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1

Cortisol and immune measures in boars exposed to three-day administration of exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of adrenal stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on blood cortisol concentration and on circulating total and differential leukocyte counts during and in the 16 days after ACTH administration. Swedish Landrace boars aged approximately 6-7 months were used. ACTH-treated animals (n = 7) were given ACTH intravenously at 10 microg/kg body mass for 3 days. A control group of animals (n = 7) received 1 ml of sterile 0.9% saline intramuscularly. ACTH induced a highly significant increase (p>0.0001) in serum cortisol in treated boars. On the day after the last ACTH dose, the cortisol concentration was significantly higher, but the level of significance was lower than during ACTH administration (p>0.05). During ACTH treatment, a significant increase was recorded in total leukocyte count and neutrophil percentage (p>0.05 to p>0.0001), along with the increase in blood cortisol concentration, whereas percentage lymphocyte count showed a significant decrease. Lymphopenia disappeared upon cessation of treatment, but neutropenia developed in the week after treatment. On all three days of ACTH challenge, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly increased. An increase in eosinophil percentage was recorded on treatment days 1 and 2, whereas ACTH treatment had no effect on basophil percentage. In conclusion, three-day administration of ACTH to young boars during restraint caused effects similar to acute stress situations, as suggested by disappearance of the effects on immune function after the last drug dosage. PMID:16502111

Bilandzi?, N; Zuri?, M; Lojki?, M; Simi?, B; Mili?, D; Barac, I

2006-05-01

2

Adrenocorticotropic hormone unresponsiveness associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

The clinical and autopsy findings in a case of adrenocorticotropic hormone unresponsiveness associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are reported. A four-month-old female with feeding difficulties and skin hyperpigmentation from two months of age was admitted with convulsions. She was hypoglycemic with normal serum electrolytes and the presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was indicated by electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. Cardiac arrest occurred on the second hospital day. Low serum cortisol, high plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone, low urinary 17-ketosteroids, and normal urinary aldosterone excretion were documented after her death. Hypoplasia of the adrenal cortex with a persistent fetal zone and concentric hypertrophy of the heart were found at autopsy. We propose that the pathogenesis of this disease lies in impaired remodelling of the fetal adrenal cortex into the permanent cortex, and postulate an effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone on the myocardium as the cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:2545076

Kohyama, J; Watanabe, S; Fukuda, C; Shimozawa, K; Saitoh, K

1989-05-01

3

Responses induced by arginine-vasopressin injection in the plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, growth hormone and metabolites around weaning time in goats.  

PubMed

In order to assess the biological significance of weaning and water deprivation on the control of plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and metabolites in response to stimulation with arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), we carried out three experiments in which male goats before and after weaning were intravenously injected with AVP or CRH alone, or in combination with each other. In experiment 1, 17-week-old (post-weaning) goats were intravenously injected with AVP or CRH alone at the doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 nmol/kg body weight (BW). The AVP injection significantly and dose dependently increased plasma levels of ACTH, cortisol, GH and metabolites, whereas the injection with CRH did not cause significant increases in the levels of these parameters. In experiment 2, 4-week-old (pre-weaning) and 13-week-old (post-weaning) goats were injected with either AVP or CRH alone, followed by a combined injection of both secretagogues at a dose of 0.3 nmol/kg BW. Although the basal levels of the hormones and metabolites, with the exception of glucose, were greater in the 4-week-old goats, the hormone responses induced by stimulation with AVP were weaker than those induced in 13-week-old goats. Additionally, there were no responses in any hormone patterns to CRH stimulation in 4-week-old goats. In experiment 3, 13-week-old goats were injected with CRH alone followed by injection with AVP for two consecutive days of water deprivation. The animals were subjected to withdrawal of up to 20% of the total blood volume and water deprivation for up to 28 h. However, no significant differences in plasma ACTH, cortisol or GH levels were observed between days 1 and 2. Based on these results, we concluded that: (1) AVP is a more potent stimulant than CRH in terms of its ability to induce increases in plasma levels of ACTH, cortisol and GH; (2) the role of AVP as a secretagogue of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal hormones is strengthened, whereas the ineffective role of CRH remains unaltered, by weaning; (3) acute stress such as massive withdrawal of blood volume and subjection to water deprivation may not be sufficient burdens to alter stress-related hormone levels in young goats. PMID:16293772

Katoh, K; Yoshida, M; Kobayashi, Y; Onodera, M; Kogusa, K; Obara, Y

2005-11-01

4

21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

2014-04-01

5

21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

2011-04-01

6

21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

2013-04-01

7

21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

2010-04-01

8

Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency development during chemotherapy for gastric cancer: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency is an endocrinological disorder characterized by loss of adrenocorticotropic hormone and resultant adrenal insufficiency. Affected patients often present with fatigue, anorexia, and hyponatremia. Although the number of reported cases has been recently increasing, isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency combined with malignant neoplasia is very rare. Here we describe a patient with gastric cancer who developed unexpected isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency during chemotherapy. Case presentation A 72-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because of febrile neutropenia due to chemotherapy for gastric cancer recurrence. Although the neutropenia and fever immediately improved, he became unable to take any oral medications and was bedridden 1 week after admission. His serum sodium level abruptly decreased to 122mEq/L on the fifth day of hospitalization. We performed endocrinological studies to investigate the cause of his hyponatremia and plasma hyposmolality. His plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels were very low. However, his serum levels of all other anterior pituitary hormones were slightly elevated. We then performed a corticotropin-releasing hormone test, which showed that neither his plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone nor cortisol level responded to corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation. We definitively diagnosed isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency based on these findings. Hydrocortisone replacement therapy was begun at 20mg/day, resulting in a marked improvement in his anorexia and general fatigue within a few days. His serum sodium level was also normalized immediately after the administration of hydrocortisone. He was discharged from our hospital on the 50th day of hospitalization. Conclusions The present case is the second report of a patient with concurrent isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency and gastric cancer and the first report of a patient diagnosed with isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency during the course of chemotherapy for a solid malignant neoplasm. Although the symptoms and signs described in the present report are common observations during chemotherapy, it is important to consider not only the adverse effects of antineoplastic agents, but also isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency as a differential diagnosis. Hydrocortisone replacement therapy for isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency effectively avoids the unnecessary cessation of chemotherapy. PMID:24597969

2014-01-01

9

Successful treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case series  

PubMed Central

Introduction Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, characterized by bilateral macronodular adrenal hypertrophy and autonomous cortisol production, is a rare cause of Cushing’s syndrome. Bilateral adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia but obliges the patient to receive lifetime steroid replacement therapy subsequently, and may increase the patient’s risk of adrenal insufficiency. These circumstances require surgeons to carefully consider operative strategies on an individual basis. Case presentation We performed successful laparoscopic adrenalectomy on four patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Computed tomography scans showed bilateral adrenal enlargement in all patients. Case 1: a 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with obvious Cushing’s symptoms during treatment for diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Case 2: a 37-year-old Japanese man also presented with Cushing’s symptoms during treatment for diabetes mellitus and hypertension. These patients were diagnosed as Cushing’s syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia based on endocrinologic testing, and underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Case 3: an 80-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized due to unusual weight gain and heightened general fatigue, and was diagnosed as Cushing’s syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. She underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy due to high operative risk. Case 4: a 66-year-old Japanese man was discovered to have bilateral adrenal tumors on medical examination. He did not have Cushing’s symptoms and was diagnosed as subclinical Cushing’s syndrome due to suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone serum levels and loss of cortisol circadian rhythm without abnormal levels of serum cortisol. He underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. During follow-up, serum cortisol levels were within the normal range in all cases, and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were not suppressed. Further, cases with Cushing’s syndrome experienced clinical improvement. Conclusions We were able to effectively treat adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia in patients with obvious Cushing’s symptoms by laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy, which promptly improved symptoms. Further, unilateral adrenalectomy was effective for treating an older patient at high operative risk and a patient with subclinical Cushing’s syndrome. PMID:22989371

2012-01-01

10

21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a)...

2012-04-01

11

Serum concentrations of cortisol induced by exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are not predictive of residual feed intake (RFI) in Brahman cattle.  

E-print Network

were taken via indwelling jugular catheter every 15 min from 3 h prior to challenge through 4 h after challenge at time 0 h with ACTH (0.1 IU/kg BW). Serum concentrations of cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay using Coat-A-Count kits (intra...

Agado, Bryan Joseph

2011-01-11

12

Regulation of ischemic cell death by glucocorticoids and adrenocorticotropic hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient global ischemia results in delayed selective neuronal death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. Glucocorticoids increase and adrenalectomy decreases the rate of neuronal death; however, they also produce changes in brain temperature, serum glucose and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. In order to understand the role of glucocorticoids in regulating ischemic cell death, we studied RU 38486, a glucocorticoid receptor blocker, and

F. J Antonawich; G Miller; D. C Rigsby; J. N Davis

1999-01-01

13

Metabolic responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) vary with life-history stage in adult male northern elephant seals.  

PubMed

Strong individual and life-history variation in serum glucocorticoids has been documented in many wildlife species. Less is known about variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness and its impact on metabolism. We challenged 18 free-ranging adult male northern elephant seals (NES) with an intramuscular injection of slow-release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) over 3 sample periods: early in the breeding season, after 70+ days of the breeding fast, and during peak molt. Subjects were blood sampled every 30 min for 2h post-injection. Breeding animals were recaptured and sampled at 48 h. In response to the ACTH injection, cortisol increased 4-6-fold in all groups, and remained elevated at 48 h in early breeding subjects. ACTH was a strong secretagogue for aldosterone, causing a 3-8-fold increase in concentration. Cortisol and aldosterone responses did not vary between groups but were correlated within individuals. The ACTH challenge produced elevations in plasma glucose during late breeding and molting, suppressed testosterone and thyroid hormone at 48 h in early breeding, and increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids and ketoacids during molting. These data suggest that sensitivity of the HPA axis is maintained but the metabolic impacts of cortisol and feedback inhibition of the axis vary with life history stage. Strong impacts on testosterone and thyroid hormone suggest the importance of maintaining low cortisol levels during the breeding fast. These data suggest that metabolic adaptations to extended fasting in NES include alterations in tissue responses to hormones that mitigate deleterious impacts of acute or moderately sustained stress responses. PMID:24798580

Ensminger, David C; Somo, Derek A; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

2014-08-01

14

Isolated Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Deficiency with Transient Thyroiditis Inducing an Adrenal Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: It was the aim of this study to describe a patient with isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency presenting with a variety of involuntary movements who developed an adrenal crisis due to transient thyroiditis. Clinical Presentation and Intervention: A 61-year-old man was hospitalized with a variety of involuntary movements that were suspected manifestations of metabolic encephalopathy. After admission, his general status

Tetsuya Hiraiwa; Daisuke Furutama; Sadaki Sakane; Mitsuru Ito; Akihisa Imagawa; Fumiharu Kimura; Toshiaki Hanafusa

2007-01-01

15

Mechanisms of action of adrenocorticotropic hormone and other melanocortins relevant to the clinical management of patients with multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic benefits of adrenocorticotropic hormone in multiple sclerosis are usually ascribed to its corticotropic actions. Evidence is presented that adrenocorticotropic hormone, approved for multiple sclerosis relapses, acts via corticosteroid-independent melanocortin pathways to engender down-modulating actions on immune-system cells and the cytokines they synthesize. Immune response-dampening effects are also brought about by agent-induced neurotransmitters that inhibit immunocytes. The likelihood that adrenocorticotropic hormone promotes microglial quiescence and counteracts glucocorticoid-mediated bone resorption is discussed. PMID:23034287

Berkovich, Regina; Catania, Anna; Lisak, Robert P; Zaidi, Mone

2013-01-01

16

Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone production  

PubMed Central

We describe a 71-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, lower-extremity edema, recent unintentional weight loss, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Serum cortisol levels remained elevated after overnight high-dose dexamethasone suppression. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small mass in the head of the pancreas with scattered liver metastases. Both endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic biopsy and liver biopsy revealed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor. These lesions did not show significant uptake on octreotide scan. Medical management and hepatic artery chemoembolization were attempted. Ultimately, the patient underwent bilateral adrenalectomy, but died within 4 months of symptom onset secondary to postoperative complications. PMID:25552797

Nagarur, Amulya; Kerr, Darcy A.; Lauter, Kelly B.; Padmanabhan, Arun; Raghavan, Srivatsan; Pallais, Juan C.; Fenves, Andrew Z.

2015-01-01

17

Apocynin but Not Allopurinol Prevents and Reverses Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Induced Hypertension in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced hypertension in the rat is accompanied by increased oxidative stress. This study examines the enzymatic source of reactive oxygen species in ACTH-hypertension.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 10 groups of 10–20 rats per group. The NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin (1.5 mmol\\/L in drinking water) or the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol (200 mg\\/kg\\/day via food) were

Yi Zhang; Matthew M. K. Chan; Miles C. Andrews; Trevor A. Mori; Kevin D. Croft; Christopher G. Schyvens; Judith A. Whitworth

2005-01-01

18

Aspirin Prevents and Partially Reverses Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Induced Hypertension in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Glucocorticoid-induced hypertension is associated with increased oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aspirin, a potent antioxidant, on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and dexamethasone (Dex)-induced hypertension.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with saline, ACTH (0.2 mg\\/kg\\/d subcutaneously) or Dex (10 ?g\\/rat\\/d subcutaneously). Aspirin (100 mg\\/kg\\/d in drinking water) was given 4 days

Yi Zhang; Yuchun Miao; Judith A. Whitworth

2007-01-01

19

Positive gallium scan in the syndrome of opsoclonus-myoclonus treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syndrome of opsoclonus and myoclonus may be the first presenting symptom of neuroblastoma. The disorder is often controlled by treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). A child with this disorder and treated with ACTH gel had abnormal uptake of ⁶⁷Ga in both adrenal glands during studies to attempt to detect an occult neuroblastoma. Repeat ⁶⁷Ga scans proved to be normal

Maria Gumbinas; Edward S. Gratz; Gerald S. Johnston; Allen D. Schwartz

1984-01-01

20

Adrenocorticotropic hormone versus pulsatile dexamethasone in the treatment of infantile epilepsy syndromes.  

PubMed

For treatment of intractable epilepsies, there are no data comparing conventional adrenocorticotropic hormone and pulsatile corticoid therapy with dexamethasone. A retrospective comparison of efficacy was therefore conducted for both forms of application. Between 1989 and 2001, a series of 11 children with West syndrome and 3 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (group 1); between 2003 and 2006, 7 children with West syndrome, 5 with electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep, and 2 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were treated with pulsatile corticoid therapy (group 2). In group 1 (n = 14), 9/11 West syndrome patients became seizure free, but none with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (0/3). In group 2 (n = 14), 4/7 West syndrome patients became seizure-free, 1/2 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome exhibited seizure-frequency reduction, and 2/5 patients with electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep exhibited significant improvement according to electroencephalograms. In West syndrome, pulsatile corticoid therapy was an effective alternative treatment to adrenocorticotropic hormone, whereas in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in general steroids did not lead to a significant seizure reduction. In electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep, treatment with pulsatile corticoid therapy seems to be effective and should be investigated in a larger group of patients. PMID:20004858

Haberlandt, Edda; Weger, Christine; Sigl, Sara Baumgartner; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine; Rostásy, Kevin; Karall, Daniela

2010-01-01

21

Internal jugular vein: Peripheral vein adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio in patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome: Ratio calculated from one adrenocorticotropic hormone sample each from right and left internal jugular vein during corticotrophin releasing hormone stimulation test  

PubMed Central

Background: Demonstration of central: Peripheral adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gradient is important for diagnosis of Cushing's disease. Aim: The aim was to assess the utility of internal jugular vein (IJV): Peripheral vein ACTH ratio for diagnosis of Cushing's disease. Materials and Methods: Patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS) patients were the subjects for this study. One blood sample each was collected from right and left IJV following intravenous hCRH at 3 and 5 min, respectively. A simultaneous peripheral vein sample was also collected with each IJV sample for calculation of IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio. IJV sample collection was done under ultrasound guidance. ACTH was assayed using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Results: Thirty-two patients participated in this study. The IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio ranged from 1.07 to 6.99 (n = 32). It was more than 1.6 in 23 patients. Cushing's disease could be confirmed in 20 of the 23 cases with IJV: Peripheral vein ratio more than 1.6. Four patients with Cushing's disease and 2 patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome had IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio less than 1.6. Six cases with unknown ACTH source were excluded for calculation of sensitivity and specificity of the test. Conclusion: IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio calculated from a single sample from each IJV obtained after hCRH had 83% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosis of CD. PMID:23776865

Chittawar, Sachin; Bhattacharya, Saptarshi; Sahoo, Jai Prakash; Prakash, Siva; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Arora, Arundeep; Gupta, Nandita; Tandon, Nikhil; Goswami, Ravinder; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Karak, Ashish Kumar; Bal, Chandra Sekhar; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Kumar, Guresh; Ammini, Ariachery C.

2013-01-01

22

Early hyperbaric oxygen therapy inhibits aquaporin 4 and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with blast-induced craniocerebral injury?  

PubMed Central

In the present study, rabbits were treated with hyperbaric oxygen for 1 hour after detonator-blast- induced craniocerebral injury. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly reduced aquaporin 4 expression and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with craniocerebral injury. Aquaporin 4 expression was positively correlated with adrenocorticotropic hormone expression. These findings indicate that early hyperbaric oxygen therapy may suppress adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion by inhibiting aquaporin 4 expression.

Huo, Jian; Liu, Jiachuan; Wang, Jinbiao; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Chunlin; Yang, Yanyan; Sun, Wenjiang; Xu, Shaonian

2012-01-01

23

Metachronous bilateral adrenocortical functional adenomas causing adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing’s syndrome  

PubMed Central

Metachronous bilateral adrenocortical adenomas causing adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing’s syndrome is a surgical case that scarcely occurs. A 38-year-old woman diagnosed with bilateral adrenocortical adenomas one by one in 2006 and 2013. Both of the two adenomas were functional and caused typical Cushingoid symptoms. The patient underwent a laparoscopic adrenolectomy in 2006 and a laparoscopic adrenocortical adenoma resection in 2013. After surgery, the symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome withdrew and the woman started steroid replacement therapy as a following treatment. PMID:25197412

Cheng, Kang; Cao, Wanli; Dai, Jun; Huang, Xin; Huang, Baoxing; Su, Henchuan; Sun, Fukang

2014-01-01

24

Drop Metastasis of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Producing Pituitary Carcinoma to the Cauda Equina  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of pituitary carcinoma cannot be made easily histologically, and most cases of pituitary carcinoma are diagnosed only after the clinical detection of metastasis. Distant metastasis of pituitary tumor occurs in 0.1% to 0.2% of cases and has been reported in the liver, bone and central nervous system, with only one case of metastasis to the cauda equine reported. This study describes a rare case of the drop metastasis of adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pituitary adenocarcinoma to the cauda equina, causing cauda equina syndrome. PMID:25346823

Takeuchi, Kenichi; Hagiwara, Yoko; Wada, Keiji; Shiba, Masahiro; Kato, Yoshiharu

2014-01-01

25

Hypofibrinogenemia caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone for infantile spasms: A case report.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 7-month-old boy who developed hypofibrinogenemia (66.6mg/dL; reference value, 170-405mg/dL) during adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy for infantile spasms. Although the patient showed no clinical signs of a bleeding diathesis, we recommend that plasma fibrinogen levels should be monitored during ACTH therapy, which should be discontinued when fibrinogen levels fall below hemostatic levels (60.0mg/dL) or when bleeding tendencies are recognized. PMID:24735983

Kamei, Atsushi; Araya, Nami; Akasaka, Manami; Mizuma, Kanako; Asami, Maya; Tanifuji, Sachiko; Chida, Shoichi

2015-01-01

26

Positive gallium scan in the syndrome of opsoclonus-myoclonus treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone  

SciTech Connect

The syndrome of opsoclonus and myoclonus may be the first presenting symptom of neuroblastoma. The disorder is often controlled by treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). A child with this disorder and treated with ACTH gel had abnormal uptake of /sup 67/Ga in both adrenal glands during studies to attempt to detect an occult neuroblastoma. Repeat /sup 67/Ga scans proved to be normal once the ACTH was discontinued and the patient was treated with prednisone. It is concluded that ACTH stimulation of normal adrenal tissue was responsible for these abnormal findings.

Gumbinas, M.; Gratz, E.S.; Johnston, G.S.; Schwartz, A.D.

1984-09-01

27

Drop metastasis of adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pituitary carcinoma to the cauda equina.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of pituitary carcinoma cannot be made easily histologically, and most cases of pituitary carcinoma are diagnosed only after the clinical detection of metastasis. Distant metastasis of pituitary tumor occurs in 0.1% to 0.2% of cases and has been reported in the liver, bone and central nervous system, with only one case of metastasis to the cauda equine reported. This study describes a rare case of the drop metastasis of adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pituitary adenocarcinoma to the cauda equina, causing cauda equina syndrome. PMID:25346823

Takeuchi, Kenichi; Hagiwara, Yoko; Kanaya, Koichi; Wada, Keiji; Shiba, Masahiro; Kato, Yoshiharu

2014-10-01

28

Hypercortisolaemia due to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion by a nasal paraganglioma: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing extraadrenal paragangliomas are extremely rare. We present a case of severe hypercortisolemia due to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion by a nasal paraganglioma. Case presentation A 70-year-old Caucasian woman was emergently admitted to our department with supraventricular tachycardia, oedema of face and extremities and hypertensive crisis. Initial laboratory evaluation revealed severe hypokalemia and hyperglycemia without ketoacidosis, although no diabetes mellitus was previously known. Computed tomography revealed a large tumor obliterating the left paranasal sinus and a left-sided adrenal mass. After cardiovascular stabilisation, a thorough hormonal assessment was performed revealing marked adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent hypercortisolism. Due to the presence of a cardiac pacemaker magnetic resonance imaging of the hypophysis was not possible. [68Ga-DOTA]-TATE-Positron-Emission-Tomography was performed, showing somatostatin-receptor expression of the paranasal lesion but not of the adrenal lesion or the hypophysis. The paranasal tumor was resected and found to be an adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing paraganglioma of low-proliferative rate. Postoperatively the patient became normokaliaemic, normoglycemic and normotensive without further need for medication. Genetic testing showed no mutation of the succinatdehydrogenase subunit B- and D genes, thus excluding hereditary paragangliosis. Conclusion Detection of the adrenocorticotropic hormone source in Cushing’s syndrome can prove extremely challenging, especially when commonly used imaging modalities are unavailable or inconclusive. The present case was further complicated by the simultaneous detection of two tumorous lesions of initially unclear biochemical behaviour. In such cases, novel diagnostic tools - such as somatostatin-receptor imaging - can prove useful in localising hormonally active neuroendocrine tissue. The clinical aspects of the case are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:23958171

2013-01-01

29

Saturated fatty acids suppress adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release from rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro.  

PubMed

We studied whether fatty acids modify adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release induced by stimulation with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from rat anterior pituitary cells. Stimulation with CRH (0.01-100 nmol/l) significantly and concentration-dependently increased ACTH release, which was synergistically enhanced by the simultaneous stimulation with 1 nmol/l arginine-vasopressin. Addition of saturated fatty acids (butyrate, caprylate, laurate, palmitate and stearate) in a medium at 1 mmol/l, despite effects on the basal release, significantly reduced the ACTH release induced by CRH (1 nmol/l) stimulation. Caprylate suppressed ACTH release in a concentration-dependent manner. However, unsaturated C18 and C20 fatty acids (oleate, linolate, linolenate and arachidonate) at 1 mmol/l significantly increased the basal release, but none of them suppressed CRH (1 nmol/l)-induced ACTH release. In the presence of caprylate (1 mmol/l), CRH (1 nmol/l)-stimulated increase in cellular calcium ion concentration was diminished. From these results we conclude that saturated fatty acids have a suppressing effect on CRH-induced ACTH increase in primary cultured rat anterior pituitary cells. PMID:15123208

Katoh, Kazuo; Asari, Mami; Ishiwata, Hiroko; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Obara, Yoshiaki

2004-02-01

30

Serum corticosterone response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation in Florida sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement in an enclosure for 7 days, 6 hr a day. On day 8, cranes were catheterized and then confined in an enclosure. Venous blood (2 ml) was collected through the catheter and an attached IV line immediately before (-60 min) and 60 min after (0 min) confinement. Using a randomization table and a restricted cross-over experimental design, cranes were injected intravenously with either saline (control) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; cosyntropin, Cortrosyn; 0.25 mg). At 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection, blood samples were collected and assayed for corticosterone. The cranes receiving ACTH increased their serum corticosterone concentrations as much as fivefold above baseline concentrations. Serum corticosterone concentrations remained significantly elevated for approximately 60 min after ACTH stimulation. Physical restraint and catheterization caused an increase in serum corticosterone almost comparable to that induced by ACTH stimulation. In cranes injected with saline, serum corticosterone decreased within 1 hr after physical restraint and catheterization, and remained at lower levels throughout the remaining 5 hr of confinement. PMID:9813840

Ludders, J W; Langenberg, J A; Czekala, N M; Erb, H N; McCormick, H

1998-10-01

31

Peripheral nerve regeneration following transection injury to rat sciatic nerve by local application of adrenocorticotropic hormone.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess local effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on the functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in a transection model. Sixty male healthy white Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups of 15 animals each: In the sham-operated group (SHAM), the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. In the transected group (TC), the left sciatic nerve was transected and the cut nerve ends were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In the silicone graft group (SIL) a 10-mm defect was made and bridged using a silicone tube. The graft was filled with phosphated-buffer saline alone. In the treatment group a silicone tube (SIL/ACTH) was filled with 10 ?L ACTH (0.1 mg/mL). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibres were studied at 4, 8 and 12 weeks post operation. Behavioral testing, functional, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices showed earlier regeneration of axons in SIL/ACTH than in SIL group (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry clearly showed more positive location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/ACTH than in SIL group. ACTH improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. This finding supports role of ACTH after peripheral nerve repair and may have clinical implications for the surgical management of patients after nerve transection. PMID:24342732

Mohammadi, Rahim; Yadegarazadi, Mohammad-Javad; Amini, Keyvan

2014-09-01

32

Treating refractory dermatomyositis or polymyositis with adrenocorticotropic hormone gel: a retrospective case series  

PubMed Central

Background Effective and tolerable treatment options for patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis are limited. This retrospective case review describes treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel in five patients who experienced a disease exacerbation and either failed or were unable to tolerate the side effects of previous therapy with steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, and steroid-sparing drugs. Methods Patients received ACTH gel subcutaneous injections of 80 U (1 mL) twice weekly (four patients) or once weekly (one patient) over the course of 12 weeks for short-term treatment of symptom exacerbations. Manual muscle testing using the Medical Research Council scale was assessed at baseline and at 3 months. Results Improvement was seen in all patients, including improved muscle strength, decreased pain, and resolution of skin involvement. All patients tolerated the treatment well, and no significant side effects occurred. Conclusion The treatment of dermatomyositis and polymyositis is an approved use for ACTH gel, and these anecdotal reports would suggest consideration of ACTH gel as a therapeutic option. Further investigation is warranted. PMID:22787386

Levine, Todd

2012-01-01

33

Effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation during adrenal vein sampling in primary aldosteronism.  

PubMed

Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is fundamental for subtype diagnosis in patients with primary aldosteronism. AVS protocols vary between centers, especially for diagnostic indices and for use of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. We investigated the role of both continuous ACTH infusion and bolus on the performance and interpretation of AVS in a sample of 76 patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism. In 36 primary aldosteronism patients, AVS was performed both under basal conditions and after continuous ACTH infusion, and in 40 primary aldosteronism patients, AVS was performed both under basal conditions and after ACTH IV bolus. Both ACTH protocols determined an increase in the rate of successful cannulation of the adrenal veins. Both ACTH infusion and bolus determined a significant increase in selectivity index for the right adrenal vein and ACTH bolus for the left adrenal vein. Lateralization index was not significantly different after continuous ACTH infusion and IV bolus. In 88% and 78% of the patients, the diagnosis obtained was the same before and after ACTH infusion and IV bolus, respectively. However, the reproducibility of the diagnosis was reduced using less stringent criteria for successful cannulation of the adrenal veins. This study shows that ACTH use during AVS may be of help for centers with lower success rates, because a successful adrenal cannulation is more easily obtained with this protocol; moreover, this technique performs at least as well as the unstimulated strategy and in some cases may be even better. Stringent criteria for cannulation should be used to have a high consistency of the diagnosis. PMID:22331382

Monticone, Silvia; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Giacchetti, Gilberta; Viola, Andrea; Morimoto, Ryo; Kudo, Masataka; Iwakura, Yoshitsugu; Ono, Yoshikiyo; Turchi, Federica; Paci, Enrico; Veglio, Franco; Boscaro, Marco; Rainey, William; Ito, Sadayoshi; Mulatero, Paolo

2012-04-01

34

Effects of short-term management stress and ACTH injections on plasma cortisol levels in cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

General management practices including capture, handling and transportation in fish hatcheries can induce a stress response indicated by a plasma cortisol increase in many species. However, this phenomenon is not well established in cultured white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). We determined resting levels of cortisol and the cortisol responses to two management stressors and to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH1–24) injections in

J. M Belanger; J. H Son; K. D Laugero; G. P Moberg; S. I Doroshov; S. E Lankford; J. J Cech

2001-01-01

35

Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.  

PubMed

Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1?mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3?h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15?mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6?h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group. PMID:24773147

Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

2014-07-01

36

[Stress-protective effect of the KKRR synthetic peptide corresponding to the 15-18 sequence of human adrenocorticotropic hormone].  

PubMed

The activity of the KKRR synthetic peptide corresponding to the 15-18 sequence of human adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and its analogues KKKK, RRRR, RRKK, kKRR, KkRR, KKrR, and KKRr (amino acid residues of the D configuration are designated by small letters) was studied in vivo on rats under cold and heat shock. Intranasal administration of the KKRR peptide at doses of 2-10 microg/animal 1 day before the shock was found to prevent a dramatic increase in the level of corticosterone in rat adrenal glands and blood plasma caused by the temperature effect. Amino acid substitutions in the KKRR peptide were shown to result in an abrupt decrease in its activity. The peptide analogues exhibit a low stress-protective activity and had a low affinity for the ACTH receptor. PMID:19377519

Sadovnikov, V B; Sazhin, A I; Zolotarev, Iu A; Navolotskaia, E V

2009-01-01

37

Low dose adrenocorticotropic hormone test and adrenal insufficiency in critically ill acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients  

PubMed Central

Context: Prevalence of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is not uncommon in HIV infected population. However, AI is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice because many patients have non-specific symptoms and signs. Critical illness in such patients further complicates the evaluation of adrenal function. A 1?gm ACTH test can be used for diagnosis, since it results in more physiological levels of ACTH. A serum cortisol of <18 ?g/dL, 30 or 60-minutes after ACTH test has been accepted as indicative of AI, but many experts advocate the normal cortisol response should exceed 25 ?g/dL, in critically ill patients. Aim: To determine the prevalence of AI in critically ill AIDS patients, by using 1 ?g ACTH test and also, to compare the diagnostic criteria for adrenal insufficiency between cortisol response of <18 ?g/dL and <25 ?g/dL. Settings and Design: This prospective study was done in the Department of Medicine. Materials and Methods: After taking blood for basal plasma cortisol from AIDS affected fifty adult men and women aged over 18 yrs, 1 ?g ACTH was given intravenously, and blood samples were again collected at 30 and 60 minutes for plasma cortisol estimation. Statistical analysis: It was done by Mann-Whitney test. Results: Prevalence of AI was 74% (37 patients) and 92% (46 patients), when the peak stimulated cortisol level of <18 ?g/dL and <25 ?g/dL, respectively, was used. Conclusion: AI is more prevalent in critically ill AIDS patients. Hence, this test can be performed for early intervention and better management. PMID:22629505

Shashidhar, P. K.; Shashikala, G. V.

2012-01-01

38

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone causes an increase in cortisol, but not parathyroid hormone, in dogs.  

PubMed

Dogs with spontaneous disorders of glucocorticoid production often have marked disturbances in calcium homeostasis. For example, hypercalcaemia is frequently observed in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism and secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common feature of canine hyperadrenocorticism. The mechanism(s) by which glucocorticoids modulate calcium homeostasis in dogs remains ill-defined. The hypothesis of this study is that a marked increase in serum cortisol concentrations would lead to an immediate negative calcium balance state which would drive a compensatory increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. This hypothesis was investigated by measuring serum cortisol and plasma PTH concentration in 19 dogs before and after administration of adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) hormone. Post ACTH administration, there was a significant increase in serum cortisol, but not PTH, concentrations. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that an increase in endogenous glucocorticoids influences calcium balance sufficiently to cause an immediate, compensatory increase in parathyroid hormone concentration. PMID:25544698

Kilpatrick, Scott; Gow, Adam G; Evans, Helen; Mellanby, Richard J

2015-02-01

39

Levels of central oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability.  

PubMed

Sociability is the prerequisite to social living. Oxytocin and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis mediate various social behaviors across different social contexts in different rodents. We hypothesized that they also mediate levels of non-reproductive social behavior. Here we explored naturally occurring variation in sociability through a social preference test and compared central oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptors, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability. We found that low-social voles showed higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in open field tests, and had more serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone than high-social voles. High-social individuals had more glucocorticoid receptor positive neurons in the hippocampus and more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than low-social individuals. Within the same level of sociability, females had more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than males. These results indicate that naturally occurring social preferences are associated with higher levels of central oxytocin and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor and lower levels of anxiety and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. PMID:25141210

Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Tai, Fadao; Wu, Ruiyong; Hao, Ping; Fang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shuwei

2014-11-01

40

Direct activating effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on brown adipose tissue are attenuated by corticosterone.  

PubMed

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and brown-like cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) can dissipate energy through thermogenesis, a process mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). We investigated whether stress hormones ACTH and corticosterone contribute to BAT activation and browning of WAT. ACTH and corticosterone were studied in male mice exposed to 4 or 23°C for 24 h. Direct effects were studied in T37i mouse brown adipocytes and primary cultured murine BAT and inguinal WAT (iWAT) cells. In vivo effects were studied using (18)F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Cold exposure doubled serum ACTH concentrations (P=0.03) and fecal corticosterone excretion (P=0.008). In T37i cells, ACTH dose-dependently increased Ucp1 mRNA (EC50=1.8 nM) but also induced Ucp1 protein content 88% (P=0.02), glycerol release 32% (P=0.03) and uncoupled respiration 40% (P=0.003). In cultured BAT and iWAT, ACTH elevated Ucp1 mRNA by 3-fold (P=0.03) and 3.7-fold (P=0.01), respectively. In T37i cells, corticosterone prevented induction of Ucp1 mRNA and Ucp1 protein by both ACTH and norepinephrine in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent fashion. ACTH and GR antagonist RU486 independently doubled BAT (18)F-deoxyglucose uptake (P=0.0003 and P=0.004, respectively) in vivo. Our results show that ACTH activates BAT and browning of WAT while corticosterone counteracts this. PMID:25085924

van den Beukel, Johanna C; Grefhorst, Aldo; Quarta, Carmelo; Steenbergen, Jacobie; Mastroberardino, Pier G; Lombès, Marc; Delhanty, Patric J; Mazza, Roberta; Pagotto, Uberto; van der Lely, Aart Jan; Themmen, Axel P N

2014-11-01

41

Investigation of the serum levels of anterior pituitary hormones in male children with autism  

PubMed Central

Background The neurobiological basis of autism remains poorly understood. The diagnosis of autism is based solely on behavioural characteristics because there are currently no reliable biological markers. To test whether the anterior pituitary hormones and cortisol could be useful as biological markers for autism, we assessed the basal serum levels of these hormones in subjects with autism and normal controls. Findings Using a suspension array system, we determined the serum levels of six anterior pituitary hormones, including adrenocorticotropic hormone and growth hormone, in 32 drug-naive subjects (aged 6 to 18 years, all boys) with autism, and 34 healthy controls matched for age and gender. We also determined cortisol levels in these subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone and cortisol were significantly higher in subjects with autism than in controls. In addition, there was a significantly positive correlation between cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in autism. Conclusion Our results suggest that increased basal serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone accompanied by increased cortisol and growth hormone may be useful biological markers for autism. PMID:22011527

2011-01-01

42

Effects of Pyridostigmine, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone on the Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and on Growth Hormone Secretion in Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations of neuroendocrinological indices determined by the impaired regulating effects of cholinergic neurotransmission have been described in primary dementia. In this study we have evaluated the effects of acetylcholines-terase inhibition by pyridostigmine on growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol secretion and on their responses to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in 7 patients with primary degenerative

Giovanni Murialdo; Stefano Fonzi; Francesco Torre; Patrizia Costelli; Giampiero Solinas; Pietro Tosca; Enrica Di Paolo; Sabino Porro; Francesco Zerbi; Alessandro Polleri

1993-01-01

43

Detection of paranasal ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma by Ga-68-DOTANOC positron-emission tomography-computed tomography.  

PubMed

Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumors account for approximately 10% of Cushing's syndrome (CS). We present an extremely rare case of a patient with CS caused by an ectopic ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (EAPA) of the ethmoid sinus. The tumor was identified by positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) using the somatostatin receptor analogue Ga-68-DOTANOC. Transnasal endoscopic resection was performed and the patient showed significant clinical improvement with normalization of the endocrine pituitary axis. Immunostaining showed a somatostatin receptor 2 and 5-positive ACTH-producing adenoma. In patients with ectopic ACTH secretion, Ga-68-DOTANOC-PET/CT may play an important role in the localization of EAPA. Transnasal endoscopic resection is the therapy of choice. PMID:23299948

Veit, Johannes A; Boehm, Bernhard; Luster, Markus; Scheuerle, Angelika; Rotter, Nicole; Rettinger, Gerhard; Scheithauer, Marc

2013-05-01

44

A non-invasive technique for analyzing fecal cortisol metabolites in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus).  

PubMed

To develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring steroid stress hormones in the feces of free-living animals, extensive knowledge of their metabolism and excretion is essential. Here, we conducted four studies to validate the use of an enzyme immunoassay for monitoring fecal cortisol metabolites in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). First, we injected 11 hares with radioactive cortisol and collected all voided urine and feces for 4 days. Radioactive metabolites were recovered predominantly in the urine (59%), with only 8% recovered in the feces. Peak radioactivity was detected an average of 3.5 and 5.7 h after injection in the urine and feces, respectively. Second, we investigated diurnal rhythms in fecal cortisol metabolites by measuring recovered radioactivity 2 days after the radioactive cortisol injection. The total amount of radioactivity recovered showed a strong diurnal rhythm, but the amount of radioactivity excreted per gram of feces did not, remaining constant. Third, we injected hares with dexamethasone to suppress fecal cortisol metabolites and 2 days later with adrenocorticotropic hormone to increase fecal cortisol metabolites. Dexamethasone decreased fecal cortisol metabolites concentrations by 61% and adrenocorticotropic hormone increased them by 1,000%, 8-12 h after injection. Fourth, we exposed hares to a simulated predator (dog). This increased the fecal cortisol metabolites concentrations by 175% compared with baseline concentrations 8-12 h after exposure. Thus, this enzyme immunoassay provides a robust foundation for non-invasive field studies of stress in hares. PMID:18998149

Sheriff, Michael J; Bosson, Curtis O; Krebs, Charles J; Boonstra, Rudy

2009-04-01

45

Sleep, Dreams, and Memory Consolidation: The Role of the Stress Hormone Cortisol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert…

Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn

2004-01-01

46

Blood Spots in Pinnipedia Hormone Studies: Measure of Cortisol Levels in Southern Elephant Seals ( Mirounga leonina )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collection of blood spots on filter paper for hormone analysis has become quite popular in human and primate studies, mostly because of the ease of handling, storage, and transportation of samples, but has never been tested in wild marine mammals. In this paper, we describe a protocol for the collection of blood spots and the analysis of cortisol in

Simona Sanvito; Filippo Galimberti; Krista M. Delahunty; Donald W. Mckay

2004-01-01

47

Cortisol and growth hormone responses to spontaneous hypoglycaemia in infants and children  

PubMed Central

Aims: To evaluate responses of cortisol and growth hormone (GH) to spontaneous hypoglycaemia in infants and children. Methods: Retrospective review of laboratory and clinical data in paediatric patients investigated for suspected hypoglycaemia over a five year period. Thirty patients (16 aged <3 months) had hypoglycaemia confirmed by laboratory analysis (glucose <2.5 mmol/l) and were compared with 26 patients (11 aged <3 months) with glucose ?2.5 mmol/l. Results: The commonest causes of hypoglycaemia were transient hyperinsulinism in infants <3 months and intercurrent infection in those >6 months of age. In both hypo- and non-hypoglycaemic patients, cortisol was positively (rs +0.66 and +0.68) and GH inversely (rs –0.65 and –0.75) correlated with age. Hypo- and non-hypoglycaemic infants <3 months had median cortisol concentrations of 205 and 116 nmol/l respectively compared with 1370 and 736 nmol/l in hypo- and non-hypoglycaemic children >6 months. Conversely, median GH was 46.5 and 51.2 mU/l in hypo- and non-hypoglycaemic infants compared with 14.3 and 12.1 mU/l in older hypo- and non-hypoglycaemic patients. Older non-hypoglycaemic patients with glucose levels below the glycaemic thresholds established for cortisol and GH secretion in adults had higher cortisol and GH concentrations than patients whose glucose levels exceeded these thresholds. Conclusions: Cortisol and GH responses to spontaneous hypoglycaemia in children are highly age dependent. Young infants mount a poor cortisol response compared with older infants and children. Children older than 6 months may have glycaemic thresholds for cortisol and GH similar to those established for adults. PMID:15102645

Crofton, P; Midgley, P

2004-01-01

48

A possible analytical and clinical role of endogenous antibodies causing discrepant adrenocorticotropic hormone measurement in a case of ectopic Cushing's syndrome.  

PubMed

Heterophilic antibodies are well described, but poorly appreciated interferents and is often not a recognized problem affecting most immunoassays. We report a patient presented with ectopic Cushing's syndrome (CS), but repeated plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations conducted by immunoassay were inappropriately within the reference range and not elevated, most probably as a result of antibody interference. A 36-year-old woman, presented with large gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and severe ectopic CS, while repeated plasma ACTH concentrations conducted by immunoassay were inappropriately within the reference range. As we expected ACTH concentration to be higher, we performed several tests to evaluate whether there was any assay interference causing falsely lower than expected ACTH results. We measured ACTH using a different immunoassay, assayed the sample in dilution, assayed the sample after being incubated in heterophilic antibody blocking agent tube and performed recovery studies. Tests indicated the presence of interfering compounds, most probably heterophilic antibodies. When clinicians find ACTH concentrations to be lower than expected, we recommend the laboratory investigate antibody interference. PMID:24518530

Saiegh, Leonard; Odeh, Majed; Chen-Konak, Limor; Elias, Nizar; Sheikh-Ahmad, Mohammad; Reut, Maria; Slobodin, Gleb; Bejar, Jacob; Shechner, Carmela

2014-07-01

49

Aberrant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in a patient with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

We report a patient with primary hypothyroidism associated with an aberrant ACTH response to the LH-RH test. A 40-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital displaying headache, nausea, and numbness on the left side of her face, upper limbs, and tips of her toes. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass-like lesion in the pituitary. A high serum TSH concentration with concomitant low thyroid hormone concentrations resulted in a diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. To exclude the possibility of a coexisting pituitary tumor including a TSH-secreting tumor, we performed dynamic TSH secretion tests. TRH testing showed an excessive, delayed TSH response, typical of primary hypothyroidism. Serum TSH decreased not only after administration of CRH, octreotide, or L-DOPA, but also after administration of LH-RH. In this case, LH-RH testing induced ACTH secretion. To determine if aberrant ACTH secretion in response to LH-RH loading is a common phenomenon in severe primary hypothyroidism, we performed the LH-RH test on 4 additional patients with pituitary enlargement due to primary hypothyroidism. Two patients demonstrated aberrant ACTH secretion in response to LH-RH loading, but the others did not. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aberrant LH-RH-stimulated ACTH secretion in primary hypothyroidism. PMID:11075731

Ban, Y; Ban, Y; Taniyama, M; Hara, H; Abe, T; Katagiri, T

2000-08-01

50

Proteomic Analysis of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Treatment of an Infantile Spasm Model Induced by N-Methyl-d-Aspartic Acid and Prenatal Stress  

PubMed Central

Infantile spasms is an age-specific epileptic syndrome associated with poor developmental outcomes and poor response to nearly all traditional antiepileptic drugs except adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We investigated the protective mechanism of ACTH against brain damage. An infantile spasm rat model induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in neonate rats was used. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into the stress-exposed and the non-stress exposed groups, and their offspring were randomly divided into ACTH-treated spasm model, untreated spasm model, and control groups. A proteomics-based approach was used to detect the proteome differences between ACTH-treated and untreated groups. Gel image analysis was followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric protein identification and bioinformatics analysis. Prenatal stress exposure resulted in more severe seizures, and ACTH treatment reduced and delayed the onset of seizures. The most significantly up-regulated proteins included isoform 1 of tubulin ?-5 chain, cofilin-1 (CFL1), synaptosomal-associated protein 25, malate dehydrogenase, N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, annexin A3 (ANXA3), and rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA). In contrast, tubulin ?-1A chain was down-regulated. Three of the identified proteins, ARHGDIA, ANXA3, and CFL1, were validated using western blot analysis. ARHGDIA expression was assayed in the brain samples of five infantile spasm patients. These proteins are involved in the cytoskeleton, synapses, energy metabolism, vascular regulation, signal transduction, and acetylation. The mechanism underlying the effects of ACTH involves the molecular events affected by these proteins, and protein acetylation is the mechanism of action of the drug treatment. PMID:23028951

Wang, Jing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Wen-Jing; Shang, Ai-Jia; Zou, Li-Ping

2012-01-01

51

Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears  

PubMed Central

The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, ?-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p?-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. PMID:22575327

TØ, Bechshøft; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Muir, DCG; Letcher, RJ; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS; Jenssen, BM; Villanger, GD

2012-01-01

52

Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears.  

PubMed

The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, ?-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p'-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. PMID:22575327

Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Muir, D C G; Letcher, R J; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S; Jenssen, B M; Villanger, G D

2012-07-01

53

Physiologic implications of inter-hormonal interference in fish: lessons from the interaction of adrenaline with cortisol and thyroid hormones in climbing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch).  

