment measures, stress outcomes, and cortisol differed by gender. Among men, environmental mastery significantly reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and cortisol response. Among women, environmental mastery also reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and alienation, but language mastery increased cortisol response and decreased alienation. PMID:23224773

  14. Genetic variants in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are associated with concentrations of plasma cortisol, muscle glycogen content, and meat quality traits in male Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Poleti, M D; DeRijk, R H; Rosa, A F; Moncau, C T; Oliveira, P S; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C

    2015-04-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are key components in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis and coordinate the physiological response to stress agents to reestablish homeostasis. Genetic variations of GR (NR3C1) and MR (NR3C2) genes could explain the alterations in animals to adapt to challenges, and therefore, their influence on production traits. The present study aimed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine NR3C1 and NR3C2 genes and explore their associations to relevant traits of beef cattle production. Genotypes and phenotypes were collected from 241 male Nellore cattle (119 noncastrated and 122 castrated surgically) with an average of 24 1.2 mo of age and live weight of 508 39 kg. The traits evaluated were concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, muscle glycogen and lactate content, and pH, color, cooking loss, and shear force of longissimus thoracis measured on the 1st, 7th, and 14th days postmortem. Five SNPs were identified, 2 in the NR3C1 gene and 3 in the NR3C2 gene. There was an associative relationship between the SNP NR3C1_1 g.3293A>G and postmortem plasma concentration of cortisol (P = 0.0008). The SNPs NR3C2_1 g.115T>C and NR3C2_2 g.570T>C were associated with muscle glycogen content (P = 0.0306 and P = 0.0158), postmortem plasma concentration of ACTH (P = 0.0118 and P = 0.0095), and cooking loss of the steak aged 1 d (P = 0.0398 and P = 0.0423). Haplotype analysis showed associations of GR haplotypes with postmortem plasma concentrations of cortisol and MR haplotypes with meat color, cooking losses, muscle glycogen content, and plasma concentrations of ACTH. The associations observed in the present study show that SNPs in GR and MR genes are related with changes of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and metabolic profile in cattle, leading to individual variation in meat quality traits. PMID:25617989

  15. Evaluation of immune and stress status in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena): can hormones and mRNA expression levels serve as indicators to assess stress?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The harbour porpoise is exposed to increasing pressure caused by anthropogenic activities in its marine environment. Numerous offshore wind farms are planned or under construction in the North and Baltic Seas, which will increase underwater noise during both construction and operation. A better understanding of how anthropogenic impacts affect the behaviour, health, endocrinology, immunology and physiology of the animals is thus needed. The present study compares levels of stress hormones and mRNA expression of cytokines and acute-phase proteins in blood samples of harbour porpoises exposed to different levels of stress during handling, in rehabilitation or permanent human care. Free-ranging harbour porpoises, incidentally caught in pound nets in Denmark, were compared to harbour porpoises in rehabilitation at SOS Dolfijn in Harderwijk, the Netherlands, and individuals permanently kept in human care in the Dolfinarium Harderwijk and Fjord & Belt Kerteminde, Denmark. Blood samples were investigated for catecholamines, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, as well as for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, metanephrine and normetanephrine. mRNA expression levels of relevant cell mediators (cytokines IL-10 and TNFα, acute-phase proteins haptoglobin and C-reactive protein and the heat shock protein HSP70) were measured using real-time PCR. Results Biomarker expression levels varied between free-ranging animals and porpoises in human care. Hormone and cytokine ranges showed correlations to each other and to the health status of investigated harbour porpoises. Hormone concentrations were higher in free-ranging harbour porpoises than in animals in human care. Adrenaline can be used as a parameter for the initial reaction to acute stress situations; noradrenaline, dopamine, ACTH and cortisol are more likely indicators for the following minutes of acute stress. There is evidence for different correlations between production of normetanephrine, metanephrine, cortisol and the expression of IL-10, HSP70 and haptoglobin. Conclusions The expression patterns of the selected molecular biomarkers of the immune system are promising to reflect the health and immune status of the harbour porpoise under different levels of stress. PMID:23866055

  16. Effects of long-term cortisol treatments on gonadal development, sex steroids levels and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso.

    PubMed

    Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cortisol implantations on gonadal development, sex steroid levels, and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso. Three groups of 5 fish for each treatment were considered. The experimental groups included: control (capsules containing cocoa butter alone), low cortisol (C(5); 5mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter) and, high cortisol (C(50); 50mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter). The capsules containing hormones and cocoa butter were intraperitoneally implanted into 3-year-old female fish at pre-vitellogenic stage (mean initial body mass 6809.7 73 g) every 6 weeks over a 6-month period from January to June. The serum levels of cortisol, glucose, cholesterol and sex steroids (testosterone and 17?-estradiol) were determined at the initial time and three weeks after each implantation. Oocyte histological characteristics (the diameter and area of the oocyte, the diameter and area of the nucleus and the ratio of the nucleus area to the oocyte area) were measured at the end of the experiment and compared to those at the initial time. Ovarian cortisol content was measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that serum cortisol levels varied in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest cortisol concentrations were observed in C(5)-treated fish throughout the experiment. Serum glucose levels were significantly higher in cortisol-treated groups than those in the control group. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant constant increase in serum cholesterol concentrations. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose showed significant declines in serum testosterone and 17?-estradiol concentrations throughout the experiment. No significant differences were found in oocyte histological characteristics among experimental groups. The cortisol implants elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovarian cortisol content. At the end of trial, body-growth indices were the lowest in C(50)-implanted fish, while the low cortisol dose had no effect on growth relative to the controls. These results indicated that chronic stress induced by cortisol implantation in great sturgeon suppressed gonadal steroidogenesis and somatic growth but had no effect on ovarian growth and development. PMID:22643336

  17. HPA Axis Genetic Variation, Cortisol, and Psychosis in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Schatzberg, Alan F.; Keller, Jennifer; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Lembke, Anna; Williams, Gordon; Kraemer, Fredric B.; Sarginson, Jane E.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Murphy, Greer M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation underlying hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis over-activity in healthy controls and patients with severe forms of major depression has not been well explored but could explain risk for cortisol dysregulation. 95 participants were studied: 40 patients with psychotic major depression (PMD); 26 patients with nonpsychotic major depression (NPMD); and 29 healthy controls (HC). Collection of genetic material was added one third of the way into a larger study on cortisol, cognition, and psychosis in major depression. Subjects were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Blood was collected hourly for determination of cortisol from 6pm to 9am and for the assessment of alleles for 6 genes involved in HPA Axis regulation. Two of the 6 genes contributed significantly to cortisol levels, psychosis measures or depression severity. After accounting for age, depression, and psychosis, and medication status, only allelic variation for the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR) accounted for significant variance for mean cortisol levels from 6pm to 1am (r2=.317) and from 1am to 9am (r2=.194). Interestingly, neither depression severity nor psychosis predicted cortisol variance. In addition, GR and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRH-R1) contributed significantly to psychosis measures and CRH-R1 contributed significantly to depression severity rating. PMID:24166410

  18. Plasma adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and catecholamines response to various exercises.

    PubMed

    Nagata, S; Takeda, F; Kurosawa, M; Mima, K; Hiraga, A; Kai, M; Taya, K

    1999-07-01

    The responses of plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline in 5 Thoroughbred horses to an incremental exercise and 2 relative workload exercises, at 105 and 80% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), on a treadmill were examined. These hormone concentrations increased (P < 0.05) with each exercise and the maximal plasma concentrations of ACTH, cortisol were observed between 5 and 30 min after the end of the exercise, while maximal catecholamine concentrations occurred just at exhaustion time. The plasma ACTH, noradrenaline and adrenaline responses during exercise were more sensitive to the intensity of exercise than that of cortisol and showed a significant correlation with blood lactate concentrations (r = 0.605, P < 0.001 for ACTH; r = 0.718, P < 0.001 for noradrenaline; r = 0.738, P < 0.001 for adrenaline). The plasma cortisol response appeared to be connected with the duration of exercise (r = 0.71, P < 0.05). The recovery of these hormones was related to the exercise styles. These results suggest that the autonomic nervous system and the pituitary-adrenal axis of the horse are efficiently stimulated by various treadmill exercises, and these hormones may be used in the evaluation of exercise-induced stress. PMID:10659320

  19. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  20. Social Behavior Correlates of Cortisol Activity in Child Care: Gender Differences and Time-of-Day Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Kathryn; de Haan, Michelle; Campbell, Elizabeth Kipp; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1998-01-01

    Examined relations between social behavior and daily patterns of a stress-sensitive hormone production in preschool children attending center-based child care. For boys, externalizing behavior was positively associated with cortisol reactivity, while internalizing behavior was negatively associated with median (typical) cortisol. Median cortisol…

  1. Fluoxetine Competes with Cortisol for Binding to Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Tadayon, Roya; Mortazavi, Seyyed Alireza; Medhet, Arvin; Namaki, Said; Kalantari, Shiva; Noshinfar, Ellaheh

    2012-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is an important protein that carries variety of substances like some hormones and drugs in blood. Pharmacological studies of the interaction of many drugs and HSA are reported during several decades, specially recently years. Interaction of cortisol and fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) (as a common anti-stress drug) with HSA (as their carrier in blood) has been studied separately by using different spectroscopic techniques. Here, considering the increment of anti-stress drugs consumption, conformational change of HSA in presence of cortisol and FLX in 50 mM tris buffer, at pH = 7.5 and 37°C, is investigated via pH meter, UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism methods. pH meter findings indicate that the acid denaturation of HSA in the presence of drug and cortisol occurs in the similar manner and this pattern is different relative to the denaturation of HSA in the absence of two reagents. The results of the other techniques consistent with the pH meter findings show that FLX effects on the physiochemical properties of HSA are as that of Cortisol. In-vivo study in Rats confirms in-vitro findings which means blood cortisol level increased in the presence of FLX. Experimental results indicate that FLX and cortisol alter the structural aspects of HSA in similar manner, so, this findings lead to the following reasonable conclusion: “FLX is a competitive ligand for the binding of cortisol to HSA. Binding of FLX to HSA interferes to the interaction of cortisol-HSA.” PMID:24250455

  2. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  3. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  4. Cerebrospinal Fluid Corticotropin and Cortisol Are Reduced in Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Mitchell, Wendy G.; Hanson, Rebecca A.; Snead, O. Carter; Horton, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Infantile spasms respond to ACTH, and levels of the hormone in cerebrospinal fluid of untreated infants with this disorder were found to be lower than in age-matched controls. In this study we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid Cortisol and ACTH using improved immunoassays in a larger cohort of infants with infantile spasms. Analysis of 20 patients and 15 age-matched controls revealed significantly lower levels of both ACTH and Cortisol in the cerebrospinal fluid. These data, combined with the efficacy of ACTH and glucocorticoids for infantile spasms, support an involvement of the brain-adrenal-axis in this disorder. PMID:8534274

  5. What Does Their Saliva Say? Salivary Cortisol Levels in Children Exposed to Severe Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.; Schneider, Marissa

    2009-01-01

    Stress is an unavoidable aspect of the human experience. When the brain interprets a situation as stressful, it triggers the release of a hormone called cortisol that acts as a catalyst of the body's "fight or flight" response system. In small amounts this hormone can provide the body with the necessary tools to escape a stressful situation.…

  6. What Does Their Saliva Say? Salivary Cortisol Levels in Children Exposed to Severe Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.; Schneider, Marissa

    2009-01-01

    Stress is an unavoidable aspect of the human experience. When the brain interprets a situation as stressful, it triggers the release of a hormone called cortisol that acts as a catalyst of the body's "fight or flight" response system. In small amounts this hormone can provide the body with the necessary tools to escape a stressful situation.

  7. [Changes in the ACTH and cortisol values of patients with acute myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Atanasov, I; Milkov, V; Miloshov, B; Kurtev, I

    1990-01-01

    The plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) levels were studied in 12 patients with clinical, laboratory and ECG data for acute myocardial infarction. The changes were followed up during the 1, 3, 8 and 14 day after the onset of the chest pain attack. Increased ACTH and cortisol levels were established in these patients up to the 5 day. The regulatory principle of action of the opposite relation between these two hormones as well as their 24 hour rhythm were disturbed. These stress-induced hormonal changes should be kept in mind in determining the therapeutic conduct in the patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:2173284

  8. Methodological Considerations in Use of the Cortisol/DHEA(S) Ratio in Adolescent Populations

    PubMed Central

    Saczawa, Mary E.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The cortisol/DHEA(S) ratio has demonstrated utility in studies of HPA activity and psychopathology. However, use of the cortisol/DHEA(S) ratio in adolescent populations requires additional consideration of differential changes in DHEA(S) and cortisol during the course of puberty. This study examines the relationship between pubertal status and individual cortisol and DHEAS levels as well as with the cortisol/DHEAS ratio. Method Morning salivary cortisol and urinary DHEAS levels were obtained for 267 young adolescents at three time points, each approximately one year apart. Growth curve modeling and repeated measures ANOVA were used to assess the effect of adrenal development on individual hormone levels and on the total ratio. Results Pubic hair development was a significant predictor of change over time in DHEAS but not cortisol. Development was also a significant predictor of the cortisol/DHEAS ratio when raw cortisol and DHEAS values were used. Conclusions Our findings indicate that, when DHEAS levels were adjusted to control for pubertal status, the ratio demonstrated stability over time. This finding is in line with the hypothesis that the ratio may tap stable individual differences in HPA functioning. PMID:23867118

  9. Uptake, distribution and binding of vertebrate and invertebrate steroid hormones and time-dependence of ponasterone A binding in Calliphora vicina. Comparisons among cholesterol, corticosterone, cortisol, dexamethasone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, ecdysone, estradiol-17 beta, ponasterone A, progesterone, and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Bidmon, H J; Stumpf, W E

    1991-01-01

    The presence of specific binding sites for radiolabelled vertebrate-type and arthropod-type steroid hormones was investigated in several organs including salivary gland, and central nervous system of third instar Calliphora vicina larvae by thaw-mount autoradiography. Ponasterone A, a 20-hydroxyecdysone agonist and 20-hydroxyecdysone are the only steroids which bind to nuclear high affinity binding sites. These binding sites are DNA associated while nucleoli show no tracer binding. Ecdysone, an endogenous 20-hydroxyecdysone precursor, is taken up by target cells but no significant nuclear binding occurs. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrates in cytoplasm only and its uptake is highest compared to all other steroids. Progesterone and testosterone show weak accumulation in the cytoplasm, while for cholesterol, corticosterone, cortisol, dexamethasone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol-17 beta, no noticeable uptake occurs. For ponasterone A, a clear time dependence of uptake and intracellular distribution is visible, suggesting the existence and involvement of specific ecdysteroid uptake and transport mechanisms. These results suggest the presence of binding sites for various mammalian steroids in insects. Whether vertebrate steroid hormones or metabolites of them play a role in insects or whether the uptake and binding is based on chemical similarities alone without biological significance remains to be further investigated. PMID:1748566

  10. Individual differences in freezing and cortisol in infant and mother rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kalin, N H; Shelton, S E; Rickman, M; Davidson, R J

    1998-02-01

    Freezing is an adaptive defensive behavior that is expressed in response to an imminent threat. In prior studies with rhesus monkeys, stable individual differences in animals' propensities to freeze have been demonstrated. To understand the factors associated with these individual differences, freezing behavior was examined in infant rhesus monkeys and their mothers, in conjunction with levels of the stress-related hormone cortisol. In both mothers and infants, basal cortisol levels were positively correlated with freezing duration. Additionally, the number of offspring a mother had was negatively correlated with her infant's cortisol level. These findings suggest a link between basal cortisol levels and an animal's propensity to freeze, as well as a mechanism by which maternal experience may affect infants' cortisol levels. PMID:9517832

  11. Stress and reward: long term cortisol exposure predicts the strength of sexual preference.

    PubMed

    Chumbley, J R; Hulme, O; Kchli, H; Russell, E; Van Uum, S; A Pizzagalli, D; Fehr, E

    2014-05-28

    Healthy individuals tend to consume available rewards like food and sex. This tendency is attenuated or amplified in most stress-related psychiatric conditions, so we asked if it depends on endogenous levels of the 'canonical stress hormone' cortisol. We unobtrusively quantified how hard healthy heterosexual men would work to consume erotic images of women versus men and also measured their exposure to endogenous cortisol in the prior two months. We used linear models to predict the strength of sexual preference from cortisol level, after accounting for other potential explanations. Heterosexual preference declines with self-reported anhedonia but increases with long term exposure to endogenous cortisol. These results suggest that cortisol may affect reward-related behavior in healthy adults. PMID:24732415

  12. Stress Hormone Changes and Marital Conflict: Spouses Relative Power Makes a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loving, Timothy J.; Heffner, Kathi L.; Kiecoltglaser, Janice K.; Glaser, Ronald; Malarkey, William B.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the impact of relative marital power on 72 newlywed couples' endocrinological responses to marital conflict. Marital power was determined by comparing spouse's reports of dependent love for one another. Less powerful spouses displayed elevated adreno-corticotropic hormone ACTH responses to a conflict discussion. Shared power…

  13. Contextual control over expression of fear is affected by cortisol

    PubMed Central

    van Ast, Vanessa A.; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

    2012-01-01

    At the core of anxiety disorders is the inability to use contextual information to modulate behavioral responses to potentially threatening events. Models of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders incorporate stress and concomitant stress hormones as important vulnerability factors, while others emphasize sex as an important factor. However, translational basic research has not yet investigated the effects of stress hormones and sex on the ability to use contextual information to modulate responses to threat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was threefold: first, we aimed at developing an experimental paradigm specifically capable of capturing contextual modulation of the expression of fear. Second, we tested whether cortisol would alter the contextualization of fear expression. Third, we aimed at assessing whether alterations in contextualization due to cortisol were different for men and women. Healthy participants (n = 42) received placebo or hydrocortisone (20 mg) prior to undergoing a newly developed differential contextual fear-conditioning paradigm. The results indicated that people rapidly acquire differential contextual modulation of the expression of fear, as measured by fear potentiated startle (FPS) and skin conductance responses (SCR). In addition, cortisol impaired the contextualization of fear expression leading to increased fear generalization on FPS data in women. The opposite pattern was found in men. Finally, as assessed by SCR, cortisol impaired differential conditioning in men. The results are in line with models suggesting heightened vulnerability in women for developing anxiety disorders after stressful events. PMID:23087629

  14. Cortisol levels are positively associated with pup-feeding rates in male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Manser, Marta B; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-03-01

    In societies of cooperative vertebrates, individual differences in contributions to offspring care are commonly substantial. Recent attempts to explain the causes of this variation have focused on correlations between contributions to care and the protein hormone prolactin, or the steroid hormone testosterone. However, such studies have seldom considered the importance of other hormones or controlled for non-hormonal factors that are correlative with both individual hormone levels and contributions to care. Using multivariate statistics, we show that hormone levels explain significant variation in contributions to pup-feeding by male meerkats, even after controlling for non-hormonal effects. However, long-term contributions to pup provisioning were significantly and positively correlated with plasma levels of cortisol rather than prolactin, while plasma levels of testosterone were not related to individual patterns of pup-feeding. Furthermore, a playback experiment that used pup begging calls to increase the feeding rates of male helpers gave rise to parallel increases in plasma cortisol levels, whilst prolactin and testosterone levels remained unchanged. Our findings confirm that hormones can explain significant amounts of variation in contributions to offspring feeding, and that cortisol, not prolactin, is the hormone most strongly associated with pup-feeding in cooperative male meerkats. PMID:16537128

  15. Automated-immunosensor with centrifugal fluid valves for salivary cortisol measurement

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Katagata, Hiroki; Tezuka, Yuki; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Point-of-care measurement of the stress hormone cortisol will greatly facilitate the timely diagnosis and management of stress-related disorders. We describe an automated salivary cortisol immunosensor, incorporating centrifugal fluid valves and a disposable disc-chip that allows for truncated reporting of cortisol levels (<15 min). The performance characteristics of the immunosensor are optimized through select blocking agents to prevent the non-specific adsorption of proteins; immunoglobulin G (IgG) polymer for the pad and milk protein for the reservoirs and the flow channels. Incorporated centrifugal fluid valves allow for rapid and repeat washings to remove impurities from the saliva samples. An optical reader and laptop computer automate the immunoassay processes and provide easily accessible digital readouts of salivary cortisol measurements. Linear regression analysis of the calibration curve for the cortisol immunosensor showed 0.92 of coefficient of multiple determination, R2, and 38.7% of coefficient of variation, CV, for a range of salivary cortisol concentrations between 0.4 and 11.3 ng/mL. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of human saliva samples indicate potential utility for discriminating stress disorders and underscore potential application of the biosensor in stress disorders. The performance of our salivary cortisol immunosensor approaches laboratory based tests and allows noninvasive, quantitative, and automated analysis of human salivary cortisol levels with reporting times compatible with point-of-care applications. PMID:26543818

  16. Parotid fluid cortisol and cortisone

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Fred H.; Shannon, Ira L.

    1969-01-01

    Parotid fluid corticosteroids, substantially comprised of cortisol and cortisone, were previously demonstrated to rise to far greater levels 4 hr after administration of ACTH than they did in the third trimester of pregnancy, although the plasma total corticosteroid concentrations were similar in these two states. It was therefore suggested that only nonproteinbound corticosteroid gains access to parotid fluid. In the present study parotid fluid cortisol and cortisone and plasma dialyzable cortisol concentrations have been measured in normal men before and 2 hr after 40 U ACTH, and, in another group, before and after 10 days of diethystilbestrol (5 mg daily). Total plasma cortisol rose from a mean of 6.3 to 17.9 ?g/100 ml after ACTH and from 14.6 to 39.4 mg/100 ml after the estrogen. However parotid fluid cortisol plus cortisone rose from 0.8 to 2.6 ?g/100 ml after ACTH and to only 2.2 after estrogen. This rise resembled that of the plasma dialyzable cortisol (control 0.4, ACTH 1.8, estrogen 1.2 ?g/100 ml) rather than the increase in total plasma cortisol which was over twice as high after estrogen as after ACTH. Thus parotid fluid corticosteroids seem to be a good measure of nonprotein-bound corticosteroid, the cortisol available to the cell. The total amount of cortisol plus cortisone excreted is approximately constant, independent of parotid fluid flow rate. Cortisone exceeds cortisol in parotid fluid in the basal state, but after ACTH the situation is reversed. PMID:4305375

  17. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  18. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is

  19. Cortisol levels in central adrenal insufficiency: light and shade.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Garofalo, Piernicola

    2015-03-01

    Evaluating children or adolescents with central adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is a difficult task in clinical practice, especially in subjects with hypothalamic-pituitary diseases and partial ACTH deficiency, or in those with recent pituitary surgery or brain irradiation when the adrenal cortex may still be responsive to stress. In 2008, a meta-analysis reported a three-step approach for evaluating patients at risk for CAI with no acute illness. In particular, the authors recommended the evaluation of morning cortisol, a low dose ACTH test (LDST) and the "gold standard" insulin tolerance test or metyrapone test if the low LDCT was not diagnostic. Cortisol and ACTH secretion exhibit significant fluctuation throughout the day. The reference ranges supplied by labs are so wide that they only flag up extremely low cortisol levels. Interpreting the results correctly can be difficult for a physician without an experience in adrenal dysfunctions. The lack of uniformity in these cut-off levels could in part be attributed to differences in study populations, variability of dynainic tests, the use of different serum cortisol assays and dissimilar cut-off peak serum cortisol response indicative of a normal axis response and the difference in the clinical context in which the studies were done. Therefore, Laboratories have to advertise the need to establish reference values for given populations, both for basal or stimulated hormone levels. Failure to apply this rule may elicit false-positive and more critically, false-negative results. LDST (1 pg synthetic ACTH as iv bolus with measurement of serum cortisol) has been proposed as a sensitive test for the diagnosis of CAl. However, the advantage of LDST compared with the high dose test may be offset by the technical difficulties inherent to dilution of 250 pg ampoules. Clinical judgment remains imperative especially regarding the use of glucocorticoid supplementation during extreme stress. PMID:25962205

  20. Diurnal cortisol rhythms among Latino immigrants in Oregon, USA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    One of the most commonly used stress biomarkers is cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone released by the adrenal glands that is central to the physiological stress response. Free cortisol can be measured in saliva and has been the biomarker of choice in stress studies measuring the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Chronic psychosocial stress can lead to dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and results in an abnormal diurnal cortisol profile. Little is known about objectively measured stress and health in Latino populations in the United States, yet this is likely an important factor in understanding health disparities that exist between Latinos and whites. The present study was designed to measure cortisol profiles among Latino immigrant farmworkers in Oregon (USA), and to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of stress in this population. Our results indicate that there were no sex differences in average cortisol AUCg (area under the curve with respect to the ground) over two days (AvgAUCg; males?=?1.38, females?=?1.60; P?=?0.415). AUCg1 (Day 1 AUCg) and AvgAUCg were significantly negatively associated with age in men (P<0.05). AUCg1 was negatively associated with weight (P<0.05), waist circumference (P<0.01) and waist-to-stature ratio (P<0.05) in women, which is opposite of the expected relationship between cortisol and waist-to-stature ratio, possibly indicating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. Among men, more time in the United States and immigration to the United States at older ages predicted greater AvgAUCg. Among women, higher lifestyle incongruity was significantly related to greater AvgAUCg. Although preliminary, these results suggest that chronic psychosocial stress plays an important role in health risk in this population. PMID:22738123

  1. Quantification of cortisol in human eccrine sweat by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Min; Chew, Wade M; Feinstein, Yelena; Skeath, Perry; Sternberg, Esther M

    2016-03-01

    Cortisol has long been recognized as the "stress biomarker" in evaluating stress related disorders. Plasma, urine or saliva are the current source for cortisol analysis. The sampling of these biofluids is either invasive or has reliability problems that could lead to inaccurate results. Sweat has drawn increasing attention as a promising source for non-invasive stress analysis. A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitation of cortisol ((11β)-11,17,21-trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione) in human eccrine sweat. At least one unknown isomer that has previously not been reported and could potentially interfere with quantification was separated from cortisol with mixed mode RP HPLC. Detection of cortisol was carried out using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in positive ion mode, using cortisol-9,11,12,12-D4 as internal standard. LOD and LOQ were estimated to be 0.04 ng ml(-1) and 0.1 ng ml(-1), respectively. Linear range of 0.10-25.00 ng ml(-1) was obtained. Intraday precision (2.5%-9.7%) and accuracy (0.5%-2.1%), interday precision (12.3%-18.7%) and accuracy (7.1%-15.1%) were achieved. This method has been successfully applied to the cortisol analysis of human eccrine sweat samples. This is the first demonstration that HPLC-MS/MS can be used for the sensitive and highly specific determination of cortisol in human eccrine sweat in the presence of at least one isomer that has similar hydrophobicity as cortisol. This study demonstrated that human eccrine sweat could be used as a promising source for non-invasive assessment of stress biomarkers such as cortisol and other steroid hormones. PMID:26858998

  2. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample. PMID:25921588

  3. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential

    PubMed Central

    Running, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 7590% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose. PMID:26170887

  4. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential.

    PubMed

    Running, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75-90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose. PMID:26170887

  5. Stressful politics: voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States Presidential election.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Steven J; Labar, Kevin S; Saini, Ekjyot K; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Beehner, Jacinta C

    2010-06-01

    Social subordination can be biologically stressful; when mammals lose dominance contests they have acute increases in the stress hormone cortisol. However, human studies of the effect of dominance contest outcomes on cortisol changes have had inconsistent results. Moreover, human studies have been limited to face-to-face competitions and have heretofore never examined cortisol responses to shifts in political dominance hierarchies. The present study investigated voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States Presidential election. 183 participants at two research sites (Michigan and North Carolina) provided saliva samples at several time points before and after the announcement of the winner on Election Night. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure levels of cortisol in the saliva samples. In North Carolina, John McCain voters (losers) had increases in post-outcome cortisol levels, whereas Barack Obama voters (winners) had stable post-outcome cortisol levels. The present research provides novel evidence that societal shifts in political dominance can impact biological stress responses in voters whose political party becomes socio-politically subordinate. PMID:19962831

  6. Condition dependent intra-individual repeatability of stress-induced cortisol in a freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Cook, K V; O'Connor, C M; McConnachie, S H; Gilmour, K M; Cooke, S J

    2012-03-01

    The glucocorticoid (GC) stress response is thought to be an individual trait associated with behaviour and life history strategies. Studies exploring such relationships typically assume measured hormone values to be repeatable within an individual. However, repeatability of GCs has proven variable in wild animals and underlying reasons remain unknown. We assessed individual repeatability of circulating stress-induced cortisol, the primary GC in teleost fish, and glucose concentrations in a wild teleost fish held under consistent laboratory conditions. We also tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of intra-individual variability in stress-induced cortisol concentrations ("cortisol variability") is influenced by body condition. Wild-caught bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were subjected to repeated standardized stressors and blood sampled (3 times over 6 days) once cortisol concentrations peaked. Various indicators of fish condition, both whole body and physiological, were also measured. Overall, stress-induced circulating cortisol concentrations were repeatable but stress-induced glucose was not. Cortisol variability was related to Fulton's condition factor and size (eviscerated mass) where smaller fish in poor condition exhibited increased cortisol variability. The findings have implications for the interpretation of studies that examine correlates of GC concentrations as they suggest consistency in stress responsiveness is influenced by factors such as size and condition. PMID:22179071

  7. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  8. Dual-hormone changes are related to bargaining performance.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Pranjal H; Mor, Shira; Yap, Andy J; Prasad, Smrithi

    2015-06-01

    In the present research, we found that endogenous testosterone and cortisol changes were jointly related to bargaining outcomes. In a face-to-face competitive negotiation (Study 1) and a laboratory-based bargaining game (Study 2), testosterone rises were associated with high earnings and high relationship quality, but only if cortisol dropped. If cortisol rose, testosterone rises were associated with low earnings and poor relationship quality. Conflict between financial and social goals was related to the financially costly dual-hormone profile (testosterone increase and cortisol increase), whereas the absence of such conflict was related to the financially adaptive dual-hormone profile (testosterone increase and cortisol decrease) [corrected].The findings suggest that when cortisol decreases, rising testosterone is implicated in adaptive bargaining behavior that maximizes earnings and relationship quality. But when cortisol increases, rising testosterone is related to conflict between social and financial motives, weak earnings, and poor relationship quality. These results imply that there are both bright and dark sides to rising testosterone in economic social interactions that depend on fluctuations in cortisol. PMID:25926477

  9. Classroom Emotional Support Predicts Differences in Preschool Children's Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Bridget E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; O'Brien, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests children enrolled in full-time child care often display afternoon elevations of the hormone cortisol, which is an indicator of stress. Recent advances in immunoassays allow for measurement of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic sympathetic nervous system from saliva, and measurement…

  10. Association of DHEA, DHEAS, and cortisol with childhood trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Michelle F; Calhoun, Patrick S; Beckham, Jean C

    2014-01-01

    There has been a great deal of interest in the role of the neuroendocrine hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the expression of stress-related psychopathology such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This investigation examined the association of PTSD and childhood maltreatment with three key HPA axis hormones: cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Regression analyses were undertaken on a sample of 43 participants with and 57 participants without PTSD. Results demonstrated that after controlling for age, sex, and PTSD status, exposure to childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with cortisol secretion [F(4,95)=11.68, ?R(2)=0.11, P=0.0009] and cortisol/DHEA ratio [F(4,95)=6.20, ?R(2)=0.05, P=0.01]. PTSD status was not associated with any of these neuroendocrine variables. Findings are discussed in the context of the complexity of the relationship of these neuroendocrine variables with trauma exposure and trauma-related psychopathology. It is suggested that DHEA(S) or cortisol/DHEA(S) ratios may not be biomarkers of specific forms of psychopathology per se, but that, instead, the severity and developmental timing of trauma may set the HPA axis in ways that are reflected in interactions among these neuroendocrine hormones. In adulthood, these HPA axis hormones may continue to be dynamically affected by personal and environmental resources. PMID:23907073

  11. Classroom Emotional Support Predicts Differences in Preschool Children's Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Bridget E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; O'Brien, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests children enrolled in full-time child care often display afternoon elevations of the hormone cortisol, which is an indicator of stress. Recent advances in immunoassays allow for measurement of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic sympathetic nervous system from saliva, and measurement

  12. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  13. The influence of temperament on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced secretion of epinephrine and cortisol in bulls.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host's complex reaction to a pathogenic stressor involves interaction of the neural, endocrine, and immune systems. For example, exposure to bacteria stimulates secretion of the stress-related hormones, cortisol (CS) and epinephrine (Epi; 1). Innate and induced secretion of CS and Epi are influe...

  14. Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

  15. Examination of cortisol and state anxiety at an academic setting with and without oral presentation.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Holding oral presentations in a university course is perceived as stressful and can increase stress hormone concentrations and state anxiety. In such a naturalistic setting, further attention should be paid to the relationship between psychological and hormonal measures of acute stress, as well as women's intake of hormonal contraceptives as a potential moderating variable. In the present study, 76 healthy students gave saliva samples before and after their oral presentations in a university course as well as on a second, control day in the same course without giving an oral presentation. Anticipatory state anxiety was rated on both days. Cortisol concentrations as well as state anxiety were substantially higher on the presentation relative to the control day. During the oral presentation, an increase in cortisol concentrations was observed, whereas a decrease occurred on the control day. Nearly the same picture emerged for both variables when looking at men, women taking hormonal contraceptives and free-cycling women separately. A positive correlation was found between the change in anticipatory state anxiety in the presentation compared to the control day and cortisol concentrations before and after the oral presentation. Concluding, oral presentations constitute a potent stressor and do not seem to be substantially different between men, free-cycling women and women taking hormonal contraceptives. Future studies may want to explore changes associated with specific menstrual cycle phases and with specific hormonal contraceptives. PMID:25407296

  16. Effects of Cortisol on Reconsolidation of Reactivated Fear Memories.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Shira Meir; Merz, Christian J; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-12-01

    The return of conditioned fear after successful extinction (eg, following exposure therapy) is a significant problem in the treatment of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Targeting the reconsolidation of fear memories may allow a more lasting effect as it intervenes with the original memory trace. Indeed, several pharmacological agents and behavioral interventions have been shown to alter (enhance, impair, or otherwise update) the reconsolidation of reactivated memories of different types. Cortisol is a stress hormone and a potent modulator of learning and memory, yet its effects on fear memory reconsolidation are unclear. To investigate whether cortisol intervenes with the reconsolidation of fear memories in healthy males and how specific this effect might be, we built a 3-day reconsolidation design with skin conductance response (SCR) as a measure of conditioned fear: Fear acquisition on day 1; reactivation/no-reactivation of one conditioned stimulus and pharmacological intervention on day 2; extinction learning followed by reinstatement and reinstatement test on day 3. The groups differed only in the experimental manipulation on day 2: Reactivation+Cortisol Group, Reactivation+Placebo Group, or No-reactivation+Cortisol Group. Our results revealed an enhancing effect of cortisol on reconsolidation of the reactivated memory. The effect was highly specific, strengthening only the memory of the reactivated conditioned stimulus and not the non-reactivated one. Our findings are in line with previous findings showing an enhancing effect of behavioral stress on the reconsolidation of other types of memories. These results have implications for the understanding and treatment of anxiety disorders and PTSD. PMID:26058664

  17. Maternal stress-associated cortisol stimulation may protect embryos from cortisol excess in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Faught, Erin; Best, Carol; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal embryo cortisol level causes developmental defects and poor survival in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, no study has demonstrated that maternal stress leads to higher embryo cortisol content in zebrafish. We tested the hypothesis that maternal stress-associated elevation in cortisol levels increases embryo cortisol content in this asynchronous breeder. Zebrafish mothers were fed cortisol-spiked food for 5 days, to mimic maternal stress, followed by daily breeding for 10 days to monitor temporal embryo cortisol content. Cortisol treatment increased mean embryo yield, but the daily fecundity was variable among the groups. Embryo cortisol content was variable in both groups over a 10-day period. A transient elevation in cortisol levels was observed in the embryos from cortisol-fed mothers only on day 3, but not on subsequent days. We tested whether excess cortisol stimulates 11βHSD2 expression in ovarian follicles as a means to regulate embryo cortisol deposition. Cortisol treatment in vitro increased 11β HSD2 levels sevenfold, and this expression was regulated by actinomycin D and cycloheximide suggesting tight regulation of cortisol levels in the ovarian follicles. We hypothesize that cortisol-induced upregulation of 11βHSD2 activity in the ovarian follicles is a mechanism restricting excess cortisol incorporation into the eggs during maternal stress. PMID:26998341

  18. Cortisol Levels and Longitudinal Cortisol Change as Predictors of Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested cortisol-emotion relationships, little is known regarding the effect of anxiety type on cortisol levels or relationships between anxiety and longitudinal cortisol change in adolescents. The authors examine the differential relationship of cortisol levels with generalized and social anxiety and relationships…

  19. Cortisol Levels and Longitudinal Cortisol Change as Predictors of Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested cortisol-emotion relationships, little is known regarding the effect of anxiety type on cortisol levels or relationships between anxiety and longitudinal cortisol change in adolescents. The authors examine the differential relationship of cortisol levels with generalized and social anxiety and relationships

  20. Increased Lead Biomarker Levels Are Associated with Changes in Hormonal Response to Stress in Occupationally Exposed Male Participants

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Marie C.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Nwankwo, Chizoba; Yanger, T. Steven; Todd, Andrew C.; Moynihan, Jan; Walton, James; Brooks, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with a host of pathological conditions in humans. In rodents Pb exposure has been shown to alter the hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis function. Objective: We investigated the effects of lead on responses of the HPA axis to a psychosocial laboratory stressor administered to Pb-exposed workers. Methods: Seventy male participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Serum cortisol (CORT) and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were assessed in response to and during recovery from the stressor. We measured Pb in blood, a biomarker of recent exposure, and in tibia bone by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), a biomarker of chronic exposure. Results: The TSST induced statistically significant increases in ACTH and CORT in the participants. At baseline, ACTH was not significantly higher (p = 0.052) in participants with higher blood Pb concentration, but CORT was significantly lower in these participants (p = 0.016). Adjusted linear regression models indicated a positive association between blood and bone Pb and the increase in ACTH in response to stress. However, Pb was not strongly associated with changes in CORT in response to stress. Pb was also associated with the ACTH:CORT ratio at baseline and throughout the course of the protocol, suggesting an adrenal hyporesponsiveness in participants with higher Pb concentrations. Conclusion: The altered HPA-axis stress response observed in participants exposed to higher levels of Pb further supports the idea that lead may contribute to a host of biological dysfunctions beyond the classical neurotoxic effects. PMID:22112310

  1. Sex differences in salivary cortisol in response to acute stressors among healthy participants, in recreational or pathological gamblers, and in those with posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Jason J.; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A.; Forsyth, John P.; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor-vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. PMID:19538960

  2. Genome Wide Association Identifies Common Variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 Locus Influencing Plasma Cortisol and Corticosteroid Binding Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G.; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Hill, Lesley A.; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H.; Velders, Fleur P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Lahti, Jari; Rikknen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kaakinen, Marika; Jrvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Bakker, Stephen J. L.; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N.; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Matthews, Stephen G.; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F.; Strachan, Mark W. J.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 3060% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding ?1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:25010111

  3. Influence of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-infusion on acid-base balance and blood physiological variables in broiler chickens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic selection has been a primary factor in growing broilers to heavier weights more efficiently. However, the genetic potentiality of poultry may not be utilized fully due to environmental constraints. The combination of external conditions (biological and physiological) such as weather and clim...

