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Sample records for cortisol adrenocorticotropic hormone

  1. Quantifying Pituitary-Adrenal Dynamics and Deconvolution of Concurrent Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Data by Compressed Sensing.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Adler, Gail K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Brown, Emery N

    2015-10-01

    Pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is governed by pulsatile release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. In return, cortisol has a negative feedback effect on ACTH release. Simultaneous recording of ACTH and cortisol is not typical, and determining the number, timing, and amplitudes of pulsatile events from simultaneously recorded data is challenging because of several factors: 1) stimulator ACTH pulse activity, 2) kinematics of ACTH and cortisol, 3) the sampling interval, and 4) the measurement error. We model ACTH and cortisol secretion simultaneously using a linear differential equations model with Gaussian errors and sparse pulsatile events as inputs to the model. We propose a novel framework for recovering pulses and parameters underlying the interactions between ACTH and cortisol. We recover the timing and amplitudes of pulses using compressed sensing and employ generalized cross validation for determining the number of pulses. We analyze serum ACTH and cortisol levels sampled at 10-min intervals over 24 h from ten healthy women. We recover physiologically plausible timing and amplitudes for these pulses and model the feedback effect of cortisol. We recover 15 to 18 pulses over 24 h, which is highly consistent with the results of another cortisol data analysis approach. Modeling the interactions between ACTH and cortisol allows for accurate quantification of pulsatile events, and normal and pathological states. This could lay the basis for a more physiologically-based approach for administering cortisol therapeutically. The proposed approach can be adapted to deconvolve other pairs of hormones with similar interactions. PMID:25935025

  2. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system... Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a device intended to measure adrenocorticotropic hormone in...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system... Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a device intended to measure adrenocorticotropic hormone in...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system... Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a device intended to measure adrenocorticotropic hormone in...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system... Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a device intended to measure adrenocorticotropic hormone in...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system... Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a device intended to measure adrenocorticotropic hormone in...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  15. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests in healthy foals from birth to 12 weeks of age

    PubMed Central

    Wong, David M.; Vo, Dai Tan; Alcott, Cody J.; Stewart, Allison J.; Peterson, Anna D.; Sponseller, Brett A.; Hsu, Walter H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate total baseline plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations, and ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations in foals from birth to 12 wk of age. Plasma (baseline) cortisol and ACTH concentrations were measured in 13 healthy foals at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Each foal received cosyntropin (0.1 ?g/kg) intravenously. Plasma cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline), and 30, and 60 min after cosyntropin administration at birth and at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Compared with baseline, cortisol concentration increased significantly 30 min after administration of cosyntropin on all days. Cortisol concentration was highest at birth, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, compared with all other days. With the exception of birth measurements, cortisol concentration was significantly higher on day 84, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, when compared with all other days. Baseline plasma ACTH was lowest at birth when compared with concentrations on days 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 42, 56, and 84. Administration of 0.1 ?g/kg of cosyntropin, IV, reliably induces cortisol secretion in healthy foals. Differences in the magnitude of response to cosyntropin are observed depending on the age of the foal. These data should serve as a reference for the ACTH stimulation test in foals and should be useful in subsequent studies to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy and critically ill foals. PMID:19337398

  16. Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency: an autopsy case of adrenal crisis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Kubo, S; Kitamura, O; Orihara, Y; Tsuda, R; Hirose, W; Nakasono, I

    1997-06-01

    We present a case of fatal adrenal crisis due to isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. Autopsy revealed each adrenal gland weighed 0.9 g and the adrenal cortexes were very thin and atrophic. Additionally, cortisol could not be observed in the adrenal cortex by immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, urine cortisol and 17-OHCS concentration had decreased to a very low level, 20 mg/L and 0.8 mg/L respectively. The anterior pituitary gland was atrophic, and showed fibrosis and lymphocytosis was suspected. Immunohistochemically growth hormone (GH)-stained pituitary gland cells were observed, but there were no cells stained with anti-ACTH antibody. From the history and pathological findings, no other deficiencies of pituitary hormones were evident. Therefore, isolated ACTH deficiency was suspected. Furthermore, as the thyroid gland showed lymphocytic thyroiditis, is was considered that isolated ACTH deficiency was associated with an autoimmune cause. Generally, as patients of chronic adrenocortical insufficiency are exposed to stress and, therefore, have an increased requirement for glucocorticoids, the blood pressure falls, leading to hypovolemic shock called " an adrenal crisis." Without treatment, patients die in crisis within several hours. In our case, the deceased had drunk alcohol without sleep for 2 days. We believe that the stress of drinking and sleeplessness induced adrenal crisis and caused his death. PMID:9185943

  17. Effect of Price Increase of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone on Treatment Practices of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Carter D.; Benke, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone putatively constitutes the most efficacious treatment for infantile spasms. Adrenocorticotropic hormone in the United States is an “orphan drug,” made by a single manufacturer. The price of adrenocorticotropic hormone increased almost 14-fold on August 27, 2007. We sought to evaluate the impact of this price increase on treatment practices at our institution, using a retrospective chart review of all children with infantile spasms treated during 2007-2009. We identified 97 patients whose spasms were treated using antiepileptic drugs, and we determined the length of stay for those hospitalized to initiate adrenocorticotropic hormone. Patients before the price increase were more likely to have been treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone as first medication, and were hospitalized 2.2 ± 0.5 S.D. days for initiation. Patients after the price increase were more likely to have been treated initially with oral antiepileptic drugs rather than adrenocorticotropic hormone (P < 0.002). Those commencing adrenocorticotropic hormone after the price increase were hospitalized significantly longer (5.1 ± 0.6 days S.D., P < 0.001). Treatment choices need to be evidence-based, but other factors often influence them. PMID:20691936

  18. Limited Diagnostic Utility of Plasma Adrenocorticotropic Hormone for Differentiation between Adrenal Cushing Syndrome and Cushing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hong, A Ram; Kim, Jung Hee; Hong, Eun Shil; Kim, I Kyeong; Park, Kyeong Seon; Ahn, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Wan; Shin, Chan Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Measurement of the plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level has been recommended as the first diagnostic test for differentiating between ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (CS) and ACTH-dependent CS. When plasma ACTH values are inconclusive, a differential diagnosis of CS can be made based upon measurement of the serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) level and results of the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDST). The aim of this study was to assess the utility of plasma ACTH to differentiate adrenal CS from Cushing' disease (CD) and compare it with that of the HDST results and serum DHEA-S level. Methods We performed a retrospective, multicenter study from January 2000 to May 2012 involving 92 patients with endogenous CS. The levels of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) after the HDST, and serum DHEA-S were measured. Results Fifty-seven patients had adrenal CS and 35 patients had CD. The area under the curve of plasma ACTH, serum DHEA-S, percentage suppression of serum cortisol, and UFC after HDST were 0.954, 0.841, 0.950, and 0.997, respectively (all P<0.001). The cut-off values for plasma ACTH, percentage suppression of serum cortisol, and UFC after HDST were 5.3 pmol/L, 33.3%, and 61.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of plasma ACTH measurement were 84.2% and 94.3%, those of serum cortisol were 95.8% and 90.6%, and those of UFC after the HDST were 97.9% and 96.7%, respectively. Conclusion Significant overlap in plasma ACTH levels was seen between patients with adrenal CS and those with CD. The HDST may be useful in differentiating between these forms of the disease, especially when the plasma ACTH level alone is not conclusive. PMID:26248856

  19. Adrenocorticotropic hormone versus prednisolone in the treatment of infantile spasms post vigabatrin failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kevin; Snead, O Carter; Boyd, Jennifer; Go, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The Child Neurology Society/American Academy of Neurology practice parameter has recommended adrenocorticotropic hormone or vigabatrin in the short-term treatment of infantile spasms. When vigabatrin is unavailable or ineffective and adrenocorticotropic hormone is not a treatment option because of the prohibitive cost, other forms of corticosteroids have been considered in the treatment of infantile spasms. This retrospective study reviewed the Hospital for Sick Children's experience with the short-term effectiveness of prednisolone versus adrenocorticotropic hormone in patients with infantile spasms who have failed vigabatrin. The results showed that while adrenocorticotropic hormone was more likely to lead to short-term spasm freedom, there was no difference in the likelihood of longer-term spasm resolution without relapse. These findings can guide clinicians in the treatment of infantile spasms post vigabatrin failure. PMID:24965788

  20. Linkage of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency to the corticotropin releasing hormone locus using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kyllo, J.H.; Collins, M.M.; Vetter, K.L.

    1996-03-29

    Genetic screening techniques using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms were applied to investigate the molecular nature of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. We hypothesize that this rare cause of hypocortisolism shared by a brother and sister with two unaffected sibs and unaffected parents is inherited as an autosomal recessive single gene mutation. Genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis controlling cortisol sufficiency were investigated for a causal role in this disorder. Southern blotting showed no detectable mutations of the gene encoding pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the ACTH precursor. Other candidate genes subsequently considered were those encoding neuroendocrine convertase-1, and neuroendocrine convertase-2 (NEC-1, NEC-2), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Tests for linkage were performed using polymorphic di- and tetranucleotide simple sequence repeat markers flanking the reported map locations for POMC, NEC-1, NEC-2, and CRH. The chromosomal haplotypes determined by the markers flanking the loci for POMC, NEC-1, and NEC-2 were not compatible with linkage. However, 22 individual markers defining the chromosomal haplotypes flanking CRH were compatible with linkage of the disorder to the immediate area of this gene of chromosome 8. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the ACTH deficiency in this family is due to an abnormality of CRH gene structure or expression. These results illustrate the useful application of high density genetic maps constructed with simple sequence repeat markers for inclusion/exclusion studies of candidate genes in even very small nuclear families segregating for unusual phenotypes. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Metabolic responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) vary with life-history stage in adult male northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, David C; Somo, Derek A; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-08-01

    Strong individual and life-history variation in serum glucocorticoids has been documented in many wildlife species. Less is known about variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness and its impact on metabolism. We challenged 18 free-ranging adult male northern elephant seals (NES) with an intramuscular injection of slow-release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) over 3 sample periods: early in the breeding season, after 70+ days of the breeding fast, and during peak molt. Subjects were blood sampled every 30 min for 2h post-injection. Breeding animals were recaptured and sampled at 48 h. In response to the ACTH injection, cortisol increased 4-6-fold in all groups, and remained elevated at 48 h in early breeding subjects. ACTH was a strong secretagogue for aldosterone, causing a 3-8-fold increase in concentration. Cortisol and aldosterone responses did not vary between groups but were correlated within individuals. The ACTH challenge produced elevations in plasma glucose during late breeding and molting, suppressed testosterone and thyroid hormone at 48 h in early breeding, and increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids and ketoacids during molting. These data suggest that sensitivity of the HPA axis is maintained but the metabolic impacts of cortisol and feedback inhibition of the axis vary with life history stage. Strong impacts on testosterone and thyroid hormone suggest the importance of maintaining low cortisol levels during the breeding fast. These data suggest that metabolic adaptations to extended fasting in NES include alterations in tissue responses to hormones that mitigate deleterious impacts of acute or moderately sustained stress responses. PMID:24798580

  2. System identification of cortisol secretion : characterizing pulsatile dynamics

    E-print Network

    Faghih, Rose Taj

    2014-01-01

    Cortisol controls the body's metabolism and response to inflammation and stress. Cortisol is released in pulses from the adrenal glands in response to pulses of adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH) released from the anterior ...

  3. Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone production

    PubMed Central

    Nagarur, Amulya; Kerr, Darcy A.; Lauter, Kelly B.; Padmanabhan, Arun; Raghavan, Srivatsan; Pallais, Juan C.; Fenves, Andrew Z.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a 71-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, lower-extremity edema, recent unintentional weight loss, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Serum cortisol levels remained elevated after overnight high-dose dexamethasone suppression. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small mass in the head of the pancreas with scattered liver metastases. Both endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic biopsy and liver biopsy revealed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor. These lesions did not show significant uptake on octreotide scan. Medical management and hepatic artery chemoembolization were attempted. Ultimately, the patient underwent bilateral adrenalectomy, but died within 4 months of symptom onset secondary to postoperative complications. PMID:25552797

  4. Early hyperbaric oxygen therapy inhibits aquaporin 4 and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with blast-induced craniocerebral injury.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jian; Liu, Jiachuan; Wang, Jinbiao; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Chunlin; Yang, Yanyan; Sun, Wenjiang; Xu, Shaonian

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, rabbits were treated with hyperbaric oxygen for 1 hour after detonator-blast- induced craniocerebral injury. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly reduced aquaporin 4 expression and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with craniocerebral injury. Aquaporin 4 expression was positively correlated with adrenocorticotropic hormone expression. These findings indicate that early hyperbaric oxygen therapy may suppress adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion by inhibiting aquaporin 4 expression. PMID:25624795

  5. Early hyperbaric oxygen therapy inhibits aquaporin 4 and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with blast-induced craniocerebral injury?

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Jian; Liu, Jiachuan; Wang, Jinbiao; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Chunlin; Yang, Yanyan; Sun, Wenjiang; Xu, Shaonian

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, rabbits were treated with hyperbaric oxygen for 1 hour after detonator-blast- induced craniocerebral injury. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly reduced aquaporin 4 expression and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with craniocerebral injury. Aquaporin 4 expression was positively correlated with adrenocorticotropic hormone expression. These findings indicate that early hyperbaric oxygen therapy may suppress adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion by inhibiting aquaporin 4 expression. PMID:25624795

  6. Effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and insulin on the phagocytic capacity of Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Köhidai, L; Lovas, B; Csaba, G

    1995-06-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and insulin negatively influenced the phagocytic activity of Tetrahymena. The two hormones had diverse effects after 4 hr of treatments on no-test-particle containing, "0-cells". At this time the number of "0 cells" was significantly lower in the ACTH-treated groups, while in the insulin-treated groups there was an increase of "0-cells" compared to the control and to the results of the starting experiment. Considering previous results, when small molecular weight hormones, if did at all, positively influenced phagocytosis in Tetrahymena, the experiments call the attention to the differences caused by the size of the signal molecules. In the light of the literary data on hormone effects to phagocytosis in mammals and men, the similarity of the effects in species being very far from each other in evolution, could be concluded. PMID:7580811

  7. Hypofibrinogenemia caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone for infantile spasms: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Atsushi; Araya, Nami; Akasaka, Manami; Mizuma, Kanako; Asami, Maya; Tanifuji, Sachiko; Chida, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 7-month-old boy who developed hypofibrinogenemia (66.6 mg/dL; reference value, 170-405 mg/dL) during adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy for infantile spasms. Although the patient showed no clinical signs of a bleeding diathesis, we recommend that plasma fibrinogen levels should be monitored during ACTH therapy, which should be discontinued when fibrinogen levels fall below hemostatic levels (60.0mg/dL) or when bleeding tendencies are recognized. PMID:24735983

  8. Endogenous Cortisol, Luteinizing Hormone, and Testosterone Secretion and GnRH-induced Luteinizing Hormone and Testosterone Secretion in Prenatally Stressed Sexually Mature Brahman Bulls 

    E-print Network

    Littlejohn, Brittni Paige

    2014-12-12

    grateful. Thank you all. ix NOMENCLATURE AcH Acetylcholine ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone ANOVA Analysis of variance AUC Area under the curve BW Body weight cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate CPM Counts per minute CRH Corticotrophin... to GnRH administration compared to control bulls…………………… 46 xv Figure 12. Correlations of area under the curve (AUC) for cortisol between time -360 and -255 with LH baseline, LH pre-GnRH AUC, testosterone baseline...

  9. A Case of Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Syndrome in Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chaiho; Lee, Jinhee; Ryu, Seongyul; Lee, Hwa Young; Shin, Ah Young; Kim, Ju Sang; Ahn, Joong Hyun; Kang, Hye Seon

    2015-10-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which originated from neuroendocrine tissue, can develop into paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes, such as Cushing syndrome, because of an inappropriate secretion of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This paraneoplastic syndrome is known to be a poor prognostic factor in SCLC. The reason for poor survival may be because of a higher risk of infection associated with hypercortisolemia. Therefore, early detection and appropriate treatment for this syndrome is necessary. But the diagnosis is challenging and the source of ACTH production can be difficult to identify. We report a 69-year-old male patient who had severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypertension as manifestations of an ACTH-secreting small cell carcinoma of the lung. He was treated with ketoconazole and spironolactone to control the ACTH dependent Cushing syndrome. He survived for 15 months after chemotherapy, which is unusual considering the poor outcome of the ectopic ATH syndrome associated with SCLC. PMID:26508941

  10. A Case of Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Syndrome in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Chaiho; Lee, Jinhee; Ryu, Seongyul; Lee, Hwa Young; Shin, Ah Young; Kim, Ju Sang; Ahn, Joong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which originated from neuroendocrine tissue, can develop into paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes, such as Cushing syndrome, because of an inappropriate secretion of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This paraneoplastic syndrome is known to be a poor prognostic factor in SCLC. The reason for poor survival may be because of a higher risk of infection associated with hypercortisolemia. Therefore, early detection and appropriate treatment for this syndrome is necessary. But the diagnosis is challenging and the source of ACTH production can be difficult to identify. We report a 69-year-old male patient who had severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypertension as manifestations of an ACTH-secreting small cell carcinoma of the lung. He was treated with ketoconazole and spironolactone to control the ACTH dependent Cushing syndrome. He survived for 15 months after chemotherapy, which is unusual considering the poor outcome of the ectopic ATH syndrome associated with SCLC. PMID:26508941

  11. Space weightlessness and hormonal changes in human subjects and experimental animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from spaceflight and bed rest studies are briefly described and the difficulties in interpreting these results are discussed. Growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, insulin, aldosterone, and other hormones are addressed.

  12. Comparison of Ultraviolet Photodissociation and Collision Induced Dissociation of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, Scott A.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to better characterize the fragmentation pathways promoted by ultraviolet photoexcitation in comparison to collision induced dissociation (CID), six adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) peptides in a range of charge states were subjected to 266 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD), 193 nm UVPD, and CID. Similar fragment ions and distributions were observed for 266 nm UVPD and 193 nm UVPD for all peptides investigated. While both UVPD and CID led to preferential cleavage of the Y-S bond for all ACTH peptides [except ACTH (1-39)], UVPD was far less dependent on charge state and location of basic sites for the production of C-terminal and N-terminal ions. For ACTH (1-16), ACTH (1-17), ACTH (1-24), and ACTH (1-39), changes in the distributions of fragment ion types ( a, b, c, x, y, z, and collectively N-terminal ions versus C-terminal ions) showed only minor changes upon UVPD for all charge states. In contrast, CID displayed significant changes in the fragment ion type distributions as a function of charge state, an outcome consistent with the dependence on the number and location of mobile protons that is not prominent for UVPD. Sequence coverages obtained by UVPD showed less dependence on charge state than those determined by CID, with the latter showing a consistent decrease in coverage as charge state increased.

  13. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Geary, T W

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but it has been reported to be as great as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether activation of the hypophyseal-adrenal axis with ACTH would mimic a stressful response and cause pregnancy loss in beef cattle. A secondary objective was to determine if a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine would attenuate the stress response and suppress serum PGF(2?) concentrations to prevent pregnancy loss. Forty nonlactating beef cows that were 34 ± 0.33 d pregnant were used for this study. In a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, cows were randomly assigned to receive ACTH [0 or 0.5 IU/kg of BW, intramuscularly (i.m.)] at 0 and 2 h of the study and flunixin meglumine (0, 1.1, or 2.2 mg/kg of BW, i.m.) at 0 h. Blood samples were collected from all cows at 0 h and every 30 min for 4 h to measure serum cortisol and PGF(2?) metabolite (PGFM) concentrations. Rectal temperature was collected for each cow at 0, 120, and 240 min. Pregnancy exams were conducted 31 and 58 d after treatment by transrectal ultrasonography, and the presence of a fetal heartbeat was used as an indicator of fetal viability. Serum cortisol concentration was affected (P < 0.01) by ACTH, time, and the interaction of ACTH × time, but not by flunixin meglumine (P ? 0.14) or any other interactions. Cortisol concentrations increased (P < 0.01) in the serum of ACTH-treated cows immediately after ACTH treatment and remained increased (P < 0.01) throughout the 4-h sampling period. Serum PGFM concentration was not affected by ACTH (P = 0.97) or by any interactions (P > 0.35) with ACTH, but was affected (P < 0.01) by flunixin meglumine, time, and the interaction of flunixin meglumine × time. Regardless of dosage (1.1 or 2.2 mg/kg of BW), flunixin meglumine decreased (P < 0.01) serum PGFM concentrations in both ACTH-treated and control cows for the duration of the study. Although ACTH treatment induced a prolonged increase in serum cortisol concentration, none of the cows used in this study lost a pregnancy. In conclusion, the activation of the hypophyseal-adrenal axis with ACTH increased serum cortisol concentrations but did not increase serum concentrations of PGFM or cause pregnancy loss during early gestation in cows. Flunixin meglumine treatment suppressed serum PGFM concentrations in control and ACTH-treated cows. PMID:21856895

  14. Levels of central oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Tai, Fadao; Wu, Ruiyong; Hao, Ping; Fang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shuwei

    2014-11-01

    Sociability is the prerequisite to social living. Oxytocin and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis mediate various social behaviors across different social contexts in different rodents. We hypothesized that they also mediate levels of non-reproductive social behavior. Here we explored naturally occurring variation in sociability through a social preference test and compared central oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptors, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability. We found that low-social voles showed higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in open field tests, and had more serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone than high-social voles. High-social individuals had more glucocorticoid receptor positive neurons in the hippocampus and more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than low-social individuals. Within the same level of sociability, females had more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than males. These results indicate that naturally occurring social preferences are associated with higher levels of central oxytocin and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor and lower levels of anxiety and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. PMID:25141210

  15. Selective suppression of renal Na+/H+ exchanger isoform-3 by prolonged stimulation of rats with adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Khan, I; Cheng, B

    2001-12-01

    Prolonged stimulation with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causes hypertension and increases Na+ intake and urine output in humans and animals. However, its biochemical basis remains to be established. Since renal Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms (NHE) and the sodium pump play an important role in this condition, their levels were examined in rats stimulated with ACTH. Male Wistar rats received daily sc injection of ACTH (30 microg/100 g of body wt) for 4 d. Half of the ACTH-stressed rats were kept for four additional days without injection of ACTH (poststimulation). In a third group, the animals were treated with dexamethasone (50 microg/100 g of body wt) daily for 4 d. A fourth group consisted of unstressed control animals. Levels of NHE proteins were measured by Western blot analysis. Sodium pump activity was assessed by the level of ouabain-sensitive K-stimulated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity (PNP) in the renal cortex. ACTH caused a selective decrease in NHE-3, but not of NHE-1 or alpha-actin levels. Interestingly, this ACTH-induced change was not duplicated in the animals treated with dexamethasone. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated that NHE-3 is located in the renal proximal tubules. PNP activity, on the contrary, was increased in both the ACTH-stimulated and dexamethasone-treated animals. More important, these changes in NHE-3 and PNP activity returned to the control level poststimulation. In conclusion, while PNP upregulation may be mediated by adrenocortical glucocorticoid, a role for glucocorticoids in the suppression of NHE-3 is less clear. These changes might impair renal tubular Na+ reabsorption and hence increase Na+ and water excretion in ACTH stimulation, thus acting as a counterbalance to normalize blood pressure in ACTH-stimulated animals. PMID:11954662

  16. Pre-emptive oral dexmethorphan reduces fentanyl-induced cough as well as immediate postoperative adrenocortico-tropic hormone and growth hormone level

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Avik; Kundu, Asim Kumar; Ghosh, Sudipta; Choudhuri, Rajat; Bandopadhyay, Bijoy Kumar; Dasgupta, Sugata

    2011-01-01

    Background: Fentanyl-induced cough is not always benign and brief and can be remarkably troublesome, spasmodic, and explosive. Dextromethorphan, an opioid derivative with an antitussive action, may be effective in reducing the fentanyl-induced cough. Dextromethorphan, a N-methyl D aspartate receptor antagonist, may have some effect on diminishing the stress response to surgery. This study was undertaken to determine whether preoperative dextromethorphan could effectively attenuate its incidence, severity, and effect on postoperative stress hormone levels. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twenty patients of American society of anesthesiologists I-II, aged 18–60 years, undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy or appendicectomy were randomly allocated into two groups (Group C, control; Group D, dextromethorphan) consisting of 160 patients each. Patients in Group D received dextromethorphan 40 mg orally and in Group C received placebo tablets 60 minutes before induction of anesthesia. The incidence of cough was recorded for 1 minute after fentanyl injection and graded as none (0), mild (1–2), moderate (3–5), and severe (>5 cough). Blood samples were collected for estimation of stress hormone levels before surgery and again at 1 hour and 24 hours postoperatively and compared. The appearance of adverse reactions was recorded. Results: The incidence of reflex fentanyl cough was lower in dextromethorphan group (3.9%) in comparison to placebo (59.8%). Five patients developed mild and one moderate cough in the dextromethorphan group. In the control group, 31 patients developed mild, 29 moderate, and 32 severe cough. The stress hormones were significantly higher at 1 hour and 24 hours postoperatively in both groups in comparison to its preoperative values. However, at 1 hour postoperatively, adrenocorticotropic hormone, epinephrine, and growth hormone values were significantly low in the dextromethorphan group (61.5 ± 21.1 pg/ ml, 142.1 ± 11.2 pg/ml, and 3.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml) relative to the control group (73.4 ± 21.9 pg/ml, 158.9 ± 17.9 pg/ml, and 4.2 ± 1.3 ng/ml), but changes became insignificant at 24 hours postoperatively. Conclusion: Preoperative oral dextromethorphan 40 mg decreased the incidence and severity of fentanyl induced cough and reduced the rise in stress hormones at 1 hour postoperatively. PMID:22096282

  17. ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by

  18. In vitro detection of adrenocorticotropic hormone levels by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy immunoassay for mathematical modeling of glucocorticoid-mediated feedback mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Performing quantitative, highly sensitive measurements at a single molecule level is often necessary to address specific issues related to complex molecular and biochemical systems. For that purpose, we present a technique exploiting both the flexibility of immunoassays as well as the low operating costs and high throughput rates of the fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) method. That way we have established a quantitative measurement technique providing accurate and flexibly time resolved data of single molecules. Nanomolar changes in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels have been detected in a short time-frame that are caused by fast feedback actions in AtT-20 anterior pituitary glands in vitro. Especially with respect to clinical diagnostic or mathematical modeling this improved FCS setup may be of high relevance in order to accurately quantify the amounts of peptide hormones—such as ACTH—as well as signaling molecules, transcription factors, etc., being involved in intra- and extracellular reaction networks. PMID:23102048

  19. Salivary cortisol and explicit memory in postmenopausal women using hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Duff-Canning, Sarah J

    2016-02-01

    Circulating cortisol levels are known to influence explicit memory in humans and other primates. The present study investigated salivary cortisol and its association with explicit memory performance in 99 postmenopausal women (64 treated with conjugated equine estrogens or estradiol, and 35 matched controls not using any form of hormone therapy). Controls were compared with treated women taking estrogens alone (n=39), or taking estrogens in combination with a progestin (n=25). Mean time on hormone therapy was approximately 5 years, with initiation of treatment in close proximity to the onset of menopause. Explicit memory was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Saliva was collected before (basal or resting sample) and after (post-test sample) completing a set of cognitive tasks. Cortisol was measured using a high-sensitivity radioimmunoassay. Treated women were found to have higher resting cortisol concentrations than controls matched for time of day. Basal cortisol was a modest predictor of learning and memory on the CVLT. Higher cortisol was associated with better recall and fewer memory errors, which is consistent with experimental studies examining explicit memory under small increases in circulating cortisol load. Potential cumulative effects on the central nervous system of sustained exposure to mildly increased cortisol in conjunction with the long-term use of oral estrogens are discussed in the context of aging and dementia. PMID:26630390

  20. Cortisol level measurements in fingernails as a retrospective index of hormone production.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Miki, Keiichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Mitani, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Toru; Fuchu, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

    2015-04-01

    The cortisol level in fingernails may reflect the hormone's cumulative production over a long period, but the notions have not been fully established. In this study, we investigated the association of cortisol in fingernails with cortisol accumulation over a long period (hair cortisol) and over a relatively short period (salivary cortisol). In study 1, hair and fingernail samples were collected from 58 middle-aged and elderly men. The cortisol level in hair samples was moderately associated with the level in fingernail samples (r = 0.29, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.36, p < 0.01). In study 2, 37 workers provided 4 saliva samples over the course of one day (at awakening, 30 min after awakening, before lunch, and after work) and another set a month later. Further, the workers were asked to provide fingernail samples during a six-month period. We found that the cortisol level in saliva over the whole day (area under the curve for cortisol) was moderately associated with the cortisol level measured in fingernail samples that were collected 4 months (r = 0.43, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.50, p < 0.01) and 5 months later (r = 0.45, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.53, p < 0.01). These results indicated that the cortisol level in fingernail samples might retrospectively represent hormone production during a given period. The cortisol level in fingernail samples may be useful in the investigation of the link between psychosocial stress and health. PMID:25662340

  1. Hormonal contraceptive use diminishes salivary cortisol response to psychosocial stress and naltrexone in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; King, Andrea C.; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Lovallo, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of hormonal contraception (HC) may affect salivary cortisol levels at rest and in response to a pharmacological or stress challenge. Therefore, the current study used a secondary data analysis to investigate the effect of HC on salivary cortisol levels in response to the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a psychosocial stressor, and also across the diurnal curve. Two hundred and nine women (n = 72 using hormonal contraception; HC+) completed a two-session stress response study that consisted of a stress day, in which they were exposed to public speaking and mental arithmetic, and a rest day, in which unstimulated cortisol levels were measured to assess the diurnal rhythm. A subset of seventy women (n = 24 HC+) also completed a second study in which they were administered oral naltrexone (50 mg) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind fashion. Women who were HC+ had a significantly reduced salivary cortisol response to both the psychosocial stressor (p < 0.001) and naltrexone (p < 0.05) compared to HC? women. Additionally, HC+ women had a significantly altered morning diurnal cortisol rhythm (p < 0.01), with a delayed peak and higher overall levels. The results of the current study confirm that HC attenuates salivary cortisol response to a psychosocial stressor and mu-opioid receptor antagonism, and also alters the morning diurnal cortisol curve. PMID:23672966

  2. Predicting a low cortisol response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone in the critically ill: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Margriet FC; Beishuizen, Albertus; Spijkstra, Jan-Jaap; Girbes, Armand RJ; van Schijndel, Rob JM Strack; Twisk, Jos WR; Groeneveld, AB Johan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Identification of risk factors for diminished cortisol response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in the critically ill could facilitate recognition of relative adrenal insufficiency in these patients. Therefore, we studied predictors of a low cortisol response to ACTH. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a general intensive care unit of a university hospital over a three year period. The study included 405 critically ill patients, who underwent a 250 ?g ACTH stimulation test because of prolonged hypotension or need for vasopressor/inotropic therapy. Plasma cortisol was measured before and 30 and 60 min after ACTH injection. A low adrenal response was defined as an increase in cortisol of less than 250 nmol/l or a peak cortisol level below 500 nmol/l. Various clinical variables were collected at admission and on the test day. Results A low ACTH response occurred in 63% of patients. Predictors, in multivariate analysis, included sepsis at admission, low platelets, low pH and bicarbonate, low albumin levels, high Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and absence of prior cardiac surgery, and these predictors were independent of baseline cortisol and intubation with etomidate. Baseline cortisol/albumin ratios, as an index of free cortisol, were directly related and increases in cortisol/albumin were inversely related to disease severity indicators such as the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (Spearman r = -0.21; P < 0.0001). Conclusion In critically ill patients, low pH/bicarbonate and platelet count, greater severity of disease and organ failure are predictors of a low adrenocortical response to ACTH, independent of baseline cortisol values and cortisol binding capacity in blood. These findings may help to delineate relative adrenal insufficiency and suggest that adrenocortical suppression occurs as a result of metabolic acidosis and coagulation disturbances. PMID:17524133

  3. Sleep, Dreams, and Memory Consolidation: The Role of the Stress Hormone Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert…

  4. ADENYL CYCLASE AND HORMONE ACTION, I. EFFECTS OF ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, GLUCAGON, AND EPINEPHRINE ON THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF RAT FAT CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Bär, H. P.; Hechter, O.

    1969-01-01

    A large number of hormones, of diverse molecular structure, evoke characteristic responses in target cells via the intermediary 3?,5?-AMP, the specificity of hormone action upon cell type being achieved by selective stimulation of adenyl cyclase. In the fat cells of rat adipose tissue, adenyl cyclase is stimulated by a number of hormones of disparate molecular structure, posing the question whether this cell type posesses multiple cyclase systems with distinctive specificities for individual hormones, or a single cyclase with broad specificity to a variety of hormones. Studies of the stimulatory effects of adenocorticotropin, glucagon, and epinephrine upon the adenyl cyclase of the rat fat cell “ghosts” (plasma membrane sacs) have shown that distinctive selectivity sites for each of these hormones can be differentiated. The ?-adrenergic blocking agent Kö 592 abolished the stimulatory effect of epinephrine without influencing adenocorticotropin or glucagon; Ca was required for adenocorticotropin action, but not for glucagon or epinephrine. Dose-response curves show that the affinity of hormones to the cyclase system was in the order: glucagon > adenocorticotropin ? epinephrine; the magnitude of cyclase activation by maximal doses of hormones had a reversed order. Combinations of maximal doses of hormones failed to produce additive stimulation. The results show that in the membrane of the fat cell a single catalytic unit of adenyl cyclase is coupled to distinctive selectivity sites for three lipolytic hormones. PMID:4308273

  5. Expression of somatostatin, dopamine, progesterone and growth hormone receptor mRNA in canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumours.