PubMed

Adrenaline and cortisol, the major stress hormones, are known for its direct control on stress response in fish. Likewise, as an important stress modifier hormone, thyroid hormone has also been implicated in stress response of fish. We tested whether the hypothesis on the phenomenon of inter-hormonal interference, a process that explains the hormonal interactions, operates in fish particularly between adrenaline, cortisol and thyroid hormones. To achieve this goal, indices of acid-base, osmotic and metabolic regulations were quantified after adrenaline challenge in propranolol pre-treated air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus). Short-term adrenaline (10 ng g(-1)) injection for 30 min produced a rise in plasma cortisol without affecting plasma T(3) and T(4). On the contrary, blocking of adrenaline action with a non-selective blocker, propranolol (25 ng g(-1)) for 90 min reduced plasma cortisol along with plasma T(4) and that indicate a possible interference of these hormones in the absence of adrenaline challenge. Similarly, a reduction in plasma T(3) was found after adrenaline challenge in propranolol pre-treated fish and that suggests a functional synergistic interference of adrenaline with T(3). Adrenaline challenge in these fish, however, failed to abolish this propranolol effect. The remarkable systemic hypercapnia and acidosis by propranolol pre-treatment were reversed by adrenaline challenge, pointing to a direct action of adrenaline on acid-base indices probably by a mechanism which may not require ?-adrenergic receptor systems. Interestingly, the prominent adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia, hyperlactemia and hyperuremea were not altered by propranolol treatment. Similarly, adrenaline challenge promoted and propranolol reduced the osmotic competencies of the gills, kidneys and liver of this fish as evident in the sodium and proton pump activities. The modified physiologic actions of adrenaline and its modified interaction with THs and cortisol in blocked fish indicate an interaction of adrenaline with cortisol and THs. Our physiologic evidences thus support the hypothesis of the phenomenon of inter-hormonal interference. PMID:23153652

George, Nimta; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

2013-01-15

54

Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout\\u000a reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow\\u000a trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol\\u000a were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of

Ya-Yi Hou; Xiao-Dong Han; Yuzuru Suzuki

2001-01-01

55

[Effect of somatostatin-octreotide on secretion of adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and neuro-hypophyseal hormones in acromegaly].  

PubMed

The present work was aimed at studying the combined effects of somatostatin and corticotropin releasing hormone on the activities of the pituitary-adrenocortical axis and neurohypophysis. Patients with active acromegaly were intravenously injected with a 100 micrograms human corticotropin releasing hormone bolus before and after a 3-month subcutaneous treatment with somatostatin-octreotide (SMS 201 995; Sandostatin; 200 micrograms t. i. d.). When the Sandostatin effect was investigated, corticotropin releasing hormone test was started 2 hrs after its first daily dose. Peripheral venous blood samples were taken before and 20, 60, 90 and 120 min after the corticotropin releasing hormone load. Plasma corticotropin, arginine-8-vasopressin and oxytocin were measured by radioimmunoassay, and serum cortisol by fluorimetry. In healthy subjects, corticotropin releasing hormone stimulus elicited increases of plasma corticotropin, serum cortisol, plasma arginine-8-vasopressin and oxytocin levels by 186, 41, 178 and 58 per cent, respectively. Untreated acromegalics exhibited missing arginine-8-vasopressin, blunted corticotropin, and normal oxytocin and cortisol responses. Sandostatin therapy improved the arginine-8-vasopressin reaction, suppressed the basal levels of corticotropin and cortisol with the maintenance of cortisol stimulability; the peak-reaction of corticotropin became normal in two patients, however, with a shortened duration of response. Diuresis of the patients increased under the treatment. Sandostatin markedly alleviated the clinical symptoms and suppressed the growth hormone secretion, but did not influence the size of the pituitary adenomas. Among other factors, the alterations of growth hormone and cortisol may be hypothesized to take part in the changes of the corticotroph and neurohypophysial functions. PMID:9914727

Julesz, J; Vecsernyés, M; Szász, A; Szabados, E; Tóth, I; Laczi, F

1998-12-20

56

Effects of handling regime and sex on changes in cortisol, thyroid hormones and body mass in fasting grey seal pups.  

PubMed

Survival of seal pups may be affected by their ability to respond appropriately to stress. Chronic stress can adversely affect secretion of cortisol and thyroid hormones, which contribute to the control of fuel utilisation. Repeated handling could disrupt the endocrine response to stress and/or negatively impact upon mass changes during fasting. Here we investigated the effects of handling regime on cortisol and thyroid hormone levels, and body mass changes, in fasting male and female grey seal pups (Halichoerus grypus). Females had higher thyroid hormone levels than males throughout fasting and showed a reduction in cortisol midway through the fast that was not seen in males. This may reflect sex-specific fuel allocation or development. Neither handling frequency nor cumulative contact time affected plasma cortisol or thyroid hormone levels, the rate of increase in cortisol over the first five minutes of physical contact or the pattern of mass loss during fasting in either sex. The endocrine response to stress and the control of energy balance in grey seal pups appear to be robust to repeated, short periods of handling. Our results suggest that routine handling should have no additional impact on these animals than general disturbance caused by researchers moving around the colony. PMID:21945943

Bennett, Kimberley A; Moss, Simon E W; Pomeroy, Paddy; Speakman, John R; Fedak, Mike A

2012-01-01

57

Stress, rejection, and hormones: Cortisol and progesterone reactivity to laboratory speech and rejection tasks in women and men  

PubMed Central

Stress and social rejection have important impacts on health. Among the mechanisms implicated are hormonal systems such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which produces cortisol in humans. Current research employs speech stressors and social rejection stressors to understand hormonal responses in a laboratory setting. However, it is not clear whether social rejection stressors elicit hormonal reactivity. In addition to cortisol, progesterone has been highlighted as a potential stress- and affiliation-related hormone in humans. In the present study, 131 participants (70 men and 61 women) were randomly assigned to be exposed to one of four conditions: standardized speech stressor; speech control; social rejection task; or a control (inclusion) version of the social rejection task. Saliva samples were collected throughout the study to measure cortisol and progesterone. As hypothesized, we found the expected increase in cortisol in the speech stressor, and we also found that the social rejection task did not increase cortisol, underscoring the divergence between unpleasant experiences and HPA axis activity. However, we did not find evidence for progesterone increase either during the speech- or social rejection tasks. Compared with past studies on progesterone and stress in humans, the present findings present a mixed picture. Future work is needed to delineate the contexts and types of manipulations which lead to progesterone increases in humans. PMID:25580228

Gaffey, Allison E.; Wirth, Michelle M.

2014-01-01

58

Cortisol response and ovarian hormones in juvenile and cycling female Cebus monkeys: effect of stress and dexamethasone.  

PubMed

We examined cortisol profiles in relation to ovarian hormones and their response to a repeated composite stressor with and without dexamethasone suppression. To evaluate the day-to-day changes in circulating cortisol relative to ovarian hormones, we subjected five adult female Cebus apella monkeys daily to restraint, sedation, transport to a neighboring room for femoral venipuncture, and return to the cage throughout the menstrual cycle. The cortisol response to the repeated stressor for blood collection, its relationship with the ovarian function, and the effects of dexamethasone were evaluated in six juveniles (18-24 months old) and five adult females in the luteal phase. Blood was sampled at time 0; then the monkeys received the vehicle and their blood was sampled again at 1, 2, 4, and 24 hr. This experiment was repeated 3 weeks later, with dexamethasone (i.m. 2 mg/Kg) injected instead of vehicle. Plasma aliquots were assayed for cortisol, progesterone, and estradiol. The results revealed that from middle infancy and throughout adulthood, hypercortisolism is the norm in female Cebus monkeys. The high cortisol values remained unchanged across the cycle despite the cyclic changes in estradiol and progesterone levels. Juvenile monkeys exhibited a higher cortisol response to stress than adults, and both juvenile and adult monkeys exhibited the typical suppression by dexamethasone. A rapid suppression of progesterone co-occurred in parallel with cortisol after dexamethasone injection in juvenile monkeys, suggesting that most circulating progesterone originates in the adrenals. In contrast, adult females exhibited an overincrement of progesterone levels, in parallel with a rise in cortisol, in response to the stressor, and this effect was exacerbated by dexamethasone. The findings suggest that hypercortisolism is insufficient to disrupt ovarian development toward a normal cyclical function, and that ovarian steroids have no influence on day-to-day circulating cortisol levels. On the other hand, the overincrement of progesterone levels induced by stress and/or glucocorticoids during the early luteal phase is unlikely to interfere with the development of this phase and implantation in this monkey species. PMID:17177312

Lahoz, Monica M; Nagle, Carlos A; Porta, Margarita; Farinati, Zulema; Manzur, Teresita D

2007-05-01

59

Growth hormone differentially regulates muscle myostatin1 and -2 and increases circulating cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates muscle growth in vertebrates. Salmonids produce two myostatin transcripts from separate genes. Surprisingly, quantitative analyses indicate different regulatory mechanisms for the two myostatin genes in rainbow trout. MSTN1 mRNA levels were elevated 26% following recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) treatment, while MSTN2 mRNA levels were reduced 74% compared to controls. MSTN precursor protein (42kDa) levels were elevated in rbGH treated fish compared to controls. In addition, circulating cortisol levels were elevated 71% following rbGH treatment compared to controls. In treated and control fish, cortisol levels were elevated 245% at day 0 compared to subsequent days. Treated fish exhibited cortisol levels 207% higher than controls at 0.5 day, and remained at least 50% higher for 7 days following treatment. This pattern of change was positively correlated to MSTN1 mRNA levels. This is the first time a direct relationship has been reported between GH, cortisol, and myostatin. In addition, following rbGH administration, myosin protein concentrations in skeletal muscle samples increased, suggesting that GH regulates expression of the most abundant muscle protein. These results indicate the two myostatin genes are differentially regulated and may possess different functions in rainbow trout muscle, and suggests a possible interaction between GH, cortisol, and muscle growth. PMID:15242749

Biga, Peggy R; Cain, Kenneth D; Hardy, Ronald W; Schelling, Gerald T; Overturf, Kenneth; Roberts, Steven B; Goetz, Frederick W; Ott, Troy L

2004-08-01

60

Control of growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I expression by cortisol in ovine fetal skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I has an important role in myogenesis but its developmental regulation in skeletal muscle before birth remains unknown. In other tissues, cortisol modulates IGF gene expression and is responsible for many of the prepartum maturational changes essential for neonatal survival. Hence, using RNase protection assays and ovine riboprobes, expression of the IGF-I and growth hormone receptor (GHR) genes was examined in ovine skeletal muscle during late gestation and after experimental manipulation of fetal plasma cortisol levels by fetal adrenalectomy and exogenous cortisol infusion. Muscle IGF-I, but not GHR, mRNA abundance decreased with increasing gestational age in parallel with the prepartum rise in plasma cortisol. Abolition of this cortisol surge by fetal adrenalectomy prevented the prepartum fall in muscle IGF-I mRNA abundance. Conversely, raising cortisol levels by exogenous infusion earlier in gestation prematurely lowered muscle IGF-I mRNA abundance but had no effect on GHR mRNA. When all data were combined, plasma cortisol and muscle IGF-I mRNA abundance were inversely correlated in individual fetuses. Cortisol is, therefore, a developmental regulator of IGF-I gene expression and is responsible for suppressing expression of this gene in ovine skeletal muscle near term. These observations have important implications for muscle development both before and after birth, particularly during conditions which alter intrauterine cortisol exposure. PMID:12042362

Li, J; Forhead, A J; Dauncey, M J; Gilmour, R S; Fowden, A L

2002-01-01

61

Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  

PubMed

Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling. PMID:24080086

Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L

2013-12-01

62

Diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol and DHEA in adolescent anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Although there is well-documented evidence for hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in anorexia nervosa (AN), there has been little research into secretory patterns of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in this condition. The cortisol awakening response (CAR), a prominent and discrete feature of the cortisol cycle, has not been extensively explored in adolescent AN. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min and 12 h post-awakening on two consecutive weekdays from eight female adolescents with clinically diagnosed AN and 41 healthy control (HC) age-matched females. Adolescent AN patients had greater salivary cortisol and DHEA concentrations than HC girls at all points. Increased hormone secretion was unrelated to body mass index. However, despite hypersecretion of both hormones, the circadian pattern including the CAR paralleled that of the HC group. Findings from this preliminary study confirm dysregulation of HPA axis function in adolescent AN as evidenced by hypersecretion of both cortisol and DHEA, which share the common secretagogue adrenocorticotropic hormone. However, the parallel diurnal profiles for AN and HC participants, including the CAR, may indicate hypersecretion per se rather than differential regulation of the diurnal pattern of these two adrenal steroids in AN. PMID:22356124

Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

2012-11-01

63

Hormonal status of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in an elderly Tunisian population.  

PubMed

Adrenal function and aging have been the object of intense interest recently, especially as regards dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), which is of major importance, since it is distinct from cortisol and aldosterone in declining with age. In a group of healthy old Tunisians, we investigated the association between cortisol and DHEA-S, on the one hand, and age, sex, lifestyle, physical health, including the body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and smoking indicators, on the other hand. We observed that cortisol concentrations did not change with aging, while DHEA-S concentrations decrease with age in both sexes. Cortisol/DHEA-S ratio, however, increases with aging. Our results revealed that DHEA-S levels are affected neither by physical activity nor by weight. It appears also that current smoking could not affect the level of DHEA-S. Relationships were found between DHEA-S concentrations and BMI, then between DHEA-S levels and serum cholesterol, triglycerides and calcium. No modification in the morning serum cortisol was found to be associated with aging. Decrease in DHEA-S levels is, however, clearly associated with this phenomenon. High cortisol/DHEA-S ratio accelerates the occurrence of some adult diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, dementia, and osteoporosis. Generally, the adrenal insufficiency marked by a cognitive impairment, immune disorders, sexual dysfunction, and scores for depression and anxiety can be corrected by a replacement of deficient DHEA-S. PMID:17905395

Chehab, Olfa; Ouertani, Mohamed; Chaieb, Kamel; Haouala, Faouzi; Mahdouani, Kacem

2007-10-01

64

The relationship between insulin, insulin resistance, parathyroid hormone, cortisol, testosterone, and thyroid function tests in the presence of nephrolithiasis: a comprehensive analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have shown that hormonal factors such as levels of insulin, cortisol, testosterone, and insulin resistance are related with increased nephrolithiasis (NL). However, no previous study has evaluated the relationship between insulin, insulin resistance, thyroid hormones, cortisol, intact parathyroid hormone and testosterone levels with the presence of NL in a comprehensive manner. Materials and methods All patients underwent the following procedures: history taking, physical examination, biochemical analysis [including measurement of levels of insulin, thyroid hormones, cortisol, and total testosterone (for male patients only)], urine analysis, 24–hour urine collection to measure urinary protein, sodium excretion, and creatinine clearance. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA–INDEX). The presence of NL was determined by ultrasonography. Results The study was composed of 136 patients. In total, 30 patients had NL. Patients with NL were more likely to be older, male, obese, and smokers. Uric acid and HOMA–INDEX were also higher in patients with NL. In the whole group, only insulin (Odds ratio:1.128, CI:1.029–1.236, P:0.01) but not other hormones, and HOMA–INDEX were related with the presence of NL. In males, none of the hormones including total testosterone were associated with NL. Conclusions Only levels of insulin, but not other hormones were associated with the presence of NL in a group of patients with suspicion of NL. More studies are needed to highlight the mechanisms regarding NL and hormone levels. PMID:24982784

Karaca, Halit

2014-01-01

65

Hormonal regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats: the testosterone to cortisol ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the influence that the catabolic hormone, corticosterone (C), and the anabolic hormone, testosterone (T), had in regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy using the rat hind limb ablation model. Specifically, the ratio of T : C (TCR) was manipulated via hormone implants and injections and concentrations measured to evaluate the relative contribution of each hormone to skeletal muscle protein

Michael A. Crowley; Kathleen S. Matt

1996-01-01

66

Effects of pyridostigmine, corticotropin-releasing hormone and growth hormone-releasing hormone on the pituitary-adrenal axis and on growth hormone secretion in dementia.  

PubMed

Alterations of neuroendocrinological indices determined by the impaired regulating effects of cholinergic neurotransmission have been described in primary dementia. In this study we have evaluated the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by pyridostigmine on growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol secretion and on their responses to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in 7 patients with primary degenerative dementia and in 8 sex- and age-matched controls. Demented subjects showed higher cortisol basal levels and lower ACTH levels than controls. Pyridostigmine increased the GH response to GHRH in both groups, the effect being significantly enhanced in patients. An increase of ACTH and cortisol levels was found in both groups after pyridostigmine and CRH administration. Pyridostigmine pretreatment significantly increased the ACTH response to CRH in controls but not in patients. The obtained data may indicate that a muscarinic receptor upregulation and an impairment of somatostatinergic function are operative in the regulation of GH secretion in dementia. An underlying hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis impairs the responses of ACTH and cortisol to CRH in this disorder. PMID:8272199

Murialdo, G; Fonzi, S; Torre, F; Costelli, P; Solinas, G; Tosca, P; Di Paolo, E; Porro, S; Zerbi, F; Polleri, A

1993-01-01

67

Maternal adrenocorticotropin, cortisol, and thyroid hormone responses to all three-trimester equivalent repeated binge alcohol exposure: ovine model.  

PubMed

Alcohol-mediated alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function are two proposed mechanisms by which alcohol causes neurodevelopmental injury to the fetus. We previously reported that third-trimester equivalent only alcohol exposure in sheep results in increases in the maternal and fetal adrenocorticotropin and cortisol levels, and decreases in the fetal thyroid hormones T(3) and T(4) and maternal T(3) levels. In this study, we wished to characterize the maternal HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid hormone responses to repeated binge alcohol exposure during all three-trimester equivalents of pregnancy in sheep. Pregnant ewes received intravenous infusions of alcohol at doses of 0.75, 1.25, or 1.75 g/kg over 1h with mean peak blood alcohol concentrations of 90, 126, or 183 mg/dl, respectively, on 3 consecutive days each week beginning on gestational day (GD) 4. Maternal blood samples were collected on GDs 6, 40, 90, and 132. Maternal plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropin and cortisol increased in response to the high alcohol dose, and the magnitude of these elevations was not different across gestation. Thyroid hormone levels were not different when comparing among treatment groups at any time point during gestation. However, there was an ontogenetic decrease in the maternal T(3) concentration beginning between GDs 6 and 40 and a decrease in maternal T(4) and free T(4) beginning between GDs 40 and 90. The current findings suggest that (1) maternal alcohol consumption at any time during gestation stimulates the HPA axis, (2) maternal HPA responsiveness to alcohol does not change across gestation, (3) binge alcohol exposure at these doses lasting all three-trimester equivalent of human brain development does not reduce maternal thyroid hormone concentration, (4) alterations in fetal thyroid function in response to alcohol exposure do not occur as a result of diminished maternal thyroid hormone contribution, and (5) there is an ontogenetic decrease in ovine maternal thyroid hormones over gestation. PMID:18420114

Ramadoss, Jayanth; Tress, Ursula; Chen, Wei-Jung A; Cudd, Timothy A

2008-05-01

68

The relationships between cortisol levels, insulin levels, and thyroid hormones with 24-h urinary sodium excretion in never treated essential hypertensive patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND To study the relationship between cortisol, insulin, and thyroid hormone levels with 24-h urinary sodium (Na) excretion levels in essential hypertensive patients. METHODS All patients underwent history taking, physical examination, blood pressure (BP) measurement, 12 lead electocardiographic evaluation, routine urine analysis, biochemical analysis including measurement of cortisol, insulin, and thyroid hormone levels, 24-h urine collection to measure urinary Na and protein excretion and creatinine clearance. RESULTS In total, 68 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients were included. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that 24-h urinary Na excretion was correlated with insulin levels (? = ?0.473, P < 0.0001), serum cortisol levels (? = ?0.404, P = 0.0010) and creatinine clearance (? = 0.407, P = 0.0010). Linear regression of independent factors has revealed that systolic BP (B = 0.004, CI = 0.001-0.008, P = 0.0170), body mass index (B = 0.014, CI = 0.005-0.023, P = 0.0030), being male (B = 0.077, CI = 0.001-0.153, P = 0.0480), creatinine clearance (B = 0.003, CI = 0.001-0.006, P = 0.0120) and insulin levels (B = ?0.008, CI = ?0.014 to ?0.002, P = 0.0070) were independently related with logarithmically converted 24-h Na excretion. CONCLUSION In conclusion, we found that insulin but not cortisol and thyroid hormone levels were independently related with 24-h urinary Na excretion in newly diagnosed essential hypertensive patients. PMID:25161687

Afsar, Baris; Ay, Mahmut

2014-01-01

69

a0005 Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone, Family of Robert J. Denver  

E-print Network

on corticotropin [also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)] secre- tion from the anterior pituitary gland. ACTH is the primary pituitary regulator of adrenal glucocorticoid biosynthesis and secretion. Members hypothalami that was capable of stimulating pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) se- cretion

Denver, Robert J.

70

Effect of bursal anti-steroidogenic peptide (BASP) on cortisol biosynthesis in ACTH-stimulated canine adrenocortical carcinoma cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that bursal anti-steroidogenic peptide (BASP) inhibits progesterone biosynthesis from ovine luteinizing hormone-stimulated chicken ovarian granulosa cells. In the present investigation, we evaluated the efficacy of BASP for reducing cortisol secretion from normal canine adrenocortical cells and neoplastic adrenocortical cells from a dog with Cushing's syndrome. Treatment of adrenocortical cells derived from either normal healthy dogs or a cushingoid dog with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 0-10 nM) caused an approximately two-fold increase in cortisol production from both normal or tumor derived adrenocortical cells. Small but significant decreases (up to 34%) in cortisol production were observed from normal and tumor derived canine adrenocortical cells when exposed to increasing concentrations of BASP (0.0-0.15 bursal equivalents; BEQ). Incubation of adrenocortical carcinoma cells or normal adrenocortical cells with ACTH (0-10 nM) and BASP (0.0-0.15 BEQ) increased cyclic AMP formation up to 2.5-fold. Interestingly, BASP suppressed basal cortisol production from tumor derived adrenocortical cells to normal levels when compared to the basal cortisol levels from normal derived adrenocortisol cells. Data from the present studies indicate that BASP is capable of suppressing basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol production from normal or tumor derived adrenocortical cells in vitro. The possible clinical efficacy of homologous canine BASP on canine adrenal function or chicken BASP in other species of animals remains to be evaluated. PMID:8533298

Byrd, J A; Dean, C E; Fossum, T W; Hargis, B M

1995-07-01

71

Maternal adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and thyroid hormone responses to chronic binge alcohol exposure throughout gestation: ovine model  

E-print Network

This study investigated the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the responses of the maternal hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and thyroid hormones throughout gestation using an ovine model. Maternal plasma concentrations of ACTH...

Tress, Ursula

2009-05-15

72

Interactive effects of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1, serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region, and child maltreatment on diurnal cortisol regulation and internalizing symptomatology.  

PubMed

Within an allostatic load framework, the effect of Gene × Environment (G × E) interactions on diurnal cortisol regulation and internalizing symptomatology were investigated. Variation in the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) TAT haplotype and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was determined in a sample of maltreated (n = 238, 21.4% with early physical and sexual abuse) and nonmaltreated (n = 255) children (M age = 10.08) participating in a summer research camp. Internalizing and depressive symptoms were assessed by other and self-report. G × E effects for CRHR1 and maltreatment and early abuse on diurnal cortisol regulation were observed; CRHR1 variation was related to cortisol dysregulation only among maltreated children. Early abuse and high internalizing symptoms also interacted to predict atypical diurnal cortisol regulation. The interaction of CRHR1, 5-HTTLPR, and child maltreatment (G × G × E) identified a subgroup of maltreated children with high internalizing symptoms who shared the same combination of the two genes. The findings support an allostatic load perspective on the effects of the chronic stress associated with child maltreatment on cortisol regulation and internalizing symptomatology as moderated by genetic variation. PMID:22018085

Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Oshri, Assaf

2011-11-01

73

Cortisol urine test  

MedlinePLUS

... ACTH ). This is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain. Cortisol affects many different body ... level may indicate: Cushing disease , in which the pituitary gland makes too much ACTH because of excess growth ...

74

Cortisol blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... ACTH). This is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain. Cortisol affects many different body ... level may indicate: Cushing disease , in which the pituitary gland makes too much ACTH because of excess growth ...

75

Plasma Ghrelin in Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating Disorder: Relations with Eating Patterns and Circulating Concentrations of Cortisol and Thyroid Hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate the relations between plasma ghrelin concentrations, eating patterns, and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. The patterns of disordered eating behavior were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). In women with eating disorders, but not in

Alfonso Troisi; Giorgio Di Lorenzo; Ilaria Lega; Manfredi Tesauro; Aldo Bertoli; Roberto Leo; Micaela Iantorno; Chiara Pecchioli; Stefano Rizza; Mario Turriziani; Renato Lauro; Alberto Siracusano

2005-01-01

76

Reciprocal relationship between the level of circulating cortisol and growth hormone secretion in response to growth hormone-releasing hormone in man: studies in patients with adrenal insufficiency.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to elucidate the relationship between the level of circulating cortisol and the GH responsiveness to GHRH in six hypoadrenal patients (one male and five females; age range, 35-67 yr; body mass index range, 18-31 kg/m2). Twenty-four hours after taking the last dose of replacement therapy, each patient underwent the following experimental trials on nonconsecutive days: 1) saline, and 2) 12.5 mg, or 3) 25 mg, or 4) 250 mg hydrocortisone hemisuccinate in 250 mL saline constant iv infusion from 0-180 min. On each occasion, 1 micrograms/kg human GHRH-(1-29)NH2 was injected as an iv bolus at 60 min. During GHRH and saline infusion, serum cortisol levels were always less than the detection limit of the assay (55 nmol/L). During 12.5-, 25-, and 250-mg hydrocortisone infusions (from 15-180 min), serum cortisol averaged 413.8 +/- 19.3, 772.5 +/- 46.9, and 1520.2 +/- 110.4 nmol/L, respectively. The GH peaks after GHRH treatment during the various infusions of hydrocortisone were compared to the GH peaks observed after saline, which were normalized to 100% in each subject. GH peaks after GHRH and 25 mg hydrocortisone (70 +/- 11%) and GHRH and 250 mg hydrocortisone (69 +/- 7%) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the GH peaks after GHRH and saline or GHRH and 12.5 mg hydrocortisone (83 +/- 15%). No significant differences were observed between the GH peaks after GHRH and 12.5 mg hydrocortisone or GHRH and saline. Our data demonstrate that in hypoadrenal patients, the acute absence of circulating cortisol does not impair the GH secretory response to GHRH with respect to the eucortisolemic state. Moreover, our data suggest that 700 nmol/L is the approximate threshold serum cortisol concentration above which a decrease in the GH responsiveness to GHRH is observed in humans. Further increases in serum cortisol levels above this threshold value do not cause a proportional decrease in the GH responsiveness to GHRH. PMID:7962318

Giustina, A; Bresciani, E; Bossoni, S; Chiesa, L; Misitano, V; Wehrenberg, W B; Veldhuis, J D

1994-11-01

77

Effects of growth hormone secretagogues on the release of adenohypophyseal hormones in young and old healthy dogs.  

PubMed

The effects of three growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs), ghrelin, growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), on the release of adenohypophyseal hormones, growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and on cortisol were investigated in young and old healthy Beagle dogs. Ghrelin proved to be the most potent GHS in young dogs, whereas in old dogs GHRH administration was associated with the highest plasma GH concentrations. The mean plasma GH response after administration of ghrelin was significantly lower in the old dogs compared with the young dogs. The mean plasma GH concentration after GHRH and GHRP-6 administration was lower in the old dogs compared with the young dogs, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. In both age groups, the GHSs were specific for GH release as they did not cause significant elevations in the plasma concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, TSH, LH, and PRL. It is concluded that in young dogs, ghrelin is a more powerful stimulator of GH release than either GHRH or GHRP-6. Ageing is associated with a decrease in GH-releasing capacity of ghrelin, whereas this decline is considerably lower for GHRH or GHRP-6. PMID:15951209

Bhatti, Sofie F M; Duchateau, Luc; Van Ham, Luc M L; De Vliegher, Sarne P; Mol, Jan A; Rijnberk, Ad; Kooistra, Hans S

2006-11-01

78

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Testosterone, Cortisol and Empathy  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Testosterone, Cortisol and Empathy: Evidence for the Dual-Hormone Hypothesis hormone hypothesis posits that basal cortisol and testosterone have a joint effect on motivational testosterone manifest more in indi- viduals with low basal cortisol levels. Whether this hypothesis applies

Maestripieri, Dario

79

Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated cortisol response to an acute stressor. PMID:24269985

Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

2014-01-15

80

High cortisol response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone identifies ewes with reduced melanocortin signalling and increased propensity to obesity.  

PubMed

We have identified female sheep that have either high (HR) or low (LR) cortisol responses to adrenocorticotrophin. On a high-energy diet, HR have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity, although the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. Hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides (ARP) exert reciprocal effects on food intake and energy expenditure. We aimed to quantify the expression and function of ARP in LR and HR ewes (n = 4 per group). Gene expression for neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), orexin and the melanocortin receptors (MC3R and MC4R) was measured by in situ hybridisation. Expression of NPY, AgRP and POMC was similar in HR and LR, although expression of orexin, MCH, MC3R and MC4R was higher (P < 0.05) in LR. Intracerebroventricular infusions of a low dose (50 ?g/h) of NPY, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?MSH), orexin and MCH were performed between 10.00 h and 16.00 h in meal-fed ewes (n = 6-7 per group). Skeletal muscle and retroperitoneal (RP) fat temperatures were recorded using dataloggers. Post-prandial thermogenesis in muscle was higher (P < 0.05) in LR. There was little effect of ARP infusion on muscle or fat temperature in either group. Infusion of these doses of NPY, MCH or orexin did not stimulate food intake in meal-fed ewes, although ?MSH reduced (P < 0.01) food intake in LR only. Using 24-h ARP infusions with ad lib. feeding, NPY increased (P < 0.001) food intake in both groups but ?MSH was only effective in LR (P < 0.05). In summary, we show that HR are resistant to the satiety effects of ?MSH and this coincides with a reduced expression of both the MC3R and MC4R in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We conclude that an increased propensity to obesity in HR female sheep is associated with reduced melanocortin signalling. PMID:25315658

Hewagalamulage, S D; Clarke, I J; Young, I R; Rao, A; Henry, B A

2015-01-01

81

Genistein--a dietary compound inducing hormonal and metabolic changes.  

PubMed

Genistein is a plant-derived compound possessing well-known preventive activity in breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular diseases and post-menopausal problems. Lately, the interests in genistein have widened. The studies concerning effects of genistein performed on animals and humans revealed other aspects of its action -- the metabolic alterations at the cellular level and in the whole organism. It was shown that genistein decreased body and fat tissue weight gains accompanied by reduced food intake. After ingestion of dietary genistein, the alterations in concentrations of hormones such as: insulin, leptin, thyroid hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol and corticosterone were observed. The changes in lipid parameters -- triglycerides and cholesterol were also noticed as a consequence of genistein administration. Moreover, the altered expression of genes engaged in lipid metabolism, disturbed glucose transport into cells, affected lipolysis and lipogenesis and changed ATP synthesis were found as a result of genistein action. PMID:17588743

Szkudelska, Katarzyna; Nogowski, Leszek

2007-01-01

82

Order Effects of Combined Strength and Endurance Training on Testosterone, Cortisol, Growth Hormone, and IGF-1 Binding Protein 3 in Concurrently Trained Men.  

PubMed

Rosa, C, Vilaça-Alves, J, Fernandes, HM, Saavedra, FJ, Pinto, RS, and dos Reis, VM. Order effects of combined strength and endurance training on testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and IGF-1 binding protein 3 in concurrently trained men. J Strength Cond Res 29(1): 74-79, 2015-Concurrent training (CT) has been widely used in fitness centers to simultaneously optimize cardiovascular and neuromuscular fitness, and induce a high-energy expenditure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of 2 different orders of CT on hormonal responses in concurrently trained men. Fourteen men (mean ± SD: 24.7 ± 5.1 years) were randomly divided into 2 groups: endurance training followed by strength (ES, n = 7) and strength training followed by endurance (SE, n = 7). Serum concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and IGF-1 binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) were measured before and after both training orders. A significant interaction between exercise order and time was only found in the IGFBP-3 levels (p = 0.022). The testosterone and IGFBP-3 concentrations significantly increased in the ES group after the exercise trainings (57.7 ± 35.1%, p = 0.013 and 17.0 ± 15.5%, p = 0.032, respectively) but did not change significantly in the SE group (15.5 ± 36.6%, p = 0.527 and -4.2 ± 13.9%, p = 0.421, respectively). Conversely, cortisol and growth hormone concentrations significantly increased in both ES (169.2 ± 191.0%, p = 0.021 and 13,296.8 ± 13,009.5%, p = 0.013, respectively) and SE (92.2 ± 81.5%, p = 0.017 and 12,346.2 ± 9714.1%, p = 0.001, respectively) groups compared with baseline values. No significant correlations were found between the changes in the hormonal concentrations. In conclusion, these results suggest that immediately postexercise testosterone and IGFPB-3 responses are significantly increased only after the ES order. Therefore, an ES training order should be prescribed if the main focus of the training intervention is to induce an acute postexercise anabolic environment. PMID:25028991

Rosa, Claudio; Vilaça-Alves, José; Fernandes, Helder M; Saavedra, Francisco J; Pinto, Ronei S; Dos Reis, Victor M

2015-01-01

83

21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identification. A cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system is a device intended to measure the cortisol hormones secreted by the adrenal gland in plasma and urine. Measurements of cortisol are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

2012-04-01

84

21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Identification. A cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system is a device intended to measure the cortisol hormones secreted by the adrenal gland in plasma and urine. Measurements of cortisol are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

2014-04-01

85

21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identification. A cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system is a device intended to measure the cortisol hormones secreted by the adrenal gland in plasma and urine. Measurements of cortisol are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

2013-04-01

86

Central and peripheral glucocorticoid receptors are involved in the plasma cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Cortisol, the primary circulating corticosteroid in teleosts, is elevated during stress following activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Cortisol exerts genomic effects on target tissues in part by activating glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Despite a well-established negative feedback loop involved in plasma cortisol regulation, the role of GR in the functioning of the HPI axis during stress in fish is still unclear. We used mifepristone (a GR antagonist) to suppress GR signaling in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and assessed the resultant changes to HPI axis activity. We show for the first time that mifepristone caused a functional knockdown of GR by depleting protein expression 40-75%. The lower GR protein expression corresponded with a compensatory up-regulation of GR mRNA levels across tissues. Mifepristone treatment completely abolished the stressor-induced elevation in plasma cortisol and glucose levels seen in the control fish. A reduction in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA abundance in the hypothalamic preoptic area was also observed, suggesting that GR signaling is involved in maintaining basal CRF levels. We further characterized the effect of mifepristone treatment on the steroidogenic capacity of interrenal tissue in vitro. A marked reduction in cortisol production following adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation of head kidney pieces was observed from mifepristone treated fish. This coincided with the suppression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, but not P450 side chain cleavage mRNA abundances. Overall, our results underscore a critical role for central and peripheral GR signaling in the regulation of plasma cortisol levels during stress in fish. PMID:22233772

Alderman, Sarah L; McGuire, Alison; Bernier, Nicholas J; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

2012-03-01

87

Hypothalamic amenorrhea with normal body weight: ACTH, allopregnanolone and cortisol responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) is a functional disorder caused by disturbances in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility. The mechanism by which stress alters GnRH release is not well known. Recently, the role of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and neuro- steroids in the pathophysiology of HA has been considered. The aim of the present study was to explore further the role of the

Blazej Meczekalski; Arianna Tonetti; Patrizia Monteleone; Francesca Bernardi; Stefano Luisi; Massimo Stomati; Michele Luisi; Felice Petraglia; Andrea R Genazzani

2000-01-01

88

Physiological response of dromedary camels to road transportation in relation to circulating levels of cortisol, thyroid hormones and some serum biochemical parameters.  

PubMed

Transportation is often considered as one of the main causes of stress raising considerable interest, both in economic and animal welfare terms. The objective of the current study was to determine physiological response of dromedary camels to road transportation in relation to circulating levels of cortisol, thyroid hormones and some serum biochemical factors during summer conditions. Ten Iranian dromedary camels, five males and five females, were selected for the study. The study was conducted on three consecutive days in August 2008. At first day, blood samples were collected at 08:30 A.M., 09:30 A.M. and 01:30 P.M. to determine any possible variation in individual measurements due to diurnal changes or as a result of food and water deprivation for 5 h. Travel commenced on day 2 at 08:30 A.M. for 5 h, with a total of about 300 km traveled. At second day, blood samples were collected immediately before loading, at 08:30 a.m., after 1 h transport, at 09:30 A.M., and on the end of transportation, after unloading, at 01:30 P.M. Final blood sample was taken 24 h after arrival. In the current study no significant difference was observed in any parameter between sexes at each sampling time. The data related to day before transport had no significant differences between different times except for values obtained for cortisol that at 01:30 P.M. showed a significant decrease in comparison with data at 08:30 and 09:30. Circulating cortisol, T(4), T(3) and fT(4) levels was significantly higher after transportation compared with pre-transport values and returned to basal values within 24 h after transport. Transportation had effects on metabolism as demonstrated by increase in serum concentrations of glucose, NEFA, and urea nitrogen. Serum concentrations of glucose, NEFA, and urea nitrogen returned to basal values in final bleeding at 24 h after transport termination. In the current study transportation had no significant effects on serum concentrations of fT(3), triglycerides, cholesterol, beta-hydroxybutyrate, albumin and total protein. Taken together, the results obtained for short road transportation of dromedary camels showed a strong physiological response and provide some biomarkers for stress detection in this species. Further research to validate these potential biomarkers is necessary. PMID:19544085

Saeb, M; Baghshani, H; Nazifi, S; Saeb, S

2010-01-01

89

Ecological correlates of cortisol levels in two bat species with contrasting feeding habits.  

PubMed

The immediate release of adrenal glucocorticoids can be crucial for an animal's survival when facing a stressor, but constantly elevated or exceptionally high glucocorticoid levels are usually detrimental for health. Although baseline and maximal secretion of glucocorticoids are regulated within narrow ranges within species, plasma glucocorticoid levels vary largely across vertebrates. We asked what ecological factors affect baseline plasma cortisol levels (CortI) and maximum levels (CortMax) following a physiological challenge through administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Specifically, we studied whether seasonal fluctuations in food abundance correlate with the capacity of cortisol increases in two phyllostomid bat species with contrasting feeding habits: the sanguinivorous vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the frugivorous short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). Both species coexist in habitats with various levels of seasonality (dry and rainforest). On a seasonal basis, resource abundance is more stable for vampire than for fruit bats, but previous studies suggested that daily foraging success may vary more for vampire than for fruit bats. CortI and CortMax varied seasonally in C. perspicillata from dry and rainforests, with the exception of CortMax in rainforest bats. Although we expected food availability to be stable year-round for vampire bats, we found CortI and CortMax of vampires to be higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Also, we found CortMax to be higher in vampires from the rainforest than in those from the dry forest. CortMax of vampires were among the highest measured for a free-ranging mammal; a pattern that could be related to the species' vulnerability to starvation. We conclude that food availability modulates cortisol levels in free-ranging species that face seasonally fluctuating resources; in species, however, that benefit from food which is constantly abundant, other factors than food may become more important in modulating cortisol levels. PMID:22429728

Lewanzik, Daniel; Kelm, Detlev H; Greiner, Sabine; Dehnhard, Martin; Voigt, Christian C

2012-05-15

90

Hormonal and Behavioral Responses to Stress in Lactating and Non-lactating Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)  

PubMed Central

In several mammalian species, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and behavioral responses to stressors are down-regulated in lactating females, possibly preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have been found to inhibit maternal behavior in lactating common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), raising the question of whether lactating female marmosets also have blunted endogenous responses to stress. Therefore, we compared HPA and behavioral responses to standardized stressors in reproductively experienced female common marmosets that were undergoing ovulatory cycles and that either were (N=7) or were not lactating (N=8). Each marmoset underwent (1) a restraint stressor during the early follicular phase of the ovarian cycle (approximately 5 weeks postpartum for lactating females) and (2) exposure to a simulated hawk predator during the early to mid-luteal phase (approximately 7 weeks postpartum for lactating females). Lactating females were tested in the presence of one of their infants. Blood samples were collected before, during, and immediately after each test for determination of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations. Both stressors caused significant elevations in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and significant decreases in cortisol:ACTH ratios; however, lactating and non-lactating females showed no significant differences in their endocrine or behavioral responses to either stressor, or in baseline ACTH or cortisol levels. These findings suggest that in contrast to several other mammalian species, lactating female marmosets maintain full behavioral and HPA responsiveness to stress, at least in the presence of their infants. PMID:21600906

Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

2011-01-01

91

INSULIN, GLUCOSE, CORTISOL, GROWTH HORMONE AND PROLACTIN RESPONSES TO ORAL L-ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION TO LACTATING SOWS UNDER HEAT STRESS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to determine whether dietary arginine (Arg) decreases weight loss of lactating sows via regulation of key metabolic hormones. Sows were exposed to a thermoneutral (TN = 20º C) or hot (HT = 29.4º C) environment and fed one of three dietary treatments in a 2 x 3 factori...

92

Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing  

E-print Network

The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the ...

Dahleh, Munther A.

93

Association between exposure to rotating night shift versus day shift using levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and cortisol and other sex hormones in women.  

PubMed

The present study aims to compare 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) secretion patterns and levels of cortisol and sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone, DHEA, DHEAS, and testosterone) among rotating night-shift workers and day-shift workers. We performed a cross-sectional study in Cantabria (northern Spain) including 136 women (73 day-shift workers and 63 rotating night-shift workers). Blood and urine samples were obtained after two consecutive working days. Differences in means were estimated using ANCOVA, stratified by menopausal status, ovulation phase, and adjusted for season, age, body mass index, consumption of cigarettes in the last 24?h. aMT6s circadian rhythm was analyzed using the cosinor analysis. The present study showed that rotating night-shift workers had lower excretion of aMT6s than day-shift workers (mesor?=?50.26?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with rotating night shift versus 88.79?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with day shift), lower fluctuation (amplitude?=?45.24?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in rotating night-shift workers versus 79.71?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in day-shift workers), and a later acrophase (aMT6s peak time: 08:31 in rotating night-shift workers versus 07:13?h in day-shift workers). Additionally, women with rotating night shift had higher estradiol and progesterone levels, compared to day workers, especially in the follicular phase on the menstrual cycle. PMID:25216206

Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; García-Unzueta, María Teresa; Santos-Benito, María Francisca; Llorca, Javier

2015-02-01

94

A variant of the neuronal amino acid transporter SLC6A15 is associated with ACTH and cortisol responses and cognitive performance in unipolar depression.  

PubMed

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is accompanied by both cognitive impairments and a hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, resulting in an enhanced glucocorticoid secretion. Cortisol acts via mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors densely located in the hippocampus, a brain area that is important regarding cognitive functions and especially memory functions. Recently, a variant (rs1545843) affecting transcription of the human SLC6A15 gene has been associated with depression in a genome-wide association study. In an animal model, the neuronal amino acid transporter SLC6A15 was found to be decreased in stress-susceptible mice. Against the background of stress impacting on the activity of the HPA axis, we have investigated alterations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol secretion in the combined dexamethasone/corticotrophin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test as well as memory and attention performance in a sample of 248 patients with unipolar depression and 172 healthy control subjects genotyped for rs1545843. MDD patients carrying the depression-associated AA genotype showed enhanced maximum and area under the curve ACTH and cortisol answers (p = 0.03) as well as an impaired memory and impaired sustained attention performance (p = 0.04) compared to carriers of at least one G allele. No effects of the SLC6A15 variant were found in the healthy control group. Our findings argue for a role of the SLC6A15 gene in ACTH and cortisol secretion during the Dex/CRH test and furthermore in the occurrence of cognitive impairments in unipolar depression. PMID:22475622

Schuhmacher, Anna; Lennertz, Leonhard; Wagner, Michael; Höfels, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Ute; Guttenthaler, Vera; Maier, Wolfgang; Zobel, Astrid; Mössner, Rainald

2013-02-01

95

Plasma cortisol activity in rats under conditions of chronic stress supplemented with resveratrol  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the activity of cortisol in rats treated with exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and a resveratrol supplement. Methods: Forty-eight adult female rats and 16 male rats of the strain (Rattus norvegicus) that were three months old and with body weights ranging from 200 to 250 g for females and 300 to 350 g for males were used and kept in controlled environmental conditions: temperature of 20±2° C and light-dark cycles of 14 and 10 hours. They were fed a balanced diet and had free access to water. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: group 1 - was treated with 5 µg/kg of ACTH i.p. every twelve hours; group 2 - received the same treatment with ACTH plus a grape extract supplement (resveratrol) of 40 mg/kg; group 3 - only received grape extract (resveratrol); and group 4 - received a saline solution (0.9%) i.p. and oral, and served as controls. The experimental design was a 2×2 factorial with two levels ACTH and two polyphenol levels (grape extract). Results: No significant differences were found in blood cortisol concentrations, by day and gender, or by treatment effects (0.75 µg/dL ± 0.11; p <0.001). Conclusion: Results suggest that chronic stress and consumption of resveratrol did not directly alter levels of plasmatic cortisol in either stressed or unstressed rats. It was concluded that the given dosage levels of ACTH possibly did not produce sufficient stimulation of the adrenal gland for these animals. PMID:24893196

Hurtado Salazar, Alejandro; Uribe-Velásquez, Luis F

2012-01-01

96

Fecal cortisol metabolite levels in free-ranging North American red squirrels: Assay validation and the effects of reproductive condition.  

PubMed

Patterns in stress hormone (glucocorticoid: GC) levels and their relationship to reproductive condition in natural populations are rarely investigated. In this study, we (1) validate an enzyme-immunoassay to measure fecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) levels in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and (2) examine relationships between FCM levels and reproductive condition in a free-ranging red squirrel population. Injected radiolabeled cortisol was entirely metabolized and excreted in both the urine (mean+/-SE; 70.3+/-0.02%) and feces (29.7+/-0.02%), with a lag time to peak excretion in the feces of 10.9+/-2.3h. Our antibody reacted with several cortisol metabolites, and an adrenocorticotropic injection significantly increased FCM levels above baseline levels at 8h post-injection. Relative to baseline levels, manipulation by handling also tended to increase FCM levels at 8h post-manipulation, but this difference was not significant. FCM levels did not differ significantly between samples frozen immediately and 5h after collection. Reproductive condition significantly affected FCM levels in free-ranging females (pregnant>lactating>post-lactating>non-breeding) but not males (scrotal testes vs. abdominal testes). Among females with known parturition dates, FCM levels increased during gestation, peaked at parturition, and declined during lactation. The difference between pregnant and lactating females was therefore dependent upon when the fecal samples were obtained during these periods, suggesting caution in categorizing reproductive stages. This study demonstrates the utility of fecal hormone metabolite assays to document patterns of glucocorticoid levels in free-ranging animals. PMID:20346362

Dantzer, Ben; McAdam, Andrew G; Palme, Rupert; Fletcher, Quinn E; Boutin, Stan; Humphries, Murray M; Boonstra, Rudy

2010-06-01

97

Cellular/Molecular Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Enhances the Masculinity of  

E-print Network

by which weakly electric fish couple socially regulated and stress-regulated brain pathways to unique discharges of excitable cells in the periphery. These fish show circadian enhancement of the EOD waveform.Serotoninmodulates the EOD in vivo but has no effect on the EOD in vitro. The cAMP analog 8-bromo-cAMP mimicked the effects

Stoddard, Philip

98

Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

99

Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

100

Sex hormone profiles in pedophilic and incestuous men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-eight pedophiles, 45 incest offenders, and 44 community controls with no history of sexual or violent crime were compared on eight hormones: androstenedione, cortisol, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, and testosterone, and on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Results showed that sex offenders had elevated levels of four hormones: androstenedione, cortisol, estradiol and

Reuben A. Lang; Pierre Flor-Henry; Roy R. Frenzel

1990-01-01

101

Pituitary hormone secretion in normal male humans: acute responses to a large, oral dose of monosodium glutamate.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown that the administration of a glutamate receptor agonist or a high dose of glutamate stimulates pituitary hormone secretion in animals. However, only a single human study has reported that an oral load of glutamic acid induced the secretion of prolactin and probably adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (but not other pituitary hormones). Because of glutamate's use in foods as monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavoring agent, and the limited amount of human data, we studied the effect of a large oral dose of MSG in humans on the secretion of prolactin and other pituitary hormones. Fasting male subjects bearing venous catheters received on separate days each of the following four treatments: a vehicle, MSG (12.7 g), a high protein meal (a physiologic stimulus of prolactin secretion) by mouth, or an intravenous infusion of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, a pharmacologic stimulus of prolactin secretion). Plasma hormone responses were quantitated by RIA at 20-min intervals for 4 h. The protein meal induced a modest increase and TRH infusion a substantial increase in plasma prolactin, whereas MSG ingestion did not. MSG ingestion also did not raise the plasma concentrations of any of the other pituitary hormones measured (luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone) or of cortisol. Ingestion of MSG raised plasma glutamate concentrations 11-fold; the protein meal did not raise plasma glutamate. The results demonstrate that MSG ingestion in humans does not modify anterior pituitary hormone secretion. One implication is that diet-derived glutamate may not penetrate into hypothalamic regions controlling anterior pituitary function. PMID:10736381

Fernstrom, J D

2000-04-01

102

Effects of itopride hydrochloride on plasma gut-regulatory peptide and stress-related hormone levels in healthy human subjects.  