  4. Adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma with oncocytic features: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Falk, Nadja K; Weissferdt, Annikka; Habra, Mouhammed A; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2015-04-01

    Thymic neuroendocrine carcinomas are the most common mediastinal neuroendocrine tumor. These malignancies are not often diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA), as they are more commonly diagnosed by biopsy or excision. We describe a case of a FNA of a paratracheal mass from a 38-year-old man who presented with Cushing syndrome. A low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma with oncocytic features was diagnosed, which was later confirmed by excision of the thymus, anterior mediastinal and paratracheal soft tissue, and lymph nodes. Oncocytic features in these tumors are a rare finding and bring metastatic medullary thyroid carcinomas as well as other metastases into the differential diagnosis. The prognosis of neuroendocrine carcinomas in this location is worse than neuroendocrine carcinomas in other areas, and close follow-up is recommended. PMID:25354884

  5. Facebook behaviors associated with diurnal cortisol in adolescents: Is befriending stressful?

    PubMed

    Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Facebook(©) is changing the way people interact and socialize. Despite great interest in psychology and sociology, little is known about Facebook behaviors in relation to physiological markers of stress. Given that the brain undergoes important development during adolescence and that glucocorticoids-a major class of stress hormones-are known to modulate its development, it is important to study psychosocial factors that may influence secretion of stress hormones during adolescence. The goal of the present study was to explore the associations between Facebook behaviors (use frequency, network size, self-presentation and peer-interaction) and basal levels of cortisol among adolescent boys and girls. Eighty-eight adolescents (41 boys, 47 girls) aged between 12 and 17 (14.5±1.8) were recruited. Participants provided four cortisol samples per day for two non-consecutive weekdays. Facebook behaviors were assessed in accordance with the existing literature. Well-validated measures of perceived stress, perceived social support, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms were also included. A hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for sex, age, time of awakening, perceived stress, and perceived social support, cortisol systemic output (area under the curve with respect to ground) was positively associated with the number of Facebook friends and negatively associated with Facebook peer-interaction. No associations were found among depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and cortisol. These results provide preliminary evidence that Facebook behaviors are associated with diurnal cortisol concentrations in adolescents. PMID:26519778

  6. Seasonal variation in harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) blubber cortisol - A novel indicator of physiological state?

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Joanna L.; Hall, Ailsa J.

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol is one of the main glucocorticoid hormones involved in both the mammalian stress response, and in fat metabolism and energy regulation, making it of increasing interest as a biomarker for stress, health and overall physiological state. However, transient stress responses to animal handling and sampling may be important sources of measurement artefact when investigating circulating concentrations of this hormone in wildlife. Here, cortisol concentrations were measured in the plasma and, for the first time, in the blubber of live captured adult harbour seals (Phoca vitulina). Plasma cortisol concentrations were positively correlated with capture time, suggesting that they were largely driven by a stress response to the capture event. In contrast, blubber cortisol concentrations were shown not to be significantly affected by capture time and varied significantly by sex and by season, with higher concentrations during natural fasting periods of their life cycle, particularly during the moult. These results suggest that cortisol may play a key role in increased fat metabolism during highly energetically demanding periods, and that blubber concentrations have the potential to be used as physiological state indicators in phocid seals. PMID:26906193

  7. A preliminary investigation of urinary testosterone and cortisol levels in wild male mountain gorillas.

    PubMed

    Robbins, M M; Czekala, N M

    1997-01-01

    Urinary steroid hormone levels were measured in wild male mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) to determine how levels of testosterone and cortisol corresponded with age and social rank. Urine samples were collected noninvasively from 18 males, ranging in age from 3-26 years, in three groups of wild mountain gorillas at the Karisoke Research Center, Rwanda, Africa, and samples were analyzed using radioimmunoassay procedures. Males were classified as being immature (< 7 years), maturing (10-13 years), or adult (+13 years of age). Immature males had significantly lower levels of testosterone and higher levels of cortisol than both maturing and adult males. No differences in testosterone or cortisol levels were found between maturing and adult males. Dominant males exhibited a trend toward significantly higher levels of testosterone than subordinate males, but no difference was found between cortisol levels of dominant and subordinate males. These results suggest that the increase in testosterone associated with puberty occurs prior to any outward sign of development of secondary sexual characteristics. Within-group male-male competition may affect testosterone levels, but the lack of difference in cortisol levels between dominant and subordinate males suggests that subordinate males are not socially stressed, at least as measured by cortisol. PMID:9294641

  8. The influence of selected factors and sport results of endurance horses on their saliva cortisol concentration.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, I; Bereznowski, A; Strzelec, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the influence of the selected factors (gender, age, transportation time, riding distance and air temperature during the ride) on the cortisol secretion and finding a correlation between the hormone level and the horses' sport results (veterinary parameters and the ride route parameters). The research was performed on 38 Arabian pure breed horses taking part in the endurance rides. The cortisol level was measured with enzyme-immunological method in saliva samples, taken four times from each horse. In order to verify the differences between the mean results the repeated measures design was applied. The significance of the differences between the mean values was determined by the Tukey test. To evaluate the interrelations between the analysed attributes Pearson's correlation analysis was applied. The cortisol level at rest was not affected by any of the analysed factors. In case of other results, the most significant influence (P < or = 0.05) was related to the gender, as well as the ride distance and air temperature during the ride. Higher cortisol level was noted in mares, horses running the longest distances and at the highest temperatures. A significant increase in the cortisol level was noted when the ride distance was longer. There were no clear correlation between the adrenal cortex activity and the veterinary parameters at different riding speed. High cortisol concentration can negatively affect the heart rate (HR) by increasing it, but it can simultaneously stimulate the body to fight dehydration. PMID:24195289

  9. Cortisol Regulates Acid Secretion of H+-ATPase-rich Ionocytes in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Shih, Tin-Han; Liu, Sian-Tai; Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    Systemic acid-base regulation is vital for physiological processes in vertebrates. Freshwater (FW) fish live in an inconstant environment, and thus frequently face ambient acid stress. FW fish have to efficiently modulate their acid secretion processes for body fluid acid-base homeostasis during ambient acid challenge; hormonal control plays an important role in such physiological regulation. The hormone cortisol was previously proposed to be associated with acid base regulation in FW fish; however, the underlying mechanism has not been fully described. In the present study, mRNA expression of acid-secreting related transporters and cyp11b (encoding an enzyme involved in cortisol synthesis) in zebrafish embryos was stimulated by treatment with acidic FW (AFW, pH 4.0) for 3 d. Exogenous cortisol treatment (20 mg/L, 3 d) resulted in upregulated expression of transporters related to acid secretion and increased acid secretion function at the organism level in zebrafish embryos. Moreover, cortisol treatment also significantly increased the acid secretion capacity of H+-ATPase-rich cells (HRCs) at the cellular level. In loss-of-function experiments, microinjection of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) morpholino (MO) suppressed the expression of acid-secreting related transporters, and decreased acid secretion function at both the organism and cellular levels; on the other hand, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) MO did not induce any effects. Such evidence supports the hypothesized role of cortisol in fish acid-base regulation, and provides new insights into the roles of cortisol; cortisol-GR signaling stimulates zebrafish acid secretion function through transcriptional/translational regulation of the transporters and upregulation of acid secretion capacity in each acid-secreting ionocyte. PMID:26635615

  10. Sex differences in the circadian profiles of melatonin and cortisol in plasma and urine matrices under constant routine conditions.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Pippa J; Middleton, Benita; Davies, Sarah K; Revell, Victoria L; Skene, Debra J

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists as to whether there are differences between males and females in circadian timing. The aim of the current study was to assess whether sex differences are present in the circadian regulation of melatonin and cortisol in plasma and urine matrices during a constant routine protocol. Thirty-two healthy individuals (16 females taking the oral contraceptive pill (OCP)), aged 23.8 3.7 (mean SD) years, participated. Blood (hourly) and urine (4-hourly) samples were collected for measurement of plasma melatonin and cortisol, and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and cortisol, respectively. Data from 28 individuals (14 females) showed no significant differences in the timing of plasma and urinary circadian phase markers between sexes. Females, however, exhibited significantly greater levels of plasma melatonin and cortisol than males (AUC melatonin: 937 104 (mean SEM) vs. 642 47 pg/ml.h; AUC cortisol: 13581 1313 vs. 7340 368 mmol/L.h). Females also exhibited a significantly higher amplitude rhythm in both hormones (melatonin: 43.8 5.8 vs. 29.9 2.3 pg/ml; cortisol: 241.7 23.1 vs. 161.8 15.9 mmol/L). Males excreted significantly more urinary cortisol than females during the CR (519.5 63.8 vs. 349.2 39.3 mol) but aMT6s levels did not differ between sexes. It was not possible to distinguish whether the elevated plasma melatonin and cortisol levels observed in females resulted from innate sex differences or the OCP affecting the synthetic and metabolic pathways of these hormones. The fact that the sex differences observed in total plasma concentrations for melatonin and cortisol were not reproduced in the urinary markers challenges their use as a proxy for plasma levels in circadian research, especially in OCP users. PMID:26731571

  11. Smelling a single component of male sweat alters levels of cortisol in women.

    PubMed

    Wyart, Claire; Webster, Wallace W; Chen, Jonathan H; Wilson, Sarah R; McClary, Andrew; Khan, Rehan M; Sobel, Noam

    2007-02-01

    Rodents use chemosignals to alter endocrine balance in conspecifics. Although responses to human sweat suggest a similar mechanism in humans, no particular component of human sweat capable of altering endocrine balance in conspecifics has yet been isolated and identified. Here, we measured salivary levels of the hormone cortisol in women after smelling pure androstadienone (4,16-androstadien-3-one), a molecule present in the sweat of men that has been suggested as a chemosignal in humans. We found that merely smelling androstadienone maintained significantly higher levels of the hormone cortisol in women. These results suggest that, like rodents, humans can influence the hormonal balance of conspecifics through chemosignals. Critically, this study identified a single component of sweat, androstadienone, as capable of exerting such influence. This result points to a potential role for synthetic human chemosignals in clinical applications. PMID:17287500

  12. Born to Yawn? Understanding Yawning as a Warning of the Rise in Cortisol Levels: Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Background Yawning consistently poses a conundrum to the medical profession and neuroscientists. Despite neurological evidence such as parakinesia brachialis oscitans in stroke patients and thermo-irregulation in multiple sclerosis patients, there is considerable debate over the reasons for yawning with the mechanisms and hormonal pathways still not fully understood. Cortisol is implicated during yawning and may link many neurological disorders. Evidence was found in support of the Thompson cortisol hypothesis that proposes cortisol levels are elevated during yawning just as they tend to rise during stress and fatigue. Objectives To investigate whether saliva cortisol levels rise during yawning and, therefore, support the Thompson cortisol hypothesis. Methods We exposed 20 male and female volunteers aged between 18 and 53 years to conditions that provoked a yawning response in a randomized controlled trial. Saliva samples were collected at the start and again after the yawning response, or at the end of the stimuli presentations if the participant did not yawn. In addition, we collected electromyographic data of the jaw muscles to determine rest and yawning phases of neural activity. Yawning susceptibility scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and demographic and health details were also collected from each participant. A comprehensive data set allowed comparison between yawners and nonyawners, as well as between rest and yawning phases. Collecting electromyographic data from the yawning phase is novel, and we hope this will provide new information about neuromuscular activity related to cortisol levels. Exclusion criteria included chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart conditions, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. We compared data between and within participants. Results In the yawning group, there was a significant difference between saliva cortisol samples (t 10 = –3.071, P = .01). Power and effect size were computed based on repeated-measures t tests for both the yawning and nonyawning groups. There was a medium effect size for the nonyawners group (r = .467) but low power (36%). Results were similar for the yawners group: medium effect size (r = .440) and low power (33%). Conclusions There was significant evidence in support of the Thompson cortisol hypothesis that suggests cortisol levels are elevated during yawning. A further longitudinal study is planned to test neurological patients. We intend to devise a diagnostic tool based on changes in cortisol levels that may assist in the early diagnosis of neurological disorders based on the data collected. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 61942768; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN61942768/61942768 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6A75ZNYvr) PMID:23611879

  13. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for simultaneous measurement of salivary testosterone and cortisol in healthy men for utilization in the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism in males.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Futoshi; Koh, Eitetsu; Yamamoto, Kenrou; Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Sin, Ho-Su; Maeda, Yuji; Honma, Seijiro; Namiki, Mikio

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that late-onset hypogonadism in males can cause a variety of symptoms, and the differential diagnosis is relatively difficult, including psychological disorders, stress, and mood disturbances. The level of serum cortisol can be measured to reflect a patient's level of stress. Salivary hormones facilitate the evaluation of physiological hormonal actions based on free hormone assay. For the simultaneous measurement of testosterone and cortisol levels in saliva, we validate a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. Concerning accuracy and precision, the lower limit of quantification of salivary testosterone and cortisol were established as 5 and 10 pg/mL, respectively. Testosterone and cortisol in saliva is stable for 2 days, 14 days, and 28 days at room temperature, refrigeration and frozen, respectively. Freezing and thawing for 3 cycles and stimulation of salivation with gum chewing do not alter the measured values of testosterone and cortisol. Total, bioavailable, and free serum testosterone showed slight diurnal changes, but total and bioavailable serum cortisol showed marked diurnal changes. Salivary testosterone levels negatively correlate with age, regardless of the time of saliva collection (r=0.64, p<0.05). However, there is no relationship between salivary cortisol and age (r=0033, p>0.05). LC-MS/MS allows rapid, simultaneous, sensitive, and accurate quantification of testosterone and cortisol in saliva for the diagnosis late-onset hypogonadism or other hormone related disease. PMID:19734692

  14. Cortisol modulates vasotocinergic and isotocinergic pathways in the gilthead sea bream.

    PubMed

    Cdiz, Laura; Romn-Padilla, Javier; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Martnez-Rodrguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A

    2015-01-15

    In the present study, we assessed the responses of the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems to chronic stress induced by cortisol administration in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Pituitary and plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) levels, as well as hypothalamic pro-vasotocin (pro-VT) and pro-isotocin (pro-IT) mRNA expression levels, were analysed. In addition, the mRNA levels of three receptors, AVTR type V1a2, AVTR type V2 and ITR, were analysed in several target organs associated with the following physiological processes: (i) integration and control (hypothalamus), (ii) metabolism and its control (liver and hypothalamus), (iii) osmoregulation (gills) and (iv) stress response (head kidney). Specimens were injected intraperitoneally with slow-release implants (5 ?L g(-1) body mass) containing coconut oil alone (control group) or with cortisol (50 ?g g(-1) body mass; cortisol group). Both AVT and IT synthesis and release were correlated with plasma cortisol values, suggesting a potential interaction between both hormonal systems and cortisol administration. Our results suggest that the activation of hepatic metabolism as well as the hypothalamic control of metabolic processes provide the energy necessary to overcome stress, which could be partly mediated by AVTRs and ITR. Upregulation of branchial AVT and IT receptor expression following cortisol treatment suggests an involvement of the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems in the regulation of ion channels/transporters during stressful situations. Finally, changes in AVT and IT receptor mRNA expression in the head kidney suggest these nonapeptides participate in feedback mechanisms that regulate the synthesis/release of cortisol. Our results indicate a relationship between cortisol and both the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems during simulated chronic stress in S. aurata. PMID:25524977

  15. Effects of hypophysectomy and subsequent hormonal replacement therapy on hormonal and osmoregulatory status of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    PubMed

    Bjrnsson, B T; Yamauchi, K; Nishioka, R S; Deftos, L J; Bern, H A

    1987-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of hypophysectomy and subsequent hormone replacement therapy upon the hormonal and osmoregulatory status of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, in 7% seawater (SW) and SW. Following hypophysectomy, coho salmon were injected every 2 days for 8 days with thyroxine, growth hormone, and cortisol, alone or in combinations, and sampled 2 days after the final injection. Increased environmental salinity raises plasma sodium, calcium, and magnesium levels, as well as plasma osmolality. Cortisol is hypercalcemic and thyroxine is hypocalcemic in hypophysectomized salmon, but it is unclear whether these effects are due directly to calcium regulation or are the consequence of general effects on the plasma osmotic/ionic balance. Growth hormone and thyroxine together, but not separately, decrease and increase magnesium levels, at low and high environmental salinities, respectively, indicating a complex endocrine control of plasma magnesium. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity in hypophysectomized salmon is stimulated by growth hormone and cortisol, but inhibited by thyroxine and raised environmental salinity. This implies a complex endocrine control and indicates that hormonal support is needed to sustain or raise gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity in seawater. Increased environmental salinity induces elevation of plasma cortisol levels in apparent absence of pituitary control, indicating that the interrenals may respond to changes in external and/or internal environment, either directly or indirectly through extrapituitary hormonal or nervous control. Cortisol is a potent inhibitor of calcitonin secretion, as seen by the large decrease in plasma calcitonin levels in cortisol-treated hypophysectomized fish. The study was carried out at a time when thyroxine plasma levels were low. These basal levels were not affected by hypophysectomy, possibly indicating a basal release of thyroxine from the thyroid without stimulatory support of the pituitary gland. PMID:2830161

  16. Hair cortisol levels track phylogenetic and age related differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Bernstein, Robin M

    2011-11-01

    Hair has been shown to archive a uniquely time averaged signal of endocrine activity, and holds attractive advantages for both laboratory and field research. Prior research has explored the potential of hair hormone analysis to examine hormone-behavior relationships. To date, no research has focused on the potential of the technique to investigate age-related changes or taxon differences in endocrine function. It is known that non-human primate infants of many taxa exhibit high cortisol levels after parturition, which rapidly decline with age. It has also been shown that hypercortisolism generally characterizes platyrrhine (New World monkey) endocrine function. These endocrine trends have been characterized using cortisol levels determined from serum, plasma, and feces. Here we test whether cortisol levels determined from hair recover similar phylogenetic and age related patterns in endocrine function in non-human primates. In order to test whether hair cortisol reflect infant hypercortisolism with significant age-related decline, hair cortisol levels are measured in samples from wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) and captive Guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio), ranging in age from infants through juveniles. Further, in order to test whether platyrrhines exhibit significantly higher hair cortisol levels compared to strepsirrhines and catarrhines, and therefore faithfully recover similar signals as more traditionally used substrates (e.g. serum), hair cortisol levels are quantified in adult female hair samples collected from a broad range of non-human primate taxa. Results confirm that hair cortisol levels accurately reflect known phylogenetic and age related patterns of circulating cortisol levels. Therefore, these results suggest that hair may be an ideal hormone bearing substrate for research focused on the examination of population endocrine profiles, cross-sectional studies of endocrine function and taxon variation in hormone levels, as well as stable behavioral trends. PMID:21893059

  17. [Hormonal axes in obesity: cause or effect?].

    PubMed

    Lordelo, Roberta A; Mancini, Marcio C; Cercato, Cntia; Halpern, Alfredo

    2007-02-01

    Several endocrine changes have been described in the obesity state. The corticotropic axis is hyperresponsive and there is enhancement of hormonal clearance, but cortisol levels are within the normal range. It is important to characterize a pseudo-Cushing in obesity. Leptin seems to be a permissive hormone for the beginning of puberty. In adults, gonadotropines are normal, and hyperandrogenism and hyperestrogenism are found. In women, insulin resistance has a central role in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), which is associated to ovarian hyperandrogenemia. In obese subjects, growth hormone (GH) is generally low and IGF1 is normal. Thyroid function is commonly normal in obese subjects. PMID:17435853

  18. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

  19. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

  20. Regulation of arylsulphatase A and sulphogalactolipid turnover by cortisol in myelinogenic cultures of cells dissociated from embryonic mouse brain.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, J L; Pieringer, R A

    1984-01-01

    Myelinogenic cultures of cells dissociated from embryonic mouse brain were used to study the regulation of myelination-associated molecules by cortisol. Cortisol in physiological concentrations (0.03 microM) caused an increased accumulation of myelination-associated sulphogalactolipids. It also stimulated the myelin- and oligodendroglia-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase. The increase in sulphogalactolipid content was caused by a cortisol-concentration-dependent inhibition in arylsulphatase A activity and not by an increase in either cerebroside sulphotransferase activity or an increase in availability of adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulphate. Of several steroid hormones tested only the glucocorticoid types brought about these changes. The relationship between net sulphogalactolipid accumulation and arylsulphatase A inhibition induced by cortisol was confirmed by sulphogalactolipid turnover studies. Depending on whether a single-phase or a two-phase decay calculation is used, the turnover of sulphogalactolipid with cortisol present was decreased at 22 days in culture by either 62% or 65% respectively of that without cortisol. This decrease in turnover can be attributed completely to the decrease of arylsulphatase activity by cortisol to 63% of the value for normal cells grown under the same conditions. PMID:6146311

  1. Racial and ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms in preadolescents: the role of parental psychosocial risk and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-05-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities experience persistent health disparities due in part to their exposure to chronic SES and psychosocial risk. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its hormonal end product, cortisol, are believed to mediate the associations between chronic stress and poor health. In this study, racial/ethnic differences in diurnal salivary cortisol rhythms in 179 preadolescent youths and the contributing roles of SES risk, psychosocial risk, perceived discrimination, harsh parenting, and parental monitoring were examined. The analyses revealed racial/ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms, with African Americans having significantly flatter morning-to-evening cortisol slopes than Caucasians and with Latinos having significantly lower evening cortisol levels than Caucasians. Greater psychosocial risk and less parental monitoring were associated with flatter cortisol slopes. Racial/ethnic differences on the cortisol measures persisted when controlling for SES, psychosocial risk, and parenting quality. The need to assess chronic risk across the lifespan and disentangle possible genetic from environmental contributors is discussed. PMID:22414445

  2. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Diurnal Cortisol Rhythms in Preadolescents: The Role of Parental Psychosocial Risk and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities experience persistent health disparities due in part to their exposure to chronic SES and psychosocial risk. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its hormonal end product, cortisol, are believed to mediate the associations between chronic stress and poor health. In this study, racial/ethnic differences in diurnal salivary cortisol rhythms in 179 preadolescent youths and the contributing roles of SES risk, psychosocial risk, perceived discrimination, harsh parenting, and parental monitoring were examined. The analyses revealed racial/ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms, with African Americans having significantly flatter morning-to-evening cortisol slopes than Caucasians and with Latinos having significantly lower evening cortisol levels than Caucasians. Greater psychosocial risk and less parental monitoring were associated with flatter cortisol slopes. Racial/ethnic differences on the cortisol measures persisted when controlling for SES, psychosocial risk, and parenting quality. The need to assess chronic risk across the lifespan and disentangle possible genetic from environmental contributors is discussed. PMID:22414445

  3. Cortisol, DHEA, and testosterone concentrations in saliva in response to an international powerlifting competition.

    PubMed

    Le Panse, B; Vibarel-Rebot, N; Parage, G; Albrings, D; Amiot, V; De Ceaurriz, J; Collomp, K

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine salivary cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and testosterone responses to the bench press in an international powerlifting competition and to determine whether these salivary hormone concentrations could be used to predict performance. Twenty-six elite athletes (13 females and 13 males) provided saliva samples during the official weighing-in and after the last attempt at the bench press, as well as at baseline on a non-competition day. Performance index was determined with the Wilks formula, which adjusts powerlifting scores according to body mass. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly increased in all subjects after the bench press (p < 0.01), whereas DHEA concentrations were significantly increased in women (p < 0.01) but not in men after the bench press. No significant change in testosterone concentrations was observed during the experiment in either men or women, which resulted in a marked decrease in the testosterone/cortisol ratio. The performance index showed no significant correlation with any of the hormone responses to competition. In conclusion, despite the increase in stress adrenocortical hormone responses to an international powerlifting competition, these hormone concentrations alone are not predictors of bench press performance in elite powerlifting athletes. PMID:20666655

  4. The effects of four weeks aerobic training on saliva cortisol and testosterone in young healthy persons

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Aly, Farag A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks moderate aerobic exercise on outcome measures of saliva stress hormones and lactate levels in healthy adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy students with an age range of 15–25 years participated in this study. The participants performed an exercise test of moderate intensity for 4 weeks, three times per week. The exercise was treadmill walking. Saliva concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured before and after the 4 weeks of moderate aerobic training using immunoassay techniques. [Results] After 4 weeks of exercise, there were significant increases in cortisol, free testosterone levels, and LDH activity along with a significant decrease in the ratios between testosterone and cortisol levels. No significant correlations were found among the studied parameters in the resting stage, a result which supports the positive effect of exercise on stress hormones following 4 weeks of training. [Conclusion] The results suggest that four weeks exercise of moderate intensity significantly affects the salivary stress hormones of young healthy volunteers. The data support the importance of salivary stress hormones as potential biological markers especially for older ages. However, more research is required to validate these biological markers which determine the host response to physical activity. PMID:26311920

  5. Seasonal Changes in CRF-I and Urotensin I Transcript Levels in Masu Salmon: Correlation with Cortisol Secretion During Spawning

    PubMed Central

    Westring, Christian G.; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Ueda, Hiroshi; Urano, Akihisa; Dores, Robert M.; Sher, Anna A.; Danielson, Phillip B.

    2008-01-01

    Pacific salmon employ a semelparous reproductive strategy where sexual maturation is followed by rapid senescence and death. Cortisol overproduction has been implicated as the central physiologic event responsible for the post-spawning demise of these fish. Cortisol homeostasis is regulated through the action of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. These include corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin-I (UI). In the present study, masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) were assayed for changes in the levels CRF-I and UI mRNA transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results were compared to plasma cortisol levels in juvenile, adult, and spawning masu salmon to identify specific regulatory factors that appear to be functionally associated with changes in cortisol levels. Intramuscular implantation of GnRH analog (GnRHa) capsules was also used to determine whether GnRH influences stress hormone levels. In both male and female masu salmon, spawning fish experienced a 5–7 fold increase in plasma cortisol levels relative to juvenile non-spawning salmon. Changes in CRF-I mRNA levels were characterized by 1–2 distinctive short-term surges in adult masu salmon. Conversely, seasonal changes in UI mRNA levels displayed broad and sustained increases during the pre-spawning and spawning periods. The increases in UI mRNA levels were positively correlated (R2 = 0.21 male and 0.26 female, p<0.0001) with levels of plasma cortisol in the pre-spawning and spawning periods. Despite the importance of GnRH in sexual maturation and reproduction, the administration of GnRHa to test animals failed to produce broad changes in CRF-I, UI or plasma cortisol levels. These findings suggest a more direct role for UI than for CRF-I in the regulation of cortisol levels in spawning Pacific salmon. PMID:17499738

  6. Study of progesterone and cortisol concentrations in the Italian Friesian claw.

    PubMed

    Comin, A; Peric, T; Magrin, L; Corazzin, M; Cornacchia, G; Prandi, A

    2014-09-01

    The present research was conducted to study progesterone and cortisol concentrations in the claw of cattle and to verify whether the cattle claw could be considered an efficient matrix to provide retrospective information regarding progesterone and cortisol concentrations related to pregnancy and peripartum periods. These 2 steroids are involved in hoof growth. The study was performed on 32 calves and 24 pregnant milking cows of the Holstein breed, which were clinically healthy and lacking any claw disorders. Samples of at least 0.5cm in thickness were taken from the sole. Progesterone and cortisol concentrations were determined by RIA. The cortisol concentration in the horny shoe of calves from 0 to 30 d of age was significantly higher than the concentration at 31 to 60 and 61 to 120 d of age. Conversely, the progesterone concentration showed no statistically significant difference in relation to age. The horn progesterone concentrations recorded in the milking dairy cows at 7 mo of pregnancy showed high variability in the horizontal sections of the sole (the individual coefficient of variation ranged between 0.09 and 1.11). In 6 cows, genuine extreme values (genuine outliers) of the progesterone level were found. Moreover, significant differences existed among the progesterone concentrations of the sole's transverse sections. We detected a significant positive correlation between the weight of the horn samples after freeze-drying and their weight after hydration. The cortisol and progesterone levels in soaked horn samples were found to be significantly lower than in the same dry samples. These results show that cortisol and progesterone can be measured in the cattle claw horn. The claws of mature dairy cows could not be used as a matrix to provide a retrospective measure of cumulative hormone secretion, whereas the analysis of the calves' claw horns showed retrospective hormonal information similar to hair samples. PMID:24952784

  7. Development of a label-free immunosensor system for detecting plasma cortisol levels in fish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyun; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Hibi, Kyoko; Ren, Huifeng; Endo, Hideaki

    2016-02-01

    Fishes display a wide variation in their physiological responses to stress, which is clearly evident in the plasma corticosteroid changes, chiefly cortisol levels in fish. In the present study, we describe a novel label-free immunosensor for detecting plasma cortisol levels. The method is based on immunologic reactions and amperometric measurement using cyclic voltammetry. For the immobilization of the antibody on the surface of sensing electrode, we used a self-assembled monolayer of thiol-containing compounds. Using this electrode, we detect the CV signal change caused by the generation of antigen-antibody complex. The immunosensor showed a response to cortisol levels, and the anodic peak value linearly decreased with a correlation coefficient of 0.990 in diluted plasma. The specificity of the label-free immunosensor system was investigated using other steroid hormones, such as 17?, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, progesterone, estriol, estradiol, and testosterone. The specific detection of cortisol was suggested by a minimal change from -0.32 to 0.51?A in the anodic peak value of the other steroid hormones. The sensor system was used to determine the plasma cortisol levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and the results were compared with those of the same samples determined using the conventional method (ELISA). A good correlation was obtained between values determined using both methods (correlation coefficient 0.993). These findings suggest that the proposed label-free immunosensor could be useful for rapid and convenient analysis of cortisol levels in fish plasma samples. PMID:26254257

  8. Basal cortisol and DHEA levels in women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Jogems-Kosterman, Bea J M; de Knijff, Dirk W W; Kusters, Ron; van Hoof, Jacques J M

    2007-12-01

    Previous research suggests that in borderline personality disorder (BPD) normal stress regulation, with a main role for cortisol, is disturbed. However, most studies were confounded by their lack of attention to co-morbidity. Relevant patient characteristics such as depression, childhood abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and copying styles were not systematically examined. Moreover, none of the studies incorporated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a hormone that can antagonize the effects of cortisol. Hence, the present pilot study investigates the basic levels of cortisol and DHEA and the ratio (CDR) between the two hormones in BPD patients. Twenty-two women with BPD and 22 healthy female controls provided two diurnal (8 a.m./8 p.m.) salivary samples. Overall cortisol levels were not significantly increased in the patient group as a whole but only in those patients diagnosed with co-morbid PTSD and a history of childhood abuse. The patients' cortisol secretions decreased relatively less steep during the day than it did in the controls. Surprisingly, morning DHEA levels were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. Moreover, the CDR showed a significantly larger and less favourable increase in the BPD group during the day. In the patients lower levels of DHEA in the evening proved significantly related to a stronger tendency to avoid active problem solving and a lowered inclination to seek social support. The current findings underline the relevance of cortisol and DHEA assessments and the need for further scrutiny of their interplay to foster our understanding of the biological basis of stress regulation in BPD. PMID:17028025

  9. The relationship between handling time and cortisol release rates changes as a function of brain parasite densities in California killifish Fundulus parvipinnis.

    PubMed

    Weinersmith, K L; Hanninen, A F; Sih, A; McElreath, R; Earley, R L

    2016-03-01

    This study validated a technique for non-invasive hormone measurements in California killifish Fundulus parvipinnis, and looked for associations between cortisol (a stress hormone) and 11-ketotestosterone (KT, an androgen) release rates and the density or intensity of the trematode parasites Euhaplorchis californiensis (EUHA) and Renicola buchanani (RENB) in wild-caught, naturally infected F. parvipinnis. In experiment 1, F. parvipinnis were exposed to an acute stressor by lowering water levels to dorsal-fin height and repeatedly handling the fish over the course of an hour. Neither parasite was found to influence cortisol release rates in response to this acute stressor. In experiment 2, different F. parvipinnis were exposed on four consecutive days to the procedure for collecting water-borne hormone levels and release rates of 11-KT and cortisol were quantified. This design examined whether F. parvipinnis perceived the water-borne collection procedure to be a stressor, while also exploring how parasites influenced hormone release rates under conditions less stressful than those in experiment 1. No association was found between RENB and hormone release rates, or between EUHA and 11-KT release rates. The interaction between EUHA density and handling time, however, was an important predictor of cortisol release rates. The relationship between handling time and cortisol release rates was negative for F. parvipinnis harbouring low or intermediate density infections, and became positive for fish harbouring high densities of EUHA. PMID:26806153

  10. Prolactin and growth hormone in fish osmoregulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sakamoto, T.; McCormick, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    Prolactin is an important regulator of multiple biological functions in vertebrates, and has been viewed as essential to ion uptake as well as reduction in ion and water permeability of osmoregulatory surfaces in freshwater and euryhaline fish. Prolactin-releasing peptide seems to stimulate prolactin expression in the pituitary and peripheral organs during freshwater adaptation. Growth hormone, a member of the same family of hormones as prolactin, promotes acclimation to seawater in several teleost fish, at least in part through the action of insulin-like growth factor I. In branchial epithelia, development and differentiation of the seawater-type chloride cell (and their underlying biochemistry) is regulated by GH, IGF-I, and cortisol, whereas the freshwater-type chloride cell is regulated by prolactin and cortisol. In the epithelia of gastrointestinal tract, prolactin induces cell proliferation during freshwater adaptation, whereas cortisol stimulates both cell proliferation and apoptosis. We propose that control of salinity acclimation in teleosts by prolactin and growth hormone primarily involves regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation (the latter including upregulation of specific ion transporters), and that there is an important interaction of these hormones with corticosteroids. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical applications of cortisol measurements in hair.