    PubMed

    Kool, Miriam M J; Galac, Sara; van der Helm, Noortje; Spandauw, Catharina G; Kooistra, Hans S; Mol, Jan A

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumours (AT) in dogs are characterised by uncontrolled growth and excessive cortisol secretion. Dysregulated hormone receptor expression might be involved in tumour growth and hypersecretion of cortisol. The relative mRNA expression of growth hormone receptor, progesterone receptor, somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-3) and dopamine receptors (DRD1-2 and DRD5) was evaluated in 36 canine ATs and 15 adrenal glands obtained from healthy dogs. Compared with normal adrenal tissue, DRD2 mRNA expression was relatively lower in carcinomas, while SSTR1 mRNA expression was lower in both adenomas and carcinomas. Both of these features might contribute to loss of inhibition of tumour growth and upregulation of cortisol secretion. In canine ATs that had recurred within 30 months of surgical adrenalectomy, a marked increase in expression of DRD1 mRNA was observed. Targeting of specific hormone receptors, expressed by ATs, might be exploited for therapy. PMID:26143682

  6. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. PMID:25776460

  7. Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Co-Secreting Tumors in Children and Adolescents Causing Cushing Syndrome: A Diagnostic Dilemma and How to Solve It

    PubMed Central

    Karageorgiadis, Alexander S.; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Biro, Juliana; Keil, Meg F.; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Quezado, Martha M.; Merino, Maria; Schrump, David S.; Kebebew, Electron; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Hunter, Maya K.; Alwazeer, Mouhammad R.; Karaviti, Lefkothea P.; Balazs, Andrea E.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ectopic ACTH/CRH syndrome is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome (CS), especially in children. The localization, work-up, and management of ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors are discussed. Setting: A retrospective study was conducted of patients under 21 years of age evaluated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for CS and diagnosed with ectopic ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors during the period 2009–2014. Patients: Seven patients with ectopic ACTH/CRH CS are included in this study with a median age 13.6 years (range 1–21), and 3 are female. Measurements: Clinical, biochemical, radiological features, treatment, and histological findings are described. Results: Seven patients were found to have ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors, all with neuroendocrine features. The site of the primary lesion varied: pancreas (3), thymus (2), liver (1), right lower pulmonary lobe (1). Patients underwent biochemical evaluation for CS, including diurnal serum cortisol and ACTH levels, urinary free cortisol levels (UFC), and CRH stimulation tests. All patients underwent radiological investigations including MRI, CT, and PET scan; imaging with octreotide and 68 gallium DOTATATE scans were performed in individual cases. Five patients underwent inferior petrosal sinus sampling; 4 patients had sampling for ACTH and CRH levels from additional sites. Three patients underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS), and 3 patients required bilateral adrenalectomy. Three patients (43%) died due to metastatic disease, demonstrating the high mortality rate. One of the unique findings in these seven patients is that in each case, their neuroendocrine tumors were ultimately proven to be co-secreting ACTH and CRH. This explains the enigmatic presentation, in which 3 patients initially thought to have Cushing's disease (CD) with corresponding pituitary hyperplasia underwent TSS prior to the correct localization of the causative tumor. Conclusions: Ectopic ACTH/CRH co-secreting tumors are extremely rare in children and adolescents. The diagnosis of this condition is frequently missed and is sometimes confused with CD due to the effect of CRH on the pituitary. PMID:25291050

  8. Renal tubular acidosis complicated with hyponatremia due to cortisol insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Yushi; Onoue, Tomoaki; Inoue, Hideki; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical insufficiency such as occurs in Addison's disease causes hyponatremia and renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Hyponatremia results from both aldosterone and cortisol insufficiency. RTA is due to aldosterone insufficiency. The involvement of cortisol in RTA is unclear. Here, we report a woman in her 70s who was admitted to our hospital with severe hyponatremia (106 mEq/l) and RTA. The patient exhibited low plasma cortisol levels with little response to rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone loading. In contrast, the plasma aldosterone concentration was maintained at or above the normal range. Hydrocortisone replacement greatly improved both the hyponatremia and RTA. This case suggests that both aldosterone and cortisol are involved in acid secretion from the kidney. PMID:26609420

  9. Stress, rejection, and hormones: Cortisol and progesterone reactivity to laboratory speech and rejection tasks in women and men

    PubMed Central

    Gaffey, Allison E.; Wirth, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Stress and social rejection have important impacts on health. Among the mechanisms implicated are hormonal systems such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which produces cortisol in humans. Current research employs speech stressors and social rejection stressors to understand hormonal responses in a laboratory setting. However, it is not clear whether social rejection stressors elicit hormonal reactivity. In addition to cortisol, progesterone has been highlighted as a potential stress- and affiliation-related hormone in humans. In the present study, 131 participants (70 men and 61 women) were randomly assigned to be exposed to one of four conditions: standardized speech stressor; speech control; social rejection task; or a control (inclusion) version of the social rejection task. Saliva samples were collected throughout the study to measure cortisol and progesterone. As hypothesized, we found the expected increase in cortisol in the speech stressor, and we also found that the social rejection task did not increase cortisol, underscoring the divergence between unpleasant experiences and HPA axis activity. However, we did not find evidence for progesterone increase either during the speech- or social rejection tasks. Compared with past studies on progesterone and stress in humans, the present findings present a mixed picture. Future work is needed to delineate the contexts and types of manipulations which lead to progesterone increases in humans. PMID:25580228

  10. Life events are positively associated with luteinizing hormone in middle age adult men: role of cortisol as a third variable.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Bibiana; Machulsky, Nahuel Fernandez; Grosman, Halina; Gonzalez, Diego; Oneto, Adriana; Repetto, Esteban M; Mesch, Viviana; Nolazco, Carlos; Mazza, Osvaldo; Gidron, Yori; Berg, Gabriela

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have tested the relationship between chronic stress and sex hormones, but inconsistent results have been found. One possibility is that this association may depend on other biological factors. This study examined the relationship between stressful life events (LE) and sex hormones in men, and whether cortisol is involved in this relationship. From a total number of 2906 men who completed a screening for the early detection of prostate cancer, 139 healthy men (mean?±?SD age, 57.8?±?5.7 years) were included in this study. Participants were assessed with the Holmes and Rahe questionnaire in relation to their experience of LE during the previous 1-5 years. Salivary and serum cortisol was measured at 08:00-09:00?h, as well as luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone, epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE). LE weight sum and LE number positively correlated with LH (r?=?0.293, p?=?0.004; r?=?0.220, p?=?0.031, respectively). In a multiple regression analysis, LE-sum explained an additional and significant 10.4% of the variance in LH levels, after statistically controlling for the effects of age, waist circumference (WC) and BMI (F(1,90)?=?6.61, p?cortisol interacted with LE in relation to total testosterone. In men with high cortisol values (?15.4?µg/dl), there was a statistically significant positive relationship between LE number and total testosterone levels (p?=?0.05), while LE were unrelated to total testosterone in men with low cortisol. LE correlated with sex hormones, predicting LH values, and in men with high cortisol levels shows a possible moderator effect of cortisol on the relationship between LE and total testosterone. PMID:24881484

  11. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?; 20?-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  12. REDUCTION IN CHANNEL CATFISH HEPATIC GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN RESPONSE TO FOOD DEPRIVATION AND EXOGENOUS CORTISOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of food deprivation and exogenous cortisol administration on somatic growth of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and examine the resultant changes in circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and growth hormone receptor ...

  13. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections, using a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectrometric detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this method and data obtained with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis), and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH-secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH-secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared with non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis, as expected. This work reveals that a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, including AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity, and specificity of this method support the potential of this basic technology, with further advancement, for assisting surgical decision-making. Graphical Abstract Mass spectrometry based profiling of hormones in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections. PMID:26084546

  14. Profiling of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Arginine Vasopressin in Human Pituitary Gland and Tumor Thin Tissue Sections using Droplet-Based Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie YR

    2015-01-01

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections using a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectral detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system and those data obtained with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis) and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared to non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis as anticipated. This work demonstrates that a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, such as AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity and specificity of the current methodology support the potential of this basic technology with further advancement for assisting surgical decision-making.

  15. Serum concentrations of cortisol induced by exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are not predictive of residual feed intake (RFI) in Brahman cattle. 

    E-print Network

    Agado, Bryan Joseph

    2011-01-11

    time period (United States Department of Agriculture, 2008), it is imperative that producers realize the importance of feed efficiency of their cattle. Two measures of feed efficiency have been proposed in the past, feed:gain ratio and gain...:feed ratio. The latter was used more often because a higher value was associated with better efficiency. This data can be very misleading because animals with similar gain:feed ratios can have very different rates of gain or feed intake values (Sainz...

  16. Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L

    2013-12-01

    Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling. PMID:24080086

  17. Hormone levels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... others. For more information, see: 5-HIAA 17-OH progesterone 17-hydroxycorticosteroids 17-ketosteroids 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion rate 25-OH vitamin D Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) ACTH stimulation test ...

  18. The relationship between insulin, insulin resistance, parathyroid hormone, cortisol, testosterone, and thyroid function tests in the presence of nephrolithiasis: a comprehensive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Halit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that hormonal factors such as levels of insulin, cortisol, testosterone, and insulin resistance are related with increased nephrolithiasis (NL). However, no previous study has evaluated the relationship between insulin, insulin resistance, thyroid hormones, cortisol, intact parathyroid hormone and testosterone levels with the presence of NL in a comprehensive manner. Materials and methods All patients underwent the following procedures: history taking, physical examination, biochemical analysis [including measurement of levels of insulin, thyroid hormones, cortisol, and total testosterone (for male patients only)], urine analysis, 24–hour urine collection to measure urinary protein, sodium excretion, and creatinine clearance. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA–INDEX). The presence of NL was determined by ultrasonography. Results The study was composed of 136 patients. In total, 30 patients had NL. Patients with NL were more likely to be older, male, obese, and smokers. Uric acid and HOMA–INDEX were also higher in patients with NL. In the whole group, only insulin (Odds ratio:1.128, CI:1.029–1.236, P:0.01) but not other hormones, and HOMA–INDEX were related with the presence of NL. In males, none of the hormones including total testosterone were associated with NL. Conclusions Only levels of insulin, but not other hormones were associated with the presence of NL in a group of patients with suspicion of NL. More studies are needed to highlight the mechanisms regarding NL and hormone levels. PMID:24982784

  19. Discovery of N-[5-(6-Chloro-3-cyano-1-methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-pyridin-3-ylmethyl]-ethanesulfonamide, a Cortisol-Sparing CYP11B2 Inhibitor that Lowers Aldosterone in Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Papillon, Julien P N; Lou, Changgang; Singh, Alok K; Adams, Christopher M; Ksander, Gary M; Beil, Michael E; Chen, Wei; Leung-Chu, Jennifer; Fu, Fumin; Gan, Lu; Hu, Chii-Whei; Jeng, Arco Y; LaSala, Daniel; Liang, Guiqing; Rigel, Dean F; Russell, Kerry S; Vest, John A; Watson, Catherine

    2015-12-10

    Human clinical studies conducted with LCI699 established aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) inhibition as a promising novel mechanism to lower arterial blood pressure. However, LCI699's low CYP11B1/CYP11B2 selectivity resulted in blunting of adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated cortisol secretion. This property of LCI699 prompted its development in Cushing's disease, but limited more extensive clinical studies in hypertensive populations, and provided an impetus for the search for cortisol-sparing CYP11B2 inhibitors. This paper summarizes the discovery, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic data in preclinical species and human subjects of the selective CYP11B2 inhibitor 8. PMID:26540564

  20. The relationships between cortisol levels, insulin levels, and thyroid hormones with 24-h urinary sodium excretion in never treated essential hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Afsar, Baris; Ay, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND To study the relationship between cortisol, insulin, and thyroid hormone levels with 24-h urinary sodium (Na) excretion levels in essential hypertensive patients. METHODS All patients underwent history taking, physical examination, blood pressure (BP) measurement, 12 lead electocardiographic evaluation, routine urine analysis, biochemical analysis including measurement of cortisol, insulin, and thyroid hormone levels, 24-h urine collection to measure urinary Na and protein excretion and creatinine clearance. RESULTS In total, 68 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients were included. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that 24-h urinary Na excretion was correlated with insulin levels (? = ?0.473, P < 0.0001), serum cortisol levels (? = ?0.404, P = 0.0010) and creatinine clearance (? = 0.407, P = 0.0010). Linear regression of independent factors has revealed that systolic BP (B = 0.004, CI = 0.001-0.008, P = 0.0170), body mass index (B = 0.014, CI = 0.005-0.023, P = 0.0030), being male (B = 0.077, CI = 0.001-0.153, P = 0.0480), creatinine clearance (B = 0.003, CI = 0.001-0.006, P = 0.0120) and insulin levels (B = ?0.008, CI = ?0.014 to ?0.002, P = 0.0070) were independently related with logarithmically converted 24-h Na excretion. CONCLUSION In conclusion, we found that insulin but not cortisol and thyroid hormone levels were independently related with 24-h urinary Na excretion in newly diagnosed essential hypertensive patients. PMID:25161687

  1. Does aerobic exercise affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal response in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Aysun; Tur, Birkan Sonel; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Oztuna, Derya; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the etiopathogenesis of fibromyalgia is not clear. This study aimed to analyze the effects of a 6-week aerobic exercise program on the HPA axis in patients with fibromyalgia and to investigate the effects of this program on the disease symptoms, patients’ fitness, disability, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty fibromyalgia patients were randomized to Group 1 (stretching and flexibility exercises at home for 6 weeks) and Group 2 (aerobic exercise three times a week and the same at-home exercises as Group 1 for 6 weeks). Serum levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and growth hormone were analyzed at baseline and at the end of, and 1 hr after an exercise stress test. [Results] Group 2 showed better improvement in morning stiffness duration and pain. Growth hormone levels significantly increased after intervention and cortisol levels significantly decreased at time-time interaction in both groups. No significant differences in adrenocorticotropic hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found. [Conclusion] The results of this study seem to support the hypothesis that there is a dysregulation of the HPA axis in patients with FM, and that a six-week exercise program can influence symptoms and affect the HPA axis hormones. PMID:26311959

  2. Effects of ginseng ingestion on growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor 1 responses to acute resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Youl Kang, Ho; Hwan Kim, Seung; Jun Lee, Woen; Byrne, Heidi K

    2002-05-01

    Ginseng, an herbal plant, has been ingested by many athletes in Oriental regions of the world in order to improve stamina and to facilitate rapid recovery from injuries. However, adequate investigation has not been conducted to examine the ergogenic effects of ginseng. To examine the effects of ginseng supplements on hormonal status following acute resistance exercise, eight male college students were randomly given water (control; CON) or 20 g of ginseng root extract (GIN) treatment immediately after a standardized exercise bout. Venous blood samples were drawn before and immediately after exercise and at 4 time points during a 2-hour recovery period. Human growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The responses of plasma hormones following ginseng consumption were not significant between CON and GIN treatments during the 2-hour recovery period. These results do not support the use of ginseng to promote an anabolic hormonal status following resistance exercise. PMID:11991768

  3. Oxytocin, vasopressin, prostaglandin F(2alpha), luteinizing hormone, testosterone, estrone sulfate, and cortisol plasma concentrations after sexual stimulation in stallions.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, M C; Tosi, U; Villani, M; Govoni, N; Faustini, M; Kindahl, H; Madej, A; Carluccio, A

    2010-03-01

    This experiment was designed to determine the effects of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (VP), 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PG-metabolite), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), estrone sulfate (ES), and cortisol (C) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 14 light horse stallions (Equus caballus) of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. Blood samples were collected at 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 min before estrous mare exposure, at erection, at ejaculation, and at 3, 6, and 9 min after ejaculation. Afterwards, blood sampling was performed every 10 min for the following 60 min. Sexual activity determined an increase in plasma concentrations of OT, VP, C, PG-metabolite, and ES and caused no changes in LH and T concentrations. The finding of a negative correlation between C and VP at erection, and between C and T before erection and at the time of erection, could be explained by a possible inhibitory role exerted by C in the mechanism of sexual arousal described for men. PMID:20022362

  4. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K63.a,b: Non-peptide hormones in serum: cortisol and progesterone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S-C Tai, Susan; Duewer, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate many life functions. Deviations from normal hormone levels can have serious health consequences. Accurate measurement of hormone levels in serum can be beneficial in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating a number of diseases. Two steroid hormones, cortisol and progesterone, were selected by the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) to evaluate its member Institutes' measurement capabilities for this important class of measurand. Serum concentrations of cortisol range from 30 ng/mL to 230 ng/mL. Serum concentrations of progesterone in adult females range from 0.15 ng/mL to 25 ng/mL but can rise to approx230 ng/mL during pregnancy. The ability to measure cortisol is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones at concentration levels similar to cortisol. The ability to measure progesterone is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones with similar functional groups and concentration levels, such as testosterone. Pilot studies CCQM-P77.a and CCQM-P77.b on the determination of cortisol and progesterone in human serum were completed in 2006. There was good agreement among the results reported by participants who used isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (ID/MS) with either gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC). In 2007 the OAWG decided to proceed with key comparison (KC) CCQM-K63.a, cortisol in human serum, and CCQM-K63.b, progesterone in human serum. Thus, following established OAWG procedure, only results from participants that (1) used an ID/MS-based method, (2) participated in the relevant pilot study, and (3) used a metrologically traceable primary standard were to be eligible for use in calculating the key comparison reference value (KCRV) for each measurand. Six laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.a and eight laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.b. The same pooled frozen female serum material was used in both of the KCs. The mean value for the six ID/MS-based cortisol results is 100.4 ng/g with a relative standard deviation (%RSD) of 1.1%. The mean value for the seven ID/MS-based progesterone originally reported results is 2.83 with a %RSD of 1.8%. While a number of the reported results were not eligible to be used in establishing the KCRVs, the KCRVs as estimated from just the eligible results agree very well with these means. The excellent among-participant agreement indicates that ID/MS-based measurement procedures can provide precise and true results for steroid hormones at levels greater than about 1 ng/g. The progesterone result reported by a laboratory using a non-isotopically labelled internal standard was about 11% larger than the KCRV. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  5. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated cortisol response to an acute stressor. PMID:24269985

  6. Effects of Music Listening on Cortisol Levels and Propofol Consumption during Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fuermetz, Julian; Sack, Ulrich; Bauer, Katrin; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Wiegel, Martin; Kaisers, Udo X.; Heinke, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study explores effects of instrumental music on the hormonal system (as indicated by serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone), the immune system (as indicated by immunoglobulin A) and sedative drug requirements during surgery (elective total hip joint replacement under spinal anesthesia with light sedation). This is the first study investigating this issue with a double-blind design using instrumental music. Methodology/Principal Findings: Patients (n?=?40) were randomly assigned either to a music group (listening to instrumental music), or to a control group (listening to a non-musical placebo stimulus). Both groups listened to the auditory stimulus about 2?h before, and during the entire intra-operative period (during the intra-operative light sedation, subjects were able to respond lethargically to verbal commands). Results indicate that, during surgery, patients of the music group had a lower propofol consumption, and lower cortisol levels, compared to the control group. Conclusion/Significance: Our data show that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels (reflecting stress-reducing effects) and reduces sedative requirements to reach light sedation. PMID:21716581

  7. Suppression of cortisol responses to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and the occurrence of side effects attributable to glucocorticoid excess, in cats during therapy with megestrol acetate and prednisolone.

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, D J; Watson, A D; Howe, C J; Caterson, I D

    1987-01-01

    The major purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of prednisolone and megestrol acetate in cats on the adrenal cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone during drug administration at dose rates employed for management of some inflammatory feline dermatoses. Prednisolone (at least 2 mg/kg/day) and megestrol acetate (5 mg/cat/day) were each administered orally to seven cats from days 1 to 16. Three additional cats received no therapy. Basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, food and water intake, hematology, blood biochemistry, urinalyses, and hepatic and cutaneous histology were studied in all cats before, during, and two weeks following the end of treatment. Cats given prednisolone or megestrol acetate had significant suppression of stimulated cortisol levels on day 8. This change was more marked on day 15, when the suppression in cats given megestrol acetate was also significantly more severe than in those receiving prednisolone. Recovery of adrenal reserve was considered present on day 30 in six of seven cats given prednisolone, but in only three of seven receiving megestrol acetate. Eosinopenia, glycosuria and hepatocyte swelling from glycogen deposition were occasionally recorded in treated cats of both groups, providing additional circumstantial evidence for glucocorticoid activity of megestrol acetate in cats. It is advised that abrupt withdrawal of prednisolone or megestrol acetate therapy be avoided in this species to reduce the chance of precipitating clinical signs of hypoadrenocorticism, even after treatment for as little as one week. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3032391

  8. Comparison of total and salivary cortisol in a low-dose ACTH (Synacthen) test: influence of three-month oral contraceptives administration to healthy women.

    PubMed

    Sim?nková, K; Stárka, L; Hill, M; Kríz, L; Hampl, R; Vondra, K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of low-dose combined oral contraception (COC) on basal and stimulated (1 microg ACTH test) levels of serum and salivary cortisol (F), cortisone and on basal serum cortisol binding globulin (CBG), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), dehydroepiadrosterone (DHEA) and calculated free cortisol in healthy young women. Three-month administration of COC resulted in 1) significant increase of basal (454.0+/-125.0 to 860.9+/-179.7 nmol/l) and ACTH-stimulated serum cortisol in 30th min (652.3+/-60.5 to 1374.1+/-240.6 nmol/l); 2) no significant change of basal (15.4+/-7.3 to 18.9+/-8.5 nmol/l) and ACTH-stimulated salivary cortisol at the 30th min (32.4+/-8.8 to 32.9+/-9.0 nmol/l); 3) no significant change of basal serum cortisone (38,8+/-7.68 to 45.2+/-24.2 nmol/l) and ACTH-stimulated cortisone at the 30th (34.8+/-10.9 to 47.0+/-35.7 nmol/l); 4) significant increase of basal ACTH (17.2+/-9.0 to 38.2+/-29.4 ng/l), CBG (991.0+/-161.0 to 2332.0+/-428.0 nmol/l), and 5) no significant change of basal DHEA (24.6+/-15.7 to 22.6+/-11.7 micromol/l) and calculated basal value for free cortisol (22.8+/-14.9 to 19.2+/-6.9 nmol/l). In conclusions, higher basal and ACTH-stimulated serum cortisol were found after three-month administration of COC, while basal and stimulated salivary cortisol were not significantly affected. Therefore, salivary cortisol can be used for assessment of adrenal function in women regularly using COC. PMID:18271677

  9. Suckling and salsolinol attenuate responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress: focus on catecholamines, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, cortisol and prolactin secretion in lactating sheep.

    PubMed

    Hasiec, M; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D; Misztal, T

    2014-12-01

    In mammals, the responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stress is reduced during lactation and this mainly results from suckling by the offspring. The suckling stimulus causes a release of the hypothalamic 1-metyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (salsolinol) (a derivative of dopamine), one of the prolactin-releasing factors. To investigate the involvement of salsolinol in the mechanism suppressing stress-induced HPA axis activity, we conducted a series of experiments on lactating sheep, in which they were treated with two kinds of isolation stress (isolation from the flock with lamb present or absent), combined with suckling and/or i.c.v infusion of salsolinol and 1-methyl-3,4-dihydro-isoqinoline (1-MeDIQ; an antagonistic analogue of salsolinol). Additionally, a push-pull perfusion of the infundibular nucleus/median eminence (IN/ME) and blood sample collection with 10-min intervals were performed during the experiments. Concentrations of perfusate corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and catecholamines (noradrenaline, dopamine and salsolinol), as well as concentrations of plasma adenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and prolactin, were assayed. A significant increase in perfusate noradrenaline, plasma ACTH and cortisol occurred in response to both kinds of isolation stress. Suckling and salsolinol reduced the stress-induced increase in plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations. Salsolinol also significantly reduced the stress-induced noradrenaline and dopamine release within the IN/ME. Treatment with 1-MeDIQ under the stress conditions significantly diminished the salsolinol concentration and increased CRH and cortisol concentrations. Stress and salsolinol did not increase the plasma prolactin concentration, in contrast to the suckling stimulus. In conclusion, salsolinol released in nursing sheep may have a suppressing effect on stress-induced HPA axis activity and peripheral prolactin does not appear to participate in its action. PMID:25205344

  10. Higher n-3 fatty acids are associated with more intense fenfluramine-induced ACTH and cortisol responses among cocaine-abusing men.

    PubMed

    Buydens-Branchey, Laure; Branchey, Marc; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2011-08-15

    Preclinical studies have shown that diets supplemented with or deficient in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could influence serotonergic neurotransmission, but information about their effects on the serotonergic function of humans is scant. Therefore, simultaneous assessments of n-3 PUFAs and of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol responses to challenges with the serotonin (5-HT) probe d,l-fenfluramine (FEN) were performed in 25 cocaine-abusing men and 12 control subjects. Cocaine abusers were tested 18 days after their admission to a closed ward. ACTH and cortisol were measured in plasma samples collected on two testing days separated by 48 h following the random administration of 60 mg of FEN or placebo. Fatty acids were measured in the first test day samples. Patients' FEN-induced ACTH rises were significantly and positively correlated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Patients' cortisol rises were positively and significantly correlated with EPA but not with DHA. There were no significant correlations between hormonal responses and pre-hospitalization cocaine use parameters. Control subjects' responses to FEN were not correlated with any PUFA. In conclusion, higher EPA and DHA levels were associated with a more intense FEN-induced ACTH response and higher EPA levels with a more intense cortisol response in cocaine-abusing men withdrawn from cocaine but not in control subjects. These findings support and expand existing evidence that EPA and DHA could influence 5-HT function in some human subgroups. PMID:21658782

  11. Effects of continuous elevated cortisol concentrations during oestrus on concentrations and patterns of progesterone, oestradiol and LH in the sow.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Y; Einarsson, S; Ljung, A; Lundeheim, N; Rodríguez-Martínez, H; Madej, A

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of continuous elevated cortisol concentrations during standing oestrus on time of ovulation and patterns of progesterone, oestradiol and luteinising hormone (LH) in sows. The elevation of cortisol concentrations was achieved through repeated intravenous injections of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) every 2 h for approximately 48 h, from the onset of the second standing oestrus after weaning. Treatment was terminated when ovulation was detected (monitored by transrectal ultrasonography every 4h) or when the sow had received a maximum of 24 injections. The dose of ACTH (2.5 microg/kg) was chosen to mimic the cortisol concentrations seen during mixing of unfamiliar sows. The sows (n=14) were surgically fitted with jugular vein catheters and randomly divided into a control (C group where only NaCl solution were injected) or an ACTH group. Blood samples were collected every 2 h. In parallel with the blood sampling, saliva samples for cortisol analyses were taken from eight sows before onset of treatment and from four of the sows during treatment. There was no difference in time from onset of standing oestrus to ovulation between the two groups. The interval between the peaks of oestradiol and LH to ovulation was prolonged in the ACTH group compared to the C group (p<0.05), with a tendency towards an earlier decline of oestradiol in the ACTH group. Cortisol and progesterone concentrations were significantly elevated during treatment in the ACTH group (p<0.001), with cortisol peak concentrations occurring between 40 and 80 min after each ACTH injection. Cortisol concentrations in saliva and plasma were highly correlated (p<0.001). In conclusion, elevated cortisol concentrations from the onset of standing oestrus increase progesterone concentrations and prolong the interval between oestradiol and LH peaks to ovulation, the latter possible due to an early decline in oestradiol concentrations and a change of the LH peak outline. The effect these hormonal changes have on reproductive performance need to be further investigated. Saliva samples might be a useful and non-invasive method to assess cortisol concentrations in sows. PMID:18308488

  12. Effects of different spawning agents on serum levels of reproductive steroid hormones and cortisol level in adult female Barbus sharpeyi (Gunther, 1874).

    PubMed

    Mohammadian, Takavar; Malekpouri, Pedram; Zare, Mojtaba; Zainodini, Mohammad Anwar

    2015-12-01

    The question of whether, as hormone therapies, spawning agents differ from each other to induce physiological pathways of gametogenesis and oocyte maturation in fish remains important, because it could modify undesirable changes, regulated by endocrine systems of individual fish. A series of experimental treatments were applied to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) in which female bunnei (Barbus sharpeyi) fish respond differently to hormone therapies. Female broodstocks were injected twice (with 12 h interval) by three different treatments namely A, B and C. The treatment A received carp pituitary extract (CPE) + luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs (LHRH?2) (0.5 mg CPE kg(-1) BW for first injection and 2 mg CPE kg(-1) BW + 10 µg LHRH?2 kg(-1) for second injection), treatment B received CPE (0.5 and 3.5 mg kg(-1) BW), and treatment C received ovaprim (0.1 and 0.15 ml kg(-1) BW). Blood samples were collected at four different time intervals, including prior to injections, 6 h after first injection, 6 h after second injection and at the time of spawning, and serum steroid hormones, including testosterone, progesterone and estradiol-17? as well as cortisol, were measured. Results showed significant increases in serum estradiol-17? following all treatments, but the most profound response was found in treatments A and B. Testosterone was higher in larger broodfish than in small-sized broodfish (>1.5 vs. <1.5 kg) in all treatments. CPE led to higher concentration of testosterone rather than two other treatments. CPE also increases the progesterone following first injection and approximately remains unchanged till the end of experiment. Change in progesterone level was only significant after second injection of ovaprim as well as after spawning compared with previous time. Linear regression analyses indicated that cortisol had adverse effects on progesterone and testosterone levels of weight group <1.5 kg. These results suggest that among inducing agents, applied here, CPE can provide more reasonable response in reproduction of female B. sharpeyi. PMID:26164861

  13. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Identification. A cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system is a device intended to measure the cortisol hormones secreted by the adrenal gland in plasma and urine. Measurements of cortisol are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identification. A cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system is a device intended to measure the cortisol hormones secreted by the adrenal gland in plasma and urine. Measurements of cortisol are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identification. A cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system is a device intended to measure the cortisol hormones secreted by the adrenal gland in plasma and urine. Measurements of cortisol are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  16. INSULIN, GLUCOSE, CORTISOL, GROWTH HORMONE AND PROLACTIN RESPONSES TO ORAL L-ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION TO LACTATING SOWS UNDER HEAT STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to determine whether dietary arginine (Arg) decreases weight loss of lactating sows via regulation of key metabolic hormones. Sows were exposed to a thermoneutral (TN = 20º C) or hot (HT = 29.4º C) environment and fed one of three dietary treatments in a 2 x 3 factori...

  17. Ecological correlates of cortisol levels in two bat species with contrasting feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Lewanzik, Daniel; Kelm, Detlev H; Greiner, Sabine; Dehnhard, Martin; Voigt, Christian C

    2012-05-15

    The immediate release of adrenal glucocorticoids can be crucial for an animal's survival when facing a stressor, but constantly elevated or exceptionally high glucocorticoid levels are usually detrimental for health. Although baseline and maximal secretion of glucocorticoids are regulated within narrow ranges within species, plasma glucocorticoid levels vary largely across vertebrates. We asked what ecological factors affect baseline plasma cortisol levels (CortI) and maximum levels (CortMax) following a physiological challenge through administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Specifically, we studied whether seasonal fluctuations in food abundance correlate with the capacity of cortisol increases in two phyllostomid bat species with contrasting feeding habits: the sanguinivorous vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the frugivorous short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). Both species coexist in habitats with various levels of seasonality (dry and rainforest). On a seasonal basis, resource abundance is more stable for vampire than for fruit bats, but previous studies suggested that daily foraging success may vary more for vampire than for fruit bats. CortI and CortMax varied seasonally in C. perspicillata from dry and rainforests, with the exception of CortMax in rainforest bats. Although we expected food availability to be stable year-round for vampire bats, we found CortI and CortMax of vampires to be higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Also, we found CortMax to be higher in vampires from the rainforest than in those from the dry forest. CortMax of vampires were among the highest measured for a free-ranging mammal; a pattern that could be related to the species' vulnerability to starvation. We conclude that food availability modulates cortisol levels in free-ranging species that face seasonally fluctuating resources; in species, however, that benefit from food which is constantly abundant, other factors than food may become more important in modulating cortisol levels. PMID:22429728

  18. Pigment-dispersing activities and cortisol-releasing activities of melanocortins and their receptors in xanthophores and head kidneys of the goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Chiba, Hiroaki; Mizusawa, Kanta; Suzuki, Nobuo; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2011-09-15

    The five subtypes of melanocortin receptors (MCRs) mediate the functions of ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In fish, these hormones are involved in pigment dispersion and cortisol release, respectively. ?-MSH-related peptides exhibit ACTH-like activity in certain fishes. We recently found that multiple Mcr transcripts are expressed in some cell types in the barfin flounder, which is related to regulation of ?-MSH activities. Similar results were also observed for the cortisol-releasing activity of ?-MSH-related peptides in the head kidney. The present study was undertaken to assess relationship between the expression of multiply expressed Mcrs and ?-MSH activities using goldfish. We also determined if ?-MSH-related peptides exhibit ACTH-like activity in goldfish. The transcripts of Mc1r, but not those of other subtypes, were observed in xanthophores. ?-MSH, which has an acetyl group at the N-terminus, was found to disperse pigment in a dose-dependent manner in xanthophores. This potency was found to be slightly greater than that of desacetyl-?-MSH. These results support our findings that MCR has a higher affinity for ?-MSH when single Mcr subtype is expressed. On the other hand, transcripts of Mc2r, but not those of other subtypes, were observed in the head kidney. ACTH(1-24)-stimulated cortisol release was observed in a dose-dependent manner, while ?-MSH-related peptides showed no activity. It therefore appears that MC2R also acts as an ACTH-specific receptor in goldfish and that association of ?-MSH-related peptides upon release of cortisol is uncommon in fishes. PMID:21784075

  19. Subjective Sleep Quality and hormonal modulation in long-term yoga practitioners.

    PubMed

    Vera, Francisca M; Manzaneque, Juan M; Maldonado, Enrique F; Carranque, Gabriel A; Rodriguez, Francisco M; Blanca, Maria J; Morell, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Yoga represents a fascinating mind-body approach, wherein body movements (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama) and meditation are integrated into a single multidimensional practice. Numerous beneficial mental and physical effects have been classically ascribed to this holistic ancient method. The purpose of the present study has been to examine the effects of long-term yoga practice on Subjective Sleep Quality (SSQ) and on several hormonal parameters of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Twenty-six subjects (16 experimental and 10 controls) were recruited to be part of the study. Experimental subjects were regular yoga practitioners with a minimum of 3 years of practice. Blood samples for the quantification of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) were drawn from all subjects. Likewise, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was employed to assess SSQ. As statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test was performed. The yoga group displayed lower PSQI scores and higher blood cortisol levels than control subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that long-term yoga practice is associated with significant psycho-biological differences, including better sleep quality as well as a modulatory action on the levels of cortisol. These preliminary results suggest interesting clinical implications which should be further researched. PMID:19482233

  20. Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  1. Determination of steroid hormones in a human-serum reference material by isotope dilution--mass spectrometry: A candidate definitive method for cortisol

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, D.G.; Patterson, M.B.; Culbreth, P.H.; Fast, D.M.; Holler, J.S.; Sampson, E.J.; Bayse, D.D.