PubMed

Itopride hydrochloride (itopride), a gastrokinetic drug, has recently been evaluated for its clinical usefulness in functional dyspepsia. We investigated effects of itopride on human plasma gastrin-, somatostatin-, motilin-, and cholecystokinin (CCK)-like immunoreactive substances (IS); adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-immunoreactive substances (IS), and cortisol under stress conditions in healthy subjects. A single administration of itopride caused significant increases in plasma somatostatin- and motilin-IS levels compared to placebo. Itopride significantly decreased plasma CCK-IS, and suppressed the ACTH-IS level compared to placebo. We hypothesize that itopride may have an accelerating gastric emptying effect, and a modulatory effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous functions. These effects might be beneficial in stress-related diseases, suggesting that itopride has clinicopharmacological activities. PMID:16717477

Katagiri, Fumihiko; Shiga, Toru; Inoue, Shin; Sato, Yuhki; Itoh, Hiroki; Takeyama, Masaharu

2006-01-01

103

Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

2012-01-01

104

Original article Response of milk yield, plasma cortisol,  

E-print Network

low-dose administration of adrenocorticotrophic hormone in lactating cows BB Ndibualonji1 D Dehareng C a jugular vein catheter. Blood was withdrawn 60 and 5 min pretreatment (baseline), and 10, 20, 30, 60, 120 cortisol occurred within 10 min of administration of 6 IU ACTH. The maximum increase in plasma cortisol

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

A phenomenological model for circadian and sleep allostatic modulation of plasma cortisol concentration  

E-print Network

the anterior pituitary gland is induced by the transport of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from in the regulation of plasma cortisol concentration by the hypothalamo- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Numerous on the cortisol profile. biomathematical models; hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis; sleep loss CORTISOL IS A KEY

106

Stress hormones and the cellular stress response in salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between stress protein (SP) levels and the hormonal stress response in salmonids was examined through the measurement of gill SP70 and SP30 levels together with plasma cortisol, glucose and ion concentrations, in response to handling stress (45 s holding in a net), intraperitoneal cortisol implants, and heat shock (+10 °C). Handling and cortisol implants resulted in increased plasma cortisol and

P. A. Ackerman; R. B. Forsyth; C. F. Mazur; G. K. Iwama

2000-01-01

107

Cortisol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Neurohormonal Aspects of Bioenergetic Stress in Ecstasy Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can affect both neurotransmitter and neurohormonal activity. This review will debate the role of the metabolic activation hormone cortisol for the psychobiological effects of ecstasy\\/MDMA. Methods: The empirical literature on cortisol release following acute MDMA administration and cortisol functioning in drug-free recreational ecstasy\\/MDMA users will be reviewed. This will be followed by an overview of cortisol as

A. C. Parrott

2009-01-01

108

Variation in the ovine cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge is predominantly determined by signalling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis  

SciTech Connect

Bi-directional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is designed, in part, to maintain or restore homeostasis during physiological stress. Exposure to endotoxin during Gram-negative bacterial infection for example, elicits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). The secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids subsequently down regulates the host inflammatory response, minimizing potential tissue damage. Sequence and epigenetic variants in genes involved in regulating the neuroendocrine and immune systems are likely to contribute to individual differences in the HPAA response, and this may influence the host anti-inflammatory response to toxin exposure and susceptibility to inflammatory disease. In this study, high (HCR) and low (LCR) cortisol responders were selected from a normal population of 110 female sheep challenged iv with Escherichia coli endotoxin (400 ng/kg) to identify potential determinants that contribute to variation in the cortisol response phenotype. This phenotype was stable over several years in the HCR and LCR animals, and did not appear to be attributed to differences in expression of hepatic immune-related genes or systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Mechanistic studies using corticotrophin-releasing factor (0.5 {mu}g/kg body weight), arginine vasopressin (0.5 {mu}g/kg), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (0.5 {mu}g/kg) administered iv demonstrated that variation in this phenotype is largely determined by signalling within the HPAA. Future studies will use this ovine HCR/LCR model to investigate potential genetic and epigenetic variants that may contribute to variation in cortisol responsiveness to bacterial endotoxin.

You Qiumei [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Karrow, Niel A. [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: nkarrow@uoguelph.ca; Cao Honghe [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Rodriguez, Alexander [Department of Clinical Studies, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Mallard, Bonnie A. [Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Boermans, Herman J. [Department of Biomedical Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

2008-07-01

109

Responsiveness to corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin in canine Cushing's syndrome.  

PubMed

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin are the most important hypothalamic factors regulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. In this study we have investigated the responsiveness of the pituitary-adrenocortical axis to intravenous administration of CRH or lysine vasopressin (LVP) in 16 control dogs, 22 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism and five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumor, using doses of CRH and LVP that caused equivalent ACTH responses in the control dogs. After CRH administration, the increment in plasma ACTH was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (221 +/- 53 ng/l) than that in control dogs (279 +/- 41 ng/l). In the dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, the relative increases in ACTH after CRH were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those after LVP. Despite the absence of an increase in ACTH following LVP administration in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumor, there was a significant increase in plasma cortisol, the increment (790 +/- 238 nmol/l) being not statistically different from that in the control dogs (412 +/- 37 nmol/l). We conclude that in spite of the changes inherent to pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, i.e. neoplastic transformation of corticotropic cells and hypercortisolism, there is persistence of responsiveness to hypophysiotropic hormones. The ACTH secretion by corticotropic cells in pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was relatively less sensitive to stimulation with CRH than with LVP. Adrenocortical tumors develop an aberrant sensitivity to LVP. PMID:8162173

van Wijk, P A; Rijnberk, A; Croughs, R J; Wolfswinkel, J; Selman, P J; Mol, J A

1994-04-01

110

Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing  

PubMed Central

The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Adler, Gail K.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Emery N.

2014-01-01

111

Lower Baseline Plasma Cortisol and Prolactin together with Increased Body Temperature and Higher mCPP-Induced Cortisol Responses in Men with Pedophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is some evidence that hormonal and serotonergic alterations may play a role in the pathophysiology of paraphilias. The aims of the present study were to examine: 1) baseline plasma cortisol, plasma prolactin, and body temperature; and 2) cortisol, prolactin, body temperature, as well as behavioral responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and placebo in pedophiles and normal men. Pedophiles showed significantly

Michael Maes; Dirk van West; Nathalie De Vos; Herman Westenberg; Fran Van Hunsel; Dirk Hendriks; Paul Cosyns; Simon Scharpé

2001-01-01

112

Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone\\u000a reflecting hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results.\\u000a This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a novel environment; and (3)\\u000a in response to a blood draw stressor. A

Eve G. Spratt; Joyce S. Nicholas; Kathleen T. Brady; Laura A. Carpenter; Charles R. Hatcher; Kirk A. Meekins; Richard W. Furlanetto; Jane M. Charles

113

Sex hormone profiles in genital exhibitionists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen male genital exhibitionists were compared to nonviolent nonsex offender controls with respect to 9 serum hormones: cortisol, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, androstenedione, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, and two indices of free testosterone. There were group differences in estradiol, total testosterone and percent free testosterone. Exhibitionists had lower estradiol and testosterone but higher overall free

Reuben A. Lang; Ron Langevin; J. Bain; Roy Frenzel; Percy Wright

1989-01-01

114

Cortisol rapidly disrupts prepulse inhibition in healthy men.  

PubMed

Stress is known to affect sensorimotor gating (measured with prepulse inhibition of startle, or PPI), possibly improving perception of threat signals at the expense of other input during states of arousal. Stress also induces a variety of autonomic nervous system and endocrine responses, such as an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The latter will result in the release of the stress hormone cortisol which is known to exert rapid and sustained action on several CNS processes. Since previous studies have not clarified whether and which stress response components may mediate effects on sensorimotor gating, this study asked whether a link may exist between cortisol and sensorimotor gating. We tested whether cortisol may affect PPI by assessing PPI before, during, and after non-stressful, covert 1mg IV cortisol infusions in 27 healthy men in a single-blind and placebo-controlled within-subject design. Cortisol induced a rapid reduction of PPI, with its maximum at 20 min after administration, and PPI returned to baseline after another 20 min. Startle magnitude in the absence of a prepulse was not affected. This rapid effect of the IV cortisol infusions is probably mediated by a non-genomic mechanism. We conclude that stress effects on sensorimotor gating may be mediated by glucocorticoids. The disruption of sensorimotor gating by the stress hormone cortisol may serve the processing of intense and potentially dangerous startling stimuli. PMID:20685043

Richter, Steffen; Schulz, André; Zech, Carina M; Oitzl, Melly S; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut

2011-01-01

115

Perturbations of plasma cortisol and DHEA-S following discontinuation of cocaine use in cocaine addicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in plasma levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) following cocaine discontinuation were assessed in hospitalized chronic cocaine users. Measurements were performed after 6, 9, 18 and 21 days of abstinence. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed significant time effects for cortisol (P<0.02) and DHEA-S (P<0.001). Changes in the two hormones did not follow the same course. Levels of cortisol were

Laure Buydens-Branchey; Marc Branchey; Jeffrey Hudson; Maria Dorota Majewska

2002-01-01

116

Cortisol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Neurohormonal Aspects of Bioenergetic Stress in Ecstasy Users  

PubMed Central

Aims 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can affect both neurotransmitter and neurohormonal activity. This review will debate the role of the metabolic activation hormone cortisol for the psychobiological effects of ecstasy/MDMA. Methods The empirical literature on cortisol release following acute MDMA administration and cortisol functioning in drug-free recreational ecstasy/MDMA users will be reviewed. This will be followed by an overview of cortisol as a bioenergetic stress neurohormone, and a debate on how it could be modulating the acute and chronic psychobiological effects of MDMA. Results Cortisol release is increased by stimulatory factors, including physical activity, thermal stress and stimulant drugs. In laboratory studies MDMA leads to an acute cortisol increase of around 150% in sedentary humans. In MDMA-using dance clubbers, the cortisol levels are increased by around 800%, possibly due to the combined factors of stimulant drug, physical exertion and psychosocial stimulation. Regular ecstasy/MDMA users also demonstrate changes in baseline cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, with compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Nonpharmacological research has shown how cortisol is important for psychological aspects such as memory, cognition, sleep, impulsivity, depression and neuronal damage. These same functions are often impaired in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users, and cortisol may be an important modulatory co-factor. Conclusions The energizing hormone cortisol is involved in the psychobiology of MDMA, probably via its effects on energy metabolism. Acute cortisol release may potentiate the stimulating effects of MDMA in dance clubbers. Chronically, cortisol may contribute to the variance in functional and structural consequences of repeated ecstasy usage. PMID:19893332

Parrott, A.C.

2009-01-01

117

The brain and the stress axis: The neural correlates of cortisol regulation in response to stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is the major endocrine stress axis of the human organism. Cortisol, the final hormone of this axis, affects metabolic, cardiovascular and central nervous systems both acutely and chronically. Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques have led to the investigation of regulatory networks and mechanisms of cortisol regulation in the central nervous system in human populations. In the

Katarina Dedovic; Annie Duchesne; Julie Andrews; Veronika Engert; Jens C. Pruessner

2009-01-01

118

Cortisol concentrations in the umbilical artery and vein of breech-presenting infants at term in relation to the method of delivery.  

PubMed

Umbilical cord artery and vein cortisol levels and cord artery pH were measured in 32 breech deliveries. There was no detectable increase in fetal cortisol output in relation to fetal acidosis. It is considered that elevation of fetal cortisol levels is caused by maternal transfer of this hormone transplacentally during stressful delivery rather than by enhanced fetal adrenal activity. PMID:4052345

Farquharson, R G; Dyas, J; Pierrepoint, C G

1985-10-01

119

Examining the relations among cortisol response, family risk factors, parenting, and child adjustment.  

E-print Network

??Cortisol, a hormone released by the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (L-HPA) axis follows a typical circadian rhythm, and under stressful and challenging situations may show hyper- or hypo-responsiveness.… (more)

Trancik, Anika

2007-01-01

120

Academic self-concept of ability and cortisol reactivity.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between a school-specific trait (academic self-concept of ability [ASCA]) and hormonal stress response by using a trait-compatible stressor (test). First, we determined 52 students' ASCA scores for biology and measured their salivary cortisol concentration before and after a biology test (experimental group, n=28) or a free writing task (control group, n=24). For participants who took the test, statistical analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between ASCA score and cortisol response. In contrast, the control group showed a decrease in cortisol concentrations between test times and no correlation between cortisol concentration and ASCA scores were found. These findings indicated an interaction between ASCA scores and hormonal stress response when an academic-related stressor is present. Furthermore, these variables might influence each other adversely: high cortisol concentrations during a test situation may lead to greater feelings of insecurity, resulting in low ASCA scores and awareness of these low scores may lead to a further increase in cortisol, creating a vicious cycle. PMID:24219306

Minkley, N; Westerholt, D M; Kirchner, W H

2014-05-01

121

Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study  

PubMed Central

This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene’s Score (GMS) and Kupperman’s Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT). PMID:23675006

Meissner, H. O.; Mscisz, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Barchia, I.

2006-01-01

122

Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

123

Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels.  

PubMed

Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

124

Acute adrenal crisis  

MedlinePLUS

... to stress . Cortisol production is regulated by the pituitary gland. This is a small gland behind the nose and under the brain. The pituitary gland releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This is a hormone ...

125

Cortisol treatment reduces ghrelin signaling and food intake in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.  

PubMed

It is well known that after a stressor, levels of plasma cortisol rise, inducing physiological changes within the animal that are directed toward maintaining homeostasis. Less well understood is the role of cortisol in regulating food intake in teleosts. This study investigated the effect of cortisol on food intake and regulation of the neuroendocrine appetite-stimulating hormones, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and ghrelin, in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Male and female tilapia were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: unhandled control, vehicle-injected control, or cortisol (2 ?g/g BW). Food intake was determined 24 h after injection during a 1-h feeding trial. Cortisol reduced food intake (P<0.001). An identical study was conducted to measure the effects of 24-h cortisol treatment on the endocrine regulators of food intake. Cortisol reduced stomach expression of ghrelin mRNA (P<0.05) and plasma concentrations of ghrelin (P<0.05). In the hypothalamus/optic tectum cortisol reduced levels of GHSR1a-LR (biologically active ghrelin receptor) mRNA. In the telencephalon/preoptic area cortisol significantly reduced levels of NPY and GHSR1b-LR (biologically inactive ghrelin receptor) mRNA. These findings suggest that anorexigenic actions of cortisol may be mediated via two separate pathways: (1) reducing circulating ghrelin levels as well as GHSR1a-LR expression in the hypothalamus/optic tectum and/or (2) suppressing NPY expression in the telencephalon/preoptic area. PMID:22657576

Janzen, W J; Duncan, C A; Riley, L G

2012-10-01

126

Evaluation of immune and stress status in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena): can hormones and mRNA expression levels serve as indicators to assess stress?  

PubMed Central

Background The harbour porpoise is exposed to increasing pressure caused by anthropogenic activities in its marine environment. Numerous offshore wind farms are planned or under construction in the North and Baltic Seas, which will increase underwater noise during both construction and operation. A better understanding of how anthropogenic impacts affect the behaviour, health, endocrinology, immunology and physiology of the animals is thus needed. The present study compares levels of stress hormones and mRNA expression of cytokines and acute-phase proteins in blood samples of harbour porpoises exposed to different levels of stress during handling, in rehabilitation or permanent human care. Free-ranging harbour porpoises, incidentally caught in pound nets in Denmark, were compared to harbour porpoises in rehabilitation at SOS Dolfijn in Harderwijk, the Netherlands, and individuals permanently kept in human care in the Dolfinarium Harderwijk and Fjord & Belt Kerteminde, Denmark. Blood samples were investigated for catecholamines, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, as well as for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, metanephrine and normetanephrine. mRNA expression levels of relevant cell mediators (cytokines IL-10 and TNF?, acute-phase proteins haptoglobin and C-reactive protein and the heat shock protein HSP70) were measured using real-time PCR. Results Biomarker expression levels varied between free-ranging animals and porpoises in human care. Hormone and cytokine ranges showed correlations to each other and to the health status of investigated harbour porpoises. Hormone concentrations were higher in free-ranging harbour porpoises than in animals in human care. Adrenaline can be used as a parameter for the initial reaction to acute stress situations; noradrenaline, dopamine, ACTH and cortisol are more likely indicators for the following minutes of acute stress. There is evidence for different correlations between production of normetanephrine, metanephrine, cortisol and the expression of IL-10, HSP70 and haptoglobin. Conclusions The expression patterns of the selected molecular biomarkers of the immune system are promising to reflect the health and immune status of the harbour porpoise under different levels of stress. PMID:23866055

2013-01-01

127

Cortisol and vital exhaustion in relation to significant coronary artery stenosis in middle-aged women with acute coronary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The role of chronic stress in coronary artery disease (CAD) is not well known. Conflicting results have been obtained with regard to the stress hormone cortisol and ‘vital exhaustion’, a psychological construct defining the effects of long-term stress. We investigated the relationship between chronic stress, assessed by serum cortisol and vital exhaustion, and coronary artery stenosis and the importance

Jenny Koertge; Faris Al-Khalili; Staffan Ahnve; Imre Janszky; Bertil Svane; Karin Schenck-Gustafsson

2002-01-01

128

A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

2001-01-01

129

Chromosome 10: gene which creates cortisol, Matt RidleySite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Matt Ridley DNAi Location:Genome>tour>genome spots>Stress genes Location: chromosome 10 gene name: CYP17 The gene CYP17, located on chromosome 10, is responsible for making an enzyme that converts cholesterol into several different hormones. One of these hormones, cortisol, turns genes on or off to regulate our physical responses to stressful situations.

2008-10-06

130

Cortisol protects against copper induced necrosis and promotes apoptosis in fish gill chloride cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to distinguish between toxic actions of copper (Cu) and the indirect actions of the metal mediated via the stress hormone cortisol, a 24 h in vitro gill filament culture was used to investigate the effects of this heavy metal and hormone, singly and in combination, on apoptosis and necrosis of chloride cells in the cichlid fish, tilapia (Oreochromis

Nicolas R. Bury; Li Jie; Gert Flik; Robert A. C. Lock; Sjoerd E. Wendelaar Bonga

1998-01-01

131

What Does Their Saliva Say? Salivary Cortisol Levels in Children Exposed to Severe Stressors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stress is an unavoidable aspect of the human experience. When the brain interprets a situation as stressful, it triggers the release of a hormone called cortisol that acts as a catalyst of the body's "fight or flight" response system. In small amounts this hormone can provide the body with the necessary tools to escape a stressful situation.…

McCabe, Paul C.; Schneider, Marissa

2009-01-01

132

Hormonal Changes During and After Cardiac Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aging is associated with changes in serum concentrations of various hormones, including growth hormone, insulin-like growth\\u000a factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone, estrogens, dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Studies suggest that these\\u000a hormonal alterations may be responsible for some of the physiologic changes seen with aging and also play a path physiological\\u000a role in many age-related medical conditions. The overall result of the

Marcello Maggio; Chiara Cattabiani; Gian Paolo Ceda

133

Recent advances in cortisol sensing technologies for point-of-care application.  

PubMed

Everyday lifestyle related issues are the main cause of psychological stress, which contributes to health disparities experienced by individuals. Prolonged exposure to stress leads to the activation of signaling pathways from the brain that leads to release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Various biomarkers have been affected by psychological stress, but cortisol "a steroid hormone" is known as a potential biomarker for its estimation. Cortisol can also be used as a target analyte marker to determine the effect of exposure such as organophosphates on central nervous system, which alters the endocrine system, leading to imbalance in cortisol secretion. Cortisol secretion of individuals depends on day-night cycle and field environment hence its detection at point-of-care (POC) is deemed essential to provide personalized healthcare. Chromatographic techniques have been traditionally used to detect cortisol. The issues relating to assay formation, system complexity, and multistep extraction/purification limits its application in the field. In order to overcome these issues and to make portable and effective miniaturized platform, various immunoassays sensing strategies are being explored. However, electrochemical immunosensing of cortisol is considered as a recent advancement towards POC application. Highly sensitive, label-free and selective cortisol immunosensor based on microelectrodes are being integrated with the microfluidic system for automated diurnal cortisol monitoring useful for personalized healthcare. Although the reported sensing devices for cortisol detection may have a great scope to improve portability, electronic designing, performance of the integrated sensor, data safety and lifetime for point-of-care applications, This review is an attempt to describe the various cortisol sensing platforms and their potential to be integrated into a wearable system for online and continuous monitoring of cortisol rhythm at POC as a function of one's environment. PMID:24212052

Kaushik, Ajeet; Vasudev, Abhay; Arya, Sunil K; Pasha, Syed Khalid; Bhansali, Shekhar

2014-03-15

134

Adrenocorticotropic hormone directly stimulates testosterone production by the fetal and neonatal mouse testis.  

PubMed

Adult Leydig cell steroidogenesis is dependent on LH but fetal Leydig cells can function independently of gonadotropin stimulation. To identify factors that may be involved in regulation of fetal Leydig cells expressed sequence tag libraries from fetal and adult testes were compared, and fetal-specific genes identified. The ACTH receptor [melanocortin type 2 receptor (Mc2r)] was identified within this fetal-specific group. Subsequent real-time PCR studies confirmed that Mc2r was expressed in the fetal testis at 100-fold higher levels than in the adult testis. Incubation of fetal or neonatal testes with ACTH in vitro stimulated testosterone production more than 10-fold, although ACTH had no effect on testes from animals aged 20 d or older. The steroidogenic response of fetal and neonatal testes to a maximally stimulating dose of human chorionic gonadotropin was similar to the response shown to ACTH. The ED(50) for ACTH, measured in isolated fetal and neonatal testicular cells, was 5 x 10(-10) M and the lowest dose of ACTH eliciting a response was 2 x 10(-11) M. Circulating ACTH levels in fetal mice were around 8 x 10(-11) M. Neither alpha-MSH nor gamma-MSH had any effect on androgen production in vitro at any age. Fetal testosterone levels were normal in mice that lack circulating ACTH (proopiomelanocortin-null) indicating that ACTH is not essential for fetal Leydig cell function. Results show that both LH and ACTH can regulate testicular steroidogenesis during fetal development in the mouse and suggest that fetal Leydig cells, but not adult Leydig cells, are sensitive to ACTH stimulation. PMID:12865302

O'Shaughnessy, P J; Fleming, L M; Jackson, G; Hochgeschwender, U; Reed, P; Baker, P J

2003-08-01

135

Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but has been reported to be as high as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The objective of this study was to determine effects of ACTH administration on mimicking a stress response and whether this respon...

136

Impact of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique on Adrenaline and Cortisol Levels in Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

The objective was to find out the effect of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique (IAM) on the stress hormones: adrenaline and cortisol. One hundred and fifty healthy subjects were randomized into three groups. Blood was collected at 0 hour, 48 hours, 2 months, and 8 months after the first visit. Adrenaline was analyzed by ELISA and cortisol by Chemiluminescent method. In the IAM, PMR and control groups 44, 44, and 36 came, respectively, for the baseline visit. Within group, cortisol and adrenaline levels reduced in the IAM 48 hours onwards and the fall sustained until 8 months (P < .05). ANCOVA (Repeated measures) on adrenaline taking the four levels of observation showed a highly significant (P = .001) drop in the IAM group. The mean cortisol values between groups were not statistically significant (P = .138). IAM Technique was effective in reducing adrenaline and cortisol levels within group comparisons. PMID:21318156

Vandana, Balakrishnan; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Saraswathy, Lakshmiy Ammal; Sundaram, Karimassery Ramaiyer; Kumar, Harish

2011-01-01

137

Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population  

PubMed Central

Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18–82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by ‘showing off’ was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters. PMID:24335989

Trumble, Benjamin C.; Smith, Eric A.; O'Connor, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael D.

2014-01-01

138

A non-invasive technique for analyzing fecal cortisol metabolites in snowshoe hares ( Lepus americanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring steroid stress hormones in the feces of free-living animals, extensive knowledge\\u000a of their metabolism and excretion is essential. Here, we conducted four studies to validate the use of an enzyme immunoassay\\u000a for monitoring fecal cortisol metabolites in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). First, we injected 11 hares with radioactive cortisol and collected all voided urine

Michael J. Sheriff; Curtis O. Bosson; Charles J. Krebs; Rudy Boonstra

2009-01-01

139

Exogenous cortisol facilitates responses to social threat under high provocation.  

PubMed

Stress is one of the most important promoters of aggression. Human and animal studies have found associations between basal and acute levels of the stress hormone cortisol and (abnormal) aggression. Irrespective of the direction of these changes--i.e., increased or decreased aggressive behavior--the results of these studies suggest dramatic alterations in the processing of threat-related social information. Therefore, the effects of cortisol and provocation on social information processing were addressed by the present study. After a placebo-controlled pharmacological manipulation of acute cortisol levels, we exposed healthy individuals to high or low levels of provocation in a competitive aggression paradigm. Influences of cortisol and provocation on emotional face processing were then investigated with reaction times and event-related potentials (ERPs) in an emotional Stroop task. In line with previous results, enhanced early and later positive, posterior ERP components indicated a provocation-induced enhanced relevance for all kinds of social information. Cortisol, however, reduced an early frontocentral bias for angry faces and--despite the provocation-enhancing relevance--led to faster reactions for all facial expressions in highly provoked participants. The results thus support the moderating role of social information processing in the 'vicious circle of stress and aggression'. PMID:21199658

Bertsch, Katja; Böhnke, Robina; Kruk, Menno R; Richter, Steffen; Naumann, Ewald

2011-04-01

140

Contextual control over expression of fear is affected by cortisol  

PubMed Central

At the core of anxiety disorders is the inability to use contextual information to modulate behavioral responses to potentially threatening events. Models of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders incorporate stress and concomitant stress hormones as important vulnerability factors, while others emphasize sex as an important factor. However, translational basic research has not yet investigated the effects of stress hormones and sex on the ability to use contextual information to modulate responses to threat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was threefold: first, we aimed at developing an experimental paradigm specifically capable of capturing contextual modulation of the expression of fear. Second, we tested whether cortisol would alter the contextualization of fear expression. Third, we aimed at assessing whether alterations in contextualization due to cortisol were different for men and women. Healthy participants (n = 42) received placebo or hydrocortisone (20 mg) prior to undergoing a newly developed differential contextual fear-conditioning paradigm. The results indicated that people rapidly acquire differential contextual modulation of the expression of fear, as measured by fear potentiated startle (FPS) and skin conductance responses (SCR). In addition, cortisol impaired the contextualization of fear expression leading to increased fear generalization on FPS data in women. The opposite pattern was found in men. Finally, as assessed by SCR, cortisol impaired differential conditioning in men. The results are in line with models suggesting heightened vulnerability in women for developing anxiety disorders after stressful events. PMID:23087629

van Ast, Vanessa A.; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

2012-01-01

141

Increased neutrophil mobilization and decreased chemotaxis during cortisol and epinephrine infusions.  

PubMed

Although hormones are putative mediators of neutrophil changes after injury, the effects of trauma-induced levels of plasma cortisol and epinephrine on circulating neutrophils have not been reported in humans. The dynamics of PMN mobilization and chemotaxis were evaluated during 19 infusions of epinephrine or cortisol or a combined infusion of both hormones in ten normal volunteers. Basal levels of epinephrine and cortisol increased during infusions to levels consistent with those reported following severe injury. Circulating neutrophil counts increased in parallel with plasma cortisol levels. Epinephrine mobilized the entire marginated pool of neutrophils, and the neutrophil half-life was extended from a normal of 6.6 hours to 10.4 hours by cortisol. Chemotaxis after six hours of epinephrine infusion was reduced compared with baseline chemotaxis. In four volunteers who had a second infusion of cortisol, chemotaxis was significantly depressed ten days after the infusion compared with baseline. From these data we conclude that stress levels of epinephrine mobilize the marginated pool of granulocytes into the circulating pool in a linear fashion, and cortisol raises the half-life of circulating neutrophils. Reduced neutrophil chemotaxis seen as a consequence of these infusions could account for some of the increased susceptibility to infection that occurs after major trauma. PMID:2056538

Davis, J M; Albert, J D; Tracy, K J; Calvano, S E; Lowry, S F; Shires, G T; Yurt, R W

1991-06-01

142

Cortisol levels are positively associated with pup-feeding rates in male meerkats.  

PubMed

In societies of cooperative vertebrates, individual differences in contributions to offspring care are commonly substantial. Recent attempts to explain the causes of this variation have focused on correlations between contributions to care and the protein hormone prolactin, or the steroid hormone testosterone. However, such studies have seldom considered the importance of other hormones or controlled for non-hormonal factors that are correlative with both individual hormone levels and contributions to care. Using multivariate statistics, we show that hormone levels explain significant variation in contributions to pup-feeding by male meerkats, even after controlling for non-hormonal effects. However, long-term contributions to pup provisioning were significantly and positively correlated with plasma levels of cortisol rather than prolactin, while plasma levels of testosterone were not related to individual patterns of pup-feeding. Furthermore, a playback experiment that used pup begging calls to increase the feeding rates of male helpers gave rise to parallel increases in plasma cortisol levels, whilst prolactin and testosterone levels remained unchanged. Our findings confirm that hormones can explain significant amounts of variation in contributions to offspring feeding, and that cortisol, not prolactin, is the hormone most strongly associated with pup-feeding in cooperative male meerkats. PMID:16537128

Carlson, Anne A; Manser, Marta B; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

2006-03-01

143

Social and reproductive factors affecting cortisol levels in wild female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

PubMed

The steroid hormone cortisol has been associated with different levels of "stress" as well as different reproductive conditions in many primates. In callitrichids, cortisol has more often been reflective of female reproductive status than of chronic stress. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that wild golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) females, whose social structure is characterized by low aggression and high social support, would not show rank ("stress")-related differences in glucocorticoids but would show reproductive changes. We collected 710 fecal samples from 22 adult females in Poço das Antas Reserve, Brazil, and nearby reintroduction areas, and assayed them for cortisol. Differences in cortisol levels were found between different reproductive conditions. Females in the first trimester of pregnancy had lower cortisol levels than nonpregnant females, although we did not differentiate between basal and ovulating levels in nonpregnant females. Cortisol rose in the third trimester of pregnancy. Primiparous females had a higher rise in the third trimester than multiparous females. No differences in cortisol levels were found among dominant females, ovulatory subordinate females, or anovulatory subordinate females. These results are similar to those obtained in other studies of callitrichid females. The lack of differences in cortisol excretion between dominants and subordinates is likely due to the low levels of overt aggression and the high level of social support available to subordinate females. PMID:16163718

Bales, Karen L; French, Jeffrey A; Hostetler, Caroline M; Dietz, James M

2005-09-01

144

Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

2008-01-01

145

Relationship between Social Rank and Cortisol and Testosterone concentrations in Male Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)  

PubMed Central

In nonhuman primate social groups, biological differences related to social status have proven useful in investigating mechanisms of sensitivity to various disease states. Physiological and neurobiological differences between dominant and subordinate monkeys have been interpreted in the context of chronic social stress. The present experiments were designed to investigate the relationships between basal cortisol and testosterone concentrations and the establishment and maintenance of the social hierarchy in male cynomolgus monkeys. Cortisol concentrations were measured at baseline and following suppression with dexamethasone (DEX) and subsequent administration of ACTH while monkeys were individually housed (n=20) and after 3 months of social housing (n=4/group), by which time dominance hierarchies had stabilised. Cortisol was also measured during the initial three days of social housing. Neither pre-social housing hormone concentrations nor HPA axis sensitivity predicted eventual social rank. During initial social housing, cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in monkeys that eventually became subordinate; this effect dissipated within three days. During the 12 weeks of social housing, aggressive and submissive behaviours were observed consistently, forming the basis for assignment of social ranks. At this time, basal testosterone and cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in dominant monkeys and, following dexamethasone suppression, cortisol release in response to a challenge injection of ACTH was significantly greater in subordinates. These results indicate that basal cortisol and testosterone concentrations and HPA axis function are state variables that differentially reflect position in the dominance hierarchy, rather than trait variables that predict future social status. PMID:19094095

Czoty, Paul W.; Gould, Robert W.; Nader, Michael A.

2009-01-01

146

Condition dependent intra-individual repeatability of stress-induced cortisol in a freshwater fish.  

PubMed

The glucocorticoid (GC) stress response is thought to be an individual trait associated with behaviour and life history strategies. Studies exploring such relationships typically assume measured hormone values to be repeatable within an individual. However, repeatability of GCs has proven variable in wild animals and underlying reasons remain unknown. We assessed individual repeatability of circulating stress-induced cortisol, the primary GC in teleost fish, and glucose concentrations in a wild teleost fish held under consistent laboratory conditions. We also tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of intra-individual variability in stress-induced cortisol concentrations ("cortisol variability") is influenced by body condition. Wild-caught bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were subjected to repeated standardized stressors and blood sampled (3 times over 6 days) once cortisol concentrations peaked. Various indicators of fish condition, both whole body and physiological, were also measured. Overall, stress-induced circulating cortisol concentrations were repeatable but stress-induced glucose was not. Cortisol variability was related to Fulton's condition factor and size (eviscerated mass) where smaller fish in poor condition exhibited increased cortisol variability. The findings have implications for the interpretation of studies that examine correlates of GC concentrations as they suggest consistency in stress responsiveness is influenced by factors such as size and condition. PMID:22179071

Cook, K V; O'Connor, C M; McConnachie, S H; Gilmour, K M; Cooke, S J

2012-03-01

147

Association of Salivary Cortisol and Anxiety Levels in Lichen Planus Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a frequently encountered chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa and skin, where the patients often relate the onset and aggravation of oral symptoms to increased levels of stress. Cortisol, also called as “stress hormone” has been used as an indicator in various stress evaluation studies. Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine any association between anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in OLP patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 OLP patients along with same number of age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Saliva was collected from all the subjects between 9.00 to 9.15 am to avoid diurnal variations of cortisol levels. The saliva samples were analysed for cortisol levels by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Anxiety levels of 40 patients were measured by using Hamilton’s anxiety scale. Student’s t-test was used to compare the anxiety and salivary cortisol levels between both groups. Results: The mean salivary cortisol level of the OLP group showed highly significant difference (p<0.001) from the controls. The mean anxiety scores of the OLP group showed highly significant difference (p<0.001) from the controls. A positive correlation was found between anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in the OLP patients. Conclusion: These findings suggest that anxiety play a vital role in the pathogenesis of OLP, thus besides traditional treatment, psychological support is also needed. PMID:25654018

Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Paramkusam, Geetha; Pachava, Koteswara Rao

2014-01-01

148

Carotid intima media thickness is increased and associated with morning cortisol in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma.  

PubMed

Data regarding cardiovascular risk in subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma are limited. The objectives of this study are to investigate carotid intima media thickness (IMT) as an indicator of atherosclerosis in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma (AI) and to evaluate the factors that could be associated with IMT. Forty-nine subjects without findings of hypercortisolism or other adrenal gland disorders, 34 body mass index (BMI)-unmatched controls (C) and 18 BMI-matched controls (BC) were enrolled. Participants underwent hormonal evaluation including morning cortisol, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), post dexamethasone suppression test cortisol (DST), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and urinary free cortisol. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters and carotid IMT were measured. AI group had increased BMI, blood pressure, waist circumference, post DST cortisol, uric acid, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) levels when compared with C. Blood pressure, uric acid and, post DST cortisol remained significantly elevated in AI versus BC. Average IMT was increased significantly in AI versus C (0.74 mm vs. 0.68 mm, P = 0.029) and insignificantly elevated in AI versus BC (0.74 mm vs. 0.67 mm, P = 0.086). In all participants, IMT was correlated with age, BMI, HOMA, waist circumference, morning cortisol, and uric acid. Morning cortisol was independently associated with HOMA levels in both AI group and all participants. Increased IMT in non-functioning AI was a consequence of insulin resistant state associated with subtle cortisol autonomy rather than a direct effect of cortisol. The correlation between morning cortisol and IMT may be associated with the effect of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis disturbances on vasculature. PMID:19277910

Yener, Serkan; Genc, Sinan; Akinci, Baris; Secil, Mustafa; Demir, Tevfik; Comlekci, Abdurrahman; Ertilav, Senem; Yesil, Sena

2009-06-01

149

Circadian Determinations of Cortisol, Prolactin and Melatonin in Chronic Methyl-Phenyl-Tetrahydropyridine-Treated Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate whether prolactin, melatonin and cortisol are altered in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys and if so, whether MPTP may alter the availability of these hormones in chronic experimental parkinsonism. Furthermore, vegetative and sleep disorders have been described in both parkinsonian patients and in MPTP chronic monkeys; these may result indirectly from concomitant hormonal variations.

Carlos Barcia; Víctor Bautista; Angel Sánchez-Bahillo; Emiliano Fernández-Villalba; Juana-María Navarro-Ruis; Andrés Fernández Barreiro; Máximo Poza y Poza; María-Trinidad Herrero

2003-01-01

150

The modulatory role of cortisol on prolactin secretion in anestrus Iranian fat-tailed ewes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Release of prolactin, a milk-secreting hormone, is normally inhibited by the neurotransmitter dopamine. Numerous attempts\\u000a have been made to explain the effects of environmental stress on the level of prolactin, proposing a basic role for cortisol\\u000a in the modulation of the hormone secretion. The pharmacologic properties of antagonists in the release of prolactin, during\\u000a the anovulatory early postpartum period, were

Hamid Rajaian; Saeed Nazifi; Arash Bidadkosh; Tahereh Azimpour

151

Evaluation of cortisol precursors for the diagnosis of pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism in dogs.  

PubMed

The serum concentrations of cortisol, 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, 21-deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycortisol were measured in 19 healthy dogs, 15 dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (pdh) and eight dogs with other diseases before and one hour after an injection of synthetic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (acth). At both times the dogs with pdh had significantly higher concentrations of cortisol, 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and 21-deoxycortisol than the healthy dogs. Basal 11-deoxycortisol concentrations were also significantly higher in dogs with pdh compared with healthy dogs. When compared with the dogs with other diseases, the dogs with pdh had significantly higher basal and post-acth cortisol and basal 21-deoxycortisol, and significantly lower post-acth 11-deoxycortisol concentrations. The dogs with other diseases had significantly higher post-acth cortisol, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and 11-deoxycortisol concentrations than the healthy dogs. In general, the post-acth concentrations of 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol and 21-deoxycortisol were more variable than the post-acth concentrations of cortisol, resulting in large overlaps of the concentrations of these hormones between the three groups. A two-graph receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to maximise the sensitivity and specificity of each hormone for diagnosing hypercortisolism; it showed that the post-acth concentration of cortisol had the highest sensitivity and specificity. The overlaps between the healthy dogs, the dogs with pdh and the dogs with other diseases suggested that the individual precursor hormones would not be useful as a screening test for hypercortisolism. PMID:18503066

Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Boretti, F S; Wenger, M; Maser-Gluth, C; Reusch, C E

2008-05-24

152

Anticipatory cortisol, testosterone and psychological responses to judo competition in young men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the anticipatory hormonal and psychological responses of 17 male judo players to an official competition with the data obtained during eight resting sessions carried out at the same time of day, throughout an entire sports season. Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) levels were determined 1 h and 30 min before competition, and mood, anxiety and expectancies were

A. Salvador; F. Suay; E. González-Bono; M. A. Serrano

2003-01-01

153

Association of DHEA, DHEAS, and cortisol with childhood trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

There has been a great deal of interest in the role of the neuroendocrine hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the expression of stress-related psychopathology such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This investigation examined the association of PTSD and childhood maltreatment with three key HPA axis hormones: cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Regression analyses were undertaken on a sample of 43 participants with and 57 participants without PTSD. Results demonstrated that after controlling for age, sex, and PTSD status, exposure to childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with cortisol secretion [F(4,95)=11.68, ?R(2)=0.11, P=0.0009] and cortisol/DHEA ratio [F(4,95)=6.20, ?R(2)=0.05, P=0.01]. PTSD status was not associated with any of these neuroendocrine variables. Findings are discussed in the context of the complexity of the relationship of these neuroendocrine variables with trauma exposure and trauma-related psychopathology. It is suggested that DHEA(S) or cortisol/DHEA(S) ratios may not be biomarkers of specific forms of psychopathology per se, but that, instead, the severity and developmental timing of trauma may set the HPA axis in ways that are reflected in interactions among these neuroendocrine hormones. In adulthood, these HPA axis hormones may continue to be dynamically affected by personal and environmental resources. PMID:23907073

Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Michelle F; Calhoun, Patrick S; Beckham, Jean C

2014-01-01

154

Modulation of attentional inhibition by norepinephrine and cortisol after psychological stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the most salient physiological responses to stress are increased norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT) activities. However, it is unclear how these neurochemical events affect cognition, especially attention. We examined the effects of mild psychological stress on selective attention, as assessed by the negative priming (NP) paradigm. Salivary measures of the stress hormone CORT and ?-amylase (a correlate of

Patrick D Skosnik; Robert T Chatterton; Tara Swisher; Sohee Park

2000-01-01

155

High Cognitive Dietary Restraint Is Associated With Increased Cortisol Excretion in Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Cognitive dietary restraint (perceived ongoing effort to limit dietary intake to manage body weight) is common in women at all life stages. In young women, high dietary restraint has been associated with both increased excretion of cortisol (a stress hormone) and reduced bone mass. Whether this occurs in older women is unknown and is reported here for the first

Candice A. Rideout; Wolfgang Linden; Susan I. Barr

2006-01-01

156

Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium

Navdeep Sandhu; Mathilakath M. Vijayan

2011-01-01

157

Classroom Emotional Support Predicts Differences in Preschool Children's Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence suggests children enrolled in full-time child care often display afternoon elevations of the hormone cortisol, which is an indicator of stress. Recent advances in immunoassays allow for measurement of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic sympathetic nervous system from saliva, and measurement…

Hatfield, Bridget E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; O'Brien, Marion

2013-01-01

158

Cortisol reduces cell proliferation in the telencephalon of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

The fish brain grows throughout life, and new cells are added continuously in all major brain areas. As in mammals, the rate of adult brain cell proliferation in fish can be regulated by external factors including environmental complexity and interaction with conspecifics. We have recently demonstrated that the stress experienced by subordinate rainbow trout in social hierarchies leads to a marked suppression of brain cell proliferation in the telencephalon, and that this is accompanied by an increase in plasma levels of cortisol. Corticosteroid hormones are known to suppress adult neurogenesis in mammals, and to investigate whether this is also the case in fish, rainbow trout were fed feed containing either a low or a high dose of cortisol for 6 days. Compared to control animals receiving regular feed, both cortisol treated groups had significantly elevated cortisol levels 24h after the last feeding, with the high group having levels comparable to those previously reported in socially stressed fish. To quantify cell proliferation, immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed to identify actively cycling cells. The density of PCNA-positive nuclei in the telencephalon was reduced by about 50% in both cortisol treated groups. The effect of cortisol on brain cell proliferation did not reflect a general down regulation of growth, as only the high cortisol group had reduced growth rate, and there was no correlation between brain cell proliferation and growth rate in any group. These results indicate that the reduced proliferative activity seen in brains of socially stressed fish is mediated by cortisol, and that there is a similar suppressive effect of cortisol on brain cell proliferation in the teleost forebrain as in the mammalian hippocampus. PMID:21195722

Sørensen, Christina; Bohlin, Linda C; Øverli, Øyvind; Nilsson, Göran E

2011-03-28

159

Sex differences in salivary cortisol in response to acute stressors among healthy participants, in recreational or pathological gamblers, and in those with posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. PMID:19538960

Paris, Jason J; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A; Forsyth, John P; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A

2010-01-01

160

Sex differences in salivary cortisol in response to acute stressors among healthy participants, in recreational or pathological gamblers, and in those with posttraumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor-vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. PMID:19538960

Paris, Jason J.; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A.; Forsyth, John P.; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A.

2010-01-01

161

Negative emotionality, depressive symptoms and cortisol diurnal rhythms: analysis of a community sample of middle-aged males.  

PubMed

Prior research suggests that individuals with particular personality traits, like negative emotionality, are at greater risk for adverse health outcomes. Despite bivariate associations between negative emotionality, depressive symptoms and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA axis), few studies have sought to understand the biological pathways through which negative emotionality, depressive symptomatology and cortisol-one of the primary hormonal products of the HPA axis--are associated. The present study explored whether negative emotionality influenced cortisol dysregulation through current depressive symptomatology and whether negative emotionality served as a moderator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and cortisol. In the community-based Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging, 783 male twins completed two days of cortisol saliva sampling in their natural environments. Three measures of cortisol were analyzed: waking levels, the cortisol awakening response, and the peak to bed slope. Depressive symptoms significantly mediated the associations between negative emotionality and the peak to bed slope. A 2-way interaction between depressive symptoms and negative emotionality was significant for the peak to bed slope and for waking levels of cortisol. Exploration of the interactions illustrated that depressive symptoms only affected cortisol slopes at average or high levels of negative emotionality and only affected waking levels at low levels of negative emotionality. Negative emotionality and depressive symptoms were not related to the cortisol awakening response. This is the first study to find indirect associations between negative emotionality and peak to bed cortisol slopes through depressive symptoms. These findings illustrate the complex interplay between personality characteristics, depressive symptoms and different indices of the cortisol diurnal rhythm. PMID:21619882

Doane, Leah D; Franz, Carol E; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Eaves, Lindon J; Mendoza, Sally P; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Lupien, Sonia; Xian, Hong; Lyons, Michael J; Kremen, William; Jacobson, Kristen C

2011-07-01

162

Hormone levels  

MedlinePLUS

Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

163

[Salivary cortisol as an indicator of physological stress in children and adults; a systematic review].  