    PubMed

    Wester, Vincent L; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol measurements in blood, saliva and urine are frequently used to examine the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice and in research. However, cortisol levels are subject to variations due to acute stress, the diurnal rhythm and pulsatile secretion. Cortisol measurements in body fluids are not always a reflection of long-term cortisol exposure. The analysis of cortisol in scalp hair is a relatively novel method to measure cumulative cortisol exposure over months up to years. Over the past years, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been examined in association with a large number of somatic and mental health conditions. HCC can be used to evaluate disturbances of the HPA axis, including Cushing's syndrome, and to evaluate hydrocortisone treatment. Using HCC, retrospective timelines of cortisol exposure can be created which can be of value in diagnosing cyclic hypercortisolism. HCC have also been shown to increase with psychological stressors, including major life events, as well as physical stressors, such as endurance exercise and shift work. Initial studies show that HCC may be increased in depression, but decreased in general anxiety disorder. In posttraumatic stress disorder, changes in HCC seem to be dependent on the type of traumatic experience and the time since traumatization. Increased hair cortisol is consistently linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potentially, HCC could form a future marker for cardiovascular risk stratification, as well as serve as a treatment target. PMID:25924811

  12. Supraphysiological cortisol elevation alters the response of wild bluegill sunfish to subsequent stressors.

    PubMed

    McConnachie, Sarah H; O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Iwama, George K; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-06-01

    Wild fish are frequently exposed to multiple stressors, but the influence of previous or ongoing stress on an animal's subsequent response is poorly understood. Using wild-caught bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) as a model, we used exogenous hormone implants to experimentally raise circulating cortisol in a group of fish for ?10 days. We also maintained sham-treated and control groups of fish. We subjected all animals to a secondary stressor in the form of either a heat challenge or fasting challenge. We compared survival, body condition, and plasma-borne indicators of physiological status among cortisol-treated, sham-treated, and control groups following the secondary stressor. In order to compare short- and long-term effects of cortisol treatment, we initiated the secondary stressor either 4 or 30 days following initial cortisol treatment. Cortisol-treated fish succumbed to the fasting challenge sooner than sham-treated and control fish at both 4 and 30 days. Interestingly, cortisol-treated fish lost equilibrium sooner than sham-treated and control fish during the heat challenge when conducted at 30 days, but not at 4 days. These results demonstrate that multiple simultaneous stressors have cumulative effects on bluegill sunfish. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological cortisol doses alter the long-term responses of bluegill sunfish to additional challenges, even after apparent recovery. Such cumulative and long-term effects may be an important factor in mediating the response of wild animals to natural and anthropogenic stressors, and should be considered in ecological studies. PMID:25363581

  13. Chronic Stress, Cortisol Dysfunction, and Pain: A Psychoneuroendocrine Rationale for Stress Management in Pain Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a primary symptom driving patients to seek physical therapy, and its attenuation commonly defines a successful outcome. A large body of evidence is dedicated to elucidating the relationship between chronic stress and pain; however, stress is rarely addressed in pain rehabilitation. A physiologic stress response may be evoked by fear or perceived threat to safety, status, or well-being and elicits the secretion of sympathetic catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinepherine) and neuroendocrine hormones (cortisol) to promote survival and motivate success. Cortisol is a potent anti-inflammatory that functions to mobilize glucose reserves for energy and modulate inflammation. Cortisol also may facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories for future survival and avoidance of danger. Although short-term stress may be adaptive, maladaptive responses (eg, magnification, rumination, helplessness) to pain or nonpain-related stressors may intensify cortisol secretion and condition a sensitized physiologic stress response that is readily recruited. Ultimately, a prolonged or exaggerated stress response may perpetuate cortisol dysfunction, widespread inflammation, and pain. Stress may be unavoidable in life, and challenges are inherent to success; however, humans have the capability to modify what they perceive as stressful and how they respond to it. Exaggerated psychological responses (eg, catastrophizing) following maladaptive cognitive appraisals of potential stressors as threatening may exacerbate cortisol secretion and facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories of pain or nonpain-related stressors; however, coping, cognitive reappraisal, or confrontation of stressors may minimize cortisol secretion and prevent chronic, recurrent pain. Given the parallel mechanisms underlying the physiologic effects of a maladaptive response to pain and nonpain-related stressors, physical therapists should consider screening for nonpain-related stress to facilitate treatment, prevent chronic disability, and improve quality of life. PMID:25035267

  14. Evidence for a synchronization of hormonal states between humans and dogs during competition.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Thompson, Breanna; Strasser, Rosemary; Santo, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    Social interactions with humans have been shown to influence hormonal processes in dogs, but it is unclear how the hormonal states of humans factor into this relationship. In this study, we explored the associations between changes in the cortisol levels of dogs with humans' hormonal changes, behavior, and perceptions of their performance at an agility competition. A total of 58 dogs and their handlers (44 women, 14 men) provided saliva samples before and after competing. Dogs' saliva samples were later assayed for cortisol and humans' samples for cortisol and testosterone. Following the competition, handler-dog interactions were observed for affiliative and punitive behavior towards their dogs, and handlers completed questionnaires that included personal ratings of their performance. Structural equation modeling revealed that elevations in handlers' cortisol levels were associated with increases in their dogs' cortisol levels. Handlers' affiliative and punitive behaviors towards their dogs following competition were associated with their ratings of their performance, but these variables were unrelated to changes in their own cortisol levels and their dogs', implying their behavior did not mediate the relationship. These findings suggest that changes in the hormonal states were reflected between humans and their dogs, and this relationship was not due to handlers' perceptions of their performance or the behaviors we observed during post-competition social interactions. This study is one of the first to provide evidence for a synchronization of hormonal changes between species. PMID:25862521

  15. Technical and clinical aspects of cortisol as a biochemical marker of chronic stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do Yup; Kim, Eosu; Choi, Man Ho

    2015-01-01

    Stress is now recognized as a universal premorbid factor associated with many risk factors of various chronic diseases. Acute stress may induce an individual’s adaptive response to environmental demands. However, chronic, excessive stress causes cumulative negative impacts on health outcomes through “allostatic load”. Thus, monitoring the quantified levels of long-term stress mediators would provide a timely opportunity for prevention or earlier intervention of stressrelated chronic illnesses. Although either acute or chronic stress could be quantified through measurement of changes in physiological parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and levels of various metabolic hormones, it is still elusive to interpret whether the changes in circulating levels of stress mediators such as cortisol can reflect the acute, chronic, or diurnal variations. Both serum and salivary cortisol levels reveal acute changes at a single point in time, but the overall long-term systemic cortisol exposure is difficult to evaluate due to circadian variations and its protein-binding capacity. Scalp hair has a fairy predictable growth rate of approximately 1 cm/month, and the most 1 cm segment approximates the last month’s cortisol production as the mean value. The analysis of cortisol in hair is a highly promising technique for the retrospective assessment of chronic stress. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(4): 209-216] PMID:25560699

  16. Stress induced Salmonella Typhimurium recrudescence in pigs coincides with cortisol induced increased intracellular proliferation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Verbrugghe, Elin; Boyen, Filip; Van Parys, Alexander; Van Deun, Kim; Croubels, Siska; Thompson, Arthur; Shearer, Neil; Leyman, Bregje; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs often result in the development of carriers that intermittently excrete Salmonella in very low numbers. During periods of stress, for example transport to the slaughterhouse, recrudescence of Salmonella may occur, but the mechanism of this stress related recrudescence is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the role of the stress hormone cortisol in Salmonella recrudescence by pigs. We showed that a 24 h feed withdrawal increases the intestinal Salmonella Typhimurium load in pigs, which is correlated with increased serum cortisol levels. A second in vivo trial demonstrated that stress related recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs can be induced by intramuscular injection of dexamethasone. Furthermore, we found that cortisol, but not epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, promotes intracellular proliferation of Salmonella Typhimurium in primary porcine alveolar macrophages, but not in intestinal epithelial cells and a transformed cell line of porcine alveolar macrophages. A microarray based transcriptomic analysis revealed that cortisol did not directly affect the growth or the gene expression or Salmonella Typhimurium in a rich medium, which implies that the enhanced intracellular proliferation of the bacterium is probably caused by an indirect effect through the cell. These results highlight the role of cortisol in the recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium by pigs and they provide new evidence for the role of microbial endocrinology in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22151081

  17. Stress induced Salmonella Typhimurium recrudescence in pigs coincides with cortisol induced increased intracellular proliferation in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs often result in the development of carriers that intermittently excrete Salmonella in very low numbers. During periods of stress, for example transport to the slaughterhouse, recrudescence of Salmonella may occur, but the mechanism of this stress related recrudescence is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the role of the stress hormone cortisol in Salmonella recrudescence by pigs. We showed that a 24 h feed withdrawal increases the intestinal Salmonella Typhimurium load in pigs, which is correlated with increased serum cortisol levels. A second in vivo trial demonstrated that stress related recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs can be induced by intramuscular injection of dexamethasone. Furthermore, we found that cortisol, but not epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, promotes intracellular proliferation of Salmonella Typhimurium in primary porcine alveolar macrophages, but not in intestinal epithelial cells and a transformed cell line of porcine alveolar macrophages. A microarray based transcriptomic analysis revealed that cortisol did not directly affect the growth or the gene expression or Salmonella Typhimurium in a rich medium, which implies that the enhanced intracellular proliferation of the bacterium is probably caused by an indirect effect through the cell. These results highlight the role of cortisol in the recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium by pigs and they provide new evidence for the role of microbial endocrinology in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22151081

  18. Detection of cortisol at a gold nanoparticle|Protein G-DTBP-scaffold modified electrochemical immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Zhao, Ruoxia; Mao, Wenling; Feng, Heqing; Liu, Xiuhua; Wong, Danny K Y

    2011-12-21

    An ultrasensitive electrochemical immmunosensor was demonstrated to be capable of detecting the hormone cortisol down to concentrations as low as 16 pg mL(-1). In addition, the immunosensor displayed a sensitivity of 1.6 ?A pg(-1) mL(-1) and a linear range up to ?2500 pg mL(-1) of cortisol. This immunosensor was constructed based on a Au nanoparticle|dimethyl 3,3'-dithiobispropionimidate2HCl (DTBP)-Protein G scaffold-modified Au electrode. In this work, the Au nanoparticles were used to increase the electrochemically active surface area by 28% (with a standard deviation of 3%) to enhance the quantity of the Protein G scaffold on the electrode. Thiolation of Protein G by DTBP aided in avoiding the confirmation change of Protein G, while this Protein G-DTBP component offered an orientation-controlled immobilisation of the capture antibody on the Au electrode. In this immunosensor, a monoclonal anti-cortisol capture antibody was optimally aligned by the scaffold before a competitive immunoassay between sample cortisol and a horseradish peroxidase-labelled cortisol conjugate was conducted. For quantitative analysis, square wave voltammetry was used to monitor the reduction current of benzoquinone produced from a horseradish peroxidase catalysed reaction. The improved analytical performance of our immunosensor was attributed to the synergetic effect of Au nanoparticles and the Protein G-DTBP scaffold. PMID:22005508

  19. Examining Infants' Cortisol Responses to Laboratory Tasks among Children Varying in Attachment Disorganization: Stress Reactivity or Return to Baseline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the…

  20. Sexually dimorphic secretion of cortisol but not catecholamines in response to an endotoxin challenge in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge on secretion of the adrenal stress-related hormones cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in bull and heifer calves. Brahman calves (n = 12; 269 11.7 kg) were randomly selected from the fall 2007 c...

  1. RIA analysis for estradiol, testosterone and cortisol in feedyard playa lakes and non-feedyard playa lakes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to compare the levels of 17B-estradiol, testosterone, and cortisol hormones in bottom sediment (muck) and water of seven feedyard (FY) playas and three non-feedyard playas. Four liters of water and 500 grams of muck were collected from 4 equal distant sites from each p...

  2. Examining Infants' Cortisol Responses to Laboratory Tasks among Children Varying in Attachment Disorganization: Stress Reactivity or Return to Baseline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the

  3. Cortisol but not testosterone is repeatable and varies with reproductive effort in wild red deer stags.

    PubMed

    Pavitt, Alyson T; Walling, Craig A; Mstl, Erich; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B

    2015-10-01

    Although it is known that hormone concentrations vary considerably between individuals within a population, how they change across time and how they relate to an individual's reproductive effort remains poorly quantified in wild animals. Using faecal samples collected from wild red deer stags, we examined sources of variation in faecal cortisol and androgen metabolites, and the potential relationship that these might have with an index of reproductive effort. We also biologically validated an assay for measuring androgen metabolites in red deer faeces. We show that variation in hormone concentrations between samples can be accounted for by the age of the individual and the season when the sample was collected. Faecal cortisol (but not androgen) metabolites also showed significant among-individual variation across the 10-year sampling time period, which accounted for 20% of the trait's phenotypic variance after correcting for the age and season effects. Finally, we show that an index of male reproductive effort (cumulative harem size) during the mating season (rut) was positively correlated with male cortisol concentrations, both among and within individuals. We suggest that the highest ranking males have the largest cumulative harem sizes (i.e. invest the greatest reproductive effort), and that this social dominance may have associated behaviours such as increased frequency of agonistic interactions which are associated with corresponding high levels of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM). PMID:26209865

  4. Novelty of the arena impairs the cortisol-related increase in the aggression of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    PubMed

    Serra, Mônica; Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2015-03-15

    The dichotomic effect of a cortisol level rise in vertebrate behavior has been widely observed. Generally, a chronic increase of the hormone level inhibits aggression, while an acute rise increases aggression. However, in this study, we show that this increase in aggression through an acute rise of cortisol also depends on the context in which the agonistic interaction occurs in the tropical fish matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. We combined two factors: the type of housing (resident or non-resident in the trial arena) and the level of cortisol at the beginning of the fight (normal level - control, or high level - hydrocortisone-treated fish). The cortisol treatment increased the aggressiveness in the resident fish, but this effect was not observed in the non-resident fish, which fought in an unknown arena. The novelty of the arena may have elicited an "alerted state" in the non-resident fish; in this situation the fight was not the priority, and the cortisol effect in aggression could be impaired by a conflict between motivational systems (fear and aggression). In our knowledge, in fish, the increase of aggression promoted by an acute rise in cortisol levels was always tested and observed in a resident context, and the inhibition of cortisol effect in the agonist behavior is demonstrated for the first time. As the cortisol effect in aggression is observed in several taxa, the inhibition of aggressiveness increased by the novelty of the arena should be investigated in other groups to clarify the dynamics of this effect of cortisol in animal behavior. PMID:25578544

  5. Cortisol regulates sodium homeostasis by stimulating the transcription of sodium-chloride transporter (NCC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Hu, Huei-Jyun; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2016-02-15

    In mammals, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) and sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) are expressed in renal tubules, and exhibit functional redundancy and mutual compensation in Na(+) uptake. In teleosts, the gills of the adult and skin of the embryonic stage function as external kidneys, and ionocytes are responsible for ionoregulation in these tissues. NHE- and NCC-expressing ionocytes mutually cooperate to adjust Na(+) uptake, which is analogous to the activity of the mammalian kidney. Cortisol is a hormone that controls Na(+) uptake through regulating NCC expression and activity in mammals; however, cortisol-mediated control of NCC expression is little understood in non-mammalian vertebrates, such as teleosts. It is essential for our understanding of the evolution of such regulation to determine whether cortisol has a conserved effect on NCC in vertebrates. In the present study, we treated zebrafish embryos with low Na(+) medium (LNa, 0.04mM Na(+)) for 3d to stimulate the mRNA expression of nhe3b, ncc, and cyp11b1 (a cortisol-synthesis enzyme) and whole body cortisol level. Exogenous cortisol treatment (20mg/l, 3d) resulted in an elevation of whole-body Na(+) content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells in zebrafish larvae. In loss-of-function experiments, microinjection of glucocorticoid receptor (gr) morpholino (MO) suppressed sodium content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells, but injection of mr MO had no such effects. In addition, exogenous cortisol treatment and gr MO injection also altered ncc expression and the density of ncc-expressing cells in gcm2 morphant larvae. Taken together, cortisol and GR appear to regulate Na(+) absorption through stimulating ncc expression and the differentiation of ncc-expressing ionocytes, providing new insights into the actions of cortisol on Na(+) uptake. PMID:26678829

  6. Is afternoon cortisol more reliable than waking cortisol in association studies of children with an ASD?

    PubMed

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Andronicos, Nicholas M; Agnew, Linda L

    2016-03-01

    Salivary cortisol may be used as a biomarker of stress and anxiety in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and is particularly valuable in studies of the association between stress-related cortisol concentrations and other factors such as comorbid disorders or aspects of the ASD phenotype. Although protocols for the collection of cortisol shortly after waking are often based on the assumption of the presence of a diurnal rhythm in cortisol, that rhythm may not be as reliable in children with an ASD as in non-ASD children. Alternatively, collecting cortisol during the afternoon may represent a more reliable procedure with less inter-participant variability. PMID:26717863

  7. Glucocorticoid stimulates expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, B.G.; Emanuel, R.L.; Frim, D.M.; Majzoub, J.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Primary cultures of purified human cytotrophoblasts have been used to examine the expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene in placenta. The authors report here that glucocorticoids stimulate placental CRH synthesis and secretion in primary cultures of human placenta. This stimulation is in contrast to the glucocorticoid suppression of CRH expression in hypothalamus. The positive regulation of CRH by glucocorticoids suggests that the rise in CRH preceding parturition could result from the previously described rise in fetal glucocorticoids. Furthermore, this increase in placental CRH could stimulate, via adrenocorticotropic hormone, a further rise in fetal glucocorticoids, completing a positive feedback loop that would be terminated by delivery.

  8. Associations between peripheral androgens and cortisol in infertile women.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Seier, Kenneth; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Weghofer, Andrea; Wu, Yan-Guang; Wang, Qi; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H

    2016-04-01

    Testosterone has in recent years been proven essential for normal growth and maturation of small growing follicles. Concomitantly, low functional ovarian reserve (LFOR), characterized by a small growing follicle pool, has been associated with low testosterone levels, which can be of ovarian and/or adrenal origin. In this study we, therefore, investigated whether peripheral sex steroid precursors and testosterone levels potentially reflect on adrenal function. In a retrospective cohort study of 355 consecutive infertile women, who presented to an academically affiliated fertility center in New York City, we investigated in a series of statistical models whether low peripheral sex steroid precursors and testosterone are associated with peripheral cortisol (C) levels, reflecting adrenal function. To determine potential correlations, we investigated the dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (AD), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT); sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and C in a series of multivariate and logistic regression analyses, utilizing C either as a continuous variable or with cut off <5.0μg/dL, and TT only as a continuous variable. Practically all models demonstrated significant predictability of peripheral sex hormone precursors for C levels, with DHEA demonstrating the strongest and most consistent predictability as an individual parameter and as part of the DHEAS/DHEA ratio. We conclude that in infertile women peripheral sex hormone precursors, especially DHEA, reflect C levels and, therefore, adrenal function. In infertile women, at all ages low levels of sex hormone precursors, therefore, should be considered indications for further adrenal assessments. PMID:26804970

  9. Diurnal cortisol variation and cortisol response to an MRI stressor in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Girshkin, Leah; O'Reilly, Nicole; Quidé, Yann; Teroganova, Nina; Rowland, Jesseca E; Schofield, Peter R; Green, Melissa J

    2016-05-01

    Markers of HPA axis function, including diurnal cortisol rhythm and cortisol responses to stress or pharmacological manipulation, are increasingly reported as disrupted in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, there has been no direct comparison of cortisol responses to stress in SZ and BD in the same study, and associations between cortisol dysfunction and illness characteristics remain unclear. In this study we used spline embedded linear mixed models to examine cortisol levels of SZ and BD participants at waking, during the first 45min after waking (representing the cortisol awakening response; CAR), during the period of rapid cortisol decline post the awakening response, and in reaction to a stressor (MRI scan), relative to healthy controls (HC). Contrary to expectations, neither SZ nor BD showed differences in waking cortisol levels, CAR, or immediate post-CAR decline compared to HC; however, waking cortisol levels were greater in BD relative to SZ. In response to the MRI stressor, the SZ group showed a significant absence of the expected increase in cortisol responsivity to stress, which was seen in both the BD and HC groups. Clinical factors affecting the CAR differed between SZ and BD. In SZ, higher antipsychotic medication dosage was associated with a steeper incline of the CAR, while greater positive symptom severity was associated with a more blunted CAR, and greater levels of anxiety were associated with the blunted cortisol response to stress. In BD, longer illness duration was associated with a steeper incline in CAR and lower levels of waking cortisol. These results suggest that cortisol responses may normalize with medication (in SZ) and longer illness duration (in BD), in line with findings of aberrant cortisol levels in the early stages of psychotic disorders. PMID:26874562

  10. Lower baseline plasma cortisol and prolactin together with increased body temperature and higher mCPP-induced cortisol responses in men with pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Maes, M; van West, D; De Vos, N; Westenberg, H; Van Hunsel, F; Hendriks, D; Cosyns, P; Scharpé, S

    2001-01-01

    There is some evidence that hormonal and serotonergic alterations may play a role in the pathophysiology of paraphilias. The aims of the present study were to examine: 1) baseline plasma cortisol, plasma prolactin, and body temperature; and 2) cortisol, prolactin, body temperature, as well as behavioral responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and placebo in pedophiles and normal men. Pedophiles showed significantly lower baseline plasma cortisol and prolactin concentrations and a higher body temperature than normal volunteers. The mCPP-induced cortisol responses were significantly greater in pedophiles than in normal volunteers. In normal volunteers, mCPP-induced a hyperthermic response, whereas in pedophiles no such response was observed. mCPP induced different behavioral responses in pedophiles than in normal men. In pedophiles, but not in normal men, mCPP increased the sensations "feeling dizzy, " "restless," and "strange" and decreased the sensation "feeling hungry". The results suggest that there are several serotonergic disturbances in pedophiles. It is hypothesized that the results are compatible with a decreased activity of the serotonergic presynaptic neuron and a 5-HT2 postsynaptic receptor hyperresponsivity. PMID:11106874

  11. Lack of hormonal stimulation prevents the landlocked Biwa salmon (Oncorhynchus masou subspecies) from adapting to seawater.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takuro; Shimura, Haruka; Yamazaki, Miyuki; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Ura, Kazuhiro; Hara, Akihiko; Shimizu, Munetaka

    2014-08-15

    Landlocking of salmon relaxes selective pressures on hypoosmoregulatory ability (seawater adaptability) and may lead to the abandonment of its physiological system. However, little is known about the mechanism and consequence of the process. Biwa salmon is a strain/subspecies of Oncorhynchus masou that has been landlocked in Lake Biwa for an exceptionally long period (about 500,000 years) and has low ability to adapt to seawater. We compared activity of gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) of Biwa salmon with those of anadromous strains of the same species (masu and amago salmon) during downstream migration periods and after exogenous hormone treatment. Gill NKA activity in anadromous strains increased during their migration periods, while that in Biwa salmon remained low. However, treatments of Biwa salmon with growth hormone (GH) and cortisol increased gill NKA activity. Cortisol treatment also improved the whole body seawater adaptability of Biwa salmon. Receptors for GH and cortisol responded to hormonal treatments, whereas their mRNA levels during downstream migration period were essentially unchanged in Biwa salmon. Circulating levels of cortisol in masu salmon showed a peak during downstream migration period, while no such increase was seen in Biwa salmon. The present results indicate that Biwa salmon can improve its seawater adaptability by exogenous hormonal treatment, and hormone receptors are capable of responding to the signals. However, secretion of the endogenous hormone (cortisol) was not activated during the downstream migration period, which explains, at least in part, their low ability to adapt to seawater. PMID:24944245

  12. Associations of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with urinary measures of cortisol and catecholamines in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Seeman, Teresa; Shea, Steven; Shrager, Sandi; Tadros, Sameh

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Stress hormones have been hypothesized to contribute to the social patterning of cardiovascular disease but evidence of differences in hormone levels across social groups is scant. Purpose To examine the associations of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines and determine whether these associations are modified by race/ethnicity. Methods Measures of cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine were obtained on 12-h overnight urine specimens from 942 White, African American and Hispanic participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Linear regression was used to examine associations of income-wealth index, education, depression, anger, anxiety and chronic stress with the four hormones after adjustment for covariates. Results Higher income-wealth index was associated with lower levels of urinary cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, medication use, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol use. Education and psychosocial factors were not associated with urinary stress hormone levels in the full sample. However, there was some evidence of effect modification by race: SES factors were more strongly inversely associated with cortisol in African Americans than in other groups and anger was inversely associated with catecholamines in African Americans but not in the other groups. Conclusions Lower SES as measured by income-wealth index in a multi-ethnic sample is associated with higher levels of urinary cortisol and catecholamines. Heterogeneity in these associations by race/ethnicity warrants further exploration. PMID:24495614

  13. Steroid Hormones and Uterine Vascular Adaptation to Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Katherine; Zhang, Lubo

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological state that involves a significant decrease in uterine vascular tone and an increase in uterine blood flow, which is mediated in part by steroid hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of these hormones in the regulation of uterine artery contractility through signaling pathways specific to the endothelium and the vascular smooth muscle. Alterations in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity, nitric oxide production, and expression of enzymes involved in PGI2 production contribute to the uterine artery endothelium-specific responses. Steroid hormones also have an effect on calcium-activated potassium channel activity, PKC signaling pathway and myogenic tone, and alterations in pharmacomechanical coupling in the uterine artery smooth muscle. This review addresses current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which steroid hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol modulate uterine artery contractility to alter uterine blood flow during pregnancy with an emphasis on the pregnant ewe model. PMID:18497342

  14. Occupational exposure of dentists to electromagnetic fields produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons alters the serum cortisol level

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Vazife-Doost, S.; Yaghooti, M.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Rajaie-Far, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Some studies indicate that dentistry is one of the job categories with high potential exposure to elevated levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields. In spite of this, information on occupational exposure of dentists to these fields is scarce. Studies on other common sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) such as mobile base stations have shown alterations in the cortisol level following exposure of humans to these sources. The aim of this study is to compare the level of cortisol among dentists and dentistry students who are being occupationally exposed to EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitrons (case group) and among their counterparts who are not being exposed to these fields (control group). Materials and Methods: In this casecontrol study, blood samples were collected from 41 dentists and dentistry students, 21 of whom were exposed to EMFs emitted by cavitrons as the case group and 20 who were not exposed as the control group, twice; i.e. before work (at 8:309:30 a.m.) and after work (11:3012:30 a.m.). The samples were coded and the serum cortisol level was investigated using the ELISA method (Cortisol AccuBind ELISA Kits). Results: The serum cortisol level of dentists and dental students in the morning (before starting the work) in the control group was 189.15 110.70 (mean SD) whereas it was 157.77 112.03 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.373). In contrast, the serum cortisol level of the participants in the noon (after stopping the work) in the control group was 136.25 67.91 (mean SD) while it was 88.58 52.83 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This time, the observed difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016). In this light, while the difference between serum cortisol levels of dentists and dental students in the morning and after stopping the work was not statistically significant (P = 0.06), in the EMF-exposed group the cortisol level decreased significantly from 157.77 112.03 in the morning to 88.58 52.83 in the noon (P = 0.001). Conclusions: As far as we know, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of occupational exposure of dentists to EMFs on their serum cortisol level. The EMFs produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons can decrease the serum cortisol level in dentists. As cortisol plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, cardiovascular, and immune system function, a low cortisol level may threaten health. More studies are needed to clearly understand the effects of EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitron on the level of stress hormones. As some studies have shown that exposure to EMFs has no effect on the cortisol level, whereas other studies reported either an increase or a decrease in the cortisol level, it can be concluded that the effects of exposure to EMFs may occur only at specific absorbed energies or energy absorption rates (usually known as window) similar to that exists in the case of exposure to the low doses of ionizing radiations. PMID:22690053

  15. Hormone therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bloating Breast soreness Headaches Mood swings Nausea Water retention Changing the dose or form of hormone therapy ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on ... ACOG Committee Opinion No. 420. November 2008: hormone therapy ...

  16. Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... estrogen , a hormone that helps control the menstrual cycle . Changing estrogen levels can bring on symptoms such ... two hormones—estrogen and progesterone —control your menstrual cycle. These hormones are made by the ovaries . Estrogen ...

  17. Cortisol metabolism in hepatocytes of rainbow trout treated with 3,3{prime},4,4{prime} tetrachlorobiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayan, M.M.; Fiest, G.; Otto, D.; Moon, T.W.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of hepatocytes for cortisol uptake and metabolism in 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) treated trout. Two groups of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were either given an intraperitoneal implant of peanut oil alone or peanut oil containing TCBP (10 mg.kg{sup {minus}1} body weight) and sampled six weeks later. The toxicant exposed fish had significantly lower condition factor and plasma glucose concentration, whereas plasma cortisol, protein and hepatocyte protein concentration and liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were significantly higher in the TCBP compared to the sham group. There was no significant difference in plasma lactate and amino acid concentration, hepatocyte glycogen content or liver cytosolic cortisol binding affinity or capacity between the two groups. The uptake of [{sup 3}H] cortisol was significantly higher in the hepatocytes of TCBP treated fish compared to the sham fish. Also, there was enhanced catabolism of [{sup 3}H] cortisol by hepatocytes of TCBP treated fish; the major metabolite appeared to be tetrahydrocortisone. The results indicate that the potential for cortisol clearance is enhanced in hepatocytes of TCBP treated trout. The data also tend to suggest in vivo regulatory mechanisms that might possibly prevent the increased clearance of the hormone from circulation in toxicant exposed fish.

  18. Associations of Long-term Shift Work with Waking Salivary Cortisol Concentration and Patterns among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    FEKEDULEGN, Desta; BURCHFIEL, Cecil M.; VIOLANTI, John M.; HARTLEY, Tara A.; CHARLES, Luenda E.; ANDREW, Michael E.; MILLER, Diane B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participants work activities during the 68 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period. PMID:23047078

  19. Non-breeding feather concentrations of testosterone, corticosterone and cortisol are associated with subsequent survival in wild house sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Lee; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry; Soma, Kiran K.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Geffen, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Potential mechanistic mediators of Darwinian fitness, such as stress hormones or sex hormones, have been the focus of many studies. An inverse relationship between fitness and stress or sex hormone concentrations has been widely assumed, although empirical evidence is scarce. Feathers gradually accumulate hormones during their growth and provide a novel way to measure hormone concentrations integrated over time. Using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, we measured testosterone, corticosterone and cortisol in the feathers of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in a wild population which is the subject of a long-term study. Although corticosterone is considered the dominant avian glucocorticoid, we unambiguously identified cortisol in feathers. In addition, we found that feathers grown during the post-nuptial moult in autumn contained testosterone, corticosterone and cortisol levels that were significantly higher in birds that subsequently died over the following winter than in birds that survived. Thus, feather steroids are candidate prospective biomarkers to predict the future survival of individuals in the wild. PMID:22090380

  20. Procedural pain does not raise plasma levels of cortisol or catecholamines in adult intensive care patients after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    van Gulik, L; Ahlers, Sjgm; van Dijk, M; Bruins, P; Meima, M E; de Rijke, Y B; Biemond-Moeniralam, H S; Tibboel, D; Knibbe, C A J

    2016-01-01

    The gold standard for quantification of pain is a person's self-report. However, we need objective parameters for pain measurement when intensive care patients, for example, are not able to report pain themselves. An increase in pain is currently thought to coincide with an increase in stress hormones. This observational study investigated whether procedure-related pain is associated with an increase of plasma cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. In 59 patients receiving intensive care after cardiac surgery, cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline plasma levels were measured immediately before and immediately after patients were turned for washing, either combined with the removal of chest tubes or not. Numeric rating scale scores were obtained before, during, and after the procedure. Unacceptably severe pain (numeric rating scale ≥ 4) was reported by seven (12%), 26 (44%), and nine (15%) patients, before, during and after the procedure, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between numeric rating scale scores and change in cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline plasma levels during the procedure. Despite current convictions that pain coincides with an increase in stress hormones, procedural pain was not associated with a significant increase in plasma stress hormone levels in patients who had undergone cardiac surgery. Thus, plasma levels of cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline seem unsuitable for further research on the measurement of procedural pain. PMID:26673589

  1. Effects of Cortisol on the Intestinal Mucosal Immune Response during Cohabitant Challenge with IPNV in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Niklasson, Lars; Sundh, Henrik; Olsen, Rolf-Erik; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Skjødt, Karsten; Nilsen, Tom O.; Sundell, Kristina Snuttan

    2014-01-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes high incidence of disease in salmonids during the first period after SW transfer. During this period as well as during periods of stress, cortisol levels increase and indications of a relationship between IPNV susceptibility and cortisol have been suggested. The intestine is an entry route and a target tissue for IPNV displaying severe enteritis and sloughing of the mucosa in infected fish. The mechanisms behind effects of the virus on the intestinal tissue and the impact of cortisol on the effect remain unclear. In the present study, Atlantic salmon post smolts treated with or without slow release cortisol implants were subjected to a cohabitant IPNV challenge. Analysis of genes and proteins related to the innate and acquired immune responses against virus was performed 6 days post-challenge using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. An increased mRNA expression of anti-viral cytokine interferon type I was observed in the proximal intestine and head kidney as a response to the viral challenge and this effect was suppressed by cortisol. No effect was seen in the distal intestine. T-cell marker CD3 as well as MHC-I in both intestinal regions and in the head kidney was down regulated at the mRNA level. Number of CD8α lymphocytes decreased in the proximal intestine in response to cortisol. On the other hand, mRNA expression of Mx and IL-1β increased in the proximal intestine and head kidney in IPNV challenged fish in the presence of cortisol suggesting that the immune activation shifts in timing and response pathway during simulated stress. The present study clearly demonstrates that IPNV infection results in a differentiated epithelial immune response in the different intestinal regions of the Atlantic salmon. It also reveals that the epithelial immune response differs from the systemic, but that both are modulated by the stress hormone cortisol. PMID:24809845

  2. Coordination of the cortisol and testosterone responses: A dual axis approach to understanding the response to social status threats.

    PubMed

    Turan, Bulent; Tackett, Jennifer L; Lechtreck, Maria T; Browning, Wesley R

    2015-12-01

    For many people, competitions, status challenges, and being evaluated by others result in increases in cortisol as well as testosterone. It is argued that physiological processes work in a coordinated fashion when facing social evaluative-competitive situations. Such a coordinated response may be part of an evolved system, monitoring and responding to threats to one's social status. In two studies, using within-person multi-level analyses, we tested the hypothesis that adult men, pre/early pubertal boys, and pre/early pubertal girls show a coordinated response in cortisol and testosterone (i.e., coupling of cortisol and testosterone responses) during a social evaluative situation. In Study 1, 85 men delivered speeches and performed difficult arithmetic tasks in front of critical evaluators, prepared for a competition, and provided multiple saliva samples throughout the procedure for cortisol and testosterone assays. In Study 2, 79 boys and 74 girls underwent similar procedures as in Study 1. Within-person analyses suggested that cortisol and testosterone responses were indeed positively associated for all three groups (men, boys, and girls). That is, on average a participant's cortisol and testosterone levels tended to rise and fall together throughout the procedure, suggesting that cortisol and testosterone show coordinated activation and deactivation (coupling) during social status threats. Furthermore, men with higher anxiety during the stressor tasks (Study 1; coded by raters from video recordings) and both boys and girls with higher parent reported trait negative affectivity (Study 2) had stronger coupling. Men (Study 1) higher in self-reported trait dominance and verbal dominance (coded by raters from video recordings during the stressor), and lower in basal testosterone had weaker coupling. A coordinated hormone response may have important adaptive functions when dealing with status threats; cortisol can mobilize energy resources and testosterone can facilitate performance. These findings have implications for developing a dual axis understanding of physiological responses during social threats and competition and their function. PMID:26254769

  3. Differences in Salivary Alpha-Amylase and Cortisol Responsiveness following Exposure to Electrical Stimulation versus the Trier Social Stress Tests

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Okamoto, Shizuko; Ando, Tomoko; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Imanaga, Junko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-01-01

    Background Cortisol is an essential hormone in the regulation of the stress response along the HPA axis, and salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels. Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has also emerged as a novel biomarker for psychosocial stress responsiveness within the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system. Principal Findings We measured sAA and salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electric stimulation stress. One hundred forty-nine healthy volunteers participated in this study. All subjects were exposed to both the TSST and electric stimulation stress on separate days. We measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels three times immediately before, immediately after, and 20 min after the stress challenge. The State (STAI-S) and Trait (STAI-T) versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test and the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests were administered to participants before the electrical stimulation and TSST protocols. We also measured HF, LF and LF/HF Heart Rate Variability ratio immediately after electrical stimulation and TSST exposure. Following TSST exposure or electrical stimulation, sAA levels displayed a rapid increase and recovery, returning to baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Salivary cortisol responses showed a delayed increase, which remained significantly elevated from baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Analyses revealed no differences between men and women with regard to their sAA response to the challenges (TSST or electric stimulations), while we found significantly higher salivary cortisol responses to the TSST in females. We also found that younger subjects tended to display higher sAA activity. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly correlated with the strength of the applied electrical stimulation. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that the HPA axis (but not the SAM system) may show differential response patterns to distinct kinds of stressors. PMID:22859941

  4. Salivary alpha-amylase, cortisol and chromogranin A responses to a lecture: impact of sex.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Dreux, B; Massart, A; Nourrit, B; Rama, L M; Teixeira, A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) examine the presence of stress on professors when they teach in front of 200 students and analyse objectively such stress using biomarkers such as salivary cortisol, chromogranin A (CgA) and alpha-amylase (AA) (2) investigate whether sex affects the reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol concentrations and the interaction of both hormonal systems. Fifty-two participants (26 women and 26 men) collected nine unstimulated saliva samples on 2 days, (one working day, and one resting day). Cortisol concentrations and AA activity measured on the teaching day were significantly higher than those noted on the resting values. No differences between the resting day and the teaching day were reported for CgA. Our results showed a cortisol response to teaching, which was characterized by an anticipatory rise. The AA level was significantly increased after the end of the lecture, and returned to the pre-lecture level 30 min after the end of the lecture. The awakening cortisol response noted on the teaching day was significantly higher in females than in males. No baseline sex differences in sAA and CgA were observed and men and women seem to have a comparable reactivity in sAA, CgA and cortisol levels on lecture stress. The mechanisms that leads to modify activity of salivary AA and CgA due to stress is not entirely understood and further research is needed to elucidate them. PMID:19190932

  5. Salivary cortisol, testosterone, and T/C ratio responses during a 36-hole golf competition.

    PubMed

    Doan, B K; Newton, R U; Kraemer, W J; Kwon, Y-H; Scheet, T P

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of 36 continuous holes of competitive golf on salivary testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone-to-cortisol ratio and their relation to performance in eight elite male collegiate golfers (age 20.3 [+/- 1.5] years). Thirty-six holes of a 54-hole NCAA golf tournament were played on the first day of the competition. A saliva sample was taken 45 minutes prior to the round and immediately following each hole for a total of 37 samples per subject. Time matched baseline samples were collected on a different day to account for circadian variation. Six-hole areas under the curve (AUC) values were calculated for endocrine measures. Significant (p < 0.05) increases were noted for cortisol during competition, however, testosterone did not change during competition compared to baseline. Testosterone-to-cortisol (T/C) ratio was significantly lower throughout the competition compared to baseline measures. Thirty-six-hole AUC testosterone-to-cortisol ratio response was correlated (r = 0.82) to 36-hole score. There was a high correlation between pre-round testosterone (r = 0.71), T/C ratio response (r = 0.82), and 36-hole score. CSAI-2 somatic anxiety was correlated to pre-round cortisol (r = 0.81) and testosterone (r = - 0.80) response. These results indicate a significant hormonal response during 10 hours of competitive golf. Good golf performance (low golf scores) in this competition was related to low T/C ratio (r = .82). Additionally, results from this investigation validated CSAI-2 somatic anxiety with physiological measures of anxiety. PMID:17111317

  6. The mu-opioid receptor polymorphism A118G predicts cortisol responses to naloxone and stress.

    PubMed

    Chong, Rachel Y; Oswald, Lynn; Yang, Xiaoju; Uhart, Magdalena; Lin, Ping-I; Wand, Gary S