    1984-05-01

    We report a method, based on isotope dilution--mass spectrometry, for determining cortisol in a pooled specimen of human serum. Isotopically labeled cortisol is added to 5.0 mL of serum so that the molar concentrations of labeled cortisol and unlabeled cortisol are approximately equal. The specimen and two calibration standards are extracted with dichloromethane, and the extracted cortisol is converted to the methoxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivative. Samples and standards are analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry by monitoring the peak areas for m/z 605 and 608. The cortisol concentration is calculated by linear interpolation between the two bracketing standards. Variances of data collected during six weeks showed that the overall coefficient of variation (CV) was 0.69% (n . 32); the within-vial CV, 0.63%; the among-vial CV, 0.22%; and the among-day CV, 0.15% (means . 3.973 nmol/vial). Method specificity was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic as well as C/sub 8/ mini-column cleanup of samples before derivation, by alternative ion monitoring at m/z 636 and 639, and by negative-ion chemical ionization at m/z 459 and 462. Derivatives of all observed degradation products of cortisol under basic, neutral, and acidic conditions did not interfere.

  2. Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing

    E-print Network

    Dahleh, Munther A.

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the ...

  3. Plasma cortisol activity in rats under conditions of chronic stress supplemented with resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado Salazar, Alejandro; Uribe-Velásquez, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the activity of cortisol in rats treated with exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and a resveratrol supplement. Methods: Forty-eight adult female rats and 16 male rats of the strain (Rattus norvegicus) that were three months old and with body weights ranging from 200 to 250 g for females and 300 to 350 g for males were used and kept in controlled environmental conditions: temperature of 20±2° C and light-dark cycles of 14 and 10 hours. They were fed a balanced diet and had free access to water. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: group 1 - was treated with 5 µg/kg of ACTH i.p. every twelve hours; group 2 - received the same treatment with ACTH plus a grape extract supplement (resveratrol) of 40 mg/kg; group 3 - only received grape extract (resveratrol); and group 4 - received a saline solution (0.9%) i.p. and oral, and served as controls. The experimental design was a 2×2 factorial with two levels ACTH and two polyphenol levels (grape extract). Results: No significant differences were found in blood cortisol concentrations, by day and gender, or by treatment effects (0.75 µg/dL ± 0.11; p <0.001). Conclusion: Results suggest that chronic stress and consumption of resveratrol did not directly alter levels of plasmatic cortisol in either stressed or unstressed rats. It was concluded that the given dosage levels of ACTH possibly did not produce sufficient stimulation of the adrenal gland for these animals. PMID:24893196

  4. Adrenal steroid hormones and ethanol self-administration in male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Christa M.; Park, Byung; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormones have neuroactive metabolites with receptor activity similar to ethanol. Objectives The present study related HPA hormones in naïve monkeys to ethanol self-administration. Methods Morning plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, deoxycorticosterone (DOC), aldosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured longitudinally in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) induced to drink ethanol followed by access to ethanol (4% w/v, in water) and water 22 hours/day for 12 months. Results During ethanol access, DOC increased among non-heavy (average intake over 12 months ? 3.0 g/kg/day, n = 23) but not heavy drinkers (> 3.0 g/kg/day, n = 9), aldosterone was greater among heavy drinkers after 6 months. The ratio of DOC/aldosterone decreased only among heavy drinkers after 6 or12 months of ethanol self-administration. ACTH only correlated significantly with DHEA-S, the ratio of cortisol/DHEA-S and DOC after the onset of ethanol access, the former two just in heavy drinkers. Baseline hormones did not predict subsequent ethanol intake over 12 months, but baseline DOC correlated with average blood-ethanol concentrations (BEC), among all monkeys and heavy drinkers as a group. During ethanol access, aldosterone and DOC correlated and tended to correlate, respectively, with 12-month average ethanol intake. Conclusions Ethanol self-administration lowered ACTH and selectively altered its adrenocortical regulation. Mineralocorticoids may compensate for adrenocortical adaptation among heavy drinkers and balance fluid homeostasis. As DOC was uniquely predictive of future BEC) and not water intake, to the exclusion of aldosterone, GABAergic neuroactive metabolites of DOC may be risk factors for binge drinking to intoxication. PMID:24781519

  5. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  6. Variation in the ovine cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge is predominantly determined by signalling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    SciTech Connect

    You Qiumei; Karrow, Niel A. Cao Honghe; Rodriguez, Alexander; Mallard, Bonnie A.; Boermans, Herman J.

    2008-07-01

    Bi-directional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is designed, in part, to maintain or restore homeostasis during physiological stress. Exposure to endotoxin during Gram-negative bacterial infection for example, elicits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). The secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids subsequently down regulates the host inflammatory response, minimizing potential tissue damage. Sequence and epigenetic variants in genes involved in regulating the neuroendocrine and immune systems are likely to contribute to individual differences in the HPAA response, and this may influence the host anti-inflammatory response to toxin exposure and susceptibility to inflammatory disease. In this study, high (HCR) and low (LCR) cortisol responders were selected from a normal population of 110 female sheep challenged iv with Escherichia coli endotoxin (400 ng/kg) to identify potential determinants that contribute to variation in the cortisol response phenotype. This phenotype was stable over several years in the HCR and LCR animals, and did not appear to be attributed to differences in expression of hepatic immune-related genes or systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Mechanistic studies using corticotrophin-releasing factor (0.5 {mu}g/kg body weight), arginine vasopressin (0.5 {mu}g/kg), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (0.5 {mu}g/kg) administered iv demonstrated that variation in this phenotype is largely determined by signalling within the HPAA. Future studies will use this ovine HCR/LCR model to investigate potential genetic and epigenetic variants that may contribute to variation in cortisol responsiveness to bacterial endotoxin.

  7. Diurnal Variation of Hormonal and Lipid Biomarkers in a Molecular Epidemiology-Like Setting

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Eugene H. J. M.; Beekhof, Piet K.; van Oostrom, Conny T. M.; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Velickova, Nevenka; Kamcev, Nikola; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; van Steeg, Harry; Rodenburg, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many molecular epidemiology studies focusing on high prevalent diseases, such as metabolic disorders and cancer, investigate metabolic and hormonal markers. In general, sampling for these markers can occur at any time-point during the day or after an overnight fast. However, environmental factors, such as light exposure and food intake might affect the levels of these markers, since they provide input for the internal time-keeping system. When diurnal variation is larger than the inter-individual variation, time of day should be taken into account. Importantly, heterogeneity in diurnal variation and disturbance of circadian rhythms among a study population might increasingly occur as a result of our increasing 24/7 economy and related variation in exposure to environmental factors (such as light and food). Aim The aim of the present study was to determine whether a set of often used biomarkers shows diurnal variation in a setting resembling large molecular epidemiology studies, i.e., non-fasted and limited control possibilities for other environmental influences. Results We show that markers for which diurnal variation is not an issue are adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol and high-density lipoprotein. For all other tested markers diurnal variation was observed in at least one gender (cholesterol, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free fatty acids, low-density lipoprotein, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone, testosterone, triglycerides, total triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone) or could not reliably be detected (human growth hormone). Discussion Thus, studies investigating these markers should take diurnal variation into account, for which we provide some options. Furthermore, our study indicates the need for investigating diurnal variation (in literature or experimentally) before setting up studies measuring markers in routine and controlled settings, especially since time-of-day likely matters for many more markers than the ones investigated in the present study. PMID:26285127

  8. Effects of syndyphalin-33 on feed intake and circulating measures of growth hormone, cortisol, and immune cell populations in the recently-weaned pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthetic met-enkephalin syndyphalin-33 (SD-33) increases feed intake in sheep and transiently increases circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep, rats, and pigs. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of SD-33 on recently-weaned pigs. In a preliminary experiment, ...

  9. Adrenal gland hormone secretion (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine. When the glands produce more or less hormones than required by the body, disease conditions may occur.

  10. Social Behavior Correlates of Cortisol Activity in Child Care: Gender Differences and Time-of-Day Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Kathryn; de Haan, Michelle; Campbell, Elizabeth Kipp; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1998-01-01

    Examined relations between social behavior and daily patterns of a stress-sensitive hormone production in preschool children attending center-based child care. For boys, externalizing behavior was positively associated with cortisol reactivity, while internalizing behavior was negatively associated with median (typical) cortisol. Median cortisol

  11. Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Adler, Gail K.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Emery N.

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

  12. CT and MR imaging of the adrenal glands in cortisol-secreting tumors.

    PubMed

    Lumachi, Franco; Marchesi, Paolo; Miotto, Diego; Motta, Raffaella

    2011-09-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS), first described by the neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing in the 1930s, is the result of chronic glucocorticoid excess. In patients with adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent CS, bilateral hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex occurs, while in those with ACTH-independent primary CS, either adrenocortical tumors or primary adrenal hyperplasia can be observed. Cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors are more frequently adenomas, while adrenal carcinoma accounts for only 5% of cases. Unfortunately, no reliable endocrinological tests are available and no specific tumor markers exist to differentiate between benign and malignant adrenal tumors, so both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies are currently required to localize and define adrenal lesions. Additional information to conventional imaging can be obtained using ¹?F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, while percutaneous image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in some cases has shown a high accuracy in detecting malignancy and in confirming adrenal metastases. New PET tracers with selective affinity for the adrenal tissue are still under evaluation. Multidetector CT scan, with the combination of unenhanced and dynamic scans, represents the single most accurate modality for the detection and the characterization of adrenal adenomas. In these lesions, chemical-shift MR imaging produces a typical loss of signal intensity on out-of-phase breath-hold gradient-echo images in lipid-rich adenomas. For these lesions there is no difference between CT and MR imaging, while MR chemical shift imaging is very helpful in identifying the additional small group of adenomas where intracellular lipid content is minimal. PMID:21868539

  13. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Weerth, Carolina de

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood. PMID:26352482

  14. Measuring water-borne cortisol in Poecilia latipinna:is the process stressful, can stress be minimized and is cortisol correlated with sex steroid release rates?

    PubMed

    Gabor, C R; Contreras, A

    2012-09-01

    The stress of water-borne hormone collection process was examined in sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna. Baseline release rates of the stress hormone cortisol were measured and minimum confinement time for water sampling was evaluated for a standard 60 min v. a 30 min protocol. A 30 min hormone collection period reflects release rates over 60 min. Potential stress response to confinement in the beaker for the water-borne collection process was tested over 4 days. There was no evidence of stress due to the collection methods, as cortisol release rates did not differ significantly across four sequential days of handling for P. latipinna. Males and females did not differ significantly in baseline cortisol release rates. Baseline cortisol release rates from fish immediately after being collected in the field were also not significantly different than those in the 4 day confinement experiment. After exposure to a novel environment, however, P. latipinna mounted a stress response. Stress may also affect sex steroids and behaviour but cortisol release rates were not significantly correlated with sex steroids [11-ketotestosterone (KT), testosterone, or oestradiol], or mating attempts. The correlation between water-borne release rates and plasma steroid levels was validated for both cortisol and KT. Finally, normalizing cortisol release rates using standard length in lieu of mass is viable and accurate. Water-borne hormone assays are a valuable tool for investigating questions concerning the role of hormones in mediating stress responses and reproductive behaviours in P. latipinna and other livebearing fishes. PMID:22957873

  15. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Mscisz, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Barchia, I.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene’s Score (GMS) and Kupperman’s Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT). PMID:23675006

  16. Within-Person Coupling of Changes in Cortisol, Testosterone, and DHEA Across the Day in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively examined within-person and between-person associations between cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone across the day. Data are from a sample of 213 adolescents aged 11–16 (M = 13.7, SD = 1.5 years) from the Northeastern US who were oversampled for psychopathology symptoms. Six repeated measures of hormone levels across 3 days were used to test three specific questions of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone associations within individuals (coupling) across the day, and one question of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone diurnal slopes were associated between adolescents. Results consistently revealed positive cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone coupling across the day, often more pronounced in girls relative to boys. Cortisol and DHEA slopes were positively associated, whereas cortisol and testosterone were negatively associated between-adolescents. Findings suggest multiple mechanisms and highlight the multifaceted nature of associations of hormone changes during adolescence and importance of considering both axes for between- and within-person aspects of neuroendocrine development. PMID:24166536

  17. Dissociated neural effects of cortisol depending on threat escapability.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Estrella R; van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A; Terburg, David

    2015-11-01

    Evolution has provided us with a highly flexible neuroendocrine threat system which, depending on threat imminence, switches between active escape and passive freezing. Cortisol, the "stress-hormone", is thought to play an important role in both fear behaviors, but the exact mechanisms are not understood. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging we investigated how cortisol modulates the brain's fear systems when humans are under virtual-predator attack. We show dissociated neural effects of cortisol depending on whether escape from threat is possible. During inescapable threat cortisol reduces fear-related midbrain activity, whereas in anticipation of active escape cortisol boosts activity in the frontal salience network (insula and anterior cingulate cortex), which is involved in autonomic control, visceral perception and motivated action. Our findings suggest that cortisol adjusts the human neural threat system from passive fear to active escape, which illuminates the hormone's crucial role in the adaptive flexibility of fear behaviors. Hum Brain Mapp 36:4304-4316, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26248899

  18. Anti-fatigue activity of Hovenia dulcis on a swimming mouse model through the inhibition of stress hormone expression and antioxidation.

    PubMed

    Na, Chun-Soo; Yoon, Sun Young; Kim, Jin Beom; Na, Dae-Seung; Dong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Hong, Cheol Yi

    2013-01-01

    Hovenia dulcis (H. dulcis) Thunb., which is distributed in Korea, China, and Japan, has been known to show hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects and enhance physical activity. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to determine the anti-fatigue activity of hot-water extract from H. dulcis peduncle, and to find the reason why H. dulcis extract (HDE)-ingested mice had enhanced physical activity against swimming performance. The mice orally administrated with HDE (HDE-mice) dramatically enhanced their swimming time compared to the control mice. HDE significantly decreased serum levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in mice. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were dramatically decreased in gastrocnemius muscle from both 100 mg/kg of HDE (LHDE) and 200 mg/kg of HDE (HHDE)-ingested mice compared to the control mice. The liver activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased in HHDE-mice with increasing tendency in LHDE-mice. In addition, HHDE-mice significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (T-Chol), and triglyceride (TG). These results suggest that HDE had a significant anti-fatigue effect via its anti-stress and antioxidant activities, and thereby enhanced physical activity in swimming performance. PMID:23895162

  19. ACTH (cosyntropin) stimulation test

    MedlinePLUS

    The ACTH stimulation test measures how well the adrenal glands respond to adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH ). ACTH is a ... produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release a hormone called cortisol. The man- ...

  20. Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor for the detection of salivary cortisol using the Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Hyun Lee, Jung; Kim, MinGin; Kim, Jeongmin; Song, Min-Jung; Jung, Hyo-Il; Lee, Wooyoung

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of a thermal biosensor based on bismuth nanowire that is fabricated for the detection of the human stress hormone cortisol using the Thomson effect. The Bi nanowire was grown using the On-Film Formation of Nanowires (OFF-ON) method. The thermal device was fabricated using photolithography, and the sensing area was modified with immobilized anti-cortisol antibodies conjugated with protein G for the detection of cortisol. The voltages were measured with two probe tips during surface modification to investigate the biochemical reactions in the fabricated thermal biosensor. The Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor exhibited low detection limit and good selectivity for the detection of cortisol.

  1. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG.

  2. Genetic variants in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are associated with concentrations of plasma cortisol, muscle glycogen content, and meat quality traits in male Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Poleti, M D; DeRijk, R H; Rosa, A F; Moncau, C T; Oliveira, P S; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C

    2015-04-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are key components in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis and coordinate the physiological response to stress agents to reestablish homeostasis. Genetic variations of GR (NR3C1) and MR (NR3C2) genes could explain the alterations in animals to adapt to challenges, and therefore, their influence on production traits. The present study aimed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine NR3C1 and NR3C2 genes and explore their associations to relevant traits of beef cattle production. Genotypes and phenotypes were collected from 241 male Nellore cattle (119 noncastrated and 122 castrated surgically) with an average of 24 ± 1.2 mo of age and live weight of 508 ± 39 kg. The traits evaluated were concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, muscle glycogen and lactate content, and pH, color, cooking loss, and shear force of longissimus thoracis measured on the 1st, 7th, and 14th days postmortem. Five SNPs were identified, 2 in the NR3C1 gene and 3 in the NR3C2 gene. There was an associative relationship between the SNP NR3C1_1 g.3293A>G and postmortem plasma concentration of cortisol (P = 0.0008). The SNPs NR3C2_1 g.115T>C and NR3C2_2 g.570T>C were associated with muscle glycogen content (P = 0.0306 and P = 0.0158), postmortem plasma concentration of ACTH (P = 0.0118 and P = 0.0095), and cooking loss of the steak aged 1 d (P = 0.0398 and P = 0.0423). Haplotype analysis showed associations of GR haplotypes with postmortem plasma concentrations of cortisol and MR haplotypes with meat color, cooking losses, muscle glycogen content, and plasma concentrations of ACTH. The associations observed in the present study show that SNPs in GR and MR genes are related with changes of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and metabolic profile in cattle, leading to individual variation in meat quality traits. PMID:25617989

  3. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but has been reported to be as high as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The objective of this study was to determine effects of ACTH administration on mimicking a stress response and whether this respon...

  4. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

  5. Cortisol resistance in man.

    PubMed

    Lipsett, M B; Tomita, M; Brandon, D D; De Vroede, M M; Loriaux, D L; Chrousos, G P

    1986-01-01

    Primary cortisol resistance in man is a familial disease characterized by increased plasma cortisol concentrations, high urinary free cortisol excretion, a normal circadian pattern of cortisol secretion, resistance to adrenal suppression by dexamethasone and absence of the clinical stigmata of Cushing's syndrome or signs of adrenal insufficiency. In its severe form, hypertension and hypokalemic alkalosis are present, owing to increased secretion of the sodium-retaining corticoids, corticosterone and deoxycorticosterone. In subjects with a less severe resistance to cortisol, there are no clinical abnormalities and the disease is revealed only by detailed examination of several parameters of cortisol metabolism or by glucocorticoid receptor studies. In whole-cell glucocorticoid receptor assays (peripheral mononuclear leukocytes, fibroblasts, or B-lymphocytes transformed with the Epstein-Barr Virus) low receptor affinity for dexamethasone could be demonstrated conclusively only in the severely affected subject. When affected cells are transformed with the Epstein-Barr virus, receptor induction is less than that of normal cells. The decreased affinity of the receptor for its ligand is reflected in an increased rate of loss of specific bound ligand during thermal activation. The molecular weight of the receptor, determined by SDS-PAGE, is similar to that from normal cells (approximately 92,000). Only in the severely affected patient was the proportion of activated receptor remaining in the cytosol of thermally activated intact cells reduced. At saturating concentrations of dexamethasone, nuclear binding appears normal in cells from both the severe and the asymptomatic forms of this condition, providing an explanation for the apparently complete compensation of the target tissue resistance to glucocorticoids by the high plasma cortisol levels. The clinical manifestations of the disorder (hypertension, hypokalemia) can be corrected with high doses of dexamethasone (3mg/day). PMID:3012986

  6. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  7. What Does Their Saliva Say? Salivary Cortisol Levels in Children Exposed to Severe Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.; Schneider, Marissa

    2009-01-01

    Stress is an unavoidable aspect of the human experience. When the brain interprets a situation as stressful, it triggers the release of a hormone called cortisol that acts as a catalyst of the body's "fight or flight" response system. In small amounts this hormone can provide the body with the necessary tools to escape a stressful situation.…

  8. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  9. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N?=?142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100?mg hydrocortisone, N?=?34) or testosterone (three doses of 10?g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48?hours, N?=?41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  10. Cerebrospinal Fluid Corticotropin and Cortisol Are Reduced in Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Mitchell, Wendy G.; Hanson, Rebecca A.; Snead, O. Carter; Horton, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Infantile spasms respond to ACTH, and levels of the hormone in cerebrospinal fluid of untreated infants with this disorder were found to be lower than in age-matched controls. In this study we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid Cortisol and ACTH using improved immunoassays in a larger cohort of infants with infantile spasms. Analysis of 20 patients and 15 age-matched controls revealed significantly lower levels of both ACTH and Cortisol in the cerebrospinal fluid. These data, combined with the efficacy of ACTH and glucocorticoids for infantile spasms, support an involvement of the brain-adrenal-axis in this disorder. PMID:8534274

  11. Uptake, distribution and binding of vertebrate and invertebrate steroid hormones and time-dependence of ponasterone A binding in Calliphora vicina. Comparisons among cholesterol, corticosterone, cortisol, dexamethasone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, ecdysone, estradiol-17 beta, ponasterone A, progesterone, and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Bidmon, H J; Stumpf, W E

    1991-01-01

    The presence of specific binding sites for radiolabelled vertebrate-type and arthropod-type steroid hormones was investigated in several organs including salivary gland, and central nervous system of third instar Calliphora vicina larvae by thaw-mount autoradiography. Ponasterone A, a 20-hydroxyecdysone agonist and 20-hydroxyecdysone are the only steroids which bind to nuclear high affinity binding sites. These binding sites are DNA associated while nucleoli show no tracer binding. Ecdysone, an endogenous 20-hydroxyecdysone precursor, is taken up by target cells but no significant nuclear binding occurs. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrates in cytoplasm only and its uptake is highest compared to all other steroids. Progesterone and testosterone show weak accumulation in the cytoplasm, while for cholesterol, corticosterone, cortisol, dexamethasone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol-17 beta, no noticeable uptake occurs. For ponasterone A, a clear time dependence of uptake and intracellular distribution is visible, suggesting the existence and involvement of specific ecdysteroid uptake and transport mechanisms. These results suggest the presence of binding sites for various mammalian steroids in insects. Whether vertebrate steroid hormones or metabolites of them play a role in insects or whether the uptake and binding is based on chemical similarities alone without biological significance remains to be further investigated. PMID:1748566

  12. Stress and reward: long term cortisol exposure predicts the strength of sexual preference.

    PubMed

    Chumbley, J R; Hulme, O; Köchli, H; Russell, E; Van Uum, S; A Pizzagalli, D; Fehr, E

    2014-05-28

    Healthy individuals tend to consume available rewards like food and sex. This tendency is attenuated or amplified in most stress-related psychiatric conditions, so we asked if it depends on endogenous levels of the 'canonical stress hormone' cortisol. We unobtrusively quantified how hard healthy heterosexual men would work to consume erotic images of women versus men and also measured their exposure to endogenous cortisol in the prior two months. We used linear models to predict the strength of sexual preference from cortisol level, after accounting for other potential explanations. Heterosexual preference declines with self-reported anhedonia but increases with long term exposure to endogenous cortisol. These results suggest that cortisol may affect reward-related behavior in healthy adults. PMID:24732415

  13. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (I) Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic Study on Maca using Clinical Laboratory Model on Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Mscisz, A.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Kapczynski, W.; Barchia, I.

    2006-01-01

    Ovariectomized rats were used in a model laboratory study to examine biochemical and pharmacodynamic effects of pre-gelatinized organic preparation of Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (Maca-GO). Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic effects of Maca-GO (250 mg Maca-GO per kg body weight (bw) administered by intubation twice daily) were assessed in a 28 day model laboratory study on ovariectomized (by laparoscopy) Wistar rats with pharmacodynamic tests performed at the conclusion of the trial followed by blood collection for morphology and biochemical tests. Toxicity of Maca-GO used in the study was determined in bioassay on mice and rats. Anti-depressive function (Porsolt’s test) and anxiolytic sedative and cognitive effects (using elevated-plus maze, locomotor activity and passive avoidance tests) were assessed against control (laparotomized female rats with intact ovaries). In addition to blood morphology, the following blood serum constituents were analyzed: Estrogen (E2), Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, and T4), Iron (Fe) and lipid profile (Triglycerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). Analytically-determined non-toxic status of Maca-GO was confirmed in bioassays when applied to mice and rats at levels of 0.5 and up to 15mg/kg bw which shows it safe use in humans with the LD50>15 mg/kg bw. Maca-GO showed a distinctive, (P<0.05) antidepressant-like and sedative effect in ovariectomized rats only, while there was no anxiolytic activity nor disturbance of cognitive function observed in both, test and control animals. Observed in this study balancing effect of Maca-GO on sex hormone levels show its potential as a safe preparation for use in correcting physiological symptoms characteristic in postmenopausal stage with an indication of potentially even more value for its use in pre-menopausal women. PMID:23674989

  14. The influence of non-native salmonids on circulating hormone concentrations in juvenile Atlantic salmon

    E-print Network

    Neff, Bryan D.

    The influence of non-native salmonids on circulating hormone concentrations in juvenile Atlantic strains, as well as the relationship between these hormones and social dominance and growth. Basal hormone levels and the hormonal response to the presence of the trouts varied among the strains. Cortisol

  15. Cortisol levels are positively associated with pup-feeding rates in male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Manser, Marta B; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-03-01

    In societies of cooperative vertebrates, individual differences in contributions to offspring care are commonly substantial. Recent attempts to explain the causes of this variation have focused on correlations between contributions to care and the protein hormone prolactin, or the steroid hormone testosterone. However, such studies have seldom considered the importance of other hormones or controlled for non-hormonal factors that are correlative with both individual hormone levels and contributions to care. Using multivariate statistics, we show that hormone levels explain significant variation in contributions to pup-feeding by male meerkats, even after controlling for non-hormonal effects. However, long-term contributions to pup provisioning were significantly and positively correlated with plasma levels of cortisol rather than prolactin, while plasma levels of testosterone were not related to individual patterns of pup-feeding. Furthermore, a playback experiment that used pup begging calls to increase the feeding rates of male helpers gave rise to parallel increases in plasma cortisol levels, whilst prolactin and testosterone levels remained unchanged. Our findings confirm that hormones can explain significant amounts of variation in contributions to offspring feeding, and that cortisol, not prolactin, is the hormone most strongly associated with pup-feeding in cooperative male meerkats. PMID:16537128

  16. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  17. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  18. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample. PMID:25921588

  19. Dynamics and Correlation of Serum Cortisol and Corticosterone under Different Physiological or Stressful Conditions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shuai; Miao, Yi-Long; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Sun, Ming-Ju; Li, Hong; Lin, Juan; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2015-01-01

    Although plasma corticosterone is considered the main glucocorticoid involved in regulation of stress responses in rodents, the presence of plasma cortisol and whether its level can be used as an indicator for rodent activation of stress remain to be determined. In this study, effects of estrous cycle stage, circadian rhythm, and acute and chronic (repeated or unpredictable) stressors of various severities on dynamics and correlation of serum cortisol and corticosterone were examined in mice. A strong (r = 0.6–0.85) correlation between serum cortisol and corticosterone was observed throughout the estrous cycle, all day long, and during acute or repeated restraints, chronic unpredictable stress and acute forced swimming or heat stress. Both hormones increased to the highest level on day 1 of repeated-restraint or unpredictable stresses, but after that, whereas the concentration of cortisol did not change, that of corticosterone showed different dynamics. Thus, whereas corticosterone declined dramatically during repeated restraints, it remained at the high level during unpredictable stress. During forced swimming or heat stress, whereas cortisol increased to the highest level within 3 min., corticosterone did not reach maximum until 40 min. of stress. Analysis with HPLC and HPLC-MS further confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum. Taken together, results (i) confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum and (ii) suggested that mouse serum cortisol and corticosterone are closely correlated in dynamics under different physiological or stressful conditions, but, whereas corticosterone was a more adaptation-related biomarker than cortisol during chronic stress, cortisol was a quicker responder than corticosterone during severe acute stress. PMID:25699675

  20. Effects of Cortisol Administered through Slow-Release Implants on Innate Immune Responses in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, R.; Teles, M.; Trídico, R.; Acerete, L.; Tort, L.

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol is a key hormone in the fish stress response with a well-known ability to regulate several physiological functions, including energy metabolism and the immune system. However, data concerning cortisol effects on fish innate immune system using a more controlled increase in cortisol levels isolated from any other stress related signaling is scarce. The present study describes the effect of doses of cortisol corresponding to acute and chronic levels on the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We also evaluated the effects of these cortisol levels (from intraperitoneally implanted hydrocortisone) on the mRNA levels quantified by RT-qPCR of selected key immune-related genes in the liver, head kidney, and spleen. For that purpose, 60 specimens of rainbow trout were divided in to two groups: a control group injected with a coconut oil implant and another group injected with the same implant and cortisol (50??g cortisol/g body weight). Our results demonstrate the role of cortisol as a modulator of the innate immune response without the direct contribution of other stress axes. Our results also show a relationship between the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma and mRNA levels in liver, supporting the important role of this organ in producing these immune system proteins after a rise of cortisol in the fish plasma. PMID:24073392

  1. Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

  2. Growth Hormone

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Growth Hormone Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: GH; Human Growth Hormone; HGH; Somatotropin; Growth Hormone Stimulation Test; Growth Hormone ...

  3. Pretreatment cortisol levels predict posttreatment outcomes among older adults with depression in cognitive behavioral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Jason M.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; O'Hara, Ruth; Marquett, Renee M.; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that individuals with elevated levels of cortisol (the “stress hormone”) could be particularly resistant to treatment for depression. However, most of these studies have been conducted in the context of antidepressant medications, and no study has examined pretreatment cortisol levels as a predictor of treatment outcomes among older adults with depression in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), despite the relevance of this population for such a research question. The current study includes 54 older adults with depression who provided salivary cortisol samples at baseline and completed measures of depression at pretreatment and posttreatment, following a 12-week course of CBT. Structural equation modeling results suggest that those with higher daily outputs of cortisol and flatter diurnal slopes were less likely to benefit from CBT—a finding which if replicated could have important implications for clinical practice and future research. PMID:23953171

  4. Stressful politics: voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States Presidential election.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Steven J; Labar, Kevin S; Saini, Ekjyot K; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Beehner, Jacinta C

    2010-06-01

    Social subordination can be biologically stressful; when mammals lose dominance contests they have acute increases in the stress hormone cortisol. However, human studies of the effect of dominance contest outcomes on cortisol changes have had inconsistent results. Moreover, human studies have been limited to face-to-face competitions and have heretofore never examined cortisol responses to shifts in political dominance hierarchies. The present study investigated voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States Presidential election. 183 participants at two research sites (Michigan and North Carolina) provided saliva samples at several time points before and after the announcement of the winner on Election Night. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure levels of cortisol in the saliva samples. In North Carolina, John McCain voters (losers) had increases in post-outcome cortisol levels, whereas Barack Obama voters (winners) had stable post-outcome cortisol levels. The present research provides novel evidence that societal shifts in political dominance can impact biological stress responses in voters whose political party becomes socio-politically subordinate. PMID:19962831

  5. Cortisol modifies extinction learning of recently acquired fear in men.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2014-09-01

    Exposure therapy builds on the mechanism of fear extinction leading to decreased fear responses. How the stress hormone cortisol affects brain regions involved in fear extinction in humans is unknown. For this reason, we tested 32 men randomly assigned to receive either 30 mg hydrocortisone or placebo 45 min before fear extinction. In fear acquisition, a picture of a geometrical figure was either partially paired (conditioned stimulus; CS+) or not paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). In fear extinction, each CS was presented again, but no UCS occurred. Cortisol increased conditioned skin conductance responses in early and late extinction. In early extinction, higher activation towards the CS- than to the CS+ was found in the amygdala, hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus. This pattern might be associated with the establishment of a new memory trace. In late extinction, the placebo compared with the cortisol group displayed enhanced CS+/CS- differentiation in the amygdala, medial frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. A change from early deactivation to late activation of the extinction circuit as seen in the placebo group seems to be needed to enhance extinction and to reduce fear. Cortisol appears to interfere with this process thereby impairing extinction of recently acquired conditioned fear. PMID:23945999

  6. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential

    PubMed Central

    Running, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75–90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose. PMID:26170887

  7. Cortisol modifies extinction learning of recently acquired fear in men

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Exposure therapy builds on the mechanism of fear extinction leading to decreased fear responses. How the stress hormone cortisol affects brain regions involved in fear extinction in humans is unknown. For this reason, we tested 32 men randomly assigned to receive either 30 mg hydrocortisone or placebo 45 min before fear extinction. In fear acquisition, a picture of a geometrical figure was either partially paired (conditioned stimulus; CS+) or not paired (CS?) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). In fear extinction, each CS was presented again, but no UCS occurred. Cortisol increased conditioned skin conductance responses in early and late extinction. In early extinction, higher activation towards the CS? than to the CS+ was found in the amygdala, hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus. This pattern might be associated with the establishment of a new memory trace. In late extinction, the placebo compared with the cortisol group displayed enhanced CS+/CS? differentiation in the amygdala, medial frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. A change from early deactivation to late activation of the extinction circuit as seen in the placebo group seems to be needed to enhance extinction and to reduce fear. Cortisol appears to interfere with this process thereby impairing extinction of recently acquired conditioned fear. PMID:23945999

  8. The influence of temperament on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced secretion of epinephrine and cortisol in bulls.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host's complex reaction to a pathogenic stressor involves interaction of the neural, endocrine, and immune systems. For example, exposure to bacteria stimulates secretion of the stress-related hormones, cortisol (CS) and epinephrine (Epi; 1). Innate and induced secretion of CS and Epi are influe...