PubMed

Salivary cortisol is a steroid hormone that is produced in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and secreted into saliva when persons are under stress. High levels of cortisol in saliva can be produced by many different factors, including obesity and certain psychological disorders. The articles selected for inclusion in this review were identified using Google Scholar and Medline, and this search obtained a total of 57 items. The validity of these studies was established according to the degree of evidence presented, by citations and by their applicability to the healthcare context in Spain. Specifically, this review takes into consideration studies of salivary cortisol and stress in children and adults, and those examining the relation between high levels of salivary cortisol and other disorders such as anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, social phobia or emotional deprivation. These studies show that salivary cortisol is a clear indicator of stress in both children and adults. High levels of this hormone in saliva are associated with the following main consequences: reduced immune function, affecting healing and thus prolonging recovery time; delayed growth in children; increased blood pressure and heart rate in both children and adults. PMID:24951973

Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; García García, I; Rodríguez López, M A; Ortegón Piñero, A; Cortés Castell, E

2014-01-01

164

Inverted-U shape relationship between cortisol and learning in ground squirrels  

PubMed Central

Adrenal hormones regulate glucose levels, responses to unpredictable stressors and modulate cognition. Glucocorticoids can have an inverted-U shape relationship with cognition, as very low or high levels impair, whereas moderate elevations facilitate, acquisition and retention of memories. To date these relationships have been tested with humans and rodents in laboratory settings rather than with wild animals in biologically relevant contexts. This study examined whether the elevated cortisol observed in juvenile Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) at natal emergence might promote both acquisition of adaptive responses to this species' two alarm calls warning of predators and memory of the spatial configuration of mothers' territories. Both experimentally increased and decreased basal cortisol levels interfere with acquisition and retention of an association between a warning call and the appropriate response compared with naturally occurring moderately elevated cortisol. Further, decreased cortisol impairs learning of a novel, complex spatial maze. Thus in the field the brief elevation of cortisol at emergence might facilitate acquisition of spatial memory of a three-dimensional environment and responses to alarm calls during a sensitive period of learning. This novel demonstration of the inverted-U shape function in a wild animal suggests that natural selection has favored a hormonal profile facilitating rapid acquisition of important survival behaviors. PMID:18164635

Mateo, Jill M.

2008-01-01

165

Cortisol response to cosyntropin administration in military veterans with or without posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

Studies have demonstrated altered sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to its direct regulators in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but little is known about the adrenal response to hormonal stimulation in PTSD. An increased cortisol response to synthetic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was recently found to be associated with war-zone deployment and not PTSD specifically. To more accurately assess whether there is altered adrenocortical responsivity to hormonal stimulation in relation to war-zone deployment or PTSD, we performed the low-dose cosyntropin stimulation test in a sample of 45 male veterans: 13 war-zone exposed veterans with chronic PTSD (PTSD+), 22 war-zone exposed veterans without chronic PTSD (PTSD-), and 10 veterans not exposed to a war-zone and without chronic PTSD (non-exposed). Plasma cortisol and ACTH were measured at baseline and at intervals over a one hour period following intravenous administration of 1?g of cosyntropin. A significant main effect of group (PTSD+, PTSD-, non-exposed) on the cortisol response to cosyntropin was observed. Cosyntropin-stimulated plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in the PTSD+ and PTSD- groups compared to the non-exposed group. A significant main effect of group was also observed on peak cortisol levels. These findings suggest that war-zone exposure itself has persistent effects on adrenocortical activity. PMID:24485487

Golier, Julia A; Caramanica, Kimberly; Makotkine, Iouri; Sher, Leo; Yehuda, Rachel

2014-02-01

166

Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

2014-12-01

167

Hormonal correlates of dominance in meerkats ( Suricata suricatta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cooperatively breeding meerkats (Suricata suricatta), individuals typically live in extended family groups in which the dominant male and female are the primary reproductives, while their offspring delay dispersal, seldom breed, and contribute to the care of subsequent litters. Here we investigate hormonal differences between dominants and subordinates by comparing plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and cortisol in

Anne A. Carlson; Andrew J. Young; Andrew F. Russell; Nigel C. Bennett; Alan S. McNeilly; Tim Clutton-Brocka

2004-01-01

168

Seasonal carryover effects following the administration of cortisol to a wild teleost fish.  

PubMed

Stress can have sublethal effects that are manifested either immediately or at spatial or temporal scales that are removed from the stress event (i.e., carryover effects). We tested whether a short-term elevation of plasma cortisol would result in seasonal carryover effects in wild largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Using exogenous hormone implants, we raised circulating cortisol concentrations in a group of wild fish for approximately 5 d in October 2007. We then compared activity (velocity, distance traveled) of cortisol-treated animals with that of sham-treated and control animals throughout the winter using an automated acoustic telemetry array. Immediately following treatment, the cortisol-treated fish showed increased activity relative to controls. However, this difference disappeared following the cessation of the elevation of circulating cortisol. During the winter of 2007 to 2008, the lake experienced a nearly complete winterkill event, providing insight into how a transient stress response can influence the response of wild animals to subsequent challenges. Most fish carrying acoustic transmitters succumbed during this winterkill event, but cortisol-treated fish died earlier than fish in other groups and showed a decrease in activity relative to controls and sham-treated fish before mortality. This study provides preliminary evidence of seasonal carryover effects in wild fish and yields insight into the ecological consequences of stress across broad temporal scales. PMID:20932160

O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Arlinghaus, Robert; Hasler, Caleb T; Philipp, David P; Cooke, Steven J

2010-01-01

169

Sex-specific consequences of experimental cortisol elevation in pre-reproductive wild largemouth bass.  

PubMed

Experimental implants were used to investigate the effect of elevated cortisol (the primary stress hormone in teleost fish) on energetic and physiological condition prior to reproduction in male and female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Fish were wild-caught from lakes in Illinois, and held in experimental ponds for the duration of the study. Between 9 and 13 days after cortisol treatment, and immediately prior to the start of the reproductive period, treated and control animals were sampled. Females exhibited lower muscle lipid content, lower liver glycogen content, and higher hepatosomatic indices than males, regardless of treatment. Also, cortisol-treated females had higher hepatosomatic indices and lower final mass than control females, whereas males showed no differences between treatment groups. Finally, cortisol-treated females had higher gonadal cortisol concentrations than control females. In general, we found evidence of reduced energetic stores in female fish relative to male fish, likely due to timing differences in the allocation of resources during reproduction between males and females. Perhaps driven by the difference in energetic reserves, our data further suggest that females are more sensitive than males to elevated cortisol during the period immediately prior to reproduction. PMID:23165965

O'Connor, Constance M; Nannini, Michael; Wahl, David H; Wilson, Samantha M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Cooke, Steven J

2013-01-01

170

Loneliness and Cortisol: Momentary, Day-to-day, and Trait Associations  

PubMed Central

Summary In attempts to understand the social determinants of health, strong associations have been found between measures of loneliness, physiological stress processes, and physical and mental health outcomes. Feelings of loneliness are hypothesized to have implications for physiological stress processes, including activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In a community sample of young adults, multilevel modeling was used to examine whether trait and state feelings of loneliness were related to changes in levels of the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol, and whether the associations between loneliness and cortisol were mediated or moderated by the presence of concurrent depression or high levels of chronic life stress. Results indicated that trait loneliness was associated with a flattening of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. In addition, both daily and momentary state variations in loneliness were related to cortisol. Prior-day feelings of loneliness were associated with an increased cortisol awakening response the next morning and momentary experiences of loneliness during the day were associated with momentary increases in cortisol among youth who also had high chronic interpersonal stress. Results were significant after covarying current depression, both chronic and momentary reports of stress, and medical and lifestyle covariates. This study expanded on prior work by investigating and revealing three different time-courses of association between loneliness and HPA axis activity in young adults: trait, daily and momentary. PMID:19744794

Adam, Emma K.

2009-01-01

171

Effect of Various Physical Stress Models on Serum Cortisol Level in Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Stress indicates the response or reaction of an organism to the environmental circumstances and their outcomes. Acute stress is well known to trigger several hormonal alterations in animals. An increase in glucocorticoid concentration can represent intensity of discomfort or distress experienced by an animal. The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of various physical stress models on serum cortisol level in Wistar male rats. Methodology: In this study six Wistar male rats weighing 150-200 gm were randomly selected. Animals were exposed to ‘forced swim test’ and ‘restraint test’. Their serum cortisol level was measured by ELISA test using alpha prime ELISA system before and after the tests respectively. Results: Results were analyzed by students paired t-test. Serum cortisol level was significantly higher after forced swim test as well as after restraint test. When both the physical activities were compared, serum cortisol level was increased more after restraint stress than after forced swim test however, the difference was not significant statistically. Interpretation and Conclusion: The rise in serum cortisol level was observed in both the physical activity models . Rise in serum cortisol level was significantly higher after restraint test than exposing them to forced swim test. This indicates that restraining the rats produced more stress than making them forcefully swim. PMID:24783129

Jameel, Mohammed Khaleel; Joshi, Anuradha Rajiv; Dawane, Jayashree; Padwal, Meghana; Joshi, AR; Pandit, V A; Melinkeri, RR

2014-01-01

172

Are we missing a mineralocorticoid in teleost fish? Effects of cortisol, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone on osmoregulation, gill Na +,K +ATPase activity and isoform mRNA levels in Atlantic salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been held that cortisol, acting through a single receptor, carries out both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions in teleost fish. The recent finding that fish express a gene with high sequence similarity to the mammalian mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) suggests the possibility that a hormone other than cortisol carries out some mineralocorticoid functions in fish. To test for this

Stephen D. McCormick; Amy Regish; Michael F. O’Dea; J. Mark Shrimpton

2008-01-01

173

Cortisol modulates vasotocinergic and isotocinergic pathways in the gilthead sea bream.  

PubMed

In the present study, we assessed the responses of the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems to chronic stress induced by cortisol administration in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Pituitary and plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) levels, as well as hypothalamic pro-vasotocin (pro-VT) and pro-isotocin (pro-IT) mRNA expression levels, were analysed. In addition, the mRNA levels of three receptors, AVTR type V1a2, AVTR type V2 and ITR, were analysed in several target organs associated with the following physiological processes: (i) integration and control (hypothalamus), (ii) metabolism and its control (liver and hypothalamus), (iii) osmoregulation (gills) and (iv) stress response (head kidney). Specimens were injected intraperitoneally with slow-release implants (5 ?L g(-1) body mass) containing coconut oil alone (control group) or with cortisol (50 ?g g(-1) body mass; cortisol group). Both AVT and IT synthesis and release were correlated with plasma cortisol values, suggesting a potential interaction between both hormonal systems and cortisol administration. Our results suggest that the activation of hepatic metabolism as well as the hypothalamic control of metabolic processes provide the energy necessary to overcome stress, which could be partly mediated by AVTRs and ITR. Upregulation of branchial AVT and IT receptor expression following cortisol treatment suggests an involvement of the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems in the regulation of ion channels/transporters during stressful situations. Finally, changes in AVT and IT receptor mRNA expression in the head kidney suggest these nonapeptides participate in feedback mechanisms that regulate the synthesis/release of cortisol. Our results indicate a relationship between cortisol and both the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems during simulated chronic stress in S. aurata. PMID:25524977

Cádiz, Laura; Román-Padilla, Javier; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A

2015-01-15

174

Prospective prediction of major depressive disorder from cortisol awakening responses in adolescence.  

PubMed

Levels of the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol increase dramatically in the first 30-40min after waking, an effect known as the cortisol awakening response (CAR). There is considerable cross-sectional evidence that psychosocial stress is associated with an increased CAR, and the CAR has been found to be altered in the presence of stress-related diseases, including major depressive disorder (MDD). To date, no prospective longitudinal studies have examined whether individual differences in the CAR serve as a premorbid risk factor for MDD. In a sample of 230 late adolescents, clinical diagnoses of MDD were predicted from the CAR as well as other indicators of basal cortisol functioning gathered 1 year earlier, including: waking cortisol levels, bedtime cortisol levels, the size of the CAR, average cortisol, and the slope of the diurnal cortisol rhythm across the waking day. Age and gender, health and health behaviors, baseline neuroticism, exposure to stressful life events and past episodes of mood and anxiety disorders were included as covariates, to help ensure effects are attributable to the CAR rather than related variables. A higher baseline CAR was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing MDD by follow-up, even when excluding individuals with baseline MDD. No other baseline cortisol measures were significant prospective predictors of MDD. In summary, the CAR is a significant prospective risk factor for the development of MDD in young adults, providing some support for the possibility that a heightened CAR may play a role in the etiology of major depressive disorder. PMID:20079576

Adam, Emma K; Doane, Leah D; Zinbarg, Richard E; Mineka, Susan; Craske, Michelle G; Griffith, James W

2010-07-01

175

Born to Yawn? Understanding Yawning as a Warning of the Rise in Cortisol Levels: Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Yawning consistently poses a conundrum to the medical profession and neuroscientists. Despite neurological evidence such as parakinesia brachialis oscitans in stroke patients and thermo-irregulation in multiple sclerosis patients, there is considerable debate over the reasons for yawning with the mechanisms and hormonal pathways still not fully understood. Cortisol is implicated during yawning and may link many neurological disorders. Evidence was found in support of the Thompson cortisol hypothesis that proposes cortisol levels are elevated during yawning just as they tend to rise during stress and fatigue. Objectives To investigate whether saliva cortisol levels rise during yawning and, therefore, support the Thompson cortisol hypothesis. Methods We exposed 20 male and female volunteers aged between 18 and 53 years to conditions that provoked a yawning response in a randomized controlled trial. Saliva samples were collected at the start and again after the yawning response, or at the end of the stimuli presentations if the participant did not yawn. In addition, we collected electromyographic data of the jaw muscles to determine rest and yawning phases of neural activity. Yawning susceptibility scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and demographic and health details were also collected from each participant. A comprehensive data set allowed comparison between yawners and nonyawners, as well as between rest and yawning phases. Collecting electromyographic data from the yawning phase is novel, and we hope this will provide new information about neuromuscular activity related to cortisol levels. Exclusion criteria included chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart conditions, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. We compared data between and within participants. Results In the yawning group, there was a significant difference between saliva cortisol samples (t 10 = –3.071, P = .01). Power and effect size were computed based on repeated-measures t tests for both the yawning and nonyawning groups. There was a medium effect size for the nonyawners group (r = .467) but low power (36%). Results were similar for the yawners group: medium effect size (r = .440) and low power (33%). Conclusions There was significant evidence in support of the Thompson cortisol hypothesis that suggests cortisol levels are elevated during yawning. A further longitudinal study is planned to test neurological patients. We intend to devise a diagnostic tool based on changes in cortisol levels that may assist in the early diagnosis of neurological disorders based on the data collected. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 61942768; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN61942768/61942768 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6A75ZNYvr) PMID:23611879

Bishop, Phil

2012-01-01

176

INFLUENCE OF GLUCOCORTICOSTEROID HORMONES ON IMMUNE FUNCTIONS OF NORMAL AND CUSHING’S SYNDROME HORSES  

E-print Network

to the effect of both synthetic (Dexamethasone) and naturally occurring (cortisol) glucocorticosteroid hormones. The glucocorticosteroid receptor antagonist RU486 decreases the unfavorable effects of hypercortisolemia. This study was designed to see if RU486...

Gutierrez, Kaitlin A.

2011-08-04

177

Anticonvulsant therapy and cortisol elimination.  

PubMed

The effect of anticonvulsant therapy on early morning concentration of cortisol in saliva and plasma was assessed in a group of epileptic patients receiving regular phenytoin medication and the results compared with those obtained from a group of normal subjects not receiving drug therapy. Values of cortisol in matched samples of plasma (331 +/- 23 nmol l-1, mean +/- s.e. mean, n = 6) and saliva (11.4 +/- 0.9 nmol l-1, mean +/- s.e. mean, n = 9) provided by epileptics did not differ significantly from those in the plasma (334 +/- 41 nmol l-1, mean +/- s.e. mean) and saliva (12.0 +/- 2.0 nmol-1, mean +/- s.e. mean) of healthy volunteers (n = 12). Six anticonvulsant-treated epileptics, together with six age and sex matched normal volunteers, each received intravenous dexamethasone (1 mg h-1) to determine the half-life of cortisol in plasma and saliva. In the anticonvulsant-treated group, the half-life of cortisol in plasma (73 +/- 5 min, mean +/- s.e. mean) and saliva (83 +/- 5 min, mean +/- s.e. mean) was reduced significantly (P less than 0.01 plasma, P less than 0.05 saliva) from that observed in healthy volunteers. In patients, the half life of cortisol and antipyrine showed a significant correlation (r2 = 0.75, P less than 0.05 plasma, r2 = 0.71, P less than 0.05 saliva). The antipyrine half-life in saliva was reduced significantly (P less than 0.02) and the antipyrine clearance rate, increased significantly (P less than 0.005) in the treated epileptic group, reflecting drug-induced microsomal enzyme production.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4041330

Evans, P J; Walker, R F; Peters, J R; Dyas, J; Riad-Fahmy, D; Thomas, J P; Rimmer, E; Tsanaclis, L; Scanlon, M F

1985-08-01

178

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Diurnal Cortisol Rhythms in Preadolescents: The Role of Parental Psychosocial Risk and Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Racial/ethnic minorities experience persistent health disparities due in part to their exposure to chronic SES and psychosocial risk. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its hormonal end product, cortisol, are believed to mediate the associations between chronic stress and poor health. In this study, racial/ethnic differences in diurnal salivary cortisol rhythms in 179 preadolescent youths and the contributing roles of SES risk, psychosocial risk, perceived discrimination, harsh parenting, and parental monitoring were examined. The analyses revealed racial/ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms, with African Americans having significantly flatter morning-to-evening cortisol slopes than Caucasians and with Latinos having significantly lower evening cortisol levels than Caucasians. Greater psychosocial risk and less parental monitoring were associated with flatter cortisol slopes. Racial/ethnic differences on the cortisol measures persisted when controlling for SES, psychosocial risk, and parenting quality. The need to assess chronic risk across the lifespan and disentangle possible genetic from environmental contributors is discussed. PMID:22414445

Martin, Christina Gamache; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.

2012-01-01

179

Effects of single cortisol administrations on human affect reviewed: Coping with stress through adaptive regulation of automatic cognitive processing.  

PubMed

The human stress hormone cortisol may facilitate effective coping after psychological stress. In apparent agreement, administration of cortisol has been demonstrated to reduce fear in response to stressors. For anxious patients with phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder this has been ascribed to hypothetical inhibition of retrieval of traumatic memories. However, such stress-protective effects may also work via adaptive regulation of early cognitive processing of threatening information from the environment. This paper selectively reviews the available literature on effects of single cortisol administrations on affect and early cognitive processing of affectively significant information. The concluded working hypothesis is that immediate effects of high concentration of cortisol may facilitate stress-coping via inhibition of automatic processing of goal-irrelevant threatening information and through increased automatic approach-avoidance responses in early emotional processing. Limitations in the existing literature and suggestions for future directions are briefly discussed. PMID:21194844

Putman, Peter; Roelofs, Karin

2011-05-01

180

Examining infants' cortisol responses to laboratory tasks among children varying in attachment disorganization: stress reactivity or return to baseline?  

PubMed

Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the children's arrival at the laboratory and at 40, 65, and 80 min after arrival. The authors examined changes in cortisol using piecewise hierarchical linear modeling, testing whether observed increases reflected a return to baseline or stress reactivity. An interaction between attachment disorganization and task emerged, such that disorganized infants showed increases in cortisol in response to the stressor compared with play, whereas organized infants did not show cortisol reactivity to either task. Implications for the buffering effects of maternal care on stress reactivity are discussed. PMID:20873923

Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary

2010-11-01

181

Seasonal Changes in CRF-I and Urotensin I Transcript Levels in Masu Salmon: Correlation with Cortisol Secretion During Spawning  

PubMed Central

Pacific salmon employ a semelparous reproductive strategy where sexual maturation is followed by rapid senescence and death. Cortisol overproduction has been implicated as the central physiologic event responsible for the post-spawning demise of these fish. Cortisol homeostasis is regulated through the action of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. These include corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin-I (UI). In the present study, masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) were assayed for changes in the levels CRF-I and UI mRNA transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results were compared to plasma cortisol levels in juvenile, adult, and spawning masu salmon to identify specific regulatory factors that appear to be functionally associated with changes in cortisol levels. Intramuscular implantation of GnRH analog (GnRHa) capsules was also used to determine whether GnRH influences stress hormone levels. In both male and female masu salmon, spawning fish experienced a 5–7 fold increase in plasma cortisol levels relative to juvenile non-spawning salmon. Changes in CRF-I mRNA levels were characterized by 1–2 distinctive short-term surges in adult masu salmon. Conversely, seasonal changes in UI mRNA levels displayed broad and sustained increases during the pre-spawning and spawning periods. The increases in UI mRNA levels were positively correlated (R2 = 0.21 male and 0.26 female, p<0.0001) with levels of plasma cortisol in the pre-spawning and spawning periods. Despite the importance of GnRH in sexual maturation and reproduction, the administration of GnRHa to test animals failed to produce broad changes in CRF-I, UI or plasma cortisol levels. These findings suggest a more direct role for UI than for CRF-I in the regulation of cortisol levels in spawning Pacific salmon. PMID:17499738

Westring, Christian G.; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Ueda, Hiroshi; Urano, Akihisa; Dores, Robert M.; Sher, Anna A.; Danielson, Phillip B.

2008-01-01

182

Aldosterone synthase inhibition: cardiorenal protection in animal disease models and translation of hormonal effects to human subjects.  

PubMed

BackgroundAldosterone synthase inhibition provides the potential to attenuate both the mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent and independent actions of aldosterone. In vitro studies with recombinant human enzymes showed LCI699 to be a potent, reversible, competitive inhibitor of aldosterone synthase (K i¿=¿1.4¿±¿0.2 nmol/L in humans) with relative selectivity over 11ß-hydroxylase.MethodsHormonal effects of orally administered LCI699 were examined in rat and monkey in vivo models of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and angiotensin-II-stimulated aldosterone release, and were compared with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone in a randomized, placebo-controlled study conducted in 99 healthy human subjects. The effects of LCI699 and eplerenone on cardiac and renal sequelae of aldosterone excess were investigated in a double-transgenic rat (dTGR) model overexpressing human renin and angiotensinogen.ResultsRat and monkey in vivo models of stimulated aldosterone release predicted human dose¿ and exposure¿response relationships, but overestimated the selectivity of LCI699 in humans. In the dTGR model, LCI699 dose-dependently blocked increases in aldosterone, prevented development of cardiac and renal functional abnormalities independent of blood pressure changes, and prolonged survival. Eplerenone prolonged survival to a similar extent, but was less effective in preventing cardiac and renal damage. In healthy human subjects, LCI699 0.5 mg selectively reduced plasma and 24 h urinary aldosterone by 49¿±¿3% and 39¿±¿6% respectively (Day 1, mean¿±¿SEM; P¿<¿0.001 vs placebo), which was associated with natriuresis and an increase in plasma renin activity. Doses of LCI699 greater than 1 mg inhibited basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol. Eplerenone 100 mg increased plasma and 24 h urinary aldosterone while stimulating natriuresis and increasing renin activity. In contrast to eplerenone, LCI699 increased the aldosterone precursor 11-deoxycorticosterone and urinary potassium excretion.ConclusionsThese results provide new insights into the cardiac and renal effects of inhibiting aldosterone synthase in experimental models and translation of the hormonal effects to humans. Selective inhibition of aldosterone synthase appears to be a promising approach to treat diseases associated with aldosterone excess. PMID:25491597

Ménard, Joël; Rigel, Dean F; Watson, Catherine; Jeng, Arco Y; Fu, Fumin; Beil, Michael; Liu, Jing; Chen, Wei; Hu, Chii-Whei; Leung-Chu, Jennifer; LaSala, Daniel; Liang, Guiqing; Rebello, Sam; Zhang, Yiming; Dole, William P

2014-12-10

183

Study of progesterone and cortisol concentrations in the Italian Friesian claw.  

PubMed

The present research was conducted to study progesterone and cortisol concentrations in the claw of cattle and to verify whether the cattle claw could be considered an efficient matrix to provide retrospective information regarding progesterone and cortisol concentrations related to pregnancy and peripartum periods. These 2 steroids are involved in hoof growth. The study was performed on 32 calves and 24 pregnant milking cows of the Holstein breed, which were clinically healthy and lacking any claw disorders. Samples of at least 0.5cm in thickness were taken from the sole. Progesterone and cortisol concentrations were determined by RIA. The cortisol concentration in the horny shoe of calves from 0 to 30 d of age was significantly higher than the concentration at 31 to 60 and 61 to 120 d of age. Conversely, the progesterone concentration showed no statistically significant difference in relation to age. The horn progesterone concentrations recorded in the milking dairy cows at 7 mo of pregnancy showed high variability in the horizontal sections of the sole (the individual coefficient of variation ranged between 0.09 and 1.11). In 6 cows, genuine extreme values (genuine outliers) of the progesterone level were found. Moreover, significant differences existed among the progesterone concentrations of the sole's transverse sections. We detected a significant positive correlation between the weight of the horn samples after freeze-drying and their weight after hydration. The cortisol and progesterone levels in soaked horn samples were found to be significantly lower than in the same dry samples. These results show that cortisol and progesterone can be measured in the cattle claw horn. The claws of mature dairy cows could not be used as a matrix to provide a retrospective measure of cumulative hormone secretion, whereas the analysis of the calves' claw horns showed retrospective hormonal information similar to hair samples. PMID:24952784

Comin, A; Peric, T; Magrin, L; Corazzin, M; Cornacchia, G; Prandi, A

2014-09-01

184

Cortisol inhibits apoptosis in carp neutrophilic granulocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct effect of cortisol treatment on carp neutrophil viability was examined in vitro. Cortisol treatment caused an inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis. The effect was blocked by glucocorticoid receptor blocker RU486, showing that rescue from apoptosis was receptor mediated. Using binding studies with radioactive cortisol, a single class of glucocorticoid receptors was detected with high affinity (Kd=2.6 nM) and low

F. A. A. Weyts; G. Flik; B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade

1998-01-01

185

Supraphysiological cortisol elevation alters the response of wild bluegill sunfish to subsequent stressors.  

PubMed

Wild fish are frequently exposed to multiple stressors, but the influence of previous or ongoing stress on an animal's subsequent response is poorly understood. Using wild-caught bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) as a model, we used exogenous hormone implants to experimentally raise circulating cortisol in a group of fish for ?10 days. We also maintained sham-treated and control groups of fish. We subjected all animals to a secondary stressor in the form of either a heat challenge or fasting challenge. We compared survival, body condition, and plasma-borne indicators of physiological status among cortisol-treated, sham-treated, and control groups following the secondary stressor. In order to compare short- and long-term effects of cortisol treatment, we initiated the secondary stressor either 4 or 30 days following initial cortisol treatment. Cortisol-treated fish succumbed to the fasting challenge sooner than sham-treated and control fish at both 4 and 30 days. Interestingly, cortisol-treated fish lost equilibrium sooner than sham-treated and control fish during the heat challenge when conducted at 30 days, but not at 4 days. These results demonstrate that multiple simultaneous stressors have cumulative effects on bluegill sunfish. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological cortisol doses alter the long-term responses of bluegill sunfish to additional challenges, even after apparent recovery. Such cumulative and long-term effects may be an important factor in mediating the response of wild animals to natural and anthropogenic stressors, and should be considered in ecological studies. PMID:25363581

McConnachie, Sarah H; O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Iwama, George K; Cooke, Steven J

2012-06-01

186

Cortisol modulates the induction of inflammatory gene expression in a rainbow trout macrophage cell line.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoid actions on the immune system are diverse and cell type dependent, and little is known about cell type-specific interactions and cross-talk between hormones and cytokines. In this study we have analyzed the gene expression patterns of the rainbow trout macrophage cell line RTS-11 by quantitative PCR, after exposure to combinations of cortisol plus a pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g. recombinant trout IL-1?, IFN-?), type I IFN or a PAMP (LPS or poly I:C). Several key genes of the inflammatory process were targetted to assess whether any modulation of their expression occurred due to the addition of cortisol to this cell line. Incubation of macrophages for 3 or 6 h with a physiological concentration of cortisol caused a decrease in expression of IL-6 and IL-8, but no significant changes were observed for the other genes examined. Co-stimulation of cortisol with the inflammatory agents resulted in a general suppression of genes related to the inflammatory response. Cortisol inhibited the up-regulation of IL-8 by all the stimulants after 3 h of co-incubation. Suppression of the up-regulation of IL-6 by rIL-1?, rIFN-? and poly I:C, of ?IP by rIFN-? or poly I:C, and of Cox-2 by rIL-1? was seen after 6 h. In contrast, cortisol in combination with the pro-inflammatory agents has a synergistic effect on IL-10 expression, an anti-inflammatory molecule, suggesting that the activation of certain macrophage functions that lead to the resolution of inflammation occurs in fish macrophages in response to cortisol treatment. PMID:20965252

Castro, Rosario; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J; Martin, Samuel A M

2011-01-01

187

In vitro evidence that cortisol directly modulates stress-related responses in the skin epidermis of the rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of fish to stressors leads to multiple changes in the skin epithelium. We investigated the role of the stress hormone\\u000a cortisol in the control of these changes by exposure of pieces of skin from the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with an in vitro tissue culture incubation procedure. The effects of 24 h exposure to 4 cortisol concentrations (0, 50, 500

A. L. van der Salm; D. T. Nolan; S. E. Wendelaar Bonga

2002-01-01

188

When endocrinology and democracy collide: emotions, cortisol and voting at national elections.  

PubMed

Faced with stressful experiences, such as uncertainty or novelty, the adrenal glands secrete glucocorticoid hormones to help us cope with stress. Since many decision-making situations are stressful, there is reason to believe that voting is a stressful event. In this study, we asked voters in Israel's national election (N=113) to report on their general affective state immediately before entering the polling place using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and to provide us with a saliva sample through which we could evaluate their cortisol levels. Compared to a second sample of voters who reported their affective state on election night (N=70), we found that voters at the ballot box had higher positive and negative affect. Moreover, our voters at the polling place exhibited cortisol levels that were significantly higher than their own normal levels obtained on a similar day, and significantly higher than those of a second control group sampled the day after the elections (N=6). Our data demonstrate that elections are exciting, yet stressful events, and it is this stress, among other factors, that elevates the cortisol levels of voters. Since elevated cortisol has been found to affect memory consolidation, impair memory retrieval and lead to risk-seeking behavior, we discuss how these outcomes of elevated cortisol levels may affect voting in general and the field of electoral studies in particular. PMID:21482457

Waismel-Manor, Israel; Ifergane, Gal; Cohen, Hagit

2011-11-01

189

Catecholamine and Cortisol Levels during Sleep in Women with Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are hyper-responsive to environmental, physical, and visceral stimuli. IBS patients also frequently report poor sleep quality. This study compared serum cortisol and plasma catecholamine levels during sleep between women with IBS (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 31), and among subgroups within the IBS sample based on predominant stool patterns, IBS-diarrhea (n = 14), IBS-constipation (n = 7), and IBS-alternators (n = 9). Cortisol was measured from serial blood samples drawn every 20 minutes, and catecholamines every hour, in a sleep laboratory from 8 PM until awakening. Because of the varied sleep schedules of the individual participants, each subject’s hormone series time base was referenced with respect to their onset of Stage-2 sleep. Overall, there were no significant differences in cortisol or catecholamine patterns between women with IBS and controls, nor were there any group by time interactions. However, women with constipation-predominant IBS demonstrated significantly increased norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol levels throughout the sleep interval, and women with diarrhea-predominant IBS were significantly lower on norepinephrine and cortisol. These results suggest that differences in neuroendocrine levels during sleep among IBS predominant bowel pattern subgroups may be greater than differences between IBS women and controls. Neuroendocrine profiles during sleep may contribute to our understanding of symptom expression in IBS. PMID:19573081

Burr, Robert L.; Jarrett, Monica E.; Cain, Kevin C.; Jun, Sang-Eun; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

2010-01-01

190

Depressive symptoms, cortisol, and cognition during human aging: the role of negative aging perceptions.  

PubMed

Depressive symptoms and memory impairments are associated with heightened stress hormone levels during aging. A factor that is related to memory deficits during aging is internalized negative aging stereotypes; the idea people have about the process of aging. In this study, we assessed the associations between internalized negative aging stereotypes, depressive symptoms, subjective and objective memory assessments, and cortisol concentration among older adults. Forty older adults aged between 58 and 85 years (18 females and 22 males; mean age ± SD: 71.25 ± 8.80 years) were assessed in this study. Measures of internalized negative aging stereotypes, depressive symptoms, and both subjective and objective memory performance were assessed. Salivary samples were obtained for measurement of cortisol concentration. Stepwise linear regressions were executed in our main analyses. Internalized negative aging stereotypes were associated with increased depressive symptoms and subjective memory complaints. No significant differences were observed for objective memory performance, or cortisol concentration. Internalized negative aging stereotypes are associated with increased depressive symptomatology and subjective complaints of memory; however, they do not predict increased cortisol concentration nor objective memory performance during aging. These results indicate that the mechanism underlying the association between internalized negative aging stereotypes and cognitive impairments may not be related to dysregulations of cortisol secretion among older adults. PMID:21801079

Sindi, S; Juster, R P; Wan, N; Nair, N P V; Ying Kin, N; Lupien, S J

2012-03-01

191

Saliva Cortisol and Exposure to Aircraft Noise in Six European Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies show an association between exposure to aircraft or road traffic noise and cardiovascular effects, which may be mediated by a noise-induced release of stress hormones. Objective Our objective was to assess saliva cortisol concentration in relation to exposure to aircraft noise. Method A multicenter cross-sectional study, HYENA (Hypertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports), comprising 4,861 persons was carried out in six European countries. In a subgroup of 439 study participants, selected to enhance the contrast in exposure to aircraft noise, saliva cortisol was assessed three times (morning, lunch, and evening) during 1 day. Results We observed an elevation of 6.07 nmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.32–9.81 nmol/L] in morning saliva cortisol level in women exposed to aircraft noise at an average 24-hr sound level (LAeq,24h) > 60 dB, compared with women exposed to LAeq,24h ? 50 dB, corresponding to an increase of 34%. Employment status appeared to modify the response. We found no association between noise exposure and saliva cortisol levels in men. Conclusions Our results suggest that exposure to aircraft noise increases morning saliva cortisol levels in women, which could be of relevance for noise-related cardiovascular effects. PMID:20049122

Selander, Jenny; Bluhm, Gösta; Theorell, Töres; Pershagen, Göran; Babisch, Wolfgang; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Houthuijs, Danny; Breugelmans, Oscar; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Antoniotti, Maria Chiara; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Davou, Elli; Dudley, Marie-Louise; Järup, Lars

2009-01-01

192

Salivary Cortisol Can Replace Free Serum Cortisol Measurements in Patients With Septic Shock  

PubMed Central

Background: There is a renewed interest in adrenal function during severe sepsis. Most studies have used total serum cortisol levels; however, only free serum cortisol is biologically active. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of salivary cortisol levels as a surrogate for free serum cortisol levels during septic shock. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with septic shock were studied to determine the correlation between total serum cortisol and salivary cortisol to free serum cortisol levels. Thirty-eight patients were included in the salivary to free serum cortisol correlation. Salivary cortisol level was tested by enzyme immunoassay. Serum total cortisol, free cortisol, and cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) levels were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, equilibrium analysis, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Results: The mean ± SD age was 56.6 ± 18.5 years. Fifty-seven percent were women. APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II score median was 26, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II median was 61, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment median was 13. The correlation between salivary and free serum cortisol levels was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89; P < .0001). The correlation between free serum cortisol and total serum cortisol levels was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.78-0.92; P < .0001). The mean ± SD free serum cortisol level was 2.27 ± 1.64 ?g/dL. The mean ± SD salivary cortisol level was 2.60 ± 2.69 ?g/dL. The mean ± SD total serum cortisol level was 21.56 ± 8.71 ?g/dL. The mean ± SD CBG level was 23.54 ± 8.33 mg/dL. Conclusions: Salivary cortisol level can be used as a surrogate of free serum cortisol level in patients with septic shock with very good correlation. Salivary cortisol testing is noninvasive, easy to perform, and can be conducted daily. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00523198; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:21816912

Orlander, Philip R.

2011-01-01

193

RESPONSIVENESS OF GILL Na+\\/K+ATPase TO CORTISOL IS RELATED TO GILL CORTICOSTEROID RECEPTOR CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE RAINBOW TROUT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A positive relationship between receptor concentration and tissue responsiveness is an often-assumed and rarely tested principle in endocrinology. In salmonids, seasonal changes in levels of plasma cortisol and gill corticosteroid receptors (CRs) during the spring indicate a potential role for this hormone in the parr-smolt transformation. It is not known whether these seasonal changes result in alterations in gill responsiveness

J. MARK SHRIMPTON; STEPHEN D. MCCORMICK

194

RIA analysis for estradiol, testosterone and cortisol in feedyard playa lakes and non-feedyard playa lakes.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to compare the levels of 17B-estradiol, testosterone, and cortisol hormones in bottom sediment (muck) and water of seven feedyard (FY) playas and three non-feedyard playas. Four liters of water and 500 grams of muck were collected from 4 equal distant sites from each p...

195

Lower Serum Androstenedione Levels in Pre-Rheumatoid Arthritis versus Normal Control Women: Correlations with Lower Serum Cortisol Levels  

PubMed Central

Serum adrenal androgens (AAs), including androstenedione (?4A) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), have been reported to be lower in female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with early disease. Few data are available on hormonal status of women before the onset of clinical rheumatoid arthritis (pre-RA). A broad baseline panel of serum adrenal and sex steroids was compared in 36 female pre-RA to 144 matched cohort control (CN) subjects to determine differences in their mean values and in patterns of hormonal correlations. Study subjects having lower versus higher baseline serum cortisol levels than the total group's mean value were also analyzed separately to investigate differences in their hormonal levels and correlational patterns. In total subjects, mean (±SE) ?4A level (nmol/L) was lower (P = 0.018) in 28 pre-RA cases (6.4 ± 0.40) versus 108 CN (7.8 ± 0.28). The significant (P = 0.013) difference was restricted to 9 pre-RA versus 53?CN subjects having lower cortisol levels (5.6 ± 0.73 versus 8.0 ± 0.42?nmol/L, resp.). In total subjects, no significant difference was found between study subjects in their bivariate correlations of the hormonal panel variables, unlike results found in the subgroups stratified by lower versus higher cortisol levels. A subgroup of pre-RA females may have relative adrenal cortical insufficiency, as reflected by lower ?4A, especially observed among those subjects with lower cortisol levels. PMID:23762532

Masi, Alfonse T.; Elmore, Kevin B.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Chatterton, Robert T.; Goertzen, Ned J.; Aldag, Jean C.

2013-01-01

196

Potentiation of the vitellogenic response to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol by cortisol in the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas.  

PubMed

The effects of elevated plasma cortisol levels on vitellogenin (VTG) induction were examined in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) in an attempt to evaluate the potential influence of stress on this commonly used biomarker of estrogenicity. Two separate experiments were conducted in which fish plasma cortisol was elevated to various levels for 14 d by noninvasive additions of cortisol to the aquaria water. Fathead minnows were exposed to either cortisol alone, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) alone, or a combination of the two hormones, and plasma levels of VTG as well as liver expression of VTG mRNA were measured. Both experiments gave similar results, with an exposure to 4 ng/L of EE2 resulting in significantly greater levels of plasma VTG in the presence of, compared to that in absence of, cortisol, whereas exposure to cortisol alone at concentrations between 144 and 800 microg/L had no effect on plasma VTG levels. This potentiation of the EE2-induced vitellogenesis by cortisol was dose-dependent, with plasma VTG reaching 125, 167, and 295% of the values obtained with EE2 alone when 144, 360, and 800 microg/L of cortisol, respectively, were added to the water. Liver mRNA results were consistent with plasma VTG, although they generally were more variable. The present study demonstrates that cortisol does not independently induce vitellogenesis but can potentiate estrogen-induced VTG synthesis in fathead minnow. The implications of these findings for the use of VTG as a biomarker of estrogenicity are discussed. PMID:16110990

Brodeur, Julie C; Woodburn, Kent B; Klecka, Gary M

2005-05-01

197

Novelty of the arena impairs the cortisol-related increase in the aggression of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).  

PubMed

The dichotomic effect of a cortisol level rise in vertebrate behavior has been widely observed. Generally, a chronic increase of the hormone level inhibits aggression, while an acute rise increases aggression. However, in this study, we show that this increase in aggression through an acute rise of cortisol also depends on the context in which the agonistic interaction occurs in the tropical fish matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. We combined two factors: the type of housing (resident or non-resident in the trial arena) and the level of cortisol at the beginning of the fight (normal level - control, or high level - hydrocortisone-treated fish). The cortisol treatment increased the aggressiveness in the resident fish, but this effect was not observed in the non-resident fish, which fought in an unknown arena. The novelty of the arena may have elicited an "alerted state" in the non-resident fish; in this situation the fight was not the priority, and the cortisol effect in aggression could be impaired by a conflict between motivational systems (fear and aggression). In our knowledge, in fish, the increase of aggression promoted by an acute rise in cortisol levels was always tested and observed in a resident context, and the inhibition of cortisol effect in the agonist behavior is demonstrated for the first time. As the cortisol effect in aggression is observed in several taxa, the inhibition of aggressiveness increased by the novelty of the arena should be investigated in other groups to clarify the dynamics of this effect of cortisol in animal behavior. PMID:25578544

Serra, Mônica; Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

2015-03-15

198

Influence of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-infusion on acid-base balance and blood physiological variables in broiler chickens.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic selection has been a primary factor in growing broilers to heavier weights more efficiently. However, the genetic potentiality of poultry may not be utilized fully due to environmental constraints. The combination of external conditions (biological and physiological) such as weather and clim...

199

Treatment of moderately to severely active systemic lupus erythematosus with adrenocorticotropic hormone: a single-site, open-label trial  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative therapeutic options are needed for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) not adequately controlled with or intolerant to traditional treatments. This study evaluated the efficacy of Acthar® Gel (ACTH(1-39)) for reducing active SLE severity among patients receiving underlying conventional maintenance therapies. Methods Ten females (mean age?=?49 yrs, disease duration?=?7 yrs, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2000 [SLEDAI-2?K]?=?10) currently on maintenance self-administered ACTH(1–39) gel 1?mL (80?U/mL) for 7–15 days and were assessed weekly for 28 days. Outcome measures included Physician and Patient Global Assessments, SLEDAI-2?K, Lupus Quality of Life scale, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue) scale, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. Student’s t-test compared data obtained at days 7, 14, and 28 with those from baseline. Results The primary endpoint of SLEDAI-2?K improvement was reached at all observation times (p?

Montroy, T

2014-01-01

200

Timing and Type of Glucocorticoid Replacement in Adult Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the commonest inherited diseases. Treatment during childhood is directed towards obtaining normal growth. There is an extensive literature on management of CAH during childhood but little published on how patients should be treated as adults. CAH results in increased adrenocorticotropic hormone levels driving the adrenal to produce cortisol and thereby excessive cortisol precursors

R. J. M. Ross; A. Rostami-Hodjegan

2005-01-01

201

EFFECTS ON THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM OF PULSATILE AND NONPULSATILE PERFUSION IN HEART SURGERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on the endocrine system were investigated in 10 patients who had pulsatile perfusion and in another 10 who had nonpulsatile perfusion during coronary bypass or valve replacement surgery. Measurements were made of thyroid-stimulating hormone, free and total triiodothyronine, free and total tetraiodothyronine, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, aldosterone, growth hormone, insulin, and glucose at 5 fixed time

Erdem Silistreli; Ünal Açikel; Eyüp Hazan; Öztekin Oto; Dokuz Eylul

202

Prolactin and growth hormone in fish osmoregulation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prolactin is an important regulator of multiple biological functions in vertebrates, and has been viewed as essential to ion uptake as well as reduction in ion and water permeability of osmoregulatory surfaces in freshwater and euryhaline fish. Prolactin-releasing peptide seems to stimulate prolactin expression in the pituitary and peripheral organs during freshwater adaptation. Growth hormone, a member of the same family of hormones as prolactin, promotes acclimation to seawater in several teleost fish, at least in part through the action of insulin-like growth factor I. In branchial epithelia, development and differentiation of the seawater-type chloride cell (and their underlying biochemistry) is regulated by GH, IGF-I, and cortisol, whereas the freshwater-type chloride cell is regulated by prolactin and cortisol. In the epithelia of gastrointestinal tract, prolactin induces cell proliferation during freshwater adaptation, whereas cortisol stimulates both cell proliferation and apoptosis. We propose that control of salinity acclimation in teleosts by prolactin and growth hormone primarily involves regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation (the latter including upregulation of specific ion transporters), and that there is an important interaction of these hormones with corticosteroids. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sakamoto, T.; McCormick, S.D.

2006-01-01

203

Occupational exposure of dentists to electromagnetic fields produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons alters the serum cortisol level  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Some studies indicate that dentistry is one of the job categories with high potential exposure to elevated levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields. In spite of this, information on occupational exposure of dentists to these fields is scarce. Studies on other common sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) such as mobile base stations have shown alterations in the cortisol level following exposure of humans to these sources. The aim of this study is to compare the level of cortisol among dentists and dentistry students who are being occupationally exposed to EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitrons (case group) and among their counterparts who are not being exposed to these fields (control group). Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, blood samples were collected from 41 dentists and dentistry students, 21 of whom were exposed to EMFs emitted by cavitrons as the case group and 20 who were not exposed as the control group, twice; i.e. before work (at 8:30–9:30 a.m.) and after work (11:30–12:30 a.m.). The samples were coded and the serum cortisol level was investigated using the ELISA method (Cortisol AccuBind ELISA Kits). Results: The serum cortisol level of dentists and dental students in the morning (before starting the work) in the control group was 189.15 ± 110.70 (mean ± SD) whereas it was 157.77 ± 112.03 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.373). In contrast, the serum cortisol level of the participants in the noon (after stopping the work) in the control group was 136.25 ± 67.91 (mean ± SD) while it was 88.58 ± 52.83 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This time, the observed difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016). In this light, while the difference between serum cortisol levels of dentists and dental students in the morning and after stopping the work was not statistically significant (P = 0.06), in the EMF-exposed group the cortisol level decreased significantly from 157.77 ± 112.03 in the morning to 88.58 ± 52.83 in the noon (P = 0.001). Conclusions: As far as we know, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of occupational exposure of dentists to EMFs on their serum cortisol level. The EMFs produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons can decrease the serum cortisol level in dentists. As cortisol plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, cardiovascular, and immune system function, a low cortisol level may threaten health. More studies are needed to clearly understand the effects of EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitron on the level of stress hormones. As some studies have shown that exposure to EMFs has no effect on the cortisol level, whereas other studies reported either an increase or a decrease in the cortisol level, it can be concluded that the effects of exposure to EMFs may occur only at specific absorbed energies or energy absorption rates (usually known as window) similar to that exists in the case of exposure to the low doses of ionizing radiations. PMID:22690053

Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Vazife-Doost, S.; Yaghooti, M.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Rajaie-Far, A.

2012-01-01

204

Influence of cortisol on the attachment and metamorphosis of larval Utterbackia imbecillis on bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus).  