    2006-01-01

    A polymorphism in the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) (A118G) has been shown to increase beta-endorphin binding affinity, theoretically placing greater inhibitory tone on hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. We hypothesized that the minor allele (G) would predict cortisol responses to both pharmacological (naloxone) and psychological (stress) activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Healthy subjects (mean age 25.2 years, SD 9.2 years) completed a naloxone challenge (n=74) and/or the modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) (n=86). For the naloxone challenge, two baseline blood samples were obtained. Then, five increasing doses of i.v. naloxone were administered at 30-min intervals and 12 additional blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals. The TSST consisted of 5-min of public speaking and 5-min of mental arithmetic exercises. Three baseline and five post-TSST blood samples were drawn. Both the naloxone and TSST groups had significant adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol responses to their respective challenges (P<0.001). There were no differences in baseline ACTH, baseline cortisol, or ACTH response by genotype in either the naloxone or the TSST group. Among subjects expressing a G allele, there was a higher cortisol response to naloxone (P=0.046), but a lower cortisol response to the TSST (P=0.044). In conclusion, the minor allele (G) was associated with a robust cortisol response to naloxone blockade, but a blunted response to psychosocial stress. We speculate that increased opioid avidity of the minor allele receptor contributes to the differential response to naloxone vs stress. PMID:16123758

  7. Association between Strongyloides stercoralis infection and cortisol secretion in alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mnica L S; de J Ins, Elizabete; da S Souza, Alex Bruno; Dos S Dias, Victria Maria; Guimares, Cla M; Menezes, Edimacia R; Barbosa, Larissa G; Del Carmen M Alves, Maria; Teixeira, Mrcia Cristina A; Soares, Neci M

    2016-02-01

    A higher prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infections has been reported in alcoholic patients compared to nonalcoholic patients living in the same area. Excessive alcohol consumption increases the levels of endogenous corticosteroids that subsequently enhance the fecundity of S. stercoralis parthenogenetic females. These corticosteroids also enhance the transformation of rhabditiform larvae into infective filariform larvae by mimicking the effect of the ecdysteroid hormones produced by the parasite, thus leading to autoinfection. In addition, alterations in the intestinal barrier and host immune response contribute to the development of hyperinfection and severe strongyloidiasis in alcoholic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of S. stercoralis infections in alcoholic patients and to determine the association between S. stercoralis infection and endogenous cortisol levels. The frequency of infection was evaluated in 332 alcoholic and 92 nonalcoholic patients. The parasitological diagnosis was carried out by agar plate culture, the modified Baermann-Moraes method and spontaneous sedimentation. The immunological diagnosis was performed using an ELISA with anti-S. stercoralis IgG. The cortisol levels were measured in serum samples by ELISA. The frequency of S. stercoralis infection in alcoholic patients was 23.5% (78/332), while in nonalcoholic patients, it was 5.4% (5/92) (p<0.05). The cortisol levels were higher in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic patients (p<0.05). However, among the alcoholic patients, the cortisol levels did not differ between S. stercoralis-infected and uninfected patients (p>0.05). As demonstrated in this work, 81.3% (26/32) of patients with a high parasite load, considered as more than 11 larvae per gram of feces, presented serum cortisol levels above the normal reference value (24mg/dL). High endogenous cortisol levels in alcoholic patients were not associated to susceptibility to S. stercoralis infection, however once infected, this may lead to a high parasite load. PMID:26592319

  8. Therapeutic Effects of Pre-Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon) used as a Non-Hormonal Alternative to HRT in Perimenopausal Women - Clinical Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mscisz, A.; Kedzia, B.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Roots of cruciferous plant Lepidium peruvianum Chacon cultivated in high plateaus of Andes and known under its common name Maca, have been traditionally-used as an energizing vegetable with therapeutic properties for both men and women. Maca has been recognized by natives of Peru as herbal remedy helping to treat conditions affecting menopausal women. Objective: The effects of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO) on quantitative physiological responses and alleviation of symptoms contributing to menopausal discomfort in perimenopausal women was examined. Methods: In this, four months, double blind, crossover, randomized pilot trial, monthly measurements of the following blood serum constituents were taken: Estrogen (E2), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, T4), minerals (Ca, K, Fe) and lipid profile (Triglicerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). In monthly interviews conducted by gynecologist, body weight and blood pressure were registered and Menopausal Index according to Kuppermans was determined. Toxicity of Maca -GO determined on rats showed its safe use at the level of 7.5mg/kg body weight. A group of 20 women (aged 41-50 years), who fulfilled criteria of being in perimenopausal stage (E2 above 40pg/ml and FSH below 30IU/ml), were randomly allocated to two even groups, one receiving for two months Maca-GO and the other Placebo capsules followed by a crossover with treatment change for another two months period. All participants signed informed consent to participate. Two 500mg hard capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo were self-administered by participants twice daily with meals (total 2g/day). Results: Two months administration of Maca-GO significantly alleviated symptoms of discomfort observed in majority of women involved in the study (74%-87%) as assessed by Kuppermans Menopausal index. This was associated with significant increase in E2 and FSH, Progesterone and ACTH levels, and reduction in blood pressure, body weight, Triglycerides and Cholesterol levels. There was a distinctive placebo effect observed at the beginning of the study. Conclusions: The results showed that in addition to reduction in body weight, blood pressure and increasing serum HDL and Iron, pre-gelatinized Maca-GO may be a valuable non-hormonal plant preparation for balancing levels of hormones (FSH, E2, PG and ACTH) and alleviating negative physiological and psychological symptoms (frequency of hot flushes, incidence in night sweating, interrupted sleep pattern, nervousness, depression and heart palpitations) experienced by women in perimenopausal stage. It appears that Maca-GO may act as a toner of hormonal processes, leading to alleviation of discomfort felt by perimenopausal women, hence, its potential use as non-hormonal alternative to HRT program. PMID:23674976

  9. Cortisol and antidepressant effects of yoga

    PubMed Central

    Thirthalli, J.; Naveen, G. H.; Rao, M. G.; Varambally, S.; Christopher, R.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Hypercortisolemia is well-known in depression and yoga has been demonstrated earlier to reduce the parameters of stress, including cortisol levels. Aim: We aimed to find the role of yoga as an antidepressant as well as its action on lowering the serum cortisol levels. Settings and Design: An open-labeled study consisting of three groups (yoga alone, yoga along with antidepressant medication and antidepressant medication alone) was conducted at a tertiary care psychiatry hospital. Methodology: Out-patient depressives who were not suicidal were offered yoga as a possible antidepressant therapy. A validated yoga module was used as therapy taught over a month and to be practiced at home daily. Patients were free to choose the drugs if their psychiatrist advised. Patients (n=54) were rated on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) with serum cortisol measurements at baseline and after 3 months. In 54 patients, assessments and blood test results were both available. 19 each received yoga alone or with drugs and 16 received drugs only. Healthy comparison subjects (n=18) too underwent morning cortisol measurements once. Results: Serum cortisol was higher in depressives compared with controls. In the total sample, the cortisol level dropped significantly at the end of treatment. More patients in the yoga groups had a drop in cortisol levels as compared to drug-only group. In the yoga-only group, the cortisol drop correlated with the drop in HDRS score (antidepressant effect). Conclusion: The findings support that yoga may act at the level of the hypothalamus by its ‘anti-stress’ effects (reducing the cortisol), to bring about relief in depression. PMID:24049209

  10. The effects of cannabinoids on serum cortisol and prolactin in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Mohini; Braley, Gabriel; Pittman, Brian; Cooper, Thomas; Perry, Edward; Krystal, John; DSouza, Deepak Cyril

    2010-01-01

    Background Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit substances, and there is growing interest in the therapeutic applications of cannabinoids. While known to modulate neuroendocrine function, the precise acute and chronic dose-related effects of cannabinoids in humans are not well-known. Furthermore, the existing literature on the neuroendocrine effects of cannabinoids is limited by small sample sizes (n=622), heterogeneous samples with regard to cannabis exposure (lumping users and nonusers), lack of controlling for chronic cannabis exposure, differing methodologies, and limited doseresponse data. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?-9-THC) was hypothesized to produce dose-related increases in plasma cortisol levels and decreases in plasma prolactin levels. Furthermore, relative to controls, frequent users of cannabis were hypothesized to show altered baseline levels of these hormones and blunted ?-9-THC-induced changes of these hormones. Materials and methods Pooled data from a series of laboratory studies with multiple doses of intravenous ?-9-THC in healthy control subjects (n=36) and frequent users of cannabis (n=40) was examined to characterize the acute, chronic, and acute on chronic effects of cannabinoids on plasma cortisol and prolactin levels. Hormone levels were measured before (baseline) and 70 min after administration of each dose of ?-9-THC. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models with +70 min hormonal levels as the dependant variable and baseline hormonal level as the covariate. Results At socially relevant doses, ?-9-THC raised plasma cortisol levels in a dose-dependent manner but frequent users showed blunted increases relative to healthy controls. Frequent users also had lower baseline plasma prolactin levels relative to healthy controls. Conclusions These group differences may be related to the development of tolerance to the neuroendocrine effects of cannabinoids. Alternatively, these results may reflect inherent differences in neuroendocrine function in frequent users of cannabis and not a consequence of cannabis use. PMID:19083209

  11. Correlations between stress hormone levels in umbilical cord blood and duration of delivery.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yoko; Doi, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Suguru; Kawai, Kennta; Tanaka, Minoru

    2015-07-01

    Correlations between umbilical cord blood concentration of stress response hormone cortisol and prolactin, and delivery duration were examined. Thirty-three cases were selected in which both mothers and neonates were healthy, and the neonates were delivered at full term. The umbilical cord blood was collected at the time of delivery and concentrations of cortisol and prolactin were measured. The cortisol level was significantly higher after vacuum-assisted delivery than after spontaneous delivery (p=0.044). Significant positive correlations (p=0.0289) were observed between cortisol level and delivery duration. In particular, the duration of the second stage of delivery showed stronger positive correlation (p=0.0304) with the cortisol level. The prolactin level showed weak correlation with the duration of full delivery and the second stage of delivery. The findings suggest that foetuses may respond to stress by uterine contraction during delivery. PMID:26160091

  12. Cortisol kinetics and fluid distribution in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Nichols, D J; Weisbart, M; Quinn, J

    1985-10-01

    Cortisol kinetics were examined in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) to assess possible relationships with body fluid distribution during acclimation to sea water (SW). The disappearance curve of [3H]cortisol in plasma, after a bolus injection, was analysed by compartmental analysis using a three-pool mammillary model. The results indicated that only approximately 10% of the total exchangeable cortisol was located in the plasma pool. Over 75% of the total cortisol was associated with a large slowly exchanging pool and the remaining cortisol was located in a second extravascular tissue pool which was in rapid exchange with the plasma pool. Two days after transfer of trout from fresh water to SW, when plasma chloride concentration was at a new steady state, body weight, intracellular fluid volume, haematocrit and inulin clearance rate were lowered but plasma, blood and extracellular volumes were unaltered. Cortisol plasma clearance rate was unaltered but plasma cortisol concentration, cortisol secretion rate, total cortisol pool size and interpool transport rates were increased. These results are consistent with an acute role for cortisol in SW adaptation of brook trout. The fraction of the total cortisol cleared was smaller and the average time that cortisol spent in the tissue pools was slightly longer in trout after transfer to SW, possibly reflecting altered fluid dynamics. The fractional disappearance rate was larger at higher plasma cortisol concentrations in the SW trout. This relationship is compatible with the hypothesis that cortisol protein binding protects cortisol from metabolism. PMID:4045354

  13. Adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone rhythms in male golden hamsters on long and short days

    SciTech Connect

    Ottenweller, J.E.; Tapp, W.N.; Pitman, D.L.; Natelson, B.H. New Jersey Medical School, Newark )

    1987-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormones were measured at 4-h intervals around the clock in male hamsters on long (14:10-h light-dark cycle) and short (10:14-h light-dark cycle) days. Plasma corticosterone, cortisol, thyroxine (T{sub 4}), triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and testosterone rhythms were present on long days. The only one of these hormones to have a significant rhythm on short days was cortisol, but even its amplitude was suppressed compared with the cortisol rhythm on long days. Short days also lowered mean plasma levels of cortisol, T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, and testosterone. Finally, short days raised the ratio of corticosterone to cortisol and lowered the ratio of T{sub 4} to T{sub 3}. Both ratios had significant rhythms on long days but not on short days. Because of the many interactions among adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone axes, it is unclear whether the primary effect of short days is on one of these endocrine systems or on another factor that has separate effects on each of the hormone rhythms that was measured. Nonetheless, it is clear that a major effect of short day lengths in hamsters is to suppress hormone rhythms. Explanations of photoperiodic effects that depend on endocrine mediation should take this into account.

  14. The relationship between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol profiles in daily life.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Tara; Carvalho, Livia A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Relationships between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol output over the day have not been studied extensively. We tested associations between cortisol responses to a set of laboratory challenges (colour/word interference and mirror tracing) and three aspects of cortisol output over the day, namely total area under the curve (AUCday), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the slope of cortisol decline over the day. Participants were 466 men and women aged 54-76 years. We found that cortisol responses to laboratory stress were positively associated with cortisol AUCday independently of sex, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and time of laboratory testing (B=0.212, 95% C.I. 0.143-0.282, p<0.001). No associations between laboratory responses and the CAR or cortisol slope were observed. The laboratory-field association was not moderated by demographic or psychosocial factors. The study provides evidence for the ecological validity of acute laboratory stress testing. PMID:24582772

  15. The relationship between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol profiles in daily life

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Tara; Carvalho, Livia A.; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol output over the day have not been studied extensively. We tested associations between cortisol responses to a set of laboratory challenges (colour/word interference and mirror tracing) and three aspects of cortisol output over the day, namely total area under the curve (AUCday), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the slope of cortisol decline over the day. Participants were 466 men and women aged 54–76 years. We found that cortisol responses to laboratory stress were positively associated with cortisol AUCday independently of sex, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and time of laboratory testing (B = 0.212, 95% C.I. 0.143–0.282, p < 0.001). No associations between laboratory responses and the CAR or cortisol slope were observed. The laboratory–field association was not moderated by demographic or psychosocial factors. The study provides evidence for the ecological validity of acute laboratory stress testing. PMID:24582772

  16. Estradiol enables cortisol to act directly upon the pituitary to suppress pituitary responsiveness to GnRH in sheep.

    PubMed

    Pierce, B N; Stackpole, C A; Breen, K M; Clarke, I J; Karsch, F J; Rivalland, E T A; Turner, A I; Caddy, D J; Wagenmaker, E R; Oakley, A E; Tilbrook, A J

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that cortisol infusion reduced the luteinizing hormone (LH) response to fixed hourly GnRH injections in ovariectomized ewes treated with estradiol during the non-breeding season (pituitary-clamp model). In contrast, cortisol did not affect the response to 2 hourly invariant GnRH injections in hypothalamo-pituitary disconnected ovariectomized ewes during the breeding season. To understand the differing results in these animal models and to determine if cortisol can act directly at the pituitary to suppress responsiveness to GnRH, we investigated the importance of the frequency of GnRH stimulus, the presence of estradiol and stage of the circannual breeding season. In experiment 1, during the non-breeding season, ovariectomized ewes were treated with estradiol, and pulsatile LH secretion was restored with i.v. GnRH injections either hourly or 2 hourly in the presence or absence of exogenous cortisol. Experiments 2 and 3 were conducted in hypothalamo-pituitary disconnected ovariectomized ewes in which GnRH was injected i.v. every 2 h. Experiment 2 was conducted during the non-breeding season and saline or cortisol was infused for 30 h in a cross-over design. Experiment 3 was conducted during the non-breeding and breeding seasons and saline or cortisol was infused for 30 h in the absence and presence of estradiol using a cross-over design. Samples were taken from all animals to measure plasma LH. LH pulse amplitude was reduced by cortisol in the pituitary clamp model with no difference between the hourly and 2-hourly GnRH pulse mode. In the absence of estradiol, there was no effect of cortisol on LH pulse amplitude in GnRH-replaced ovariectomized hypothalamo-pituitary disconnected ewes in either season. The LH pulse amplitude was reduced in both seasons in experiment 3 when cortisol was infused during estradiol treatment. We conclude that the ability of cortisol to reduce LH secretion does not depend upon the frequency of GnRH stimulus and that estradiol enables cortisol to act directly on the pituitary of ovariectomized hypothalamo-pituitary disconnected ewes to suppress the responsiveness to GnRH; this effect occurs in the breeding and non-breeding seasons. PMID:18714145

  17. Cortisol is not associated with telomere shortening or chromosomal instability in human lymphocytes cultured under low and high folate conditions.

    PubMed

    Bull, Caroline; Christensen, Helen; Fenech, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress and nutritional deficiencies are factors that impact negatively on human health and disease risk. Chronic stress has been associated with accelerated leukocyte telomere shortening in numerous cohorts, however, a mechanistic link has proven elusive. This study tested the hypotheses that chronic exposure to the stress hormone, cortisol, causes telomere shortening and chromosome instability (CIN) in vitro, and that these effects would be further exacerbated by folate (vitamin B9) deficiency. Primary human lymphocytes were maintained in vitro for 12 days in medium containing either 25 nM folic acid (FA(low)) or 100 nM FA (FA(high)), together with either 0, 400, 1000 or 3500 nM cortisol. The interactive effects of cortisol and FA were examined by comparing telomere length (TL), biomarkers of DNA damage, and cytostasis. At day 12 TL was 5-17% longer in lymphocytes cultured in FA(low) conditions (mean SD;10.2% 1.6), compared with those in FA(high) medium (9.1% 1, p = 0.02). Refuting the hypothesis, TL was consistently greater in the presence of cortisol. The effect of FA deficiency on the frequency of DNA damage was significant for nucleoplasmic bridges, circular nuclei, micronuclei and nuclear buds, (p < 0.0001-0.001). The effect of cortisol, however, was negligible, only reaching statistical significance for the frequency of fused nuclei (p = 0.04). Cortisol was significantly associated with reduced cell division and growth and had an apparent protective effect on cell viability in the FA(low) conditions. Conclusions: Both chronic cortisol exposure, and folate deficiency, resulted in telomere elongation, however, the effect of cortisol was marginal relative to that of folate. Cortisol was not associated with increased chromosomal instability, but caused a significant reduction in cell division and growth. Together these results indicate that cortisol is not directly genotoxic and that the telomere shortening associated with increased psychological stress in vivo may not be explained by a direct effect of cortisol. PMID:25748629

  18. Cortisol Is Not Associated with Telomere Shortening or Chromosomal Instability in Human Lymphocytes Cultured under Low and High Folate Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Caroline; Christensen, Helen; Fenech, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress and nutritional deficiencies are factors that impact negatively on human health and disease risk. Chronic stress has been associated with accelerated leukocyte telomere shortening in numerous cohorts, however, a mechanistic link has proven elusive. This study tested the hypotheses that chronic exposure to the stress hormone, cortisol, causes telomere shortening and chromosome instability (CIN) in vitro, and that these effects would be further exacerbated by folate (vitamin B9) deficiency. Primary human lymphocytes were maintained in vitro for 12 days in medium containing either 25 nM folic acid (FA(low)) or 100 nM FA (FA(high)), together with either 0, 400, 1000 or 3500 nM cortisol. The interactive effects of cortisol and FA were examined by comparing telomere length (TL), biomarkers of DNA damage, and cytostasis. At day 12 TL was 5-17% longer in lymphocytes cultured in FA(low) conditions (mean ± SD;10.2% ± 1.6), compared with those in FA(high) medium (9.1% ± 1, p = 0.02). Refuting the hypothesis, TL was consistently greater in the presence of cortisol. The effect of FA deficiency on the frequency of DNA damage was significant for nucleoplasmic bridges, circular nuclei, micronuclei and nuclear buds, (p < 0.0001 – 0.001). The effect of cortisol, however, was negligible, only reaching statistical significance for the frequency of fused nuclei (p = 0.04). Cortisol was significantly associated with reduced cell division and growth and had an apparent protective effect on cell viability in the FA(low) conditions. Conclusions: Both chronic cortisol exposure, and folate deficiency, resulted in telomere elongation, however, the effect of cortisol was marginal relative to that of folate. Cortisol was not associated with increased chromosomal instability, but caused a significant reduction in cell division and growth. Together these results indicate that cortisol is not directly genotoxic and that the telomere shortening associated with increased psychological stress in vivo may not be explained by a direct effect of cortisol. PMID:25748629

  19. Pregnancy Anxiety and Prenatal Cortisol Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 to 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  20. Pregnancy anxiety and prenatal cortisol trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kane, Heidi S; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A

    2014-07-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 and 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  1. Melatonin and cortisol assessment of circadian shifts in astronauts before flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Putcha, L.; Chen, Y. M.; Baker, E.

    1995-01-01

    Melatonin and cortisol were measured in saliva and urine samples to assess the effectiveness of a 7-day protocol combining bright-light exposure with sleep shifting in eliciting a 12-hr phase-shift delay in eight U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts before launch. Baseline acrophases for 15 control subjects with normal sleep-wake cycles were as follows: cortisol (saliva) at 0700 (0730 in urine); melatonin (saliva) at 0130 (6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate at 0230 in urine). Acrophases of the astronaut group fell within 2.5 hr of these values before the treatment protocols were begun. During the bright-light and sleep-shifting treatments, both absolute melatonin production and melatonin rhythmicity were diminished during the first 3 treatment days; total daily cortisol levels remained constant throughout the treatment. By the fourth to sixth day of the 7-day protocol, seven of the eight crew members showed phase delays in all four measures that fell within 2 hr of the expected 11- to 12-hr shift. Although cortisol and melatonin rhythms each corresponded with the phase shift, the rhythms in these two hormones did not correspond with each other during the transition.

  2. Cortisol and stress responses during a game and practice in female collegiate soccer players.

    PubMed

    Haneishi, Kanae; Fry, Andrew C; Moore, Christopher A; Schilling, Brian K; Li, Yuhua; Fry, Mary D

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cortisol responses from a regular season game and a typical practice session in female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players. Eighteen players were assigned to 2 groups, 10 starters and 8 nonstarters, depending on their playing time. Salivary cortisol concentration, as well as competitive sport anxiety (somatic and cognitive anxiety, self-confidence), was monitored before and after 1 regular season game and 1 typical practice session. Although salivary cortisol levels increased postgame for both starters (+250%) and nonstarters (+140%), they increased to a greater extent for the starters. Practice salivary cortisol did not significantly change (p > 0.05). Cognitive and somatic anxiety was greater pre- and postgame when compared with the pre- and postpractice scores, respectively. These data clearly demonstrate the psychological and physiological differences between soccer competition and practice in collegiate women. It appears that both physiological and psychological variables combine to contribute to the large stress hormone response to an actual competitive game. PMID:17530979

  3. Association of salivary-assessed oxytocin and cortisol levels with time of night and sleep stage.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Baird, Alison L; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Davies, Anna C; Neuschaffer, Jennifer L; Henley-Einion, Josephine A; Weidemann, Christoph T; Thome, Johannes; McNamara, Patrick; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2012-10-01

    There have been proposals for REM to have a function of emotional memory consolidation, and also for REM sleep to be involved in the promotion of attachment behaviour. The hormones cortisol and oxytocin, respectively, may be involved in these proposed REM sleep functions. However, there are conflicting reports on whether levels of cortisol differ between sleep stages when time since sleep onset (SSO) is controlled, and virtually no literature on whether levels of oxytocin differ between sleep stages. This study thus investigated the changes in levels of oxytocin (OT) and cortisol (CT) across the night, and whether these levels differ between REM and N2 sleep when time SSO is controlled. 20 participants (10 males, 10 females, mean age = 20.45, SD = 2.01) were awakened 10 min into REM and N2 sleep periods in the sleep laboratory and gave saliva samples which were assayed for OT and CT. Levels of OT were relatively constant across the night, whereas CT increased significantly. REM and N2 did not differ significantly neither for OT nor for CT. The study has implications for models of sleep-dependent memory consolidation that incorporate the late sleep increase in cortisol as a functional component of memory consolidation, and also for the medical diagnostic assaying of OT during sleep. PMID:22911329

  4. CRHR1 genotype and history of maltreatment predict cortisol reactivity to stress in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; McLaughlin, Katie A; Walsh, Kate; Sheridan, Margaret A; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the contributions of a polymorphism of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type I (CRHR1) gene (rs110402) and a history of child maltreatment--alone and in interaction--to patterns of cortisol reactivity in adolescents. Adolescents between the age of 13 and 17 years with (n=61) and without (n=97) a history of child maltreatment were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was assessed at baseline, and 15 and 30 min after the start of the speech portion of the TSST. Saliva samples for genotyping rs110402 also were collected. Adolescents with one or more G alleles of rs110402, relative to A allele homozygotes, and those exposed to maltreatment, relative to non-exposed adolescents, exhibited blunted cortisol reactivity to the TSST (although these associations approached, but did not reach, the level of statistical significance when accounting for underlying population structure in our racially and ethnically diverse sample). There was also a trend for a stronger child maltreatment association with cortisol hypo-reactivity among G allele carriers, but this association was not statistically significant. Findings suggest that CRHR1 variation may moderate the downstream effects of child maltreatment on HPA axis function, and implications for understanding mechanisms of risk associated with early adversity are discussed. PMID:24703172

  5. Effect of Childhood Emotional Abuse and Age on Cortisol Responsivity in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Linda L.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Ross, Nicole S.; Khoury, Lamya; Anderson, George M.; Price, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The dexamethasone/corticotropin releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test has been proposed as a potential tool for identifying endophenotypes relevant to mood disorders. Several studies have shown abnormal cortisol reactivity in phenotypically healthy adults without psychiatric disorders as a function of exposure to adverse early environments. Methods Following a battery of self-report and interview assessments, 230 adults without major Axis I Disorders completed the Dex/CRH test. Childhood maltreatment was evaluated with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Effect of childhood emotional abuse (EA) on cortisol responses to the Dex/CRH test was examined with repeated measures general linear models including age, sex and other types of maltreatment. Post-hoc models examined the significant interaction between EA and age, and tested the stability of the main findings with selected covariates. Results A history of self-reported childhood EA independently and significantly diminished cortisol response. This effect was amplified with advancing subject age, and was independent of the effects of other types of childhood maltreatment, lifetime diagnoses, and symptom scores. Conclusions Dampened cortisol reactivity may be a consequence of childhood emotional abuse that is cumulative over time. Prospective longitudinal investigation is needed to evaluate the potential of this proposed endophenotype. PMID:19375070

  6. Impulsivity, risk taking, and cortisol reactivity as a function of psychosocial stress and personality in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Finy, M Sima; Bresin, Konrad; Korol, Donna L; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-11-01

    Although adolescence is characterized by hormonal changes and increased disinhibited behaviors, explanations for these developmental changes that include personality and environmental factors have not been fully elucidated. We examined the interactions between psychosocial stress and the traits of negative emotionality and constraint on impulsive and risk-taking behaviors as well as salivary cortisol reactivity in 88 adolescents. In terms of behavioral outcomes, analyses revealed that negative emotionality and constraint were protective of impulsivity and risk taking, respectively, for adolescents in the no-stress condition; personality did not relate to either behavior in the stress condition. Low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition engaged in less risk taking than low-constraint adolescents in the no-stress condition, whereas there was no effect of stress group for high-constraint adolescents. In terms of cortisol reactivity, analyses revealed that low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition exhibited greater cortisol reactivity compared to high-constraint adolescents, which suggests that low-constraint adolescents mobilize greater resources (e.g., increased cognitive control, heightened attention to threat) in stressful situations relative to nonstressful ones. These results demonstrate that two facets of disinhibition and cortisol reactivity are differentially affected by psychosocial stress and personality (and their interactions) in adolescents. PMID:24713465

  7. Synchrony of Diurnal Cortisol Pattern in Couples

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siwei; Rovine, Michael J.; Klein, Laura Cousino; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Cortisol is a biomarker of stress reactivity and its diurnal pattern is an indicator of general neuroendocrine health. Despite theories conceptualizing marital dyads as dynamic systems wherein spouses are interdependent in their physiology and stress coping, little is known about the daily processes in which spouses possibly influence each other in biological stress. Nineteen heterosexual couples provided saliva samples containing cortisol 4 times a day for 4 consecutive days. We used multilevel modeling to examine whether ones cortisol awaking response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) predict those of the spouses on the same day and/or on the next day. We found that spouses synchronize their DCS, such that on days when one experiences faster or slower decline in diurnal cortisol than usual, the spouse also experiences faster or slower decline than usual. For CAR, positive synchrony was only observed in couples reporting high levels of marital strain and disagreement. Cross-lagged regression analysis reveals stability in diurnal cortisol pattern. A steeper cortisol slope on a particular day predicts a steeper slope on the next day within an individual, but no significant cross-lagged relation was found between spouses. Couples reporting more spousal support tend to have stronger stability in CAR. These findings provide evidence that spouses are interdependent in their diurnal cortisol patterns on a day-to-day basis, and that these daily dynamics are associated with marital relationship quality. The study contributes to our understanding of marital processes and biobehavioral health. It also contributes methodologically to the advancement of longitudinal dyadic analysis. PMID:23978320

  8. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePLUS

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones ...

  9. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones ...

  10. Evidence for ultra-short-loop feedback in ACTH-induced interrenal steroidogenesis in coho salmon: acute self-suppression of cortisol secretion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bradford, C S; Fitzpatrick, M S; Schreck, C B

    1992-08-01

    Interrenal tissues from coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were incubated in a defined medium under blood-gas atmosphere at 17 degrees. Rates of cortisol secretion by tissues incubated in media containing 50 mU/ml porcine-ACTH were initially much greater than those of resting tissues in hormone-free media, but after 3 to 6 hr returned to resting rates. The time course of cortisol accumulation in ACTH-containing media was the same when tissues were incubated in different volumes; the final concentrations of cortisol in these incubations were similar to each other and resembled peak in vivo concentrations in juvenile coho subjected to acute stress. Cortisol secretion rates of tissues sequentially transferred to fresh ACTH-containing media every 6 hr did not return to resting levels but remained elevated for at least 24 hr. Cortisol secretion in response to ACTH was attenuated or completely abolished in tissues incubated in media containing exogenous cortisol; this effect was reversible and dose-dependent. Our results suggest that in coho salmon, cortisol may exert ultra-short-loop negative feedback directly at the level of the interrenal gland to effect self-suppression. PMID:1327952

  11. Effects of oral cortisol treatment in healthy young women on memory retrieval of negative and neutral words.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Sabrina; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wolf, Oliver T

    2005-03-01

    Studies in rodents have demonstrated that glucocorticoids enhance memory consolidation but impair delayed memory retrieval. Similar findings have been reported in humans. Emotional items are better remembered than neutral items. However, it is unknown if emotional valence influences the effects of cortisol on retrieval. In this double-blind crossover study, 16 healthy women learned a wordlist containing 15 neutral and 15 negative words. Delayed recall was tested 5h later. Cortisol administered before recall testing significantly reduced retrieval (p<.01). Exploratory follow-up analysis revealed that cortisol significantly impaired retrieval of negative words (p<.01), while having no significant effect on neutral words (p=.47). The current findings could suggest that emotional material is especially sensitive to the memory modulating effects of stress hormones. PMID:15721800

  12. Zinc oxide nanostructures for electrochemical cortisol biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Kaushik, Ajeet; Tracy, Kathryn; Bhansali, Shekhar; Pala, Nezih

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report on fabrication of a label free, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical cortisol immunosensors using one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and two dimensional nanoflakes (ZnO-NFs) as immobilizing matrix. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures (NSs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selective area diffraction (SAED) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) which showed that both ZnO-NRs and ZnO-NFs are single crystalline and oriented in [0001] direction. Anti-cortisol antibody (Anti-Cab) are used as primary capture antibodies to detect cortisol using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increase in cortisol concentration and exhibits a sensitivity of 3.078 K?. M-1 for ZnO-NRs and 540 ?. M -1 for ZnO-NFs. The developed ZnO-NSs based immunosensor is capable of detecting cortisol at 1 pM. The observed sensing parameters are in physiological range. The developed sensors can be integrated with microfluidic system and miniaturized potentiostat to detect cortisol at point-of-care.

  13. Absence of detectable melatonin and preservation of cortisol and thyrotropin rhythms in tetraplegia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitzer, J. M.; Ayas, N. T.; Shea, S. A.; Brown, R.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The human circadian timing system regulates the temporal organization of several endocrine functions, including the production of melatonin (via a neural pathway that includes the spinal cord), TSH, and cortisol. In traumatic spinal cord injury, afferent and efferent circuits that influence the basal production of these hormones may be disrupted. We studied five subjects with chronic spinal cord injury (three tetraplegic and two paraplegic, all neurologically complete injuries) under stringent conditions in which the underlying circadian rhythmicity of these hormones could be examined. Melatonin production was absent in the three tetraplegic subjects with injury to their lower cervical spinal cord and was of normal amplitude and timing in the two paraplegic subjects with injury to their upper thoracic spinal cord. The amplitude and the timing of TSH and cortisol rhythms were robust in the paraplegics and in the tetraplegics. Our results indicate that neurologically complete cervical spinal injury results in the complete loss of pineal melatonin production and that neither the loss of melatonin nor the loss of spinal afferent information disrupts the rhythmicity of cortisol or TSH secretion.

  14. Facial attractiveness is related to women's cortisol and body fat, but not with immune responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, Markus J.; Coetzee, Vinet; Moore, Fhionna R.; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Krama, Tatjana; Kivleniece, Inese; Krams, Indrikis

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that facial attractiveness indicates immune responsiveness in men and that this relationship is moderated by stress hormones which interact with testosterone levels. However, studies testing whether facial attractiveness in women signals their immune responsiveness are lacking. Here, we photographed young Latvian women, vaccinated them against hepatitis B and measured the amount of specific antibodies produced, cortisol levels and percentage body fat. Latvian men rated the attractiveness of the women's faces. Interestingly, in women, immune responsiveness (amount of antibodies produced) did not predict facial attractiveness. Instead, plasma cortisol level was negatively associated with attractiveness, indicating that stressed women look less attractive. Fat percentage was curvilinearly associated with facial attractiveness, indicating that being too thin or too fat reduces attractiveness. Our study suggests that in contrast to men, facial attractiveness in women does not indicate immune responsiveness against hepatitis B, but is associated with two other aspects of long-term health and fertility: circulating levels of the stress hormone cortisol and percentage body fat. PMID:23697641

  15. Facial attractiveness is related to women's cortisol and body fat, but not with immune responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Markus J; Coetzee, Vinet; Moore, Fhionna R; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Krama, Tatjana; Kivleniece, Inese; Krams, Indrikis

    2013-08-23

    Recent studies suggest that facial attractiveness indicates immune responsiveness in men and that this relationship is moderated by stress hormones which interact with testosterone levels. However, studies testing whether facial attractiveness in women signals their immune responsiveness are lacking. Here, we photographed young Latvian women, vaccinated them against hepatitis B and measured the amount of specific antibodies produced, cortisol levels and percentage body fat. Latvian men rated the attractiveness of the women's faces. Interestingly, in women, immune responsiveness (amount of antibodies produced) did not predict facial attractiveness. Instead, plasma cortisol level was negatively associated with attractiveness, indicating that stressed women look less attractive. Fat percentage was curvilinearly associated with facial attractiveness, indicating that being too thin or too fat reduces attractiveness. Our study suggests that in contrast to men, facial attractiveness in women does not indicate immune responsiveness against hepatitis B, but is associated with two other aspects of long-term health and fertility: circulating levels of the stress hormone cortisol and percentage body fat. PMID:23697641

  16. Relationships among training stress, mood and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate/cortisol ratio in female cyclists.

    PubMed

    Bouget, Mikal; Rouveix, Mathieu; Michaux, Odile; Pequignot, Jean-Marc; Filaire, Edith

    2006-12-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of rapidly increased training volume and intensity on hormonal responses (salivary cortisol [C] and urinary dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate [DHEA-S]) and recovery-stress state perceived by 12 female cyclists. Over the 4-day experimental period, there was an average increase in training load of approximately 122% compared with that during the previous 12 days. Scores on subscales of the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes increased for the somatic component of stress (Fatigue, Emotional Stress and Social Stress; P<0.05) and decreased the factor indicating recovery (General Well Being; P<0.05) after the heavy training period. The training programme increased resting concentrations of salivary cortisol (P<0.05) and decreased the DHEA-S/C ratio (P<0.05). The increase in training load of cyclists was correlated with this hormonal ratio (r=-0.48, P<0.05). Changes in resting cortisol concentration as a result of heavy training stress were positively related to the change in Physical Complaints (r=0.69, P<0.01). Negative relationships were also found between changes in the DHEA-S/C ratio and changes in the somatic component of stress. The present results suggest that there is a dose-response relationship between increased training load, resting DHEA-S/C ratio and subjective assessment of stress and recovery, implying that this ratio could be used as an indicator of training status in female athletes. PMID:17101532

  17. Reduced nocturnal ACTH-driven cortisol secretion during critical illness

    PubMed Central

    Boonen, Eva; Meersseman, Philippe; Vervenne, Hilke; Meyfroidt, Geert; Guïza, Fabian; Wouters, Pieter J.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, during critical illness, cortisol metabolism was found to be reduced. We hypothesize that such reduced cortisol breakdown may suppress pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion via feedback inhibition. To test this hypothesis, nocturnal ACTH and cortisol secretory profiles were constructed by deconvolution analysis from plasma concentration time series in 40 matched critically ill patients and eight healthy controls, excluding diseases or drugs that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Blood was sampled every 10 min between 2100 and 0600 to quantify plasma concentrations of ACTH and (free) cortisol. Approximate entropy, an estimation of process irregularity, cross-approximate entropy, a measure of ACTH-cortisol asynchrony, and ACTH-cortisol dose-response relationships were calculated. Total and free plasma cortisol concentrations were higher at all times in patients than in controls (all P < 0.04). Pulsatile cortisol secretion was 54% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.005), explained by reduced cortisol burst mass (P = 0.03), whereas cortisol pulse frequency (P = 0.35) and nonpulsatile cortisol secretion (P = 0.80) were unaltered. Pulsatile ACTH secretion was 31% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.03), again explained by a lower ACTH burst mass (P = 0.02), whereas ACTH pulse frequency (P = 0.50) and nonpulsatile ACTH secretion (P = 0.80) were unchanged. ACTH-cortisol dose response estimates were similar in patients and controls. ACTH and cortisol approximate entropy were higher in patients (P ≤ 0.03), as was ACTH-cortisol cross-approximate entropy (P ≤ 0.001). We conclude that hypercortisolism during critical illness coincided with suppressed pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion and a normal ACTH-cortisol dose response. Increased irregularity and asynchrony of the ACTH and cortisol time series supported non-ACTH-dependent mechanisms driving hypercortisolism during critical illness. PMID:24569590

  18. A review of the re-emergence of adrenocorticotrophic hormone therapy in glomerular disease, more than a drug of last resort?