  9. Classroom Emotional Support Predicts Differences in Preschool Children's Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Bridget E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; O'Brien, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests children enrolled in full-time child care often display afternoon elevations of the hormone cortisol, which is an indicator of stress. Recent advances in immunoassays allow for measurement of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic sympathetic nervous system from saliva, and measurement…

  10. Effects of Cortisol on Reconsolidation of Reactivated Fear Memories.

    PubMed

    Meir Drexler, Shira; Merz, Christian J; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-12-01

    The return of conditioned fear after successful extinction (eg, following exposure therapy) is a significant problem in the treatment of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Targeting the reconsolidation of fear memories may allow a more lasting effect as it intervenes with the original memory trace. Indeed, several pharmacological agents and behavioral interventions have been shown to alter (enhance, impair, or otherwise update) the reconsolidation of reactivated memories of different types. Cortisol is a stress hormone and a potent modulator of learning and memory, yet its effects on fear memory reconsolidation are unclear. To investigate whether cortisol intervenes with the reconsolidation of fear memories in healthy males and how specific this effect might be, we built a 3-day reconsolidation design with skin conductance response (SCR) as a measure of conditioned fear: Fear acquisition on day 1; reactivation/no-reactivation of one conditioned stimulus and pharmacological intervention on day 2; extinction learning followed by reinstatement and reinstatement test on day 3. The groups differed only in the experimental manipulation on day 2: Reactivation+Cortisol Group, Reactivation+Placebo Group, or No-reactivation+Cortisol Group. Our results revealed an enhancing effect of cortisol on reconsolidation of the reactivated memory. The effect was highly specific, strengthening only the memory of the reactivated conditioned stimulus and not the non-reactivated one. Our findings are in line with previous findings showing an enhancing effect of behavioral stress on the reconsolidation of other types of memories. These results have implications for the understanding and treatment of anxiety disorders and PTSD. PMID:26058664

  11. Genome Wide Association Identifies Common Variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 Locus Influencing Plasma Cortisol and Corticosteroid Binding Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Direk, Nese; Lewis, John G.; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Hill, Lesley A.; Anderson, Anna; Huffman, Jennifer; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nicholas; Wild, Sarah H.; Velders, Fleur P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kaakinen, Marika; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Davey Smith, George; Ring, Susan M.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Tanaka, Toshiko; Milaneschi, Yuri; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Harst, Pim; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Bakker, Stephen J. L.; Verweij, Niek; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Anderson, Laura N.; Pennell, Craig E.; Lye, Stephen J.; Matthews, Stephen G.; Eriksson, Joel; Mellstrom, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Price, Jackie F.; Strachan, Mark W. J.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Tiemeier, Henning; Walker, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30–60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding ?1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:25010111

  12. Cortisol and inflammatory processes in ovarian cancer patients following primary treatment: relationships with depression, fatigue, and disability.

    PubMed

    Schrepf, Andrew; Clevenger, Lauren; Christensen, Desire; DeGeest, Koen; Bender, David; Ahmed, Amina; Goodheart, Michael J; Dahmoush, Laila; Penedo, Frank; Lucci, Joseph A; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Mendez, Luis; Markon, Kristian; Lubaroff, David M; Thaker, Premal H; Slavich, George M; Sood, Anil K; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2013-03-01

    Elevations in the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and alterations in the anti-inflammatory hormone cortisol have been reported in a variety of cancers. IL-6 has prognostic significance in ovarian cancer and cortisol has been associated with fatigue, disability, and vegetative depression in ovarian cancer patients prior to surgery. Ovarian cancer patients undergoing primary treatment completed psychological self-report measures and collected salivary cortisol and plasma IL-6 prior to surgery, at 6 months, and at 1 year. Patients included in this study had completed chemotherapy and had no evidence of disease recurrence. At 6 months, patients showed significant reductions in nocturnal cortisol secretion, plasma IL-6, and a more normalized diurnal cortisol rhythm, changes that were maintained at 1 year. The reductions in IL-6 and nocturnal cortisol were associated with declines in self-reported fatigue, vegetative depression, and disability. These findings suggest that primary treatment for ovarian cancer reduces the inflammatory response. Moreover, patients who have not developed recurrent disease by 1 year appear to maintain more normalized levels of cortisol and IL-6. Improvement in fatigue and vegetative depression is associated with the normalization of IL-6 and cortisol, a pattern which may be relevant for improvements in overall quality of life for ovarian cancer patients. PMID:22884960

  13. Cortisol Levels and Longitudinal Cortisol Change as Predictors of Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested cortisol-emotion relationships, little is known regarding the effect of anxiety type on cortisol levels or relationships between anxiety and longitudinal cortisol change in adolescents. The authors examine the differential relationship of cortisol levels with generalized and social anxiety and relationships…

  14. Facebook behaviors associated with diurnal cortisol in adolescents: Is befriending stressful?

    PubMed

    Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Facebook(©) is changing the way people interact and socialize. Despite great interest in psychology and sociology, little is known about Facebook behaviors in relation to physiological markers of stress. Given that the brain undergoes important development during adolescence and that glucocorticoids-a major class of stress hormones-are known to modulate its development, it is important to study psychosocial factors that may influence secretion of stress hormones during adolescence. The goal of the present study was to explore the associations between Facebook behaviors (use frequency, network size, self-presentation and peer-interaction) and basal levels of cortisol among adolescent boys and girls. Eighty-eight adolescents (41 boys, 47 girls) aged between 12 and 17 (14.5±1.8) were recruited. Participants provided four cortisol samples per day for two non-consecutive weekdays. Facebook behaviors were assessed in accordance with the existing literature. Well-validated measures of perceived stress, perceived social support, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms were also included. A hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for sex, age, time of awakening, perceived stress, and perceived social support, cortisol systemic output (area under the curve with respect to ground) was positively associated with the number of Facebook friends and negatively associated with Facebook peer-interaction. No associations were found among depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and cortisol. These results provide preliminary evidence that Facebook behaviors are associated with diurnal cortisol concentrations in adolescents. PMID:26519778

  15. Cortisol Regulates Acid Secretion of H+-ATPase-rich Ionocytes in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Shih, Tin-Han; Liu, Sian-Tai; Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    Systemic acid-base regulation is vital for physiological processes in vertebrates. Freshwater (FW) fish live in an inconstant environment, and thus frequently face ambient acid stress. FW fish have to efficiently modulate their acid secretion processes for body fluid acid-base homeostasis during ambient acid challenge; hormonal control plays an important role in such physiological regulation. The hormone cortisol was previously proposed to be associated with acid base regulation in FW fish; however, the underlying mechanism has not been fully described. In the present study, mRNA expression of acid-secreting related transporters and cyp11b (encoding an enzyme involved in cortisol synthesis) in zebrafish embryos was stimulated by treatment with acidic FW (AFW, pH 4.0) for 3 d. Exogenous cortisol treatment (20 mg/L, 3 d) resulted in upregulated expression of transporters related to acid secretion and increased acid secretion function at the organism level in zebrafish embryos. Moreover, cortisol treatment also significantly increased the acid secretion capacity of H+-ATPase-rich cells (HRCs) at the cellular level. In loss-of-function experiments, microinjection of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) morpholino (MO) suppressed the expression of acid-secreting related transporters, and decreased acid secretion function at both the organism and cellular levels; on the other hand, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) MO did not induce any effects. Such evidence supports the hypothesized role of cortisol in fish acid-base regulation, and provides new insights into the roles of cortisol; cortisol-GR signaling stimulates zebrafish acid secretion function through transcriptional/translational regulation of the transporters and upregulation of acid secretion capacity in each acid-secreting ionocyte. PMID:26635615

  16. The influence of selected factors and sport results of endurance horses on their saliva cortisol concentration.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, I; Bereznowski, A; Strzelec, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the influence of the selected factors (gender, age, transportation time, riding distance and air temperature during the ride) on the cortisol secretion and finding a correlation between the hormone level and the horses' sport results (veterinary parameters and the ride route parameters). The research was performed on 38 Arabian pure breed horses taking part in the endurance rides. The cortisol level was measured with enzyme-immunological method in saliva samples, taken four times from each horse. In order to verify the differences between the mean results the repeated measures design was applied. The significance of the differences between the mean values was determined by the Tukey test. To evaluate the interrelations between the analysed attributes Pearson's correlation analysis was applied. The cortisol level at rest was not affected by any of the analysed factors. In case of other results, the most significant influence (P < or = 0.05) was related to the gender, as well as the ride distance and air temperature during the ride. Higher cortisol level was noted in mares, horses running the longest distances and at the highest temperatures. A significant increase in the cortisol level was noted when the ride distance was longer. There were no clear correlation between the adrenal cortex activity and the veterinary parameters at different riding speed. High cortisol concentration can negatively affect the heart rate (HR) by increasing it, but it can simultaneously stimulate the body to fight dehydration. PMID:24195289

  17. Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm, Harri; Ahlberg, Jari; Sinisalo, Juha; Hublin, Christer; Hirvonen, Ari; Partinen, Markku; Sarna, Seppo; Savolainen, Aslak

    2012-01-01

    The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW) and with irregular shift work (ISW) while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1) was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio). The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P < 0.001), severe stress (P < 0.05), and less sleep (P < 0.05) were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health. PMID:23471294

  18. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for simultaneous measurement of salivary testosterone and cortisol in healthy men for utilization in the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism in males.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Futoshi; Koh, Eitetsu; Yamamoto, Kenrou; Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Sin, Ho-Su; Maeda, Yuji; Honma, Seijiro; Namiki, Mikio

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that late-onset hypogonadism in males can cause a variety of symptoms, and the differential diagnosis is relatively difficult, including psychological disorders, stress, and mood disturbances. The level of serum cortisol can be measured to reflect a patient's level of stress. Salivary hormones facilitate the evaluation of physiological hormonal actions based on free hormone assay. For the simultaneous measurement of testosterone and cortisol levels in saliva, we validate a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. Concerning accuracy and precision, the lower limit of quantification of salivary testosterone and cortisol were established as 5 and 10 pg/mL, respectively. Testosterone and cortisol in saliva is stable for 2 days, 14 days, and 28 days at room temperature, refrigeration and frozen, respectively. Freezing and thawing for 3 cycles and stimulation of salivation with gum chewing do not alter the measured values of testosterone and cortisol. Total, bioavailable, and free serum testosterone showed slight diurnal changes, but total and bioavailable serum cortisol showed marked diurnal changes. Salivary testosterone levels negatively correlate with age, regardless of the time of saliva collection (r=0.64, p<0.05). However, there is no relationship between salivary cortisol and age (r=0033, p>0.05). LC-MS/MS allows rapid, simultaneous, sensitive, and accurate quantification of testosterone and cortisol in saliva for the diagnosis late-onset hypogonadism or other hormone related disease. PMID:19734692

  19. Hormone therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    HRT; Estrogen replacement therapy; ERT; Hormone replacement therapy ... vaginal dryness and pain with intercourse. The hormone estrogen protects against thinning of the bones ( osteoporosis ). However, ...

  20. Influence of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-infusion on acid-base balance and blood physiological variables in broiler chickens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic selection has been a primary factor in growing broilers to heavier weights more efficiently. However, the genetic potentiality of poultry may not be utilized fully due to environmental constraints. The combination of external conditions (biological and physiological) such as weather and clim...

  1. Adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma with oncocytic features: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Falk, Nadja K; Weissferdt, Annikka; Habra, Mouhammed A; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2015-04-01

    Thymic neuroendocrine carcinomas are the most common mediastinal neuroendocrine tumor. These malignancies are not often diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA), as they are more commonly diagnosed by biopsy or excision. We describe a case of a FNA of a paratracheal mass from a 38-year-old man who presented with Cushing syndrome. A low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma with oncocytic features was diagnosed, which was later confirmed by excision of the thymus, anterior mediastinal and paratracheal soft tissue, and lymph nodes. Oncocytic features in these tumors are a rare finding and bring metastatic medullary thyroid carcinomas as well as other metastases into the differential diagnosis. The prognosis of neuroendocrine carcinomas in this location is worse than neuroendocrine carcinomas in other areas, and close follow-up is recommended. PMID:25354884

  2. Cortisol modulates vasotocinergic and isotocinergic pathways in the gilthead sea bream.

    PubMed

    Cádiz, Laura; Román-Padilla, Javier; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A

    2015-01-15

    In the present study, we assessed the responses of the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems to chronic stress induced by cortisol administration in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Pituitary and plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) levels, as well as hypothalamic pro-vasotocin (pro-VT) and pro-isotocin (pro-IT) mRNA expression levels, were analysed. In addition, the mRNA levels of three receptors, AVTR type V1a2, AVTR type V2 and ITR, were analysed in several target organs associated with the following physiological processes: (i) integration and control (hypothalamus), (ii) metabolism and its control (liver and hypothalamus), (iii) osmoregulation (gills) and (iv) stress response (head kidney). Specimens were injected intraperitoneally with slow-release implants (5 ?L g(-1) body mass) containing coconut oil alone (control group) or with cortisol (50 ?g g(-1) body mass; cortisol group). Both AVT and IT synthesis and release were correlated with plasma cortisol values, suggesting a potential interaction between both hormonal systems and cortisol administration. Our results suggest that the activation of hepatic metabolism as well as the hypothalamic control of metabolic processes provide the energy necessary to overcome stress, which could be partly mediated by AVTRs and ITR. Upregulation of branchial AVT and IT receptor expression following cortisol treatment suggests an involvement of the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems in the regulation of ion channels/transporters during stressful situations. Finally, changes in AVT and IT receptor mRNA expression in the head kidney suggest these nonapeptides participate in feedback mechanisms that regulate the synthesis/release of cortisol. Our results indicate a relationship between cortisol and both the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems during simulated chronic stress in S. aurata. PMID:25524977

  3. Hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in lactating and non-lactating female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in lactating and non-lactating female common marmosets hormone Cortisol Lactation Maternal care Parental care Stress In several mammalian species, hypothalamic preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have

  4. Prolactin and growth hormone in fish osmoregulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sakamoto, T.; McCormick, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    Prolactin is an important regulator of multiple biological functions in vertebrates, and has been viewed as essential to ion uptake as well as reduction in ion and water permeability of osmoregulatory surfaces in freshwater and euryhaline fish. Prolactin-releasing peptide seems to stimulate prolactin expression in the pituitary and peripheral organs during freshwater adaptation. Growth hormone, a member of the same family of hormones as prolactin, promotes acclimation to seawater in several teleost fish, at least in part through the action of insulin-like growth factor I. In branchial epithelia, development and differentiation of the seawater-type chloride cell (and their underlying biochemistry) is regulated by GH, IGF-I, and cortisol, whereas the freshwater-type chloride cell is regulated by prolactin and cortisol. In the epithelia of gastrointestinal tract, prolactin induces cell proliferation during freshwater adaptation, whereas cortisol stimulates both cell proliferation and apoptosis. We propose that control of salinity acclimation in teleosts by prolactin and growth hormone primarily involves regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation (the latter including upregulation of specific ion transporters), and that there is an important interaction of these hormones with corticosteroids. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for a synchronization of hormonal states between humans and dogs during competition.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Thompson, Breanna; Strasser, Rosemary; Santo, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    Social interactions with humans have been shown to influence hormonal processes in dogs, but it is unclear how the hormonal states of humans factor into this relationship. In this study, we explored the associations between changes in the cortisol levels of dogs with humans' hormonal changes, behavior, and perceptions of their performance at an agility competition. A total of 58 dogs and their handlers (44 women, 14 men) provided saliva samples before and after competing. Dogs' saliva samples were later assayed for cortisol and humans' samples for cortisol and testosterone. Following the competition, handler-dog interactions were observed for affiliative and punitive behavior towards their dogs, and handlers completed questionnaires that included personal ratings of their performance. Structural equation modeling revealed that elevations in handlers' cortisol levels were associated with increases in their dogs' cortisol levels. Handlers' affiliative and punitive behaviors towards their dogs following competition were associated with their ratings of their performance, but these variables were unrelated to changes in their own cortisol levels and their dogs', implying their behavior did not mediate the relationship. These findings suggest that changes in the hormonal states were reflected between humans and their dogs, and this relationship was not due to handlers' perceptions of their performance or the behaviors we observed during post-competition social interactions. This study is one of the first to provide evidence for a synchronization of hormonal changes between species. PMID:25862521

  6. Effects of single cortisol administrations on human affect reviewed: Coping with stress through adaptive regulation of automatic cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Roelofs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The human stress hormone cortisol may facilitate effective coping after psychological stress. In apparent agreement, administration of cortisol has been demonstrated to reduce fear in response to stressors. For anxious patients with phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder this has been ascribed to hypothetical inhibition of retrieval of traumatic memories. However, such stress-protective effects may also work via adaptive regulation of early cognitive processing of threatening information from the environment. This paper selectively reviews the available literature on effects of single cortisol administrations on affect and early cognitive processing of affectively significant information. The concluded working hypothesis is that immediate effects of high concentration of cortisol may facilitate stress-coping via inhibition of automatic processing of goal-irrelevant threatening information and through increased automatic approach-avoidance responses in early emotional processing. Limitations in the existing literature and suggestions for future directions are briefly discussed. PMID:21194844

  7. Racial and ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms in preadolescents: the role of parental psychosocial risk and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-05-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities experience persistent health disparities due in part to their exposure to chronic SES and psychosocial risk. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its hormonal end product, cortisol, are believed to mediate the associations between chronic stress and poor health. In this study, racial/ethnic differences in diurnal salivary cortisol rhythms in 179 preadolescent youths and the contributing roles of SES risk, psychosocial risk, perceived discrimination, harsh parenting, and parental monitoring were examined. The analyses revealed racial/ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms, with African Americans having significantly flatter morning-to-evening cortisol slopes than Caucasians and with Latinos having significantly lower evening cortisol levels than Caucasians. Greater psychosocial risk and less parental monitoring were associated with flatter cortisol slopes. Racial/ethnic differences on the cortisol measures persisted when controlling for SES, psychosocial risk, and parenting quality. The need to assess chronic risk across the lifespan and disentangle possible genetic from environmental contributors is discussed. PMID:22414445

  8. The effects of four weeks aerobic training on saliva cortisol and testosterone in young healthy persons

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Aly, Farag A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks moderate aerobic exercise on outcome measures of saliva stress hormones and lactate levels in healthy adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy students with an age range of 15–25 years participated in this study. The participants performed an exercise test of moderate intensity for 4 weeks, three times per week. The exercise was treadmill walking. Saliva concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured before and after the 4 weeks of moderate aerobic training using immunoassay techniques. [Results] After 4 weeks of exercise, there were significant increases in cortisol, free testosterone levels, and LDH activity along with a significant decrease in the ratios between testosterone and cortisol levels. No significant correlations were found among the studied parameters in the resting stage, a result which supports the positive effect of exercise on stress hormones following 4 weeks of training. [Conclusion] The results suggest that four weeks exercise of moderate intensity significantly affects the salivary stress hormones of young healthy volunteers. The data support the importance of salivary stress hormones as potential biological markers especially for older ages. However, more research is required to validate these biological markers which determine the host response to physical activity. PMID:26311920

  9. The effects of four weeks aerobic training on saliva cortisol and testosterone in young healthy persons.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Aly, Farag A

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks moderate aerobic exercise on outcome measures of saliva stress hormones and lactate levels in healthy adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy students with an age range of 15-25 years participated in this study. The participants performed an exercise test of moderate intensity for 4 weeks, three times per week. The exercise was treadmill walking. Saliva concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured before and after the 4 weeks of moderate aerobic training using immunoassay techniques. [Results] After 4 weeks of exercise, there were significant increases in cortisol, free testosterone levels, and LDH activity along with a significant decrease in the ratios between testosterone and cortisol levels. No significant correlations were found among the studied parameters in the resting stage, a result which supports the positive effect of exercise on stress hormones following 4 weeks of training. [Conclusion] The results suggest that four weeks exercise of moderate intensity significantly affects the salivary stress hormones of young healthy volunteers. The data support the importance of salivary stress hormones as potential biological markers especially for older ages. However, more research is required to validate these biological markers which determine the host response to physical activity. PMID:26311920

  10. Glucocorticoid stimulates expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, B.G.; Emanuel, R.L.; Frim, D.M.; Majzoub, J.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Primary cultures of purified human cytotrophoblasts have been used to examine the expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene in placenta. The authors report here that glucocorticoids stimulate placental CRH synthesis and secretion in primary cultures of human placenta. This stimulation is in contrast to the glucocorticoid suppression of CRH expression in hypothalamus. The positive regulation of CRH by glucocorticoids suggests that the rise in CRH preceding parturition could result from the previously described rise in fetal glucocorticoids. Furthermore, this increase in placental CRH could stimulate, via adrenocorticotropic hormone, a further rise in fetal glucocorticoids, completing a positive feedback loop that would be terminated by delivery.

  11. RIA analysis for estradiol, testosterone and cortisol in feedyard playa lakes and non-feedyard playa lakes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to compare the levels of 17B-estradiol, testosterone, and cortisol hormones in bottom sediment (muck) and water of seven feedyard (FY) playas and three non-feedyard playas. Four liters of water and 500 grams of muck were collected from 4 equal distant sites from each p...

  12. Examining Infants' Cortisol Responses to Laboratory Tasks among Children Varying in Attachment Disorganization: Stress Reactivity or Return to Baseline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the…

  13. Effects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone concentrations assessed in saliva

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    concentrations assessed in saliva Oliver C. Schultheiss Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen, Germany a b Testosterone Cortisol Progesterone Chewing gum Saliva collection Sugarless chewing gum is a frequently used stimulant to collect saliva samples for hormone analyses. This study tested the effect of sugarless chewing

  14. Sexually dimorphic secretion of cortisol but not catecholamines in response to an endotoxin challenge in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge on secretion of the adrenal stress-related hormones cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in bull and heifer calves. Brahman calves (n = 12; 269 ± 11.7 kg) were randomly selected from the fall 2007 c...

  15. Egg cortisol treatment affects the behavioural response of coho salmon to a conspecific intruder and threat of predation

    E-print Network

    Hinch, Scott G.

    Egg cortisol treatment affects the behavioural response of coho salmon to a conspecific intruder on how maternally derived egg hormones influence progeny behaviour in oviparous taxa. Of particular interest is how glucocorticoids (GCs) in eggs, as a signal of maternal stress, affect offspring behavioural

  16. Steroid Hormones and Uterine Vascular Adaptation to Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Katherine; Zhang, Lubo

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological state that involves a significant decrease in uterine vascular tone and an increase in uterine blood flow, which is mediated in part by steroid hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of these hormones in the regulation of uterine artery contractility through signaling pathways specific to the endothelium and the vascular smooth muscle. Alterations in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity, nitric oxide production, and expression of enzymes involved in PGI2 production contribute to the uterine artery endothelium-specific responses. Steroid hormones also have an effect on calcium-activated potassium channel activity, PKC signaling pathway and myogenic tone, and alterations in pharmacomechanical coupling in the uterine artery smooth muscle. This review addresses current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which steroid hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol modulate uterine artery contractility to alter uterine blood flow during pregnancy with an emphasis on the pregnant ewe model. PMID:18497342

  17. Clozapine and risperidone influence on cortisol and estradiol levels in male patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Piriu, G; Torac, E; Gaman, LE; Iosif, L; Tivig, IC; Delia, C; Gilca, M; Stoian, I; Atanasiu, V

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens role in schizophrenia patients is a subject, which has gained an increased attention from the medical community. Estrogens have been shown to inhibit dopamine actions, improve neuronal regeneration, and overall, have a protective role in the pathology of schizophrenia. The adjunctive estrogen therapy for men is currently under debate. Antipsychotic medication is known to influence the hypothalamo-hypophyseal – gonadal axis by inducing variable degrees of hyperprolactinemia. Several studies have found that some of the atypical antipsychotics lower cortisol levels in patients and also in healthy controls. We have investigated the effects of clozapine and risperidone on estradiol levels in men with schizophrenia. We have also evaluated the levels of prolactin and cortisol, taking into account the possible influence of antipsychotic drugs on both these hormones. Both prolactin and cortisol also have the potential to regulate sexual hormones biosynthesis. Our study found decreased estradiol levels in men with schizophrenia treated with clozapine and risperidone, while prolactin levels were increased only in the risperidone treated group. Cortisol levels are not statistically significant different between groups.

  18. Cortisol but not testosterone is repeatable and varies with reproductive effort in wild red deer stags.

    PubMed

    Pavitt, Alyson T; Walling, Craig A; Möstl, Erich; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B

    2015-10-01

    Although it is known that hormone concentrations vary considerably between individuals within a population, how they change across time and how they relate to an individual's reproductive effort remains poorly quantified in wild animals. Using faecal samples collected from wild red deer stags, we examined sources of variation in faecal cortisol and androgen metabolites, and the potential relationship that these might have with an index of reproductive effort. We also biologically validated an assay for measuring androgen metabolites in red deer faeces. We show that variation in hormone concentrations between samples can be accounted for by the age of the individual and the season when the sample was collected. Faecal cortisol (but not androgen) metabolites also showed significant among-individual variation across the 10-year sampling time period, which accounted for 20% of the trait's phenotypic variance after correcting for the age and season effects. Finally, we show that an index of male reproductive effort (cumulative harem size) during the mating season (rut) was positively correlated with male cortisol concentrations, both among and within individuals. We suggest that the highest ranking males have the largest cumulative harem sizes (i.e. invest the greatest reproductive effort), and that this social dominance may have associated behaviours such as increased frequency of agonistic interactions which are associated with corresponding high levels of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM). PMID:26209865

  19. Chronic stress, cortisol dysfunction, and pain: a psychoneuroendocrine rationale for stress management in pain rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Kara E; Bishop, Mark D

    2014-12-01

    Pain is a primary symptom driving patients to seek physical therapy, and its attenuation commonly defines a successful outcome. A large body of evidence is dedicated to elucidating the relationship between chronic stress and pain; however, stress is rarely addressed in pain rehabilitation. A physiologic stress response may be evoked by fear or perceived threat to safety, status, or well-being and elicits the secretion of sympathetic catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinepherine) and neuroendocrine hormones (cortisol) to promote survival and motivate success. Cortisol is a potent anti-inflammatory that functions to mobilize glucose reserves for energy and modulate inflammation. Cortisol also may facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories for future survival and avoidance of danger. Although short-term stress may be adaptive, maladaptive responses (eg, magnification, rumination, helplessness) to pain or non-pain-related stressors may intensify cortisol secretion and condition a sensitized physiologic stress response that is readily recruited. Ultimately, a prolonged or exaggerated stress response may perpetuate cortisol dysfunction, widespread inflammation, and pain. Stress may be unavoidable in life, and challenges are inherent to success; however, humans have the capability to modify what they perceive as stressful and how they respond to it. Exaggerated psychological responses (eg, catastrophizing) following maladaptive cognitive appraisals of potential stressors as threatening may exacerbate cortisol secretion and facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories of pain or non-pain-related stressors; however, coping, cognitive reappraisal, or confrontation of stressors may minimize cortisol secretion and prevent chronic, recurrent pain. Given the parallel mechanisms underlying the physiologic effects of a maladaptive response to pain and non-pain-related stressors, physical therapists should consider screening for non-pain-related stress to facilitate treatment, prevent chronic disability, and improve quality of life. PMID:25035267

  20. Technical and clinical aspects of cortisol as a biochemical marker of chronic stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do Yup; Kim, Eosu; Choi, Man Ho

    2015-01-01

    Stress is now recognized as a universal premorbid factor associated with many risk factors of various chronic diseases. Acute stress may induce an individual’s adaptive response to environmental demands. However, chronic, excessive stress causes cumulative negative impacts on health outcomes through “allostatic load”. Thus, monitoring the quantified levels of long-term stress mediators would provide a timely opportunity for prevention or earlier intervention of stressrelated chronic illnesses. Although either acute or chronic stress could be quantified through measurement of changes in physiological parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and levels of various metabolic hormones, it is still elusive to interpret whether the changes in circulating levels of stress mediators such as cortisol can reflect the acute, chronic, or diurnal variations. Both serum and salivary cortisol levels reveal acute changes at a single point in time, but the overall long-term systemic cortisol exposure is difficult to evaluate due to circadian variations and its protein-binding capacity. Scalp hair has a fairy predictable growth rate of approximately 1 cm/month, and the most 1 cm segment approximates the last month’s cortisol production as the mean value. The analysis of cortisol in hair is a highly promising technique for the retrospective assessment of chronic stress. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(4): 209-216] PMID:25560699

  1. Saliva Cortisol and Exposure to Aircraft Noise in Six European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Jenny; Bluhm, Gösta; Theorell, Töres; Pershagen, Göran; Babisch, Wolfgang; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Houthuijs, Danny; Breugelmans, Oscar; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Antoniotti, Maria Chiara; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Davou, Elli; Dudley, Marie-Louise; Järup, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies show an association between exposure to aircraft or road traffic noise and cardiovascular effects, which may be mediated by a noise-induced release of stress hormones. Objective Our objective was to assess saliva cortisol concentration in relation to exposure to aircraft noise. Method A multicenter cross-sectional study, HYENA (Hypertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports), comprising 4,861 persons was carried out in six European countries. In a subgroup of 439 study participants, selected to enhance the contrast in exposure to aircraft noise, saliva cortisol was assessed three times (morning, lunch, and evening) during 1 day. Results We observed an elevation of 6.07 nmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.32–9.81 nmol/L] in morning saliva cortisol level in women exposed to aircraft noise at an average 24-hr sound level (LAeq,24h) > 60 dB, compared with women exposed to LAeq,24h ? 50 dB, corresponding to an increase of 34%. Employment status appeared to modify the response. We found no association between noise exposure and saliva cortisol levels in men. Conclusions Our results suggest that exposure to aircraft noise increases morning saliva cortisol levels in women, which could be of relevance for noise-related cardiovascular effects. PMID:20049122

  2. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and cortisol in young women with primary fibromyalgia: the potential roles of depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbance in the occurrence of hypocortisolism

    PubMed Central

    Gur, A; Cevik, R; Sarac, A; Colpan, L; Em, S

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), oestradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and cortisol concentrations in 63 women with FM were compared with those in 38 matched healthy controls; all subjects aged <35 years. The depression rate was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and patients with high and low BDI scores were compared. Additionally, patients were divided according to sleep disturbance and fatigue and compared both with healthy controls and within the group. Results: No significant differences in FSH, LH, oestradiol, prolactin, and progesterone levels were found between patients with FM and controls, but cortisol levels were significantly lower in patients than in controls (p<0.05). Cortisol levels in patients with high BDI scores, fatigue, and sleep disturbance were significantly lower than in controls (p<0.05). Correlation between cortisol levels and number of tender points in all patients was significant (r = –0.32, p<0.05). Conclusion: Despite low cortisol concentrations in young women with FM, there is no abnormality in HPG axis hormones. Because fatigue, depression rate, sleep disturbance, and mean age of patients affect cortisol levels, these variables should be taken into account in future investigations. PMID:15479904

  3. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    E-print Network

    Kandasamy, N.; Hardy, B.; Page, L.; Schaffner, M.; Graggaber, J.; Powlson, A. S.; Fletcher, P. C.; Gurnell, M.; Coates, J.