PubMed

The larvae of unionid freshwater mussels (i.e., glochidia) undergo a parasitic stage requiring their attachment to the external epithelia of fish hosts, where they metamorphose into free-living juveniles. We describe the physiological effects in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) of infection with glochidia from the paper pondshell (Utterbackia imbecillis). Glochidia accumulation on bluegill increased dramatically at concentrations of 2000 glochidia liter(-1) and above, reaching a maximum attachment density of about 30 glochidia g(-1) fish at 4000 glochidia liter(-1). Plasma cortisol was the most sensitive indicator of biological effect to glochidial exposure, increasing significantly in hosts exposed to 2000 glochidia liter(-1) or greater. Glochidia were 31% more likely to undergo successful juvenile metamorphosis when attached to bluegill with elevated plasma cortisol, largely due to the enhanced survivorship of these larvae during the first 48 h after infection. We tested the hypothesis that glochidial attachment and juvenile metamorphosis were stimulated directly by plasma cortisol in fish hosts. Bluegill were given an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol, then infected with 1000 glochidia liter(-1) at 48 h after hormone supplementation. Cortisol-injected fish had a 42% increase in the number of attached glochidia g(-1) fish and a 28% increase in larval metamorphosis compared to sham-injected and control fish. We provide evidence that cortisol enhances glochidial metamorphosis on hosts by improving the retention of attached glochidia. This study gives insights into the influence of host physiology on glochidial attachment and juvenile mussel transformation. PMID:21551446

Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitaker, Brian; Galvez, Fernando

2011-04-01

205

Non-breeding feather concentrations of testosterone, corticosterone and cortisol are associated with subsequent survival in wild house sparrows.  

PubMed

Potential mechanistic mediators of Darwinian fitness, such as stress hormones or sex hormones, have been the focus of many studies. An inverse relationship between fitness and stress or sex hormone concentrations has been widely assumed, although empirical evidence is scarce. Feathers gradually accumulate hormones during their growth and provide a novel way to measure hormone concentrations integrated over time. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we measured testosterone, corticosterone and cortisol in the feathers of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in a wild population which is the subject of a long-term study. Although corticosterone is considered the dominant avian glucocorticoid, we unambiguously identified cortisol in feathers. In addition, we found that feathers grown during the post-nuptial moult in autumn contained testosterone, corticosterone and cortisol levels that were significantly higher in birds that subsequently died over the following winter than in birds that survived. Thus, feather steroids are candidate prospective biomarkers to predict the future survival of individuals in the wild. PMID:22090380

Koren, Lee; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry; Soma, Kiran K; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Geffen, Eli

2012-04-22

206

Differences in Salivary Alpha-Amylase and Cortisol Responsiveness following Exposure to Electrical Stimulation versus the Trier Social Stress Tests  

PubMed Central

Background Cortisol is an essential hormone in the regulation of the stress response along the HPA axis, and salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels. Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has also emerged as a novel biomarker for psychosocial stress responsiveness within the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system. Principal Findings We measured sAA and salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electric stimulation stress. One hundred forty-nine healthy volunteers participated in this study. All subjects were exposed to both the TSST and electric stimulation stress on separate days. We measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels three times immediately before, immediately after, and 20 min after the stress challenge. The State (STAI-S) and Trait (STAI-T) versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test and the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests were administered to participants before the electrical stimulation and TSST protocols. We also measured HF, LF and LF/HF Heart Rate Variability ratio immediately after electrical stimulation and TSST exposure. Following TSST exposure or electrical stimulation, sAA levels displayed a rapid increase and recovery, returning to baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Salivary cortisol responses showed a delayed increase, which remained significantly elevated from baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Analyses revealed no differences between men and women with regard to their sAA response to the challenges (TSST or electric stimulations), while we found significantly higher salivary cortisol responses to the TSST in females. We also found that younger subjects tended to display higher sAA activity. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly correlated with the strength of the applied electrical stimulation. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that the HPA axis (but not the SAM system) may show differential response patterns to distinct kinds of stressors. PMID:22859941

Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Okamoto, Shizuko; Ando, Tomoko; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Imanaga, Junko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

2012-01-01

207

Cortisol dynamics are associated with electrocardiographic abnormalities following the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Context: Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are common following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It probably represents cardiovascular stress after SAH. Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess cortisol dynamics in relation to the ECG abnormality and disease course of SAH. Settings and Design: The study follows a consecutive cohort of aneurysmal SAH patients, who underwent surgery within 72 hours of onset, and they were followed up for 10 days. Materials and Methods: Serum cortisols, cortisol-binding globulin (CGB), adenocorticotropic hormone were measured (between 08.00-09.00 hours) preoperatively and then on postoperative days (PODs) 2, 4, 7, and 10. Electrocardiographs (ECG) were recorded on initial assessment and after surgery on daily basis in ICU. ECG abnormalities will be followed up by measurement of cardiac troponin T to quantify the myocyte necrosis. Statistical Analysis Used: Logistic regression analysis using commercial available software STATA 9. Results: A total of 44 patients (20 M and 24 F) were eligible for the cohort analysis. Average patient age is 52.02 years (52.02 ± 11.23), and 86% (6/44) arrived with World Federation of Neurosurgical Society Scale grade 3 or better. The ECG abnormality was found in 10 cases (22.7%), but the abnormal TnT (>1 ?g/l) were found in eight cases, and two cases contribute to the mortality. The ECG abnormalities are significantly associated with total cortisol on day 4 (P < 0.05) and free cortisol on day 2 (P = 0.0065). Conclusions: Elevated levels of morning cortisol within the first four days after surgery are associated with the ECG abnormality. PMID:23233777

July, Julius; As’ad, Suryani; Suhadi, F. X. Budhianto; Islam, Andi A.

2012-01-01

208

The effects of cannabinoids on serum cortisol and prolactin in humans  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit substances, and there is growing interest in the therapeutic applications of cannabinoids. While known to modulate neuroendocrine function, the precise acute and chronic dose-related effects of cannabinoids in humans are not well-known. Furthermore, the existing literature on the neuroendocrine effects of cannabinoids is limited by small sample sizes (n=6–22), heterogeneous samples with regard to cannabis exposure (lumping users and nonusers), lack of controlling for chronic cannabis exposure, differing methodologies, and limited dose–response data. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?-9-THC) was hypothesized to produce dose-related increases in plasma cortisol levels and decreases in plasma prolactin levels. Furthermore, relative to controls, frequent users of cannabis were hypothesized to show altered baseline levels of these hormones and blunted ?-9-THC-induced changes of these hormones. Materials and methods Pooled data from a series of laboratory studies with multiple doses of intravenous ?-9-THC in healthy control subjects (n=36) and frequent users of cannabis (n=40) was examined to characterize the acute, chronic, and acute on chronic effects of cannabinoids on plasma cortisol and prolactin levels. Hormone levels were measured before (baseline) and 70 min after administration of each dose of ?-9-THC. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models with +70 min hormonal levels as the dependant variable and baseline hormonal level as the covariate. Results At socially relevant doses, ?-9-THC raised plasma cortisol levels in a dose-dependent manner but frequent users showed blunted increases relative to healthy controls. Frequent users also had lower baseline plasma prolactin levels relative to healthy controls. Conclusions These group differences may be related to the development of tolerance to the neuroendocrine effects of cannabinoids. Alternatively, these results may reflect inherent differences in neuroendocrine function in frequent users of cannabis and not a consequence of cannabis use. PMID:19083209

Ranganathan, Mohini; Braley, Gabriel; Pittman, Brian; Cooper, Thomas; Perry, Edward; Krystal, John; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

2010-01-01

209

Effect of Childhood Emotional Abuse and Age on Cortisol Responsivity in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Background The dexamethasone/corticotropin releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test has been proposed as a potential tool for identifying endophenotypes relevant to mood disorders. Several studies have shown abnormal cortisol reactivity in phenotypically healthy adults without psychiatric disorders as a function of exposure to adverse early environments. Methods Following a battery of self-report and interview assessments, 230 adults without major Axis I Disorders completed the Dex/CRH test. Childhood maltreatment was evaluated with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Effect of childhood emotional abuse (EA) on cortisol responses to the Dex/CRH test was examined with repeated measures general linear models including age, sex and other types of maltreatment. Post-hoc models examined the significant interaction between EA and age, and tested the stability of the main findings with selected covariates. Results A history of self-reported childhood EA independently and significantly diminished cortisol response. This effect was amplified with advancing subject age, and was independent of the effects of other types of childhood maltreatment, lifetime diagnoses, and symptom scores. Conclusions Dampened cortisol reactivity may be a consequence of childhood emotional abuse that is cumulative over time. Prospective longitudinal investigation is needed to evaluate the potential of this proposed endophenotype. PMID:19375070

Carpenter, Linda L.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Ross, Nicole S.; Khoury, Lamya; Anderson, George M.; Price, Lawrence H.

2009-01-01

210

Initial posttraumatic urinary cortisol levels predict subsequent PTSD symptoms in motor vehicle  

E-print Network

Background: This study was designed to examine the relationship between urinary hormone levels collected upon admission to the trauma unit following a motor vehicle accident and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology 1 month later. Methods: Fifteen-hour urine samples were collected from 63 male and 36 female motor vehicle accident victims and were used to assess levels of catecholamines and cortisol reflecting peritraumatic and acute-phase posttraumatic levels. Presence of posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology was assessed 1 month after the accident. Results: Motor vehicle accident victims subsequently diagnosed with acute posttraumatic stress disorder excreted significantly lower levels of cortisol in 15-hour urines collected upon admission to the hospital. In addition, urinary levels of cortisol predicted a significant percentage of the variance in intrusive and avoidant thoughts 1 month after the accident. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that initial cortisol levels in the immediate aftermath of a traumatic event contribute, in part, to subsequent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2000;48:

Douglas L. Delahanty; A. Jay Raimonde; Eileen Spoonster

2000-01-01

211

Ethnic discrimination predicts poor self-rated health and cortisol in pregnancy: Insights from New Zealand.  

PubMed

Despite growing research emphasis on understanding the health effects of ethnic discrimination, little work has focused on how such exposures may influence a woman's biology and health during pregnancy. Understanding such effects is important given evidence that maternal stress experience in pregnancy can have long term effects on offspring health. Here we present data evaluating the relationship between perceived discrimination, self-rated health, and the stress hormone cortisol measured in late pregnancy among a diverse sample of women living in Auckland, New Zealand (N = 55). We also evaluated possible intergenerational impacts of maternal discrimination on stress reactivity in a subset of offspring (N = 19). Pregnant women were recruited from two antenatal care clinics in Auckland. Women were met in their homes between 34 and 36 weeks gestation, during which time a prenatal stress questionnaire was administered and saliva samples (morning and evening from two days) were obtained. Offspring cortisol reactivity was assessed at the standard six week postnatal vaccination visit. We found that 34% of women reported having experienced ethnic discrimination, with minority and immigrant women being more likely to report being angry or upset in response to discrimination experience compared with NZ-born women of European descent. Women reporting discrimination experience had worse self-rated health, higher evening cortisol and gave birth to infants with higher cortisol reactivity, all independent of ethnicity and material deprivation. These findings suggest that discrimination experience can have biological impacts in pregnancy and across generations, potentially contributing to the ethnic gradient in health. PMID:25589034

Thayer, Zaneta M; Kuzawa, Christopher W

2015-03-01

212

Short communication: hair cortisol concentrations in Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity of Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers by analysis of the cortisol concentrations in hair samples. Cortisol, the primary hormone of the HPA axis, is the biological endpoint for the investigation of the HPA response. The study was conducted on 290 prepubertal heifers; 142 heifers were pure Holstein-Friesian and 148 were crossbreed F1 heifers obtained from the 3-way rotational system with Swedish Red and Montbéliarde breeds. Extraction was performed on the hair using methanol, and cortisol concentrations were determined by a radioimmunoassay method. Cortisol concentrations measured in regrown hair of crossbreed F1 heifers were significantly lower than those in hair of Holstein-Friesian heifers. This result helps us to better understand the differences in HPA activity and allostatic load between Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers and allows us to better assess the adaptability of these animals to the environment and the importance of crossbreed traits for profitability in dairy farming. PMID:23522680

Peric, T; Comin, A; Corazzin, M; Montillo, M; Cappa, A; Campanile, G; Prandi, A

2013-05-01

213

Association of salivary-assessed oxytocin and cortisol levels with time of night and sleep stage.  

PubMed

There have been proposals for REM to have a function of emotional memory consolidation, and also for REM sleep to be involved in the promotion of attachment behaviour. The hormones cortisol and oxytocin, respectively, may be involved in these proposed REM sleep functions. However, there are conflicting reports on whether levels of cortisol differ between sleep stages when time since sleep onset (SSO) is controlled, and virtually no literature on whether levels of oxytocin differ between sleep stages. This study thus investigated the changes in levels of oxytocin (OT) and cortisol (CT) across the night, and whether these levels differ between REM and N2 sleep when time SSO is controlled. 20 participants (10 males, 10 females, mean age = 20.45, SD = 2.01) were awakened 10 min into REM and N2 sleep periods in the sleep laboratory and gave saliva samples which were assayed for OT and CT. Levels of OT were relatively constant across the night, whereas CT increased significantly. REM and N2 did not differ significantly neither for OT nor for CT. The study has implications for models of sleep-dependent memory consolidation that incorporate the late sleep increase in cortisol as a functional component of memory consolidation, and also for the medical diagnostic assaying of OT during sleep. PMID:22911329

Blagrove, Mark; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Baird, Alison L; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Davies, Anna C; Neuschaffer, Jennifer L; Henley-Einion, Josephine A; Weidemann, Christoph T; Thome, Johannes; McNamara, Patrick; Turnbull, Oliver H

2012-10-01

214

The cortisol awakening response--applications and implications for sleep medicine.  

PubMed

The stress hormone cortisol is the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) refers to the rapid rise in cortisol levels observed immediately following awakening. During the CAR period, cortisol levels typically increase by 38%-75%, peaking approximately 30 min after awakening. Evidence suggests the function of the CAR may be related to arousal, energy boost and/or anticipation, although its precise function is still unknown. The CAR has been investigated in a range of clinical populations including the assessment of daytime dysfunction in insomnia; however little research, if any, has specifically examined its relation to sleep architecture, or night-time difficulties associated with insomnia. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the CAR, a description of the factors which can affect it, and to outline the CAR in relation to the '3P' model of insomnia. This review concludes with a description of a standard protocol for measurement of the CAR, which can be adapted and applied within sleep medicine. PMID:23835138

Elder, Greg J; Wetherell, Mark A; Barclay, Nicola L; Ellis, Jason G

2014-06-01

215

Effect of cortisol on neurophysin I/oxytocin and peptidyl glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase mRNA expression in bovine luteal and granulosa cells.  

PubMed

Cortisol stimulates the synthesis and secretion of oxytocin (OT) from bovine granulosa and luteal cells, but the molecular mechanisms of cortisol action remain unknown. In this study, granulosa cells or luteal cells from days 1-5 and 11-15 of the oestrous cycle were incubated for 4 or 8 h with cortisol (1 x 10(-5), 1 x 10(-7) M). After testing cell viability and hormone secretion (OT, progesterone, estradiol), we studied the effect of cortisol on mRNA expression for precursor of OT (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA). The influence of RU 486 (1 x 10(-5) M), a progesterone receptor blocker and inhibitor of the glucocorticosteroid receptor (GR), on the expression for both genes was tested. Cortisol increased the mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA in granulosa cells and stimulated the expression for NP-I/OT mRNA in luteal cells obtained from days 1-5 and days 11-15 of the oestrous cycle. Expression for PGA mRNA was increased only in luteal cells from days 11-15 of the oestrous cycle. In addition, RU 486 blocked the cortisol-stimulated mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA in both types of cells. These data suggest that cortisol affects OT synthesis and secretion in bovine ovarian cells, by acting on the expression of key genes, that may impair ovary PMID:23971190

Ziolkowska, A; Mlynarczuk, J; Kotwica, J

2013-01-01

216

Synchrony of Diurnal Cortisol Pattern in Couples  

PubMed Central

Cortisol is a biomarker of stress reactivity and its diurnal pattern is an indicator of general neuroendocrine health. Despite theories conceptualizing marital dyads as dynamic systems wherein spouses are interdependent in their physiology and stress coping, little is known about the daily processes in which spouses possibly influence each other in biological stress. Nineteen heterosexual couples provided saliva samples containing cortisol 4 times a day for 4 consecutive days. We used multilevel modeling to examine whether one’s cortisol awaking response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) predict those of the spouse’s on the same day and/or on the next day. We found that spouses synchronize their DCS, such that on days when one experiences faster or slower decline in diurnal cortisol than usual, the spouse also experiences faster or slower decline than usual. For CAR, positive synchrony was only observed in couples reporting high levels of marital strain and disagreement. Cross-lagged regression analysis reveals stability in diurnal cortisol pattern. A steeper cortisol slope on a particular day predicts a steeper slope on the next day within an individual, but no significant cross-lagged relation was found between spouses. Couples reporting more spousal support tend to have stronger stability in CAR. These findings provide evidence that spouses are interdependent in their diurnal cortisol patterns on a day-to-day basis, and that these daily dynamics are associated with marital relationship quality. The study contributes to our understanding of marital processes and biobehavioral health. It also contributes methodologically to the advancement of longitudinal dyadic analysis. PMID:23978320

Liu, Siwei; Rovine, Michael J.; Klein, Laura Cousino; Almeida, David M.

2014-01-01

217

Absence of detectable melatonin and preservation of cortisol and thyrotropin rhythms in tetraplegia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The human circadian timing system regulates the temporal organization of several endocrine functions, including the production of melatonin (via a neural pathway that includes the spinal cord), TSH, and cortisol. In traumatic spinal cord injury, afferent and efferent circuits that influence the basal production of these hormones may be disrupted. We studied five subjects with chronic spinal cord injury (three tetraplegic and two paraplegic, all neurologically complete injuries) under stringent conditions in which the underlying circadian rhythmicity of these hormones could be examined. Melatonin production was absent in the three tetraplegic subjects with injury to their lower cervical spinal cord and was of normal amplitude and timing in the two paraplegic subjects with injury to their upper thoracic spinal cord. The amplitude and the timing of TSH and cortisol rhythms were robust in the paraplegics and in the tetraplegics. Our results indicate that neurologically complete cervical spinal injury results in the complete loss of pineal melatonin production and that neither the loss of melatonin nor the loss of spinal afferent information disrupts the rhythmicity of cortisol or TSH secretion.

Zeitzer, J. M.; Ayas, N. T.; Shea, S. A.; Brown, R.; Czeisler, C. A.

2000-01-01

218

Hormonal activity in clinically silent adrenal incidentalomas  

PubMed Central

Introduction The rapid development of modern imaging techniques, has led to an increase in accidentally discovered adrenal masses without clinically apparent hormonal abnormalities. Such tumours have been termed “incidentalomas”. The diagnostic work-up in patients with adrenal incidentalomas is aimed at the determination of hormonal activity of the tumour and identification of patients with potentially malignant tumours. The aim of our study was a retrospective analysis of selected clinical characteristics and hormonal studies in accidentally discovered adrenal tumours. Material and methods Fourty hundred sixty-three patients with serendipitously discovered adrenal masses, diagnosed and treated in the Department of Endocrinology and Internal Diseases, Medical University of Gdansk as well as in the affiliated Endocrinology Clinic between 1993 and October of 2009 were included in the analysis. Out of all patients, 245 were referred for adrenalectomy. Results We found that clinically “silent” tumours often demonstrate subclinical hormonal activity. In our report, increased 24-h urinary excretion of cortisol correlated positively with tumour size (p < 0.001). Moreover, a statistical relationship was demonstrated between tumour size and serum cortisol concentration assessed in the 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (p < 0.001). Increased values of dehydroepiandrosterone/dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate were more often found in malignant than in benign tumours (p < 0.01). Urinary concentrations of 17-ketosteroids correlate positively with diagnosis of adrenocortical cancer (p = 0.02). Conclusions We found that clinically “silent” tumours often demonstrate subclinical hormonal activity (subclinical Cushing syndrome, subclinical pheochromocytoma, low-symptomatic adrenocortical cancer). PMID:22457682

Siekierska-Hellmann, Ma?gorzata; B?aut, Krzysztof; Lewczuk, Anna; Wi?niewski, Piotr; Gnaci?ska, Maria; Obo?o?czyk, ?ukasz; ?wi?tkowska-Stodulska, Renata; Sworczak, Krzysztof

2012-01-01

219

Reduced nocturnal ACTH-driven cortisol secretion during critical illness  

PubMed Central

Recently, during critical illness, cortisol metabolism was found to be reduced. We hypothesize that such reduced cortisol breakdown may suppress pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion via feedback inhibition. To test this hypothesis, nocturnal ACTH and cortisol secretory profiles were constructed by deconvolution analysis from plasma concentration time series in 40 matched critically ill patients and eight healthy controls, excluding diseases or drugs that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Blood was sampled every 10 min between 2100 and 0600 to quantify plasma concentrations of ACTH and (free) cortisol. Approximate entropy, an estimation of process irregularity, cross-approximate entropy, a measure of ACTH-cortisol asynchrony, and ACTH-cortisol dose-response relationships were calculated. Total and free plasma cortisol concentrations were higher at all times in patients than in controls (all P < 0.04). Pulsatile cortisol secretion was 54% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.005), explained by reduced cortisol burst mass (P = 0.03), whereas cortisol pulse frequency (P = 0.35) and nonpulsatile cortisol secretion (P = 0.80) were unaltered. Pulsatile ACTH secretion was 31% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.03), again explained by a lower ACTH burst mass (P = 0.02), whereas ACTH pulse frequency (P = 0.50) and nonpulsatile ACTH secretion (P = 0.80) were unchanged. ACTH-cortisol dose response estimates were similar in patients and controls. ACTH and cortisol approximate entropy were higher in patients (P ? 0.03), as was ACTH-cortisol cross-approximate entropy (P ? 0.001). We conclude that hypercortisolism during critical illness coincided with suppressed pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion and a normal ACTH-cortisol dose response. Increased irregularity and asynchrony of the ACTH and cortisol time series supported non-ACTH-dependent mechanisms driving hypercortisolism during critical illness. PMID:24569590

Boonen, Eva; Meersseman, Philippe; Vervenne, Hilke; Meyfroidt, Geert; Guïza, Fabian; Wouters, Pieter J.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.

2014-01-01

220

Diurnal Salivary Cortisol is Associated With Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65±9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 minutes post-awakening), early decline (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (p<0.05), AUC during awakening rise and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (p<0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, beta blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates. PMID:23404865

Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Seeman, Teresa; DeSantis, Amy S.; Roux, Ana Diez; Shrager, Sandi; Golden, Sherita Hill

2012-01-01

221

Effects of Seasonal Differences in Testosterone and Cortisol Levels on Pain Responses Under Resting and Anxiety Conditions  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated whether hormones and pain perception are associated with exam anxiety, and also whether exam anxiety is affected by seasonal differences in testosterone and cortisol levels. Materials and Methods Forty-six healthy males were recruited from a medical college. Anxiety was induced by having participants perform the Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Pressure was applied to the participants to induce pain. Pain thresholds, pain ratings, anxiety ratings, blood pressure, heart rate, salivary testosterone and cortisol levels were measured under resting and anxiety conditions in the spring and summer. Data were collected from 46 participants during the spring (n=25) and summer (n=21). Results Pain thresholds and testosterone levels were significantly lower under anxiety than at rest for all participants (n=46), while cortisol levels, pain ratings, and anxiety ratings were significantly higher under anxiety than at rest. In the spring (n=25), testosterone levels were significantly higher at rest than under anxiety, while there was no difference in cortisol levels between resting and anxiety conditions. In the summer (n=21), cortisol levels were significantly higher under anxiety than at rest, while there was no difference in testosterone levels between resting and anxiety conditions. There were no significant seasonal differences in pain and anxiety ratings and pain threshold. Conclusion These results indicate that seasonal differences in testosterone and cortisol levels under anxiety and at rest may affect pain responses. These results also suggest that acute clinical pain may be relieved by managing anxiety that is related to a decrease of testosterone in spring and a large increase of cortisol in summer. PMID:24339310

Lee, Jong Hyuk; Choi, Eunhee; Chung, Myung-il; Seo, Sang Min; Lim, Hyun Kyo

2014-01-01

222

The Effort-reward Imbalance work-stress model and daytime salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) among Japanese women  

PubMed Central

We examined the influence of work-related effort–reward imbalance and overcommitment to work (OC), as derived from Siegrist's Effort–Reward Imbalance (ERI) model, on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We hypothesized that, among healthy workers, both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion would be increased by effort–reward imbalance and OC and, as a result, cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) would not differ by effort–reward imbalance or OC. The subjects were 115 healthy female nursery school teachers. Salivary cortisol, DHEA, and C/D ratio were used as indexes of HPA activity. Mixed-model analyses of variance revealed that neither the interaction between the ERI model indicators (i.e., effort, reward, effort-to-reward ratio, and OC) and the series of measurement times (9:00, 12:00, and 15:00) nor the main effect of the ERI model indicators was significant for daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that none of the ERI model indicators was significantly associated with area under the curve of daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. We found that effort, reward, effort–reward imbalance, and OC had little influence on daytime variation patterns, levels, or amounts of salivary HPA-axis-related hormones. Thus, our hypotheses were not supported. PMID:25228138

Ota, Atsuhiko; Mase, Junji; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Rajatanun, Thitipat; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ono, Yuichiro

2014-01-01

223

Adaptation of DELFIA cortisol kit for determination of salivary cortisol concentration.  

PubMed

Salivary cortisol concentration seems to be an excellent indicator of the biologically active plasma cortisol level because of the nearly absence of corticoid-binding proteins in saliva. With regard to the easy, noninvasive, and stress-free nature of saliva sampling, this parameter greatly facilitates studies of the HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical) axis, especially in children. A commercially available TR-FIA (time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay), the DELFIA (dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay) method, proposed for plasma and urine cortisol analyses, was adapted for salivary cortisol measurement by means of simple modifications of the assay protocol. The sensitivity was determined to be 0.53 nmol/L. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 5.5 to 8.2 % and from 6.0 to 10.4 %, respectively. The present findings suggest that the DELFIA procedure provides a reliable, sensitive, and convenient alternative procedure to the assay for salivary cortisol. PMID:16211655

Höferl, Martina; Krist, Sabine; Buchbauer, Gerhard

2005-10-01

224

Cortisol-Induced Masculinization: Does Thermal Stress Affect Gonadal Fate in Pejerrey, a Teleost Fish with Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gonadal fate in many reptiles, fish, and amphibians is modulated by the temperature experienced during a critical period early in life (temperature-dependent sex determination; TSD). Several molecular processes involved in TSD have been described but how the animals ''sense'' environmental temperature remains unknown. We examined whether the stress-related hormone cortisol mediates between temperature and sex differentiation of pejerrey, a

Ricardo S. Hattori; Juan I. Fernandino; Ai Kishii; Hiroyuki Kimura; Tomomi Kinno; Miho Oura; Gustavo M. Somoza; Masashi Yokota; Carlos A. Strüssmann; Seiichi Watanabe

2009-01-01

225

Ghrelin Levels Correlate with Insulin Levels, Insulin Resistance, and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, But Not with Gender, Menopausal Status, or Cortisol Levels in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gut peptide, ghrelin, may participate in the control of energy homeostasis and pituitary hormone secretion in hu- mans, stimulating both food intake and, at pharmacological doses, ACTH and cortisol secretion. Meal consumption and weight loss regulate ghrelin levels, but less is known about the relationship of ghrelin to body composition, aging, meno- pausal status, and lipid metabolism. Therefore, 60

JONATHAN Q. PURNELL; DAVID S. WEIGLE; PATRICIA BREEN; DAVID E. CUMMINGS

2010-01-01

226

Isolated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) deficiency associated with acute adrenal crisis.  

PubMed Central

A 37 year old black female presented with congestive cardiac failure, 2 months postpartum. She developed spontaneous hypoglycaemia and symptoms of acute adrenal crisis (hypotension, nausea, abdominal pain and tachycardia with small thready pulse), which responded to i.v. dextrose, sodium chloride and hydrocortisone. Biochemical investigations revealed low serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) levels. The patient initially showed an impaired cortisol response to intramuscular aqueous tetracosactrin, but an exuberant response after priming with intramuscular tetracosactrin depot. These findings, together with the normal remaining pituitary function, led us to conclude that this patient had isolated ACTH deficiency associated with congestive cardiac failure and acute adrenal crisis. PMID:2991871

Jialal, I.; Desai, R. K.; Maharaj, I. C.; Pala, A. S.; Joubert, S. M.

1985-01-01

227

The association between cortisol dynamics and the course of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Context: One of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage complication is delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND). It is postulated that cortisol dynamics might be associated with the severity of this complication. Aims: The goal of the study is to investigate whether the peak of morning serum cortisol levels are associated with the severity of its complication during the course of the disease. Settings and Design: This is a prospective cohort study conducted from January 2009 to June 2011, at our institution. Materials and Methods: The study follows a consecutive cohort of patients for 14 days after the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Serum cortisols, cortisol binding globulin, adenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured pre operatively and then on post operative days (POD) 2, 4, 7, and 10. Blood was drawn to coincide with peak cortisol levels between 08.00-09.00 hours. Neurological examinations were conducted at least twice daily and patient outcome were graded according to modified Ranklin Scale. DIND was defined by a decrease in the Glasgow Coma Scale of two or more points compared to the status on POD 1. Statistical Analysis: All the results were analyzed using statistical software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v61; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the relationship between the variables. Results: Thirty six consecutive patients are collected, but only 28 patients (12 M and 16 F) were eligible for the cohort analysis. Average patient age is 50.75 years old (50.75±12.27), and more than 50% (15/28) arrived with World Federation of Neurologic Surgeons grade 3 or better. Elevated total cortisol levels of more than 24 mg/dl on day 2, 4, and 10 were associated with DIND, and the most significant being on day 4 (P=0.011). These patients also had a higher grade on the modified Ranklin scale of disability. Conclusions: This study shows that the elevated levels of morning total cortisol in the serum are associated with the onset of DIND during the disease course, and it's also associated with bad outcomes. PMID:22347329

July, Julius; As’ad, Suryani; Suhadi, Budhianto; Islam, Andi Asadul

2011-01-01

228

A non-arousing test situation abolishes the impairing effects of cortisol on delayed memory retrieval in healthy women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal and human studies have repeatedly shown that stress hormones influence memory. Glucocorticoids (GCs) enhance memory consolidation but impair memory retrieval. Studies in rodents indicate that adrenergic activation is necessary for GC induced effects on memory. We have shown, in two previous placebo-controlled double-blind experiments, that memory retrieval is significantly impaired after oral cortisol (30mg) treatment in healthy young women.

Sabrina Kuhlmann; Oliver T. Wolf

2006-01-01

229

The associations between adolescent sleep, diurnal cortisol patterns and cortisol reactivity to dexamethasone suppression test.  

PubMed

Information on the associations between objectively measured sleep and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in early adolescence is scarce. We examined associations between average sleep duration and quality (sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset) over 8 days with actigraphs and (1) diurnal cortisol patterns and (2) cortisol reactivity to a low-dose (3 ?g/kg) overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in a birth cohort born in 1998 (N=265 participants, mean age 12.3 years, SD=0.5). We also explored (3) if sleep duration and quality were affected the nights after the DST exposure. Cortisol was measured during 2 days, and participants were exposed to dexamethasone in the evening of first day. In boys, short sleep duration was associated with higher cortisol upon awakening and lower cortisol awakening response (CAR; P<0.05 and P<0.01). Long sleep duration in boys associated with higher CAR (P<0.02). Lower sleep quality in boys associated with lower CAR, but fell slightly short of significance (P<0.06). In girls, no significant associations were detected. Sleep quantity and quality were not associated with responses to the DST. There were no effects of DST on sleep (P>0.15 in between-subject analyses). The average sleep patterns showed associations with diurnal cortisol patterns during early adolescence, but only in boys. Sleep was not associated with cortisol reactivity to DST and the exogenous corticosteroid exposure did not affect sleep significantly. PMID:25086827

Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Martikainen, Silja; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Lahti, Jari; Strandberg, Timo; Räikkönen, Katri

2014-11-01

230

Cortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortisol is the principal corticosteriod in teleost fishes and its plasma concentrations rise dramatically during stress. The relationship between this cortisol increase and its metabolic consequences are subject to extensive debate. Much of this debate arises from the different responses of the many species used, the diversity of approaches to manipulate cortisol levels, and the sampling techniques and duration. Given

Thomas P. Mommsen; Mathilakath M. Vijayan; Thomas W. Moon

1999-01-01

231

Responsiveness of irradiated rat anterior pituitary cells to hypothalamic releasing hormones is restored by treatment with growth hormone.  

PubMed

Hypopituitarism is a common sequela of irradiation in cancer patients. Here we report that recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) prevents cell death and restores secretory capacity of irradiated rat pituitary cells in vitro. Dispersed rat pituitary cells from male Sprague-Dawley rats, irradiated with a 9-Gy sublethal dose, were incubated with r-hGH before, after, or before and after irradiation. Treatment with GH resulted in increased cell survival, which reached its maximum at the concentration of 5 nM, with an EC(50) of 3.5 nM. Protective effects of GH on pituitary cells were more pronounced in cultures treated before and after irradiation. Similarly, beneficial effects of GH were observed on the secretory capacity of surviving cells. In fact, irradiated pituitary cells treated with GH secreted substantial amounts of GH, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone in response to specific releasing hormones. Such effects of GH were prevented in the presence of the specific GH receptor antagonists B2036 and G120K. Our results show that r-hGH exerts a specific protective effect on irradiated rat pituitary cells and suggest possible use of GH as an adjuvant agent for prevention of postirradiation hypopituitarism. PMID:11146422

Chiarenza, A; Lempereur, L; Palmucci, T; Cantarella, G; Amico-Roxas, M; Goffin, V; Murabito, P; Magro, G; Bernardini, R

2000-12-01

232

Relationship between oxidative stress and circulating testosterone and cortisol in pre-spawning female brown trout.  

PubMed

Reproduction in vertebrates is an energy-demanding process that is mediated by endogenous hormones and potentially results in oxidative stress. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between oxidative stress parameters (antioxidant capacity and levels of reactive oxygen metabolites) and circulating testosterone and cortisol in a common and widespread teleost fish, the brown trout (Salmo trutta, L.). Results show that trout with higher testosterone levels prior to spawning have higher levels of oxidative damage at the time that they spawn (although by the time of spawning testosterone levels had dropped, leading to a negative relationship between testosterone and oxidative damage at that time). Cortisol levels were not directly related to oxidative damage or antioxidant capacity, but concentrations of this hormone were positively related to levels of fungal infection, which was itself associated both with lower antioxidant capacity and lower levels of oxidative damage. These results highlight the complexity of interactions between different components of the endocrine system and metabolism and suggest that caution be used in interpreting relationships between a single hormone and indicators of oxidative balance or other fitness proxies. PMID:22841606

Hoogenboom, Mia O; Metcalfe, Neil B; Groothuis, Ton G G; de Vries, Bonnie; Costantini, David

2012-11-01

233

Clinical use of unbound plasma cortisol as calculated from total cortisol and corticosteroid-binding globulin.  

PubMed

A method to calculate unbound cortisol from total cortisol (measured by competitive protein binding) and CBG (measured by radial immunodiffusion) based on the binding equilibrium has been evaluated. The calculated results (y) correlate well with those (x) obtained by centrifugal ultrafiltration at 37 degrees C (y = 1.04 x - 2.11 ng/ml; r = 0.975; n = 150). The concentration of CBG is similar in normal men (37.7 +/- 3.5 (SD) micrograms/ml; n = 12) and women (39.5 +/- 3.7 (SD) micrograms/ml; n = 7) and shows no diurnal variation, but marked diurnal variation is observed for total cortisol (193.7 +/- 35.0 (SD) ng/ml at 08.00 h vs 43.2 +/- 23.3 (SD) ng/ml at 22.00 h; n = 19) and particularly for unbound cortisol (16.5 +/- 5.6 (SD) ng/ml at 08.00 h vs 2.3 +/- 1.8 (SD) ng/ml at 22.00 h; n = 19). The concentration of CBG (89.1 +/- 11.2 (SD) micrograms/ml) and of total cortisol (395.6 +/- 103.3 (SD) ng/ml at 08.00 h; 110.3 +/- 16.6 (SD) ng/ml at 22.00 h) are clearly elevated in estrogen treated women (n = 11) but unbound cortisol levels (17.2 +/- 7.7 (SD) ng/ml at 08.00 h; 2.5 +/- 0.5 (SD) ng/ml at 22.00 h) are similar to the control group. The concentration of CBG is significantly decreased in patients with Cushing's syndrome (33.2 +/- 5.6 micrograms/ml; n = 17) and unbound cortisol is relatively more elevated than total cortisol in these patients. In adrenal insufficiently CBG is normal, but total and unbound cortisol are markedly decreased. There is a significant decrease of CBG in hyperthyroidism (35.7 +/- 5.5 micrograms/ml; n = 22), in cirrhosis (32.0 +/- 8.0 micrograms/ml; n = 14) and in renal disease and a significant increase in patients treated with antiepileptic drugs (47.5 +/- 6.3 micrograms/ml; n = 14), but total and unbound cortisol are normal in all these conditions. We conclude that unbound cortisol can be calculated in a simple and reliable way from total cortisol and CBG and permits a better evaluation of adrenal function, particularly in patients with altered CBG concentrations. PMID:3560936

Coolens, J L; Van Baelen, H; Heyns, W

1987-02-01

234

No evidence for a close relationship between personality traits and circadian cortisol rhythm or a single cortisol stress response.  

PubMed

Personality traits measured with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised did not show associations with basal or stimulated concentrations of cortisol in a sample of 81 subjects. Cortisol responses to a single exposure to psychosocial stress as well as circadian salivary-free cortisol patterns did not distinguish between subjects with high or low scores on Extraversion, Neuroticism, or Psychoticism, respectively. PMID:10408206

Schommer, N C; Kudielka, B M; Hellhammer, D H; Kirschbaum, C

1999-06-01

235

Osmoregulatory action of PRL, GH, and cortisol in the gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The osmoregulatory actions of ovine prolactin (oPRL), ovine growth hormone (oGH), and cortisol were tested in the euryhaline gilthead seabream Sparus aurata. Acclimated to sea water (SW, 40ppt salinity, 1000mOsm\\/kg H2O) or brackish water (BW, 5ppt, salinity, 130mOsm\\/kg H2O), injected every other day for one week (number of injections, 4) with saline (0.9% NaCl), oPRL (4?g\\/g body weight), oGH (4?g\\/g

Juan Miguel Mancera; Raúl Laiz Carrión; Mar??a del Pilar Mart??n del R??o

2002-01-01

236

Long-Term Impact of Maternal Substance Use during Pregnancy and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity: Stress Hormone Levels of Preadolescent Children  

PubMed Central

Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with blunted stress responsivity within the extrauterine environment. This study investigated the association between PCE and diurnal salivary cortisol levels in preadolescent children characterized by high biological and/or social risk (N = 725). Saliva samples were collected at their home. Analyses revealed no group differences in basal evening or morning cortisol levels; however, children with higher degrees of PCE exhibited blunted overnight increases in cortisol, controlling for additional risk factors. Race and caregiver depression were also associated with diurnal cortisol patterns. While repeated PCE may contribute to alterations in the normal or expected stress response later in life, sociodemographic and environmental factors are likewise important in understanding hormone physiology, especially as more time elapses from the PCE. Anticipating the potential long-term medical, developmental, or behavioral effects of an altered ability to mount a normal protective cortisol stress response is essential in optimizing the outcomes of children with PCE. PMID:21546861

Bauer, Charles R.; Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Lester, Barry M.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

2011-01-01

237

Hormonal correlates of dominance in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).  

PubMed

In cooperatively breeding meerkats (Suricata suricatta), individuals typically live in extended family groups in which the dominant male and female are the primary reproductives, while their offspring delay dispersal, seldom breed, and contribute to the care of subsequent litters. Here we investigate hormonal differences between dominants and subordinates by comparing plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and cortisol in females, and testosterone and cortisol in males, while controlling for potential confounding factors. In both sexes, hormone levels are correlated with age. In females, levels of sex hormone also vary with body weight and access to unrelated breeding partners in the same group: subordinates in groups containing unrelated males have higher levels of LH and estradiol than those in groups containing related males only. When these effects are controlled, there are no rank-related differences in circulating levels of LH among females or testosterone among males. However, dominant females show higher levels of circulating estradiol than subordinates. Dominant males and females also have significantly higher cortisol levels than subordinates. Hence, we found no evidence that the lower levels of plasma estradiol in subordinate females were associated with high levels of glucocorticoids. These results indicate that future studies need to control for the potentially confounding effects of age, body weight, and access to unrelated breeding partners before concluding that there are fundamental physiological differences between dominant and subordinate group members. PMID:15256303

Carlson, Anne A; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Bennett, Nigel C; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

2004-08-01

238

45. CORTISOL LEVELS ARE CORRELATED WITH HIPPOCAMPAL  

E-print Network

of PTSD patients when compared to control subjects in the absence of volume loss. This study focuses NAA in PTSD and control subjects. Methods: Eighteen male patients with combat-related PTSD (mean age by sampling morning salivary cortisol pre and post low dose dexamethasone (0.5mg). PTSD symptoms were assessed

239

State variation in the cortisol awakening response.  

PubMed

The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a much studied but poorly understood aspect of the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion. A Scopus search of "cortisol" and "awakening" reveals 666 publications in this area since 1997 when it was first identified by Pruessner and colleagues as a "reliable biomarker of adrenocortical activity". The primary focus of the majority of these studies is centered on its utility as a biomarker associated with a range of psychosocial, physical and mental health variables. Such studies typically examine differences in the CAR (studied on 1 or 2 days) between healthy participants and other comparator groups of interest. Fewer studies (25 in our estimation) have examined correlates of day-to-day variation in the CAR in healthy participants, informing its role and regulation within the healthy circadian pattern of cortisol secretion. This is the first review to examine these studies which, although limited in number, offer a relatively coherent emerging story about state factors that influence the CAR and the impact of the CAR on daily functioning. Greater understanding of these issues helps illuminate the utility of the CAR as a promising biomarker in psychophysiological and epidemiological research. The review also highlights areas that require greater clarification and points to potentially fruitful areas of further research. PMID:23805796

Law, Robin; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Evans, Phil; Clow, Angela

2013-09-01

240

The influence of a motivational climate intervention on participants' salivary cortisol and psychological responses.  

PubMed

Research in achievement goal perspective theory suggests that the creation of a caring/task-involving (C/TI) climate results in more advantageous psychological and behavioral responses relative to an ego-involving (EI) climate; however, research has not yet examined the physiological consequences associated with psychological stress in relation to climate. Given the possible health and fitness implications of certain physiological stress responses, it is critical to understand this association. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether an EI climate procures increases in the stress-responsive hormone cortisol, as well as negative psychological changes, following the learning of a new skill, compared with a C/TI climate. Participants (n = 107) were randomized to a C/TI or an EI climate in which they learned how to juggle for 30 min over the course of 2 hr. Seven salivary cortisol samples were collected during this period. Results indicated that EI participants experienced greater cortisol responses after the juggling session and significantly greater anxiety, stress, shame, and self-consciousness relative to C/TI participants. In contrast, the C/TI participants reported greater enjoyment, effort, self-confidence, and interest and excitement regarding future juggling than the EI participants. These findings indicate that motivational climates may have a significant impact on both the physiological and psychological responses of participants. PMID:23404882

Hogue, Candace M; Fry, Mary D; Fry, Andrew C; Pressman, Sarah D

2013-02-01

241

Are we missing a mineralocorticoid in teleost fish? Effects of cortisol, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone on osmoregulation, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and isoform mRNA levels in Atlantic salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It has long been held that cortisol, acting through a single receptor, carries out both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions in teleost fish. The recent finding that fish express a gene with high sequence similarity to the mammalian mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) suggests the possibility that a hormone other than cortisol carries out some mineralocorticoid functions in fish. To test for this possibility, we examined the effect of in vivo cortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and aldosterone on salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA levels of NKA ?1a and ?1b in Atlantic salmon. Cortisol treatment for 6–14 days resulted in increased, physiological levels of cortisol, increased gill NKA activity and improved salinity tolerance (lower plasma chloride after a 24 h seawater challenge), whereas DOC and aldosterone had no effect on either NKA activity or salinity tolerance. NKA ?1a and ?1b mRNA levels, which increase in response to fresh water and seawater acclimation, respectively, were both upregulated by cortisol, whereas DOC and aldosterone were without effect. Cortisol, DOC and aldosterone had no effect on gill glucocorticoid receptor GR1, GR2 and MR mRNA levels, although there was some indication of possible upregulation of GR1 by cortisol (p = 0.07). The putative GR blocker RU486 inhibited cortisol-induced increases in salinity tolerance, NKA activity and NKA ?1a and ?1b transcription, whereas the putative MR blocker spironolactone had no effect. The results provide support that cortisol, and not DOC or aldosterone, is involved in regulating the mineralocorticoid functions of ion uptake and salt secretion in teleost fish.

McCormick, S.D.; Regish, A.; O'Dea, M. F.; Shrimpton, J.M.

2008-01-01

242

Are we missing a mineralocorticoid in teleost fish? Effects of cortisol, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone on osmoregulation, gill Na+,K+ -ATPase activity and isoform mRNA levels in Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

It has long been held that cortisol, acting through a single receptor, carries out both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions in teleost fish. The recent finding that fish express a gene with high sequence similarity to the mammalian mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) suggests the possibility that a hormone other than cortisol carries out some mineralocorticoid functions in fish. To test for this possibility, we examined the effect of in vivo cortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and aldosterone on salinity tolerance, gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA levels of NKA alpha 1a and alpha 1b in Atlantic salmon. Cortisol treatment for 6-14 days resulted in increased, physiological levels of cortisol, increased gill NKA activity and improved salinity tolerance (lower plasma chloride after a 24h seawater challenge), whereas DOC and aldosterone had no effect on either NKA activity or salinity tolerance. NKA alpha 1a and alpha 1b mRNA levels, which increase in response to fresh water and seawater acclimation, respectively, were both upregulated by cortisol, whereas DOC and aldosterone were without effect. Cortisol, DOC and aldosterone had no effect on gill glucocorticoid receptor GR1, GR2 and MR mRNA levels, although there was some indication of possible upregulation of GR1 by cortisol (p=0.07). The putative GR blocker RU486 inhibited cortisol-induced increases in salinity tolerance, NKA activity and NKA alpha 1a and alpha 1b transcription, whereas the putative MR blocker spironolactone had no effect. The results provide support that cortisol, and not DOC or aldosterone, is involved in regulating the mineralocorticoid functions of ion uptake and salt secretion in teleost fish. PMID:18462736

McCormick, Stephen D; Regish, Amy; O'Dea, Michael F; Shrimpton, J Mark

2008-05-15

243

Atrial natriuretic hormone in lactate-induced panic attacks: mode of release and endocrine and pathophysiological consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown unequivocally a lack of pituitary-adrenocortical stress hormone activation during lactate-induced panic attacks despite considerable psychopathological alterations, signs of arousal and several vegetative symptoms regularly occurring during stressful conditions. To study the possible inhibitory action of atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) on adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol release in humans, 10 patients with panic disorder (DSM-III-R) received sodium

Michael Kellner; Kristina Knaudt; Holger Jahn; Florian Holsboer; Klaus Wiedemann

1998-01-01

244

Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000nM) for 4h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol production in trout. PMID:21396343

Sandhu, Navdeep; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

2011-05-01

245

Comparison of hormone and electrolyte circadian rhythms in male and female humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circadian rhythm characteristics in healthy male and female humans were studied at 4-hour intervals for urine volume, cortisol, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), Na, K, Na/K ratios in the urine, as well as plasma cortisol. While plasma and urinary cortisol rhythms were very similar in both sexes, the described rhythms in urine volume, electrolyte, and 5-HIAA excretion differ for the two sexes. The results suggest that sex differences exist in the circadian patterns of important hormone and metabolic functions and that the internal synchrony of circadian rhythms differs for the two sexes. The results seem to indicate that the rhythmical secretion of cortisol does not account for the pattern of Na and K excretion.

Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. E.; Reilly, T.

1977-01-01

246

The effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone and cortisol production in HAC15 human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Pioglitazone belongs to the class of drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are widely used as insulin sensitizers in the treatment of diabetes. A major side effect of TZDs is fluid retention. The steroid hormone aldosterone also promotes sodium and fluid retention; however, the effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone production is controversial. We analyzed the effect of pioglitazone alone and in combination with angiotensin II (AngII) on the late rate-limiting step of adrenocortical steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma HAC15 cells. Treatment with pioglitazone for 24 h significantly increased the expression of CYP11B2 and enhanced AngII-induced CYP11B2 expression. Despite the observed changes in mRNA levels, pioglitazone significantly inhibited AngII-induced aldosterone production and CYP11B2 protein levels. On the other hand, pioglitazone stimulated the expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) marker DDIT3, with this effect occurring at early times and inhibitable by the PPAR? antagonist GW9962. The levels of DDIT3 (CHOP) and phospho-eIF2? (Ser51), a UPR-induced event that inhibits protein translation, were also increased. Thus, pioglitazone promotes CYP11B2 expression but nevertheless inhibits aldosterone production in AngII-treated HAC15 cells, likely by blocking global protein translation initiation through DDIT3 and phospho-eIF2?. In contrast, pioglitazone promoted AngII-induced CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production. Since cortisol enhances lipolysis, this result suggests the possibility that PPARs, activated by products of fatty acid oxidation, stimulate cortisol secretion to promote utilization of fatty acids during fasting. In turn, the ability of pioglitazone to stimulate cortisol production could potentially underlie the effects of this drug on fluid retention. PMID:25038520

Pan, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Ding; Choudhary, Vivek; Seremwe, Mutsa; Tsai, Ying-Ying; Olala, Lawrence; Chen, Xunsheng; Bollag, Wendy B

2014-08-25

247

Melatonin and cortisol circadian secretion during ethanol withdrawal in chronic alcoholics.  

PubMed

Changes in central neurotransmission and in hypothalamo-pituitary function occur in both ethanol (ETOH) intake and withdrawal. Melatonin (MLT) secretion is regulated by the noradrenergic system, which is activated upon ETOH withdrawal. Experimental evidence exist that pineal gland may have a role in ETOH intake and preference in rats. Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of MLT was found to be increased during ETOH intake in chronic alcoholics. In this study we have determined 24h plasma levels of MLT and cortisol in 8 chronic alcoholic males hospitalized for a detoxication program and in 8 healthy controls. The study was performed just after admission, on the first day of ETOH withdrawal and after 14 days of controlled abstinence. Circadian periodicity has been evaluated by the cosinor method. The initial determinations corresponded to the acute withdrawal phase. Twenty-four hour plasma MLT mean levels on acute withdrawal were higher than after 14 days abstinence and than those found in controls. Large interindividual differences prevented the detection of statistical significance. The cosinor analysis disclosed the loss of circadian periodicity in the acute withdrawal. Significant 24h periodicity was restored after 14 days abstinence. Cortisol levels were significantly higher than those found on day 14 and in healthy controls. Twenty-four hour periodicity was maintained in both alcoholics series. A delay in cortisol acrophase occurred in acute withdrawal. The effects of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone infusion on cortisol secretion were significantly enhanced in the acute withdrawal phase in comparison with those occurring when patients were retested and with healthy controls. PMID:7924629

Fonzi, S; Solinas, G P; Costelli, P; Parodi, C; Murialdo, G; Bo, P; Albergati, A; Montalbetti, L; Savoldi, F; Polleri, A

1994-01-01

248

The HPA axis response to critical illness: New study results with diagnostic and therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

For decades, elevated plasma cortisol concentrations in critically ill patients were exclusively ascribed to a stimulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis with increased circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) inferred to several-fold increase adrenal cortisol synthesis. However, 'ACTH-cortisol dissociation' has been reported during critical illness, referring to low circulating ACTH coinciding with elevated circulating cortisol. It was recently shown that metabolism of cortisol is significantly reduced in critically ill patients explained by a suppression of the activity and expression of cortisol metabolizing enzymes in kidney and liver. This reduced cortisol breakdown determines hypercortisolemia, much more than increased cortisol production, in the critically ill. Although the low plasma ACTH concentrations, evoked by the elevated plasma cortisol via feedback inhibition, are part of this adaptation, they may negatively affect adrenocortical structure and function in the prolonged phase of critical illness. These new insights have implications for diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients. PMID:25462585

Peeters, B; Boonen, E; Langouche, L; Van den Berghe, G

2014-11-22

249

Effect of dietary vitamin E on cortisol and glucose responses to handling stress in juvenile beluga Huso huso.  

PubMed

An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E on the physiological response to handling stress in juvenile beluga Huso huso. Fish were fed six experimental diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50,100, 200, or 400 mg Dl-all-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate/kg diet. At the end of the experiment, the fish in each tank were subjected to acute handling and air exposure stress. Cortisol and glucose were measured as the primary hormonal and secondary metabolic responses to the stressors, both before and 3 h after application of the stressors. The growth parameters and feed utilization rates were significantly lower in fish fed the diet not supplemented with vitamin E than in fish fed diets supplemented with vitamin E. Cortisol concentration was not affected by dietary treatment but glucose concentration was. Fish fed vitamin E at 0, 25, 100, and 400 mg/kg diet had higher concentrations of glucose than those fed vitamin E at 50 and 200 mg/kg. However, fish fed diets with 50 and 200 mg/kg exhibited higher growth rates. These results indicate that dietary vitamin E has some effect on plasma glucose but no effect on plasma cortisol. In general, when the stressors were applied to belugas, the glucose and cortisol responses were relatively low. This may be due to higher resistance and lower physiological responses to these types of stressors by this species or by chondrosteans in general. PMID:22779208

Falahatkar, B; Amlashi, A Safarpour; Conte, F

2012-03-01

250

Sleep disruption alters nocturnal ACTH and cortisol secretory patterns.  

PubMed

Recent studies have provided evidence that nocturnal cortisol secretion is coupled to ultradian rhythms of sleep. The present study was designed to specify how exogenous and sleep-related endogenous factors influence nocturnal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol secretion. We compared the influences of (1) temporary sleep deprivation, (2) arousals continuously induced during sleep and, (3) undisturbed sleep (baseline) on pituitary-adrenocortical activity in 10 healthy men. Sleep deprivation (DS) and continuous arousals during sleep (AS) were introduced at the beginning of the second rapid eye movement (REM) sleep period which is an epoch close to the first significant nocturnal rise in plasma cortisol. Compared with the baseline nights, plasma cortisol significantly increased immediately after continuous arousals were started or the subject was awakened and remained awake. Despite this exogenously provoked first cortisol peak, average cortisol release during DS and AS was no higher than during undisturbed sleep. The arousal-induced cortisol burst was followed by a temporary inhibition of cortisol secretion, suggesting that once the subject is aroused (i.e., in stage 1 sleep or awake), the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system becomes highly sensitive to negative feedback inhibition. Spontaneously occurring endogenous cortisol peaks of comparable size during undisturbed sleep did not exhibit such a temporary inhibition of cortisol secretion. We hypothesize that sleep attenuates negative feedback inhibition within the HPA system, whereas wakefulness (or stage 1 sleep) reflects increased feedback sensitivity of this system. PMID:1647222

Späth-Schwalbe, E; Gofferje, M; Kern, W; Born, J; Fehm, H L

1991-03-15

251

Extraction and Analysis of Cortisol from Human and Monkey Hair  

PubMed Central

The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

2014-01-01

252

Effects of high-altitude hypoxia on the hormonal response to hypothalamic factors.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic exposure to high altitude induces various physiological changes, including activation or inhibition of various hormonal systems. In response to activation processes, a desensitization of several pathways has been described, especially in the adrenergic system. In the present study, we aimed to assess whether the hypophyseal hormones are also subjected to a hypoxia-induced decrease in their response to hypothalamic factors. Basal levels of hormones and the responses of TSH, thyroid hormones, prolactin, sex hormones, and growth hormone to the injection of TRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) were studied in eight men in normoxia and on prolonged exposure (3-4 days) to an altitude of 4,350 m. Thyroid hormones were elevated at altitude (+16 to +21%), while TSH levels were unchanged, and follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin decreased, while leutinizing hormone was unchanged. Norepinephrine and cortisol levels were elevated, while no change was observed in levels of epinephrine, dopamine, growth hormone (GH), IGF-1, and IGFBP-3. The mean response to hypothalamic factors was similar in both altitudes for all studied hormones, although total T4 was lower in hypoxia during 45 to 60 min after injection. The effect of hypoxia on the hypophyseal response to hypothalamic factors was similar among subjects, except for the GH response to GHRH administration. We conclude that prolonged exposure to high-altitude hypoxia induces contrasted changes in hormonal levels, but the hypophyseal response to hypothalamic factors does not appear to be blunted. PMID:20926759

Richalet, Jean-Paul; Letournel, Murielle; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

2010-12-01

253

Behavioral and physiological responses of a wild teleost fish to cortisol and androgen manipulation during parental care.  

PubMed

Proximate mediators of reproductive behaviors in vertebrates have a long history of study. In fishes, relatively few studies have focused on hormonal control of parental care, despite a comprehensive background on the general physiology of fishes, and the frequent occurrence of parental care behaviors. Studies on this taxon have repeatedly found that the relationships between androgens and paternal care do not follow the predictions made in the avian and mammalian literature. Glucocorticoids may also have a role in mediating parental behaviors, possibly through their role as regulators of metabolism. As such, we investigated the role of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and cortisol in mediating parental effort of male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) by manipulating hormone titers in wild fish. In smallmouth bass, males spawn annually with a single female and defend a single brood for up to 30 days. Treatment of parental fish with cyproterone acetate (CYA; an androgen receptor antagonist) resulted in a decrease in nest defense in response to a simulated brood predator; however, no changes in nest success, nest tending or biochemical indicators of nutritional status were detected. Treatment with exogenous cortisol did not change parental behavior, but did increase the rate of nest failure, possibly owing to the energetic cost of chronically elevated cortisol concentrations. We discuss these findings in the context of resource-driven trade-offs and highlight life history as an important factor controlling parental effort in species with costly parental care behaviors. PMID:20615409

Dey, Cody J; O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Cooke, Steven J

2010-09-01

254

Gene expression in Atlantic salmon skin in response to infection with the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, cortisol implant, and their combination  

PubMed Central

Background The salmon louse is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes major economic losses in the aquaculture industry of Atlantic salmon. This host displays a high level of susceptibility to lice which can be accounted for by several factors including stress. In addition, the parasite itself acts as a potent stressor of the host, and outcomes of infection can depend on biotic and abiotic factors that stimulate production of cortisol. Consequently, examination of responses to infection with this parasite, in addition to stress hormone regulation in Atlantic salmon, is vital for better understanding of the host pathogen interaction. Results Atlantic salmon post smolts were organised into four experimental groups: lice + cortisol, lice + placebo, no lice + cortisol, no lice + placebo. Infection levels were equal in both treatments upon termination of the experiment. Gene expression changes in skin were assessed with 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR at the chalimus stage 18 days post infection at 9°C. The transcriptomic effects of hormone treatment were significantly greater than lice-infection induced changes. Cortisol stimulated expression of genes involved in metabolism of steroids and amino acids, chaperones, responses to oxidative stress and eicosanoid metabolism and suppressed genes related to antigen presentation, B and T cells, antiviral and inflammatory responses. Cortisol and lice equally down-regulated a large panel of motor proteins that can be important for wound contraction. Cortisol also suppressed multiple genes involved in wound healing, parts of which were activated by the parasite. Down-regulation of collagens and other structural proteins was in parallel with the induction of proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix (MMP9 and MMP13). Cortisol reduced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in formation of various tissue structures, regulators of cell differentiation and growth factors. Conclusions These results suggest that cortisol-induced stress does not affect the level of infection of Atlantic salmon with the parasite, however, it may retard repair of skin. The cortisol induced changes are in close concordance with the existing concept of wound healing cascade. PMID:22480234

2012-01-01

255

The effect of chronic propranolol treatment on overnight plasma levels of anterior pituitary and related hormones.  

PubMed Central

1 Treatment of eight healthy males with propranolol (80 mg twice daily) for 6 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in overnight plasma levels of prolactin and LH. 2 Plasma testosterone levels were elevated whilst GH and cortisol were unchanged by such treatment. 3 Measurement of overnight hormone levels 48 h after discontinuing treatment showed no evidence of a 'rebound' phenomenon. 4 Cortisol, GH, prolactin, and testosterone plasma levels all showed time dependent changes: propranolol treatment significantly altered the time course of cortisol but not of the other hormones. 5 The effects of chronic propranolol treatment are discussed in terms of a probable direct central action of the drug. In addition the lowered plasma prolactin levels may directly contribute to the hypotensive action of propranolol. PMID:7340886

Dart, A M; Lewis, M J; Groom, G V; Meek, E M; Henderson, A H

1981-01-01

256

Different methods to estimate serum free cortisol: a comparison during cortisol tetracosactide testing.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Serum cortisol is routinely quantified by immunoassays. In intensive care units serum free cortisol (FC) determination has been described as a better indicator of survival than total cortisol (TC). To estimate FC different methods are available including saliva sampling. We compared five methods to estimate FC, before and after an ACTH stimulating test in patients suspected of adrenal insufficiency. Method: Serum and saliva was collected from 130 patients from the Endocrine Department of a university hospital before and after tetracosactide injection for TC determination. FC was estimated: after serum ultrafiltration, quadratic (Coolens') or cubic (Dorin's) equations, using TC/cortisol-binding globulin concentrations ratio or using cortisol concentration determination in saliva. Results: FC concentrations obtained by different techniques were significantly correlated and Passing-Bablok regressions showed no deviation from linearity between salFC and filtFC or quadFC. Using the routine assumption that the patients were correctly diagnosed using a post-tetracosactide TC threshold of 550 nmol/L the FC methods generating the best ROC curves were salFC and filtFC or cubFC 30 min after tetracosactide injection. Conclusions: FC concentrations obtained by different techniques are significantly but not similarly correlated with TC. As, salFC and filtFC are more convenient to perform than methods involving CBG assays and are better correlated to TC during tetracosactide tests they may be preferred as FC surrogate assays. PMID:25381955

Brossaud, Julie; Gatta, Blandine; Tabarin, Antoine; Corcuff, Jean-Benoît

2014-11-01

257

Disturbances in Hormonal Profiles of Night Workers during Their Usual Sleep and Work Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, the authors reported that the 24-h rhythms of pituitary and adrenal hormones—that is, thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin (PRL), growth hormone, and cortisol—adapted only partially in a group of permanent night workers. However, the real impact of circadian rhythm alterations on the health and well-being of subjects is still unclear. In this study, the authors focus on an

L. Weibel; G. Brandenberger

1998-01-01

258

Effect of restricted blood flow on exercise-induced hormone changes in healthy men  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the influence of the accumulation of metabolites on exercise-induced hormone responses, plasma concentrations of\\u000a cortisol, growth hormone (GH), insulin, testosterone, thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were compared during exercise performed under normal conditions (control) and under conditions of restricted blood flow\\u000a of exercising leg muscles (ischaemia) in nine healthy young men. Blood supply was reduced

Mehis Viru; Eva Jansson; Atko Viru; Carl Johan Sundberg

1998-01-01

259

Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on hormonal responses during continuous and intermittent exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The modifying effect on exercise performance and neuroendocrine response of the nonselective beta blocker timolol (10 mg b.i.d. for 5 days) and the beta1-selective beta blocker metoprolol (100 mg b.i.d. for 5 days) was studied. The hormones studied were growth hormone, prolactin, cortisol, renin, epinephrine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. The response was studied during short-term maximal dynamic exercise, using two

Lars Gullestad; Lars Oystein Dolva; Sverre Erik Kjeldsen; Ivar Eide; John Kjekshus

1989-01-01

260

Excretion of infused 14C-steroid hormones via faeces and urine in domestic livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this comparative study was to gain more information about the excretion of steroid hormones in farm animals. This should help to establish or improve non-invasive steroid monitoring procedures, especially in zoo and wildlife animals. Over a period of 4 h the 14C-steroid hormones (3.7 MBq) progesterone (three females), testosterone (three males), cortisol and oestrone (two males, two

R. Palme; P. Fischer; H. Schildorfer; M. N. Ismail

1996-01-01

261

Age, body mass index, race and other determinants of steroid hormone variability: the HERITAGE Family Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and methods: To investigate from the HERITAGE Family Study database, 13 steroid hormones (androstane-3a ,1 7b-diol glucuronide, androsterone glucuronide, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA ester (DHEAE), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol, 17- hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone, pregnenolone ester, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in each sex for their relationships with age, body mass index (BMI), race and key lifestyle

O Ukkola; J Gagnon; T Rankinen; P A Thompson; Y Hong; A S Leon; J S Skinner; C Bouchard; Biocenter Oulu

2001-01-01

262

Experimental test of the effect of maternal hormones on larval quality of a coral reef fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal hormones can play an important role in the development of fish larvae. Levels of the stress hormone, cortisol, in\\u000a females are elevated by social interactions and transferred directly to the yolk of eggs, where they may influence developmental\\u000a rates. In some vertebrates, prenatal exposure to high levels of testosterone determine early growth rates, social status and\\u000a reproductive success. The

M. I. McCormick

1999-01-01

263

Effects of steroid hormones on immunoglobulin M (IgM) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunosuppressive effects of steroid hormones were evaluated as the response against implanted steroid hormones, cortisol (F), testosterone (T), estradiol-17ß (E2), and 11- ketotestosterone (11-KT), in juvenile rainbow trout. In long term experiments (5 weeks), fish were given a single intraperitoneal implant of F or T. A clear suppressive effect of plasma IgM levels with F and T was not

Y. Y. Hou; Y. Suzuki; K. Aida

1999-01-01

264

Estimation of Maximal Cortisol Secretion Rate in Healthy Humans  

PubMed Central

Context: Cortisol secretion is related to ACTH concentration by a sigmoidal dose-response curve, in which high ACTH concentrations drive maximal cortisol secretion rates (CSRmax). Objective: We sought to estimate CSRmax and free cortisol half-life in healthy humans (n = 21) using numerical methods applied to data acquired during cosyntropin (250 ?g) stimulation. We also evaluated the effect of overnight dexamethasone (DEX; 1 mg) vs. placebo on estimates of CSRmax and free cortisol half-life. Design: This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized order of overnight DEX vs. placebo, cosyntropin (250 ?g) stimulation with frequent serum cortisol sampling and computer-assisted numerical analysis. Setting: The study was conducted at a single academic medical center. Participants: Twenty-one healthy adult subjects (15 females and six males), mean aged 46 yr, participated in the study. Intervention: Intervention in the study included DEX vs. placebo pretreatment, cosyntropin (250 ?g) iv with frequent cortisol sampling. Main Outcome Measures: CSRmax and free cortisol half-life estimates, R2 for goodness of fit, were measured. Results: Mean ± sd CSRmax was 0.44 ± 0.13 nm/second, with free cortisol half-life of 2.2 ± 1.1 min. DEX did not significantly affect estimates of CSRmax or free cortisol half-life. Our model accounts for most of the variability of measured cortisol concentrations (overall R2 = 90.9 ±11.0%) and was more accurate (P = 0.004) during DEX suppression (R2 = 94.6 ± 4.6%) compared with placebo (R2 = 87.2 ± 8.7%). Conclusions: Application of a mass-action model under conditions of cosyntropin stimulation provides a relatively simple method for estimation CSRmax that accurately predicts measured cortisol concentrations. DEX administration did not significantly affect estimates of CSRmax or free cortisol half-life. PMID:22337905

Qiao, Zhi; Qualls, Clifford R.; Urban, Frank K.

2012-01-01

265

Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass. PMID:12530732

Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

2002-12-01

266

Temporal relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs in response to  

E-print Network

following treatment administration. Total plasma cortisol increased in ACTH-treated pigs and decreased stress in the pig. Key words: CBG, cortisol, FCI, pig 1 #12;Introduction The active form of cortisol, in pregnant sows (Kattesh et al., 1980), pseudopregnant gilts following cortisol administration (Behrens et al

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

267

Stress hormones, carcass composition and meat quality in Large White × Duroc pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of stress hormones, cortisol and catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline), were measured in urine collected after slaughter from the bladder, in 309 pigs (females and castrated males) from an F2 intercross between the Large White and Duroc breeds to analyze the relationships between stress-responsive neuroendocrine systems, carcass composition and meat quality. Intramuscular fat content was measured from a biopsy

A. Foury; N. Devillers; M.-P. Sanchez; H. Griffon; P. Le Roy; P. Mormède

2005-01-01

268

Interspecies hormonal interactions between man and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)  

E-print Network

Interspecies hormonal interactions between man and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) Amanda C not been examined. In a study of a dog agility competition among human/dog teams, men's pre-competition basal testosterone (T) levels were positively related to changes in dogs' cortisol levels from pre

Josephs, Robert

269

Born to yawn? Cortisol linked to yawning: a new hypothesis.  

PubMed

Yawning has become an interesting and curious scientific conundrum. Links between several neurological disorders can be found through the commonality of yawning episodes and contagious yawning. However, the reasons why we yawn are uncertain. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. We do not know whether cortisol levels fluctuate during yawning. Potentially, yawning and cortisol levels may provide a valuable diagnostic tool and warning of untoward underlying neurological problems. A new hypothesis is proposed that links cortisol levels with yawning episodes. PMID:21864988

Thompson, Simon B N

2011-11-01

270

Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears  

PubMed Central

To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3–19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled 1994–2006. Hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. Samples were categorized according to contamination: Eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p = 0.81) or sampling year (p = 0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p = 0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. PMID:21144554

Bechshøft, TØ; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS

2010-01-01

271

Cortisol Response to Social Stress in Parentally Bereaved Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Parental bereavement is associated with increased risk for psychiatric illness and functional impairment in youth. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning may be one pathway through which bereaved children experience increased risk for poor outcomes. However, few studies have prospectively examined the association between parental bereavement and cortisol response while accounting for psychiatric disorders in both youth and their caregivers. Methods One-hundred and eighty-one bereaved and nonbereaved offspring and their caregivers were assessed at multiple time points over a 5-year period after parental death. Offspring participated in an adaptation of the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST), and salivary cortisol samples were collected before and after exposure to social stressors. Mixed models for repeated measures were used to analyze the effects of bereavement status, psychiatric disorder in both offspring and caregiver, and demographic indices on trajectories of cortisol response. Results After controlling for demographic variables and offspring depression, bereaved offspring demonstrated significantly different trajectories of cortisol response compared with nonbereaved offspring, characterized by higher total cortisol output and an absence of cortisol reactivity to acute social stress. Within the bereaved group, offspring of parents who died by sudden natural death demonstrated significant cortisol reactivity to social stress compared with offspring whose parents died by suicide, who demonstrated more blunted trajectory of cortisol response. Conclusions Parentally bereaved youth demonstrate higher cortisol output than nonbereaved youth but are less able to mount an acute response in the face of social stressors. PMID:23021533

Dietz, Laura J.; Stoyak, Samuel; Melhem, Nadine; Porta, Giovanna; Matthews, Karen A.; Payne, Monica Walker; Brent, David A.

2013-01-01

272

Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles  

PubMed Central

Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0–12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M.; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W.; Usenko, Sascha

2013-01-01

273

Physiological mechanisms that underlie the effects of interactional unfairness on deviant behavior: the role of cortisol activity.  

PubMed

Although experiencing unfairness is a primary source of stress, there are surprisingly few studies that have examined the physiological underpinnings of unfairness. Drawing from social self-preservation theory, we derive predictions regarding the effects of interactional unfairness on activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which is one of the body's primary hormonal systems for responding to stress. Using an experimental design with objective physiological measures, we found support for our hypothesis that interactional unfairness triggers the release of cortisol by the HPA axis. This cortisol activity in turn mediated the effects of interactional unfairness on deviant behavior. This indirect effect remained significant after controlling for established attitudinal and self-construal mediators of the justice-deviance relationship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for the occupational stress and organizational justice literatures. PMID:24099347

Yang, Liu-Qin; Bauer, Jeremy; Johnson, Russell E; Groer, Maureen W; Salomon, Kristen

2014-03-01

274

CORTICOTROPIN RELEASING FACTOR RECEPTORS AND AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR IN SYRIAN HAMSTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social conflict is a part of everyday life, and it can be a potent stressor for both humans and other animals. In the laboratory, when two Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) compete for territory, a dominance hierarchy is quickly formed. Becoming subordinate is a significant stressor resulting in increased release of adrenocorticotropic hormone, ?-endorphin, and cortisol. Defeated hamsters will also subsequently

ALICIA N. FARUZZI

275

Children’s Cortisol in Preschool and Aggression One Year Later in Kindergarten .  

E-print Network

??Previous research has examined associations between aggression and cortisol throughout the lifespan, with most studies concluding that individuals with lower basal cortisol exhibit more aggressive… (more)

Reinecke, Diana Michelle

2011-01-01

276

The Association Between Cortisol Response to Mental Stress and High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Plasma Concentration in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the association between cortisol response to mental stress and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) in healthy older individuals without history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Background Mental stress is a recognized risk factor for CVD, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Cortisol, a key stress hormone, is associated with coronary atherosclerosis and may accentuate structural and functional cardiac disease. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 508 disease-free men and women aged 53 to 76 years drawn from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort. We evaluated salivary cortisol response to standardized mental stress tests (exposure) and hs-cTnT plasma concentration using a high-sensitivity assay (outcome). We measured coronary calcification using electron-beam dual-source computed tomography and Agatston scores. Results After adjustment for demographic and clinical variables associated with CVD as well as for inflammatory factors, we found a robust association between cortisol response and detectable hs-cTnT (odds ratio [OR]: 3.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.60 to 9.92; p = 0.003). The association remained when we restricted the analysis to participants without coronary calcification (n = 222; OR: 4.77; 95% CI: 1.22 to 18.72; p = 0.025) or when we further adjusted for coronary calcification in participants with positive Agatston scores (n = 286; OR: 7.39; 95% CI: 2.22 to 26.24; p = 0.001). Conclusions We found that heightened cortisol response to mental stress was associated with detectable plasma levels of cTnT using high-sensitivity assays in healthy participants, independently of coronary atherosclerosis. Further research is needed to understand the role of psychosocial stress in the pathophysiology of cardiac cell damage. PMID:23810896

Lazzarino, Antonio I.; Hamer, Mark; Gaze, David; Collinson, Paul; Steptoe, Andrew

2013-01-01

277

Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and Black individuals (mean age 65 ± 9.8 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Outcome measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 min post-awakening), early decline (30 min to 2 h post-awakening), late decline (2 h post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding AUCs. Total cortisol AUC was a summary measure of cumulative cortisol exposure. Higher CAR was associated with significantly lower wake-up cortisol (? = ?0.56; 95% CI: ?0.59 to ?0.53) and a higher early decline AUC (? = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.34–0.42) but was not associated with total cortisol AUC (? = 0.04; 95% CI: ?0.01 to 0.09), or other diurnal cortisol curve components following multivariable adjustment. Total cortisol AUC was significantly and positively associated with wake-up cortisol (? = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.32–0.40), bedtime cortisol (? = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.58–0.64), and other AUC measures, following multivariable adjustment. Associations were similar by sex, race/ethnicity, and age categories. We conclude that bedtime cortisol showed the strongest correlation with total cortisol AUC, suggesting it may be a marker of daily cortisol exposure. PMID:23890985

Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S.

2013-01-01

278

Effects of energy enhancer patches on cortisol production, peripheral circulation, and psychological measures: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Context • LifeWave Energy Enhancer (LEE) patches (LifeWave Corp, San Diego, CA, USA) on skin produce some changes that are consistent with increased energy production, but little is known about their effects on cortisol concentrations or the peripheral circulation. Objective • The study intended to assess the effects of LEE patches on salivary cortisol, peripheral circulation, and psychological measures on healthy adults. Methods • A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized pilot study was performed. Setting/Location • Measurements were made in the laboratory at Mind-Body-Science (Tucson, AZ, USA). Participants collected some of the saliva samples at work or home. Participants • To obtain pilot data, 20 healthy individuals with no chronic conditions were recruited-5 males and 15 females-aged 30-69 y. Intervention • Participants completed baseline psychological questionnaires and provided saliva samples for hormonal analysis. The next day, fingertip microvascular perfusion was measured, LEE or placebo patches were applied to participants' wrists, and perfusion scans were repeated, first immediately after and then 10 min after application of the patch. Saliva samples were collected, and questionnaires were completed. Participants returned at noon and 4:00 PM for further scans, and at the end of that time, the patches were removed. The protocol was repeated the following day using new patches. Outcome Measures • The research team analyzed the saliva samples for levels of cortisol and measured the percentage changes in cutaneous microvascular perfusion. The participants completed the energy visual analog scales (eVASs) and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability survey. Results • After the first patch application, the active group showed significantly higher cortisol concentrations than the placebo group, both at noon-2.39 ± 0.17 ng/mL vs 2.15 ± 0.27 (P = .0360), respectively-and at 4:00 PM- 2.02 ± 0.24 vs 1.67 ± 0.31 (P = .0155), respectively. No consistent changes occurred in perfusion. The eVAS score decreased significantly compared with baseline in the placebo group but not in the active group. Conclusion • Cortisol concentrations and eVAS scores showed significant differences between groups, which is consistent with the patches increasing energy production, warranting further testing. PMID:25607118

Connor, Melinda H; Baldwin, Ann Linda; Eickhoff, Jens

2015-01-01

279

Effect of anabolic implants on adrenal cortisol synthesis in feedlot beef cattle implanted early or late in the finishing phase.  

PubMed

Implantation of anabolic steroids to increase growth rate in beef cattle impacts adrenal glucocorticoid production. The mechanism by which combination androgen and estrogen implants reduce cortisol biosynthesis in heifers is not clear. The objective of this study was to identify whether pituitary or adrenal gene expression and liver enzyme activity may contribute to altered serum cortisol concentrations in heifers receiving a combination implant. On d 0 of a 122-d finishing phase, 187 predominantly Angus heifers (361 kg) approximately 14 months old were randomly assigned to one of three implant groups: (1) non-implanted control, (2) implanted at the beginning of the finishing phase (d 0; early implant) with a combination implant (200mg TBA+20mg E2; Revalor 200®), and (3) implanted during the late stage of the finishing phase (d 56; late implant) with Revalor 200®. At d 56, body weight (BW) was greater (P<0.0001) for the early implanted heifers (456 ± 1.9 kg) compared to 437 and 435 (± 1.8) kg for control and late implanted heifers, respectively. Final BW (d 122) was similar between both implanted groups and heavier than non-implanted controls (P<0.0001). Serum cortisol was similar among groups at d 0 (P=0.86) however, by d 28 heifers receiving the combination implant had reduced (P<0.05) serum cortisol concentrations (31.2 ng/mL) compared to controls (49.4 ng/mL) and late (48.2 ng/mL) groups. On d 84 cortisol was similar (P=0.75) among implanted heifers and was less (P<0.01) than non-implanted heifers. Expression of pituitary and adrenal genes involved in glucocorticoid synthesis was evaluated at d 28/29 or 84/85; however, despite decreased serum cortisol in implanted heifers, no change in mRNA expression was demonstrated. Liver CYP3A enzyme activity at d 28/29 was decreased 59% in early implanted heifers compared to control heifers (P=0.01). Additionally, at d 84/85 AKR1C activity was greatest (P=0.01) in control heifers compared to both implanted groups. Data suggest that components of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are influenced by exposure to exogenous hormones and this should be recognized when considering cortisol levels as a marker for stress response. PMID:25447333

Gifford, C A; Branham, K A; Ellison, J O; Gómez, B I; Lemley, C O; Hart, C G; Krehbiel, C R; Bernhard, B C; Maxwell, C L; Goad, C L; Hallford, D M; Hernandez Gifford, J A

2015-01-01

280

Cognitive-behavioral stress management reduces distress and 24-hour urinary free cortisol output among symptomatic HIV-infected gay men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Stress management interventions can reduce symptoms of distress as well as modulate certain immune system components in persons\\u000a infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These effects may occur in parallel with reductions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal\\u000a (HPA) axis hormones such as cortisol, which has been related in other work to a down-regulation of immune system components\\u000a relevant to HIV infection. The present

Michael H. Antoni; Stacy Cruess; Dean G. Cruess; Mahendra Kumar; Susan Lutgendorf; Gail Ironson; Elizabeth Dettmer; Jessie Williams; Nancy Klimas; Mary Ann Fletcher; Neil Schneiderman

2000-01-01

281

Baseline Cortisol Levels, Cortisol Response to Corticotropin, and Prognosis in Late Septic Shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognostic value of basal and corticotropin-stimulated cortisol concentration in patients with sepsis remains a controversial issue. In a retrospective cohort study, 82 consecutive patients with septic shock underwent a short corticotropin test performed more than 24 h after the onset of vasopressor therapy. Forty-one (50%) patients died within 28 days after the onset of septic shock. The mean (SD)

Pierre-Edouard Bollaert; Fabienne Fieux; Claire Charpentier

2003-01-01

282

Hormonal changes associated with the transition between nursing and natural fasting in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To better interpret previously described hormonal changes observed during the natural postweaning fast (2-3 months) endured by pups of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), we compared plasma cortisol, thyroid hormones, and leptin in pups (n=5) measured during nursing and fasting periods. Blood samples were taken at four times; early (9 days postpartum) and late (18-22 days postpartum) nursing, and early (second week postweaning) and late (eighth week postweaning) fasting. Plasma cortisol increased 39% between early and late nursing and almost 4-fold by late fasting. After the early nursing period, cortisol and body mass were negatively correlated (y=28.3-0.19 x; R=0.569; p=0.027). Total thyroxine (tT(4)), free T(4) (fT(4)), total triiodothyronine (tT3) and reverse T(3) (rT(3)) were greatest at early nursing and reduced by late nursing and remained so throughout the fast, with the exception of tT(4), which increased between late nursing (17.7+/-2.1 ng mL(-1)) and late fasting (30.1+/-2.8 ng mL(-1)) periods. Leptin remained unaltered among the four sampling periods and was not correlated with body mass. Pups appear to exhibit a shift in the relationship between cortisol and body mass suggesting a potential role for cortisol in the regulation of body fat. The higher concentrations of tT(3) and tT(4) during early nursing may reflect enhanced growth and development during this period, however the increase late in fasting is likely physiologically insignificant and an artifact of reduced metabolic clearance of these hormones. Transition of the pups from nursing to fasting states is characterized by a striking lack of change in cortisol, thyroid hormones, and leptin suggesting that any metabolic alterations associated with this transition may occur independent of these hormones.

Ortiz, Rudy M.; Houser, Dorian S.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

2003-01-01

283

Father Contributions to Cortisol Responses in Infancy and Toddlerhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months…

Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.

2011-01-01

284

Born to yawn? Cortisol linked to yawning: A new hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yawning has become an interesting and curious scientific conundrum. Links between several neurological disorders can be found through the commonality of yawning episodes and contagious yawning. However, the reasons why we yawn are uncertain. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. We do not know whether cortisol

Simon B. N. Thompson

2011-01-01

285

Attentional processes, anxiety, and the regulation of cortisol reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attentional processing biases have been demonstrated in trait anxious individuals. The current study evaluated the interaction of trait anxiety and attentional bias in the regulation of cortisol responses to threat cues. Undergraduates (N=63) completed a dot-probe task featuring social threat words. Trait anxiety was associated with avoidance of threat cues. Attentional avoidance predicted decreased cortisol responses at higher levels of

Bradley M. Applehans; Linda J. Luecken

2006-01-01

286

Assessing Salivary Cortisol in Studies of Child Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the susceptibility of radioimmunoassays (RIA) for saliva cortisol to interference effects caused by oral stimulants (drink mix crystals) used to facilitate saliva collection in studies with children. Found that oral stimulants artificially inflated estimated cortisol concentrations, with the magnitude of the interference-effect…

Schwartz, Eve B.; Granger, Douglas A.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Laird, Brandi

1998-01-01

287

Hypothetical hormonal mechanism by which potassium-rich diets benefit patients with rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have significantly lower salivary and serum potassium (K) concentration, reduced total body K, and lower dietary K intake than healthy subjects. There may also be a subtle impairment in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with RA with both a poor cortisol secretion response as well as a lower adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) response in relation to involved inflammatory factors. Patients with RA also exhibit an impaired Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) activity which might promote the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion seen in RA. I will use these facts to support the mechanism I propose. There are no qualitative differences between the effects of endogenous cortisol and exogenously applied synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs), which are widely used to treat RA. All effects are transmitted via the same receptor. The GC, cortisol, plays a role in normal K homeostasis and the reverse is also seen with higher K intake leading to higher cortisol secretion and biosynthesis. Results of a recent clinical trial showed elevated serum cortisol followed K supplementation. I suggest that this is what alleviated RA symptoms. I would like to suggest a "Cortisol-K" theory as a mechanism for De Coti-Marsh's proposed "K theory" while not precluding the possibility of eventual proof of a cure, possibly from effects of K inside cells other than the adrenal glands. PMID:19560875

Rastmanesh, Reza

2009-10-01

288

Cortisol secretion in children with symptoms of reactive attachment disorder.  

PubMed

Maltreated children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) have severe problems with social relationships and affect regulation. An association between early maltreatment and changes in the daily rhythm of cortisol secretion has already been reported for maltreated toddlers. We sought to find out whether such changes were apparent in school-age children with symptoms of RAD, who had experienced early maltreatment but were currently adopted in well-functioning families. We recruited 66 children: 34 adopted children, aged 5-12 years, with an early history of maltreatment and with social difficulties such as indiscriminate friendliness; and 32 age- and sex-matched comparison children with no history of maltreatment or social difficulties. Daily rhythms of cortisol production were determined from saliva samples collected over 2 days. The adopted group had significantly lower absolute levels of cortisol compared to the control group, but a typical profile of cortisol secretion. There was no association between cortisol secretion and symptom scores for psychopathology. PMID:23351606

Ko?ovská, Eva; Wilson, Philip; Young, David; Wallace, Alan Michael; Gorski, Charlotta; Follan, Michael; Smillie, Maureen; Puckering, Christine; Barnes, James; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

2013-08-30

289

Hormone impostors  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

1997-01-01

290

[Hormonal contraception].  

PubMed

The forms of administration, mechanisms of action, side effects and complications, and other aspects of female hormonal contraception are set forth in this "lesson" for medical students. Female hormonal contraception has been in use for over 30 years and is used by more than 150 million women worldwide. Oral contraceptives suppress the preovulatory peak of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, preventing ovulation and follicular maturation. Progestins render the cervical mucus impermeable to sperm and modify the endometrium so that it will no longer support implantation. The synthetic estrogen ethinyl estradiol is used in most combined oral contraceptives (OCs). Among the numerous progestins in use are the newer desogestrel, gestodene, and norgestimate, which have fewer androgenic and metabolic effects than did the 1st generation. the different forms of administration of hormonal methods include combined OCs, oral preparations containing low doses of progestin continuously administered or high doses continuously or discontinuously administered. Intramuscular injection of progestins and the so-called "morning after" postcoital pills are less often prescribed. The combined preparations may be monophasic, biphasic, triphasic, or sequential. Sequential preparations should be avoided because of the hyperestrogenic climate they induce. The low-dose progestin preparations are indicated for women with contraindications to synthetic estrogen. They must be taken at the same time each day and have a relatively high rate of side effects, especially ovarian and breast cysts and irregular bleeding. High-dose progestin preparations have significant metabolic effects and are indicated primarily for patients with gynecological problems such as fibromas and endometriosis. Intramuscular injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every 3 months is effective but has the same side effects as high-dose progestins. It is indicated primarily for patients unable to control their own behavior. The hormonal methods are all highly effective in preventing pregnancy when correctly administered. Side effects may be minor problems, such as nervousness and nausea, that are usually of short duration. the more serious side effects, including modifications of lipid or carbohydrate metabolism, hemostasis, blood pressure, or hepatic functioning and cardiovascular effects, have been reduced with the new lower dosed formulations. Absolute contraindications to hormonal contraception include undiagnosed vaginal bleeding or amenorrhea, history of thromboembolic or cerebral vascular accidents, severe cardiopathy or hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hepatopathy, hormonodependent cancer, pituitary tumors, porphyria, and severe mental problems. Relative contraindications impose the need for careful monitoring and follow-up. The practitioner should be aware of the possibility of interactions between OCs and certain other drugs. PMID:1604074

Van Cauwenberge, J R

1992-05-01

291

A short-term in vitro gill culture system to study the effects of toxic (copper) and non-toxic (cortisol) stressors on the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).  

PubMed

A short-term (24 h) method of gill filament culture system was developed to predict the effects of environmental contamination and stress in fish. Gill culture system containing two or three rainbow trout gill filaments in sterile glutamine supplemented Leibovitz 15 (L-15) media was submitted for 24 h to six different treatments: (i) CONT (control, medium only); (ii) CORT (cortisol, 0.28 microM cortisol); (iii) BLOCK (glucocorticoid receptor blocker, 14 microM RU 486); (iv) CORT+BLOCK (cortisol and blocker, 0.28 microM cortisol+14 microM RU 486); (v) CORT+CU (cortisol and copper, 100 microM CuSO4+0.28 microM cortisol); (vi) CU (copper, 100 microM CuSO4). After 24 h, the overall gill structure and cellular components resembled those of salmonids in vivo. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the culture media increased in the CORT+CU and CU groups but was significantly lower in the CORT+CU compared to CU group. Apoptotic cells increased in the CORT and CORT+BLOCK. The numbers of glucocorticoid (GR) receptor-positive cells were lower in the CU group. This short-term culture system seems to be suitable for studying the effects of both external and internal stress effectors (toxicants and hormones respectively), as it contains all cell types found in the gills and the cells give similar biological response as in vivo. PMID:15251188

Mazon, A F; Nolan, D T; Lock, R A C; Fernandes, M N; Wendelaar Bonga, S E

2004-10-01

292

Levels and circadian rhythmicity of plasma ACTH, cortisol, and ?-endorphin as a function of family history of alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Individuals with a family history of alcoholism may present a dysfunction in the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal\\u000a (HPA) axis that predates the development of alcoholism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The present study investigated the hypothesis that this HPA-axis dysfunction is associated with alterations in the pattern\\u000a of the circadian (24 h) secretions of adrenal corticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and ?-endorphin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Men with [high risk (HR)

Christina Gianoulakis; Xing Dai; Joseph Thavundayil; Thomas Brown

2005-01-01

293

Genistein alters the release of oxytocin, prostaglandins, cortisol and LH during insemination in gilts.  

PubMed

Soya products containing phytooestrogens are widely used as feed for pigs. However, limited data are available on the effects of phytooestrogen on the endocrine status of pigs. The aim of this work was to study the impact of the phytooestrogen genistein added to a soya-free diet on the hormonal pattern in gilts during oestrus and artificial insemination (AI). Ten gilts were fed a soya-free diet and fitted with jugular vein catheter through vena auricularis. The gilts were randomly divided into two groups (G- and C-group) where the G-group was given pure genistein, 1 mg/kg body weight (BW) twice daily, per os. Blood samples were collected before, during and after AI. Oxytocin, prostaglandin E?, prostaglandin F?(?), 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F?(?) (PGFM), cortisol and LH concentrations in blood plasma were analysed. Oxytocin concentrations were almost twice as high in the G-group as in C-group after the AI. Prostaglandin E? concentrations were higher in G-group than in C-group during the entire sampling period. After AI, the concentrations of prostaglandin E? increased in G-group but not in C-group. Prostaglandin F?(?) concentration had a pulsatile pattern, with increasing pulses after AI in G-group. Plasma PGFM concentrations increased after AI with a small variation between the groups. Plasma cortisol concentration increased after AI in C-group. LH decreased after AI in G-group. Genistein stimulated elevations of plasma oxytocin and prostaglandin E? concentrations and a pulsative pattern in prostaglandin F?(?) concentration. The possible involvement of genistein in plasma cortisol and basal LH concentrations in gilts given genistein may also be suggested. PMID:20626675

Norrby, M; Madsen, Mt; Saravia, F; Lundeheim, N; Madej, A

2011-04-01

294

Maternal and Umbilical Artery Cortisol at Birth: Relationships With Epidural Analgesia and Newborn Alertness  

PubMed Central

Background Newborn alertness soon after birth facilitates mother–infant interaction and may be related to umbilical cortisol levels. Yet, little is known about whether epidural analgesia influences umbilical cortisol at birth. Aim The aims of this study were to explore relationships between exposure to epidural analgesia and maternal and umbilical cortisol; maternal and umbilical cortisol levels at birth; and umbilical cortisol and infant alertness after birth. Method Forty women were self-selected to unmedicated or epidural labors in this pilot study. Maternal saliva and infant umbilical artery (UA) plasma at birth were enzyme immunoassayed for cortisol. Infant alertness was assessed nearly 1 hr after birth. Results Maternal cortisol was higher in the unmedicated versus epidural group (p = .003). Umbilical cortisol was not related to epidural analgesia exposure but was related to duration of labor (higher cortisol with longer labors; p = .026). Maternal cortisol level explained 55% of the variance in umbilical cortisol in the unmedicated group (p = .002), but there was no significant shared variance in the epidural sample (p = .776). There was a positive correlation (r2 = .17, p = .008) between umbilical cortisol and infant alertness. Latina infants demonstrated a higher frequency of alertness than Black infants. In multivariate analysis, umbilical cortisol (p = .049) and race/ethnicity (p = .024) remained significant predictors of infant alertness. Conclusions Our findings indicate that higher umbilical cortisol is related to greater infant alertness soon after birth. While epidural analgesia did not directly relate to infant cortisol, other factors contributed to higher umbilical cortisol. PMID:21719528

Bell, Aleeca F.; White-Traut, Rosemary; Wang, Edward C.; Schwertz, Dorie

2013-01-01

295

Cortisol Variation in Humans Affects Memory for Emotionally Laden and Neutral Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a test of the effects of cortisol on emotional memory, 90 men were orally administered placebo or 20 or 40 mg cortisol and presented with emotionally arousing and neutral stimuli. On memory tests administered within 1 hr of stimulus presentation, cortisol elevations caused a reduction in the number of errors committed on free-recall tasks. Two evenings later, when cortisol

Heather C. Abercrombie; Ned H. Kalin; Marchell E. Thurow; Melissa A. Rosenkranz; Richard J. Davidson

2003-01-01

296

Clinical significance of cortisone and cortisone\\/cortisol ratio in evaluating children with adrenal diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortisone is derived from the peripheral metabolism of cortisol and lacks biological activity. The rapid interconversion between cortisol and cortisone has been well established. The altered equilibrium between these steroids may regulate glucocorticoid activity in various tissues. We evaluated the serum levels of cortisol and cortisone, and the cortisone\\/cortisol ratio in ten children with adrenal diseases using reversed-phase high performance

Shinji Nomura; Michiko Fujitaka; Kazuhiko Jinno; Nobuo Sakura; Kazuhiro Ueda

1996-01-01

297

Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels during an assessment procedure correlate differently with risk-taking measures in male and female police recruits  

PubMed Central

Recent laboratory studies have shown that men display more risk-taking behavior in decision-making tasks following stress, whilst women are more risk-aversive or become more task-focused. In addition, these studies have shown that sex differences are related to levels of the stress hormone cortisol (indicative of activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis): the higher the levels of cortisol the more risk-taking behavior is shown by men, whereas women generally display more risk-aversive or task-focused behavior following higher levels of cortisol. Here, we assessed whether such relationships hold outside the laboratory, correlating levels of cortisol obtained during a job-related assessment procedure with decision-making parameters in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) in male and female police recruits. The CGT allows for discriminating different aspects of reward-based decision-making. In addition, we correlated levels of alpha-amylase [indicative of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary-axis (SAM)] and decision-making parameters. In line with earlier studies men and women only differed in risk-adjustment in the CGT. Salivary cortisol levels correlated positively and strongly with risk-taking measures in men, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation in women. In contrast, and less strongly so, salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with risk-taking in women, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation with risk-taking in men. Collectively, these data support and extend data of earlier studies indicating that risky decision-making in men and women is differently affected by stress hormones. The data are briefly discussed in relation to the effects of stress on gambling. PMID:24474909

van den Bos, Ruud; Taris, Ruben; Scheppink, Bianca; de Haan, Lydia; Verster, Joris C.