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Christopher J.; Hammad, Salim

    2015-01-01

    There has been a re-emergence of interest in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in patients with resistant nephrotic syndrome. We describe a patient with severe nephrosis and advanced chronic kidney disease with idiopathic membranous nephropathy resistant to conventional immunosuppressive therapies that achieved lasting remission with ACTH therapy. We explore the literature showing the extra renoprotective effects which might explain the response of proteinuric renal diseases to this treatment. PMID:26251711

  19. The Effects of Galantamine Hydrobromide Treatment on Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate and Cortisol Levels in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Izgi, Hasan Basri; Ozsoy, Saliha; Tanr?verdi, Fatih; Basturk, Mustafa; Asdemir, Akif; Be?irli, Asl?; Esel, Ertugrul; Sofuoglu, Seher

    2009-01-01

    Objective Mental fatigue, cognitive disorders, and sleep disturbances seen in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) may be attributed to cholinergic deficit. A functional deficiency of cholinergic neurotransmission may cause the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hypoactivity seen in CFS. Therefore, we investigated the alterations in stress hormones such as cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in CFS patients before and after 4-week administration of galantamine hydrobromide, a selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and aimed to investigate whether there are any relationships between the probable hormonal changes and cholinergic treatment. Methods Basal levels of cortisol and DHEAS were measured in 29 untreated CFS patients who were diagnosed according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria and in 20 healthy controls. In the patient group, four weeks after 8 mg/d galantamine hydrobromide treatment, cortisol and DHEAS levels were measured again. After the treatment 22 patients who stayed in study were divided into two subgroups as responders and nonresponders according to the reduction in their Newcastle Research Group ME/CFS Score Card (NRG) scores. Results Important findings of this study are lower pre-and post-treatment cortisol levels and in all CFS patients compared to controls (F=4.129, p=0.049; F=4.803, p=0.035, respectively); higher basal DHEAS values and higher DHEAS/cortisol molar ratios which were normalized following four weeks' treatment with 8 mg/d galantamine hydrobromide in the treatment-respondent group (F=5.382, p=0.029; F=5.722, p=0.025, respectively). Conclusion The findings of the decrease in basal DHEAS levels and DHEAS/cortisol molar ratios normalizing with galantamine treatment may give some support to the cholinergic deficit hypothesis in CFS. PMID:20046396

  20. Maternal cortisol over the course of pregnancy and subsequent child amygdala and hippocampus volumes and affective problems.

    PubMed

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Shahbaba, Babak; Pruessner, Jens C; Head, Kevin; Sandman, Curt A

    2012-05-15

    Stress-related variation in the intrauterine milieu may impact brain development and emergent function, with long-term implications in terms of susceptibility for affective disorders. Studies in animals suggest limbic regions in the developing brain are particularly sensitive to exposure to the stress hormone cortisol. However, the nature, magnitude, and time course of these effects have not yet been adequately characterized in humans. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted in 65 normal, healthy mother-child dyads to examine the association of maternal cortisol in early, mid-, and late gestation with subsequent measures at approximately 7 y age of child amygdala and hippocampus volume and affective problems. After accounting for the effects of potential confounding pre- and postnatal factors, higher maternal cortisol levels in earlier but not later gestation was associated with a larger right amygdala volume in girls (a 1 SD increase in cortisol was associated with a 6.4% increase in right amygdala volume), but not in boys. Moreover, higher maternal cortisol levels in early gestation was associated with more affective problems in girls, and this association was mediated, in part, by amygdala volume. No association between maternal cortisol in pregnancy and child hippocampus volume was observed in either sex. The current findings represent, to the best of our knowledge, the first report linking maternal stress hormone levels in human pregnancy with subsequent child amygdala volume and affect. The results underscore the importance of the intrauterine environment and suggest the origins of neuropsychiatric disorders may have their foundations early in life. PMID:22529357

  1. Changes in steroid hormones during an international powerlifting competition.

    PubMed

    Le Panse, Bénédicte; Labsy, Zakaria; Baillot, Aurélie; Vibarel-Rebot, Nancy; Parage, Gaston; Albrings, Detlev; Lasne, Françoise; Collomp, Katia

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess changes in the steroid hormone levels of elite athletes during an international powerlifting competition. Baseline cortisol, DHEA and testosterone were determined in saliva samples in 19 (8 men, 11 women) junior and sub-junior athletes on the day before competition, and then on the competition day during the official weighing and in the hour after competition. Performance was determined by total output and the Wilks formula. No change in saliva steroid concentrations was observed between samples collected on the day before competition and the weighing samples. There was no gender effect on cortisol concentrations but saliva testosterone levels were always significantly higher in men than in women (p<0.01), as was end-competition DHEA (p<0.05). Cortisol and DHEA were significantly increased in male and female athletes after the competition (respectively, p<0.01 and p<0.05), whereas end-competition testosterone concentrations were only significantly increased in men (p<0.01). Significant relationships were demonstrated between performance and end-competition cortisol levels in women and end-competition testosterone levels in men. These data indicate that workouts during an international powerlifting competition produce a significant increase in adrenal steroid hormones in both genders, with an increase in male gonadal steroid hormone. Further studies are necessary to examine the changes in oestradiol and progesterone in women and their potential impact on performance during international powerlifting competition. PMID:22917632

  2. Hormonal disturbances associated with obesity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Martin, L J M; Siliart, B; Dumon, H J W; Nguyen, P G

    2006-10-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple endocrine alterations and changes in the concentration of circulating hormones. However, few studies have explored such alterations in dogs with naturally acquired excess weight. In the present study, we investigated the effect of naturally acquired obesity on cortisol, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and prolactin secretion in dogs. Thirty-one overweight dogs were enrolled in the trial. Blood samples were collected before and after adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) injection. Free thyroxine (fT4), cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), IGF-1, prolactin and fructosamine were assayed. Body weight excess increased significantly with age and neutered dogs were more obese than entire ones. The ACTH stimulation test was within the normal range for 26 of 31 dogs. Prolactinaemia was increased in seven dogs and IGF-1 in six dogs. Twenty dogs had a fructosamine concentration >340 microm. Interestingly, 18 of 31 dogs showed disturbances of thyroid function based on high TSH and/or low fT4 baseline concentration, with 11 dogs showing both. According to these parameters only six of 31 dogs were free of hormonal disturbances. These results revealed the high incidence of such disturbances, especially thyroid dysfunction, in obese, but otherwise apparently healthy dogs. They demonstrate the importance of examining endocrine function during the initial evaluation of obese dogs to avoid failure of any nutritional treatment. PMID:16958791

  3. Hormones, Nicotine and Cocaine: Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Nancy K.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels, and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (two min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaines sustained positive effects (< 20 min), ratings of High and Rush began to decrease within one or two puffs of a high nicotine cigarette while nicotine levels were increasing. Peak nicotine levels increased progressively after each of three successive cigarettes smoked at 60 min intervals, but the magnitude of the subjective effects ratings and peak ACTH and cortisol levels diminished. Only DHEA increased consistently after successive cigarettes. The possible influence of neuroactive hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse, and implications for treatment of these addictive disorders is discussed. PMID:19835877

  4. Timing of fetal exposure to stress hormones: effects on newborn physical and neuromuscular maturation.

    PubMed

    Ellman, Lauren M; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin J; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the specific periods during pregnancy in which human fetal exposure to stress hormones affects newborn physical and neuromuscular maturation. Blood was collected from 158 women at 15, 19, 25, and 31 weeks' gestation. Levels of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and maternal cortisol were determined from plasma. Newborns were evaluated with the New Ballard Maturation Score. Results indicated that increases in maternal cortisol at 15, 19, and 25 weeks and increases in placental CRH at 31 weeks were significantly associated with decreases in infant maturation among males (even after controlling for length of gestation). Results also suggested that increases in maternal cortisol at 31 weeks were associated with increases in infant maturation among females, although these results were not significant after controlling for length of gestation. Findings suggest that stress hormones have effects on human fetal neurodevelopment that are independent of birth outcome. PMID:18335490

  5. Summary cortisol reactivity indicators: Interrelations and meaning

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Jennifer E.; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert D.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Chopra, Kevin; Basile, Vincenzo Santo; Masellis, Mario; Goodwill, Alasdair; Atkinson, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297), who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure. We sought to cross-validate findings from each of these samples against the other, and also against a clinically depressed sample (N = 48) and a sample of healthy older adults (N = 51) who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol was collected from all participants once before and twice after the challenges. These heterogenous samples were chosen to obtain the greatest possible range in cortisol levels and stress response regulation. Using these data, we computed the 15 summary cortisol indices identified in our literature survey. We assessed inter-relations amongst indices and determined their underlying dimensions via principal component analysis (PCA). The PCAs consistently extracted two components, accounting for 79%–93% of the variance. These components represent “total cortisol production” and “change in cortisol levels.” The components were highly congruent across challenge, time, and sample. High variable loadings and explained factor variance suggest that all indices represent their underlying dimensions very well. Thus the abundance of summary cortisol indices currently represented in the literature appears superfluous. PMID:26844238

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Influences on Behavioral, but not Cortisol, Responses during Maternal Separation

    PubMed Central

    Perkeybile, Allison M.; Schiml-Webb, Patricia A.; OBrien, Erin; Deak, Terrence; Hennessy, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The present study examined the effect of anti-inflammatory agents on the behavioral and plasma cortisol responses of guinea pig pups during isolation in a novel environment. In Experiment 1, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of interleukin-10 (IL-10), across a range of doses, significantly reduced passive behaviors of isolated pups. In Experiment 2, neither ICV IL-10 nor alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone affected the plasma cortisol response to the separation procedure. These results provide further evidence that the passive behaviors of isolated guinea pig pups are mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and indicate that cytokines do not affect behavior indirectly by means of an action on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. PMID:19324498

  7. Biomedical Evaluation of Cortisol, Cortisone, and Corticosterone along with Testosterone and Epitestosterone Applying Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    B?czek, Tomasz; Ol?dzka, Ilona; Konieczna, Lucyna; Kowalski, Piotr; Plenis, Alina

    2012-01-01

    The validated micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was proposed for the determination of five steroid hormones in human urine samples. That technique allowed for the separation and quantification of cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, testosterone, and epitestosterone and was sensitive enough to detect low concentrations of these searched steroids in urine samples at the range of 2300?ng/mL. The proposed MEKC technique with solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure was simple, rapid, and has been successfully applied as a routine procedure to analyze steroids in human urine samples. The MEKC method offered a potential in clinical routine practice because of the short analysis time (8?min), low costs, and simultaneous analysis of five endogenous hormones. Due to its simplicity, speed, accuracy, and high recovery, the proposed method could offer a tool to determine steroid hormones as potential biomarkers in biomedical investigations, what was additionally revealed with healthy volunteers. PMID:22536129

  8. Hormonal changes when falling in love.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Canale, Domenico

    2004-08-01

    To fall in love is the first step in pair formation in humans and is a complex process which only recently has become the object of neuroscientific investigation. The little information available in this field prompted us to measure the levels of some pituitary, adrenal and gonadal hormones in a group of 24 subjects of both sexes who had recently (within the previous six months) fallen in love, and to compare them with those of 24 subjects who were single or were part of a long-lasting relationship. The following hormones were evaluated by means of standard techniques: FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), cortisol, testosterone and androstenedione. The results showed that estradiol, progesterone, DHEAS and androstenedione levels did not differ between the groups and were within the normal ranges. Cortisol levels were significantly higher amongst those subjects who had recently fallen in love, as compared with those who had not. FSH and testosterone levels were lower in men in love, while women of the same group presented higher testosterone levels. All hormonal differences were eliminated when the subjects were re-tested from 12 to 24 months later. The increased cortisol and low FSH levels are suggestive of the "stressful" and arousing conditions associated with the initiation of a social contact. The changes of testosterone concentrations, which varied in opposite directions in the two sexes, may reflect changes in behavioural and/or temperamental traits which have yet to be clarified. In conclusion, the findings of the present study would indicate that to fall in love provokes transient hormonal changes some of which seem to be specific to each sex. PMID:15177709

  9. Development of a modified cortisol extraction procedure for intermediately sized fish not amenable to whole-body or plasma extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Guest, Taylor W; Blaylock, Reginald B; Evans, Andrew N

    2016-02-01

    The corticosteroid hormone cortisol is the central mediator of the teleost stress response. Therefore, the accurate quantification of cortisol in teleost fishes is a vital tool for addressing fundamental questions about an animal's physiological response to environmental stressors. Conventional steroid extraction methods using plasma or whole-body homogenates, however, are inefficient within an intermediate size range of fish that are too small for phlebotomy and too large for whole-body steroid extractions. To assess the potential effects of hatchery-induced stress on survival of fingerling hatchery-reared Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), we developed a novel extraction procedure for measuring cortisol in intermediately sized fish (50-100mm in length) that are not amenable to standard cortisol extraction methods. By excising a standardized portion of the caudal peduncle, this tissue extraction procedure allows for a small portion of a larger fish to be sampled for cortisol, while minimizing the potential interference from lipids that may be extracted using whole-body homogenization procedures. Assay precision was comparable to published plasma and whole-body extraction procedures, and cortisol quantification over a wide range of sample dilutions displayed parallelism versus assay standards. Intra-assay %CV was 8.54%, and average recovery of spiked samples was 102%. Also, tissue cortisol levels quantified using this method increase 30min after handling stress and are significantly correlated with blood values. We conclude that this modified cortisol extraction procedure provides an excellent alternative to plasma and whole-body extraction procedures for intermediately sized fish, and will facilitate the efficient assessment of cortisol in a variety of situations ranging from basic laboratory research to industrial and field-based environmental health applications. PMID:26245954

  10. The impact of sleep and circadian disturbance on hormones and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The levels of several hormones fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle and are also affected by sleep, feeding, and general behavior. The regulation and metabolism of several hormones are influenced by interactions between the effects of sleep and the intrinsic circadian system; growth hormone, melatonin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin levels are highly correlated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity. There are also endogenous circadian mechanisms that serve to regulate glucose metabolism and similar rhythms pertaining to lipid metabolism, regulated through the actions of various clock genes. Sleep disturbance, which negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism, is also associated with obesity, insulin insensitivity, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and appetite dysregulation. Circadian disruption, typically induced by shift work, may negatively impact health due to impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis, reversed melatonin and cortisol rhythms, and loss of clock gene rhythmicity. PMID:25861266

  11. The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The levels of several hormones fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle and are also affected by sleep, feeding, and general behavior. The regulation and metabolism of several hormones are influenced by interactions between the effects of sleep and the intrinsic circadian system; growth hormone, melatonin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin levels are highly correlated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity. There are also endogenous circadian mechanisms that serve to regulate glucose metabolism and similar rhythms pertaining to lipid metabolism, regulated through the actions of various clock genes. Sleep disturbance, which negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism, is also associated with obesity, insulin insensitivity, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and appetite dysregulation. Circadian disruption, typically induced by shift work, may negatively impact health due to impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis, reversed melatonin and cortisol rhythms, and loss of clock gene rhythmicity. PMID:25861266

  12. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, K.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Raptis, A. E.; Tsiotra, P.; Lambadiari, V.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ), the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS), and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI). Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0). One year later (T1), the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006 < 0.05) and negative among uncontrolled ones (P value = 0.137). Higher values of cortisol correspond to lower scores on extraversion subscale (rp = ?0.223, P value = 0.010). Controlled diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (rsp = ?0.247, P = 0.023). There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (rsp = ?0.220, P = 0.043). Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:25722989

  13. Effects of smoking on ACTH and cortisol secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Seyler, L.E. Jr.; Fertig, J.; Pomerleau, O.; Hunt, D.; Parker, K.

    1984-01-02

    The relationships among changes in plasma nicotine, ACTH, and cortisol secretion after smoking were investigated. Ten male subjects smoked cigarettes containing 2.87 mg nicotine and 0.48 mg nicotine. No rises in cortisol or ACTH were detected after smoking 0.48 mg nicotine cigarettes. Cortisol rises were significant in 11 of 15 instances after smoking 2.87 mg nicotine cigarattes, but ACTH rose significantly in only 5 of the 11 instances where cortisol increased. Each ACTH rise occurred in a subject who reported nausea and was observed to be pale, sweaty, and tachycardic. Peak plasma nicotine concentrations were not significantly different in sessions when cortisol rose with or without ACTH increases, but cortisol increases were significantly greater in nauseated than in non-nauseated smokers. This data suggest that smoking-induced nausea stimulates cortisol release by stimulating ACTH secretion and that cortisol secretion in non-nauseated smokers may occur through a non-ACTH mechanism.

  14. Third transmembrane domain of the adrenocorticotropic receptor is critical for ligand selectivity and potency.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingkui; Mishra, Vinod; Crasto, Chiquito J; Chen, Min; Dimmitt, Reed; Harmon, Carroll M

    2015-03-20

    The ACTH receptor, known as the melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), plays an important role in regulating and maintaining adrenocortical function. MC2R is a subtype of the melanocortin receptor (MCR) family and has unique characteristics among MCRs. Endogenous ACTH is the only endogenous agonist for MC2R, whereas the melanocortin peptides ?-, ?-, and ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and ACTH are full agonists for all other MCRs. In this study, we examined the molecular basis of MC2R responsible for ligand selectivity using ACTH analogs and MC2R mutagenesis. Our results indicate that substitution of Phe(7) with D-Phe or D-naphthylalanine (D-Nal(2')) in ACTH(1-24) caused a significant decrease in ligand binding affinity and potency. Substitution of Phe(7) with D-Nal(2') in ACTH(1-24) did not switch the ligand from agonist to antagonist at MC2R, which was observed in MC3R and MC4R. Substitution of Phe(7) with D-Phe(7) in ACTH(1-17) resulted in the loss of ligand binding and activity. Molecular analysis of MC2R indicated that only mutation of the third transmembrane domain of MC2R resulted in a decrease in D-Phe ACTH binding affinity and potency. Our results suggest that Phe(7) in ACTH plays an important role in ligand selectivity and that the third transmembrane domain of MC2R is crucial for ACTH selectivity and potency. PMID:25605722

  15. Interactions of metabolic hormones, adipose tissue and exercise.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Robert G; Hackney, Anthony C

    2005-01-01

    Physiological and psychological systems work together to determine energy intake and output, and thus maintain adipose tissue. In addition, adipose tissue secretes leptin and cytokines, which induces satiety and has been linked to catecholamines, cortisol, insulin, human growth hormone, thyroid hormones, gonadotropin and lipolysis. Thus, adipose tissue is acted upon by a number of physiological stimuli, including hormones, and simultaneously, is an active component in the regulation of its own lipid content. All of the hormones mentioned above are associated with each other and respond to exercise and exercise training. Thus, exercise is one of the major links between the hormonal modulators of energy intake and output. It appears that the sympathetic nervous system and the catecholamines are key components facilitating the lipolytic activity during exercise. These two neuroendocrine factors directly affect adipose metabolism and metabolic hormones that influence adipose metabolism. Acute low- and moderate-intensity exercise causes hormonal changes that facilitate lipolytic activity. Exercise training reduces these hormonal responses, but the sensitivity to these hormones increases so that lipolysis may be facilitated. Large amounts of adipose tissue blunt the metabolic hormonal responses to exercise, but the sensitivity of these hormones is increased; thus maintaining normal lipolytic activity. Although the physiological role of the endocrine system during exercise and training is significant, other training effects may have as great, or greater influence on lipolytic activity in adipose tissue. PMID:15896089

  16. Hormones and ethics: Understanding the biological basis of unethical conduct.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Jin, Ellie Shuo; Rice, Leslie K; Josephs, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Globally, fraud has been rising sharply over the last decade, with current estimates placing financial losses at greater than $3.7 trillion annually. Unfortunately, fraud prevention has been stymied by lack of a clear and comprehensive understanding of its underlying causes and mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on an important but neglected topic--the biological antecedents and consequences of unethical conduct--using salivary collection of hormones (testosterone and cortisol). We hypothesized that preperformance cortisol levels would interact with preperformance levels of testosterone to regulate cheating behavior in 2 studies. Further, based on the previously untested cheating-as-stress-reduction hypothesis, we predicted a dose-response relationship between cheating and reductions in cortisol and negative affect. Taken together, this research marks the first foray into the possibility that endocrine-system activity plays an important role in the regulation of unethical behavior. PMID:26214164

  17. Growth Hormone

    MedlinePLUS

    ... growth and development in children and helps regulate metabolism in both children and adults. The pituitary gland ... of glucose. Growth hormone stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) . IGF-1 ...

  18. Effects of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in postweaned northern elephant seal pups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups rely on the oxidation of fat stores as their primary source of energy during their 8- to 12-wk postweaning fast; however, potential endocrine mechanisms involved with this increased fat metabolism have yet to be examined. Therefore, 15 pups were serially blood sampled in the field during the first 7 wk of their postweaning fast to examine the changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones (TH), which are involved in fat metabolism in other mammals. Cortisol increased, indicating that it contributed to an increase in lipolysis. Increased total triiodothyronine (tT(3)) and thyroxine (tT(4)) may not reflect increased thyroid gland activity, but rather alterations in hormone metabolism. tT(3)-to-tT(4) ratio decreased, suggesting a decrease in thyroxine (T(4)) deiodination, whereas the negative correlation between total proteins and free T(4) suggests that the increase in free hormone is attributed to a decrease in binding globulins. Changes in TH are most similar to those observed during hibernation than starvation in mammals, suggesting that the metabolic adaptations to natural fasting are more similar to hibernation despite the fact these animals remain active throughout the fasting period.

  19. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol

  20. Noninvasive Measurement of Steroid Hormones in Zebrafish Holding-Water

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Ana S.; Faustino, Ana I.; Cabral, Eduarda M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a new animal model in neuroendocrinology and behavior (e.g., stress physiology and ecotoxicology studies). In these areas, the concentrations of steroid hormones in the blood are often used to study the endocrinological status of individuals. However, due to the small body size of zebrafish, blood sampling is difficult to perform and the amount of plasma obtained per sample for assaying hormones is very small (ca. 1–5 μL), and therefore most studies have been using whole-body hormone concentrations, which implies sacrificing the individuals and hampers sequential sampling of the same individual. Here a noninvasive method to assay steroid hormones from zebrafish holding-water, based on the fact that steroids are released into the fish holding-water through the gills by passive diffusion, is validated. Cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (KT) were measured in water samples and compared to plasma levels in the same individuals. Cortisol released to holding-water correlates positively with plasma concentrations, but there was a lack of correlation between KT water and circulating levels. However, KT levels showed a highly significant sex difference that can be used to noninvasively sex individuals. An ACTH challenge test demonstrated that an induced increase in circulating cortisol concentration can be reliably detected in holding-water levels, hence attesting the responsiveness of holding-water levels to fluctuations in circulating levels. PMID:23445429

  1. Hormonal correlates of dominance in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Bennett, Nigel C; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2004-08-01

    In cooperatively breeding meerkats (Suricata suricatta), individuals typically live in extended family groups in which the dominant male and female are the primary reproductives, while their offspring delay dispersal, seldom breed, and contribute to the care of subsequent litters. Here we investigate hormonal differences between dominants and subordinates by comparing plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and cortisol in females, and testosterone and cortisol in males, while controlling for potential confounding factors. In both sexes, hormone levels are correlated with age. In females, levels of sex hormone also vary with body weight and access to unrelated breeding partners in the same group: subordinates in groups containing unrelated males have higher levels of LH and estradiol than those in groups containing related males only. When these effects are controlled, there are no rank-related differences in circulating levels of LH among females or testosterone among males. However, dominant females show higher levels of circulating estradiol than subordinates. Dominant males and females also have significantly higher cortisol levels than subordinates. Hence, we found no evidence that the lower levels of plasma estradiol in subordinate females were associated with high levels of glucocorticoids. These results indicate that future studies need to control for the potentially confounding effects of age, body weight, and access to unrelated breeding partners before concluding that there are fundamental physiological differences between dominant and subordinate group members. PMID:15256303

  2. Hormonal control of osmoregulation in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Eckert, S M; Yada, T; Shepherd, B S; Stetson, M H; Hirano, T; Grau, E G

    2001-06-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is an important hormone for freshwater adaptation in many teleost species. In some euryhaline fishes, growth hormone (GH) and cortisol are involved in seawater adaptation by stimulating ion extrusion. When channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were transferred from fresh water to dilute seawater (300-400 mOsm), their plasma osmolality was always higher than the environmental salinity. In correlation with the increase in plasma osmolality, significant increases in plasma cortisol were observed. However, no effect of ovine GH or cortisol was seen in plasma osmolality or gill Na, K-ATPase activity when the hormones were given during the course of acclimation to dilute seawater. When catfish in fresh water were hypophysectomized, plasma osmolality was significantly decreased by 24 h, reaching a minimum level after 2 days. When they were transferred to dilute seawater, the plasma osmolality of the sham-operated fish was consistently higher than that of environmental water, whereas the osmolality of the hypophysectomized fish was equivalent to the environmental salinity. Ovine PRL restored the plasma osmolality of the hypophysectomized fish in fresh water to the level of sham-operated fish. Cortisol was also effective, but the effect was less pronounced than the effect of PRL. Injection of PRL in combination with cortisol resulted in a marked additive increase in plasma osmolality to a level even above that of the sham-operated fish. Ovine GH was without effect. These treatments in hypophysectomized fish transferred to dilute seawater produced essentially the same results as those in fish in fresh water. Plasma osmolality was also increased after PRL treatment of the intact fish in fresh water. There was a synergistic effect between PRL and cortisol in hypophysectomized fish in dilute seawater as well as in intact fish in fresh water. PRL did not stimulate cortisol secretion either in hypophysectomized fish or in intact fish. In the stenohaline catfish, both PRL and cortisol seem to be involved importantly in ion uptake from the environment not only in fresh water but also in brackish water. PMID:11356039

  3. Long-Term Impact of Maternal Substance Use during Pregnancy and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity: Stress Hormone Levels of Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Charles R.; Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Lester, Barry M.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with blunted stress responsivity within the extrauterine environment. This study investigated the association between PCE and diurnal salivary cortisol levels in preadolescent children characterized by high biological and/or social risk (N = 725). Saliva samples were collected at their home. Analyses revealed no group differences in basal evening or morning cortisol levels; however, children with higher degrees of PCE exhibited blunted overnight increases in cortisol, controlling for additional risk factors. Race and caregiver depression were also associated with diurnal cortisol patterns. While repeated PCE may contribute to alterations in the normal or expected stress response later in life, sociodemographic and environmental factors are likewise important in understanding hormone physiology, especially as more time elapses from the PCE. Anticipating the potential long-term medical, developmental, or behavioral effects of an altered ability to mount a normal protective cortisol stress response is essential in optimizing the outcomes of children with PCE. PMID:21546861

  4. Digit ratio (2D:4D) moderates the relationship between cortisol reactivity and self-reported externalizing behavior in young adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Jill; Raine, Adrian; Glenn, Andrea L; Chen, Frances R; Choy, Olivia; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-12-01

    Although reduced cortisol reactivity to stress and increased circulating testosterone level are hypothesized to be associated with higher levels of externalizing behavior, empirical findings are inconsistent. One factor that may account for the heterogeneity in these relationships is prenatal testosterone exposure. This study examined whether the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal testosterone exposure, moderates the relationships of testosterone and cortisol reactivity with externalizing behavior. Left and right hand 2D:4D and self-reported externalizing behavior were measured in a sample of 353 young adolescents (M age=11.92 years; 178 females; 79.7% African American). Saliva samples were collected before and after a stress task and later assayed for cortisol. Testosterone levels were determined from an AM saliva sample. 2D:4D interacted with cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior in males, but not females. In males, low cortisol reactivity was associated with higher levels of aggression and rule-breaking behavior, but only among subjects with low 2D:4D (i.e., high prenatal testosterone). Findings suggest the importance of a multi-systems approach in which interactions between multiple hormones are taken into account. Furthermore, results demonstrate the importance of considering the organizational influence of prenatal testosterone in order to understand the activational influence of circulating hormones during adolescence. PMID:26463360

  5. Hormonal responses of metoclopramide-treated subjects experiencing nausea or emesis during parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Randall L.

    1987-01-01

    The concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), vasopressin (AVP), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE) in 22 subjects administered 10 to 20 mg of metoclopramide prior to parabolic flight are measured. The effect of metoclopramide on motion sickness is examined. It is observed that metoclopramide is ineffective in the modulation of motion sickness due to stressful linear and angular acceleration and orbital flight, and it does not affect serum hormones prior to parabolic flight. It is detected that the serum level of AVP declines following emesis induced by parabolic flight and stressful angular acceleration; the serum levels of ACTH and EPI are elevated by parabolic flight and stressful angular acceleration; and serum NE is significantly elevated immediately following emesis. The possible roles of these hormones in the etiology of space motion sickness are discussed.

  6. Effects of different fixatives on demonstrating epinephrine and ACTH hormones in Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Kovács, P; Pállinger, E

    2009-12-01

    The unicellular Tetrahymena produces, contains, and secretes many hormones characteristic of higher animals. We tested three fixatives, formaldehyde, N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC), and glutaraldehyde for suitability for immunocytochemical demonstration of epinephrine and adrenocorticotropic harmone (ACTH) in Tetrahymena. Using flow cytometric immunocytochemistry, staining of ACTH was highest after EDAC fixation and that of epinephrine after glutaraldehyde fixation. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, formaldehyde fixation prevented staining. Glutaraldehyde fixation produced high autofluorescence, which obscured specific staining. After EDAC fixation, ACTH was localized in the ciliary row; however, demonstration of epinephrine was not improved. Our results show that there is no "fixative for any hormone." Different fixatives are needed to demonstrate different hormones in Tetrahymena. PMID:19462312

  7. Cortisol Levels during the Menopausal Transition and Early Postmenopause: Observations from the Seattle Midlife Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Nancy Fugate; Mitchell, Ellen Sullivan; Smith-DiJulio, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Aims Cortisol levels rise among some women during the late stage of the menopausal transition, but we know little about changes in cortisol levels in relation to menopause-related factors (menopausal transition (MT) stage, urinary estrone glucuronide, testosterone, FSH), stress-related factors (epinephrine, norepinephrine, perceived stress), symptoms (hot flashes, mood, memory and sleep), social factors (income adequacy, role burden, social support, employment, parenting, and history of sexual abuse) and health-related factors (depressed mood, perceived health, physical appraisal, BMI, and smoking). Aims were to examine the influence of menopause-related factors, stress-related factors, symptoms, social, and health-related factors on cortisol levels during the menopausal transition. Methods A subset of Seattle Midlife Women’s Health Study participants who provided data during the late reproductive, early and late MT stages or early postmenopause (PM) and who were not using hormone therapy or corticosteroids (N=132 women, up to 5218 observations) including menstrual calendars for staging the MT, annual health reports, health diaries, and overnight urine specimens (assayed for cortisol, catecholamines, estrone glucuronide and FSH) between 1990 and 2005 were included. Perceived stress, symptoms, and health behaviors were assessed in a health diary. Health-related and social factors were assessed in an annual health update. Multilevel modeling was used to test effects of menopause- related and other factors on overnight cortisol levels. Results When tested with age as a measure of time, menopause-related covariates, including estrone glucuronide (E1G), FSH, and testosterone were associated with significant increases in overnight cortisol levels (p<.0001). Likewise, epinephrine and norepinephrine were each associated significantly with overnight cortisol levels (p<.0001). In multivariate analyses, E1G, FSH, and testosterone constituted the best set of predictors. Conclusions Overnight cortisol levels during the MT were associated with E1G, testosterone, and FSH levels. In addition, they were significantly and positively associated with epinephrine and norepinephrine. MT stage, symptoms, and social, stress-related, and health-related factors had little relationship to overnight cortisol levels when other biological indicators were considered. PMID:19322116

  8. Stress-Immune-Growth Interactions: Cortisol Modulates Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling and JAK/STAT Pathway in Rainbow Trout Liver

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Anju M.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is a major factor in the poor growth and immune performance of salmonids in aquaculture. However, the molecular mechanisms linking stress effects to growth and immune dysfunction is poorly understood. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS), a family of genes involved in the inhibition of JAK/STAT pathway, negatively regulates growth hormone and cytokine signaling, but their role in fish is unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that cortisol modulation of SOCS gene expression is a key molecular mechanism leading to growth and immune suppression in response to stress in fish. Exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver slices to cortisol, mimicking stress level, upregulated SOCS-1 and SOCS-2 mRNA abundance and this response was abolished by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. Bioinformatics analysis confirmed the presence of putative glucocorticoid response elements in rainbow trout SOCS-1 and SOCS-2 promoters. Prior cortisol treatment suppressed acute growth hormone (GH)-stimulated IGF-1 mRNA abundance in trout liver and this involved a reduction in STAT5 phosphorylation and lower total JAK2 protein expression. Prior cortisol treatment also suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 but not IL-8 transcript levels; the former but not the latter cytokine expression is via JAK/STAT phosphorylation. LPS treatment reduced GH signaling, but this was associated with the downregulation of GH receptors and not due to the upregulation of SOCS transcript levels by this endotoxin. Collectively, our results suggest that upregulation of SOCS-1 and SOCS-2 transcript levels by cortisol, and the associated reduction in JAK/STAT signaling pathway, may be a novel mechanism leading to growth reduction and immune suppression during stress in trout. PMID:26083490

  9. Stress-Immune-Growth Interactions: Cortisol Modulates Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling and JAK/STAT Pathway in Rainbow Trout Liver.

    PubMed

    Philip, Anju M; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is a major factor in the poor growth and immune performance of salmonids in aquaculture. However, the molecular mechanisms linking stress effects to growth and immune dysfunction is poorly understood. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS), a family of genes involved in the inhibition of JAK/STAT pathway, negatively regulates growth hormone and cytokine signaling, but their role in fish is unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that cortisol modulation of SOCS gene expression is a key molecular mechanism leading to growth and immune suppression in response to stress in fish. Exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver slices to cortisol, mimicking stress level, upregulated SOCS-1 and SOCS-2 mRNA abundance and this response was abolished by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. Bioinformatics analysis confirmed the presence of putative glucocorticoid response elements in rainbow trout SOCS-1 and SOCS-2 promoters. Prior cortisol treatment suppressed acute growth hormone (GH)-stimulated IGF-1 mRNA abundance in trout liver and this involved a reduction in STAT5 phosphorylation and lower total JAK2 protein expression. Prior cortisol treatment also suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 but not IL-8 transcript levels; the former but not the latter cytokine expression is via JAK/STAT phosphorylation. LPS treatment reduced GH signaling, but this was associated with the downregulation of GH receptors and not due to the upregulation of SOCS transcript levels by this endotoxin. Collectively, our results suggest that upregulation of SOCS-1 and SOCS-2 transcript levels by cortisol, and the associated reduction in JAK/STAT signaling pathway, may be a novel mechanism leading to growth reduction and immune suppression during stress in trout. PMID:26083490

  10. Using testosterone and cortisol as biomarker for training individualization in elite basketball: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Schelling, Xavi; Calleja-Gonzlez, Julio; Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Terrados, Nicols

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the responses of testosterone and cortisol, with special reference to playing positions, playing time (PT), and phase of the season. We performed a follow-up study during 4 consecutive seasons to investigate the effects of PT, positional role, and phase of the season on anabolic-catabolic biomarkers (plasma total testosterone -TT- and cortisol -C-) on 20 professional male basketball players (27.0 4.2 years; 24.4 1.2 kgm). First blood samples were collected right after the off-season period and considered as baseline. Samples were taken periodically every 4-6 weeks, always after a 24- to 36-hour break after the last game played. Statistical procedures were nonparametric mainly. Hormonal status was playing position-dependent, power forward (PF) showed the lowest TT values (median interquartile range [IQR]; PF: 18.1 4.9; nmolL), and small forwards showed the highest ones of cortisol (0.55 0.118 ?molL). Players who played between 13 and 25 minutes per game showed the highest values of TT (22.8 6.9 nmolL) and TT/C (47.1 21.2). March and April showed the most catabolic or stressed hormonal state (low TT/C values and high ones of cortisol) and that is necessary to take into account according to PT (>25-minute per game) and specific playing position. Monitoring plasma TT and cortisol is recommended to prevent excessive stress caused by professional basketball season requirements. PMID:25144130

  11. Poor sleep is associated with exaggerated cortisol response to the combined dexamethasone/CRH test in a non-clinical population.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hiroaki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Sasayama, Daimei; Ozeki, Yuji; Matsuo, Junko; Kawamoto, Yumiko; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Hattori, Kotaro; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Although sleep disturbance has been shown to be associated with psychological distress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, the simultaneous relationship between sleep, distress and HPA axis function is less clear. Here we examined the relationship between sleep quality as assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, psychological distress as assessed with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and cortisol responses to the dexamethasone (DEX)/corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test in 139 non-clinical volunteers. Poor sleep was significantly correlated with greater cortisol response to the combined DEX/CRH challenge, but not with the cortisol level just before CRH challenge. When subjects were divided into three groups based on the suppression pattern of cortisol (i.e., incomplete-, moderate-, and enhanced-suppressors), poor sleep was significantly associated with the incomplete suppression in women while no significant association was found between sleep and the enhanced suppression. The association between poor sleep and exaggerated cortisol response to the CRH challenge became more clear in the regression analysis where the confounding effect of psychological distress was taken into consideration. These results indicate that poor sleep would be associated with exaggerated cortisol reactivity. The observed association of poor sleep with reactive cortisol indices to the CRH challenge, but not with the cortisol level after DEX administration alone, might add to the well-established evidence demonstrating the role of CRH in the regulation of sleep. Our findings further suggest that the mediation model would work better than the bivariate approach in investigating the relationship between sleep, distress and HPA axis reactivity. PMID:21527190

  12. [Influence of pulsating magnetic field used in magnet therapy and magnet stimulation on cortisol secretion in human].