    2014-01-01

    ’s testosterone levels also did not differ (t = 1.09 P = 0.296, n = 13). Recruitment and Monetary Payments. Participants were recruited from the general population by means of advertisements. Randomization into treatment schedules (discussed above) was performed... Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences Narayanan Kandasamya,1, Ben Hardyb,1,2, Lionel Pagec,1, Markus Schaffnerc, Johann Graggabera, Andrew S. Powlsona, Paul C. Fletcherd, Mark Gurnella,3, and John Coatesb,3 aInstitute of Metabolic Science, University...

  4. Clinical applications of cortisol measurements in hair.

    PubMed

    Wester, Vincent L; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol measurements in blood, saliva and urine are frequently used to examine the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice and in research. However, cortisol levels are subject to variations due to acute stress, the diurnal rhythm and pulsatile secretion. Cortisol measurements in body fluids are not always a reflection of long-term cortisol exposure. The analysis of cortisol in scalp hair is a relatively novel method to measure cumulative cortisol exposure over months up to years. Over the past years, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been examined in association with a large number of somatic and mental health conditions. HCC can be used to evaluate disturbances of the HPA axis, including Cushing's syndrome, and to evaluate hydrocortisone treatment. Using HCC, retrospective timelines of cortisol exposure can be created which can be of value in diagnosing cyclic hypercortisolism. HCC have also been shown to increase with psychological stressors, including major life events, as well as physical stressors, such as endurance exercise and shift work. Initial studies show that HCC may be increased in depression, but decreased in general anxiety disorder. In posttraumatic stress disorder, changes in HCC seem to be dependent on the type of traumatic experience and the time since traumatization. Increased hair cortisol is consistently linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potentially, HCC could form a future marker for cardiovascular risk stratification, as well as serve as a treatment target. PMID:25924811

  5. Associations of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with urinary measures of cortisol and catecholamines in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Seeman, Teresa; Shea, Steven; Shrager, Sandi; Tadros, Sameh

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Stress hormones have been hypothesized to contribute to the social patterning of cardiovascular disease but evidence of differences in hormone levels across social groups is scant. Purpose To examine the associations of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines and determine whether these associations are modified by race/ethnicity. Methods Measures of cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine were obtained on 12-h overnight urine specimens from 942 White, African American and Hispanic participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Linear regression was used to examine associations of income-wealth index, education, depression, anger, anxiety and chronic stress with the four hormones after adjustment for covariates. Results Higher income-wealth index was associated with lower levels of urinary cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, medication use, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol use. Education and psychosocial factors were not associated with urinary stress hormone levels in the full sample. However, there was some evidence of effect modification by race: SES factors were more strongly inversely associated with cortisol in African Americans than in other groups and anger was inversely associated with catecholamines in African Americans but not in the other groups. Conclusions Lower SES as measured by income-wealth index in a multi-ethnic sample is associated with higher levels of urinary cortisol and catecholamines. Heterogeneity in these associations by race/ethnicity warrants further exploration. PMID:24495614

  6. Therapeutic Effects of Pre-Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon) used as a Non-Hormonal Alternative to HRT in Perimenopausal Women - Clinical Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mscisz, A.; Kedzia, B.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Roots of cruciferous plant Lepidium peruvianum Chacon cultivated in high plateaus of Andes and known under its common name Maca, have been traditionally-used as an energizing vegetable with therapeutic properties for both men and women. Maca has been recognized by natives of Peru as herbal remedy helping to treat conditions affecting menopausal women. Objective: The effects of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO) on quantitative physiological responses and alleviation of symptoms contributing to menopausal discomfort in perimenopausal women was examined. Methods: In this, four months, double blind, crossover, randomized pilot trial, monthly measurements of the following blood serum constituents were taken: Estrogen (E2), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, T4), minerals (Ca, K, Fe) and lipid profile (Triglicerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). In monthly interviews conducted by gynecologist, body weight and blood pressure were registered and Menopausal Index according to Kupperman’s was determined. Toxicity of Maca -GO determined on rats showed its safe use at the level of 7.5mg/kg body weight. A group of 20 women (aged 41-50 years), who fulfilled criteria of being in perimenopausal stage (E2 above 40pg/ml and FSH below 30IU/ml), were randomly allocated to two even groups, one receiving for two months Maca-GO and the other Placebo capsules followed by a crossover with treatment change for another two months period. All participants signed informed consent to participate. Two 500mg hard capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo were self-administered by participants twice daily with meals (total 2g/day). Results: Two months administration of Maca-GO significantly alleviated symptoms of discomfort observed in majority of women involved in the study (74%-87%) as assessed by Kupperman’s Menopausal index. This was associated with significant increase in E2 and FSH, Progesterone and ACTH levels, and reduction in blood pressure, body weight, Triglycerides and Cholesterol levels. There was a distinctive placebo effect observed at the beginning of the study. Conclusions: The results showed that in addition to reduction in body weight, blood pressure and increasing serum HDL and Iron, pre-gelatinized Maca-GO may be a valuable non-hormonal plant preparation for balancing levels of hormones (FSH, E2, PG and ACTH) and alleviating negative physiological and psychological symptoms (frequency of hot flushes, incidence in night sweating, interrupted sleep pattern, nervousness, depression and heart palpitations) experienced by women in perimenopausal stage. It appears that Maca-GO may act as a toner of hormonal processes, leading to alleviation of discomfort felt by perimenopausal women, hence, its potential use as non-hormonal alternative to HRT program. PMID:23674976

  7. Cortisol metabolism in hepatocytes of rainbow trout treated with 3,3{prime},4,4{prime} tetrachlorobiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayan, M.M.; Fiest, G.; Otto, D.; Moon, T.W.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of hepatocytes for cortisol uptake and metabolism in 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) treated trout. Two groups of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were either given an intraperitoneal implant of peanut oil alone or peanut oil containing TCBP (10 mg.kg{sup {minus}1} body weight) and sampled six weeks later. The toxicant exposed fish had significantly lower condition factor and plasma glucose concentration, whereas plasma cortisol, protein and hepatocyte protein concentration and liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were significantly higher in the TCBP compared to the sham group. There was no significant difference in plasma lactate and amino acid concentration, hepatocyte glycogen content or liver cytosolic cortisol binding affinity or capacity between the two groups. The uptake of [{sup 3}H] cortisol was significantly higher in the hepatocytes of TCBP treated fish compared to the sham fish. Also, there was enhanced catabolism of [{sup 3}H] cortisol by hepatocytes of TCBP treated fish; the major metabolite appeared to be tetrahydrocortisone. The results indicate that the potential for cortisol clearance is enhanced in hepatocytes of TCBP treated trout. The data also tend to suggest in vivo regulatory mechanisms that might possibly prevent the increased clearance of the hormone from circulation in toxicant exposed fish.

  8. Associations of Long-term Shift Work with Waking Salivary Cortisol Concentration and Patterns among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    FEKEDULEGN, Desta; BURCHFIEL, Cecil M.; VIOLANTI, John M.; HARTLEY, Tara A.; CHARLES, Luenda E.; ANDREW, Michael E.; MILLER, Diane B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant’s work activities during the 6–8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period. PMID:23047078

  9. Adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone rhythms in male golden hamsters on long and short days

    SciTech Connect

    Ottenweller, J.E.; Tapp, W.N.; Pitman, D.L.; Natelson, B.H. New Jersey Medical School, Newark )

    1987-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormones were measured at 4-h intervals around the clock in male hamsters on long (14:10-h light-dark cycle) and short (10:14-h light-dark cycle) days. Plasma corticosterone, cortisol, thyroxine (T{sub 4}), triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and testosterone rhythms were present on long days. The only one of these hormones to have a significant rhythm on short days was cortisol, but even its amplitude was suppressed compared with the cortisol rhythm on long days. Short days also lowered mean plasma levels of cortisol, T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, and testosterone. Finally, short days raised the ratio of corticosterone to cortisol and lowered the ratio of T{sub 4} to T{sub 3}. Both ratios had significant rhythms on long days but not on short days. Because of the many interactions among adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone axes, it is unclear whether the primary effect of short days is on one of these endocrine systems or on another factor that has separate effects on each of the hormone rhythms that was measured. Nonetheless, it is clear that a major effect of short day lengths in hamsters is to suppress hormone rhythms. Explanations of photoperiodic effects that depend on endocrine mediation should take this into account.

  10. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones ...

  11. Procedural pain does not raise plasma levels of cortisol or catecholamines in adult intensive care patients after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    van Gulik, L; Ahlers, Sjgm; van Dijk, M; Bruins, P; Meima, M E; de Rijke, Y B; Biemond-Moeniralam, H S; Tibboel, D; Knibbe, Caj

    2016-01-01

    The gold standard for quantification of pain is a person's self-report. However, we need objective parameters for pain measurement when intensive care patients, for example, are not able to report pain themselves. An increase in pain is currently thought to coincide with an increase in stress hormones. This observational study investigated whether procedure-related pain is associated with an increase of plasma cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. In 59 patients receiving intensive care after cardiac surgery, cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline plasma levels were measured immediately before and immediately after patients were turned for washing, either combined with the removal of chest tubes or not. Numeric rating scale scores were obtained before, during, and after the procedure. Unacceptably severe pain (numeric rating scale ?4) was reported by seven (12%), 26 (44%), and nine (15%) patients, before, during and after the procedure, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between numeric rating scale scores and change in cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline plasma levels during the procedure. Despite current convictions that pain coincides with an increase in stress hormones, procedural pain was not associated with a significant increase in plasma stress hormone levels in patients who had undergone cardiac surgery. Thus, plasma levels of cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline seem unsuitable for further research on the measurement of procedural pain. PMID:26673589

  12. Correlations between stress hormone levels in umbilical cord blood and duration of delivery.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yoko; Doi, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Suguru; Kawai, Kennta; Tanaka, Minoru

    2015-07-01

    Correlations between umbilical cord blood concentration of stress response hormone cortisol and prolactin, and delivery duration were examined. Thirty-three cases were selected in which both mothers and neonates were healthy, and the neonates were delivered at full term. The umbilical cord blood was collected at the time of delivery and concentrations of cortisol and prolactin were measured. The cortisol level was significantly higher after vacuum-assisted delivery than after spontaneous delivery (p=0.044). Significant positive correlations (p=0.0289) were observed between cortisol level and delivery duration. In particular, the duration of the second stage of delivery showed stronger positive correlation (p=0.0304) with the cortisol level. The prolactin level showed weak correlation with the duration of full delivery and the second stage of delivery. The findings suggest that foetuses may respond to stress by uterine contraction during delivery. PMID:26160091

  13. Fetal plasma testosterone correlates positively with cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Gitau, R; Adams, D; Fisk, N; Glover, V

    2005-01-01

    Background: Fetal exposure to testosterone has been implicated in programming childhood behaviour, but little is known about the determinants of fetal testosterone concentrations. Aims: To investigate the relation between fetal testosterone and maternal and fetal cortisol. Methods: Clinically indicated blood samples taken from 44 human fetuses (mean gestational age 27 weeks, range 15–38), together with paired maternal samples, were analysed for testosterone and cortisol concentrations. Results: Male fetuses had significantly higher concentrations of testosterone than females. Female but not male fetal concentrations rose significantly with gestational age. Fetal testosterone correlated positively with both fetal cortisol and maternal testosterone concentrations. Multiple regression showed that maternal testosterone and fetal cortisol were independently correlated with fetal plasma testosterone in both sexes. Conclusion: Unlike the norm in the adult, where testosterone production is often inhibited by cortisol, in the fetus there is a positive link between the two. PMID:15724043

  14. Differences in Salivary Alpha-Amylase and Cortisol Responsiveness following Exposure to Electrical Stimulation versus the Trier Social Stress Tests

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Okamoto, Shizuko; Ando, Tomoko; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Imanaga, Junko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-01-01

    Background Cortisol is an essential hormone in the regulation of the stress response along the HPA axis, and salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels. Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has also emerged as a novel biomarker for psychosocial stress responsiveness within the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system. Principal Findings We measured sAA and salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electric stimulation stress. One hundred forty-nine healthy volunteers participated in this study. All subjects were exposed to both the TSST and electric stimulation stress on separate days. We measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels three times immediately before, immediately after, and 20 min after the stress challenge. The State (STAI-S) and Trait (STAI-T) versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test and the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests were administered to participants before the electrical stimulation and TSST protocols. We also measured HF, LF and LF/HF Heart Rate Variability ratio immediately after electrical stimulation and TSST exposure. Following TSST exposure or electrical stimulation, sAA levels displayed a rapid increase and recovery, returning to baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Salivary cortisol responses showed a delayed increase, which remained significantly elevated from baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Analyses revealed no differences between men and women with regard to their sAA response to the challenges (TSST or electric stimulations), while we found significantly higher salivary cortisol responses to the TSST in females. We also found that younger subjects tended to display higher sAA activity. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly correlated with the strength of the applied electrical stimulation. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that the HPA axis (but not the SAM system) may show differential response patterns to distinct kinds of stressors. PMID:22859941

  15. Coordination of the cortisol and testosterone responses: A dual axis approach to understanding the response to social status threats.

    PubMed

    Turan, Bulent; Tackett, Jennifer L; Lechtreck, Maria T; Browning, Wesley R

    2015-12-01

    For many people, competitions, status challenges, and being evaluated by others result in increases in cortisol as well as testosterone. It is argued that physiological processes work in a coordinated fashion when facing social evaluative-competitive situations. Such a coordinated response may be part of an evolved system, monitoring and responding to threats to one's social status. In two studies, using within-person multi-level analyses, we tested the hypothesis that adult men, pre/early pubertal boys, and pre/early pubertal girls show a coordinated response in cortisol and testosterone (i.e., coupling of cortisol and testosterone responses) during a social evaluative situation. In Study 1, 85 men delivered speeches and performed difficult arithmetic tasks in front of critical evaluators, prepared for a competition, and provided multiple saliva samples throughout the procedure for cortisol and testosterone assays. In Study 2, 79 boys and 74 girls underwent similar procedures as in Study 1. Within-person analyses suggested that cortisol and testosterone responses were indeed positively associated for all three groups (men, boys, and girls). That is, on average a participant's cortisol and testosterone levels tended to rise and fall together throughout the procedure, suggesting that cortisol and testosterone show coordinated activation and deactivation (coupling) during social status threats. Furthermore, men with higher anxiety during the stressor tasks (Study 1; coded by raters from video recordings) and both boys and girls with higher parent reported trait negative affectivity (Study 2) had stronger coupling. Men (Study 1) higher in self-reported trait dominance and verbal dominance (coded by raters from video recordings during the stressor), and lower in basal testosterone had weaker coupling. A coordinated hormone response may have important adaptive functions when dealing with status threats; cortisol can mobilize energy resources and testosterone can facilitate performance. These findings have implications for developing a dual axis understanding of physiological responses during social threats and competition and their function. PMID:26254769

  16. Association between Strongyloides stercoralis infection and cortisol secretion in alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mônica L S; de J Inês, Elizabete; da S Souza, Alex Bruno; Dos S Dias, Victória Maria; Guimarães, Cléa M; Menezes, Edimacia R; Barbosa, Larissa G; Del Carmen M Alves, Maria; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina A; Soares, Neci M

    2016-02-01

    A higher prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infections has been reported in alcoholic patients compared to nonalcoholic patients living in the same area. Excessive alcohol consumption increases the levels of endogenous corticosteroids that subsequently enhance the fecundity of S. stercoralis parthenogenetic females. These corticosteroids also enhance the transformation of rhabditiform larvae into infective filariform larvae by mimicking the effect of the ecdysteroid hormones produced by the parasite, thus leading to autoinfection. In addition, alterations in the intestinal barrier and host immune response contribute to the development of hyperinfection and severe strongyloidiasis in alcoholic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of S. stercoralis infections in alcoholic patients and to determine the association between S. stercoralis infection and endogenous cortisol levels. The frequency of infection was evaluated in 332 alcoholic and 92 nonalcoholic patients. The parasitological diagnosis was carried out by agar plate culture, the modified Baermann-Moraes method and spontaneous sedimentation. The immunological diagnosis was performed using an ELISA with anti-S. stercoralis IgG. The cortisol levels were measured in serum samples by ELISA. The frequency of S. stercoralis infection in alcoholic patients was 23.5% (78/332), while in nonalcoholic patients, it was 5.4% (5/92) (p<0.05). The cortisol levels were higher in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic patients (p<0.05). However, among the alcoholic patients, the cortisol levels did not differ between S. stercoralis-infected and uninfected patients (p>0.05). As demonstrated in this work, 81.3% (26/32) of patients with a high parasite load, considered as more than 11 larvae per gram of feces, presented serum cortisol levels above the normal reference value (24mg/dL). High endogenous cortisol levels in alcoholic patients were not associated to susceptibility to S. stercoralis infection, however once infected, this may lead to a high parasite load. PMID:26592319

  17. Hormones, Nicotine and Cocaine: Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Nancy K.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels, and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (two min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine’s sustained positive effects (< 20 min), ratings of “High” and “Rush” began to decrease within one or two puffs of a high nicotine cigarette while nicotine levels were increasing. Peak nicotine levels increased progressively after each of three successive cigarettes smoked at 60 min intervals, but the magnitude of the subjective effects ratings and peak ACTH and cortisol levels diminished. Only DHEA increased consistently after successive cigarettes. The possible influence of neuroactive hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse, and implications for treatment of these addictive disorders is discussed. PMID:19835877

  18. Estradiol enables cortisol to act directly upon the pituitary to suppress pituitary responsiveness to GnRH in sheep.

    PubMed

    Pierce, B N; Stackpole, C A; Breen, K M; Clarke, I J; Karsch, F J; Rivalland, E T A; Turner, A I; Caddy, D J; Wagenmaker, E R; Oakley, A E; Tilbrook, A J

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that cortisol infusion reduced the luteinizing hormone (LH) response to fixed hourly GnRH injections in ovariectomized ewes treated with estradiol during the non-breeding season (pituitary-clamp model). In contrast, cortisol did not affect the response to 2 hourly invariant GnRH injections in hypothalamo-pituitary disconnected ovariectomized ewes during the breeding season. To understand the differing results in these animal models and to determine if cortisol can act directly at the pituitary to suppress responsiveness to GnRH, we investigated the importance of the frequency of GnRH stimulus, the presence of estradiol and stage of the circannual breeding season. In experiment 1, during the non-breeding season, ovariectomized ewes were treated with estradiol, and pulsatile LH secretion was restored with i.v. GnRH injections either hourly or 2 hourly in the presence or absence of exogenous cortisol. Experiments 2 and 3 were conducted in hypothalamo-pituitary disconnected ovariectomized ewes in which GnRH was injected i.v. every 2 h. Experiment 2 was conducted during the non-breeding season and saline or cortisol was infused for 30 h in a cross-over design. Experiment 3 was conducted during the non-breeding and breeding seasons and saline or cortisol was infused for 30 h in the absence and presence of estradiol using a cross-over design. Samples were taken from all animals to measure plasma LH. LH pulse amplitude was reduced by cortisol in the pituitary clamp model with no difference between the hourly and 2-hourly GnRH pulse mode. In the absence of estradiol, there was no effect of cortisol on LH pulse amplitude in GnRH-replaced ovariectomized hypothalamo-pituitary disconnected ewes in either season. The LH pulse amplitude was reduced in both seasons in experiment 3 when cortisol was infused during estradiol treatment. We conclude that the ability of cortisol to reduce LH secretion does not depend upon the frequency of GnRH stimulus and that estradiol enables cortisol to act directly on the pituitary of ovariectomized hypothalamo-pituitary disconnected ewes to suppress the responsiveness to GnRH; this effect occurs in the breeding and non-breeding seasons. PMID:18714145

  19. Cortisol Is Not Associated with Telomere Shortening or Chromosomal Instability in Human Lymphocytes Cultured under Low and High Folate Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Caroline; Christensen, Helen; Fenech, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress and nutritional deficiencies are factors that impact negatively on human health and disease risk. Chronic stress has been associated with accelerated leukocyte telomere shortening in numerous cohorts, however, a mechanistic link has proven elusive. This study tested the hypotheses that chronic exposure to the stress hormone, cortisol, causes telomere shortening and chromosome instability (CIN) in vitro, and that these effects would be further exacerbated by folate (vitamin B9) deficiency. Primary human lymphocytes were maintained in vitro for 12 days in medium containing either 25 nM folic acid (FA(low)) or 100 nM FA (FA(high)), together with either 0, 400, 1000 or 3500 nM cortisol. The interactive effects of cortisol and FA were examined by comparing telomere length (TL), biomarkers of DNA damage, and cytostasis. At day 12 TL was 5-17% longer in lymphocytes cultured in FA(low) conditions (mean ± SD;10.2% ± 1.6), compared with those in FA(high) medium (9.1% ± 1, p = 0.02). Refuting the hypothesis, TL was consistently greater in the presence of cortisol. The effect of FA deficiency on the frequency of DNA damage was significant for nucleoplasmic bridges, circular nuclei, micronuclei and nuclear buds, (p < 0.0001 – 0.001). The effect of cortisol, however, was negligible, only reaching statistical significance for the frequency of fused nuclei (p = 0.04). Cortisol was significantly associated with reduced cell division and growth and had an apparent protective effect on cell viability in the FA(low) conditions. Conclusions: Both chronic cortisol exposure, and folate deficiency, resulted in telomere elongation, however, the effect of cortisol was marginal relative to that of folate. Cortisol was not associated with increased chromosomal instability, but caused a significant reduction in cell division and growth. Together these results indicate that cortisol is not directly genotoxic and that the telomere shortening associated with increased psychological stress in vivo may not be explained by a direct effect of cortisol. PMID:25748629

  20. Cortisol is not associated with telomere shortening or chromosomal instability in human lymphocytes cultured under low and high folate conditions.

    PubMed

    Bull, Caroline; Christensen, Helen; Fenech, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress and nutritional deficiencies are factors that impact negatively on human health and disease risk. Chronic stress has been associated with accelerated leukocyte telomere shortening in numerous cohorts, however, a mechanistic link has proven elusive. This study tested the hypotheses that chronic exposure to the stress hormone, cortisol, causes telomere shortening and chromosome instability (CIN) in vitro, and that these effects would be further exacerbated by folate (vitamin B9) deficiency. Primary human lymphocytes were maintained in vitro for 12 days in medium containing either 25 nM folic acid (FA(low)) or 100 nM FA (FA(high)), together with either 0, 400, 1000 or 3500 nM cortisol. The interactive effects of cortisol and FA were examined by comparing telomere length (TL), biomarkers of DNA damage, and cytostasis. At day 12 TL was 5-17% longer in lymphocytes cultured in FA(low) conditions (mean ± SD;10.2% ± 1.6), compared with those in FA(high) medium (9.1% ± 1, p = 0.02). Refuting the hypothesis, TL was consistently greater in the presence of cortisol. The effect of FA deficiency on the frequency of DNA damage was significant for nucleoplasmic bridges, circular nuclei, micronuclei and nuclear buds, (p < 0.0001-0.001). The effect of cortisol, however, was negligible, only reaching statistical significance for the frequency of fused nuclei (p = 0.04). Cortisol was significantly associated with reduced cell division and growth and had an apparent protective effect on cell viability in the FA(low) conditions. Conclusions: Both chronic cortisol exposure, and folate deficiency, resulted in telomere elongation, however, the effect of cortisol was marginal relative to that of folate. Cortisol was not associated with increased chromosomal instability, but caused a significant reduction in cell division and growth. Together these results indicate that cortisol is not directly genotoxic and that the telomere shortening associated with increased psychological stress in vivo may not be explained by a direct effect of cortisol. PMID:25748629

  1. Characterization of Feed Efficiency Traits and Relationships with Temperament, Serum Hormones and Serum Metabolites in Growing Brangus Heifers 

    E-print Network

    Gomez, Robynne 1977-

    2010-09-03

    ; creatinine; blood urea nitrogen, BUN; ?-hydroxybutyrate, BHB) and hormones (cortisol; insulin-like growth hormone I, IGF-I). Across all heifers, RFI was positively correlated with DMI (0.70) and feed:gain (0.59). Heifers with low RFI (< 0.5 SD from mean RFI 0...

  2. Melatonin and cortisol assessment of circadian shifts in astronauts before flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Putcha, L.; Chen, Y. M.; Baker, E.

    1995-01-01

    Melatonin and cortisol were measured in saliva and urine samples to assess the effectiveness of a 7-day protocol combining bright-light exposure with sleep shifting in eliciting a 12-hr phase-shift delay in eight U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts before launch. Baseline acrophases for 15 control subjects with normal sleep-wake cycles were as follows: cortisol (saliva) at 0700 (0730 in urine); melatonin (saliva) at 0130 (6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate at 0230 in urine). Acrophases of the astronaut group fell within 2.5 hr of these values before the treatment protocols were begun. During the bright-light and sleep-shifting treatments, both absolute melatonin production and melatonin rhythmicity were diminished during the first 3 treatment days; total daily cortisol levels remained constant throughout the treatment. By the fourth to sixth day of the 7-day protocol, seven of the eight crew members showed phase delays in all four measures that fell within 2 hr of the expected 11- to 12-hr shift. Although cortisol and melatonin rhythms each corresponded with the phase shift, the rhythms in these two hormones did not correspond with each other during the transition.

  3. The cortisol awakening response--applications and implications for sleep medicine.

    PubMed

    Elder, Greg J; Wetherell, Mark A; Barclay, Nicola L; Ellis, Jason G

    2014-06-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) refers to the rapid rise in cortisol levels observed immediately following awakening. During the CAR period, cortisol levels typically increase by 38%-75%, peaking approximately 30 min after awakening. Evidence suggests the function of the CAR may be related to arousal, energy boost and/or anticipation, although its precise function is still unknown. The CAR has been investigated in a range of clinical populations including the assessment of daytime dysfunction in insomnia; however little research, if any, has specifically examined its relation to sleep architecture, or night-time difficulties associated with insomnia. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the CAR, a description of the factors which can affect it, and to outline the CAR in relation to the '3P' model of insomnia. This review concludes with a description of a standard protocol for measurement of the CAR, which can be adapted and applied within sleep medicine. PMID:23835138

  4. Effects of oral cortisol treatment in healthy young women on memory retrieval of negative and neutral words.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Sabrina; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wolf, Oliver T

    2005-03-01

    Studies in rodents have demonstrated that glucocorticoids enhance memory consolidation but impair delayed memory retrieval. Similar findings have been reported in humans. Emotional items are better remembered than neutral items. However, it is unknown if emotional valence influences the effects of cortisol on retrieval. In this double-blind crossover study, 16 healthy women learned a wordlist containing 15 neutral and 15 negative words. Delayed recall was tested 5h later. Cortisol administered before recall testing significantly reduced retrieval (p<.01). Exploratory follow-up analysis revealed that cortisol significantly impaired retrieval of negative words (p<.01), while having no significant effect on neutral words (p=.47). The current findings could suggest that emotional material is especially sensitive to the memory modulating effects of stress hormones. PMID:15721800

  5. The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The levels of several hormones fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle and are also affected by sleep, feeding, and general behavior. The regulation and metabolism of several hormones are influenced by interactions between the effects of sleep and the intrinsic circadian system; growth hormone, melatonin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin levels are highly correlated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity. There are also endogenous circadian mechanisms that serve to regulate glucose metabolism and similar rhythms pertaining to lipid metabolism, regulated through the actions of various clock genes. Sleep disturbance, which negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism, is also associated with obesity, insulin insensitivity, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and appetite dysregulation. Circadian disruption, typically induced by shift work, may negatively impact health due to impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis, reversed melatonin and cortisol rhythms, and loss of clock gene rhythmicity. PMID:25861266

  6. The impact of sleep and circadian disturbance on hormones and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The levels of several hormones fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle and are also affected by sleep, feeding, and general behavior. The regulation and metabolism of several hormones are influenced by interactions between the effects of sleep and the intrinsic circadian system; growth hormone, melatonin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin levels are highly correlated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity. There are also endogenous circadian mechanisms that serve to regulate glucose metabolism and similar rhythms pertaining to lipid metabolism, regulated through the actions of various clock genes. Sleep disturbance, which negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism, is also associated with obesity, insulin insensitivity, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and appetite dysregulation. Circadian disruption, typically induced by shift work, may negatively impact health due to impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis, reversed melatonin and cortisol rhythms, and loss of clock gene rhythmicity. PMID:25861266

  7. Absence of detectable melatonin and preservation of cortisol and thyrotropin rhythms in tetraplegia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitzer, J. M.; Ayas, N. T.; Shea, S. A.; Brown, R.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The human circadian timing system regulates the temporal organization of several endocrine functions, including the production of melatonin (via a neural pathway that includes the spinal cord), TSH, and cortisol. In traumatic spinal cord injury, afferent and efferent circuits that influence the basal production of these hormones may be disrupted. We studied five subjects with chronic spinal cord injury (three tetraplegic and two paraplegic, all neurologically complete injuries) under stringent conditions in which the underlying circadian rhythmicity of these hormones could be examined. Melatonin production was absent in the three tetraplegic subjects with injury to their lower cervical spinal cord and was of normal amplitude and timing in the two paraplegic subjects with injury to their upper thoracic spinal cord. The amplitude and the timing of TSH and cortisol rhythms were robust in the paraplegics and in the tetraplegics. Our results indicate that neurologically complete cervical spinal injury results in the complete loss of pineal melatonin production and that neither the loss of melatonin nor the loss of spinal afferent information disrupts the rhythmicity of cortisol or TSH secretion.

  8. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause Share: Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol ... take HT for symptom relief.) What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  9. Hormonal and morphological study of the pituitaries in reeler mice.

    PubMed

    Lombardero, Matilde; Kovacs, Kalman; Horvath, Eva; Salazar, Ignacio

    2007-06-01

    Reelin is a neuronal glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in brain layer formation during prenatal development. The reeler mutant mouse lacks Reelin, leading to abnormalities in the neuronal layering of cerebral cortex and cerebellum, producing ataxia, tremor and abnormal locomotion. Reeler mice are reported to have growth retardation and most of them are sterile or unable to bring up their newborns. Since the brain is one of the main regulator of pituitary hormone secretion and no information was reported regarding pituitary function and structure in these mutant mice, we studied pituitary endocrine activity and morphology in reeler mice. Mice were classified in three groups as reeler homozygote (RHM), reeler heterozygote (RHT) or control (CO). Pituitary hormone blood levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Animals and their pituitaries were weighted and pituitaries were studied by histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Results showed statistically significant differences in body weight and in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) blood levels between the three groups. In contrast, growth hormone (GH) blood levels showed a high individual variation and no decrease in reeler groups compared with CO. Morphological studies revealed no differences in pituitary cell types except that somatotrophs appeared to be slightly smaller in RHM and RHT. Although it seems that pituitary hypofunction is not responsible for growth retardation, more studies are needed to obtain a deeper insight into the endocrine status of these mutant mice to elucidate the cause of their low body weight and reproductive behaviour. PMID:17504446

  10. Biomedical Evaluation of Cortisol, Cortisone, and Corticosterone along with Testosterone and Epitestosterone Applying Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    B?czek, Tomasz; Ol?dzka, Ilona; Konieczna, Lucyna; Kowalski, Piotr; Plenis, Alina

    2012-01-01

    The validated micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was proposed for the determination of five steroid hormones in human urine samples. That technique allowed for the separation and quantification of cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, testosterone, and epitestosterone and was sensitive enough to detect low concentrations of these searched steroids in urine samples at the range of 2–300?ng/mL. The proposed MEKC technique with solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure was simple, rapid, and has been successfully applied as a routine procedure to analyze steroids in human urine samples. The MEKC method offered a potential in clinical routine practice because of the short analysis time (8?min), low costs, and simultaneous analysis of five endogenous hormones. Due to its simplicity, speed, accuracy, and high recovery, the proposed method could offer a tool to determine steroid hormones as potential biomarkers in biomedical investigations, what was additionally revealed with healthy volunteers. PMID:22536129

  11. Zinc oxide nanostructures for electrochemical cortisol biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Kaushik, Ajeet; Tracy, Kathryn; Bhansali, Shekhar; Pala, Nezih

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report on fabrication of a label free, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical cortisol immunosensors using one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and two dimensional nanoflakes (ZnO-NFs) as immobilizing matrix. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures (NSs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selective area diffraction (SAED) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) which showed that both ZnO-NRs and ZnO-NFs are single crystalline and oriented in [0001] direction. Anti-cortisol antibody (Anti-Cab) are used as primary capture antibodies to detect cortisol using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increase in cortisol concentration and exhibits a sensitivity of 3.078 K?. M-1 for ZnO-NRs and 540 ?. M -1 for ZnO-NFs. The developed ZnO-NSs based immunosensor is capable of detecting cortisol at 1 pM. The observed sensing parameters are in physiological range. The developed sensors can be integrated with microfluidic system and miniaturized potentiostat to detect cortisol at point-of-care.

  12. Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from one of the ovaries, a process called ovulation . If the egg is not fertilized, no pregnancy ... reproductive system that contain the eggs released at ovulation and produce hormones. Ovulation: The release of an ...