2013-01-01

298

Temporal changes in plasma thyroid hormone, growth hormone and free fatty acid concentrations, and hepatic 5?-monodeiodinase activity, lipid and protein content during chronic fasting and re-feeding in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal changes in growth, plasma thyroid hormone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, hepatic T3 content and hepatic 5'-monodeiodinase activity were measured in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to a sustained fast for up to eight weeks, and during a four-week re-feeding period. The purpose of the study was to examine aspects of the endocrine control

K. J. Farbridge; J. F. Leatherland

1992-01-01

299

Effects of epinephrine and cortisol on the analgesic activity of metyrosine in rats.  

PubMed

Some endogenous hormones (epinephrine and cortisol) can change an individual's pain threshold. Propranolol is a non-selective ? adrenergic receptor blocker which antagonises the anti-inflammatory effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs via the ?1 and ?2 adrenergic receptors. The roles of epinephrine and cortisol were investigated in the analgesic activity of metyrosine in rats with reduced epinephrine levels induced by metyrosine. Pain threshold measurement was performed using an analgesimeter with different doses and the single or combined usage of metyrosine, prednisolone, metyrapone and propranolol in rats. Epinephrine and corticosterone levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in metyrosineadministered rats. Metyrosine reduces the epinephrine levels without affecting the corticosterone levels, thereby creating an analgesic effect. It was determined that prednisolone did not have an analgesic effect in rats with normal epinephrine levels, but its analgesic activity increased with a parallel decrease in the epinephrine levels. Similarly, the combined use of prednisolone and metyrosine provided a stronger analgesic effect than that rendered by metyrosine alone. The strongest analgesic effect, however, was observed in the group of rats with the lowest epinephrine level in whom the metyrosine + prednisolone combination was administered. The findings of this study may be useful in severe pain cases in which the available analgesics are unable to relieve the individual's pain. PMID:21975814

Albayrak, Yavuz; Saglam, Mustafa Bahadir; Yildirim, Kadir; Karatay, Saliha; Polat, Beyzagul; Uslu, Turan; Suleyman, Halis; Akcay, Fatih

2011-09-01

300

Plasma cortisol levels and illness appraisal in deficit syndrome schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Research investigating the association between negative symptoms and plasma cortisol levels in individuals with schizophrenia has produced inconsistent findings. This study investigated whether deficit syndrome schizophrenia (characterized by high levels of primary negative symptoms) is associated with comparatively high morning plasma cortisol levels, more negative appraisals about illness and higher levels of depression. Participants were 85 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 85 individuals with no history of contact with psychiatric services matched for age and gender. All participants provided fasting 9.00a.m. plasma cortisol samples. There were no significant differences between the schizophrenia and control participants in plasma cortisol levels. The Proximal Deficit Syndrome method was used to identify individuals with deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Contrary to what had been hypothesized, participants with deficit syndrome schizophrenia had significantly lower plasma cortisol levels than both non-deficit syndrome participants and control participants. Participants with the deficit syndrome reported significantly less negative appraisals about illness (assessed by PBIQ) and lower levels of depression (assessed by BDI-II). Differences in cortisol levels continued to trend toward significance when levels of depression were controlled for. The patterns of illness-related appraisals and plasma cortisol levels raise the possibility that the deficit syndrome could be a form of adaptation syndrome. PMID:25262562

White, Ross G; Lysaker, Paul; Gumley, Andrew I; McLeod, Hamish; McCleery, Muriel; O'Neill, Donnacha; MacBeth, Angus; Giurgi-Oncu, Catalina; Mulholland, Ciaran C

2014-12-30

301

Cortisol, cytokines, and hippocampal volume interactions in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Separate bodies of literature report that elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol negatively affect hippocampal structure and cognitive functioning, particularly in older adults. Although interactions between cytokines and cortisol occur through a variety of known mechanisms, few studies consider how their interactions affect brain structure. In this preliminary study, we assess the impact of interactions between circulating levels of IL-1Beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and waking cortisol on hippocampal volume. Twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults underwent blood draws for quantification of circulating cytokines and saliva collections to quantify the cortisol awakening response. Hippocampal volume measurements were made using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Elevated levels of waking cortisol in conjunction with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. In addition, independent of cortisol, higher levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were also associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. These data provide preliminary evidence that higher cortisol, in conjunction with higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are associated with smaller hippocampal volume in older adults. We suggest that the dynamic balance between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and inflammation processes may explain hippocampal volume reductions in older adults better than either set of measures do in isolation. PMID:25071562

Sudheimer, Keith D.; O'Hara, Ruth; Spiegel, David; Powers, Bevin; Kraemer, Helena C.; Neri, Eric; Weiner, Michael; Hardan, Antonio; Hallmayer, Joachim; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

2014-01-01

302

Individuality and stability of nocturnal secretion patterns for eight hormones in healthy young men  

PubMed Central

The concentration of hormones in the bloodstream shows oscillations, reflecting the fact that endocrine physiology is structured over time. In many cases, these oscillations have an ultradian configuration that can be superimposed on a circadian rhythm. Secretion of hormones can be linked to the phases of sleep, as is the case with growth hormone (GH); can depend strongly on the circadian pacemaker, as in the case of cortisol; or be under the influence of both, as seen for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Thus, the temporal pattern of secretion of several hormones, and the resulting plasma concentration (also influenced by hormone tissue distribution and clearance), depends on impulses from biological clocks and is influenced by endogenous and exogenous masking factors. The extent of interindividual differences in the phenotypes of temporal patterns of hormone secretion is not well known. In this study, a series of eight hormones were measured over one night, and these measurements were repeated over another night. The study had two goals. The first was to explore the extent of inter individual differences in nocturnal and ultradian rhythms of these hormones. The second was to see how stable the individual patterns of nocturnal hormone secretion could be. Our results indicate that the temporal organization of hormone secretion into the blood is highly individual, and that these intraindividual patterns are conserved over time. This is relevant in view of the changes in secretion of several hormones that have been described in biological psychiatry research.

Schulz, Pierre; Curtin, François; Steimer, Thierry

2007-01-01

303

Seasonal changes in T3, FT4, and cortisol in free-ranging Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus).  

PubMed

Serum levels of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (FT4), and cortisol were determined for free-ranging Svalbard reindeer during winter (March), summer (June-July), and autumn (October). A total of 48 animals representing adult males, adult barren, pregnant, and lactating females, and calves were shot, and blood sampled from their hearts. T3 and FT4 were found to vary seasonally, the levels being lower in winter than in summer or autumn. Differences due to state of pregnancy, sex, or age were represented by low FT4 levels in lactating females (summer) and rutting males (autumn), and high T3 levels in young calves (summer). Serum cortisol levels were found to change seasonally, summer levels being higher than winter or autumn levels in all groups of animals. This finding suggests that glucocorticoids (cortisol) do not affect the deiodination from T4 to T3 in reindeer. The seasonal changes in T3 and FT4 in wild animals were similar to the changes in captive animals. It is therefore concluded that the changes in thyroidal hormone levels do not indicate changes in basal metabolic rate in this species. PMID:4018559

Nilssen, K J; Bye, K; Sundsfjord, J A; Blix, A S

1985-08-01

304

Role of counterregulatory hormones in the catabolic response to stress.  

PubMed Central

Patients with major injury or illness develop protein wasting, hypermetabolism, and hyperglycemia with increased glucose flux. To assess the role of elevated counterregulatory hormones in this response, we simultaneously infused cortisol (6 mg/m2 per h), glucagon (4 ng/kg per min), epinephrine (0.6 microgram/m2 per min), and norepinephrine (0.8 micrograms/m2 per min) for 72 h into five obese subjects receiving only intravenous glucose (150 g/d). Four obese subjects received cortisol alone under identical conditions. Combined infusion maintained plasma hormone elevations typical of severe stress for 3 d. This caused a sustained increase in plasma glucose (60-80%), glucose production (100%), and total glucose flux (40%), despite persistent hyperinsulinemia. In contrast, resting metabolic rate changed little (9% rise, P = NS). Urinary nitrogen excretion promptly doubled and remained increased by approximately 4 g/d, reflecting increased excretion of urea and ammonia. Virtually all plasma amino acids declined. The increment in nitrogen excretion was similar in three additional combined infusion studies performed in 3-d fasted subjects not receiving glucose. Cortisol alone produced a smaller glycemic response (20-25%), an initially smaller insulin response, and a delayed rise in nitrogen excretion. By day 3, however, daily nitrogen excretion was equal to the combined group as was the elevation in plasma insulin. Most plasma amino acids rose rather than fell. In both infusion protocols nitrogen wasting was accompanied by only modest increments in 3-methylhistidine excretion (approximately 20-30%) and no significant change in leucine flux. We conclude: (a) Prolonged elevations of multiple stress hormones cause persistent hyperglycemia, increased glucose turnover, and increased nitrogen loss; (b) The sustained nitrogen loss is no greater than that produced by cortisol alone; (c) Glucagon, epinephrine, and norepinephrine transiently augment cortisol-induced nitrogen loss and persistently accentuate hyperglycemia; (d) Counterregulatory hormones contribute to, but are probably not the sole mediators of the massive nitrogen loss, muscle proteolysis, and hypermetabolism seen in some clinical settings of severe stress. Images PMID:6511925

Gelfand, R A; Matthews, D E; Bier, D M; Sherwin, R S

1984-01-01

305

Interventions to Improve Cortisol Regulation in Children: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Childhood adversity is associated with physiologic dysregulation across multiple biological systems; however, relatively little is known about whether these changes are reversible with intervention. The objective of this review was to examine evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy cortisol regulation in children. We selected articles from English-language publications in PubMed and EBSCO databases through 2012. Two independent reviewers assessed articles against eligibility criteria. Eligible studies were randomized controlled or quasi-experimental studies designed to improve relationships, environments, or psychosocial functioning in children and examined cortisol as an outcome. We identified 19 articles. There was substantial heterogeneity across studies with regard to age, selection criteria, intervention design, cortisol assessment, and follow-up duration. Eighteen of the 19 articles reported at least 1 difference in baseline cortisol, diurnal cortisol, or cortisol responsivity between intervention and control participants. Importantly, however, there was remarkable inconsistency with regard to how the interventions influenced cortisol. Therefore, studies that included a low-risk comparison group (n = 8) provided critical insight, and each found some evidence that postintervention cortisol levels in the intervention group approximated the low-risk comparison group and differed from children receiving usual care. In conclusion, existing studies show that cortisol activity can be altered by psychosocial interventions. These findings are promising, not only because they indicate physiologic plasticity that can be leveraged by interventions but also because they suggest it may be possible to repair regulatory systems after childhood adversity, which could inform strategies for reducing health disparities and promoting lasting improvements in health. PMID:24420810

McLaughlin, Katie A.; Shonkoff, Jack P.

2014-01-01

306

Interaction between cadmium exposure and infection with the intestinal parasite Moniliformis moniliformis (Acanthocephala) on the stress hormone levels in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of an infection with the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis and a simultaneous Cd-exposure on the stress hormone levels of rats was studied. Immediately after the application of cadmium to some rats, cortisol levels in all groups of rats, as quantified by radioimmunoassay (RIA), significantly increased. However, infections with M. moniliformis as well as the uptake of Cd reduced significantly the

B. Sures; G. Scheef; B. Klar; W. Kloas; H. Taraschewski

2002-01-01

307

Diurnal Cortisol Levels and Cortisol Response in Youths with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Recent results indicate a role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although childhood onset is common, the HPA axis has scarcely been studied in young OCD subjects. Therefore, the present study aimed at examining basal and response levels of salivary cortisol in a sample of young OCD subjects. Methods: Twenty-three children and adolescents

Per E. Gustafsson; Per A. Gustafsson; Tord Ivarsson; Nina Nelson

2008-01-01

308

Oscillations in plasma cortisol levels of newborns during exchange transfusion.  

PubMed

Plasma cortisol concentration was determined in blood samples obtained in six newborns during exchange transfusion at 3--5 minute intervals. A radiotransin-assay using horse serum as a binding protein and toluene-based scintillation fluid for separation of unbound tracer proved to be a relatively specific method for determination of cortisol level in the plasma of newborns. Irregular oscillations were observed in four newborns, whereas a single peak could be demonstrated in two cases during the 40--70 minute period observed. The results suggest that the CRF-ACTH-cortisol secretion may already be episodic in the newborn period. PMID:7428711

Zoltán, E; Sólyom, J

1980-06-01

309

Other than growth hormone neuroendocrine actions of ghrelin.  

PubMed

Besides its growth hormone-releasing effect, ghrelin has been demonstrated to influence other hormonal systems, such as the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, prolactin secretion, the thyroid axis as well as the gonadal axis. Ghrelin and its analogues stimulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis independent of the pituitary, via the hypothalamus, involving both corticotrophin-releasing hormone, arginine-vasopressin and neuropeptide Y stimulation. In adrenocortocotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumors, the ghrelin receptor is pathologically expressed, thus accounting for especially high ACTH and cortisol responses to ghrelin and GH secretagogues in patients with Cushing's disease. Ghrelin stimulates prolactin release most probably from the somatomammotroph cells of the pituitary gland. The effect of ghrelin on the pituitary regulation of the thyroid axis is controversial and its role in the physiological control of thyroid function is still matter of investigation. On the other hand, ghrelin has been reported to exert an inhibitory effect on follicle-stimulating hormone and, in particular, on luteinizing hormone, probably via an inhibitory effect exerted at the hypothalamic level on gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion. PMID:23652392

Benso, Andrea; Calvi, Elisa; Gramaglia, Elena; Olivetti, Ilaria; Tomelini, Michela; Ghigo, Ezio; Broglio, Fabio

2013-01-01

310

Activation of anterior lobe corticotrophs by electroacupuncture or noxious stimulation in the anaesthetized rat, as shown by colocalization of Fos protein with ACTH and beta-endorphin and increased hormone release.  

PubMed

A marked expression of the c-fos proto-oncogene has been recently reported in cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in rats subject to electroacupuncture or noxious thermal stimulation under pentobarbital anaesthesia. The present study was undertaken to identify the activated pituitary cells. Following both kinds of stimulation, most Fos-immunoreactive anterior lobe cells showed colocalization with adrenocorticotropic hormone or beta-endorphin immunoreactivity. No c-fos expression occurred in pituitary cells immunoreactive for growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, or thyrotropin-stimulating hormone. A marked rise of adrenocorticotropic hormone and beta-endorphin concentrations occurred in plasma. In the hypothalamus, c-fos expression was increased in the mediobasal nuclei-namely, the arcuate nucleus-and in the paraventricular nucleus, but more in the former. It is suggested that somatosensory noxious input, or the partly noxious input evoked by electroacupuncture, activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis as in common forms of stress, but with a specific activation of the mediobasal hypothalamic nuclei and no stimulation of intermediate lobe cells. Opiate release from the pituitary gland may contribute to acupuncture analgesia or the intrinsic antinociceptive reactions triggered by noxious stimulation. PMID:8736578

Pan, B; Castro-Lopes, J M; Coimbra, A

1996-01-01

311

Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-related eating. Competitive athletes are “stressed” by their intense exercise regimens in addition to their normal activities of daily living and thus may benefit from a natural therapy intended to modulate baseline perceptions of stress and stress hormone exposure. Methods We assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora®, Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks. Results After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (p<0.05) lower (?18%) in the Relora group compared to Placebo. Compared to Placebo, the Relora group had significantly better (p<0.05) mood state parameters, including lower indices of Overall Stress (?11%), Tension (?13%), Depression (?20%), Anger (?42%), Fatigue (?31%), and Confusion (?27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with a combination of Magnolia bark extract and Phellodendron bark extract (Relora®) reduces cortisol exposure and perceived daily stress, while improving a variety of mood state parameters, including lower fatigue and higher vigor. These results suggest an effective natural approach to modulating the detrimental health effects of chronic stress in moderately stressed adults. Future studies should examine the possible performance and recovery benefits of Relora supplementation in athletes overstressed by the physical and psychological demands of training and competition. PMID:23924268

2013-01-01

312

Effects of manipulating the amount of social-evaluative threat on the cortisol stress response in young healthy women.  

PubMed

Psychological stress is known to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex into the bloodstream. Cortisol is the major human stress hormone and its health correlates continue to be investigated by laboratories around the world. One line of research suggests that specific situational variables play a role in the creation of a stressful situation. The current study examined the effects of systematically varying several situational characteristics on the cortisol stress response in 80 healthy young women exposed to a public speaking task. Three main factors and its interactions were investigated by locating the expert panel either inside or outside of the room, having the subjects speak either about themselves or somebody else, and by asking half of the subjects to perform a distractor task in addition to performing the public speaking. We interpreted these manipulations as variations of social evaluative threat, ego-involvement, and divided attention. We hypothesized that the variations and their interactions would cause differences in endocrine stress responses. The results showed that only the manipulation of social-evaluative threat had a significant main effect on the cortisol stress response in women. There was a further trend (p = 0.07) for a four-way interaction effect. No other main or interaction effects could be observed. We conclude that in women, social-evaluative threat affects the endocrine stress response. This is in contrast to a previous study showing no effects of this variation in men. Thus, future studies should more closely investigate sex or gender effects that might be interacting with the situational aspects of a stressful task. PMID:20392193

Wadiwalla, M; Andrews, J; Lai, B; Buss, C; Lupien, S J; Pruessner, J C

2010-05-01

313

Surplus dietary tryptophan reduces plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations and enhances recovery after social stress in pigs.  

PubMed

Social stress occurs in intensive pig farming due to aggressive behavior. This stress may be reduced at elevated dietary levels of tryptophan (TRP). In this study, we compared the effects of high (13.2%) vs. normal (3.4%) dietary TRP to large neutral amino acid (LNAA) ratios on behavior and stress hormones in catheterized pigs ( approximately 50 kg BW), which were exposed to social stress by placing them twice into the territory of a dominant pig ( approximately 60 kg) for 15 min. Pre-stress plasma TRP concentrations were 156+/-15 vs. 53+/-6 micromol/l (p<0.01) in pigs on the high vs. normal TRP diets, respectively. Pre-stress plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations were twofold (p<0.01) and 1.4-fold (p<0.05) lower but plasma adrenaline concentration was similar in pigs on the high vs. normal TRP diets, respectively. During the social confrontations, pigs on the high vs. normal TRP diets show a tendency towards reduced active avoidance behavior (3.2+/-1.1 vs. 6.7+/-1.2 min, p<0.1) but their physical activity (8.5+/-0.6 vs. 10.2+/-0.8 min) and aggressive attitude towards the dominant pig (11+/-3 vs. 7+/-2 times biting) were similar. Immediate (+5 min) post-stress plasma cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline responses were similar among dietary groups. After the social confrontations, the post-stress plasma cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations and/or curves (from +5 min to 2 h) were lower/steeper (p<0.05) in pigs on the high vs. normal TRP diets. In summary, surplus TRP in diets for pigs (1) does not significantly affect behavior when exposed to social stress, (2) reduces basal plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations, (3) does not affect the immediate hormonal response to stress, and (4) reduces the long-term hormonal response to stress. In general, pigs receiving high dietary TRP were found to be less affected by stress. PMID:15996691

Koopmans, Sietse Jan; Ruis, Marko; Dekker, Ruud; van Diepen, Hans; Korte, Mechiel; Mroz, Zdzislaw

2005-07-21

314

Intimate partner violence and diurnal cortisol patterns in couples.  

PubMed

This study examined whether physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization was associated with diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol in a community sample of 122 couples in their 30s from predominantly lower socioeconomic status backgrounds. Findings indicate that women with higher levels of victimization exhibited flatter patterns of diurnal cortisol characterized by both higher midday levels and more attenuated decreases in cortisol levels across the day, compared to women with lower levels of victimization. However, men's victimization was not associated with their diurnal cortisol levels. This study advances our understanding of the association between physical IPV victimization and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in women, which is likely to have further implications for their subsequent mental and physical health. PMID:25286224

Kim, Hyoun K; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M; Shortt, Joann Wu; Squires, Erica C; Snodgrass, J Josh

2015-01-01

315

Cortisol Response Following Exposure Treatment for PTSD in Rape Victims.  

PubMed

This study examined changes in salivary cortisol levels pre-to-post-treatment in adult female rape victims diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) randomly assigned to be treated with either Prolonged Exposure Therapy or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, session 3, and session 9. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol levels was observed in individuals classified as treatment responders in both treatment conditions. Findings suggest that successful exposure-based treatments for PTSD which result in trauma-related and depressive symptom reduction may impact the action of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as measured by changes in level of salivary cortisol from pre-to-post-treatment. PMID:20526437

Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Astin, Millie C; Kelley, Mary

2010-06-01

316

Hormonal responses to psychological stress in men preparing for skydiving.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between the hormonal and psychological responses of young men about to engage in a potentially life-threatening event. Subjects were recruited to take their first skydiving jump. The scores on questionnaires designed to assess anxiety were not significantly increased at 0800 h on the morning before the jump by comparison with scores obtained from the same subjects 3-5 days previously. However, a psychological instrument for rating of events indicated significantly increased intensity, and sympathetic nervous system activity, as measured by the salivary amylase response, was increased over self-control values. Salivary cortisol and testosterone levels were significantly lower on the morning of the jump than self-control values and values in control subjects determined at the same time of day. However, plasma LH was not suppressed. The anxiety and stress measures as well as the rating of events rose to high levels just before the jump. With the exception of testosterone, which remained low, serum cortisol, PRL, and GH all increased greatly subsequent to the rise in psychological measures, reached peak values before or shortly after landing, and declined significantly within the next hour. Anxiety and subjective stress scores declined to those of the self-control values within 15 min after landing, but the rating of events scale remained significantly elevated. In summary, reported anxiety associated with a purely psychological stressor was suppressed until within a few hours preceding the event, but was preceded by an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity and suppression of plasma cortisol and salivary testosterone levels. The event itself was associated with a reversal of the cortisol decline; other stress-associated hormones increased, but salivary testosterone remained low. PMID:9253325

Chatterton, R T; Vogelsong, K M; Lu, Y C; Hudgens, G A

1997-08-01

317

True or false? Memory is differentially affected by stress-induced cortisol elevations and sympathetic activity at consolidation and retrieval.  

PubMed

Adrenal stress hormones released in response to acute stress may yield memory-enhancing effects when released post-learning and impairing effects at memory retrieval, especially for emotional memory material. However, so far these differential effects of stress hormones on the various memory phases for neutral and emotional memory material have not been demonstrated within one experiment. This study investigated whether, in line with their effects on true memory, stress and stress-induced adrenal stress hormones affect the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of emotional and neutral false memories. Participants (N=90) were exposed to a stressor before encoding, during consolidation, before retrieval, or were not stressed and then were subjected to neutral and emotional versions of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott word list learning paradigm. Twenty-four hours later, recall of presented words (true recall) and non-presented critical lure words (false recall) was assessed. Results show that stress exposure resulted in superior true memory performance in the consolidation stress group and reduced true memory performance in the retrieval stress group compared to the other groups, predominantly for emotional words. These memory-enhancing and memory-impairing effects were strongly related to stress-induced cortisol and sympathetic activity measured via salivary alpha-amylase levels. Neutral and emotional false recall, on the other hand, was neither affected by stress exposure, nor related to cortisol and sympathetic activity following stress. These results demonstrate the importance of stress-induced hormone-related activity in enhancing memory consolidation and in impairing memory retrieval, in particular for emotional memory material. PMID:18790572

Smeets, Tom; Otgaar, Henry; Candel, Ingrid; Wolf, Oliver T

2008-11-01

318

Serum prolactin and cortisol levels in evaluation of pseudoepileptic seizures.  

PubMed

In 6 patients with epilepsy, a twofold increase in serum prolactin levels followed true epileptic seizures, but no significant change followed pseudoepileptic attacks in 6 other patients. Serum prolactin concentration is a useful biochemical marker to distinguish between epileptic and pseudoepileptic seizures. Serum cortisol levels also increased after epileptic seizures, but diurnal and individual variations render the cortisol level a less reliable indicator of such attacks. PMID:4037754

Pritchard, P B; Wannamaker, B B; Sagel, J; Daniel, C M

1985-07-01

319

Nocturnal cortisol and melatonin secretion in primary insomnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated evening and nocturnal serum cortisol and melatonin concentrations in patients with primary insomnia to test if this clinical condition is accompanied by an increase of cortisol secretion and a simultaneous decrease of nocturnal melatonin production. Ten drug-free patients (4 males, 6 females) with primary insomnia (mean age±S.D.: 39.2±9.1 years) and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy controls

Dieter Riemann; Torsten Klein; Andrea Rodenbeck; Bernd Feige; Andrea Horny; Ruth Hummel; Gesa Weske; Anam Al-Shajlawi; Ulrich Voderholzer

2002-01-01

320

Obstructive sleep apnea and neurocognitive performance: the role of cortisol  

PubMed Central

Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder with multiple consequences including negative effects on neurocognitive function. Several domains of cognitive function are impaired in OSA patients, but the mechanisms through which this sleep disorder results in impairment are not clear. Given the well-known effects of cortisol on cognitive function, in particular memory, the dysregulating effects of OSA on cortisol levels is hypothesized as a potential pathway leading to cognitive impairment. Methods Fifty-five participants with OSA (mean apnea-hypopnea index [AHI], 30.3) were assessed over 2 days. Over a 24-hour period, blood was collected every 2 hours to examine cortisol levels. The following night, sleep was monitored with polysomnography (PSG). Participants were given a battery of neurocognitive tests, which assessed 7 cognitive domains. Results OSA severity assessed by oxygen desaturation index (ODI) was associated with 24-hour cortisol levels. AHI, ODI, and nighttime cortisol levels were associated with global deficit scores (GDS) in cognitive functioning, particularly in domains of learning, memory, and working memory (P<.05 for all). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that nighttime cortisol accounted for 9% to 16% of variance in learning (P=.018), memory (P=.003), and working memory (P=.016) domains, though apnea severity did not significantly predict any additional variance. Conclusions In our sample of patients with OSA, nocturnal cortisol levels were associated with neuropsychologic functioning above and beyond the influence of covariates and apnea severity. These findings suggest that OSA-related alterations in cortisol activity may partially explain the pathophysiology of neuropsychologic impairments in sleep apnea. PMID:24269133

Edwards, Kate M.; Kamat, Rujvi; Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Dimsdale, Joel E.

2013-01-01

321

Relationship of salivary cortisol and anxiety in recurrent aphthous stomatitis  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most frequently encountered oral mucosal disorders. Despite extensive amount of research, the etiology of RAS remains unclear. Psychological-emotional factors were considered as one of the major predisposing factors. The aim of the study was to assess the levels of anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in patients with RAS and also to determine the association and relationship of salivary cortisol levels to variations of stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients suffering with RAS, along with the same number of age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Saliva was collected from all the subjects at 9.00 am to avoid diurnal variations of cortisol levels. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Anxiety levels of both groups were measured by using Hamilton's anxiety scale. Student's t-test was used to compare the anxiety and salivary cortisol levels between both groups. Results: The mean salivary cortisol level of the RAS group showed a very highly significant difference (P = 0.000) from the controls. The mean anxiety scores of the RAS group showed a very highly significant difference (P = 0.000) from the controls. The values of Pearson correlation coefficient between anxiety and salivary cortisol was 0.980 and one with a P value of 0.000 showing that there is a highly positive correlation between anxiety and salivary cortisol. Conclusion: Results suggest that anxiety may be involved in the pathogenesis of RAS. Thus besides traditional treatment of RAS patients, our findings suggest that psychological support is also needed.

Nadendla, Lakshmi Kavitha; Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Paramkusam, Geetha; Pachava, Koteswara Rao

2015-01-01

322

CSF 5-HIAA, cortisol and DHEAS levels in suicide attempters.  

PubMed

The serotonin system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are involved in the biological vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Altered levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate ester DHEAS have been reported in neuropsychiatric conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate CSF levels of 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and CSF and plasma levels of cortisol and DHEAS in 28 medication free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers. Another aim was to investigate the relationship between neuroendocrine measures and childhood trauma in suicide attempters. As the study design includes a longitudinal part, we investigated whether CSF cortisol, 5-HIAA or DHEAS would predict subsequent suicide. We hypothesized higher cortisol levels in suicide attempters and lower CSF 5-HIAA levels and higher cortisol levels in suicide victims. Suicide attempters had higher CSF and plasma cortisol levels compared to healthy volunteers. Male suicide attempters had higher CSF DHEAS levels and female suicide attempters had lower CSF 5-HIAA levels compared to male and female healthy volunteers respectively. Exposure to interpersonal violence as a child showed a negative correlation with CSF cortisol/DHEAS ratio adjusted for age, gender and depression severity in a regression analysis. Suicide victims tended to have low CSF 5-HIAA and high CSF cortisol. Abused suicide victims had higher CSF cortisol compared to suicide victims with low exposure to interpersonal violence as a child. The results underlie the important role of the serotonergic system and HPA axis in suicidal behaviour and suggest that CSF DHEAS may be elevated in male suicide attempters. PMID:23453639

Chatzittofis, Andreas; Nordström, Peter; Hellström, Christer; Arver, Stefan; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

2013-10-01

323

Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in healthy older people.  

PubMed

Worse cognitive performance in older people has been associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation (in particular, higher cortisol levels). Analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a novel method to measure long-term cortisol exposure, and its relationship with cognition in healthy older people has not yet been studied. We investigated whether HCC (measured in hair scalp) and diurnal salivary cortisol levels (awakening, 30min after awakening, and evening, across two days) were related to cognitive performance (assessed with the Trail-making Test A and B, Digit Span Forward and Backward, word list-RAVLT and Stories subtest of the Rivermead) in 57 healthy older people (mean age=64.75 years, SD=4.17). Results showed that lower HCC were consistently related to worse working memory, learning, short-term verbal memory (RAVLT first trial and immediate recall) and long-term verbal memory. In contrast, higher mean levels and higher diurnal area under the curve of diurnal salivary cortisol were related to worse attention and short-term verbal memory (immediate story recall), respectively. Interestingly, a higher ratio of mean levels of diurnal salivary cortisol over HCC were related to worse performance on working memory and short-term verbal memory, suggesting that those individuals with lower long-term cortisol exposure might be more vulnerable to the negative effect of HPA-axis dysregulation on these cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that both low long-term cortisol exposure and a possible dysregulation of the diurnal rhythm of the HPA-axis may account, at least in part, for the inter-individual variability in cognitive performance in healthy older people. PMID:24767624

Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

2014-06-01

324

Individual differences in the diurnal cycle of cortisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated individual differences in the diurnal cycle of cortisol and explored their relation to several psychosocial variables and to upper-respiratory symptoms. Cortisol and daily experience were assessed for 2 days in 109 healthy employed and unemployed community residents (mean age = 36.4 ± 12.1, 69% female); self-report upper respiratory illness (URI) symptoms were assessed for an additional 10

Joshua M. Smyth; Margit C. Ockenfels; Amy A. Gorin; Delwyn Catley; Laura S. Porter; Clemens Kirschbaum; Dirk H. Hellhammer; Arthur A. Stone

1997-01-01

325

Hormones as “difference makers” in cognitive and socioemotional aging processes  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems—cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin—as “difference makers” in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: (1) examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; (2) exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and (3) considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions.

Ebner, Natalie C.; Kamin, Hayley; Diaz, Vanessa; Cohen, Ronald A.; MacDonald, Kai

2015-01-01

326

Steroid hormone abnormalities in women with severe idiopathic constipation.  

PubMed Central

Patients with severe idiopathic constipation are almost exclusively women of reproductive age. To investigate the possibility of a sex hormone abnormality in this condition, we have compared a range of sex hormones during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in 23 healthy women (mean age 33 years) with those in 26 patients with severe idiopathic constipation (mean age 32 years, spontaneous bowel frequency less than one per week). In the patients there was a reduction in the follicular phase of progesterone (4.5 v 4 nmol/l, p = 0.006, median value, controls v patients), 17 hydroxyprogesterone (9.7 v 5.8 nmol/l, p = 0.01), cortisol (387 v 245 nmol/l, p = 0.008), testosterone (2.3 v 1.8 nmol/l, p less than 0.001), androstenedione (10.3 v 8.4 nmol/l, p = 0.02), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (5.1 v 3.0 mumol/l, p = 0.03). In the luteal phase there was a reduction of oestradiol (483 v 350 pmol/l, p = 0.015), cortisol (322 v 242 nmol/l, p = 0.047), and testosterone (2.4 v 1.7 nmol/l, p = 0.003). The concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, prolactin, luteinising hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were not significantly different in either phase of the cycle. Women with severe idiopathic constipation have a consistent reduction in steroid hormones. PMID:1825076

Kamm, M A; Farthing, M J; Lennard-Jones, J E; Perry, L A; Chard, T

1991-01-01

327

Adult attachment style and cortisol responses across the day in older adults  

PubMed Central

The association between cortisol and adult attachment style, an important indicator of social relationships, has been relatively unexplored. Previous research has examined adult attachment and acute cortisol responses to stress in the laboratory, but less is known about cortisol levels in everyday life. The present study examined adult romantic attachment style and cortisol responses across the day. Salivary cortisol was collected at six time points during the course of the day in 1,807 healthy men and women from a subsample of the Whitehall II cohort. Significant associations were found between attachment on cortisol across the day and slope of cortisol decline. The lowest cortisol output was associated with fearful attachment, with preoccupied attachment having the highest levels and a flatter cortisol profile. The results tentatively support the proposition that attachment style may contribute to HPA dysregulation. PMID:23808770

Kidd, Tara; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

2013-01-01

328

Concerns Regarding Hair Cortisol as a Biomarker of Chronic Stress in Exercise and Sport Science  

PubMed Central

Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes’ elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels. Key points Hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive and painless means to capture long-term cortisol secretion. Individuals expected to have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to trauma) have increased hair cortisol. Preliminary evidence shows that exercisers have higher hair cortisol levels as well. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol secretion mediates stress-related effects on health and performance. There is a great dearth of knowledge about the relationship between sport, exercise and hair cortisol. PMID:24150065

Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Pühse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.

2012-01-01

329

Hormone Replacement Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

330

Growth hormone deficiency - children  

MedlinePLUS

Growth hormone deficiency means the pituitary gland does not make enough growth hormone. ... The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain. This gland controls the body’s balance of hormones. It ...

331

A secretagogin locus of the mammalian hypothalamus controls stress hormone release.  

PubMed

A hierarchical hormonal cascade along the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis orchestrates bodily responses to stress. Although corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), produced by parvocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and released into the portal circulation at the median eminence, is known to prime downstream hormone release, the molecular mechanism regulating phasic CRH release remains poorly understood. Here, we find a cohort of parvocellular cells interspersed with magnocellular PVN neurons expressing secretagogin. Single-cell transcriptome analysis combined with protein interactome profiling identifies secretagogin neurons as a distinct CRH-releasing neuron population reliant on secretagogin's Ca(2+) sensor properties and protein interactions with the vesicular traffic and exocytosis release machineries to liberate this key hypothalamic releasing hormone. Pharmacological tools combined with RNA interference demonstrate that secretagogin's loss of function occludes adrenocorticotropic hormone release from the pituitary and lowers peripheral corticosterone levels in response to acute stress. Cumulatively, these data define a novel secretagogin neuronal locus and molecular axis underpinning stress responsiveness. PMID:25430741

Romanov, Roman A; Alpár, Alán; Zhang, Ming-Dong; Zeisel, Amit; Calas, André; Landry, Marc; Fuszard, Matthew; Shirran, Sally L; Schnell, Robert; Dobolyi, Árpád; Oláh, Márk; Spence, Lauren; Mulder, Jan; Martens, Henrik; Palkovits, Miklós; Uhlen, Mathias; Sitte, Harald H; Botting, Catherine H; Wagner, Ludwig; Linnarsson, Sten; Hökfelt, Tomas; Harkany, Tibor

2015-01-01

332

Reference range for serum cortisol in well preterm infants  

PubMed Central

AIM—To establish a reference range for serum cortisol concentrations in preterm infants with a gestational age of less than 30weeks during the first two weeks of life.?METHODS—Infants were prospectively classified by the following exclusion criteria: surfactant administration, arterial hypotension, acute or uncontrolled infection, ventricular haemorrhage II° or above, serum glucose < 2.2 mmol/l, exchange transfusion, stress as a result of any kind of examination or nursing for at least 4 hours before blood sampling. The cortisol value was measured once using radioimmunoassay in each infant.?RESULTS—In appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants (n = 37, median gestational age 27.7 weeks, median birthweight 1030 g) the distribution of the cortisol concentrations was non-Gaussian. These had a nearly normal distribution, when log10 values of the data were used. The points determined by mean (2 SD) on the logarithmic scale were transformed back to the original units to provide a reference range: 73-562 nmol/l. Gestational age was significantly (p = 0.033) associated with cortisol values (log10) with a regression coefficient (standard error) of ?0.045 (0.020). Small for gestational age (SGA) infants (n = 8) had significantly higher cortisol values (median 357 nmol/l) than AGA infants (median 199 nmol/l) (p=0.028).?CONCLUSIONS—There is a strictly defined reference range of serum cortisol concentrations in AGA preterm infants.?? PMID:10525017

Heckmann, M.; Wudy, S.; Haack, D.; Pohlandt, F.

1999-01-01

333

Salivary cortisol levels in children adopted from romanian orphanages.  

PubMed

Six and a half years after adoption. 6- to 12-year-old children reared in Romanian orphanages for more than 8 months in their first years of life (RO. n = 18) had higher cortisol levels over the daytime hours than did early adopted (EA, < or = 4 months of age, n = 15) and Canadian born (CB, n = 27) children. The effect was marked, with 22% of the RO children exhibiting cortisol levels averaged over the day that exceeded the mean plus 2 SD of the EA and CB levels. Furthermore, the longer beyond 8 months that the RO children remained institutionalized the higher their cortisol levels. Cortisol levels for EA children did not differ in any respect from those of CB comparison children. This latter finding reduces but does not eliminate concerns that the results could be due to prenatal effects or birth family characteristics associated with orphanage placement. Neither age at cortisol sampling nor low IQ measured earlier appeared to explain the findings. Because the conditions in Romanian orphanages at the time these children were adopted were characterized by multiple risk factors, including gross privation of basic needs and exposure to infectious agents, the factor(s) that produced the increase in cortisol production cannot be determined. Nor could we determine whether these results reflected effects on the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis directly or were mediated by differences in parent-child interactions or family stress occasion by behavioral problems associated with prolonged orphanage care in this sample. PMID:11523851

Gunnar, M R; Morison, S J; Chisholm, K; Schuder, M

2001-01-01

334

Sleep and cortisol interact to support memory consolidation.  

PubMed

Separate lines of research have demonstrated that rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can the occurrence of sleep soon after encoding. For the first time, we demonstrate that pre-learning cortisol interacts with sleep to benefit memory consolidation, particularly for negative arousing items. Resting cortisol levels during encoding were positively correlated with subsequent memory, but only following a period of sleep. There was no such relation following a period of wakefulness. Using eye tracking, we further reveal that for negative stimuli, this facilitative effect may arise because cortisol strengthens the relationship between looking time at encoding and subsequent memory. We suggest that elevated cortisol may "tag" attended information as important to remember at the time of encoding, thus enabling sleep-based processes to optimally consolidate salient information in a selective manner. Neuroimaging data suggest that this optimized consolidation leads to a refinement of the neural processes recruited for successful retrieval of negative stimuli, with the retrieval of items attended in the presence of elevated cortisol and consolidated over a night of sleep associated with activity in the amygdala and vmPFC. PMID:24072888

Bennion, Kelly A; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Payne, Jessica D

2015-03-01

335

MDMA, cortisol, and heightened stress in recreational ecstasy users.  

PubMed

Stress develops when an organism requires additional metabolic resources to cope with demanding situations. This review will debate how recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can increase some aspects of acute and chronic stress in humans. Laboratory studies on the acute effects of MDMA on cortisol release and neurohormone levels in drug-free regular ecstasy/MDMA users have been reviewed, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic changes in anxiety, stress, and cognitive coping is debated. In the laboratory, acute ecstasy/MDMA use can increase cortisol levels by 100-200%, whereas ecstasy/MDMA-using dance clubbers experience an 800% increase in cortisol levels, because of the combined effects of the stimulant drug and dancing. Three-month hair samples of abstinent users revealed cortisol levels 400% higher than those in controls. Chronic users show heightened cortisol release in stressful environments and deficits in complex neurocognitive tasks. Event-related evoked response potential studies show altered patterns of brain activation, suggestive of increased mental effort, during basic information processing. Chronic mood deficits include more daily stress and higher depression in susceptible individuals. We conclude that ecstasy/MDMA increases cortisol levels acutely and subchronically and that changes in the HPA axis may explain why recreational ecstasy/MDMA users show various aspects of neuropsychobiological stress. PMID:25014666

Parrott, Andrew C; Montgomery, Cathy; Wetherell, Mark A; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew B

2014-09-01

336

Hair cortisol and cortisol awakening response are associated with criteria of the metabolic syndrome in opposite directions.  

PubMed

Findings on the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and metabolic risk are equivocal. Different methods of measuring HPA activity might indicate adverse vs. beneficial effects of HPA activity on metabolic risk thus contributing to heterogenous findings. In this study, we aimed to determine whether (1) the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) as a marker of awakening-induced activation of the HPA axis and (2) hair cortisol as a marker of long-term cortisol secretion are associated with criteria of the metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recruited 41 healthy individuals (26 women, mean age: 41.2 years) and 44 patients with major depression (28 women, 41.4 years) and assessed CAR and hair cortisol values as well as all criteria of the metabolic syndrome (abdominal obesity, blood pressure, plasma glucose, triglycerides and high-density cholesterol levels) according to the International Diabetes Federation. CAR and hair cortisol values were divided into tertiles. Across groups, participants with hair cortisol or hair cortisone in the highest tertile showed significantly more criteria of the metabolic syndrome compared to participants in the medium or low tertile (F2,64=3.37, p=.04). These results were corroborated by significant positive correlations between mean hair cortisol values with waist circumference (r=.29, p=.03), triglycerides (r=.34, p=.01) and systolic blood pressure (r=.29, p=.04) and between mean hair cortisone and triglycerides (r=.46, p<.01). In contrast, mean CAR values correlated negatively with diastolic (r=-.29, p=.03) and systolic blood pressure (r=-.32, p=.02). Our results indicate that higher hair cortisol and hair cortisone levels but lower CAR values are associated with an unfavorable metabolic and cardiovascular risk profile. PMID:25462908

Kuehl, Linn K; Hinkelmann, Kim; Muhtz, Christoph; Dettenborn, Lucia; Wingenfeld, Katja; Spitzer, Carsten; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wiedemann, Klaus; Otte, Christian

2015-01-01

337

Effects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone concentrations assessed in saliva  

E-print Network

Effects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone Testosterone Cortisol Progesterone Chewing gum Saliva collection Sugarless chewing gum is a frequently used gum on cortisol, testosterone, and progesterone concentrations measured in saliva samples collected

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

338

Attentional, emotional and hormonal data in subjects of different ages.  

PubMed

The differences in attentional style among subjects of different ages and the influence of emotionality on the attentional components were studied for a limited experimental period. Variation in the hormonal data and its relation to behavioural parameters were also evaluated. The subjects enrolled in the study were divided into four age groups (A 18-29, B 30-45, C 46-59, D 60-77 years). The attentional tests involved different types of attention: alert, go/no-go, divided attention and working memory. Emotionality was assessed on the basis of skin conductance, heart rate and frontalis muscle tone. Testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), non-specifically bound testosterone (NST), sex hormone binding globulin (sHBG), oestradiol, cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone were determined in the plasma. The data were analysed to identify endocrine and behavioural differences related to sex and age. The results showed an influence of age on reaction time (RT) and RT variability. This was particularly evident for groups C and D with respect to A in the simple (alert) and complex RT tests (go/no-go and working memory). Divided attention, with the highest RT, showed a clear distinction between group A and the other groups. The difference in frontalis electromyography (EMG) (test vs control) increased with age, while the autonomic responses (skin conductance and heart rate) did not vary. In most attentional tests, the age-related reduction of RT was associated with increased T, fT and NST and decreased cortisol. PMID:15138835

Fontani, Giuliano; Lodi, Leda; Felici, Andrea; Corradeschi, Fausto; Lupo, Concetta

2004-08-01

339

Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction  

PubMed Central

Background Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standard clinical chemistry analyzers, thus allowing even small clinical laboratories to do analysis on-site. One limitation of steroid hormone immunoassays is interference caused by compounds with structural similarity to the target steroid of the assay. Interfering molecules include structurally related endogenous compounds and their metabolites as well as drugs such as anabolic steroids and synthetic glucocorticoids. Methods Cross-reactivity of a structurally diverse set of compounds were determined for the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assays for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. These data were compared and contrasted to package insert data and published cross-reactivity studies for other marketed steroid hormone immunoassays. Cross-reactivity was computationally predicted using the technique of two-dimensional molecular similarity. Results The Roche Elecsys Cortisol and Testosterone II assays showed a wider range of cross-reactivity than the DHEA sulfate, Estradiol II, and Progesterone II assays. 6-Methylprednisolone and prednisolone showed high cross-reactivity for the cortisol assay, with high likelihood of clinically significant effect for patients administered these drugs. In addition, 21-deoxycortisol likely produces clinically relevant cross-reactivity for cortisol in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may produce clinically relevant cross-reactivity in 11?-hydroxylase deficiency or following metyrapone challenge. Several anabolic steroids may produce clinically significant false positives on the testosterone assay, although interpretation is limited by sparse pharmacokinetic data for some of these drugs. Norethindrone therapy may impact immunoassay measurement of testosterone in women. Using two-dimensional similarity calculations, all compounds with high cross-reactivity also showed a high degree of similarity to the target molecule of the immunoassay. Conclusions Compounds producing cross-reactivity in steroid hormone immunoassays generally have a high degree of structural similarity to the target hormone. Clinically significant interactions can occur with structurally similar drugs (e.g., prednisolone and cortisol immunoassays; methyltestosterone and testosterone immunoassays) or with endogenous compounds such as 21-deoxycortisol that can accumulate to very high concentrations in certain disease conditions. Simple similarity calculations can help triage compounds for future testing of assay cross-reactivity. PMID:25071417

2014-01-01

340

Concerns regarding hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress in exercise and sport science.  