    PubMed

    Wolda?ska-Oko?ska, Maria; Czernicki, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The aim of our study was to test the influence of magnetic fields during magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation over a longer period of time (like in physiotherapy) on cortisol secretion in humans. The study population was divided into two groups: magnetotherapy group (16 men) and magnetostimulation group (10 men). Magnetotherapy in the form of magnetic field induction (2.9 microT; frequency--40 Hz; square wave; bipolar; Magnetronic MF--10 apparatus) was applied for 20 min to the lumbar area in patients with chronic low back pain. Magnetostimulation (Viofor JPS system; M2P2 program; induction--25-80 microT; frequency--200 Hz, complex saw-like shape with a plateau halfway the height of the wave; bipolar) was applied every day for 12 min in patients with the same health problem. In both groups, the procedures were repeated 15 times (about 10:00 a.m.) with weekend breaks. Serum samples were collected at 6:00, 12:00, 16:00 and 24:00 and estimated by the micromethod of chemiluminescence (DPC Poland; Cat. No. LKC01). The circadian profile of cortisol was determined prior to the application, a day and a month after application. The data were analyzed statistically, using paired and unpaired Student's test. Magnetotherapy affects the cortisol secretion in the circadian profile by decreasing its level at 16:00 a day after 15 applications, whereas magnetostimulation by increasing its level at 12:00 a month after 15 applications, which may suggest its long-term effect on hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The comparison of the results indicated that a day after magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation, the circadian curves of cortisol secretion differed significantly by about 100%. All hormone oscillations did not exceed the physiological norms of the circadian cortisol level, not reaching the level so high as in an intense stress. This suggests rather their controlling effect on the cortisol level than their significant stressogenic nature. PMID:12731402

  13. Retrospective evaluation of sex hormones and steroid hormone intermediates in dogs with alopecia.

    PubMed

    Frank, Linda A; Hnilica, Keith A; Rohrbach, Barton W; Oliver, Jack W

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are specific steroid hormone aberrations associated with suspect endocrine alopecias in dogs in whom hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been excluded. Steroid hormone panels submitted to the UTCVM endocrinology laboratory over a 7.5-year period (783 samples) from dogs with alopecia were reviewed. During this period, 276 dogs met the criteria for inclusion and were comprised of 54 different breeds. Approximately 73% of dogs had at least one baseline or post-ACTH stimulation steroid hormone intermediate greater than the normal range. The most frequent hormone elevation noted was for progesterone (57.6% of samples). When compared with normal dogs, oestradiol was significantly greater in Keeshond dogs and progesterone was significantly greater in Pomeranian and Siberian Husky dogs. Not all individual dogs had hormone abnormalities. Chow Chow, Samoyed and Malamute dogs had the greatest percentage of normal steroid hormone intermediates of the dogs in this study. Baseline cortisol concentrations were significantly correlated with progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione. Results of this study suggest that the pathomechanism of the alopecia, at least for some breeds, may not relate to steroid hormone intermediates and emphasizes the need for breed specific normals. PMID:12662266

  14. Comparison of hormone and electrolyte circadian rhythms in male and female humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. E.; Reilly, T.

    1977-01-01

    Circadian rhythm characteristics in healthy male and female humans were studied at 4-hour intervals for urine volume, cortisol, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), Na, K, Na/K ratios in the urine, as well as plasma cortisol. While plasma and urinary cortisol rhythms were very similar in both sexes, the described rhythms in urine volume, electrolyte, and 5-HIAA excretion differ for the two sexes. The results suggest that sex differences exist in the circadian patterns of important hormone and metabolic functions and that the internal synchrony of circadian rhythms differs for the two sexes. The results seem to indicate that the rhythmical secretion of cortisol does not account for the pattern of Na and K excretion.

  15. Short-Wavelength Light Enhances Cortisol Awakening Response in Sleep-Restricted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiro, Mariana G.; Rea, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Levels of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland, follow a daily, 24-hour rhythm with concentrations reaching a minimum in the evening and a peak near rising time. In addition, cortisol levels exhibit a sharp peak in concentration within the first hour after waking; this is known as the cortisol awakening response (CAR). The present study is a secondary analysis of a larger study investigating the impact of short-wavelength (?max ? 470?nm) light on CAR in adolescents who were sleep restricted. The study ran over the course of three overnight sessions, at least one week apart. The experimental sessions differed in terms of the light exposure scenarios experienced during the evening prior to sleeping in the laboratory and during the morning after waking from a 4.5-hour sleep opportunity. Eighteen adolescents aged 1217 years were exposed to dim light or to 40 lux (0.401?W/m2) of 470-nm peaking light for 80 minutes after awakening. Saliva samples were collected every 20 minutes to assess CAR. Exposure to short-wavelength light in the morning significantly enhanced CAR compared to dim light. Morning exposure to short-wavelength light may be a simple, yet practical way to better prepare adolescents for an active day. PMID:22899916

  16. Stress and cortisol in disaster evacuees: an exploratory study on associations with social protective factors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, David Javier; Weissbecker, Inka; Cash, Elizabeth; Simpson, David M; Daup, Meagan; Sephton, Sandra E

    2015-03-01

    Though cumulative emotional and physical effects of disasters may diminish evacuees' short and long-term mental and physical health, social factors may buffer such consequences. We approached survivors of the October 2007 San Diego, California firestorms. We gathered data during the evacuation and 3 months afterward. Questionnaires measured social support as well as PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Saliva samples were used to assess the stress hormone, cortisol. Analyses, adjusting for age, gender, and socioeconomic status, showed PTSD symptoms were associated with flattening of the diurnal cortisol rhythm during evacuation. Secondary analyses showed those reporting a family emphasis on moral and religious values had lower psychological distress. Though anxiety symptoms had significantly decreased in the overall sample at follow-up, blunted cortisol rhythms persisted among those individuals with continued high anxiety. Results highlight a possible psychological, and perhaps a physiological, benefit of social and existential factors in disaster situations. Future work should explore the role of psychosocial factors and stress physiology in the development of long-term health concerns among individuals exposed to disaster. PMID:25787070

  17. An Optimized Whole-Body Cortisol Quantification Method for Assessing Stress Levels in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chen-Min; Glck, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids serve important regulatory functions for many physiological processes and are critical mediators of the stress response. The stress response is a set of bodily processes aimed at counteracting a state of threatened homeostasis. Proper stress response is critical for the survival of an animal, however prolonged or abnormal stress response can be detrimental and is implicated in a number of human diseases such as depression and metabolic diseases. To dissect the underlying mechanism of this complex and important response, the zebrafish, Danio rerio offer important advantages such as ease of genetic manipulations and high-throughput behavioral analyses. However, there is a paucity of suitable methods to measure stress level in larval zebrafish. Therefore, an efficient low-cost method to monitor stress hormone levels will greatly facilitate stress research in zebrafish larvae. In this study, we optimized sample collection as well as cortisol extraction methods and developed a home-made ELISA protocol for measuring whole-body cortisol level in zebrafish larvae. Further, using our customized protocols, we characterized the response of larval zebrafish to a variety of stressors. This assay, developed for efficient cortisol quantification, will be useful for systematic and large-scale stress analyses in larval zebrafish. PMID:24223943

  18. Salinity effects on plasma ion levels, cortisol, and osmolality in Chinook salmon following lethal sampling.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Heather A; Noakes, David L G; Cogliati, Karen M; Peterson, James T; Iversen, Martin H; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-02-01

    Studies on hydromineral balance in fishes frequently employ measurements of electrolytes following euthanasia. We tested the effects of fresh- or salt-water euthanasia baths of tricaine mesylate (MS-222) on plasma magnesium (Mg(2+)) and sodium (Na(+)) ions, cortisol and osmolality in fish exposed to saltwater challenges, and the ion and steroid hormone fluctuations over time following euthanasia in juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Salinity of the euthanasia bath affected plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) concentrations as well as osmolality, with higher concentrations in fish euthanized in saltwater. Time spent in the bath positively affected plasma Mg(2+) and osmolality, negatively affected cortisol, and had no effect on Na(+) concentrations. The difference of temporal trends in plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) suggests that Mg(2+) may be more sensitive to physiological changes and responds more rapidly than Na(+). When electrolytes and cortisol are measured as endpoints after euthanasia, care needs to be taken relative to time after death and the salinity of the euthanasia bath. PMID:26603557

  19. An optimized whole-body cortisol quantification method for assessing stress levels in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chen-Min; Glck, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids serve important regulatory functions for many physiological processes and are critical mediators of the stress response. The stress response is a set of bodily processes aimed at counteracting a state of threatened homeostasis. Proper stress response is critical for the survival of an animal, however prolonged or abnormal stress response can be detrimental and is implicated in a number of human diseases such as depression and metabolic diseases. To dissect the underlying mechanism of this complex and important response, the zebrafish, Danio rerio offer important advantages such as ease of genetic manipulations and high-throughput behavioral analyses. However, there is a paucity of suitable methods to measure stress level in larval zebrafish. Therefore, an efficient low-cost method to monitor stress hormone levels will greatly facilitate stress research in zebrafish larvae. In this study, we optimized sample collection as well as cortisol extraction methods and developed a home-made ELISA protocol for measuring whole-body cortisol level in zebrafish larvae. Further, using our customized protocols, we characterized the response of larval zebrafish to a variety of stressors. This assay, developed for efficient cortisol quantification, will be useful for systematic and large-scale stress analyses in larval zebrafish. PMID:24223943

  20. Cortisol Level and Hemodynamic Changes During Tooth Extraction at Hypertensive and Normotensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Agani, Zana Bajrami; Benedetti, Alberto; Krasniqi, Vjosa Hamiti; Ahmedi, Jehona; Sejfija, Zana; Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Murtezani, Arben; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Ibraimi, Zana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The patients that are subjects to oral-surgical interventions produce large amounts of steroids in comparison with healthy patients which are not a subject to any dental intervention. The aim of research was to determine the level of stress hormone cortisol in serum, arterial blood pressure and arterial pulse, and to compare the effectiveness of the usage of lidocaine with adrenalin in comparison with lidocaine without adrenalin during the tooth extraction. Patients and methods: This clinical research includes patients with indication of tooth extraction divided in hypertensive and normotensive patients. Results: There is no important statistical distinction between groups, for the cortisol levels before, during and after tooth extraction regardless of the type of anesthetic used, while we registered higher values of systolic and diastolic values at hypertensive patients, regardless of the type of anesthetic Conclusion: There is significant systolic and diastolic blood pressure rise in both groups of patients hypertensive and normotensive patients, (regardless of anesthetic used with or without vasoconstrictor), who underwent tooth extraction. The special emphasize is attributed to hypertensive patients where these changes are more significant. As per cortisol level and pulse rate, our results indicate no significant statistical difference in between groups. PMID:26005263

  1. Diurnal cortisol amplitude and fronto-limbic activity in response to stressful stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham-Bussel, Amy C.; Root, James C.; Butler, Tracy; Tuescher, Oliver; Pan, Hong; Epstein, Jane; Weisholtz, Daniel S.; Pavony, Michelle; Silverman, Michael E.; Goldstein, Martin S.; Altemus, Margaret; Cloitre, Marylene; LeDoux, Joseph; McEwen, Bruce; Stern, Emily; Silbersweig, David

    2014-01-01

    Summary The development and exacerbation of many psychiatric and neurologic conditions are associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis as measured by aberrant levels of cortisol secretion. Here we report on the relationship between the amplitude of diurnal cortisol secretion, measured across 3 typical days in 18 healthy individuals, and blood oxygen level dependant (BOLD) response in limbic fear/stress circuits, elicited by in-scanner presentation of emotionally negative stimuli, specifically, images of the World Trade Center (WTC) attack. Results indicate that subjects who secrete a greater amplitude of cortisol diurnally demonstrate less brain activation in limbic regions, including the amygdala and hippocampus/parahippocampus, and hypothalamus during exposure to traumatic WTC-related images. Such initial findings can begin to link our understanding, in humans, of the relationship between the diurnal amplitude of a hormone integral to the stress response, and those neuroanatomical regions that are implicated as both modulating and being modulated by that response. PMID:19135805

  2. Are we missing a mineralocorticoid in teleost fish? Effects of cortisol, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone on osmoregulation, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and isoform mRNA levels in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Regish, A.; O'Dea, M. F.; Shrimpton, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    It has long been held that cortisol, acting through a single receptor, carries out both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions in teleost fish. The recent finding that fish express a gene with high sequence similarity to the mammalian mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) suggests the possibility that a hormone other than cortisol carries out some mineralocorticoid functions in fish. To test for this possibility, we examined the effect of in vivo cortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and aldosterone on salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA levels of NKA α1a and α1b in Atlantic salmon. Cortisol treatment for 6–14 days resulted in increased, physiological levels of cortisol, increased gill NKA activity and improved salinity tolerance (lower plasma chloride after a 24 h seawater challenge), whereas DOC and aldosterone had no effect on either NKA activity or salinity tolerance. NKA α1a and α1b mRNA levels, which increase in response to fresh water and seawater acclimation, respectively, were both upregulated by cortisol, whereas DOC and aldosterone were without effect. Cortisol, DOC and aldosterone had no effect on gill glucocorticoid receptor GR1, GR2 and MR mRNA levels, although there was some indication of possible upregulation of GR1 by cortisol (p = 0.07). The putative GR blocker RU486 inhibited cortisol-induced increases in salinity tolerance, NKA activity and NKA α1a and α1b transcription, whereas the putative MR blocker spironolactone had no effect. The results provide support that cortisol, and not DOC or aldosterone, is involved in regulating the mineralocorticoid functions of ion uptake and salt secretion in teleost fish.

  3. Normal cortisol response to cold pressor test, but lower free thyroxine, after recovery from undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vinicius J B; Neves, Andrea P O; Garcia, Márcia C; Spadari, Regina C; Clemente, Ana Paula G; de Albuquerque, Maria P; Hoffman, Daniel J; Sawaya, Ana L

    2016-01-14

    Undernutrition is a stressor with long-term consequences, and the effect of nutritional recovery on cortisol and thyroid hormone status is unknown. To investigate basal thyroid hormones and the cortisol response to a cold pressor test in children recovered from undernutrition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken on children (6-16 years) separated into four groups: control (n 41), stunted (n 31), underweight (n 27) and recovered (n 31). Salivary cortisol was collected over the course of 10 h: upon awakening, before and after an unpleasant and a pleasant stimulus. Cortisol upon awakening was highest in the stunted and lowest in the underweight groups: control=5·05 (95% CI 3·71, 6·89) nmol/l, stunted=6·62 (95% CI 3·97, 11·02) nmol/l, underweight=2·51 (95% CI 1·75, 3·63) nmol/l and recovered=3·46 (95% CI 2·46, 4·90) nmol/l (P=0·005). Girls had higher cortisol concentrations upon awakening compared with boys (P=0·021). The undernourished groups showed an elevated cortisol response both to the unpleasant stimulus and at the last measurement (16.00 hours) compared with that of the recovered group: AUC, control=2·07 (95% CI 1·69, 2·45) nmol/l×30 min, stunted=2·48 (95% CI 1·91, 3·06) nmol/l×30 min, underweight=2·52 (95% CI 2·07, 2·97) nmol/l×30 min, recovered=1·68 (95% CI 1·26, 2·11) nmol/l×30 min (P=0·042); and control=2·03 (95% CI 1·75, 2·39) nmol/l×30 min, stunted=2·51 (95% CI 1·97, 3·19) nmol/l×30 min, underweight=2·61 (95% CI 2·16, 3·16) nmol/l×30 min, recovered=1·70 (95% CI 1·42, 2·03) nmol/l×30 min (P=0·009). Lower free thyroxine (T4) was found in the recovered and stunted groups: control=1·28 (95% CI 1·18, 1·39) pmol/l, stunted=0·98 (95% CI 0·87, 1·10) pmol/l, underweight=1·10 (95% CI 1·01, 1·21) pmol/l and recovered=0·90 (95% CI 0·83, 0·99) pmol/l (P<0·001). Multivariate analysis showed a lower cortisol concentration along 10 h (06.00-16.00 hours) in the recovered compared with the other groups (P=0·017), and similar concentrations between the recovered and control group. In conclusion, the children with recovery in weight and height had a cortisol stress response similar to control but a lower basal free T4. Longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the extent of these endocrine changes after recovery of undernutrition and in adulthood. PMID:26525425

  4. Effects of horseback riding exercise therapy on hormone levels in elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Seon-Rye; Cho, Byung-Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of riding exercise on hormone levels in normal elderly people who were taught horseback riding for 8 weeks. [Subjects] Subjects were classified into an exercise group (n=10) and control group (n=10). [Methods] The two groups, horseback riding exercise group of 10 and control group of 10, were each tested for 15 minutes, 3 times, over 8 weeks. Post-exercise tests were implemented in both groups in the same way as pre-study tests. [Results] The horseback riding group showed a significant difference in the pre- and post-exercise serotonin and cortisol levels. Additionally, serotonin and cortisol levels showed significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] Serotonin and cortisol levels significantly increased in the experimental group, suggesting that horseback riding exercise is effective for improving the levels of these hormones. PMID:26311966

  5. [LED LIGHTING AS A FACTOR FOR THE STIMULATION OF THE HORMONE SYSTEM].

    PubMed

    Deynego, V N; Kaptsov, V A

    2015-01-01

    There are considered questions of non-visual effects of blue LED light sources on hormonal systems (cortisol, glucose, insulin) providing the high human performance. In modern conditions hygiene strategy for child and adolescent health strategy was shown to be replaced by a strategy of light stimulation of the hormonal profile. There was performed a systematic analysis of the axis "light stimulus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenals-cortisol-glucose-insulin". The elevation of the content of cortisol leads to the increase of the glucose level in the blood and the stimulation of the production of insulin, which can, like excessive consumption of food, give rise to irreversible decline in the number of insulin receptors on the cell surface, and thus--to a steady reduction in the ability of cells to utilize glucose, i.e. to type 2 diabetes or its aggravation. PMID:26625615

  6. Hormone impostors

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  7. Stronger Pharmacological Cortisol Suppression and Anticipatory Cortisol Stress Response in Transient Global Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Griebe, Martin; Nees, Frauke; Gerber, Benjamin; Ebert, Anne; Flor, Herta; Wolf, Oliver T.; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G.; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24?h. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence, it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure) in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress, and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p?=?0.027). The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p?=?0.008 and 0.010 respectively), as well as prior to and after the control condition (p?=?0.022 and 0.024, respectively). The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p?=?0.021) and anxiety (p?=?0.007), but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA. PMID:25805980

  8. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Responses Require Actions of the Melanocortin-2 Receptor Accessory Protein on the Extracellular Surface of the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sundeep; Dolan, Terrance M; Maben, Zachary J; Hinkle, Patricia M

    2015-11-13

    The melanocortin-2 (MC2) receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates responses to ACTH. The MC2 receptor acts in concert with the MC2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) that is absolutely required for ACTH binding and signaling. MRAP has a single transmembrane domain and forms a highly unusual antiparallel homodimer that is stably associated with MC2 receptors at the plasma membrane. Despite the physiological importance of the interaction between the MC2 receptor and MRAP, there is little understanding of how the accessory protein works. The dual topology of MRAP has made it impossible to determine whether highly conserved and necessary regions of MRAP are required on the intracellular or extracellular face of the plasma membrane. The strategy used here was to fix the orientation of two antiparallel MRAP molecules and then introduce inactivating mutations on one side of the membrane or the other. This was achieved by engineering proteins containing tandem copies of MRAP fused to the amino terminus of the MC2 receptor. The data firmly establish that only the extracellular amino terminus (Nout) copy of MRAP, oriented with critical segments on the extracellular side of the membrane, is essential. The transmembrane domain of MRAP is also required in only the Nout orientation. Finally, activity of MRAP-MRAP-MC2-receptor fusion proteins with inactivating mutations in either MRAP or the receptor was rescued by co-expression of free wild-type MRAP or free wild-type receptor. These results show that the basic MRAP-MRAP-receptor signaling unit forms higher order complexes and that these multimers signal. PMID:26424796

  9. Cues to sex- and stress-hormones in the human male face: functions of glucocorticoids in the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Moore, F R; Al Dujaili, E A S; Cornwell, R E; Smith, M J Law; Lawson, J F; Sharp, M; Perrett, D I

    2011-08-01

    The stress-linked version of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis has been proposed to account for inconsistencies in relationships between testosterone and immune response. The model has received some support from studies demonstrating roles of stress hormones in relationships between testosterone, immune function and secondary sexual ornamentation. Such work, however, has relied on artificial elevation of testosterone so may not reflect relationships in natural populations. We created human male facial stimuli on the basis of naturally co-occurring levels of salivary testosterone and the stress hormone cortisol. In Study 1 we tested female preferences for male faces with cues to combinations of the hormones across the menstrual cycle, and in Study 2 we tested perceptions of health and dominance in a novel set of facial stimuli. Females preferred cues to low cortisol, a preference that was strongest during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. The effects of cortisol on attractiveness and perceived health and dominance were contingent upon level of testosterone: the effects of the stress hormone were reduced when testosterone was high. We propose explanations for our results, including low cortisol as a cue to a heritable component of health, attractiveness as a predictor of low social-evaluative threat (and, therefore, low baseline cortisol) and testosterone as a proxy of male ability to cope efficiently with stressors. PMID:21672543

  10. Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols.

    PubMed

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Osborne, Mark; Kelly, Vincent G; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the acute response of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to four exercise protocols in 27 elite male rugby players. Each athlete completed four protocols in random order on separate in-season weeks. Two protocols were resistance training based consisting of four exercises (high pull, bench press, squat and chin-ups/prone row): Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 15 repetitions at 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) with 1-minute rest (5 15-55%). Protocol 2 consisted of three sets of five repetitions at 85% 1 RM with 2-minute rest (3 5-85%). Protocol 3 was a strongman (STRNG) session consisting of three stations within a circuit of exercises that included exercises such as battling ropes, prowler push, farmer's walk and tyre flips. Protocol 4 was based on boxing and wrestling inspired exercises (combative--COMB). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before (PRE) and immediately after exercise (POST). Testosterone did not significantly change as a result of any intervention, whereas cortisol declined and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio increased significantly in both the 5 15-55% and 3 5-85% protocol. When results were retrospectively grouped and analysed according to the protocol that demonstrated the greatest absolute testosterone response, significant (P < 0.01) increases for the 5 15-55%, STRNG and COMB protocols were observed. The individualised hormone response to exercise observed in this study highlights the importance of recognising a protocol-dependent approach to training athletes. Furthermore this study also highlights a potential usefulness of employing STRNG and COMB training protocols as an alternative stimulus to resistance training. PMID:25743223

  11. The effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone and cortisol production in HAC15 human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Ding; Choudhary, Vivek; Seremwe, Mutsa; Tsai, Ying-Ying; Olala, Lawrence; Chen, Xunsheng; Bollag, Wendy B

    2014-08-25

    Pioglitazone belongs to the class of drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are widely used as insulin sensitizers in the treatment of diabetes. A major side effect of TZDs is fluid retention. The steroid hormone aldosterone also promotes sodium and fluid retention; however, the effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone production is controversial. We analyzed the effect of pioglitazone alone and in combination with angiotensin II (AngII) on the late rate-limiting step of adrenocortical steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma HAC15 cells. Treatment with pioglitazone for 24 h significantly increased the expression of CYP11B2 and enhanced AngII-induced CYP11B2 expression. Despite the observed changes in mRNA levels, pioglitazone significantly inhibited AngII-induced aldosterone production and CYP11B2 protein levels. On the other hand, pioglitazone stimulated the expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) marker DDIT3, with this effect occurring at early times and inhibitable by the PPAR? antagonist GW9962. The levels of DDIT3 (CHOP) and phospho-eIF2? (Ser51), a UPR-induced event that inhibits protein translation, were also increased. Thus, pioglitazone promotes CYP11B2 expression but nevertheless inhibits aldosterone production in AngII-treated HAC15 cells, likely by blocking global protein translation initiation through DDIT3 and phospho-eIF2?. In contrast, pioglitazone promoted AngII-induced CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production. Since cortisol enhances lipolysis, this result suggests the possibility that PPARs, activated by products of fatty acid oxidation, stimulate cortisol secretion to promote utilization of fatty acids during fasting. In turn, the ability of pioglitazone to stimulate cortisol production could potentially underlie the effects of this drug on fluid retention. PMID:25038520

  12. PTSD symptoms predict waking salivary cortisol levels in police officers.

    PubMed

    Neylan, Thomas C; Brunet, Alain; Pole, Nnamdi; Best, Suzanne R; Metzler, Thomas J; Yehuda, Rachel; Marmar, Charles R

    2005-05-01

    This study examines whether pre- or post-dexamethasone salivary cortisol is related to cumulative critical incident exposure, peritraumatic responses, or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Thirty active duty police officers completed the study protocol, which included measures of peritraumatic emotional distress, peritraumatic dissociation, duty-related trauma exposure, and PTSD symptoms. Salivary cortisol was consolidated into three outcome variables: (1) pre-dexamethasone free cortisol levels at 1, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening, (2) post-dexamethasone cortisol levels at the identical wake times, and (3) percentage of cortisol suppression. Control variables included age, gender, average daily alcohol use, night shift work, routine work environment stressors, and salivary dexamethasone levels. Zero order correlations showed that greater levels of PTSD symptoms, peritraumatic distress, and peritraumatic dissociation were associated with lower levels of pre-dexamethasone cortisol levels on awakening, but were not associated with the other two cortisol variables. A trend was also noted for older subjects to have lower pre-dexamethasone cortisol on awakening. When these four predictors were entered simultaneously in a regression analysis, only age and PTSD symptom severity significantly predicted pre-dexamethasone awakening cortisol levels. These results replicate previous research indicating a relationship between greater PTSD symptoms and lower levels of basal cortisol on awakening, and extend this finding to a previously unstudied non-treatment seeking population, urban police. PMID:15694117

  13. Ultradian Cortisol Pulsatility Encodes a Distinct, Biologically Important Signal

    PubMed Central

    McMaster, Andrew; Jangani, Maryam; Sommer, Paula; Han, Namshik; Brass, Andy; Beesley, Stephen; Lu, Weiqun; Berry, Andrew; Loudon, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Context Cortisol is released in ultradian pulses. The biological relevance of the resulting fluctuating cortisol concentration has not been explored. Objective Determination of the biological consequences of ultradian cortisol pulsatility. Design A novel flow through cell culture system was developed to deliver ultradian pulsed or continuous cortisol to cells. The effects of cortisol dynamics on cell proliferation and survival, and on gene expression were determined. In addition, effects on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression levels and phosphorylation, as a potential mediator, were measured. Results Pulsatile cortisol caused a significant reduction in cell survival compared to continuous exposure of the same cumulative dose, due to increased apoptosis. Comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome response by microarray identified genes with a differential response to pulsatile versus continuous glucocorticoid delivery. These were confirmed with qRT-PCR. Several transcription factor binding sites were enriched in these differentially regulated target genes, including CCAAT-displacement protein (CDP). A CDP regulated reporter gene (MMTV-luc) was, as predicted, also differentially regulated by pulsatile compared to continuous cortisol delivery. Importantly there was no effect of cortisol delivery kinetics on either GR expression, or activation (GR phosphoSer211). Conclusions Cortisol oscillations exert important effects on target cell gene expression, and phenotype. This is not due to differences in cumulative cortisol exposure, or either expression, or activation of the GR. This suggests a novel means to regulate GR function. PMID:21267416

  14. Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M.; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W.; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0–12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

  15. Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Stephen J; Robinson, Eleanor M; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-10-15

    Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0-12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

  16. Adrenal Function Testing Following Hormone Therapy for Infantile Spasms: Case Series and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mytinger, John R.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.

    2015-01-01

    Prednisolone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are “hormone” therapies for infantile spasms. There is limited data on the occurrence of decreased adrenal reserve or signs of clinical adrenal insufficiency after hormone therapy. This is a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to our Infantile Spasms Program. Our standardized infantile spasms management guideline began in September 2012 and initially included a post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function. Medical records were assessed for hormone treatments, adrenal function testing, and signs of adrenal insufficiency. Forty-two patients who received one or both hormone therapies met inclusion criteria. A post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function was done in 14 patients. Of these 14 patients, 2 had an abnormal laboratory assessment of adrenal function, both by adrenal stimulation testing – one after ACTH and one after prednisolone. One patient received hydrocortisone replacement and the other received stress dose hydrocortisone as needed; neither patient developed signs of adrenal insufficiency. Another patient treated with both types of hormone therapy in tandem, who did not have a post-hormone laboratory assessment, developed signs of mild adrenal insufficiency and required replacement hydrocortisone. Our study suggests that adrenal suppression can occur after modern hormone therapy regimens. We found two patients with abnormal adrenal function testing after hormone therapy and another patient with signs adrenal insufficiency. Given the seriousness of adrenal crisis, caregiver education on the signs of adrenal insufficiency is critical. Greater vigilance may be indicated in patients receiving both types of hormone therapy in tandem. Although a routine post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function may not be feasible in all patients, replacement or stress dose hydrocortisone is necessary for all patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency. PMID:26696958

  17. Cortisol and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wiel, Nicolle M.H.; van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Matthys, Walter; Snoek, Heddeke; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Basal cortisol and cortisol stress responsivity are valuable biological characteristics of children with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). In this study, the predictive value of cortisol to outcome of intervention was investigated. Method: Basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels under stress were studied in 22 children with DBD…

  18. Effect of dietary vitamin E on cortisol and glucose responses to handling stress in juvenile beluga Huso huso.

    PubMed

    Falahatkar, B; Amlashi, A Safarpour; Conte, F

    2012-03-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E on the physiological response to handling stress in juvenile beluga Huso huso. Fish were fed six experimental diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50,100, 200, or 400 mg Dl-all-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate/kg diet. At the end of the experiment, the fish in each tank were subjected to acute handling and air exposure stress. Cortisol and glucose were measured as the primary hormonal and secondary metabolic responses to the stressors, both before and 3 h after application of the stressors. The growth parameters and feed utilization rates were significantly lower in fish fed the diet not supplemented with vitamin E than in fish fed diets supplemented with vitamin E. Cortisol concentration was not affected by dietary treatment but glucose concentration was. Fish fed vitamin E at 0, 25, 100, and 400 mg/kg diet had higher concentrations of glucose than those fed vitamin E at 50 and 200 mg/kg. However, fish fed diets with 50 and 200 mg/kg exhibited higher growth rates. These results indicate that dietary vitamin E has some effect on plasma glucose but no effect on plasma cortisol. In general, when the stressors were applied to belugas, the glucose and cortisol responses were relatively low. This may be due to higher resistance and lower physiological responses to these types of stressors by this species or by chondrosteans in general. PMID:22779208

  19. Possible ACTH-independent, cortisol-secreting and DHEA-secreting metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma causing Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sacerdote, Alan; Inoue, Taiga; Thomas, Nithin; Bahtiyar, Gul

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol production by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been previously reported and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion by HCC is rare. We report a case of a 53-year-old woman admitted with dyspnoea and headache. Serum cortisol by immunoassay (IA) was 42.3??g/dL, urine free cortisol (UFC) by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was 106.1??g/24?h, serum DHEA by LC/MS/MS was 4886?ng/mL, serum DHEA-S by LC/MS/MS was 4477?ng/mL and plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) by IA was 10?pg/mL. CT showed likely HCC metastatic to the left adrenal gland, brain and lungs. Liver and adrenal gland biopsies confirmed HCC. ACTH tumour staining was negative. High serum and UFC levels and high serum DHEA and DHEA-S with low-normal plasma ACTH and negative tumour ACTH staining suggested ACTH-independent ectopic Cushing's syndrome (CS); cortisol and DHEA being likely secreted by the HCC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of HCC associated with CS. PMID:26698199

  20. Extraction and Analysis of Cortisol from Human and Monkey Hair

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

  1. Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

  2. Prolonged weightlessness effect on postflight plasma thyroid hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Driscoll, T. B.

    1977-01-01

    Blood drawn before and after spaceflight from the nine Skylab astronauts showed a statistically significant increase in mean plasma thyroxine (T-4) of 1.4 micro g/dl and in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of 4 microunits ml. Concurrent triiodothyronine (T-3) levels decreased 27 ng/dl indicating inhibited conversion of T-4 to T-3. The T-3 decrease is postulated to be a result of the increased cortisol levels noted during and following each mission. These results confirm the thyroidal changes noted after the shorter Apollo flights and show that thyroid hormone levels change during spaceflight.

  3. Offspring Hormones Reflect the Maternal Prenatal Social Environment: Potential for Foetal Programming?

    PubMed Central

    Meise, Kristine; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Females of many species adaptively program their offspring to predictable environmental conditions, a process that is often mediated by hormones. Laboratory studies have shown, for instance, that social density affects levels of maternal cortisol and testosterone, leading to fitness-relevant changes in offspring physiology and behaviour. However, the effects of social density remain poorly understood in natural populations due to the difficulty of disentangling confounding influences such as climatic variation and food availability. Colonially breeding marine mammals offer a unique opportunity to study maternal effects in response to variable colony densities under similar ecological conditions. We therefore quantified maternal and offspring hormone levels in 84 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) from two closely neighbouring colonies of contrasting density. Hair samples were used as they integrate hormone levels over several weeks or months and therefore represent in utero conditions during foetal development. We found significantly higher levels of cortisol and testosterone (both P < 0.001) in mothers from the high density colony, reflecting a more stressful and competitive environment. In addition, offspring testosterone showed a significant positive correlation with maternal cortisol (P < 0.05). Although further work is needed to elucidate the potential consequences for offspring fitness, these findings raise the intriguing possibility that adaptive foetal programming might occur in fur seals in response to the maternal social environment. They also lend support to the idea that hormonally mediated maternal effects may depend more strongly on the maternal regulation of androgen rather than cortisol levels. PMID:26761814

  4. cAMP signaling in cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Calebiro, Davide; Di Dalmazi, Guido; Bathon, Kerstin; Ronchi, Cristina L; Beuschlein, Felix

    2015-10-01

    The cAMP signaling pathway is one of the major players in the regulation of growth and hormonal secretion in adrenocortical cells. Although its role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical hyperplasia associated with Cushing's syndrome has been clarified, a clear involvement of the cAMP signaling pathway and of one of its major downstream effectors, the protein kinase A (PKA), in sporadic adrenocortical adenomas remained elusive until recently. During the last year, a report by our group and three additional independent groups showed that somatic mutations of PRKACA, the gene coding for the catalytic subunit ? of PKA, are a common genetic alteration in patients with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal adenomas, occurring in 35-65% of the patients. In vitro studies revealed that those mutations are able to disrupt the association between catalytic and regulatory subunits of PKA, leading to a cAMP-independent activity of the enzyme. Despite somatic PRKACA mutations being a common finding in patients with clinically manifest Cushing's syndrome, the pathogenesis of adrenocortical adenomas associated with subclinical hypercortisolism seems to rely on a different molecular background. In this review, the role of cAMP/PKA signaling in the regulation of adrenocortical cell function and its alterations in cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas will be summarized, with particular focus on recent developments. PMID:26139209

  5. How to use and interpret hormone ratios.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Silja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Hormone ratios have become increasingly popular throughout the neuroendocrine literature since they offer a straightforward way to simultaneously analyze the effects of two interdependent hormones. However, the analysis of ratios is associated with statistical and interpretational concerns which have not been sufficiently considered in the context of endocrine research. The aim of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate and discuss these issues, and to suggest suitable ways to address them. In a first step, we use exemplary testosterone and cortisol data to illustrate that one major concern of ratios lies in their distribution and inherent asymmetry. As a consequence, results of parametric statistical analyses are affected by the ultimately arbitrary decision of which way around the ratio is computed (i.e., A/B or B/A). We suggest the use of non-parametric methods as well as the log-transformation of hormone ratios as appropriate methods to deal with these statistical problems. However, in a second step, we also discuss the complicated interpretation of ratios, and propose moderation analysis as an alternative and oftentimes more insightful approach to ratio analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that researchers carefully consider which statistical approach is best suited to investigate reciprocal hormone effects. With regard to the hormone ratio method, further research is needed to specify what exactly this index reflects on the biological level and in which cases it is a meaningful variable to analyze. PMID:26521052

  6. Effects of GH, prolactin and cortisol on hepatic heat shock protein 70 expression in a marine teleost Sparus sarba.

    PubMed

    Deane, E E; Kelly, S P; Lo, C K; Woo, N Y

    1999-06-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression was assessed in hepatic tissue of a marine teleost Sparus sarba after exogenous hormone administration. Using a PCR-amplified, homologous HSP70 cDNA clone, as a probe in Northern analysis, we detected a 2.3 kb transcript which was elevated after exposure to a temperature 7 degrees C above the ambient. For our studies on hormonal effects on HSP70 expression, groups of fish were administered recombinant bream GH (rbGH), ovine prolactin (oPRL) or cortisol daily over a 7-day period. Quantification of hepatic HSP70 transcript revealed that the administration of GH and PRL significantly reduced HSP70 mRNA abundance by 42% and 54% from saline-injected fish respectively. Also hepatic HSP70 levels were reduced by 76% and 64% as determined by immunoblotting after rbGH and oPRL treatment respectively. The administration of exogenous cortisol did not alter hepatic HSP70 mRNA or protein levels in S. sarba. The results obtained in this study are the first evidence for hormonal modulation of heat shock protein expression in fish. The significance of these results is discussed within the context of current knowledge on the roles of these hormones in teleostean stress response. PMID:10333544

  7. Neuronal correlates of extinction learning are modulated by sex hormones

    PubMed Central

    Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver T.