  13. Noninvasive Measurement of Steroid Hormones in Zebrafish Holding-Water

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Ana S.; Faustino, Ana I.; Cabral, Eduarda M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a new animal model in neuroendocrinology and behavior (e.g., stress physiology and ecotoxicology studies). In these areas, the concentrations of steroid hormones in the blood are often used to study the endocrinological status of individuals. However, due to the small body size of zebrafish, blood sampling is difficult to perform and the amount of plasma obtained per sample for assaying hormones is very small (ca. 1–5??L), and therefore most studies have been using whole-body hormone concentrations, which implies sacrificing the individuals and hampers sequential sampling of the same individual. Here a noninvasive method to assay steroid hormones from zebrafish holding-water, based on the fact that steroids are released into the fish holding-water through the gills by passive diffusion, is validated. Cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (KT) were measured in water samples and compared to plasma levels in the same individuals. Cortisol released to holding-water correlates positively with plasma concentrations, but there was a lack of correlation between KT water and circulating levels. However, KT levels showed a highly significant sex difference that can be used to noninvasively sex individuals. An ACTH challenge test demonstrated that an induced increase in circulating cortisol concentration can be reliably detected in holding-water levels, hence attesting the responsiveness of holding-water levels to fluctuations in circulating levels. PMID:23445429

  14. Hormonal correlates of dominance in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Bennett, Nigel C; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2004-08-01

    In cooperatively breeding meerkats (Suricata suricatta), individuals typically live in extended family groups in which the dominant male and female are the primary reproductives, while their offspring delay dispersal, seldom breed, and contribute to the care of subsequent litters. Here we investigate hormonal differences between dominants and subordinates by comparing plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and cortisol in females, and testosterone and cortisol in males, while controlling for potential confounding factors. In both sexes, hormone levels are correlated with age. In females, levels of sex hormone also vary with body weight and access to unrelated breeding partners in the same group: subordinates in groups containing unrelated males have higher levels of LH and estradiol than those in groups containing related males only. When these effects are controlled, there are no rank-related differences in circulating levels of LH among females or testosterone among males. However, dominant females show higher levels of circulating estradiol than subordinates. Dominant males and females also have significantly higher cortisol levels than subordinates. Hence, we found no evidence that the lower levels of plasma estradiol in subordinate females were associated with high levels of glucocorticoids. These results indicate that future studies need to control for the potentially confounding effects of age, body weight, and access to unrelated breeding partners before concluding that there are fundamental physiological differences between dominant and subordinate group members. PMID:15256303

  15. Hormones and ethics: Understanding the biological basis of unethical conduct.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Jin, Ellie Shuo; Rice, Leslie K; Josephs, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Globally, fraud has been rising sharply over the last decade, with current estimates placing financial losses at greater than $3.7 trillion annually. Unfortunately, fraud prevention has been stymied by lack of a clear and comprehensive understanding of its underlying causes and mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on an important but neglected topic--the biological antecedents and consequences of unethical conduct--using salivary collection of hormones (testosterone and cortisol). We hypothesized that preperformance cortisol levels would interact with preperformance levels of testosterone to regulate cheating behavior in 2 studies. Further, based on the previously untested cheating-as-stress-reduction hypothesis, we predicted a dose-response relationship between cheating and reductions in cortisol and negative affect. Taken together, this research marks the first foray into the possibility that endocrine-system activity plays an important role in the regulation of unethical behavior. PMID:26214164

  16. The action of stress hormones on the structure and function of erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Mokrushnikov, Pavel V; Panin, Lev E; Zaitsev, Boris N

    2015-07-01

    The action of a mixture of hormones (cortisol and adrenaline) on erythrocyte membrane during their binding was investigated. Changes in the membrane structure were elucidated by atomic force microscopy; microviscosity of the lipid bilayer and changes in the activity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase at different concentrations of the hormones in erythrocyte suspension were estimated by the fluorescence method. Cortisol and adrenaline were shown to compete for the binding sites. A hormone that managed to bind nonspecifically to the membrane hindered the binding of another hormone. In a mixture of these hormones, cortisol won a competition for the binding sites; therewith, microviscosity of the membranes increased by 25%, which corresponds to a change in microviscosity produced by the action of cortisol alone. The competitive relationships affected also the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, which was indicated by appearance of the second maximum of enzyme activity. It is assumed that an increase in microviscosity of erythrocyte membrane first raises the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity due to a growth of the maximum energy of membrane phonons, and then decreases the activity due to hindering of conformational transitions in the enzyme molecule. PMID:25730899

  17. Long-Term Impact of Maternal Substance Use during Pregnancy and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity: Stress Hormone Levels of Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Charles R.; Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Lester, Barry M.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with blunted stress responsivity within the extrauterine environment. This study investigated the association between PCE and diurnal salivary cortisol levels in preadolescent children characterized by high biological and/or social risk (N = 725). Saliva samples were collected at their home. Analyses revealed no group differences in basal evening or morning cortisol levels; however, children with higher degrees of PCE exhibited blunted overnight increases in cortisol, controlling for additional risk factors. Race and caregiver depression were also associated with diurnal cortisol patterns. While repeated PCE may contribute to alterations in the normal or expected stress response later in life, sociodemographic and environmental factors are likewise important in understanding hormone physiology, especially as more time elapses from the PCE. Anticipating the potential long-term medical, developmental, or behavioral effects of an altered ability to mount a normal protective cortisol stress response is essential in optimizing the outcomes of children with PCE. PMID:21546861

  18. Hormonal responses of metoclopramide-treated subjects experiencing nausea or emesis during parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Randall L.

    1987-01-01

    The concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), vasopressin (AVP), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE) in 22 subjects administered 10 to 20 mg of metoclopramide prior to parabolic flight are measured. The effect of metoclopramide on motion sickness is examined. It is observed that metoclopramide is ineffective in the modulation of motion sickness due to stressful linear and angular acceleration and orbital flight, and it does not affect serum hormones prior to parabolic flight. It is detected that the serum level of AVP declines following emesis induced by parabolic flight and stressful angular acceleration; the serum levels of ACTH and EPI are elevated by parabolic flight and stressful angular acceleration; and serum NE is significantly elevated immediately following emesis. The possible roles of these hormones in the etiology of space motion sickness are discussed.

  19. Adrenal Function Testing Following Hormone Therapy for Infantile Spasms: Case Series and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mytinger, John R.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.

    2015-01-01

    Prednisolone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are “hormone” therapies for infantile spasms. There is limited data on the occurrence of decreased adrenal reserve or signs of clinical adrenal insufficiency after hormone therapy. This is a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to our Infantile Spasms Program. Our standardized infantile spasms management guideline began in September 2012 and initially included a post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function. Medical records were assessed for hormone treatments, adrenal function testing, and signs of adrenal insufficiency. Forty-two patients who received one or both hormone therapies met inclusion criteria. A post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function was done in 14 patients. Of these 14 patients, 2 had an abnormal laboratory assessment of adrenal function, both by adrenal stimulation testing?–?one after ACTH and one after prednisolone. One patient received hydrocortisone replacement and the other received stress dose hydrocortisone as needed; neither patient developed signs of adrenal insufficiency. Another patient treated with both types of hormone therapy in tandem, who did not have a post-hormone laboratory assessment, developed signs of mild adrenal insufficiency and required replacement hydrocortisone. Our study suggests that adrenal suppression can occur after modern hormone therapy regimens. We found two patients with abnormal adrenal function testing after hormone therapy and another patient with signs adrenal insufficiency. Given the seriousness of adrenal crisis, caregiver education on the signs of adrenal insufficiency is critical. Greater vigilance may be indicated in patients receiving both types of hormone therapy in tandem. Although a routine post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function may not be feasible in all patients, replacement or stress dose hydrocortisone is necessary for all patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency. PMID:26696958

  20. Effects of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in postweaned northern elephant seal pups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups rely on the oxidation of fat stores as their primary source of energy during their 8- to 12-wk postweaning fast; however, potential endocrine mechanisms involved with this increased fat metabolism have yet to be examined. Therefore, 15 pups were serially blood sampled in the field during the first 7 wk of their postweaning fast to examine the changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones (TH), which are involved in fat metabolism in other mammals. Cortisol increased, indicating that it contributed to an increase in lipolysis. Increased total triiodothyronine (tT(3)) and thyroxine (tT(4)) may not reflect increased thyroid gland activity, but rather alterations in hormone metabolism. tT(3)-to-tT(4) ratio decreased, suggesting a decrease in thyroxine (T(4)) deiodination, whereas the negative correlation between total proteins and free T(4) suggests that the increase in free hormone is attributed to a decrease in binding globulins. Changes in TH are most similar to those observed during hibernation than starvation in mammals, suggesting that the metabolic adaptations to natural fasting are more similar to hibernation despite the fact these animals remain active throughout the fasting period.

  1. Digit ratio (2D:4D) moderates the relationship between cortisol reactivity and self-reported externalizing behavior in young adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Jill; Raine, Adrian; Glenn, Andrea L; Chen, Frances R; Choy, Olivia; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-12-01

    Although reduced cortisol reactivity to stress and increased circulating testosterone level are hypothesized to be associated with higher levels of externalizing behavior, empirical findings are inconsistent. One factor that may account for the heterogeneity in these relationships is prenatal testosterone exposure. This study examined whether the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal testosterone exposure, moderates the relationships of testosterone and cortisol reactivity with externalizing behavior. Left and right hand 2D:4D and self-reported externalizing behavior were measured in a sample of 353 young adolescents (M age=11.92 years; 178 females; 79.7% African American). Saliva samples were collected before and after a stress task and later assayed for cortisol. Testosterone levels were determined from an AM saliva sample. 2D:4D interacted with cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior in males, but not females. In males, low cortisol reactivity was associated with higher levels of aggression and rule-breaking behavior, but only among subjects with low 2D:4D (i.e., high prenatal testosterone). Findings suggest the importance of a multi-systems approach in which interactions between multiple hormones are taken into account. Furthermore, results demonstrate the importance of considering the organizational influence of prenatal testosterone in order to understand the activational influence of circulating hormones during adolescence. PMID:26463360

  2. Abnormal cortisol metabolism and tissue sensitivity to cortisol in patients with glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robert C; Herlihy, Olive; Livingstone, Dawn E W; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R

    2002-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that increased cortisol secretion, altered cortisol metabolism, and/or increased tissue sensitivity to cortisol may link insulin resistance, hypertension, and obesity. Whether these changes are important in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. We performed an integrated assessment of glucocorticoid secretion, metabolism, and action in 25 unmedicated lean male patients with hyperglycemia (20 with type 2 diabetes and 5 with impaired glucose intolerance by World Health Organization criteria) and 25 healthy men, carefully matched for body mass index, age, and blood pressure. Data are mean +/- SE. Patients with hyperglycemia (DM) had higher HbA(1c) (6.9 +/- 0.2% vs. 6.0 +/- 0.1%, P < 0.0001) and triglycerides. Cortisol secretion was not different, as judged by 0900 h plasma cortisol and 24 h total urinary cortisol metabolites. However, the proportion of cortisol excreted as 5alpha- and 5beta-reduced metabolites was increased in DM patients. Following an oral dose of cortisone 25 mg, generation of plasma cortisol by hepatic 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD 1) was impaired in DM patients (area under the curve, 3617 +/- 281 nM.2 h vs. 4475 +/- 228; P < 0.005). In contrast, in sc gluteal fat biopsies from 17 subjects (5 DM and 12 controls) in vitro 11beta-HSD 1 activity was not different (area under the curve, 128 +/- 56% conversion.30 h DM vs. 119 +/- 21, P = 0.86). Sensitivity to glucocorticoids was increased in DM patients both centrally (0900 h plasma cortisol after overnight 250 micro g oral dexamethasone 172 +/- 16 nM vs. 238 +/- 20 nM, P < 0.01) and peripherally (more intense forearm dermal blanching following overnight topical beclomethasone; 0.56 +/- 0.92 ratio to vehicle vs. 0.82 +/- 0.69, P < 0.05). In summary, in patients with glucose intolerance, cortisol secretion, although normal, is inappropriately high given enhanced central and peripheral sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Normal 11beta-HSD 1 activity in adipose tissue with impaired hepatic conversion of cortisone to cortisol suggests that tissue-specific changes in 11beta-HSD 1 activity in hyperglycemia differ from those in primary obesity but may still be susceptible to pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme to reduce intracellular cortisol concentrations. Thus, altered cortisol action occurs not only in obesity and hypertension but also in glucose intolerance, and could therefore contribute to the link between these multiple cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:12466357

  3. Effects of smoking on ACTH and cortisol secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Seyler, L.E. Jr.; Fertig, J.; Pomerleau, O.; Hunt, D.; Parker, K.

    1984-01-02

    The relationships among changes in plasma nicotine, ACTH, and cortisol secretion after smoking were investigated. Ten male subjects smoked cigarettes containing 2.87 mg nicotine and 0.48 mg nicotine. No rises in cortisol or ACTH were detected after smoking 0.48 mg nicotine cigarettes. Cortisol rises were significant in 11 of 15 instances after smoking 2.87 mg nicotine cigarattes, but ACTH rose significantly in only 5 of the 11 instances where cortisol increased. Each ACTH rise occurred in a subject who reported nausea and was observed to be pale, sweaty, and tachycardic. Peak plasma nicotine concentrations were not significantly different in sessions when cortisol rose with or without ACTH increases, but cortisol increases were significantly greater in nauseated than in non-nauseated smokers. This data suggest that smoking-induced nausea stimulates cortisol release by stimulating ACTH secretion and that cortisol secretion in non-nauseated smokers may occur through a non-ACTH mechanism.

  4. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, K.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Raptis, A. E.; Tsiotra, P.; Lambadiari, V.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ), the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS), and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI). Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0). One year later (T1), the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006 < 0.05) and negative among uncontrolled ones (P value = 0.137). Higher values of cortisol correspond to lower scores on extraversion subscale (rp = ?0.223, P value = 0.010). Controlled diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (rsp = ?0.247, P = 0.023). There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (rsp = ?0.220, P = 0.043). Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:25722989

  5. Erosive oral lichen planus and salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    Rödström, P O; Jontell, M; Hakeberg, M; Berggren, U; Lindstedt, G

    2001-05-01

    Patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) often relate the onset and aggravation of oral symptoms to increased levels of stress. Under normal conditions, stress induces increased cortisol secretion that counteracts inflammatory reactions. The objective of the present study was to assess whether patients with OLP have an impaired capacity to elevate their cortisol concentrations as a response to stress. Saliva samples were collected for cortisol analysis from 10 OLP patients once every 15 min during a 2-h test period. In order to induce stress during a part of this test period, the patients were confronted with a computerised device specifically developed for the induction of transient stress. A visual analogue scale (VAS) and a mood adjective check list (MACL) were used to estimate the degree of permanent stress. A control group of patients was matched for age and sex. The OLP patients did not present with different stress scores when a psychometric test (MACL) was used. No statistically significant correlation between cortisol concentration and stress level was observed. Thus, no support for an impaired capacity of OLP patients to suppress an immune response through cortisol induction in conjunction with experimental stress was revealed. PMID:11334460

  6. Comparison of hormone and electrolyte circadian rhythms in male and female humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. E.; Reilly, T.

    1977-01-01

    Circadian rhythm characteristics in healthy male and female humans were studied at 4-hour intervals for urine volume, cortisol, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), Na, K, Na/K ratios in the urine, as well as plasma cortisol. While plasma and urinary cortisol rhythms were very similar in both sexes, the described rhythms in urine volume, electrolyte, and 5-HIAA excretion differ for the two sexes. The results suggest that sex differences exist in the circadian patterns of important hormone and metabolic functions and that the internal synchrony of circadian rhythms differs for the two sexes. The results seem to indicate that the rhythmical secretion of cortisol does not account for the pattern of Na and K excretion.

  7. The associations between adolescent sleep, diurnal cortisol patterns and cortisol reactivity to dexamethasone suppression test.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Martikainen, Silja; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Lahti, Jari; Strandberg, Timo; Räikkönen, Katri

    2014-11-01

    Information on the associations between objectively measured sleep and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in early adolescence is scarce. We examined associations between average sleep duration and quality (sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset) over 8 days with actigraphs and (1) diurnal cortisol patterns and (2) cortisol reactivity to a low-dose (3 ?g/kg) overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in a birth cohort born in 1998 (N=265 participants, mean age 12.3 years, SD=0.5). We also explored (3) if sleep duration and quality were affected the nights after the DST exposure. Cortisol was measured during 2 days, and participants were exposed to dexamethasone in the evening of first day. In boys, short sleep duration was associated with higher cortisol upon awakening and lower cortisol awakening response (CAR; P<0.05 and P<0.01). Long sleep duration in boys associated with higher CAR (P<0.02). Lower sleep quality in boys associated with lower CAR, but fell slightly short of significance (P<0.06). In girls, no significant associations were detected. Sleep quantity and quality were not associated with responses to the DST. There were no effects of DST on sleep (P>0.15 in between-subject analyses). The average sleep patterns showed associations with diurnal cortisol patterns during early adolescence, but only in boys. Sleep was not associated with cortisol reactivity to DST and the exogenous corticosteroid exposure did not affect sleep significantly. PMID:25086827

  8. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol

  9. Hormone Health Network

    MedlinePLUS

    International Resource Center Online Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living ...

  10. Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home » Hormones and Menopause Heath and Aging Hormones and Menopause What about hormones? How would I ... different story. Cathy wanted more information. What about hormones? Symptoms such as hot flashes might result from ...

  11. Cortisol Levels during the Menopausal Transition and Early Postmenopause: Observations from the Seattle Midlife Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Nancy Fugate; Mitchell, Ellen Sullivan; Smith-DiJulio, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Aims Cortisol levels rise among some women during the late stage of the menopausal transition, but we know little about changes in cortisol levels in relation to menopause-related factors (menopausal transition (MT) stage, urinary estrone glucuronide, testosterone, FSH), stress-related factors (epinephrine, norepinephrine, perceived stress), symptoms (hot flashes, mood, memory and sleep), social factors (income adequacy, role burden, social support, employment, parenting, and history of sexual abuse) and health-related factors (depressed mood, perceived health, physical appraisal, BMI, and smoking). Aims were to examine the influence of menopause-related factors, stress-related factors, symptoms, social, and health-related factors on cortisol levels during the menopausal transition. Methods A subset of Seattle Midlife Women’s Health Study participants who provided data during the late reproductive, early and late MT stages or early postmenopause (PM) and who were not using hormone therapy or corticosteroids (N=132 women, up to 5218 observations) including menstrual calendars for staging the MT, annual health reports, health diaries, and overnight urine specimens (assayed for cortisol, catecholamines, estrone glucuronide and FSH) between 1990 and 2005 were included. Perceived stress, symptoms, and health behaviors were assessed in a health diary. Health-related and social factors were assessed in an annual health update. Multilevel modeling was used to test effects of menopause- related and other factors on overnight cortisol levels. Results When tested with age as a measure of time, menopause-related covariates, including estrone glucuronide (E1G), FSH, and testosterone were associated with significant increases in overnight cortisol levels (p<.0001). Likewise, epinephrine and norepinephrine were each associated significantly with overnight cortisol levels (p<.0001). In multivariate analyses, E1G, FSH, and testosterone constituted the best set of predictors. Conclusions Overnight cortisol levels during the MT were associated with E1G, testosterone, and FSH levels. In addition, they were significantly and positively associated with epinephrine and norepinephrine. MT stage, symptoms, and social, stress-related, and health-related factors had little relationship to overnight cortisol levels when other biological indicators were considered. PMID:19322116

  12. [LED LIGHTING AS A FACTOR FOR THE STIMULATION OF THE HORMONE SYSTEM].

    PubMed

    Deynego, V N; Kaptsov, V A

    2015-01-01

    There are considered questions of non-visual effects of blue LED light sources on hormonal systems (cortisol, glucose, insulin) providing the high human performance. In modern conditions hygiene strategy for child and adolescent health strategy was shown to be replaced by a strategy of light stimulation of the hormonal profile. There was performed a systematic analysis of the axis "light stimulus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenals-cortisol-glucose-insulin". The elevation of the content of cortisol leads to the increase of the glucose level in the blood and the stimulation of the production of insulin, which can, like excessive consumption of food, give rise to irreversible decline in the number of insulin receptors on the cell surface, and thus--to a steady reduction in the ability of cells to utilize glucose, i.e. to type 2 diabetes or its aggravation. PMID:26625615

  13. [Individual typological characteristics of hormonal responses in dogs during psychoemotional stress].

    PubMed

    Shaliapina, V G; Vo?lokova, N L; Suvorov, N F; Rakitskaia, V V

    2001-07-01

    Effects of psycho-emotional stress on contents of steroid hormones in the blood were studied in dogs with different typological properties of the higher nervous activity. Under stress condition, a significant correlation between the cortisol and testosterone levels and the dogs' typological characteristics was found. The more obvious fluctuations in the hormones level occurred in animals with strong and excitable type of the nervous system as compared with dogs belonging to weak and inert type. PMID:11575126

  14. Hormone impostors

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  15. Salivary cortisol profiles in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wood, B; Wessely, S; Papadopoulos, A; Poon, L; Checkley, S

    1998-01-01

    Salivary cortisol profiles (hourly sampling over a 16-hour period) of 10 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) but without concurrent depressive disorder were compared with those of 10 healthy volunteers matched for age, sex and menstrual cycle. The mean saliva cortisol concentration over the 16-hour period was slightly but significantly greater in the patients than the controls (p < 0.05). These findings are at variance with earlier reports that CFS is a hypocortisolaemic state and suggest that in CFS the symptom of fatigue is not caused by hypocortisolaemia. PMID:9438265

  16. Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M.; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W.; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0–12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

  17. Prolonged weightlessness effect on postflight plasma thyroid hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Driscoll, T. B.

    1977-01-01

    Blood drawn before and after spaceflight from the nine Skylab astronauts showed a statistically significant increase in mean plasma thyroxine (T-4) of 1.4 micro g/dl and in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of 4 microunits ml. Concurrent triiodothyronine (T-3) levels decreased 27 ng/dl indicating inhibited conversion of T-4 to T-3. The T-3 decrease is postulated to be a result of the increased cortisol levels noted during and following each mission. These results confirm the thyroidal changes noted after the shorter Apollo flights and show that thyroid hormone levels change during spaceflight.

  18. [Influence of pulsating magnetic field used in magnet therapy and magnet stimulation on cortisol secretion in human].

    PubMed

    Wolda?ska-Oko?ska, Maria; Czernicki, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The aim of our study was to test the influence of magnetic fields during magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation over a longer period of time (like in physiotherapy) on cortisol secretion in humans. The study population was divided into two groups: magnetotherapy group (16 men) and magnetostimulation group (10 men). Magnetotherapy in the form of magnetic field induction (2.9 microT; frequency--40 Hz; square wave; bipolar; Magnetronic MF--10 apparatus) was applied for 20 min to the lumbar area in patients with chronic low back pain. Magnetostimulation (Viofor JPS system; M2P2 program; induction--25-80 microT; frequency--200 Hz, complex saw-like shape with a plateau halfway the height of the wave; bipolar) was applied every day for 12 min in patients with the same health problem. In both groups, the procedures were repeated 15 times (about 10:00 a.m.) with weekend breaks. Serum samples were collected at 6:00, 12:00, 16:00 and 24:00 and estimated by the micromethod of chemiluminescence (DPC Poland; Cat. No. LKC01). The circadian profile of cortisol was determined prior to the application, a day and a month after application. The data were analyzed statistically, using paired and unpaired Student's test. Magnetotherapy affects the cortisol secretion in the circadian profile by decreasing its level at 16:00 a day after 15 applications, whereas magnetostimulation by increasing its level at 12:00 a month after 15 applications, which may suggest its long-term effect on hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The comparison of the results indicated that a day after magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation, the circadian curves of cortisol secretion differed significantly by about 100%. All hormone oscillations did not exceed the physiological norms of the circadian cortisol level, not reaching the level so high as in an intense stress. This suggests rather their controlling effect on the cortisol level than their significant stressogenic nature. PMID:12731402

  19. The hormonal correlates of implicit power motivation Steven J. Stanton a,*, Oliver C. Schultheiss b

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    Commentary The hormonal correlates of implicit power motivation Steven J. Stanton a,*, Oliver C, Durham, NC 27708-0999, USA b Friedrich-Alexander University, Department of Psychology and Sport Sciences Keywords: Implicit power motivation Dominance Aggression Contest Testosterone Estradiol Cortisol

  20. Neuronal correlates of extinction learning are modulated by sex hormones

    PubMed Central

    Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver T.

    2012-01-01

    In emotional learning tasks, sex differences, stress effects and an interaction of these two moderators have often been observed. The sex hormones estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) vary over the menstrual cycle. We tested groups with different sex hormone status: 39 men, 30 women in the luteal phase (LU, high E2+P4) and 29 women taking oral contraceptives (OC, low E2+P4). They received either 30?mg cortisol or placebo prior to instructed differential fear conditioning consisting of neutral conditioned stimuli (CS) and an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). One figure (CS+) was paired with the UCS, the other figure (CS?) never. During extinction, no electrical stimulation was administered. Regarding fear acquisition, results showed higher skin conductance and higher brain responses to the CS+ compared to the CS? in several structures that were not modulated by cortisol or sex hormones. However, OC women exhibited higher CS+/CS? differentiations than men and LU women in the amygdala, thalamus, anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortex during extinction. The suppression of endogenous sex hormones by OC seems to alter neuronal correlates of extinction. The observation that extinction is influenced by the current sex hormone availability is relevant for future studies and might also be clinically important. PMID:21990419

  1. An optimized whole-body cortisol quantification method for assessing stress levels in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chen-Min; Glöck, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids serve important regulatory functions for many physiological processes and are critical mediators of the stress response. The stress response is a set of bodily processes aimed at counteracting a state of threatened homeostasis. Proper stress response is critical for the survival of an animal, however prolonged or abnormal stress response can be detrimental and is implicated in a number of human diseases such as depression and metabolic diseases. To dissect the underlying mechanism of this complex and important response, the zebrafish, Danio rerio offer important advantages such as ease of genetic manipulations and high-throughput behavioral analyses. However, there is a paucity of suitable methods to measure stress level in larval zebrafish. Therefore, an efficient low-cost method to monitor stress hormone levels will greatly facilitate stress research in zebrafish larvae. In this study, we optimized sample collection as well as cortisol extraction methods and developed a home-made ELISA protocol for measuring whole-body cortisol level in zebrafish larvae. Further, using our customized protocols, we characterized the response of larval zebrafish to a variety of stressors. This assay, developed for efficient cortisol quantification, will be useful for systematic and large-scale stress analyses in larval zebrafish. PMID:24223943

  2. An Optimized Whole-Body Cortisol Quantification Method for Assessing Stress Levels in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chen-Min; Glöck, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids serve important regulatory functions for many physiological processes and are critical mediators of the stress response. The stress response is a set of bodily processes aimed at counteracting a state of threatened homeostasis. Proper stress response is critical for the survival of an animal, however prolonged or abnormal stress response can be detrimental and is implicated in a number of human diseases such as depression and metabolic diseases. To dissect the underlying mechanism of this complex and important response, the zebrafish, Danio rerio offer important advantages such as ease of genetic manipulations and high-throughput behavioral analyses. However, there is a paucity of suitable methods to measure stress level in larval zebrafish. Therefore, an efficient low-cost method to monitor stress hormone levels will greatly facilitate stress research in zebrafish larvae. In this study, we optimized sample collection as well as cortisol extraction methods and developed a home-made ELISA protocol for measuring whole-body cortisol level in zebrafish larvae. Further, using our customized protocols, we characterized the response of larval zebrafish to a variety of stressors. This assay, developed for efficient cortisol quantification, will be useful for systematic and large-scale stress analyses in larval zebrafish. PMID:24223943

  3. Salinity effects on plasma ion levels, cortisol, and osmolality in Chinook salmon following lethal sampling.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Heather A; Noakes, David L G; Cogliati, Karen M; Peterson, James T; Iversen, Martin H; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-02-01

    Studies on hydromineral balance in fishes frequently employ measurements of electrolytes following euthanasia. We tested the effects of fresh- or salt-water euthanasia baths of tricaine mesylate (MS-222) on plasma magnesium (Mg(2+)) and sodium (Na(+)) ions, cortisol and osmolality in fish exposed to saltwater challenges, and the ion and steroid hormone fluctuations over time following euthanasia in juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Salinity of the euthanasia bath affected plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) concentrations as well as osmolality, with higher concentrations in fish euthanized in saltwater. Time spent in the bath positively affected plasma Mg(2+) and osmolality, negatively affected cortisol, and had no effect on Na(+) concentrations. The difference of temporal trends in plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) suggests that Mg(2+) may be more sensitive to physiological changes and responds more rapidly than Na(+). When electrolytes and cortisol are measured as endpoints after euthanasia, care needs to be taken relative to time after death and the salinity of the euthanasia bath. PMID:26603557

  4. Cortisol Level and Hemodynamic Changes During Tooth Extraction at Hypertensive and Normotensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Agani, Zana Bajrami; Benedetti, Alberto; Krasniqi, Vjosa Hamiti; Ahmedi, Jehona; Sejfija, Zana; Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Murtezani, Arben; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Ibraimi, Zana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The patients that are subjects to oral-surgical interventions produce large amounts of steroids in comparison with healthy patients which are not a subject to any dental intervention. The aim of research was to determine the level of stress hormone cortisol in serum, arterial blood pressure and arterial pulse, and to compare the effectiveness of the usage of lidocaine with adrenalin in comparison with lidocaine without adrenalin during the tooth extraction. Patients and methods: This clinical research includes patients with indication of tooth extraction divided in hypertensive and normotensive patients. Results: There is no important statistical distinction between groups, for the cortisol levels before, during and after tooth extraction regardless of the type of anesthetic used, while we registered higher values of systolic and diastolic values at hypertensive patients, regardless of the type of anesthetic Conclusion: There is significant systolic and diastolic blood pressure rise in both groups of patients hypertensive and normotensive patients, (regardless of anesthetic used with or without vasoconstrictor), who underwent tooth extraction. The special emphasize is attributed to hypertensive patients where these changes are more significant. As per cortisol level and pulse rate, our results indicate no significant statistical difference in between groups. PMID:26005263

  5. Diurnal cortisol amplitude and fronto-limbic activity in response to stressful stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham-Bussel, Amy C.; Root, James C.; Butler, Tracy; Tuescher, Oliver; Pan, Hong; Epstein, Jane; Weisholtz, Daniel S.; Pavony, Michelle; Silverman, Michael E.; Goldstein, Martin S.; Altemus, Margaret; Cloitre, Marylene; LeDoux, Joseph; McEwen, Bruce; Stern, Emily; Silbersweig, David

    2014-01-01

    Summary The development and exacerbation of many psychiatric and neurologic conditions are associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis as measured by aberrant levels of cortisol secretion. Here we report on the relationship between the amplitude of diurnal cortisol secretion, measured across 3 typical days in 18 healthy individuals, and blood oxygen level dependant (BOLD) response in limbic fear/stress circuits, elicited by in-scanner presentation of emotionally negative stimuli, specifically, images of the World Trade Center (WTC) attack. Results indicate that subjects who secrete a greater amplitude of cortisol diurnally demonstrate less brain activation in limbic regions, including the amygdala and hippocampus/parahippocampus, and hypothalamus during exposure to traumatic WTC-related images. Such initial findings can begin to link our understanding, in humans, of the relationship between the diurnal amplitude of a hormone integral to the stress response, and those neuroanatomical regions that are implicated as both modulating and being modulated by that response. PMID:19135805

  6. Salivary testosterone and cortisol in rugby players: correlation with psychological overtraining items

    PubMed Central

    Maso, F; Lac, G; Filaire, E; Michaux, O; Robert, A

    2004-01-01

    Background: A psychocomportemental questionnaire has been devised by the consensus group of the Société Française de Médecine du Sport to characterise and quantify, using a list of functional and psychocomportemental signs, a state of "staleness", for which no biological indicator is unanimously recognised. Objectives: To determine the relation between this diagnostic method and two hormones (cortisol and testosterone) often used as indicators of a state of fitness or staleness. Methods: The subjects were young rugby players. They were asked to complete the overtraining questionnaire and gave three saliva samples (at 8 am, 11 am, and 5 pm) during a rest day. Concentrations of cortisol and testosterone in the saliva were determined by radioimmunoassay. Results: A preferential relation was found between the questionnaire score and testosterone concentration but not between the questionnaire score and cortisol concentration. Conclusions: The questionnaire may be a useful tool for screening subjects at risk of overtraining. Testosterone concentration is influenced by tiredness, and is therefore a valid marker of tiredness. PMID:15155421

  7. Are we missing a mineralocorticoid in teleost fish? Effects of cortisol, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone on osmoregulation, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and isoform mRNA levels in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Regish, A.; O'Dea, M. F.; Shrimpton, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    It has long been held that cortisol, acting through a single receptor, carries out both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions in teleost fish. The recent finding that fish express a gene with high sequence similarity to the mammalian mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) suggests the possibility that a hormone other than cortisol carries out some mineralocorticoid functions in fish. To test for this possibility, we examined the effect of in vivo cortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and aldosterone on salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA levels of NKA ?1a and ?1b in Atlantic salmon. Cortisol treatment for 6–14 days resulted in increased, physiological levels of cortisol, increased gill NKA activity and improved salinity tolerance (lower plasma chloride after a 24 h seawater challenge), whereas DOC and aldosterone had no effect on either NKA activity or salinity tolerance. NKA ?1a and ?1b mRNA levels, which increase in response to fresh water and seawater acclimation, respectively, were both upregulated by cortisol, whereas DOC and aldosterone were without effect. Cortisol, DOC and aldosterone had no effect on gill glucocorticoid receptor GR1, GR2 and MR mRNA levels, although there was some indication of possible upregulation of GR1 by cortisol (p = 0.07). The putative GR blocker RU486 inhibited cortisol-induced increases in salinity tolerance, NKA activity and NKA ?1a and ?1b transcription, whereas the putative MR blocker spironolactone had no effect. The results provide support that cortisol, and not DOC or aldosterone, is involved in regulating the mineralocorticoid functions of ion uptake and salt secretion in teleost fish.