PubMed

Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes' elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels. PMID:24150065

Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Pühse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

2012-01-01

341

Modulatory mechanisms of cortisol effects on emotional learning and memory: Novel perspectives  

PubMed Central

Summary It has long been known that cortisol affects learning and memory processes. Despite a wealth of research dedicated to cortisol effects on learning and memory, the strength or even directionality of the effects often vary. A number of the factors that alter cortisol’s effects on learning and memory are well-known. For instance, effects of cortisol can be modulated by emotional arousal and the memory phase under study. Despite great advances in understanding factors that explain variability in cortisol’s effects, additional modulators of cortisol effects on memory exist that are less widely acknowledged in current basic experimental research. The goal of the current review is to disseminate knowledge regarding less well-known modulators of cortisol effects on learning and memory. Since several models for the aetiology of anxiety, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), incorporate stress and the concomitant release of cortisol as important vulnerability factors, enhanced understanding of mechanisms by which cortisol exerts beneficial as opposed to detrimental effects on memory is very important. Further elucidation of the factors that modulate (or alter) cortisol’s effects on memory will allow reconciliation of seemingly inconsistent findings in the basic and clinical literatures. The present review is based on a symposium as part of the 42nd International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology Conference, New York, USA, that highlighted some of those modulators and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:23845515

van Ast, Vanessa A.; Cornelisse, Sandra; Marin, Marie-France; Ackermann, Sandra; Garfinkel, Sara; Abercrombie, Heather C.

2014-01-01

342

Hair Analysis Provides a Historical Record of Cortisol Levels in Cushing’s Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The severity of Cushing’s Syndrome (CS) depends on the duration and extent of the exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Current measurements of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine reflect systemic cortisol levels at the time of sample collection, but cannot assess past cortisol levels. Hair cortisol levels may be increased in patients with CS, and, as hair grows about 1 cm/month, measurement of hair cortisol may provide historical information on the development of hypercortisolism. We attempted to measure cortisol in hair in relation to clinical course in six female patients with CS and in 32 healthy volunteers in 1 cm hair sections. Hair cortisol content was measured using a commercially available salivary cortisol immune assay with a protocol modified for use with hair. Hair cortisol levels were higher in patients with CS than in controls, the medians (ranges) were 679 (279–2500) and 116 (26–204) ng/g respectively (P <0.001). Segmental hair analysis provided information for up to 18 months before time of sampling. Hair cortisol concentrations appeared to vary in accordance with the clinical course. Based on these data, we suggest that hair cortisol measurement is a novel method for assessing dynamic systemic cortisol exposure and provides unique historical information on variation in cortisol, and that more research is required to fully understand the utility and limits of this technique. PMID:19609841

Thomson, S.; Koren, G.; Fraser, L.-A.; Rieder, M.; Friedman, T. C.; Van Uum, S. H. M.

2010-01-01

343

Determination of urinary cortisol, cortisone and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin using dilute and shoot ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Human sleep is a natural part of every individual's life. Clear relationship between sleep and endocrine system has been already established. In particular, melatonin and cortisol are known to affect and regulate sleep/wake patterns. Here we report the development of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous measurement of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (MT6s), cortisol and cortisone in urine. A separate method was developed for measurement of creatinine in urine. These levels were used to normalise the levels of analytes. First void morning urine samples were collected from 24 healthy volunteers. Samples were diluted 1:1 in water prior to injection onto reversed-phase C18 column and analysed using UHPLC-MS/MS method. Linear calibrations were obtained for all analytes with correlation coefficient in the range 0.998-0.999. The observed concentration was found to be in the range 92-105% for cortisol, 92-107% for cortisone and between 93 and 120% for MT6s of the reference levels. The total run time of 6min with all peaks of interest eluting within 3min was obtained. This demonstrates the feasibility of utilising the method for large multi-scale studies, where high throughput is required for studying the circadian rhythm of melatonin and cortisol secretion. These hormones play significant role in circadian rhythm and sleep/wake cycle; therefore it is important to monitor the levels of these endocrine markers in individuals suffering from sleep disorders. It is also beneficial with clinical applications to analyse melatonin and cortisol simultaneously in order to assess their interrelationships of these substances, such as their effect on diurnal rhythm and sleep. PMID:25531866

Sniecinska-Cooper, Anna Maria; Shah, Ajit Jesang; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Iles, Ray Kruse; Butler, Stephen Andrew; Bayford, Richard

2015-01-26

344

Early Response Roles for Prolactin Cortisol and Circulating and Cellular Levels of Heat Shock Proteins 72 and 90? in Severe Sepsis and SIRS  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP) and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS) or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) compared to healthy subjects (H). Methods. Patients with early (first 48?hrs) SS (n = 29) or SIRS (n = 29) admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90?, eHSP72) and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90?) were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Results. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90? levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P < 0.003). ACTH and eHSP72 were significantly higher in SS and SIRS compared to H (P < 0.005). SS monocytes expressed lower iHSP72 MFI levels compared to H (P = 0.03). Prolactin was related with SAPS III and APACHE II scores and cortisol with eHSP90?, IL-6, and lactate (P < 0.05). In SS and SIRS eHSP90? was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Conclusion. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90?, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases. PMID:25243181

Vardas, K.; Apostolou, K.; Briassouli, E.; Goukos, D.; Psarra, K.; Botoula, E.; Tsagarakis, S.; Magira, E.; Routsi, C.; Nanas, S.; Briassoulis, G.

2014-01-01

345

Highly selective and automated online SPE LC-MS(3) method for determination of cortisol and cortisone in human hair as biomarker for stress related diseases.  

PubMed

Hair analysis has been increasingly used to establish long-term biomarkers of exposure to both endogenous and exogenous substances, with a special emphasis on steroidal hormones. Hair cortisol and cortisone have been associated to physiological and psychological strains, anxiety and depression. Hair is a very complex matrix, which might jeopardize analyte detection at low concentrations. A new, highly selective and sensitive method based on fragments of second order, MS(3) (MS/MS/MS), was developed and validated for the analysis of hair cortisol and cortisone. An online solid phase extraction was performed on a C8 restricted access material (RAM) phase following by separation on a reversed-phase C18 column using methanol and 0.02% ammonium hydroxide as mobile phase. The developed method required minimal sample preparation and the injection of only 50µL of sample leading to a LOQ of 2pgmg(-1). Good linear responses were observed in the range 2-200pgmg(-1) (R(2)>0.99) and extraction recoveries ranged between 77-125% and 70-123% for cortisol and cortisone, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were between 1.4 and 14%. In order to evaluate the applicability of the method, preliminary tests (N=33) were conducted in 3cm hair samples (close to scalp) of healthy volunteers with an age range of 4-63. Average concentrations in hair were 12.7±14pgmg(-1) and 41.6±42pgmg(-1) for cortisol and cortisone, respectively. Further investigations on cortisol and cortisone as biomarkers for chronic psychological strain will be assessed as a next step. PMID:25618673

Quinete, Natalia; Bertram, Jens; Reska, Marcus; Lang, Jessica; Kraus, Thomas

2015-03-01

346

Plasma catecholamines and pituitary adrenal hormones in response to noise exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To evaluate the immediate effect of exposure to a high level of noise on the sympatho-adrenal and pituitary-adrenal systems, measurements were made of circulating catecholamines, growth hormone, ACTH, and cortisol in seven normal male subjects. They were studied on two random experimental days: a control day and a noise-exposure day with an intermittent noise alternating between 99 dB (A) and

M. Follenius; G. Brandenberger; C. Lecornu; M. Simeoni; B. Reinhardt

1980-01-01

347

Natural hormone patterns of meat from steers and bulls depending on slaughter age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural patterns of steroid hormones (androgens, progestogens and corticoids), their precursors and metabolites were analysed\\u000a in 48 beef samples with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Muscle tissue samples were taken from steers (n=23) and bulls (n=25) of the breed German Simmental, which were slaughtered at different ages (151–705 days of age). Concentrations of testosterone,\\u000a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), progesterone, cortisol and cortisone in

Sonja Fritsche; Gabi Schmidt; Frieder J. Schwarz; Manfred Kirchgeßner; Christoph Augustini; H. Steinhart

1998-01-01

348

Sex differences in acute hormonal and subjective response to naltrexone: The impact of menstrual cycle phase.  

PubMed

Women often exhibit larger hormonal and subjective responses to opioid receptor antagonists than men, but the biological mechanisms mediating this effect remain unclear. Among women, fluctuations in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) across the menstrual cycle (MC) affect the endogenous opioid system. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to compare acute naltrexone response between women in the early follicular phase of the MC (low E2 and P4), women in the luteal phase of the MC (high E2 and P4), and men. Seventy healthy controls (n=46 women) participated in two morning sessions in which they received 50mg naltrexone or placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Women were randomized to complete both sessions in either the early follicular (n=23) or luteal phase of the MC. Serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), and subjective response were assessed upon arrival to the laboratory and at regular intervals after pill administration. In luteal and early follicular women but not men, naltrexone (vs. placebo) increased serum cortisol and prolactin levels from baseline; however, the naltrexone-induced increases in these hormones were significantly greater in luteal women than early follicular women. Additionally, only luteal women demonstrated an increase from baseline in salivary cortisol levels and the severity of adverse drug effects in response to naltrexone. In sum, the results indicate that luteal phase women are more sensitive to acute hormonal and subjective effects of naltrexone than early follicular women and men. These findings may have important implications for the use of naltrexone in women. PMID:25459893

Roche, Daniel J O; King, Andrea C

2015-02-01

349

Trait and state perseverative cognition and the cortisol awakening response.  

PubMed

Perseverative cognition (i.e., rumination, worry) may amplify or maintain cortisol stress responses. The present study examined the effects of trait and state perseverative cognition (PC) on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). We hypothesized that trait PC and state (prior day's) PC would be associated with greater CARs. Undergraduates scoring high (N=77) and low (N=42) on trait PC were included. Participants reported worries about upcoming events and ruminations on past events that occurred throughout the day as a measure of state PC. The next morning, saliva samples were collected 0, 30, 45, and 60min after awakening to assess the CAR. Area under the curve (AUC) and 30-min increase (30-min Inc) were calculated to capture the salivary cortisol total output and increase relative to baseline in the hour after awakening. There was no effect of trait PC on the CAR. In contrast, reports of worrying and/or ruminating the night before predicted greater increases in cortisol concentration and total cortisol output compared to those who neither ruminated nor worried the night before. These effects were not accounted for by depressed mood, anxiety, sleep, or recent stressors. Findings suggest differential effects of trait and state PC on the CAR and highlight the importance of using proximal measures in examining individual differences in the CAR. PMID:21050668

Zoccola, Peggy M; Dickerson, Sally S; Yim, Ilona S

2011-05-01

350

Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS  

E-print Network

Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS Hormone assays Oliver: Schultheiss, O. C., Schiepe, A., & Rawolle, M. (2012). Hormone assays. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long Association. #12;Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 2 Hormone assays Hormones can be assayed from

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

351

Effect of three day bed-rest on circulatory and hormonal responses to active orthostatic test in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circulatory and hormonal parameters were measured in endurance-trained athletes and control subjects during orthostatic tolerance tests conducted prior to and after three days of bed rest. Heart rate and blood pressure changes due to bed rest appeared to be the same in both groups. Hormonal changes, however, were different between the two groups, with the athletes having decreased sympathoadrenal activity and increased plasma renin activity. Untrained subjects had changes in cortisol secretion only.

Kubala, P.; Smorawinski, J.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

1996-01-01

352

Acutely elevated vasopressin increases circulating concentrations of cortisol and aldosterone in fasting northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physiological actions of vasopressin (VP) in marine mammals are not well defined. To help elucidate its hormonal and renal effects in this group of mammals, northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups (N=7; 99+/-4 kg) were first infused with 0.9% saline (control; 220 ml), followed 24 h later with VP (as a 20 ng kg(-1) bolus, then 2 ng kg(-1) min(-1) for approximately 35 min in 225+/-16 ml saline). During both control and VP periods, blood samples were collected prior to infusion, and 15, 30, 60, 120 min and 24 h after infusion to examine the hormonal responses of the pups to VP. Renal responses were quantified from 24 h urine samples obtained prior to infusion (control) and 24 h post-infusion. Compared to the control period, infusion of VP increased plasma concentrations of cortisol over a 120 min period and aldosterone over 30 min, while plasma renin activity (PRA) was decreased for a 120 min period. The plasma urea:creatinine ratio was elevated following infusion of VP. Urine output and osmotic clearance were increased by 69+/-18% (mean +/- S.E.M.) and 36+/-10%, respectively, but free water clearance and glomerular filtration rate were not significantly altered 24 h post-infusion of VP. Solute (osmolality, Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-)) excretion and fractional excretion of electrolytes were also increased when compared to control values. The increase in cortisol concentration suggests that VP may possess corticotropin releasing hormone-like activity in elephant seals. If osmotic diuresis and natriuresis are typical consequences of elevated [VP] in fasting pups, then not increasing VP normally during the fast may serve as a protective mechanism to avoid the potential loss of Na(+) induced by elevated [VP]. Therefore, under natural fasting conditions, pups may be highly sensitive to small changes in [VP], resulting in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance.

Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo; Talamantes, Frank

2003-01-01

353

Relationship functioning and home and work demands predict individual differences in diurnal cortisol patterns in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 70 middle-class mothers of 2-year-old children, individual differences in mothers' morning cortisol levels, cortisol decreases across the day and average cortisol levels were predicted from demographic and medical control variables, maternal relationship functioning and home and work demands. For two days, salivary cortisol levels were measured in the morning immediately after wakeup, four times in the afternoon, and in

Emma K. Adam; Megan R. Gunnar

2001-01-01

354

Hormonal status and fluid electrolyte metabolism in motion sickness.  

PubMed

In the first experimental series, 10 healthy male test subjects with a high susceptibility to motion sickness showed a significant increase of ACTH, cortisol, STH, prolactin, ADH, aldosterone concentrations, and plasma renin activity after vestibular tests. The 10 subjects with a moderate susceptibility exhibited a still higher increase of the hormones, except plasma renin. The 8 test subjects with a low susceptibility displayed a considerable increase in ACTH, cortisol, and STH after vestibular stimulation. In the second experimental series, the increase of STH, cortisol, ADH, aldosterone and renin occurred immediately after rotation in the moderate susceptibility subjects and an hour after exposure in the high susceptibility subjects. This may be indicative of specific immediate adaptation mechanisms or excitation transfer in the CNS in high susceptibility persons. In the third experimental animal series, the permeability of the blood-brain barrier for 125I and IgG increased after rotation. Greater concentrations of potassium, chloride, and urea in CSF are suggestive of an inhibition process activation in the CNS and, probably, of an active urea transport by the vascular plexus epithelium which maintains constant osmotic pressure of cerebral extracellular fluid and prevents hyper-hydration of CNS neurons. PMID:3370037

Grigoriev, A I; Nichiporuk, I A; Yasnetsov, V V; Shashkov, V S

1988-04-01

355

An investigation into the relationship between salivary cortisol, stress, anxiety and depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between indices of self-reported emotional distress and absolute versus change in cortisol levels. Fifty-four women attending a diagnostic breast clinic completed scales measuring stress, anxiety and depression and provided five saliva samples over the course of a single day for the measurement of cortisol. No significant relationships were evident between absolute cortisol levels and the

Kav Vedhara; Jeremy Miles; Paul Bennett; Sue Plummer; Deborah Tallon; Emily Brooks; Lone Gale; Katherine Munnoch; Christa Schreiber-Kounine; Clare Fowler; Stafford Lightman; Alistair Sammon; Zenon Rayter; John Farndon

2003-01-01

356

Children's elevated cortisol levels at daycare: A review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed nine studies in which children's cortisol levels at center daycare were assessed. Our first hypothesis, concerning intraindividual differences in cortisol levels across home and daycare settings, was also tested in a meta-analysis. Our main finding was that at daycare children display higher cortisol levels compared to the home setting. Diurnal patterns revealed significant increases from morning to afternoon,

Harriet J. Vermeer; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn

2006-01-01

357

EFFECT OF DIETARY CORTISOL ADMINISTRATION ON GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS, AND REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF CHANNEL CATFISH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of cortisol administration on reproductive performance was investigated in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus broodfish. Cortisol was added to a commercial catfish feed by dissolving in ethanol and spraying the feed to yield a dietary concentration of 150 mg/kg feed. The cortisol diet ...

358

Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine PBMCs by endogenous cortisol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar, Neuroimmunomod 2009;16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expres...

359

Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.

2009-01-01

360

Exposure to Maternal Distress in Childhood and Cortisol Activity in Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dysregulated cortisol is a risk factor for poor health outcomes. Children of distressed mothers exhibit dysregulated cortisol, yet it is unclear whether maternal distress predicts cortisol activity in later developmental stages. This longitudinal study examined the prospective relation between maternal distress during late childhood (9-12 years)…

Mahrer, Nicole E.; Luecken, Linda J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

2014-01-01

361

Cortisol Response Mediates HIV1Related Cognitive Deficits Among Injecting Drug Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cortisol response is an important measure of the endocrine activity to environmental challenges and has been related to cognitive function and mood. Previous studies have shown that the cortisol response to stress is dysregulated in persons with HIV-1 infection. Since cortisol is neurotoxic and its levels have been related to cognitive dysfunction in various disorders, it is possible that

Raymond L. Ownby; Adarsh M. Kumar; Mack J. Benny Fernandez; Louis González; Peggy González; Mahendra Kumar

2006-01-01

362

Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish.

Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Feist, Grant W.; Varga, Zoltán M.; Westerfield, Monte; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

2014-01-01

363

Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by endogenous cortisol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar. 2009. Neuroimmunomod. 16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expr...

364

Effects of cortisol and stress on the immune system in Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suppressive effect of cortisol on LPS mitogenesis was demonstrated on peripheral blood cells from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.)in vitro, and the suppression was dose and time dependent. When cortisol was injected intraperitoneally into fish, there was a rapid increase in the level of cortisol in the blood which was, however, effectively cleared from the circulation within a few hours.

SIGRUN ESPELID; GUNN BERIT LØKKEN; KARI STEIRO; JARL BØGWALD

1996-01-01

365

Correlation of Surgical Pleth Index with Stress Hormones during Propofol-Remifentanil Anaesthesia  

PubMed Central

Eighty patients undergoing elective ear-nose-throat surgery were enrolled in the present study to investigate the relationship between surgical pleth index (SPI) and stress hormones (ACTH, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine) during general anaesthesia which was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil using a target-controlled infusion. The study concluded that the SPI had moderate correlation to the stress hormones during general anaesthesia, but no correlation during consciousness. Furthermore, SPI values were able to predict ACTH values with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22973178

Chen, Xinzhong; Thee, Carsten; Gruenewald, Matthias; Ilies, Christoph; Höcker, Jan; Hanss, Robert; Steinfath, Markus; Bein, Berthold

2012-01-01

366

Cortisol Response to Operative Stress With Anesthesia in Healthy Children  

PubMed Central

Background: Supraphysiological “stress dosing” is generally given to adrenally insufficient patients undergoing operative procedures and/or general anesthesia. However, the normal responses of cortisol to surgery are poorly documented, especially in small children. Recent studies in adults suggest that massive glucocorticoid dosing is not needed, especially in minimally invasive surgery. Objective: We sought to characterize the normal cortisol secretion rate in healthy children undergoing minimally and moderately invasive urological procedures. Design and Setting: This was a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary referral center. Patients: Thirty healthy children, ages 5 months to 6 years, were studied undergoing elective urological procedures. Methods: Procedures were performed by a single surgeon; anesthesia was by a standard protocol. Sera were obtained at 5 points: iv catheter placement, intubation, 50% completion of surgery, anesthesia reversal, and 1 hour postoperative. Cortisol and cortisone were quantitated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Group mean cortisol values ranged from 4.21 to 5.71 ?g/dL across the 5 time points; none of these mean values differed significantly (P < .05). There were no differences according to age, time of procedure, caudal anesthesia, and moderate vs minimally invasive procedures; 3 patients had higher values. There was a modest diminution in cortisone across the 5 time points. Conclusions: Minimal and moderately invasive urological procedures do not result in a cortisol stress response in healthy children. Peak cortisol levels were seen 1 hour postoperatively. These data suggest that current guidelines for stress dosing in adrenally insufficient patients substantially exceed physiological requirements during minimally invasive procedures. PMID:23861461

Taylor, Lisa K.; Auchus, Richard J.; Baskin, Laurence S.

2013-01-01

367

Prostaglandin regulation of fetal plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol concentrations in late-gestation sheep.  

PubMed

It is widely recognized that prostaglandins (PGs) are involved in regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and that the activation of the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis plays a central role in the process of labor in sheep. However, effects of inhibition of PG synthesis on the maternal and fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis during parturition have not been characterized. We examined the effect of inhibiting PG synthesis on the maternal and fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axes during spontaneous term labor by using nimesulide, a PGH synthase (PGHS) inhibitor. Under halothane anesthesia, eight pregnant ewes were instrumented with vascular catheters and myometrial electromyogram (EMG) electrodes at 127 +/- 3 (mean +/- SEM) days gestation (dGA). After onset of labor as evaluated by EMG, nimesulide was infused to four ewes i.v. (30-mg bolus, followed by 6-h infusion at 30 mg/h). Vehicle was infused to the remaining four ewes (controls, CONT). Maternal blood and fetal blood were sampled at 1-h intervals before and during infusion to determine plasma PGE2, ACTH, and cortisol concentrations. Spontaneous labor occurred at 148 +/- 0 dGA in nimesulide-treated ewes and at 144 +/- 1 dGA in CONT ewes. We infused nimesulide from 9 +/- 2 h and vehicle from 8 +/- 2 h after the onset of labor. Maternal and fetal blood gases and pH remained unchanged in all animals. No significant changes were observed in any plasma hormone concentrations measured in CONT ewes and fetuses before and during vehicle infusion. In nimesulide-treated ewes, maternal plasma PGE2 and ACTH concentrations remained unchanged, while maternal plasma cortisol decreased significantly, recovering to baseline by 3 h. In fetuses of nimesulide-treated ewes, plasma PGE2 and ACTH levels showed significant sustained decreases after nimesulide infusion. Fetal plasma cortisol decreased significantly and returned to baseline by 5 h. These results suggest that 1) PG synthesis inhibition by nimesulide has differential effects on the ovine maternal and fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axes during spontaneous labor, and 2) PG production plays a physiologic role in regulation of the ovine fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:9475408

Unno, N; Wu, W X; Wong, C H; Bennett, P R; Shinozuka, N; Nathanielsz, P W

1998-02-01

368

Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.  

PubMed

Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones. PMID:14722779

Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

2004-05-01

369

Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

1991-03-15

370

Daytime Trajectories of Cortisol: Demographic and Socioeconomic Differences. Findings from The National Study of Daily Experiences  

PubMed Central

Summary Cortisol's daytime rhythm is thought to be altered by aging and by exposure to chronic stress. However, measurement of an individual's usual cortisol rhythm is hampered by the effects of acute stressors, by differences between working days and weekends, by between-day variation in waking time and sleep duration, by variability in cortisol sampling times, and by possible variability in the timing of cortisol peak and nadir. Therefore, to determine differences in the usual daytime cortisol rhythm by age, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity, we measured salivary cortisol levels at four time-points, repeated over four days that included both weekdays and weekend days, in 1,693 men and women from a national sample, and used three alternate growth curve specifications for the underlying cortisol rhythm (linear spline, quadratic spline, piece-wise linear-cubic) in order to minimize the impact of sample timing and other methodological issues. Model-predicted mean values of (and demographic and socioeconomic differences in) cortisol peak, nadir, and area under the curve (AUC) were nearly identical across model specifications. Older age and male gender were independently associated with higher cortisol peak, nadir, and AUC. Low education and minority race/ethnicity status were independently associated with lower cortisol peak and higher nadir, but were not associated with AUC. We also found significant cortisol peak and AUC associations with waking time, sleep duration, and workday vs. weekend day status, suggesting the importance of measuring these confounders and of collecting cortisol measurements over multiple days in research studies. We conclude that daytime cortisol levels are higher in older age and in men compared to women, and that the daytime cortisol rhythm is flatter (more blunted) in less privileged segments of society. Flattening of daytime cortisol rhythms may represent one mechanism by which social stressors lead to poor health outcomes. PMID:23831263

Karlamangla, Arun S.; Friedman, Esther M.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Stawksi, Robert S.; Almeida, Dave M.

2013-01-01

371

Plant-Hormones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Long Ashton Research Station -- part of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (UK) -- will close in March 2003, but its online resource Plant-Hormones will continue to provide general information and references on gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, and other hormone groups. Additionally, this Web site provides a link to a listserver for plant hormone scientists, a discussion forum "intended to promote communication between professionals in the plant hormone field." Plant-Hormones also lists job vacancies, meetings announcements, and Web links for botany and molecular biology resources, while offering an online directory of plant hormone researchers searchable by country.

1995-01-01

372

Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone growth hormone, oestradiol, testosterone  

E-print Network

Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone growth hormone, oestradiol, testosterone of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, North Humberside, England. Summary. The concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH), oestra- diol, testosterone and androstenedione were determined in weekly blood

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

Changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine and cortisol plasma levels in menopausal women after inhalation of clary sage oil.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the antidepressant-like effects of clary sage oil on human beings by comparing the neurotransmitter level change in plasma. The voluntary participants were 22 menopausal women in 50's. Subjects were classified into normal and depression tendency groups using each of Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory-I (KBDI-I), KBDI-II, and Korean version of Self-rating Depression Scale. Then, the changes in neurotransmitter concentrations were compared between two groups. After inhalation of clary sage oil, cortisol levels were significantly decreased while 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration was significantly increased. Thyroid stimulating hormone was also reduced in all groups but not statistically significantly. The different change rate of 5-HT concentration between normal and depression tendency groups was variable according to the depression measurement inventory. When using KBDI-I and KBDI-II, 5-HT increased by 341% and 828% for the normal group and 484% and 257% for the depression tendency group, respectively. The change rate of cortisol was greater in depression tendency groups compared with normal groups, and this difference was statistically significant when using KBDI-II (31% vs. 16% reduction) and Self-rating Depression Scale inventory (36% vs. 8.3% reduction). Among three inventories, only KBDI-II differentiated normal and depression tendency groups with significantly different cortisol level. Finally, clary sage oil has antidepressant-like effect, and KBDI-II inventory may be the most sensitive and valid tool in screening for depression status or severity. PMID:24802524

Lee, Kyung-Bok; Cho, Eun; Kang, Young-Sook

2014-11-01

374

High and Low Protein? Carbohydrate Dietary Ratios during Gestation Alter Maternal-Fetal Cortisol Regulation in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Imbalanced maternal nutrition during gestation can cause alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system in offspring. The present study investigated the effects of maternal low- and high-protein diets during gestation in pigs on the maternal-fetal HPA regulation and expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11?-HSD1 and 11?-HSD2) and c-fos mRNAs in the placenta and fetal brain. Twenty-seven German Landrace sows were fed diets with high (HP, 30%), low (LP, 6.5%) or adequate (AP, 12.1%) protein levels made isoenergetic by varying the carbohydrate levels. On gestational day 94, fetuses were recovered under general anesthesia for the collection of blood, brain and placenta samples. The LP diet in sows increased salivary cortisol levels during gestation compared to the HP and AP sows and caused an increase of placental GR and c-fos mRNA expression. However, the diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol was disturbed in both LP and HP sows. Total plasma cortisol concentrations in the umbilical cord vessels were elevated in fetuses from HP sows, whereas corticosteroid-binding globulin levels were decreased in LP fetuses. In the hypothalamus, LP fetuses displayed an enhanced mRNA expression of 11?-HSD1 and a reduced expression of c-fos. Additionally, the 11?-HSD2 mRNA expression was decreased in both LP and HP fetuses. The present results suggest that both low and high protein?carbohydrate dietary ratios during gestation may alter the expression of genes encoding key determinants of glucocorticoid hormone action in the fetus with potential long-lasting consequences for stress adaptation and health. PMID:23300759

Kanitz, Ellen; Otten, Winfried; Tuchscherer, Margret; Gräbner, Maria; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Metges, Cornelia C.

2012-01-01

375

Cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia: Relationship to psychosocial stress and cognition  

PubMed Central

Summary Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as indexed by elevated diurnal cortisol levels and/or a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR), has been observed among patients with first episode psychosis and associated with neurocognitive deficits in this population. However, the extent to which these features precede illness onset is unclear. The current study aimed to determine whether children who are at putatively elevated risk for psychosis because they present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), and high-risk children with a family history of illness (FHx), are characterized by abnormal cortisol levels when compared with their typically developing (TD) peers. A further aim was to investigate the extent to which cortisol levels are associated with psychosocial stress and neurocognitive function. Thirty-three ASz children, 22 FHx children, and 40 TD children were identified at age 9–12 years using a novel community-based screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. All participants were antipsychotic-naive and not currently seeking treatment for their symptoms. At age 11–14 years, participants provided salivary cortisol samples and completed psychosocial stress measures and tests of memory and executive function. Results indicated that FHx children, but not ASz children, were characterized by a blunted CAR relative to their TD peers (effect size = ?0.73, p = 0.01) that was not explained by psychosocial stress exposure or by distress relating to these experiences. Neither FHx nor ASz children were characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol. Among both FHx and ASz children, more pronounced HPA axis function abnormalities (i.e., higher diurnal cortisol levels and greater blunting of the CAR) were associated with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory and executive function. These findings support the notion that at least some HPA axis abnormalities described in psychosis precede illness onset, rather than being a subsequent epiphenomenon. We speculate that the blunted CAR may constitute an early (potentially genetically mediated) marker of psychosis vulnerability, whilst elevated diurnal cortisol levels may emerge only proximally to disease onset. PMID:24882153

Cullen, Alexis E.; Zunszain, Patricia A.; Dickson, Hannah; Roberts, Ruth E.; Fisher, Helen L.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Laurens, Kristin R.

2014-01-01

376

Cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia: relationship to psychosocial stress and cognition.  

PubMed

Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as indexed by elevated diurnal cortisol levels and/or a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR), has been observed among patients with first episode psychosis and associated with neurocognitive deficits in this population. However, the extent to which these features precede illness onset is unclear. The current study aimed to determine whether children who are at putatively elevated risk for psychosis because they present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), and high-risk children with a family history of illness (FHx), are characterized by abnormal cortisol levels when compared with their typically developing (TD) peers. A further aim was to investigate the extent to which cortisol levels are associated with psychosocial stress and neurocognitive function. Thirty-three ASz children, 22 FHx children, and 40 TD children were identified at age 9-12 years using a novel community-based screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. All participants were antipsychotic-naive and not currently seeking treatment for their symptoms. At age 11-14 years, participants provided salivary cortisol samples and completed psychosocial stress measures and tests of memory and executive function. Results indicated that FHx children, but not ASz children, were characterized by a blunted CAR relative to their TD peers (effect size=-0.73, p=0.01) that was not explained by psychosocial stress exposure or by distress relating to these experiences. Neither FHx nor ASz children were characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol. Among both FHx and ASz children, more pronounced HPA axis function abnormalities (i.e., higher diurnal cortisol levels and greater blunting of the CAR) were associated with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory and executive function. These findings support the notion that at least some HPA axis abnormalities described in psychosis precede illness onset, rather than being a subsequent epiphenomenon. We speculate that the blunted CAR may constitute an early (potentially genetically mediated) marker of psychosis vulnerability, whilst elevated diurnal cortisol levels may emerge only proximally to disease onset. PMID:24882153

Cullen, Alexis E; Zunszain, Patricia A; Dickson, Hannah; Roberts, Ruth E; Fisher, Helen L; Pariante, Carmine M; Laurens, Kristin R

2014-08-01

377

Is Obstructive Sleep Apnea Associated with Cortisol Levels? A Systematic Review of the Research Evidence  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis; however a relationship between OSA and altered cortisol levels has not been conclusively established. We conducted a systematic review using the PRISMA Guidelines based on comprehensive database searches for (1) studies of OSA patients compared to controls in whom cortisol was measured and (2) studies of OSA patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in whom cortisol was measured pre and post treatment. Five electronic databases were searched along with the reference lists of retrieved studies. The primary outcomes were (1) differences in cortisol between OSA and control subjects and (2) differences in cortisol pre-post CPAP treatment. Sampling methodology, sample timing and exclusion criteria were evaluated. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of studies precluded statistical pooling. One study identified differences in cortisol between OSA patients and controls. Two studies showed statistically significant differences in cortisol levels pre-post CPAP. The majority of studies were limited by assessment of cortisol at a single time point. The available studies do not provide clear evidence that OSA is associated with alterations in cortisol levels or that treatment with CPAP changes cortisol levels. Methodological concerns such as infrequent sampling, failure to match comparison groups on demographic factors known to impact cortisol levels (age, body mass index; BMI),and inconsistent control of variables known to influence HPA function may have limited the results. PMID:21803621

Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Edwards, Kate M.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

2011-01-01

378

Correlates of cortisol in human hair: implications for epidemiologic studies on health effects of chronic stress.  

PubMed

Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis, and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, "cortisol," "hair," "confounders," "chronic," "stress," and "correlates." Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing's syndrome), and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear not to be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

Wosu, Adaeze C; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E; Williams, David R; Williams, Michelle A

2013-12-01

379

Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress  

PubMed Central

Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

2013-01-01

380

Serum cortisol concentration in horses with heaves treated with fluticasone proprionate over a 1 year period.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of long-term administration of inhaled fluticasone proprionate on cortisol concentrations in heaves-affected horses. Eleven horses with heaves were treated with fluticasone at least once daily at dosages required to improve lung function or with antigen avoidance alone for 1 year. Morning serum cortisol was measured before and after 10, 30, 110, 190, 230, 280, and 320 days of treatment. Cortisol was also measured in the afternoon of day 330. Cortisol was significantly lower in the Fluticasone group on days 30, 110, and 190 when compared with the Antigen avoidance group. Cortisol measured on day 330 was also significantly lower in the Fluticasone group. Results indicate that inhaled fluticasone, when administered at therapeutic dosages, can significantly suppress serum cortisol concentrations for 8-24?h. The clinical significance of this finding remains to be ascertained, as no clinical signs were associated with this cortisol suppression. PMID:25577545

Munoz, Trohadio; Leclere, Mathilde; Jean, Daniel; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

2015-02-01

381

Micellar electrokinetic chromatography for the determination of cortisol in urine samples in view of biomedical studies.  

PubMed

An MEKC method used for the determination of cortisol in urine was developed and elaborated. In turn, the measurements of urinary free cortisol provided the diagnostic information for excess adrenal production of cortisol. MEKC realized by the addition of anionic surfactant SDS to the buffer solution was demonstrated to be the appropriate mode for the separation of cortisol and dexamethasone was used as internal standard. A buffer solution composed of 10 mM sodium tetraborate and 50 mM SDS at pH 8.8 was used. The MEKC assay was evaluated by analyzing a series of urine samples containing cortisol in variable concentrations. The proposed method was validated for specificity, linearity, LODs and LOQs, precision and trueness. The LOQ for cortisol equaled 5 ng/mL. The method was selective and reliable for identification and can detect changes of endogenous levels of cortisol in urine under different stress situations. PMID:20578132

Oledzka, Ilona; Plenis, Alina; Konieczna, Lucyna; Kowalski, Piotr; Baczek, Tomasz

2010-07-01

382

Hormones and Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

... tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications play a part. Hormones made in the kidneys and in blood vessels ... the heart relaxes between beats. FACT SHeeT and hormones hypertension normal Below 120/80 mm hg Prehypertensive ...

383

Menopause and Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics Resources for You Menopause Resources Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Print and Share (PDF 102KB) En ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

384

Hormones and Obesity  

MedlinePLUS

... Hormones and Obesity Share: Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

385

HEALTH MATTERS Hormonal IUD  

E-print Network

. The hormonal IUD contains a hormone called progestin. It is easily and quickly inserted into your uterus releasing eggs. · Thick cervical mucus forms and blocks the opening to your uterus. · The IUD also affects

Yener, Aylin

386

Ship noise and cortisol secretion in European freshwater fishes  

E-print Network

Ship noise and cortisol secretion in European freshwater fishes Lidia Eva Wysocki*, John P. Dittami October 2005 Accepted 11 October 2005 Available online 28 November 2005 Keywords: Fish Ship noise Stress addressed the effects of ship noise and continuous Gaussian noise on adrenal activity in three European

Ladich, Friedrich

387

Free cortisol awakening responses are influenced by awakening time.  

PubMed

Psychobiological investigations on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis depend on markers that adequately describe the activity of this system. There is evidence that the free cortisol response to awakening, proposed as a marker for the HPA axis, can be influenced by time of awakening. To further investigate this possible confounder, 24 shift working nurses and 31 female students on a regular sleep-wake cycle collected saliva samples 0, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after awakening. Nurses were investigated on the first and second day of their early (awakening: 04:00-05:30 h), late (awakening: 06:00-09:00 h), and night shift (awakening: 11:00-14:00 h), respectively. Students were studied after taking a short nap on two consecutive weekdays (awakening: 18:45-20:30 h). Mean cortisol levels after awakening increased significantly under all three shift conditions (p<0.01), but decreased in the student sample (p<.05). Within the three shift conditions, cortisol responses following waking in the early shift were more pronounced than in late (p<.01) and night shift (p<.05). The present study shows that in a sample with a large range of awakening times, an impact of this variable on the cortisol awakening response can be observed. The data furthermore strongly suggest that waking up per se is insufficient for adrenocortical stimulation. PMID:14604599

Federenko, Ilona; Wüst, Stefan; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Dechoux, Ralph; Kumsta, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2004-02-01

388

Original article Influences of type of anaesthesia on cortisol,  

E-print Network

ketamine) on plasma levels of cortisol and (3-endorphin on the heart rate. The animals were housed anaesthetized with metomidate, the other half with ketamine, and blood samples were taken at regular intervals was observed after injection with ketamine, while a twofold increase was observed after injection

Boyer, Edmond

389

Cortisol Levels and Children's Orientation in Day Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's stress in day care is related to the stressful qualities of the environment and to children's orientations in that environment. The study involved 55 children in five day centres in Finland. Baseline saliva samples for measuring cortisol (stress) levels were collected five times during the day. Children were interviewed to measure their…

Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina

2012-01-01

390

CORTISOL DECREASES AND SEROTONIN AND DOPAMINE INCREASE FOLLOWING MASSAGE THERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the positive effects of massage therapy on biochemistry are re- viewed including decreased levels of cortisol and increased levels of serotonin and dopamine. The research reviewed includes studies on depression (including sex abuse and eating disorder studies), pain syndrome studies, research on auto- immune conditions (including asthma and chronic fatigue), immune studies (including HIV and breast cancer),

TIFFANY FIELD; MARIA HERNANDEZ-REIF; MIGUEL DIEGO; SAUL SCHANBERG; CYNTHIA KUHN

2005-01-01

391

Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

2012-01-01

392

Rapid cortisol enhancement of psychomotor and startle reactions to side-congruent stimuli in a focused cross-modal choice reaction time paradigm.  

PubMed

The stress hormone cortisol has been shown to affect hemodynamic activity of human brain structures, presumably via a nongenomic mechanism. However, behavioral implications of this finding remain unknown. In a placebo-controlled, blinded, cross-over design the rapid effects of IV hydrocortisone (5mg) on cross-modal integration of simultaneous, unilateral visual and acoustic signals in a challenging startle and reaction time (RT) paradigm were studied. On two separate days 1 week apart, 24 male volunteers responded by button push to either up- or down pointing triangles presented in random sequence in the periphery of one of the visual hemi-fields. Visual targets were accompanied by unilateral acoustic startle noise bursts, presented at the same or opposite side. Saccadic latency, manual RT, and startle eye blink responses were recorded. Faster manual reactions and increased startle eye blink responses were observed 11-20 min after hydrocortisone administration when visual targets and unilateral acoustic startle noises were presented in the same sensory hemi-field, but not when presented in opposite sensory hemi-fields. Our results suggest that a nongenomic, cortisol-sensitive mechanism enhances psychomotor and startle reactions when stimuli occur in the same sensory hemi-field. Such basic cognitive effects of cortisol may serve rapid adaptation and protection against danger stimuli in stressful contexts. PMID:25262177

Schilling, Thomas M; Larra, Mauro F; Deuter, Christian E; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut

2014-11-01

393

Mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolites are associated with vigilance, whereas immediate cortisol levels better reflect acute anti-predator responses in meerkats.  

PubMed

Adrenal hormones likely affect anti-predator behavior in animals. With experimental field studies, we first investigated associations between mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGC) excretion and vigilance and with behavioral responses to alarm call playbacks in free-ranging meerkats (Suricata suricatta). We then tested how vigilance and behavioral responses to alarm call playbacks were affected in individuals administered exogenous cortisol. We found a positive association between mean fGC concentrations and vigilance behavior, but no relationship with the intensity of behavioral responses to alarm calls. However, in response to alarm call playbacks, individuals administered cortisol took slightly longer to resume foraging than control individuals treated with saline solution. Vigilance behavior, which occurs in the presence and absence of dangerous stimuli, serves to detect and avoid potential dangers, whereas responses to alarm calls serve to avoid immediate predation. Our data show that mean fGC excretion in meerkats was associated with vigilance, as a re-occurring anti-predator behavior over long time periods, and experimentally induced elevations of plasma cortisol affected the response to immediate threats. Together, our results indicate an association between the two types of anti-predator behavior and glucocorticoids, but that the underlying mechanisms may differ. Our study emphasizes the need to consider appropriate measures of adrenal activity specific to different contexts when assessing links between stress physiology and different anti-predator behaviors. PMID:25218254

Voellmy, Irene K; Goncalves, Ines Braga; Barrette, Marie-France; Monfort, Steven L; Manser, Marta B

2014-11-01

394

Hormones and Migraines  

MedlinePLUS

Home » Hormones and Migraine Hormones and Migraine Submitted by Admin on Thu, 2007-10-25 15:06 Migraine occurs more often in women than in ... their menstrual cycle supports this link between female hormone changes and migraine headaches. Attacks may occur several ...

395

Detection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in normal human pituitary cells and pituitary adenomas using immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is a well-known regulator of gonadotroph function, has recently been considered to be a paracrine factor involved in the control of somatotroph, lactotroph, and corticotroph cells. GnRH action is initiated by binding to a specific cell surface receptor, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), which is expressed by follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone (FSH/LH) cells. Using in situ hybridization techniques, GnRHR messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) has recently been detected in normal human anterior pituitary gland and in various pituitary adenomas, including FSH/LH-cell, growth hormone (GH)-cell, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-cell, and null-cell adenomas. However, immunohistochemical studies indicating the specific cell distribution of GnRHR in normal pituitary cells have never been reported. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of GnRHR in different types of normal pituitary cells and related tumors. Using double-label immunohistochemical techniques on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues and specific antibodies directed against pituitary hormones and GnRHR, we found GnRHR immunoreactivity not only in FSH/LH cells, but also in GH- and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) cells. GnRHR was detected in FSH/LH-cell, GH-cell, mixed GH- and prolactin (PRL)-cell, and alpha-subunit (alpha-SU)/null-cell adenomas. The findings of this study suggest that the interaction between GnRH and GnRHR may play a role in paracrine/autocrine regulation of different types of normal pituitary cells and pituitary adenomas. PMID:11037346

La Rosa, S; Celato, N; Uccella, S; Capella, C

2000-09-01

396

Brain white matter microstructure alterations in adolescent rhesus monkeys exposed to early life stress: associations with high cortisol during infancy  

PubMed Central

Background Early adverse experiences, especially those involving disruption of the mother-infant relationship, are detrimental for proper socioemotional development in primates. Humans with histories of childhood maltreatment are at high risk for developing psychopathologies including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and behavioral disorders. However, the underlying neurodevelopmental alterations are not well understood. Here we used a nonhuman primate animal model of infant maltreatment to study the long-term effects of this early life stress on brain white matter integrity during adolescence, its behavioral correlates, and the relationship with early levels of stress hormones. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging and tract based spatial statistics were used to investigate white matter integrity in 9 maltreated and 10 control animals during adolescence. Basal plasma cortisol levels collected at one month of age (when abuse rates were highest) were correlated with white matter integrity in regions with group differences. Total aggression was also measured and correlated with white matter integrity. Results We found significant reductions in white matter structural integrity (measured as fractional anisotropy) in the corpus callosum, occipital white matter, external medullary lamina, as well as in the brainstem of adolescent rhesus monkeys that experienced maternal infant maltreatment. In most regions showing fractional anisotropy reductions, opposite effects were detected in radial diffusivity, without changes in axial diffusivity, suggesting that the alterations in tract integrity likely involve reduced myelin. Moreover, in most regions showing reduced white matter integrity, this was associated with elevated plasma cortisol levels early in life, which was significantly higher in maltreated than in control infants. Reduced fractional anisotropy in occipital white matter was also associated with increased social aggression. Conclusions These findings highlight the long-term impact of infant maltreatment on brain white matter structural integrity, particularly in tracts involved in visual processing, emotional regulation, and somatosensory and motor integration. They also suggest a relationship between elevations in stress hormones detected in maltreated animals during infancy and long-term brain white matter structural effects. PMID:24289263

2013-01-01

397

Using testosterone and cortisol as biomarker to training individualization in elite basketball. A 4-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine the responses of testosterone and cortisol, with special reference to playing positions, playing time and phase of the season. We carried out a follow-up study during four consecutive seasons to investigate the effects of playing time, positional role and phase of the season on anabolic-catabolic biomarkers (plasma total testosterone -TT- and cortisol -C-) on twenty professional male basketball players (27.0 ± 4.2 y; 24.4 ± 1.2 kg/m). First blood samples were collected right after the off-season period and considered as baseline. Samples were taken periodically every 4 to 6 weeks, always after a 24-36h break following the last game played. Statistical procedures were non-parametric mainly. Hormonal status was playing position-dependent, power forwards showed the lowest TT values (med ± IQR; PF: 18.1 ± 4.9; nMol/l) and small forwards the highest ones of C (0.55 ± 0.118 µMol/l). Players who played between 13 to 25-min per game showed the highest values of TT (22.8 ± 6.9 nMol/l) and TT/C (47.1 ± 21.2). March and April showed the most catabolic and/or stressed hormonal state (low TT/C values and high ones of C), and that is necessary to take into account according to playing time (>25-min per game) and specific playing position. Monitoring plasma TT and C is recommended to prevent excessive stress caused by professional basketball season requirements. PMID:25144130

Schelling, X; Calleja-González, J; Torres-Ronda, L; Terrados, N

2014-08-20

398

Temporal patterns of self-injurious behavior correlate with stress hormone levels in the developmentally disabled  

PubMed Central

While the origins and developmental course of self-injurious behavior (SIB) remain relatively unknown, recent studies suggest a biological imbalance may potentiate or provoke the contagious recurrence of SIB patterns in individuals with severe developmental disabilities (DD). Evidence from several laboratories indicates that functioning, relations, and processing of a stress-related molecule, proopiomelanocortin, (POMC), may be perturbed among certain subgroups of individuals exhibiting SIB. The current investigation employed a unique time-pattern analysis program (THEME) to examine whether recurrent temporal patterns (T-patterns) of SIB were related to morning levels of two POMC-derived hormones: ?-endorphin (?E) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). THEME was used to quantify highly significant (nonrandom) T-patterns that included SIB within a dataset of in-situ observational recordings spanning 8 days (~40 hours) in 25 subjects with DD. Pearson’s product-moment analyses revealed highly significant correlations between the percentage of T-patterns containing SIB and basal levels of both ?E and ACTH, which were not found with any other “control” T-patterns. These findings support the hypothesis that the recurrent temporal patterning of SIB represents a unique behavioral phenotype directly related to perturbed levels of POMC-derived stress hormones in certain individuals with severe DD. PMID:17913241

Kemp, Aaron S.; Fillmore, Paul T.; Lenjavi, Mohammed R.; Lyon, Melvin; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Touchette, Paul E.; Sandman, Curt A.

2007-01-01