    2012-01-01

    In emotional learning tasks, sex differences, stress effects and an interaction of these two moderators have often been observed. The sex hormones estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) vary over the menstrual cycle. We tested groups with different sex hormone status: 39 men, 30 women in the luteal phase (LU, high E2+P4) and 29 women taking oral contraceptives (OC, low E2+P4). They received either 30?mg cortisol or placebo prior to instructed differential fear conditioning consisting of neutral conditioned stimuli (CS) and an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). One figure (CS+) was paired with the UCS, the other figure (CS?) never. During extinction, no electrical stimulation was administered. Regarding fear acquisition, results showed higher skin conductance and higher brain responses to the CS+ compared to the CS? in several structures that were not modulated by cortisol or sex hormones. However, OC women exhibited higher CS+/CS? differentiations than men and LU women in the amygdala, thalamus, anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortex during extinction. The suppression of endogenous sex hormones by OC seems to alter neuronal correlates of extinction. The observation that extinction is influenced by the current sex hormone availability is relevant for future studies and might also be clinically important. PMID:21990419

  8. Dose-response inhibitory effects of purified cathinone from khat (Catha edulis) on cortisol and prolactin release in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Nyongesa, Albert W; Oduma, Jemimah A; Nakajima, Motohiro; Odongo, Hesbon O; Adoyo, Pius A; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2014-06-01

    This study reports acute and sub-chronic effects of cathinone on hormonal alterations in single-caged vervet monkeys. Fourteen adult vervet monkeys were used, 12 of which were treated and 2 controls. Pre-treatment phase of 1month aimed at establishing baseline levels of hormones while treatment phase of 4months considered the dose- and time-response effects of cathinone on serum cortisol and prolactin levels. Test animals were allocated four groups of three animals each and administered 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4mg/kg body weight of cathinone orally while controls were administered normal saline. Treatment was done at alternate days of each week. Serum prolactin and cortisol immunoassays were done. Hormonal data was analysed by repeated measures ANCOVA. Results indicate a dose [F (4, 8)?=?218, P?cortisol levels with a significant dose by week interaction [F (71, 142)?=?4.86, P?hormonal alterations probably via changes in hypothalamo-hypophyseo-adrenocortical and gonadal axes integrity. PMID:24190428

  9. Within-adolescent coupled changes in cortisol with DHEA and testosterone in response to three stressors during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Dorn, Lorah; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    It is hypothesized that Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal axes function together to maintain adaptive functioning during stressful situations differently in adolescence than the characteristic inverse relations found in adulthood. We examined within-person correlated changes (coupling) in cortisol, DHEA and testosterone in response to parent-adolescent conflict discussion, social performance, and venipuncture paradigms. Data are derived from two samples of boys and girls from the Northeastern US (213 adolescents aged 1116, M=13.7, SD=1.5 years; 108 adolescents aged 914, M=11.99, SD=1.55) using different biological sampling vehicles (saliva and blood). Results consistently show that across samples, vehicles, and contexts, cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone are positively coupled in response to environmental stimuli. Findings underscore the importance of considering the effects of multiple hormones together in order to further our understanding of the biological underpinnings of behavior, especially during adolescence, as adolescence is a developmental transition period that may be qualitatively different from adulthood in terms of hormone functioning. PMID:24495606

  10. Modulation of rotational behavior in healthy volunteers by cortisol administration.

    PubMed

    Tops, Mattie; Wijers, Albertus A; Koch, Tineke; Korf, Jakob

    2006-03-01

    Asymmetrical turning behavior is an established indicator of asymmetrical dopaminergic activity and thought to be a manifestation of hemispatial neglect. We set out to find converging support for the hypothesis that cortisol modulates frontal dopaminergic asymmetrical activity, and hence dopaminergically mediated approach behaviors, by studying the effect of cortisol administration on turning behavior in healthy subjects. Both when our subjects attempted to rotate through a target angle (twice 360 degrees) in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction with reduced sensory input, cortisol induced a relative clockwise turning bias. Furthermore, this effect interacted with scores on novelty seeking, a putative indicator of individual differences in dopaminergic function: subjects scoring higher on novelty seeking demonstrated a smaller or no increase after cortisol administration in their clockwise turning bias. The results provide converging support for the hypothesis that cortisol modulates frontal dopaminergic asymmetrical activity. As we discuss, they further point to the possible involvement of the insula in cortisol effects. PMID:16099089

  11. The effects of an anticipated challenge on diurnal cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Wetherell, Mark A; Lovell, Brian; Smith, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    In healthy, non-challenged individuals, the secretion of cortisol typically follows a diurnal profile characterized by a peak in the period following waking (cortisol awakening response) and a gradual decline throughout the day. In addition, cortisol secretion is increased in response to acutely stressful stimuli, particularly stressors involving social evaluation. The current study is the first to assess the impact of an anticipated acute laboratory stressor upon the typical diurnal pattern of HPA activation and relationship to acute cortisol secretion. A sample of 23 healthy young adults provided salivary cortisol samples at four time points (immediately upon awakening, 30-min post-awakening, 1200 h and before bed) on 2 consecutive days. On the second day, participants attended the laboratory and undertook an anticipated acute socially evaluative stressor immediately following provision of their 1200 h saliva sample. Heart rate, blood pressure and mood were recorded immediately before and after the stressor and at 10 and 20 min post-stressor along with additional salivary cortisol samples. Typical patterns of cortisol secretion were observed on both days and exposure to the laboratory stressor was associated with the expected increases in cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure and negative mood. However, significant differences in diurnal cortisol secretion were observed between the two days with greater secretion, in particular, during the period following awakening, evident on the day of the anticipated laboratory stressor. Furthermore, secretion of cortisol during the period following awakening was positively related to secretion during the acute reactivity periods. This is the first study to integrate a laboratory stressor into a typical day and assess its impact on indices of diurnal cortisol secretion in an ambulatory setting. The current findings support the notion that the cortisol awakening response is associated with anticipation of the upcoming day and the subsequent demands required of the individual. PMID:25472822

  12. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass. PMID:12530732

  13. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Brown, Emery N

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an ℓ0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use four examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i) a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii) two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii) an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications. PMID:26321898

  14. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an ℓ0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use four examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i) a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii) two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii) an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications. PMID:26321898

  15. Use of Salivary Cortisol Measurements in Young Infants: A Note of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnano, Catherine L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Findings indicate that high cortisol levels and interfering substances in formula and breast milk could contaminate salivary cortisol measurements in young infants. To insure accurate results, appropriate controls should be taken for salivary cortisol measurements of young infants. (RH)

  16. The cortisol and androgen pathways cross talk in high temperature-induced masculinization: the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase as a key enzyme.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Juan Ignacio; Hattori, Ricardo Shohei; Kishii, Ai; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel

    2012-12-01

    In many ectotherm species the gonadal fate is modulated by temperature early in life [temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD)] but the transducer mechanism between temperature and gonadal differentiation is still elusive. We have recently shown that cortisol, the glucocorticoid stress-related hormone in vertebrates, is involved in the TSD process of pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis. Particularly, all larvae exposed to a male-producing temperature (MPT, 29 C) after hatching showed increased whole-body cortisol and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT; the main bioactive androgen in fish) levels and developed as males. Moreover, cortisol administration at an intermediate, mixed sex-producing temperature (MixPT, 24 C) caused increases in 11-KT and in the frequency of males, suggesting a relation between this glucocorticoid and androgens during the masculinization process. In order to clarify the link between stress and masculinization, the expression of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd)11b2, glucocorticoid receptors gr1 and gr2, and androgen receptors ar1 and ar2 was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR and in situ hybridization in larvae reared at MPT, MixPT, and female-producing temperature (FPT, 17 C) during the sex determination period. We also analyzed the effects of cortisol treatment in larvae reared at MixPT and in adult testicular explants incubated in vitro. MPT and cortisol treatment produced significant increases in hsd11b2 mRNA expression. Also, gonadal explants incubated in the presence of cortisol showed increases of 11-KT levels in the medium. Taken together these results suggest that cortisol promotes 11-KT production during high temperature-induced masculinization by modulation of hsd11b2 expression and thus drives the morphogenesis of the testes. PMID:23041673

  17. The role of thyroid hormones in stress response of fish.

    PubMed

    Peter, M C Subhash

    2011-06-01

    Thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)), the principal thyroid hormones (THs) secreted from the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, produce a plethora of physiologic actions in fish. The diverse actions of THs in fishes are primarily due to the sensitivity of thyroid axis to many physical, chemical and biological factors of both intrinsic and extrinsic origins. The regulation of THs homeostasis becomes more complex due to extrathyroidal deiodination pathways by which the delivery of biologically active T(3) to target cells has been controlled. As primary stress hormones and the end products of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) and brain-sympathetic-chromaffin (BSC) axes, cortisol and adrenaline exert its actions on its target tissues where it promote and integrate osmotic and metabolic competence. Despite possessing specific osmoregulatory and metabolic actions at cellular and whole-body levels, THs may fine-tune these processes in accordance with the actions of hormones like cortisol and adrenaline. Evidences are presented that THs can modify the pattern and magnitude of stress response in fishes as it modifies either its own actions or the actions of stress hormones. In addition, multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypothalamic and pituitary hormones of thyroid and interrenal axes can interact with each other which in turn may regulate THs/cortisol-mediated actions. Even though it is hard to define these interactions, the magnitude of stress response in fish has been shown to be modified by the changes in the status of THs, pointing to its functional relationship with endocrine stress axes particularly with the interrenal axis. The fine-tuned mechanism that operates in fish during stressor-challenge drives the THs to play both fundamental and modulator roles in stress response by controlling osmoregulation and metabolic regulation. A major role of THs in stress response is thus evident in fish. PMID:21362420

  18. Effects of an Early Family Intervention on Children’s Memory: The Mediating Effects of Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Schwartz, Alex; Lynch, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have long been concerned with the ways that early adversity influences children’s long-term outcomes. In the current study, activity of the HPA axis of medically at-risk (e.g., preterm) infants was measured as a result of maternal participation in a novel cognitively-based home visitation program (versus a Healthy Start home visitation program). Maternal participation in the cognitive intervention predicted lower basal cortisol levels among infants – with reduced levels of maternal avoidance/withdrawal serving as a mediator of this relation. Lower cortisol levels in infancy, in turn, predicted higher verbal short-term memory at age 3. Short-term memory represents a cognitive ability that has importance for children’s later educational outcomes. Findings provide experimental evidence concerning the pathway by which an early intervention may produce hormonal changes that can, in turn, influence children’s learning outcomes. PMID:23139701

  19. Behavior of testosterone and cortisol during an intensity-controlled high-volume training period measured by a training task-specific test in men rowers.

    PubMed

    Rämson, Raul; Jürimäe, Jaak; Jürimäe, Toivo; Mäestu, Jarek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the stress hormones testosterone and cortisol after a task-specific exercise during a high-volume endurance training cycle in men rowers. Eight highly trained men rowers were investigated during a high-volume, low-intensity training period. A 2-hour, low-intensity, long-distance rowing (LDT) test was conducted at baseline, after a high-volume period, and after the recovery period. Training and performance intensities were obtained at the graded incremental test, were preset individually, and were the same during all LDTs. Fasting blood samples were taken during the same days as the LDTs. Exercise-induced blood samples were taken before, 5 minutes after, and 30 minutes after (post 30') the completion of each LDT. There were no significant changes in fasting cortisol and testosterone values during the whole study period, and there were no significant changes in cortisol and testosterone concentrations during the LDT. However, testosterone concentration was significantly decreased at post 30' compared with posttest values during the second LDT that was held after the 2-week high-training-volume period, and, during the second LDT, post 30' values of cortisol tended to be decreased compared with posttest values (p = 0.063). In conclusion, changes in the concentrations of testosterone and cortisol after long-distance rowing indicate decreased adaptivity after the training-specific performance test. PMID:19197202

  20. Salivary Gonadal and Adrenal Hormone Differences in Boys and Girls With and Without Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Contextual Variants

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Kolko, David J.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Huang, Bin; Stein, Howard; Music, Edvin; Bukstein, Oscar G.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone differences by psychopathology group and gender may have implications for understanding disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and complexities of treatment outcomes. Current theoretical models emphasize contextual differences as moderators of hormone-behavior relations. This report examined: a) hormone differences in youth with and without DBD, and b) contextual factors as moderators of behavior problems and hormones. 180 children and adolescents were enrolled (141 boys, mean 9.0 ± 1.7 years). DBD participants met criteria for conduct disorder (CD) and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (n = 111); 69 were recruited as healthy comparisons (HC). Saliva was collected for testosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione. DBD youth had significantly higher androstenedione than the HC group. There was a group by gender interaction for basal cortisol mean with DBD boys and HC girls having lower cortisol. Moderating effects of contextual variables (e.g., family functioning, delinquent peers) were noted for cortisol and adrenal androgens. Findings argue for considering hormones as an influence on DBD beyond simple direct one-to one associations. PMID:19428966

  1. Multivariate Statistical Analysis as a Supplementary Tool for Interpretation of Variations in Salivary Cortisol Level in Women with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dziurkowska, Ewelina; Wesolowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is widely used in medical studies as a profitable tool facilitating diagnosis of some diseases, for instance, cancer, allergy, pneumonia, or Alzheimer's and psychiatric diseases. Taking this in consideration, the aim of this study was to use two multivariate techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to disclose the relationship between the drugs used in the therapy of major depressive disorder and the salivary cortisol level and the period of hospitalization. The cortisol contents in saliva of depressed women were quantified by HPLC with UV detection day-to-day during the whole period of hospitalization. A data set with 16 variables (e.g., the patients' age, multiplicity and period of hospitalization, initial and final cortisol level, highest and lowest hormone level, mean contents, and medians) characterizing 97 subjects was used for HCA and PCA calculations. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals that various groups of antidepressants affect at the varying degree the salivary cortisol level. The SSRIs, SNRIs, and the polypragmasy reduce most effectively the hormone secretion. Thus, both unsupervised pattern recognition methods, HCA and PCA, can be used as complementary tools for interpretation of the results obtained by laboratory diagnostic methods. PMID:26380376

  2. Morphological and molecular effects of cortisol and ACTH on zebrafish stage I and II follicles.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Lgia; Figueiredo, Francisco; Pinheiro, Catarina; Silva, Ana; Malho, Fernanda; Rocha, Maria Joo; Rocha, Eduardo; Urbatzka, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Oogenesis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) is controlled by the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and reproductive hormones. In addition, an interference of stress hormones is known with reproductive biology. In the presented work, we aimed to explore the hypothesis that cortisol (Cort) and ACTH may affect early oogenesis in zebrafish, given the presence of the specific receptors for glucocorticoids and ACTH in the zebrafish ovary. Follicles at stages I and II were exposed in vitro to 1 ??M Cort and ACTH for 48 h, then ultrastructural and molecular effects were analyzed. The comet assay demonstrated increased tail moments for Cort and ACTH treatment indicative of DNA damage. The mRNA expression of apoptotic genes (bax, bcl-2) was not altered by both treatments, but Cort increased significantly the expression of the ACTH receptor (mc2r). Cort stimulated the presence of the endoplasmic reticulum, predominantly at stage II, while ACTH induced a strong vacuolization. Viability of oocytes was not affected by both treatments and fluorescent staining (monodansylcadaverine/acridine orange) indicated a reduced quantity of autophagosomes for ACTH, and lower presence of nucleic acids in ooplasm for Cort and ACTH. Concluding, different responses were observed for stress hormones on early stages of zebrafish oocytes, which suggest a role for both hormones in the stress-mediated adverse effects on female gametogenesis. PMID:26316549

  3. Hormonal changes associated with the transition between nursing and natural fasting in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Houser, Dorian S.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    To better interpret previously described hormonal changes observed during the natural postweaning fast (2-3 months) endured by pups of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), we compared plasma cortisol, thyroid hormones, and leptin in pups (n=5) measured during nursing and fasting periods. Blood samples were taken at four times; early (9 days postpartum) and late (18-22 days postpartum) nursing, and early (second week postweaning) and late (eighth week postweaning) fasting. Plasma cortisol increased 39% between early and late nursing and almost 4-fold by late fasting. After the early nursing period, cortisol and body mass were negatively correlated (y=28.3-0.19 x; R=0.569; p=0.027). Total thyroxine (tT(4)), free T(4) (fT(4)), total triiodothyronine (tT3) and reverse T(3) (rT(3)) were greatest at early nursing and reduced by late nursing and remained so throughout the fast, with the exception of tT(4), which increased between late nursing (17.7+/-2.1 ng mL(-1)) and late fasting (30.1+/-2.8 ng mL(-1)) periods. Leptin remained unaltered among the four sampling periods and was not correlated with body mass. Pups appear to exhibit a shift in the relationship between cortisol and body mass suggesting a potential role for cortisol in the regulation of body fat. The higher concentrations of tT(3) and tT(4) during early nursing may reflect enhanced growth and development during this period, however the increase late in fasting is likely physiologically insignificant and an artifact of reduced metabolic clearance of these hormones. Transition of the pups from nursing to fasting states is characterized by a striking lack of change in cortisol, thyroid hormones, and leptin suggesting that any metabolic alterations associated with this transition may occur independent of these hormones.

  4. Relationship between midweek training measures of testosterone and cortisol concentrations and game outcome in professional rugby union matches.

    PubMed

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Cook, Christian J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response of salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations across selected midweek skill-based training sessions and their association with subsequent match outcome 3 days later. Twenty-two rugby union players were assessed for salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations before and after a midweek training session over 6 consecutive weeks. The relative percentage change (response) in the testosterone and cortisol concentration and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio was also determined. Game-day analysis consisted of prematch testosterone concentrations and match outcome. Data were pooled across the winning (n = 3) and losing (n = 3) outcomes. The midweek pretraining T/C ratio was significantly lower (p < 0.01) before a win than a loss and the increase in the pre- to post-T/C ratio before a win was significant (p < 0.001). The increase in the pre- to post-testosterone concentration before a win was also shown to be significant (p < 0.01). However, the relative changes in testosterone before games that were won were not statistically different to that of games lost (p > 0.01). Significant relationships were also demonstrated between game-day pre-testosterone concentrations and the midweek cortisol response (r = -0.90, p = 0.01) and midweek T/C ratio response (r = 0.90, p = 0.01). In conclusion, a midweek measurement of the T/C ratio against a skill-based training session seems to show some potential as an early indicator of subsequent successfully executed performances in competitive rugby union. If this work is subsequently validated, further monitoring of midweek hormone concentrations in response to a mixed psychological-physical training session may assist with assessing competitive readiness leading up to competition. PMID:24936894

  5. The Association Between Cortisol Response to Mental Stress and High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Plasma Concentration in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarino, Antonio I.; Hamer, Mark; Gaze, David; Collinson, Paul; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the association between cortisol response to mental stress and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) in healthy older individuals without history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Background Mental stress is a recognized risk factor for CVD, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Cortisol, a key stress hormone, is associated with coronary atherosclerosis and may accentuate structural and functional cardiac disease. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 508 disease-free men and women aged 53 to 76 years drawn from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort. We evaluated salivary cortisol response to standardized mental stress tests (exposure) and hs-cTnT plasma concentration using a high-sensitivity assay (outcome). We measured coronary calcification using electron-beam dual-source computed tomography and Agatston scores. Results After adjustment for demographic and clinical variables associated with CVD as well as for inflammatory factors, wefound a robust association between cortisol response and detectable hs-cTnT (odds ratio [OR]: 3.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.60 to 9.92; p= 0.003). The association remained when we restricted the analysis to participants without coronary calcification (n= 222; OR: 4.77; 95% CI: 1.22 to 18.72; p= 0.025) or when we further adjusted for coronary calcification in participants with positive Agatston scores (n= 286; OR: 7.39; 95% CI: 2.22 to 26.24; p= 0.001). Conclusions We found that heightened cortisol response to mental stress was associated with detectable plasma levels of cTnT using high-sensitivity assays in healthy participants, independently of coronary atherosclerosis. Further research is needed to understand the role of psychosocial stress in the pathophysiology of cardiac cell damage. PMID:23810896

  6. Growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Bidlingmaier, Martin; Strasburger, Christian J

    2010-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is a proteohormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It acts through binding to the hGH receptor, inducing either direct effects or initiating the production of insulin-like growth-factor I (IGF-I), the most important mediator of hGH effects. Growth hormone is primarily known to promote longitudinal growth in children and adolescents, but has also various important metabolic functions throughout adult life. Effects of hGH on the adult organism are well established from studies with recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in growth hormone deficient subjects. In this particular group of patients, replacement of hGH leads to increased lipolysis and lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvements in VO(2max), and maximal power output. Although extrapolation from these findings to the situation in well trained healthy subjects is impossible, and controlled studies in healthy subjects are scarce, abuse of hGH seems to be popular among athletes trying to enhance physical performance. Detection of the application of rhGH is difficult, especially because the amino acid sequence of rhGH is identical to the major 22,000 Da isoform of hGH normally secreted by the pituitary. Furthermore, some physiological properties of hGH secretion also hindered the development of a doping test: secreted in a pulsatile manner, it has a very short half-life in circulation, which leads to highly variable serum levels. Concentration alone therefore cannot prove the exogenous administration of hGH.Two approaches have independently been developed for the detection of hGH doping: The so-called "marker approach" investigates changes in hGH-dependent parameters like IGF-I or components of bone and collagen metabolism, which are increased after hGH injection. In contrast, the so-called "isoform approach" directly analyses the spectrum of molecular isoforms in circulation: the pituitary gland secretes a spectrum of homo- and heterodimers and - multimers of a variable spectrum of hGH isoforms, whereas rhGH consists of the monomeric 22,000 Da isoform only. This isoform therefore becomes predominant after injection of rhGH. Specific immunoassays with preference for the one or the other isoform allow analysis of the relative abundance of the 22,000 Da isoform. Application of rhGH can be proven when the ratio of this isoform relative to the others is increased above a certain threshold. Because the "marker method" and the "isoform method" have a different window of opportunity for detection, complementary use of both tests could be a way to increase the likelihood of detecting cheating athletes. PMID:20020365

  7. Chemical processing and shampooing impact cortisol measured in human hair

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, M. Camille; Karban, Laura V.; Benitez, Patrick; Goodteacher, Angela; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The assessment of cortisol in hair has gained popularity as a means to measure retrospective hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a number of species; however, cortisol levels from human hair subjected to typical chemicals for cosmetic or hygienic purposes may be altered by the chemicals used. The purposed of this study was to determine if exposure of hair to chemical processing or shampooing impacts cortisol values. Methods Human hair not exposed to prior chemical processing was cut from the posterior vertex region of the head of 106 human subjects as close to the scalp as possible. The hair sample was divided into 4-6 full-length clusters depending on quantity of hair available. Each hair sample was processed for baseline (native) cortisol and remaining clusters were exposed to five standard chemical hair treatments (Experiment 1) or were shampooed 15 or 30 times (Experiment 2). Hair was ground and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Comparisons were made between native hair and processed hair using paired t-tests and Pearson correlation. Results Hair cortisol as assessed by EIA was significantly altered by chemical processing but in somewhat different ways. Exposure to bleach (harshest exposure), demi-perm (least exposure) or 15-30 shampoos resulted in a significant decrease in cortisol level while exposure to varying percentages of peroxides increased cortisol measured. There were no differences in cortisol levels associated with sex, age or tobacco use in the native hair for this particular group. Conclusion Chemical processing and frequent shampooing affect cortisol levels measured in hair. Chemically processed or excessively shampooed hair should be avoided when recruiting subjects for hair cortisol studies. PMID:25090265

  8. Comparing Cortisol, Stress and Sensory Sensitivity in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Schupp, Clayton W.; Levine, Seymour; Mendoza, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Previously we reported that children with autism show significant variability in cortisol. The current investigation was designed to extend these findings by exploring plausible relationships between cortisol and psychological measures of stress and sensory functioning. Salivary cortisol values for diurnal rhythms and response to stress in children with and without autism were compared to parent-report measures of child stress, the Stress Survey Schedule (SSS), sensory functioning, Short Sensory Profile (SSP) and parenting stress (PSI). In autism, a negative relationship between morning cortisol and the SSS revealed that higher observed symptoms of stress were related to lower cortisol. Lower cortisol is seen in conditions of chronic stress and in social situations characterized by unstable social relationships. Sensory sensitivity painted a more complicated picture, in that some aspects of SSP were associated with higher while others were associated with lower cortisol. We propose that increased sensory sensitivity may enhance the autistic child’s susceptibility to the influence of zeitgeibers reflected in variable cortisol secretion. Evening cortisol were positively associated with SSS such that the higher the level of evening cortisol, the higher the child’s parent-reported daily stress, especially to changes, such as in daily routine. Regarding the response to stress, the psychological and parent variables did not differentiate the groups; rather, discrete subgroups of cortisol responders and non-responders were revealed in both the autism and neurotypical children. The results support a complex interplay between physiological and behavioral stress and sensory sensitivity in autism and plausible developmental factors influencing stress reactivity across the groups. PMID:19358306

  9. Central serotonin transporter levels are associated with stress hormone response and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Reimold, Matthias; Knobel, Astrid; Rapp, Michael A.; Batra, Anil; Wiedemann, Klaus; Strhle, Andreas; Zimmer, Anke; Schnknecht, Peter; Smolka, Michael N.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Goldman, David; Machulla, Hans-Jrgen; Bares, Roland; Heinz, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Negative mood states are characterized by both stress hormone dysregulation and serotonergic dysfunction, reflected by altered thalamic serotonin transporter (5-HTT) levels. However, so far, no study examined the individual association between cortisol response and cerebral in vivo 5-HTT levels in patients suffering from negative mood states. Objective The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the interrelation of cortisol response, thalamic 5-HTT levels, and anxiety in healthy subjects and two previously published samples of patients with unipolar major depression (UMD) and obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD), controlling for age, gender, 5-HTT genotype, smoking, and seasonality. Methods Regional 5-HTT levels and cortisol response to dexamethasone-corticotropin (Dex-CRH) challenge were assessed in consecutive samples of medication-free patients suffering from UMD (N=10) and OCD (N=10), and 20 healthy volunteers. The intervention used was combined Dex-CRH test and [11C]DASB positron emission tomography. The main outcome measures were: 5-HTT binding potential (BPND) in a predefined thalamic ROI, cortisol response defined as the maximum cortisol increase in the combined Dex-CRH-test, and state of anxiety from the state-trait-anxiety inventory. Results Reduced thalamic 5-HTT BPND was associated with increased cortisol response (r=?0.35, p<0.05; in patients: r=?0.53, p<0.01) and with increased state anxiety (r=?0.46, p<0.01), surviving correction for age, gender, 5-HTT genotype, smoking, and seasonality (p<0.05). The 5-HTT genotype, on the contrary, was not significantly associated with cortisol response (p=0.19) or negative mood (p=0.23). Conclusion The association between stress hormone response, thalamic 5-HTT levels, and anxiety in patients suffering from negative mood states suggests an interaction between two major mechanisms implicated in negative mood states in humans. PMID:20585760

  10. Effects of EDTA and Sodium Citrate on hormone measurements by fluorometric (FIA) and immunofluorometric (IFMA) methods

    PubMed Central

    Kohek, Maria Beatriz F; Leme, Cassia Regina M; Nakamura, Izabel T; de Oliveira, Suzimara A; Lando, Valeria; Mendonca, Berenice B

    2002-01-01

    Background Measurements of hormonal concentrations by immunoassays using fluorescent tracer substance (Eu3+) are susceptible to the action of chemical agents that may cause alterations in its original structure. Our goal was to verify the effect of two types of anticoagulants in the hormone assays performed by fluorometric (FIA) or immunofluorometric (IFMA) methods. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 30 outpatients and were drawn in EDTA, sodium citrate, and serum separation VacutainerBlood Collection Tubes. Samples were analyzed in automatized equipment AutoDelfia (Perkin Elmer Brazil, Wallac, Finland) for the following hormones: Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle stimulating homone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), insulin, C peptide, total T3, total T4, free T4, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol. Statistical analysis was carried out by Kruskal-Wallis method and Dunn's test. Results No significant differences were seen between samples for LH, FSH, PRL and free T4. Results from GH, TSH, insulin, C peptide, SHBG, total T3, total T4, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone were significant different between serum and EDTA-treated samples groups. Differences were also identified between serum and sodium citrate-treated samples in the analysis for TSH, insulin, total T3, estradiol, testosterone and progesterone. Conclusions We conclude that the hormonal analysis carried through by FIA or IFMA are susceptible to the effects of anticoagulants in the biological material collected that vary depending on the type of assay. PMID:12033989

  11. Effects of carbamazepine on cortisol levels and behavioral responses to stress in the fish Jenynsia multidentata.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, Emilia; Durando, Patricia; Valdés, M Eugenia; Franchioni, Liliana; Bistoni, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-05-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant drug, prescribed worldwide for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia, which has been frequently detected in aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to analyze if CBZ modifies scototaxis and shoaling behaviors and/or whole-body cortisol levels of the one-sided livebearing fish Jenynsia multidentata under stress condition. Female adults of J. multidentata were exposed to 0, 10, 50 and 200μgCBZ/L during 14days. After CBZ exposure, fish were subjected to restraint stress during 15min. Control animals were not exposed to CBZ or stress. In the light/dark preference test (scototaxis), the individuals under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) exhibited a significant increase in the mean speed and in the time spent both in the light compartment and in the bottom of the tank with respect to controls. They also showed a tendency to stay longer frozen in the light compartment. Fish exposed to 10 and 50μgCBZ/L showed a significant reduction in mean speed compared to stressed fish without CBZ. A reduction in the time spent in the bottom of the tank was also observed in fish exposed to 10μgCBZ/L. Fish exposed to 200μgCBZ/L showed a decreasing tendency in all behavioral endpoints (time spent in the light compartment, mean speed, time spent at the bottom and freezing) in comparison to stressed fish not exposed to CBZ. Considering whole-body cortisol results, fish under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) significantly increased their hormone levels with respect to the control group, while fish exposed to CBZ and acute restraint stress, significantly decreased their whole-body cortisol levels. There were no significant changes in shoaling behavior due to either stress or CBZ exposure and no significant differences in whole-body cortisol levels between experimental groups. Considering that the light/dark and shoaling tests measure different stress response behaviors regulated by different neuroendocrine systems, these results could indicate that CBZ has a differential effect on fish behavioral stress response and cortisol levels, depending on the behavioral test used and stressor applied. PMID:26907956

  12. Cortisol and Politics: Variance in Voting Behavior is Predicted by Baseline Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Kevin B.; Alford, John R.; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K.; Hibbing, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  13. Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R

    2014-06-22

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  14. Multiple aberrant hormone receptors in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    El Ghorayeb, Nada; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Lacroix, Andr

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms regulating cortisol production when ACTH of pituitary origin is suppressed in primary adrenal causes of Cushing's syndrome (CS) include diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. These can lead either to constitutive activation of the cAMP system and steroidogenesis or to its regulation exerted by the aberrant adrenal expression of several hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) and their ligands. Screening for aberrant expression of GPCR in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) and unilateral adrenal tumors of patients with overt or subclinical CS demonstrates the frequent co-expression of several receptors. Aberrant hormone receptors can also exert their activity by regulating the paracrine secretion of ACTH or other ligands for those receptors in BMAH or unilateral tumors. The aberrant expression of hormone receptors is not limited to adrenal CS but can be implicated in other endocrine tumors including primary aldosteronism and Cushing's disease. Targeted therapies to block the aberrant receptors or their ligands could become useful in the future. PMID:25971648

  15. On the prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) by measurement of amniotic fluid 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Grankvist, K; Bckstrm, B T; Gustavsson, G; Holmgren, G

    1989-01-01

    Forty amniotic fluid samples of both sexes were collected in the 16th gestational week and analysed for 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), cortisol, and aldosterone. Hormone concentrations were also analyzed in amniotic fluid of a male fetus postnatally diagnosed as having the salt-losing form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The mother also had CAH of the non-salt-losing type. Hormone concentrations were also determined prenatally in two pregnancies at risk. Amniotic fluid from the pregnancy with the CAH fetus had an approx. six-fold elevated 17 alpha-hydroxyprogester one level, whereas cortisol and aldosterone levels were within the normal range when compared with controls. Hormone concentrations in the two pregnancies at risk were within normal limits and subsequently a healthy boy and a healthy girl were born. Institution of cortisone in the mother during early pregnancy was made in one of the pregnancies. The treatment was withdrawn when normal amniotic hormonal levels were obtained. No sex difference in concentrations of 17-OHP or cortisol was found in the controls, whereas there was a marked sex difference in aldosterone levels (p less than 0.005) with male fetuses having higher concentrations. Diagnosis of CAH in the 16th gestational week can be made by analysing amniotic fluid concentrations of 17 OHP. As cortisol and aldosterone levels were within normal range of the CAH-fetus, they are probably of little use for the prenatal diagnosis of CAH-fetuses/or to differentiate the simple virilizing and the salt-losing forms of CAH. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)- analyses of the 21-hydroxylase gene in the fetus gave little further information. PMID:2801032

  16. Cortisol Release in Infants in Response to Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Thomas, David

    1990-01-01

    Data provide strong evidence that studies of stress and cortisol release in infants must take into account basal level, circadian rhythm, and behavioral effects and employ appropriate statistical procedures. Participants were infants of two, four, and six months of age from whom salivary cortisol was obtained before and 15 minutes after an…

  17. Father Contributions to Cortisol Responses in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months…

  18. Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…

  19. Suppressing the Morning Rise in Cortisol Impairs Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning…

  20. Suppressing the Morning Rise in Cortisol Impairs Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning

  1. Inhibition of human lymphocyte stimulation by steroid hormones: cytokinetic mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, J; Multer, M M; Bernheim, J L

    1977-01-01

    The steroid hormones estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, in addition to cortisol, inhibited stimulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and Con A. This effect upon lymphocyte transformation was assayed by three methods: quantitation of [3H]thymidine incorporation into acid precipitable material, microscopic assessment of blastic transformation and determination of the labelling index. Addition of steroid hormones at the initiation of culture resulted in a marked inhibition in all three parameters, which was observed with lower concentrations of cortisol than the other hormones. The inhibition was not attributable to cell death and could be partially reversed by removing hormones from the incubation medium after culture for 48-72 hr. Late addition of steroid hormones, 52 hr after addition of mitogen and 18 hr prior to pulse-labelling with [3H]thymidine, also resulted in reduced [3H]thymidine incorporation, accompanied by a nearly 50% reduction in the labelling indices and only a minimal decrease in the per cent transformed cells. Inhibition of lympohcyte stimulation by steroid hormones operates by the following cytokinetic mechanisms: (1) suppressed recruitment of cells from G3 to G1 phase of the cell cycle, as indicated by the diminished per cent blasts; (2) inhibition of progression from G1 phase into S phase, as evidenced by the reduced ratio [labelling index/blasts]; and, in the case of estradiol and progesterone, (3) reduced rate of DNA replication or altered intracellular [3H]thymidine specific activity as shown by the decreased ([3H]thymidine incorporation/labelling index) ratio. Late addition of steroid hormones to stimulated cultures reduced the per cent of cells in S phase, but did not revert previously transformed cycling lymphocytes to the G3 state. PMID:849646

  2. The effects of carbon dioxide inhalation of plasma MHPG, plasma hormones respiratory rate, and behavior in the Rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Krystal, J.H.; Woods, S.W.; Levesque, M.; Heninger, C.; Heninger, G.R. )

    1989-01-01

    The effects of inhalation of air and 3 concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) on plasma levels of the norepinephrine metabolite, MHPG, plasma hormones, and behavioral activation were assessed in eight chair-adapted Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In comparison to air, inhalation of 5%, 7.5% and 10% CO{sub 2} for 180 minutes produced significant dose-dependent increases in respiratory rate, plasma MHPG, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin. CO{sub 2} at the 7.5% concentration produced peak changes in behavior at 15, growth hormone at 30, and cortisol and MHPG at 180 minutes without producing changes in prolactin. The lack of previously reported CO{sub 2} induced changes in MHPG, growth hormone and prolactin in humans exposed to 7.5% CO{sub 2} for only 15 minutes, may therefore relate to the relatively short duration of CO{sub 2} exposure.