  8. 45. CORTISOL LEVELS ARE CORRELATED WITH HIPPOCAMPAL

    E-print Network

    of PTSD patients when compared to control subjects in the absence of volume loss. This study focuses NAA in PTSD and control subjects. Methods: Eighteen male patients with combat-related PTSD (mean age by sampling morning salivary cortisol pre and post low dose dexamethasone (0.5mg). PTSD symptoms were assessed

  9. Normal cortisol response to cold pressor test, but lower free thyroxine, after recovery from undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vinicius J B; Neves, Andrea P O; Garcia, Márcia C; Spadari, Regina C; Clemente, Ana Paula G; de Albuquerque, Maria P; Hoffman, Daniel J; Sawaya, Ana L

    2016-01-01

    Undernutrition is a stressor with long-term consequences, and the effect of nutritional recovery on cortisol and thyroid hormone status is unknown. To investigate basal thyroid hormones and the cortisol response to a cold pressor test in children recovered from undernutrition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken on children (6-16 years) separated into four groups: control (n 41), stunted (n 31), underweight (n 27) and recovered (n 31). Salivary cortisol was collected over the course of 10 h: upon awakening, before and after an unpleasant and a pleasant stimulus. Cortisol upon awakening was highest in the stunted and lowest in the underweight groups: control=5·05 (95 % CI 3·71, 6·89) nmol/l, stunted=6·62 (95 % CI 3·97, 11·02) nmol/l, underweight=2·51 (95 % CI 1·75, 3·63) nmol/l and recovered=3·46 (95 % CI 2·46, 4·90) nmol/l (P=0·005). Girls had higher cortisol concentrations upon awakening compared with boys (P=0·021). The undernourished groups showed an elevated cortisol response both to the unpleasant stimulus and at the last measurement (16.00 hours) compared with that of the recovered group: AUC, control=2·07 (95 % CI 1·69, 2·45) nmol/l×30 min, stunted=2·48 (95 % CI 1·91, 3·06) nmol/l×30 min, underweight=2·52 (95 % CI 2·07, 2·97) nmol/l×30 min, recovered=1·68 (95 % CI 1·26, 2·11) nmol/l×30 min (P=0·042); and control=2·03 (95 % CI 1·75, 2·39) nmol/l×30 min, stunted=2·51 (95 % CI 1·97, 3·19) nmol/l×30 min, underweight=2·61 (95 % CI 2·16, 3·16) nmol/l×30 min, recovered=1·70 (95 % CI 1·42, 2·03) nmol/l×30 min (P=0·009). Lower free thyroxine (T4) was found in the recovered and stunted groups: control=1·28 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·39) pmol/l, stunted=0·98 (95 % CI 0·87, 1·10) pmol/l, underweight=1·10 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·21) pmol/l and recovered=0·90 (95 % CI 0·83, 0·99) pmol/l (P<0·001). Multivariate analysis showed a lower cortisol concentration along 10 h (06.00-16.00 hours) in the recovered compared with the other groups (P=0·017), and similar concentrations between the recovered and control group. In conclusion, the children with recovery in weight and height had a cortisol stress response similar to control but a lower basal free T4. Longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the extent of these endocrine changes after recovery of undernutrition and in adulthood. PMID:26525425

  10. Evaluation of cortisol levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva in anxious and non-anxious patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Sangeeta Umesh; Nayak, Dilip G.; Uppoor, Ashita S.; Pai, K. Keshava

    2013-01-01

    Background: To evaluate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and salivary cortisol levels in anxious and non-anxious patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 patients with a mean age 43.4 ± 6.12 years were assigned to three groups: Healthy control group (Group 1), group with chronic periodontitis but no anxiety (Group 2) and group with chronic periodontitis and with anxiety (Group 3). State – Trait anxiety inventory and Hamilton Anxiety rating scale were used to assess the anxiety levels of all the subjects. Clinical measures such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded. GCF and unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected, and cortisol levels were determined using ELISA kit. Results: PI, GI, PPD, and CAL were higher in Group 3. Hormone level was significantly higher in Group 3. A positive correlation was found among salivary and GCF cortisol and CAL in Group 3. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results individuals with high-levels of anxiety seem to be more prone to have periodontal disease. Salivary and GCF cortisol levels can be used as biomarker for evaluating part of the etiopathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. PMID:24130582

  11. Association of Aldosterone and Cortisol with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Prehypertension Stage

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Sadiqa Badar; Qureshi, Masood Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Background. The Pakistani population has higher incidence of cardiovascular (CV) diseases at younger ages, due to undiagnosed, uncontrolled hypertension (HTN). A variety of associated HTN stressors is also reported. The study plans to understand the variables associated with initiation of HTN in this population. Objective. To find plasma aldosterone and cortisol relationship with some CV risk factors (obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, sodium and potassium) in different stages of HTN particularly prehypertension. Subjects and Methods. The study conducted on 276 subjects (25–60 years), classified into prehypertensive (n = 55), HTN stage-1 (n = 70) and II (n = 76) according to 7th JNC report and compared with normotensive controls (n = 75). The anthropometric profiles (height, weight, waist circumference, Body Mass index) and BP recorded. Serum cortisol, aldosterone, total cholesterol, Low density lipoproteins, blood glucose, Na+ and K+, using standard laboratory techniques, were determined in fasting blood samples. Results. Subjects were mostly overweight and obese (80%, 90%, and 76% in pre-HTN, stage-I and II versus 69% in controls). The aldosterone level (ng/dl) was in higher normal range (9.17–12.41) and significantly correlated to BMI (0.587) in controls, and to TC (0.726) and LDL (0.620) in pre-HTN stage-I. The cortisol level was positively correlated (P < 0.01) to BMI (0.538), Na+ (0.690) and K+ (0.578) in control, and to BMI (0.628) and WC (0.679) in pre-HTN group, showing its association with BMI > 25. Conclusion. Pre-HTN stage among Pakistani population with successive increase in various risk factors of HTN in relation to aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. Interaction of the risk factors with endogenous levels of these hormones may initiate stages of HTN. PMID:22957211

  12. Association of aldosterone and cortisol with cardiovascular risk factors in prehypertension stage.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sadiqa Badar; Qureshi, Masood Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Background. The Pakistani population has higher incidence of cardiovascular (CV) diseases at younger ages, due to undiagnosed, uncontrolled hypertension (HTN). A variety of associated HTN stressors is also reported. The study plans to understand the variables associated with initiation of HTN in this population. Objective. To find plasma aldosterone and cortisol relationship with some CV risk factors (obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, sodium and potassium) in different stages of HTN particularly prehypertension. Subjects and Methods. The study conducted on 276 subjects (25-60 years), classified into prehypertensive (n = 55), HTN stage-1 (n = 70) and II (n = 76) according to 7th JNC report and compared with normotensive controls (n = 75). The anthropometric profiles (height, weight, waist circumference, Body Mass index) and BP recorded. Serum cortisol, aldosterone, total cholesterol, Low density lipoproteins, blood glucose, Na(+) and K(+), using standard laboratory techniques, were determined in fasting blood samples. Results. Subjects were mostly overweight and obese (80%, 90%, and 76% in pre-HTN, stage-I and II versus 69% in controls). The aldosterone level (ng/dl) was in higher normal range (9.17-12.41) and significantly correlated to BMI (0.587) in controls, and to TC (0.726) and LDL (0.620) in pre-HTN stage-I. The cortisol level was positively correlated (P < 0.01) to BMI (0.538), Na(+) (0.690) and K(+) (0.578) in control, and to BMI (0.628) and WC (0.679) in pre-HTN group, showing its association with BMI > 25. Conclusion. Pre-HTN stage among Pakistani population with successive increase in various risk factors of HTN in relation to aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. Interaction of the risk factors with endogenous levels of these hormones may initiate stages of HTN. PMID:22957211

  13. Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols.

    PubMed

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Osborne, Mark; Kelly, Vincent G; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the acute response of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to four exercise protocols in 27 elite male rugby players. Each athlete completed four protocols in random order on separate in-season weeks. Two protocols were resistance training based consisting of four exercises (high pull, bench press, squat and chin-ups/prone row): Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 15 repetitions at 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) with 1-minute rest (5 × 15-55%). Protocol 2 consisted of three sets of five repetitions at 85% 1 RM with 2-minute rest (3 × 5-85%). Protocol 3 was a strongman (STRNG) session consisting of three stations within a circuit of exercises that included exercises such as battling ropes, prowler push, farmer's walk and tyre flips. Protocol 4 was based on boxing and wrestling inspired exercises (combative - COMB). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before (PRE) and immediately after exercise (POST). Testosterone did not significantly change as a result of any intervention, whereas cortisol declined and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio increased significantly in both the 5 × 15-55% and 3 × 5-85% protocol. When results were retrospectively grouped and analysed according to the protocol that demonstrated the greatest absolute testosterone response, significant (P < 0.01) increases for the 5 × 15-55%, STRNG and COMB protocols were observed. The individualised hormone response to exercise observed in this study highlights the importance of recognising a protocol-dependent approach to training athletes. Furthermore this study also highlights a potential usefulness of employing STRNG and COMB training protocols as an alternative stimulus to resistance training. PMID:25743223

  14. Elevated cortisol at retrieval suppresses false memories in parallel with correct memories.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ines; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2011-04-01

    Retrieving a memory is a reconstructive process in which encoded representations can be changed and distorted. This process sometimes leads to the generation of "false memories," that is, when people remember events that, in fact, never happened. Such false memories typically represent a kind of "gist" being extracted from single encountered events. The stress hormone cortisol is known to substantially impair memory retrieval. Here, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, we tested the effect of an intravenous cortisol infusion before retrieval testing on the occurrence of false memories and on recall of correct memories using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Subjects studied sets of abstract shapes, with each set being derived from one prototype that was not presented during learning. At retrieval taking place 9 hr after learning, subjects were presented with studied shapes, nonstudied shapes, and the prototypes, and had to indicate whether or not each shape had been presented at learning. Cortisol administration distinctly reduced susceptibility to false memories (i.e., false recognition of prototypes) and, in parallel, impaired retrieval of correct memories (i.e., correct recognition of studied shapes). Response bias as well as confidence ratings and remember/know/guess judgments were not affected. Our results support gist-based theories of false memory generation, assuming a simultaneous storage of the gist and specific details of an event. Cortisol, by a general impairing influence on retrieval operations, decreases, in parallel, retrieval of false (i.e., gist) and correct (i.e., specific) memories for the event. PMID:20465357

  15. A day-centered approach to modeling cortisol: diurnal cortisol profiles and their associations among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, Natalia O; Almeida, David M; Dmitrieva, Julia; Loken, Eric; Pieper, Carl F

    2013-10-01

    Diurnal cortisol is a marker of HPA-axis activity that may be one of the biological mechanisms linking stressors to age-related health declines. The current study identified day-centered profiles of diurnal cortisol among 1101 adults living in the United States. Participants took part in up to four consecutive days of salivary cortisol collection, assessed at waking, 30min post-waking, before lunch, and before bedtime. Growth mixture modeling with latent time basis was used to estimate common within-day trajectories of diurnal cortisol among 2894 cortisol days. The 3-class solution provided the best model fit, showing that the majority of study days (73%) were characterized by a Normative cortisol pattern, with a robust cortisol awakening response (CAR), a steep negative diurnal slope, coupled with low awakening and bedtime levels. Relative to this profile, diurnal cortisol on the remainder of days appeared either elevated throughout the day (20% of days) or flattened (7% of days). Relative to the normative trajectory, the elevated trajectory was distinguished by a higher morning cortisol level, whereas the flattened trajectory was characterized by a high bedtime level, with weaker CAR and diurnal slope parameters. Relative to the normative profile, elevated profile membership was associated with older age and cigarette smoking. Greater likelihood of the flattened cortisol pattern was observed among participants who were older, male, smoked cigarettes, used medications that are known to affect cortisol output, and reported poorer health. The current study demonstrates the value of a day-centered growth mixture modeling approach to the study of diurnal cortisol, showing that deviations from the classic robust rhythm of diurnal cortisol are associated with older age, male sex, use of medications previously shown to affect cortisol levels, poorer health behaviors, and poorer self-reported health. PMID:23770247

  16. Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

  17. Cortisol and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wiel, Nicolle M.H.; van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Matthys, Walter; Snoek, Heddeke; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Basal cortisol and cortisol stress responsivity are valuable biological characteristics of children with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). In this study, the predictive value of cortisol to outcome of intervention was investigated. Method: Basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels under stress were studied in 22 children with DBD…

  18. Hormonal changes associated with the transition between nursing and natural fasting in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Houser, Dorian S.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    To better interpret previously described hormonal changes observed during the natural postweaning fast (2-3 months) endured by pups of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), we compared plasma cortisol, thyroid hormones, and leptin in pups (n=5) measured during nursing and fasting periods. Blood samples were taken at four times; early (9 days postpartum) and late (18-22 days postpartum) nursing, and early (second week postweaning) and late (eighth week postweaning) fasting. Plasma cortisol increased 39% between early and late nursing and almost 4-fold by late fasting. After the early nursing period, cortisol and body mass were negatively correlated (y=28.3-0.19 x; R=0.569; p=0.027). Total thyroxine (tT(4)), free T(4) (fT(4)), total triiodothyronine (tT3) and reverse T(3) (rT(3)) were greatest at early nursing and reduced by late nursing and remained so throughout the fast, with the exception of tT(4), which increased between late nursing (17.7+/-2.1 ng mL(-1)) and late fasting (30.1+/-2.8 ng mL(-1)) periods. Leptin remained unaltered among the four sampling periods and was not correlated with body mass. Pups appear to exhibit a shift in the relationship between cortisol and body mass suggesting a potential role for cortisol in the regulation of body fat. The higher concentrations of tT(3) and tT(4) during early nursing may reflect enhanced growth and development during this period, however the increase late in fasting is likely physiologically insignificant and an artifact of reduced metabolic clearance of these hormones. Transition of the pups from nursing to fasting states is characterized by a striking lack of change in cortisol, thyroid hormones, and leptin suggesting that any metabolic alterations associated with this transition may occur independent of these hormones.

  19. cAMP signaling in cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Calebiro, Davide; Di Dalmazi, Guido; Bathon, Kerstin; Ronchi, Cristina L; Beuschlein, Felix

    2015-10-01

    The cAMP signaling pathway is one of the major players in the regulation of growth and hormonal secretion in adrenocortical cells. Although its role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical hyperplasia associated with Cushing's syndrome has been clarified, a clear involvement of the cAMP signaling pathway and of one of its major downstream effectors, the protein kinase A (PKA), in sporadic adrenocortical adenomas remained elusive until recently. During the last year, a report by our group and three additional independent groups showed that somatic mutations of PRKACA, the gene coding for the catalytic subunit ? of PKA, are a common genetic alteration in patients with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal adenomas, occurring in 35-65% of the patients. In vitro studies revealed that those mutations are able to disrupt the association between catalytic and regulatory subunits of PKA, leading to a cAMP-independent activity of the enzyme. Despite somatic PRKACA mutations being a common finding in patients with clinically manifest Cushing's syndrome, the pathogenesis of adrenocortical adenomas associated with subclinical hypercortisolism seems to rely on a different molecular background. In this review, the role of cAMP/PKA signaling in the regulation of adrenocortical cell function and its alterations in cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas will be summarized, with particular focus on recent developments. PMID:26139209

  20. Stronger Pharmacological Cortisol Suppression and Anticipatory Cortisol Stress Response in Transient Global Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Griebe, Martin; Nees, Frauke; Gerber, Benjamin; Ebert, Anne; Flor, Herta; Wolf, Oliver T.; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G.; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24?h. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence, it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure) in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress, and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p?=?0.027). The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p?=?0.008 and 0.010 respectively), as well as prior to and after the control condition (p?=?0.022 and 0.024, respectively). The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p?=?0.021) and anxiety (p?=?0.007), but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA. PMID:25805980

  1. Predictors of anticipatory cortisol reactivity to subsequent stressors.

    PubMed

    Turan, Bulent

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the nature, predictors, and consequences of anticipatory biological stress responses are important in understanding long-term effects of repeated stressors. We examined anticipatory cortisol responses after an individual has actually experienced and reacted to a stressor once and is anticipating a second similar stressor. We hypothesized that how an individual reacts to the first stressor may predict that individual's anticipatory responses to further stressors. In Session 1, 77 male participants delivered speeches and performed arithmetic tasks in front of two evaluators. In Session 2 one week later, participants were told that they would do the same tasks again in front of evaluators. Stress cortisol reactivity in Session 1 (increase in cortisol from pre-stressor to post-stressor) predicted anticipatory cortisol reactivity in Session 2 (increase in cortisol from baseline to immediately pre-stressor). In addition, trait measures of low self-esteem and a "Submissive and Disconnected" interpersonal orientation predicted stronger anticipatory cortisol reactivity in Session 2. If the cortisol response to an initial stressor does in fact shape consequent anticipatory cortisol responses, this self-perpetuating nature of the initial cortisol response may contribute to negative long-term effects of repeated stressors on health. One factor that may be able to counteract this effect is a dominant and confident interpersonal orientation, which may lead to lower anticipatory cortisol reactions regardless of the response to the initial stressor. PMID:26071396

  2. Multiple aberrant hormone receptors in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    El Ghorayeb, Nada; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Lacroix, André

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms regulating cortisol production when ACTH of pituitary origin is suppressed in primary adrenal causes of Cushing's syndrome (CS) include diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. These can lead either to constitutive activation of the cAMP system and steroidogenesis or to its regulation exerted by the aberrant adrenal expression of several hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) and their ligands. Screening for aberrant expression of GPCR in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) and unilateral adrenal tumors of patients with overt or subclinical CS demonstrates the frequent co-expression of several receptors. Aberrant hormone receptors can also exert their activity by regulating the paracrine secretion of ACTH or other ligands for those receptors in BMAH or unilateral tumors. The aberrant expression of hormone receptors is not limited to adrenal CS but can be implicated in other endocrine tumors including primary aldosteronism and Cushing's disease. Targeted therapies to block the aberrant receptors or their ligands could become useful in the future. PMID:25971648

  3. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Responses Require Actions of the Melanocortin-2 Receptor Accessory Protein on the Extracellular Surface of the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sundeep; Dolan, Terrance M; Maben, Zachary J; Hinkle, Patricia M

    2015-11-13

    The melanocortin-2 (MC2) receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates responses to ACTH. The MC2 receptor acts in concert with the MC2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) that is absolutely required for ACTH binding and signaling. MRAP has a single transmembrane domain and forms a highly unusual antiparallel homodimer that is stably associated with MC2 receptors at the plasma membrane. Despite the physiological importance of the interaction between the MC2 receptor and MRAP, there is little understanding of how the accessory protein works. The dual topology of MRAP has made it impossible to determine whether highly conserved and necessary regions of MRAP are required on the intracellular or extracellular face of the plasma membrane. The strategy used here was to fix the orientation of two antiparallel MRAP molecules and then introduce inactivating mutations on one side of the membrane or the other. This was achieved by engineering proteins containing tandem copies of MRAP fused to the amino terminus of the MC2 receptor. The data firmly establish that only the extracellular amino terminus (Nout) copy of MRAP, oriented with critical segments on the extracellular side of the membrane, is essential. The transmembrane domain of MRAP is also required in only the Nout orientation. Finally, activity of MRAP-MRAP-MC2-receptor fusion proteins with inactivating mutations in either MRAP or the receptor was rescued by co-expression of free wild-type MRAP or free wild-type receptor. These results show that the basic MRAP-MRAP-receptor signaling unit forms higher order complexes and that these multimers signal. PMID:26424796

  4. Multivariate Statistical Analysis as a Supplementary Tool for Interpretation of Variations in Salivary Cortisol Level in Women with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dziurkowska, Ewelina; Wesolowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is widely used in medical studies as a profitable tool facilitating diagnosis of some diseases, for instance, cancer, allergy, pneumonia, or Alzheimer's and psychiatric diseases. Taking this in consideration, the aim of this study was to use two multivariate techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to disclose the relationship between the drugs used in the therapy of major depressive disorder and the salivary cortisol level and the period of hospitalization. The cortisol contents in saliva of depressed women were quantified by HPLC with UV detection day-to-day during the whole period of hospitalization. A data set with 16 variables (e.g., the patients' age, multiplicity and period of hospitalization, initial and final cortisol level, highest and lowest hormone level, mean contents, and medians) characterizing 97 subjects was used for HCA and PCA calculations. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals that various groups of antidepressants affect at the varying degree the salivary cortisol level. The SSRIs, SNRIs, and the polypragmasy reduce most effectively the hormone secretion. Thus, both unsupervised pattern recognition methods, HCA and PCA, can be used as complementary tools for interpretation of the results obtained by laboratory diagnostic methods. PMID:26380376

  5. The cortisol and androgen pathways cross talk in high temperature-induced masculinization: the 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase as a key enzyme.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Juan Ignacio; Hattori, Ricardo Shohei; Kishii, Ai; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel

    2012-12-01

    In many ectotherm species the gonadal fate is modulated by temperature early in life [temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD)] but the transducer mechanism between temperature and gonadal differentiation is still elusive. We have recently shown that cortisol, the glucocorticoid stress-related hormone in vertebrates, is involved in the TSD process of pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis. Particularly, all larvae exposed to a male-producing temperature (MPT, 29 C) after hatching showed increased whole-body cortisol and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT; the main bioactive androgen in fish) levels and developed as males. Moreover, cortisol administration at an intermediate, mixed sex-producing temperature (MixPT, 24 C) caused increases in 11-KT and in the frequency of males, suggesting a relation between this glucocorticoid and androgens during the masculinization process. In order to clarify the link between stress and masculinization, the expression of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd)11b2, glucocorticoid receptors gr1 and gr2, and androgen receptors ar1 and ar2 was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR and in situ hybridization in larvae reared at MPT, MixPT, and female-producing temperature (FPT, 17 C) during the sex determination period. We also analyzed the effects of cortisol treatment in larvae reared at MixPT and in adult testicular explants incubated in vitro. MPT and cortisol treatment produced significant increases in hsd11b2 mRNA expression. Also, gonadal explants incubated in the presence of cortisol showed increases of 11-KT levels in the medium. Taken together these results suggest that cortisol promotes 11-KT production during high temperature-induced masculinization by modulation of hsd11b2 expression and thus drives the morphogenesis of the testes. PMID:23041673

  6. Cortisol-Induced Masculinization: Does Thermal Stress Affect Gonadal Fate in Pejerrey, a Teleost Fish with Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination?

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Ricardo S.; Fernandino, Juan I.; Kishii, Ai; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kinno, Tomomi; Oura, Miho; Somoza, Gustavo M.; Yokota, Masashi; Strüssmann, Carlos A.; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Background Gonadal fate in many reptiles, fish, and amphibians is modulated by the temperature experienced during a critical period early in life (temperature-dependent sex determination; TSD). Several molecular processes involved in TSD have been described but how the animals “sense” environmental temperature remains unknown. We examined whether the stress-related hormone cortisol mediates between temperature and sex differentiation of pejerrey, a gonochoristic teleost fish with marked TSD, and the possibility that it involves glucocorticoid receptor- and/or steroid biosynthesis-modulation. Methodology/Principal Findings Larvae maintained during the period of gonadal sex differentiation at a masculinizing temperature (29°C; 100% males) consistently had higher cortisol, 11-ketotestoterone (11-KT), and testosterone (T) titres than those at a feminizing temperature (17°C; 100% females). Cortisol-treated animals had elevated 11-KT and T, and showed a typical molecular signature of masculinization including amh upregulation, cyp19a1a downregulation, and higher incidence of gonadal apoptosis during sex differentiation. Administration of cortisol and a non-metabolizable glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist (Dexamethasone) to larvae at a “sexually neutral” temperature (24°C) caused significant increases in the proportion of males. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest a role of cortisol in the masculinization of pejerrey and provide a possible link between stress and testicular differentiation in this gonochoristic TSD species. Cortisol role or roles during TSD of pejerrey seem(s) to involve both androgen biosynthesis- and GR-mediated processes. These findings and recent reports of cortisol effects on sex determination of sequential hermaphroditic fishes, TSD reptiles, and birds provide support to the notion that stress responses might be involved in various forms of environmental sex determination. PMID:19662094

  7. Morphological and molecular effects of cortisol and ACTH on zebrafish stage I and II follicles.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Lígia; Figueiredo, Francisco; Pinheiro, Catarina; Silva, Ana; Malhão, Fernanda; Rocha, Maria João; Rocha, Eduardo; Urbatzka, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Oogenesis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) is controlled by the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and reproductive hormones. In addition, an interference of stress hormones is known with reproductive biology. In the presented work, we aimed to explore the hypothesis that cortisol (Cort) and ACTH may affect early oogenesis in zebrafish, given the presence of the specific receptors for glucocorticoids and ACTH in the zebrafish ovary. Follicles at stages I and II were exposed in vitro to 1 ??M Cort and ACTH for 48 h, then ultrastructural and molecular effects were analyzed. The comet assay demonstrated increased tail moments for Cort and ACTH treatment indicative of DNA damage. The mRNA expression of apoptotic genes (bax, bcl-2) was not altered by both treatments, but Cort increased significantly the expression of the ACTH receptor (mc2r). Cort stimulated the presence of the endoplasmic reticulum, predominantly at stage II, while ACTH induced a strong vacuolization. Viability of oocytes was not affected by both treatments and fluorescent staining (monodansylcadaverine/acridine orange) indicated a reduced quantity of autophagosomes for ACTH, and lower presence of nucleic acids in ooplasm for Cort and ACTH. Concluding, different responses were observed for stress hormones on early stages of zebrafish oocytes, which suggest a role for both hormones in the stress-mediated adverse effects on female gametogenesis. PMID:26316549

  8. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  9. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Giving Workplace Giving Other Ways to Donate Thyroid Hormone Treatment Thyroid hormone is used in two situations: ... prevent recurrence or progression of their cancer. THYROID HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY Many people have a thyroid gland ...

  10. Hypothalamus hormone production (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that produces the "controlling" hormones. These hormones regulate body processes such as metabolism, and control the release of hormones from glands like the thyroid, the adrenals and the gonads (testes or ovaries).

  11. Use of Salivary Cortisol Measurements in Young Infants: A Note of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnano, Catherine L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Findings indicate that high cortisol levels and interfering substances in formula and breast milk could contaminate salivary cortisol measurements in young infants. To insure accurate results, appropriate controls should be taken for salivary cortisol measurements of young infants. (RH)

  12. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an ?0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed ?1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use four examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i) a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii) two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii) an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications. PMID:26321898

  13. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass. PMID:12530732

  14. Serum cortisol concentrations in horses with colic.

    PubMed

    Mair, T S; Sherlock, C E; Boden, L A

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated cortisol concentrations in horses with colic. In humans with septic shock, high cortisol levels are associated with an increased risk of death. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum total cortisol concentrations (STCCs) in horses with colic to those without colic, and to assess whether the STCC relates to the pathological nature or outcome of the disease. STCCs were determined at presentation in horses with colic and in systemically healthy 'control' horses. Horses with colic were grouped based on clinical and clinico-pathological parameters at admission, treatment, lesion type and location, and outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed using two different outcome measures: (a) whether the horse had colic or not (yes vs. no), and (b) horse STCC (?200?nmol/L vs.?<200?nmol/L). Horses were more likely to have colic if they presented with high STCCs (?200?nmol/L compared with <200?nmol/L). Horses with colic and with STCCs??200nmol/L were more likely to have moderate or severe colic signs (compared with mild colic) and heart rates?>45 beats per min (compared with ?45 beats per min). It was concluded that colic in horses is associated with elevated STCCs, and increased STCC in horses with colic appears to relate to the severity of the disease. STCCs may provide additional decision-making and prognostic information in horses with colic but further studies are required to avoid misinterpretations associated with the wide variation in STCCs. PMID:24986316

  15. Relationship between midweek training measures of testosterone and cortisol concentrations and game outcome in professional rugby union matches.

    PubMed

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Cook, Christian J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response of salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations across selected midweek skill-based training sessions and their association with subsequent match outcome 3 days later. Twenty-two rugby union players were assessed for salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations before and after a midweek training session over 6 consecutive weeks. The relative percentage change (response) in the testosterone and cortisol concentration and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio was also determined. Game-day analysis consisted of prematch testosterone concentrations and match outcome. Data were pooled across the winning (n = 3) and losing (n = 3) outcomes. The midweek pretraining T/C ratio was significantly lower (p < 0.01) before a win than a loss and the increase in the pre- to post-T/C ratio before a win was significant (p < 0.001). The increase in the pre- to post-testosterone concentration before a win was also shown to be significant (p < 0.01). However, the relative changes in testosterone before games that were won were not statistically different to that of games lost (p > 0.01). Significant relationships were also demonstrated between game-day pre-testosterone concentrations and the midweek cortisol response (r = -0.90, p = 0.01) and midweek T/C ratio response (r = 0.90, p = 0.01). In conclusion, a midweek measurement of the T/C ratio against a skill-based training session seems to show some potential as an early indicator of subsequent successfully executed performances in competitive rugby union. If this work is subsequently validated, further monitoring of midweek hormone concentrations in response to a mixed psychological-physical training session may assist with assessing competitive readiness leading up to competition. PMID:24936894

  16. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears

    PubMed Central

    Bechshøft, TØ; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3–19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled 1994–2006. Hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. Samples were categorized according to contamination: Eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p = 0.81) or sampling year (p = 0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p = 0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. PMID:21144554

  17. Association of depressiveness with blunted growth hormone response to maximal physical exercise in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Harro, J; Rimm, H; Harro, M; Grauberg, M; Karelson, K; Viru, A M

    1999-07-01

    Blunted response of growth hormone secretion to several pharmacological challenges is present in depression, but much less is known about the relationship of depression and secretion of growth hormone elicited by physiological stimuli. Furthermore, it is not known whether blunted growth hormone response occurs in depressiveness as measured with psychometric scales. A total of 82 healthy male volunteers (age 18-26 years) exercised on a bicycle ergometer with incremental load to achieve their maximal performance. Before exercise, subjects filled in approbated versions of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Scale, Cohens Perceived Stress Scale, and Schwartzers Self-Efficacy Scale. Blood samples were collected before and after exercise, and growth hormone, cortisol, and testosterone were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Median perceived stress score of the subjects was identical to our population-based database median value, but the subjects had higher self-efficacy and lower depressiveness as shown by median values. In the majority of subjects, physical exercise induced remarkable increases in blood levels of the hormones. Cortisol and testosterone levels were not associated with the scores of psychometric scales. However, growth hormone response was virtually absent in high scorers (above median population score, n = 24) in BDI total score and the negative attitude subcomponent. Hence, this study demonstrates that growth hormone response to physiological stimuli is reduced in psychometrically measured depressiveness. PMID:10378238

  18. Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxin and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via ..beta..-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents.