  3. Salivary cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cevada, T; Vasques, P E; Moraes, H; Deslandes, A

    2014-12-01

    High performance athletes are constantly facing different situations involving stress. Salivary cortisol has been used as a physiological measure to verify high performance athlete and mental health, in spite of research that has shown that comparisons between cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to review articles that investigated salivary cortisol levels at rest in high performance athletes in comparison to physically active or sedentary nonathlete individuals. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and Scopus databases were searched for studies on salivary cortisol in athletes and the size effect was calculated. Although 3 articles reported higher salivary cortisol levels in female athletes compared to a control group, the results showed homogeneity among baseline groups or groups in resting conditions, suggesting a lack of discriminative capacity. These results should be interpreted with caution, due to the presence of substantial methodological bias. PMID:25230328

  4. The cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin protects the cortisol response.

    PubMed

    Ruijters, Erik J B; Haenen, Guido R M M; Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt

    2014-01-01

    Various health benefits of the cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EC) have been attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency. In the present study we investigated whether EC is able to prevent deterioration of the anti-inflammatory effect of the glucocorticoid (GC) cortisol in the presence of oxidative stress. It was found that cortisol reduces inflammation in differentiated monocytes. Oxidative stress extinguishes the anti-inflammatory effect of cortisol, leading to cortisol resistance. EC reduces intracellular oxidative stress as well as the development of cortisol resistance. This further deciphers the enigmatic mechanism of EC by which it exerts its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action. The observed effect of the cocoa flavanol EC will especially be of relevance in pathophysiological conditions with increased oxidative stress and consequential GC resistance and provides a fundament for the rational use of dietary antioxidants. PMID:24269961

  5. Interaction of endogenous cortisol and noradrenaline in the human amygdala.

    PubMed

    van Stegeren, Anda H; Wolf, Oliver T; Everaerd, Walter; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2008-01-01

    Animal studies show that glucocorticoid effects on memory depend on noradrenergic activation within an intact amygdala. Testing this model in humans is the subject of the present fMRI study. Healthy subjects watched emotional and neutral stimuli after having received a betablocker or placebo. Cortisol levels of all subjects were determined and served as a marker of the subject's (endogenous) cortisol level during the experiment. Viewing emotional pictures resulted in increased amygdala activation compared to neutral pictures and this effect was enhanced in subjects with a high versus low cortisol level under placebo condition. Betablockade with propranolol, lowering the noradrenergic level in the amygdala, disrupted this effect and apparently the interaction with cortisol. These data support the hypothesis that high endogenous cortisol levels at the time of encoding interact with noradrenergic activation in the amygdala in man. PMID:18037022

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Salivary Cortisol Using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol is one of the most important glucocorticoids and plays important roles in regulating human metabolism. Midnight salivary cortisol has been shown to correlate well with free cortisol concentration in serum and is one of the first tests recommended for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.The procedure described here involves centrifugation of the saliva samples to remove solids and mucus strands before they are diluted with buffer and mixed with deuterated internal standard D4-cortisol. The samples are then subjected to reverse phase separation on a C18 column and analyzed by a tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS). Quantification is achieved by comparing the responses of a given sample to the responses of the calibrators of known concentrations. The calibrators are prepared and analyzed along with the patient samples. Analytical specificity is ensured by using multiple reaction monitoring with fragment ions that are unique to cortisol and deuterated internal standard. PMID:26602119

  7. Positive life events predict salivary cortisol in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Pluess, Michael; Wurmser, Harald; Buske-Kirschbaum, Angelika; Papousek, Mechthild; Pirke, Karl-Martin; Hellhammer, Dirk; Bolten, Margarete

    2012-08-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been repeatedly associated with problematic child development. According to the fetal programming hypothesis adverse experiences during pregnancy increase maternal cortisol, which is then assumed to exert a negative effect on fetal development. Recent studies in non-pregnant women report significant associations between positive emotionality and low cortisol levels. We tested in a sample of 60 pregnant women whether both negative and positive life events independently predicted third-trimester baseline awakening cortisol levels. While the effect of negative life events proved unrelated positive life events significantly predicted lower cortisol levels. These findings suggest that positive experiences are of relevance regarding maternal morning cortisol levels in pregnancy reflecting a resource with potentially beneficial effects for the mother and the developing fetus. It might be promising for psychological intervention programs to focus on increasing positive experiences of the expecting mother rather than exclusively trying to reduce maternal stress during pregnancy. PMID:22309824

  8. Salivary steroid hormone response to whole-body cryotherapy in elite rugby players.

    PubMed

    Grasso, D; Lanteri, P; Di Bernardo, C; Mauri, C; Porcelli, S; Colombini, A; Zani, V; Bonomi, F G; Melegati, G; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G

    2014-01-01

    Saliva represents a low stress, not-invasively collected matrix that allows steroid hormone monitoring in athletes by reflecting type, intensity and duration of exercise. Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of short whole-body exposures to extremely cold air (-110 to -140C) which, despite being initially used to treat inflammatory diseases, is currently acquiring increasing popularity in sports medicine. Cryostimulation practice is now widely accepted as an effective treatment to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this work was to study the changes of steroid hormones in saliva of rugby players after both 2 and 14 consecutive WBC sessions, in order to investigate the effects of the treatment on their salivary steroid hormonal profile. Twenty-five professional rugby players, belonging to the Italian National Team, underwent a 7-day cryotherapy protocol consisting of 2 daily sessions. Saliva samples were taken in the morning prior to the start of the WBC, in the evening after the end of the second WBC, and in the morning of the day after the last WBC session. The samples were analyzed for cortisol, DHEA, testosterone and estradiol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cortisol and DHEA showed a reduction already after the 2 WBC sessions of the first day; after 14 consecutive WBC sessions cortisol, DHEA, and estradiol levels decreased, while testosterone increased as did the testosterone to cortisol ratio. These results were confirmed by the fact that the majority of subjects showed variations exceeding the critical difference (CD). In conclusion, we found that WBC acutely affects the salivary steroid hormone profile, and the results are evident already after only one twice-daily session. Most significantly, after one-week of consecutive twice-daily WBC sessions, all the hormones were modified. This is the first experimental report that links changes in the hormonal asset to WBC. PMID:25001661

  9. Hormone Health Network

    MedlinePLUS

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones ... Count Physical activity is key to a healthy endocrine system. Aim for 10,000 steps per day! Spruce ...

  10. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... strokes. Should I use hormone therapy to prevent memory loss or Alzheimer’s disease? No, do not use hormone therapy to prevent memory loss or Alzheimer’s disease. Do hormones protect against aging and wrinkles or ...

  11. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Was this page helpful? Also known as: Vasopressin; AVP Formal name: Antidiuretic Hormone; Arginine Vasopressin Related tests: ... as electrolytes . Antidiuretic hormone, also called arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus in ...

  12. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  13. Analysis of hair cortisol levels in captive chimpanzees: Effect of various methods on cortisol stability and variability

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Juri; Hayashi, Misato; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Murayama, Miho; Idani, Genichi

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol has been reported to be a useful measure of long-term hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis activation in several species. It serves as a practical tool for long-term stress assessment, but it is important to understand the methodological factors that can affects hair cortisol assays to avoid methodological artifacts. To that end, we tested several procedures for measuring cortisol levels in hair collected from captive chimpanzees. The results showed that reproducibility was high, and we found no differences in cortisol levels among the various storage, drying, and sampling methods. However, the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time affected absolute hair cortisol concentration. Although hair cortisol levels were stable over time, factors that may influence measurement results should be kept constant throughout a study.We modified and validated a methodology involving enzyme immunoassays to reliably measure the hair cortisol levels of captive chimpanzees.The results revealed that the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time caused variations in absolute hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees. In contrast, storage, drying, and sampling from similar body parts did not affect the results. PMID:26870668

  14. Hair cortisol detection in dairy cattle by using EIA: protocol validation and correlation with faecal cortisol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Tallo-Parra, O; Manteca, X; Sabes-Alsina, M; Carbajal, A; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-06-01

    Hair may be a useful matrix to detect cumulative cortisol concentrations in studies of animal welfare and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for cortisol detection in hair from dairy cattle by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Seventeen adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the milking period. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 25-day-old hair samples taken from the frontal region of the head, analysing black and white coloured hair separately. Concentrations of cortisol metabolites were determined in faeces collected twice a week during the same period of time. There was a high correlation between cortisol values in faeces and cortisol in white colour hair samples but such correlation was not significant with the black colour hair samples. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The linearity showed R 2=0.98 and mean percentage error of -10.8 1.55%. The extraction efficiency was 89.0 23.52% and the parallelism test showed similar slopes. Cortisol detection in hair by using EIA seems to be a valid method to represent long-term circulating cortisol levels in dairy cattle. PMID:25997530

  15. Analysis of hair cortisol levels in captive chimpanzees: Effect of various methods on cortisol stability and variability.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Juri; Hayashi, Misato; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol has been reported to be a useful measure of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation in several species. It serves as a practical tool for long-term stress assessment, but it is important to understand the methodological factors that can affects hair cortisol assays to avoid methodological artifacts. To that end, we tested several procedures for measuring cortisol levels in hair collected from captive chimpanzees. The results showed that reproducibility was high, and we found no differences in cortisol levels among the various storage, drying, and sampling methods. However, the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time affected absolute hair cortisol concentration. Although hair cortisol levels were stable over time, factors that may influence measurement results should be kept constant throughout a study.•We modified and validated a methodology involving enzyme immunoassays to reliably measure the hair cortisol levels of captive chimpanzees.•The results revealed that the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time caused variations in absolute hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees. In contrast, storage, drying, and sampling from similar body parts did not affect the results. PMID:26870668

  16. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

    PubMed Central

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (−5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05). PMID:26075039

  17. Free and microencapsulated adrenal cortical cells produce similar cortisol responses when stimulated by ACTH: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Abobakr, A M

    1994-03-01

    Transplantation of endocrine cells, especially when protected from immune destruction, is an attractive alternative to whole organ transplantation. The current treatment for adrenal insufficiency whether congenital or acquired is hormone replacement, which is not considered fully physiological. In this study, we isolated porcine adrenal cortical cells by collagenase digestion. The cells were microencapsulated in alginate-polylysine-alginate membranes using electrostatic droplet generator. In vitro, ACTH stimulation of both free and microencapsulated adrenal cortical cells produced comparable cortisol response. It can be concluded that the microencapsulation process is not injurious to the adrenal cortical cells and that it does not hamper their secretory function. PMID:8050809

  18. Cortisol metabolic predictors of response to psychotherapy for symptoms of PTSD in survivors of the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M.; Sarapas, Casey; Makotkine, Iouri; Andrew, Ruth; Seckl, Jonathan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background A proportion of subjects with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are unresponsive to specialized psychotherapy, but a biological basis for this has not been described. To observe whether differences in cortisol or its metabolites predict or correlate with response to therapy for PTSD symptoms, cortisol and its metabolites were measured from urine samples at pre-treatment, at the conclusion of psychotherapy, and at 3-month follow-up. Methods 28 survivors of the World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001 seeking psychological treatment for PTSD symptoms received four sessions of either exposure therapy or supportive counseling, followed by up to 10 sessions of prolonged exposure in a specialized PTSD treatment program at a private hospital serving the New York City metropolitan area. 24-hr mean integrated cortisol excretion was assessed by radioimmunoassay (RIA); urinary free cortisol and metabolites cortisone, 5?tetrahydrocortisol (5?-THF), 5?tetrahydrocortisol, and tetrahydrocortisone were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS); and indices of enzyme activities for 5?and 5?reductase and for the 11?hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were derived from the metabolite and glucocorticoid measures. Results 5?-reductase activity was significantly lower at pre-treatment among non-responders, whereas there were no significant pre-treatment differences between responders and non-responders in any other hormone or metabolite level. In repeated-measures analyses across the three time points, 5?-reductase activity, as well as 5?-THF and total glucocorticoids, significantly differed between responders and non-responders. For urinary cortisol measured by RIA, there was a significant group time interaction indicating that, although not different at pre-treatment, urinary cortisol levels declined over time in the non-responder group, such that by follow-up, lowered cortisol significantly distinguished non-responders from responders. Indices of 5?-reductase activity, including 5?-THF and total glucocorticoids, were significantly negatively correlated with avoidance symptom severity at pre-treatment. At follow-up, indices of 5?-reductase activity were significantly negatively correlated with severity of all three PTSD symptom clusters and with total PTSD severity scores. Conclusion Lower 5?reductase activity is associated with avoidance severity and predicts non-responsiveness to psychological treatment for PTSD symptomatology. Relatively diminished 5?reductase activity may mark a state of primary vulnerability, perhaps via attenuated peripheral catabolism of cortisol resulting in the suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness. Lower cortisol levels appear later in the progression to chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD. PMID:19411143

  19. Hormonal modulation of branchial Na+-K+-ATPase subunit mRNA in a marine teleost Sparus sarba.

    PubMed

    Deane, E E; Kelly, S P; Woo, N Y

    1999-01-01

    The effect of hormone treatment on the abundance of Na+-K+-ATPase alpha- and beta-subunit mRNA in Sparus sarba branchial tissue was investigated. Groups of seawater (33/1000) and hypo-osmotic (6/1000) acclimated fish were injected daily, with either saline, cortisol, recombinant bream growth hormone (rbGH) or ovine prolactin (oPRL). Total RNA from branchial tissue was analyzed by Northern blotting using PCR amplified Na+-K+-ATPase alpha- and beta-subunit cDNA clones. Na+-K+-ATPase alpha- and beta- subunit transcripts of 3.3kb and 2.4kb respectively, were detected and their abundance, after hormone treatment was assessed using RNA dot blots. The abundance of subunit mRNAs increased 1.4-1.9 fold, relative to controls, after cortisol treatment. The alpha:beta mRNA ratio also increased in cortisol treated seawater acclimated fish. Growth hormone treatment did not cause any significant changes in Na+-K+-ATPase subunit mRNA, whereas prolactin significantly reduced alpha-subunit mRNA levels by approximately 0.5 fold in both seawater and hypo-osmotic conditions. The data from this study add further support to the generally accepted roles that cortisol and prolactin have in the modulation of Na+-K+-ATPase activity. It can be concluded from this study that S. sarba branchial Na+-K+-ATPase subunit expression is multihormonally regulated. PMID:10350356

  20. Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxin and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via ..beta..-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents.

  1. The hormonal costs of subtle forms of infant maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Martorell, Gabriela A; Barraza, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    We show here that subtle forms of maltreatment during infancy (below 1 year of age) have potential consequences for the functioning of the child's adrenocortical response system. Infants who received frequent corporal punishment (e.g., spanking) showed high hormonal reactivity to stress (a repeated separation from mother, combined with the presence of a stranger). In addition, infants who experienced frequent emotional withdrawal by their mothers (either as a result of maternal depression, or mother's strategic use of withdrawal as a control tactic) showed elevated baseline levels of cortisol. It was suggested that there are hormonal "costs" when mothers show response patterns (intentionally or unintentionally) that limit their utility as a means of buffering the child against stress. The hormonal responses shown by infants may alter the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in ways that, if continued, may foster risk for immune disorders, sensitization to later stress, cognitive deficits, and social-emotional problems. PMID:12614655

  2. A secretagogin locus of the mammalian hypothalamus controls stress hormone release

    PubMed Central

    Romanov, Roman A; Alpár, Alán; Zhang, Ming-Dong; Zeisel, Amit; Calas, André; Landry, Marc; Fuszard, Matthew; Shirran, Sally L; Schnell, Robert; Dobolyi, Árpád; Oláh, Márk; Spence, Lauren; Mulder, Jan; Martens, Henrik; Palkovits, Miklós; Uhlen, Mathias; Sitte, Harald H; Botting, Catherine H; Wagner, Ludwig; Linnarsson, Sten; Hökfelt, Tomas; Harkany, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical hormonal cascade along the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis orchestrates bodily responses to stress. Although corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), produced by parvocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and released into the portal circulation at the median eminence, is known to prime downstream hormone release, the molecular mechanism regulating phasic CRH release remains poorly understood. Here, we find a cohort of parvocellular cells interspersed with magnocellular PVN neurons expressing secretagogin. Single-cell transcriptome analysis combined with protein interactome profiling identifies secretagogin neurons as a distinct CRH-releasing neuron population reliant on secretagogin’s Ca2+ sensor properties and protein interactions with the vesicular traffic and exocytosis release machineries to liberate this key hypothalamic releasing hormone. Pharmacological tools combined with RNA interference demonstrate that secretagogin’s loss of function occludes adrenocorticotropic hormone release from the pituitary and lowers peripheral corticosterone levels in response to acute stress. Cumulatively, these data define a novel secretagogin neuronal locus and molecular axis underpinning stress responsiveness. PMID:25430741

  3. Human milk cortisol is associated with infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Grey, Katherine R; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A; Glynn, Laura M

    2013-07-01

    The implications of the biologically active elements in milk for the mammalian infant are largely unknown. Animal models demonstrate that transmission of glucocorticoids through milk influences behavior and modifies brain development in offspring. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between human milk cortisol levels and temperament of the breastfed infant. Fifty-two mother and infant pairs participated when the infants were three-months old. Milk cortisol levels were assessed and each mother completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), a widely used parent-report measure of infant temperament. Analyses revealed a positive association between milk cortisol and the negative affectivity dimension of the IBQ (partial r=.37, p<.01). No correlation was found between elevated cortisol levels and the surgency/extraversion or the orienting/regulation dimensions. Further, the positive association between increased maternal milk cortisol and negative affectivity was present among girls (β=.59, p<.01), but not among boys. (Although, the sex by milk cortisol interaction term was not statistically significant, suggesting that these results require replication.) Environmental factors such as maternal demographics and negative maternal affect (depression and perceived stress) at the time of assessment did not account for the positive association. The findings support the proposal that exposure to elevated levels of cortisol in human milk influences infant temperament. The findings further suggest that mothers have the ability to shape offspring phenotype through the transmission of biologically active components in milk. PMID:23265309

  4. The Impact of PTSD Treatment on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Maria L.; Feeny, Norah; Zoellner, Lori; Delahanty, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; however, limited research has examined whether cortisol levels change following successful PTSD treatment. The current study examined the impact of successful PTSD treatment on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Method Twenty-nine adults participating in a treatment trial for chronic PTSD provided saliva samples (upon waking, and 30, 45, and 60-min post-waking) before and after receiving either prolonged exposure therapy or sertraline. PTSD responder status (i.e., loss or retention of a PTSD diagnosis) served as the predictor variable. Outcome measures included area under the curve with respect to ground and increase, reflecting total cortisol output and HPA axis reactivity, respectively. Results A series of hierarchical regressions revealed no significant main effects of PTSD responder status for either CAR outcome. However, a significant gender by treatment response interaction for cortisol reactivity revealed that female treatment non-responders displayed higher cortisol reactivity following treatment than female responders, whereas cortisol reactivity did not change pre- to post-treatment for male responders. Findings remained after controlling for age, trauma history, baseline medication status, baseline PTSD, and baseline depressive symptoms. Conclusion Loss of a PTSD diagnosis may contribute to decreased cortisol reactivity in females. Neuroendocrine changes following treatment may emerge only for specific subgroups, highlighting the importance of exploring treatment moderators. PMID:25327949

  5. Human Milk Cortisol is Associated With Infant Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Katherine R.; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A.; Glynn, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    The implications of the biologically active elements in milk for the mammalian infant are largely unknown. Animal models demonstrate that transmission of glucocorticoids through milk influences behavior and modifies brain development in offspring. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between human milk cortisol levels and temperament of the breastfed infant. Fifty-two mother and infant pairs participated when the infants were three-months old. Milk cortisol levels were assessed and each mother completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), a widely used parent-report measure of infant temperament. Analyses revealed a positive association between milk cortisol and the Negative Affectivity dimension of the IBQ (partial r =.37, p < .01). No correlation was found between elevated cortisol levels and the Surgency/Extraversion or the Orienting/Regulation dimensions. Further, the positive association between increased maternal milk cortisol and Negative Affectivity was present among girls (? = .59, p < .01), but not among boys. (Although, the sex by milk cortisol interaction term was not statistically significant, suggesting that these results require replication.) Environmental factors such as maternal demographics and negative maternal affect (depression and perceived stress) at the time of assessment did not account for the positive association. The findings support the proposal that exposure to elevated levels of cortisol in human milk influences infant temperament. The findings further suggest that mothers have the ability shape offspring phenotype through the transmission of biologically active components in milk. PMID:23265309

  6. In utero cortisol and testosterone exposure and fear reactivity in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Kristin; Glover, Vivette; Sarkar, Pampa; Abbott, Dave; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2010-01-01

    Fetal programming is emerging as a major conceptual model for understanding developmental origins of health and disease, including behavioral outcomes. As part of a larger study of prenatal stress and child development, we examined the association between prenatal hormone exposure and fear reactivity, a temperament dimension that is a predictor of long-term behavioral adjustment. Amniotic fluid was collected from a sample of women undergoing clinically indicated amniocentesis for later analysis of cortisol and testosterone. Children with normal birth outcomes were recalled for follow-up assessment at 17 months, at which time we administered an observational assessment of temperament (lab-TAB; n=108). Information on pregnancy and obstetric outcome was included as covariates. Results indicated that there was a significant association between prenatal testosterone and observed fear reactivity in boys (r(53)=0.34, p=0.01); no significant effect was found in girls (r(54)=-.07, ns); the effect remained when obstetric, psychosocial, and parental anxiety were controlled for. There was not a significant association between fetal cortisol exposure and fear reactivity. The prediction from in utero testosterone exposure to fear reactivity in boys extends prior research on prenatal testosterone, and may represent an association with a general predisposition to greater arousal and reactivity. PMID:20060000

  7. Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. PMID:21185838

  8. Acute Alcohol Consumption Disrupts the Hormonal Milieu of Lactating Women

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Teff, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the lack of scientific evidence to support the claim that alcohol is a galactagogue, lactating women have been advised to drink alcohol as an aid to lactation for centuries. To test the hypothesis that alcohol consumption affects the hormonal response in lactating women, we conducted a within-subjects design study in which 17 women consumed a 0.4 g/kg dose of alcohol in orange juice during one test session and an equal volume of orange juice during the other. Changes in plasma prolactin, oxytocin, and cortisol levels during and after breast stimulation, lactational performance, and mood states were compared under the two experimental conditions. Oxytocin levels significantly decreased, whereas prolactin levels and measures of sedation, dysphoria, and drunkenness significantly increased, during the immediate hours after alcohol consumption. Changes in oxytocin were related to measures of lactational performance such as milk yield and ejection latencies, whereas changes in prolactin were related to self-reported measures of drunkenness. Although alcohol consumption resulted in significantly higher cortisol when compared with the control condition, cortisol levels were not significantly correlated with any of the indices of lactational performance or self-reported drug effects. Moreover, cortisol levels steadily decreased on the control day, indicating that the procedures were not stressful to the subjects. In conclusion, recommending alcohol as an aid to lactation may be counterproductive. In the short term, mothers may be more relaxed, but the hormonal milieu underlying lactational performance is disrupted, and, in turn, the infants milk supply is diminished. PMID:15623810

  9. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought. PMID:26881835

  10. Correlates and consequences of toddler cortisol reactivity to fear.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Kalomiris, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    Cortisol reactivity to fear-eliciting stimuli during toddlerhood may represent an indicator of risk for anxiety spectrum problems and other maladjustment. Thus, it is important to understand factors that may contribute to cortisol reactivity as well as those that determine its predictive relation to early emerging anxiety. In this vein, the current study investigated maternal comforting behaviors, both solicited and unsolicited by the toddler, as correlates of cortisol reactivity at 2years of age. Furthermore, we investigated maternal comforting behaviors and behavioral indicators of fear in both a low-threat and a high-threat context as moderators of the relation between cortisol reactivity at age 2 and change in anxiety from age 2 to age 3. The sample comprised 99 2-year-old toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers provided saliva samples at baseline and after a fear-eliciting stimulus that were assayed for cortisol. Mothers were observed for comforting behavior while interacting with their toddlers in laboratory tasks and completed questionnaires about their toddlers' anxiety. Results indicated that unsolicited (spontaneous) comforting behavior related to toddler cortisol reactivity above and beyond solicited comforting and the level of fear toddlers displayed in the same task. Moreover, fear in a low-threat context, but not in a high-threat context, moderated the relation between cortisol reactivity and change in anxiety, such that cortisol reactivity had a positive relation to anxiety at extreme levels of low-threat fear. Results suggest the importance of considering the caregiving environment and context-specific fear in understanding the nature of cortisol reactivity during the toddler years. PMID:26410395

  11. Interventions to Improve Cortisol Regulation in Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Shonkoff, Jack P.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with physiologic dysregulation across multiple biological systems; however, relatively little is known about whether these changes are reversible with intervention. The objective of this review was to examine evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy cortisol regulation in children. We selected articles from English-language publications in PubMed and EBSCO databases through 2012. Two independent reviewers assessed articles against eligibility criteria. Eligible studies were randomized controlled or quasi-experimental studies designed to improve relationships, environments, or psychosocial functioning in children and examined cortisol as an outcome. We identified 19 articles. There was substantial heterogeneity across studies with regard to age, selection criteria, intervention design, cortisol assessment, and follow-up duration. Eighteen of the 19 articles reported at least 1 difference in baseline cortisol, diurnal cortisol, or cortisol responsivity between intervention and control participants. Importantly, however, there was remarkable inconsistency with regard to how the interventions influenced cortisol. Therefore, studies that included a low-risk comparison group (n = 8) provided critical insight, and each found some evidence that postintervention cortisol levels in the intervention group approximated the low-risk comparison group and differed from children receiving usual care. In conclusion, existing studies show that cortisol activity can be altered by psychosocial interventions. These findings are promising, not only because they indicate physiologic plasticity that can be leveraged by interventions but also because they suggest it may be possible to repair regulatory systems after childhood adversity, which could inform strategies for reducing health disparities and promoting lasting improvements in health. PMID:24420810

  12. Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Theoretically, the physiological response to stress should inhibit the sexual response. This has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models, and correlationally in studies of human reproduction. It is reasonable to expect, then, that the stress response would be blunted during sexual arousal, and several researchers have found a pattern of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim In the present study, we explored individual differences in womens cortisol response to sexual arousal in a laboratory setting. We also examined how cortisol response in the laboratory related to a validated measure of sexual arousal functioning in real life. Main Outcome Measures Cortisol levels were measured in saliva via enzyme immunoassay. Subjective arousal was measured by a self-report questionnaire, and genital arousal was measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Methods Subjective and physiological responses to an erotic film were assessed in 30 women. Saliva samples were taken at baseline and following the film. Results The majority of women (N = 20) showed a decrease in cortisol; nine women showed an increase in response to an erotic film. The women who showed an increase in cortisol had lower scores on the Arousal, Desire, and Satisfaction domains of the Female Sexual Function Index. Genital arousal in the laboratory was not related to cortisol change. Conclusions Women who show an increase in cortisol in response to sexual stimuli in the laboratory have lower levels of functioning in certain areas of their sexual life compared with women who show a decrease in cortisol. Stress related to sexual performance may interfere with sexual arousal. PMID:18624961

  13. Effects of season, sex, and sample collection on concentrations of fecal cortisol metabolites in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Huber, S; Palme, R; Arnold, W

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal variation, sex differences, and invasive sample collection may confound glucocorticoid measures as indices of stress. We investigated the effects of sex and season on glucocorticoid production on a non-invasive basis by measuring concentrations of cortisol metabolites in feces of undisturbed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Although feces can be collected easily, assignment to individuals is difficult. Anonymous fecal samples may cause overrepresentation of particular individuals thus introducing a source of error when estimating mean hormone levels within a population. We therefore examined the effects of collecting anonymous fecal samples on mean fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Neither sex nor sample collection mode significantly affected mean fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations in the studied population of red deer. Fecal glucocorticoid excretion varied seasonally with a peak during December and January. Out of several potential predictor variables investigated, minimum ambient temperature and snow proved to be the only factors exerting a significant effect on fecal glucocorticoid excretion. We suggest that high winter glucocorticoid levels may act via catabolic function during adaptation of deer to cold winter month when resources are limited. PMID:12535624

  14. Changes in Plasma Sex Steroid and Cortisol Levels during Annual Reproductive Cycle of Ribbed Gunnel, Dictyosoma burgeri

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In Joon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Kim, Hyung Bae; Baek, Hea Ja

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the changes in plasma sex steroid hormones, testosterone (T), estradiol-17? (E2), 17,20? -dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17?20?P), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and cortisol levels from ribbed gunnel, Dictyosoma burgeri in associated with annual reproductive cycle. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of females increased from November, peaked in February and decreased rapidly from March. The GSI of males also increased from November, peaked in January and then decreased gradually. In females, E2 levels increased and remained high from December to February. The levels of T showed a similar tendency and correlated (rs=0.898, p<0.01) with E2 levels. The levels of 17?20?P increased rapidly in February (4.781.01 ng/ml) and peaked in July (5.080.65 ng/ml). Cortisol level was peaked in March and correlated with 17?20?P levels (rs=0.696, p<0.01). In males, the levels of T was peaked in January and then decreased rapidly. The levels of 11KT were remained high from October to January. On the other hand, the levels of 17?20?P fluctuated during reproductive cycle. These results suggest that plasma sex steroids in ribbed gunnels have annual periodicity, and that cortisol may involve in maturation of females. PMID:25949101

  15. Faecal cortisol metabolites in Bengal (Panthera tigris tigris) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Parnell, Tempe; Clark, Giles; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-12-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) faces a great risk of extinction as its wild numbers have plummeted due to poaching and habitat destruction so ex-situ conservation programs are becoming ever more necessary. Reliable non-invasive biomarkers of the stress hormone (cortisol) are necessary for assessing the health and welfare of tigers in captivity. To our knowledge, non-invasive stress endocrinology methods have not been tested as widely in tigers. The first aim of this study was to describe and validate a faecal cortisol metabolite enzyme-immmunoassay (FCM EIA) for two tiger sub-species, the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). Individual tigers (n=22) were studied in two large Zoos in Queensland, Australia (Dreamworld Theme Park and Australia Zoo). Fresh faecal samples (<12 h old) were collected each morning from both Zoos over a study period of 21 days. Biological validation was conducted separately by collecting feces 5 days before and 5 days after blood was taken from four male and five female tigers. Results showed that mean FCM levels increased by 138% and 285% in the male and female tigers within 1 day after bloods were taken, returning to baseline in 5 days. Laboratory validations of the FCM EIA were done using an extraction efficiency test and parallelism. Results showed >89% recovery of the cortisol standard that was added to tiger faecal extract. We also obtained parallel displacement of the serially diluted cortisol standard against serially diluted tiger faecal extract. Our second aim was to determine whether the FCM levels were significantly different between tiger sub-species and sex. Results showed no significant difference in mean FCM levels between the Bengal and Sumatran tiger sub-species. Mean levels of FCMs were significantly higher in females than in male tigers. Those male and female tigers with reported health issues during the study period expressed higher FCM levels than the reportedly healthy tigers. Interestingly, those tigers that took part in some activity (such as walks, photos, presentations and guest feeds) expressed moderately higher FCM levels at Dreamworld and lower FCM levels at Australia Zoo in comparison to those tigers that did not take part in such activities. These results indicate potential habituation in some tigers for routine activity through specialized training and pre-conditioning. In conclusion, the FCM EIA described in this study provides a reliable non-invasive method for evaluating the stress status of tigers in Zoos. PMID:24140710

  16. The impact of digestive and colon drugs on the human hormones profile.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Emad F; Abd-Rabou, Ahmed A; Ahmed, Hanaa H

    2013-10-01

    Hormones play an important role in the digestive system. The main hormones that control digestion are gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin. Herein, the current study is concerned with assessing the effect of spasmo canulase and librax drugs on the human hormones profile. Blood samples were withdrawn from adult patients to measure serum FSH, E2, LH, prolactin, progesterone, DHEAS, testosterone, TSH, T3, T4, fasting insulin, and cortisol. All hormone concentrations were determined quantitatively using ELISA procedure. Intriguingly, the present study showed putative changes including thyroid and sex hormonal profiles. Eventually, we concluded that the prospective study could be important in drug dose optimization and providing new medical guidelines to avoid side effects that could harm patients. PMID:24426246

  17. Variations in serum magnesium and hormonal levels during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; Gonzlez-Haro, Carlos; Ansn, Miguel Angel; Iigo, Carmen; Calvo, Maria Luisa; Escanero, Jess Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between plasma magnesium levels and hormonal variations during an incremental exercise test until exhaustion in 27, well-trained, male endurance athletes. After a warm-up of 10 min at 2 W/kg, the test began at an initial workload of 2.5 W/kg and continued with increments of 0.5 W/kg every 10 min until exhaustion. Plasma magnesium, catecholamine, insulin, glucagon, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, aldosterone and cortisol levels were determined at rest, at the end of each stage and three, five and seven minutes post-exercise. With the incremental exercise test, no variations in plasma magnesium levels were found, while plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, PTH, glucagon and cortisol levels increased significantly. Over the course of the exercise, plasma levels of insulin decreased significantly, but those of calcitonin remained steady. During the recovery period, catecholamines and insulin returned to basal levels. These findings indicate that the magnesium status of euhydrated endurance athletes during incremental exercise testing may be the result of the interrelation between several hormonal variations. PMID:25644859

  18. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-related eating. Competitive athletes are stressed by their intense exercise regimens in addition to their normal activities of daily living and thus may benefit from a natural therapy intended to modulate baseline perceptions of stress and stress hormone exposure. Methods We assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora, Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks. Results After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (p<0.05) lower (?18%) in the Relora group compared to Placebo. Compared to Placebo, the Relora group had significantly better (p<0.05) mood state parameters, including lower indices of Overall Stress (?11%), Tension (?13%), Depression (?20%), Anger (?42%), Fatigue (?31%), and Confusion (?27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with a combination of Magnolia bark extract and Phellodendron bark extract (Relora) reduces cortisol exposure and perceived daily stress, while improving a variety of mood state parameters, including lower fatigue and higher vigor. These results suggest an effective natural approach to modulating the detrimental health effects of chronic stress in moderately stressed adults. Future studies should examine the possible performance and recovery benefits of Relora supplementation in athletes overstressed by the physical and psychological demands of training and competition. PMID:23924268

  19. Effects of ketoconazole on methylprednisolone pharmacokinetics and cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Glynn, A M; Slaughter, R L; Brass, C; D'Ambrosio, R; Jusko, W J

    1986-06-01

    The disposition of methylprednisolone was examined in six normal subjects after the injection of 20 mg iv methylprednisolone sodium succinate. Disposition studies were performed both without and with ketoconazole, 200 mg/day, for 6 days. Ketoconazole increased the methylprednisolone AUC and mean residence time (by 135% and 66%, respectively) and decreased clearance (60%), the terminal phase slope, and the volume of distribution. These findings are typical of macrolide antibiotic alteration of methylprednisolone disposition and consistent with reports of inhibition of drug metabolism by ketoconazole. Methylprednisolone reduced the 24-hour cortisol AUC by 44%, but morning cortisol concentrations returned to normal. Ketoconazole with methylprednisolone further reduced the 24-hour cortisol AUC and suppressed morning cortisol concentrations. Thus ketoconazole inhibits methylprednisolone disposition and extends the adrenal suppression effects of this corticosteroid. PMID:3709030

  20. Exogenous cortisol causes a shift from deliberative to intuitive thinking.

    PubMed

    Margittai, Zsofia; Nave, Gideon; Strombach, Tina; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schwabe, Lars; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    People often rely on intuitive judgments at the expense of deliberate reasoning, but what determines the dominance of intuition over deliberation is not well understood. Here, we employed a psychopharmacological approach to unravel the role of two major endocrine stress mediators, cortisol and noradrenaline, in cognitive reasoning. Healthy participants received placebo, cortisol (hydrocortisone) and/or yohimbine, a drug that increases noradrenergic stimulation, before performing the cognitive reflection test (CRT). We found that cortisol impaired performance in the CRT by biasing responses toward intuitive, but incorrect answers. Elevated stimulation of the noradrenergic system, however, had no effect. We interpret our results in the context of the dual systems theory of judgment and decision making. We propose that cortisol causes a shift from deliberate, reflective cognition toward automatic, reflexive information processing. PMID:26658173

  1. Short-term incubation of equine laminar veins with cortisol and insulin alters contractility in vitro: possible implications for the pathogenesis of equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Keen, J A; McGorum, B C; Hillier, C; Nally, J E

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of cortisol and insulin, hormones that affect both glycaemic status and vascular function, on the in vitro contractility of isolated healthy equine small laminar veins. Small veins (150-500 ?m) draining the digital laminae from healthy horses or ponies were investigated by wire myography. Concentration response curves were constructed for noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the presence of either cortisol (10(-6 ) m) or insulin (1000 ?IU/mL). Cortisol significantly increased the maximum contractility of laminar veins to the vasoconstrictors NA and 5-HT but decreased the maximal contraction to ET-1. Insulin decreased the contractility of vessels to PE and ET-1. It is possible that short-term cortisol excess could enhance venoconstrictor responses to 5-HT and NA in laminar veins in vivo, thereby predisposing to laminitis. Additionally, a reduction in the ability of insulin to counteract alpha-adrenoreceptor and ET-1-mediated contraction, likely to occur in subjects with insulin resistance, may further exacerbate venoconstriction in animals prone to laminitis. These mechanisms may also predispose horses with disorders such as equine Cushing's disease and equine metabolic syndrome to laminitis. PMID:22943152

  2. Individual differences in the cortisol-awakening response during the first two years of shift work: A longitudinal study in novice police officers.

    PubMed

    Lammers-van der Holst, Heidi M; Kerkhof, Gerard A

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol acts as a critical biological intermediary through which chronic stressors like shift work impact upon multiple physiological, neuro-endocrine and hormonal functions. Therefore, the cortisol awakening response (CAR) is suggested as a prime index of shift work tolerance. Repeated assessments of the CAR (calculated as MnInc) in a group of 25 young novice police officers showed that in the interval between about 4 and 14 months after transitioning from regular day work to rotating shift work, mean values began to rise from baseline to significantly higher levels at about 14 months after they commenced shift work. Visual inspection of the individual trends revealed that a subgroup of 10 subjects followed a monotonically rising trend, whereas another 14 subjects, after an initial rise from about 4-14 months, reverted to a smaller, baseline level cortisol response at about 20 months after the start of shift work. If the initial increase in the cortisol response marks the development of a chronic stress response, the subsequent reversal to baseline levels in the subgroup of 14 participants might be indicative of a process of recovery, possibly the development of shift work tolerance. PMID:26317268

  3. Evaluation of the saliva cortisol levels in patients under prosthetic treatment due to functional disorders of the masticatory organ.

    PubMed

    Pihut, M; Dziurkowska, E; Wisniewska, G; Szewczyk, M; Bieganska, J

    2015-02-01

    One of the main etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction is stress and psychoemotional disorders. During stressful situations, there is an increase in the level of cortisol, the so-called stress hormone. Literature data indicate the existence of a correlation between blood cortisol levels and its amount in the saliva. This spurred an inspiration to undertake open, non-randomised studies, the objective of which was to conduct a comparative assessment of the saliva cortisol levels in patients with functional disorders of the masticatory system and in healthy volunteers, as well as to compare the results of cortisol levels with the results of survey-based tests with the use of Endler and Parker's CISS survey. Cortisol level was assessed due to its association with stress present in the body as one of the primary etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction, and hence the association of elevated cortisol levels assessed in the morning with the occurrence of dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system. The subject of the study is a group of 30 patients, of both sexes, aged between 20 and 46, who reported to the Dental Prosthetic Out-Patient Clinic of the Institute of Dentistry, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, for prosthetic treatment due to the painful form of functional masticatory organ disorders. The control group consisted of 30 subjects, aged between 19 and 41, in whom dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system were excluded. Collection of saliva for testing was performed at a fixed hour (9 am) into plastic test tubes with a stopper. Immediately after collection, the saliva was