  19. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

    PubMed Central

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3?m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1?kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7?d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (?5~6?MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-?, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-? and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05). PMID:26075039

  20. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 124 (1999) 329334 Modulation of stress hormones in rainbow trout by means of

    E-print Network

    Demers, Nora Egan

    1999-01-01

    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 124 (1999) 329­334 Modulation of stress hormones animals. Yet, in research on effects of acute stress, elicitation of such responses must be minimized (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Level of arousal was determined by adrenaline and cortisol concentrations in plasma

  1. The hormonal costs of subtle forms of infant maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Martorell, Gabriela A; Barraza, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    We show here that subtle forms of maltreatment during infancy (below 1 year of age) have potential consequences for the functioning of the child's adrenocortical response system. Infants who received frequent corporal punishment (e.g., spanking) showed high hormonal reactivity to stress (a repeated separation from mother, combined with the presence of a stranger). In addition, infants who experienced frequent emotional withdrawal by their mothers (either as a result of maternal depression, or mother's strategic use of withdrawal as a control tactic) showed elevated baseline levels of cortisol. It was suggested that there are hormonal "costs" when mothers show response patterns (intentionally or unintentionally) that limit their utility as a means of buffering the child against stress. The hormonal responses shown by infants may alter the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in ways that, if continued, may foster risk for immune disorders, sensitization to later stress, cognitive deficits, and social-emotional problems. PMID:12614655

  2. Twenty-four-hour profiles of metabolic and stress hormones in sheep selected for a calm or nervous temperament.

    PubMed

    Rietema, S E; Blackberry, M A; Maloney, S K; Martin, G B; Hawken, P A R; Blache, D

    2015-10-01

    Even in the absence of stressors, temperament is associated with changes in the concentration of stress-responsive hormones and, possibly because of such changes, temperament can affect metabolism. We tested whether, in sheep bred for temperament for 14 generations, "nervous" females have greater concentrations of stress-responsive hormones in the absence of stressors than "calm" females, and whether these differences are associated with changes in the concentrations of metabolic hormones. In resting "calm" (n = 8) and "nervous" (n = 8) sheep, concentrations of cortisol, prolactin, leptin, and insulin were measured in blood plasma sampled via jugular catheter every 20 min for 24 h. The animals were individually penned, habituated to their housing and human handling over 7 wk, and fed before sampling began. Diurnal variation was evident for all hormones, but a 24-h cortisol pattern was detected in only 7 individuals. There was no effect of temperament on any aspect of concentrations of cortisol or prolactin, but "calm" animals had greater concentrations of insulin in the early afternoon than "nervous" animals (14.5 ± 1.1 vs 10.0 ± 1.6 ?U/mL; P = 0.038), and a similar tendency was seen for leptin (P = 0.092). We conclude that selection for temperament affects the concentration of metabolic hormones in the absence of stressors, but this effect is independent of stress-responsive hormones. PMID:26143303

  3. Chemical processing and shampooing impact cortisol measured in human hair

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, M. Camille; Karban, Laura V.; Benitez, Patrick; Goodteacher, Angela; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The assessment of cortisol in hair has gained popularity as a means to measure retrospective hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a number of species; however, cortisol levels from human hair subjected to typical chemicals for cosmetic or hygienic purposes may be altered by the chemicals used. The purposed of this study was to determine if exposure of hair to chemical processing or shampooing impacts cortisol values. Methods Human hair not exposed to prior chemical processing was cut from the posterior vertex region of the head of 106 human subjects as close to the scalp as possible. The hair sample was divided into 4-6 full-length clusters depending on quantity of hair available. Each hair sample was processed for baseline (native) cortisol and remaining clusters were exposed to five standard chemical hair treatments (Experiment 1) or were shampooed 15 or 30 times (Experiment 2). Hair was ground and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Comparisons were made between native hair and processed hair using paired t-tests and Pearson correlation. Results Hair cortisol as assessed by EIA was significantly altered by chemical processing but in somewhat different ways. Exposure to bleach (harshest exposure), demi-perm (least exposure) or 15-30 shampoos resulted in a significant decrease in cortisol level while exposure to varying percentages of peroxides increased cortisol measured. There were no differences in cortisol levels associated with sex, age or tobacco use in the native hair for this particular group. Conclusion Chemical processing and frequent shampooing affect cortisol levels measured in hair. Chemically processed or excessively shampooed hair should be avoided when recruiting subjects for hair cortisol studies. PMID:25090265

  4. Hormones as “difference makers” in cognitive and socioemotional aging processes

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Kamin, Hayley; Diaz, Vanessa; Cohen, Ronald A.; MacDonald, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems—cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin—as “difference makers” in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: (1) examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; (2) exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and (3) considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions. PMID:25657633

  5. Relative adrenal insufficiency as a predictor of disease severity and mortality in severe septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Dalegrave, Daniele; Silva, Rafael Lockshin; Becker, Maicon; Gehrke, Lísia Varella; Friedman, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if cortisol responses to 250 µg of intravenously administered adrenocorticotropic hormone are related to disease severity and, hence, mortality. Methods This is a retrospective study in a medical-surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. We studied 69 consecutive patients with septic shock over a 1-yr period; these patients underwent a short 250-µg adrenocorticotropic hormone test because they exhibited >6 hours of progressive hemodynamic instability requiring repeated fluid challenges and vasopressor treatment to maintain blood pressure. The test was performed by intravenously injecting 250 µg of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone and measuring cortisol immediately before injection, 30 minutes post-injection and 60 minutes post-injection. Results The mean APACHE II score was 22±7. The intensive care unit mortality rate at day 28 was 55%. Median baseline cortisol levels (19 [11-27] µg/dL versus 24 [18-34] µg/dL, p=0.047) and median baseline cortisol/albumin ratios (7.6 [4.6-12.3] versus 13.9 [8.8-18.5]; p=0.01) were lower in survivors than in non-survivors. Responders and non-responders had similar baseline clinical data and outcomes. The variables that were significantly correlated with outcome based on the area under the ROC curves (AUC) were APACHE II (AUC=0.67 [0.535 to 0.781]), baseline cortisol (µg/dl) (AUC=0.662 [0.536 to 0.773], peak cortisol (µg/dl) (AUC=0.642 [0.515 to 0.755]) and baseline cortisol/albumin (AUC=0.75 [0.621 to 0.849]). Conclusions Increased basal cortisol is associated with mortality and disease severity. Cortisol responses upon adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation were not related to outcome. The cortisol/albumin ratio does not predict unfavorable outcomes better than total cortisol levels or help to improve the accuracy of the adrenocorticotropic hormone test. PMID:23917934

  6. Cortisol and Politics: Variance in Voting Behavior is Predicted by Baseline Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Kevin B.; Alford, John R.; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K.; Hibbing, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  7. [Hormonal dysnatremia].

    PubMed

    Karaca, P; Desailloud, R

    2013-10-01

    Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. PMID:24356291

  8. Cortisol Release in Infants in Response to Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Thomas, David

    1990-01-01

    Data provide strong evidence that studies of stress and cortisol release in infants must take into account basal level, circadian rhythm, and behavioral effects and employ appropriate statistical procedures. Participants were infants of two, four, and six months of age from whom salivary cortisol was obtained before and 15 minutes after an…

  9. Assessing Salivary Cortisol in Studies of Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Eve B.; Granger, Douglas A.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Laird, Brandi

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated the susceptibility of radioimmunoassays (RIA) for saliva cortisol to interference effects caused by oral stimulants (drink mix crystals) used to facilitate saliva collection in studies with children. Found that oral stimulants artificially inflated estimated cortisol concentrations, with the magnitude of the interference-effect…

  10. Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…

  11. Diurnal cortisol rhythm and fatigue in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Bower, Julienne E; Ganz, Patricia A; Dickerson, Sally S; Petersen, Laura; Aziz, Najib; Fahey, John L

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 30% of breast cancer survivors report persistent fatigue of unknown origin. We have previously shown that cancer-related fatigue is associated with alterations in immunological parameters and serum cortisol levels in breast cancer survivors. The current study examined the diurnal rhythm of salivary cortisol in fatigued and non-fatigued breast cancer survivors. Salivary cortisol measures were obtained from breast cancer survivors with persistent fatigue (n=13) and a control group of non-fatigued survivors (n=16). Participants collected saliva samples upon awakening and at 1200, 1700, and 2200 h on two consecutive days. Diurnal cortisol slope for each day was determined by linear regression of log-transformed cortisol values on collection time and analyzed using multi-level modeling. Fatigued breast cancer survivors had a significantly flatter cortisol slope than non-fatigued survivors, with a less rapid decline in cortisol levels in the evening hours. At the individual patient level, survivors who reported the highest levels of fatigue also had the flattest cortisol slopes. Group differences remained significant in analyses controlling for demographic and medical factors, daily health behaviors, and other potential confounds (e.g. depressed mood, body mass index). Results suggest a subtle dysregulation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning in breast cancer survivors with persistent fatigue. PMID:15358446

  12. The impact of digestive and colon drugs on the human hormones profile.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Emad F; Abd-Rabou, Ahmed A; Ahmed, Hanaa H

    2013-10-01

    Hormones play an important role in the digestive system. The main hormones that control digestion are gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin. Herein, the current study is concerned with assessing the effect of spasmo canulase and librax drugs on the human hormones profile. Blood samples were withdrawn from adult patients to measure serum FSH, E2, LH, prolactin, progesterone, DHEAS, testosterone, TSH, T3, T4, fasting insulin, and cortisol. All hormone concentrations were determined quantitatively using ELISA procedure. Intriguingly, the present study showed putative changes including thyroid and sex hormonal profiles. Eventually, we concluded that the prospective study could be important in drug dose optimization and providing new medical guidelines to avoid side effects that could harm patients. PMID:24426246

  13. Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS Hormone assays Oliver: Schultheiss, O. C., Schiepe, A., & Rawolle, M. (2012). Hormone assays. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long Association. #12;Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 2 Hormone assays Hormones can be assayed from

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Salivary Cortisol Using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol is one of the most important glucocorticoids and plays important roles in regulating human metabolism. Midnight salivary cortisol has been shown to correlate well with free cortisol concentration in serum and is one of the first tests recommended for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.The procedure described here involves centrifugation of the saliva samples to remove solids and mucus strands before they are diluted with buffer and mixed with deuterated internal standard D4-cortisol. The samples are then subjected to reverse phase separation on a C18 column and analyzed by a tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS). Quantification is achieved by comparing the responses of a given sample to the responses of the calibrators of known concentrations. The calibrators are prepared and analyzed along with the patient samples. Analytical specificity is ensured by using multiple reaction monitoring with fragment ions that are unique to cortisol and deuterated internal standard. PMID:26602119

  15. Early hormonal changes affect the catabolic response to trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, P Q; Lowe, K A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine how temporary insulin suppression might alter the catabolic effects of cortisol, glucagon, and epinephrine. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The metabolic responses to injury include hypermetabolism, accelerated net skeletal muscle protein breakdown, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. These alterations are associated with increased stress hormone concentrations. Insulin elaboration is usually suppressed immediately after an injury but is abundant later during convalescence. An infusion of hydrocortisone, glucagon, and epinephrine increases both stress hormone concentrations and insulin levels. It induces many of the metabolic alterations seen in critically ill patients, but it does not affect net muscle breakdown. METHODS: Seven healthy adults received a stress hormone infusion for 3 days in two separate studies. During one study they, also received an infusion of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide (0.005 micrograms/kg/min), to suppress insulin elaboration for the first 24 hours. During the other study (control), insulin was permitted to rise unchecked. RESULTS: Stress hormone concentrations, hypermetabolism (+/- 20% above basal), and leukocytosis were similar during both study periods. When insulin elaboration was temporarily suppressed, whole-body nitrogen loss was increased during the first 48 hours, and the efflux of amino acids from the forearm after 72 hours of infusion was 60% greater than the control level. CONCLUSIONS: Temporary insulin suppression during physiologic increases in stress hormone concentrations amplified whole-body nitrogen loss and led to the development of accelerated net skeletal muscle protein breakdown. Early hormonal changes after an injury may affect the development of later catabolic responses. PMID:8215639

  16. Salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A responses to simulated and official Jiu-Jitsu matches.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Alexandre; Franchini, Emerson; de Freitas, Camila Gobo; Schultz de Arruda, Ademir F; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the salivary cortisol (sC) and the salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) responses to simulated and official Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) matches. Saliva samples were collected from 9 male BJJ athletes before (pre) and after (post) 2 simulated matches (SMs) and 2 official matches (OMs) performed during 2 different competitions. Salivary cortisol and sIgA concentrations (absolute concentration of sIgA [sIgAabs] and the secretion rate of sIgA [sIgArate]) were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For sC, there was an effect of condition (SM vs. OM) (p < 0.05) and a time effect (pre and post) (p < 0.05). The sC was lower during SMs as compared with that during OMs and lower at premeasurement when compared with postmeasurement. No changes were observed for sIgA measurements. In summary, both SMs and official BJJ matches can increase sC levels. Moreover, the higher sC resting levels, observed before OMs, suggest that psychological factors associated with high physical-physiological demands from official BJJ competitions maximize stress hormone responses. In addition, the present findings suggest that the acute effect of BJJ matches on mucosal immunity is minimal, and it seems unlikely that changes in cortisol play a major role in the alterations in sIgA levels in response to BJJ matches. The findings of this study suggest that the use of sC can provide valuable information for coaches regarding athletes' responses to competition. In addition, psychological strategies should be implemented before events, to improve the manner in which BJJ athletes cope with the stress inherent to official matches. PMID:22027851

  17. Variations in serum magnesium and hormonal levels during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel Angel; Iñigo, Carmen; Calvo, Maria Luisa; Escanero, Jesús Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between plasma magnesium levels and hormonal variations during an incremental exercise test until exhaustion in 27, well-trained, male endurance athletes. After a warm-up of 10 min at 2 W/kg, the test began at an initial workload of 2.5 W/kg and continued with increments of 0.5 W/kg every 10 min until exhaustion. Plasma magnesium, catecholamine, insulin, glucagon, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, aldosterone and cortisol levels were determined at rest, at the end of each stage and three, five and seven minutes post-exercise. With the incremental exercise test, no variations in plasma magnesium levels were found, while plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, PTH, glucagon and cortisol levels increased significantly. Over the course of the exercise, plasma levels of insulin decreased significantly, but those of calcitonin remained steady. During the recovery period, catecholamines and insulin returned to basal levels. These findings indicate that the magnesium status of euhydrated endurance athletes during incremental exercise testing may be the result of the interrelation between several hormonal variations. PMID:25644859

  18. Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. PMID:21185838

  19. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2013-05-01

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method. PMID:23239176

  20. Cross-cultural variation in women's preferences for cues to sex- and stress-hormones in the male face

    PubMed Central

    Moore, F. R.; Coetzee, V.; Contreras-Garduño, J.; Debruine, L. M.; Kleisner, K.; Krams, I.; Marcinkowska, U.; Nord, A.; Perrett, D. I.; Rantala, M. J.; Schaum, N.; Suzuki, T. N.

    2013-01-01

    Women in the UK prefer the faces of men with low levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and the relationship is moderated by the sex hormone testosterone. In a Latvian sample, however, women's preferences were not affected by cortisol, and the interaction with testosterone differed from that of the UK. To further explore cross-cultural variation in preferences for facial cues to sex- and stress-hormones, we tested the preferences of women from 13 countries for facial composites constructed to differ in combinations of the hormones. We found significant relationships between a measure of societal development (the United Nations human development index 2011) and preferences for cues to testosterone in the face, and the interaction between preferences for cues to testosterone and cortisol. We also found a significant relationship between preferences for cues to testosterone and a societal-level measure of parasite stress. We conclude that societal-level ecological factors influence the relative value of traits revealed by combinations of sex- and stress-hormones. PMID:23536442

  1. The Impact of PTSD Treatment on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Maria L.; Feeny, Norah; Zoellner, Lori; Delahanty, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; however, limited research has examined whether cortisol levels change following successful PTSD treatment. The current study examined the impact of successful PTSD treatment on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Method Twenty-nine adults participating in a treatment trial for chronic PTSD provided saliva samples (upon waking, and 30, 45, and 60-min post-waking) before and after receiving either prolonged exposure therapy or sertraline. PTSD responder status (i.e., loss or retention of a PTSD diagnosis) served as the predictor variable. Outcome measures included area under the curve with respect to ground and increase, reflecting total cortisol output and HPA axis reactivity, respectively. Results A series of hierarchical regressions revealed no significant main effects of PTSD responder status for either CAR outcome. However, a significant gender by treatment response interaction for cortisol reactivity revealed that female treatment non-responders displayed higher cortisol reactivity following treatment than female responders, whereas cortisol reactivity did not change pre- to post-treatment for male responders. Findings remained after controlling for age, trauma history, baseline medication status, baseline PTSD, and baseline depressive symptoms. Conclusion Loss of a PTSD diagnosis may contribute to decreased cortisol reactivity in females. Neuroendocrine changes following treatment may emerge only for specific subgroups, highlighting the importance of exploring treatment moderators. PMID:25327949

  2. Violence exposure and cortisol responses in urban youth.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    I examined the physiological costs associated with exposure to violence in 101 African American youth (55% male; M age = 11.14 years) living in high-violence areas of a midsized southern city in the United States. Salivary cortisol was measured before and after a laboratory task (viewing and discussing a video depicting community violence) and on waking 1 morning in the week following the laboratory assessment. Overall, cortisol levels were low. Analyses controlling for age, gender, negative affect, and major life events revealed that peer victimization was associated with lower basal cortisol values obtained from home assessments. Witnessed violence predicted a cortisol awakening response (CAR) but only in girls; girls with a typical CAR had lower levels of witnessing violence than girls with an atypical pattern. Witnessed violence also was associated with lower baseline cortisol levels measured in the laboratory and with increases in cortisol from baseline to posttask for boys but not girls. Peer victimization was associated with increases in cortisol from pretask to posttask for both genders. I discuss implications for research and prevention. PMID:16712428

  3. Effect of training on blood volume and plasma hormone concentrations in the elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. F.; Convertino, V. A.; Wood, C. E.; Graves, J. E.; Lowenthal, D. T.; Pollock, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 6 months of endurance training on resting plasma (PV) and blood volume (BV), and resting hormone and electrolyte concentrations in the elderly. Thirty-eight elderly men and women (ages 60-82 yr) were assigned to endurance exercise training (N = 29) or to control (N = 9) groups. Resting plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, vasopressin, aldosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, sodium, potassium, and protein were measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of 26 wk of training. PV measurement was performed using the Evan's blue dye technique. Endurance training consisted of uphill treadmill walking or stairclimbing exercise 3 times.wk-1, 30-45 min.d-1, at 75-84% of maximal heart rate reserve. The exercise group increased VO2max by 11.2% (P < or = 0.05) and increased resting PV and BV by 11.2% and 12.7% (P < or = 0.05), respectively. Hormone and electrolyte levels in the exercise group remained unchanged; all variables were unchanged in the control group. These results are similar to findings in younger individuals. Because plasma hormone concentrations were maintained despite a chronically elevated BV, endurance training in healthy, elderly subjects may be associated with a resetting of volume receptors.

  4. Chronic Hormonal Imbalance and Adipose Redistribution Is Associated with Hypothalamic Neuropathology following Blast Exposure.

    PubMed

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Sajja, Venkata Siva Sai Sujith; Ereifej, Evon; Hermundstad, Amy; Mao, Shijie; Hadden, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disorders have been shown to be a consequence of blast traumatic brain injury in soldiers returning from military conflicts. Hormone deficiency and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dysfunction can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and decreased quality of life. Given these changes following blast exposure, the current study focused on investigating chronic pathology within the hypothalamus following blast, in addition to systemic effects. An established rodent model of blast neurotrauma was used to induce mild blast-induced neurotrauma. Adipose tissue, blood, and brain samples were collected at one and three months following a single blast exposure. Adipose tissue and blood were evaluated for changes in ACTH, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, interleukin (IL)-1?, and leptin. The hypothalamus was evaluated for injury using immunohistochemical techniques. The results demonstrated that the weight of the blast animals was significantly less, compared with the sham group. The slower rate of increase in their weight was associated with changes in ACTH, IL-1?, and leptin levels. Further, histological analysis indicated elevated levels of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells within the hypothalamus. The data suggest that long-term outcomes of brain injury occurring from blast exposure include dysfunction of the hypothalamus, which leads to compromised hormonal function, elevated biological stress-related hormones, and subsequent adipose tissue remodeling. PMID:26274838

  5. Brain-adrenal axis hormones are altered in the CSF of infants with massive infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Baram, T.Z.; Mitchell, W.G.; Snead, O.C.; Horton, E.J.; Saito, M.

    2011-01-01

    Massive infantile spasms (MIS), a seizure disorder unique to infants, is considered an age-dependent response of the immature brain to various insults and stressors. The seizures improve with ACTH and glucocorticoids, both major components of the brain-adrenal axis. We hypothesized that CNS levels of these hormones are abnormal in infants with MIS and studied CSF from 14 infants with MIS and 13 age-matched controls by analysis for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), ACTH, cortisol, and interleukin-1-beta. ACTH levels in CSF of patients were significantly lower than those of controls, but differences in cortisol levels between patients and controls were not statistically significant. CRH levels in both groups were similar and fluctuated diurnally. These results indicate an alteration of specific CNS components of the brain-adrenal axis in MIS. PMID:1318521

  6. Hormonal changes during 17 days of head-down bed-rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Arnaud, Sara B.; Monk, Timothy H.; Claustrat, Bruno; Gharib, Claude; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette

    2003-01-01

    We investigated in six men the impact of 17 days of head-down bed rest (HDBR) on the daily rhythms of the hormones involved in hydroelectrolytic regulation. This HDBR study was designed to mimic a real space flight. Urine samples were collected at each voiding before, during and after HDBR. Urinary excretion of Growth Hormone (GH), Cortisol, 6 Sulfatoxymelatonin, Normetadrenaline (NMN) and Metadrenaline (NM) was determined. A decrease in urinary cortisol excretion during the night of HDBR was noted. For GH, a rhythm was found before and during HDBR. The rhythm of melatonin, evaluated with the urine excretion of 6 Sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S), the main hepatic metabolite, persisted throughout the experiment without any modification to the level of phase. A decrease during the night was noted for normetadrenaline urinary derivates, but only during the HDBR.

  7. The effect of aggressive rosuvastatin treatment on steroid hormone production in men with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2014-04-01

    Most steroid hormones are produced from cholesterol contained in low-density lipoproteins, which is uptaken by the gonads and adrenal cortex, and used as a substrate for steroidogenesis. Theoretically, in states associated with very low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, cholesterol conversion to steroid hormones may be impaired. The study included 15 men with coronary artery disease, in whom initial statin treatment had been unsuccessful and therefore was replaced with rosuvastatin (20-40 mg daily). Although in 11 patients, rosuvastatin decreased plasma LDL cholesterol levels to below 70 mg/dL, the drug only moderately reduced testosterone levels and increased gonadotropin levels, as well as insignificantly increased plasma ACTH levels. Aggressive rosuvastatin treatment did not affect plasma cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels, and urine free cortisol. Our results suggest that intensive rosuvastatin treatment is associated with only small changes in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis. PMID:24330280

  8. Correlates and consequences of toddler cortisol reactivity to fear.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Kalomiris, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    Cortisol reactivity to fear-eliciting stimuli during toddlerhood may represent an indicator of risk for anxiety spectrum problems and other maladjustment. Thus, it is important to understand factors that may contribute to cortisol reactivity as well as those that determine its predictive relation to early emerging anxiety. In this vein, the current study investigated maternal comforting behaviors, both solicited and unsolicited by the toddler, as correlates of cortisol reactivity at 2years of age. Furthermore, we investigated maternal comforting behaviors and behavioral indicators of fear in both a low-threat and a high-threat context as moderators of the relation between cortisol reactivity at age 2 and change in anxiety from age 2 to age 3. The sample comprised 99 2-year-old toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers provided saliva samples at baseline and after a fear-eliciting stimulus that were assayed for cortisol. Mothers were observed for comforting behavior while interacting with their toddlers in laboratory tasks and completed questionnaires about their toddlers' anxiety. Results indicated that unsolicited (spontaneous) comforting behavior related to toddler cortisol reactivity above and beyond solicited comforting and the level of fear toddlers displayed in the same task. Moreover, fear in a low-threat context, but not in a high-threat context, moderated the relation between cortisol reactivity and change in anxiety, such that cortisol reactivity had a positive relation to anxiety at extreme levels of low-threat fear. Results suggest the importance of considering the caregiving environment and context-specific fear in understanding the nature of cortisol reactivity during the toddler years. PMID:26410395

  9. Interventions to Improve Cortisol Regulation in Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Shonkoff, Jack P.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with physiologic dysregulation across multiple biological systems; however, relatively little is known about whether these changes are reversible with intervention. The objective of this review was to examine evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy cortisol regulation in children. We selected articles from English-language publications in PubMed and EBSCO databases through 2012. Two independent reviewers assessed articles against eligibility criteria. Eligible studies were randomized controlled or quasi-experimental studies designed to improve relationships, environments, or psychosocial functioning in children and examined cortisol as an outcome. We identified 19 articles. There was substantial heterogeneity across studies with regard to age, selection criteria, intervention design, cortisol assessment, and follow-up duration. Eighteen of the 19 articles reported at least 1 difference in baseline cortisol, diurnal cortisol, or cortisol responsivity between intervention and control participants. Importantly, however, there was remarkable inconsistency with regard to how the interventions influenced cortisol. Therefore, studies that included a low-risk comparison group (n = 8) provided critical insight, and each found some evidence that postintervention cortisol levels in the intervention group approximated the low-risk comparison group and differed from children receiving usual care. In conclusion, existing studies show that cortisol activity can be altered by psychosocial interventions. These findings are promising, not only because they indicate physiologic plasticity that can be leveraged by interventions but also because they suggest it may be possible to repair regulatory systems after childhood adversity, which could inform strategies for reducing health disparities and promoting lasting improvements in health. PMID:24420810

  10. True or false? Memory is differentially affected by stress-induced cortisol elevations and sympathetic activity at consolidation and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Tom; Otgaar, Henry; Candel, Ingrid; Wolf, Oliver T

    2008-11-01

    Adrenal stress hormones released in response to acute stress may yield memory-enhancing effects when released post-learning and impairing effects at memory retrieval, especially for emotional memory material. However, so far these differential effects of stress hormones on the various memory phases for neutral and emotional memory material have not been demonstrated within one experiment. This study investigated whether, in line with their effects on true memory, stress and stress-induced adrenal stress hormones affect the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of emotional and neutral false memories. Participants (N=90) were exposed to a stressor before encoding, during consolidation, before retrieval, or were not stressed and then were subjected to neutral and emotional versions of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott word list learning paradigm. Twenty-four hours later, recall of presented words (true recall) and non-presented critical lure words (false recall) was assessed. Results show that stress exposure resulted in superior true memory performance in the consolidation stress group and reduced true memory performance in the retrieval stress group compared to the other groups, predominantly for emotional words. These memory-enhancing and memory-impairing effects were strongly related to stress-induced cortisol and sympathetic activity measured via salivary alpha-amylase levels. Neutral and emotional false recall, on the other hand, was neither affected by stress exposure, nor related to cortisol and sympathetic activity following stress. These results demonstrate the importance of stress-induced hormone-related activity in enhancing memory consolidation and in impairing memory retrieval, in particular for emotional memory material. PMID:18790572

  11. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-related eating. Competitive athletes are “stressed” by their intense exercise regimens in addition to their normal activities of daily living and thus may benefit from a natural therapy intended to modulate baseline perceptions of stress and stress hormone exposure. Methods We assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora®, Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks. Results After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (p<0.05) lower (?18%) in the Relora group compared to Placebo. Compared to Placebo, the Relora group had significantly better (p<0.05) mood state parameters, including lower indices of Overall Stress (?11%), Tension (?13%), Depression (?20%), Anger (?42%), Fatigue (?31%), and Confusion (?27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with a combination of Magnolia bark extract and Phellodendron bark extract (Relora®) reduces cortisol exposure and perceived daily stress, while improving a variety of mood state parameters, including lower fatigue and higher vigor. These results suggest an effective natural approach to modulating the detrimental health effects of chronic stress in moderately stressed adults. Future studies should examine the possible performance and recovery benefits of Relora supplementation in athletes overstressed by the physical and psychological demands of training and competition. PMID:23924268

  12. Faecal cortisol metabolites in Bengal (Panthera tigris tigris) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Parnell, Tempe; Clark, Giles; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-12-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) faces a great risk of extinction as its wild numbers have plummeted due to poaching and habitat destruction so ex-situ conservation programs are becoming ever more necessary. Reliable non-invasive biomarkers of the stress hormone (cortisol) are necessary for assessing the health and welfare of tigers in captivity. To our knowledge, non-invasive stress endocrinology methods have not been tested as widely in tigers. The first aim of this study was to describe and validate a faecal cortisol metabolite enzyme-immmunoassay (FCM EIA) for two tiger sub-species, the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). Individual tigers (n=22) were studied in two large Zoos in Queensland, Australia (Dreamworld Theme Park and Australia Zoo). Fresh faecal samples (<12 h old) were collected each morning from both Zoos over a study period of 21 days. Biological validation was conducted separately by collecting feces 5 days before and 5 days after blood was taken from four male and five female tigers. Results showed that mean FCM levels increased by 138% and 285% in the male and female tigers within 1 day after bloods were taken, returning to baseline in 5 days. Laboratory validations of the FCM EIA were done using an extraction efficiency test and parallelism. Results showed >89% recovery of the cortisol standard that was added to tiger faecal extract. We also obtained parallel displacement of the serially diluted cortisol standard against serially diluted tiger faecal extract. Our second aim was to determine whether the FCM levels were significantly different between tiger sub-species and sex. Results showed no significant difference in mean FCM levels between the Bengal and Sumatran tiger sub-species. Mean levels of FCMs were significantly higher in females than in male tigers. Those male and female tigers with reported health issues during the study period expressed higher FCM levels than the reportedly healthy tigers. Interestingly, those tigers that took part in some activity (such as walks, photos, presentations and guest feeds) expressed moderately higher FCM levels at Dreamworld and lower FCM levels at Australia Zoo in comparison to those tigers that did not take part in such activities. These results indicate potential habituation in some tigers for routine activity through specialized training and pre-conditioning. In conclusion, the FCM EIA described in this study provides a reliable non-invasive method for evaluating the stress status of tigers in Zoos. PMID:24140710

  13. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Also known as: Vasopressin; AVP Formal name: Antidiuretic Hormone; Arginine Vasopressin Related tests: Osmolality , BUN , Creatinine , Sodium , ... should know? How is it used? The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) test is used to help detect, diagnose, ...

  14. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  15. Hormones and Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    Fact Sheet Hormones and Hypertension What is hypertension? Hypertension, or chronic (long-term) high blood pressure, is a main cause of ... tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications play a part. Hormones made in the kidneys and in blood vessels ...

  16. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones The endocrine system is made up of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Although there are eight major endocrine glands scattered ...

  17. Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Hormones and Menopause Tips from the National Institute on ... her hot flashes. One was to use the hormone estrogen for a short time. He talked about ...

  18. Growth hormone stimulation test

    MedlinePLUS

    The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the body to produce GH. ... anterior pituitary. In children, this results in growth hormone deficiency . In adults, it may be linked to ...

  19. Physiological and analytical validations of fecal steroid hormone measures in black howler monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Negrín, Ariadna; Flores-Escobar, Elizabeth; Chavira, Roberto; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Dias, Pedro Américo D

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of hormones in fecal samples allows for the noninvasive assessment of the endocrine status of free-ranging primates. However, procedures and techniques for hormone analysis in feces must be validated, both analytically and physiologically. Few studies have addressed the endocrinology of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Due to its conservation status, direct handling of individuals from this species and invasive sample collection are highly regulated, and therefore traditional methods for the validation of hormone assays, such as pharmacological challenges, are not allowed. As a consequence, sometimes studies of the fecal hormones of free-ranging black howler monkeys do not report physiological validations and therefore the biological reliability of such measurements cannot be assessed. In order to stimulate future research with this species, the present study aimed at providing methodological bases for fecal endocrine monitoring. Specifically, we compared the validity of two immunoassays (radioimmunoassays, RIA; solid-phase chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, SPCEI) performed with commercial kits to measure cortisol, testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone; and demonstrate how the physiological functions of these steroid hormones can be determined through non-pharmacological validations. We found no differences between the analytical validity of RIA and SPCEI assays to measure cortisol and testosterone, whereas for estradiol and progesterone RIA showed better results. Concerning the physiological validation of our assays, we demonstrated that: (1) comparisons between pre- and post-stress situations may be used to assess cortisol response, (2) comparisons between females and males may be used to assess variation in testosterone levels, and (3) comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant females may be used to determine variation in estradiol and progesterone activity. The analytical and physiological validations that we performed demonstrate that there are currently commercial kits that allow for correct endocrine monitoring of this species, and that there are non-pharmacological alternatives to assess the biological validity of hormone measurements. PMID:24939341

  20. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    PubMed

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones. PMID:14722779

  1. Hormone treatment of depression

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between alterations of various hormonal systems and psychiatric disorders, both in endocrine and psychiatric patients. This has led to clinical and research studies examining the efficacy of the different hormones for treatment of depression. These data will be reviewed with particular regard to the thyroid, gonadal, pineal, and adrenal cortex hormones. The data generally provide limited, but varying evidence for the antidepressant efficacy of these hormones. PMID:21485752

  2. Effect of three day bed-rest on circulatory and hormonal responses to active orthostatic test in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubala, P.; Smorawinski, J.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Circulatory and hormonal parameters were measured in endurance-trained athletes and control subjects during orthostatic tolerance tests conducted prior to and after three days of bed rest. Heart rate and blood pressure changes due to bed rest appeared to be the same in both groups. Hormonal changes, however, were different between the two groups, with the athletes having decreased sympathoadrenal activity and increased plasma renin activity. Untrained subjects had changes in cortisol secretion only.

  3. Serum Leptin and Cortisol, Related to Acutely Perceived Academic Examination Stress and Performance in Female University Students.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the subjective perception of examination stress but not with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p < 0.01) positively with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition. PMID:26187200

  4. Evaluation of the saliva cortisol levels in patients under prosthetic treatment due to functional disorders of the masticatory organ.

    PubMed

    Pihut, M; Dziurkowska, E; Wisniewska, G; Szewczyk, M; Bieganska, J

    2015-02-01

    One of the main etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction is stress and psychoemotional disorders. During stressful situations, there is an increase in the level of cortisol, the so-called stress hormone. Literature data indicate the existence of a correlation between blood cortisol levels and its amount in the saliva. This spurred an inspiration to undertake open, non-randomised studies, the objective of which was to conduct a comparative assessment of the saliva cortisol levels in patients with functional disorders of the masticatory system and in healthy volunteers, as well as to compare the results of cortisol levels with the results of survey-based tests with the use of Endler and Parker's CISS survey. Cortisol level was assessed due to its association with stress present in the body as one of the primary etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction, and hence the association of elevated cortisol levels assessed in the morning with the occurrence of dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system. The subject of the study is a group of 30 patients, of both sexes, aged between 20 and 46, who reported to the Dental Prosthetic Out-Patient Clinic of the Institute of Dentistry, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, for prosthetic treatment due to the painful form of functional masticatory organ disorders. The control group consisted of 30 subjects, aged between 19 and 41, in whom dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system were excluded. Collection of saliva for testing was performed at a fixed hour (9 am) into plastic test tubes with a stopper. Immediately after collection, the saliva was frozen at the temperature of -18 °C. The assessment of the cortisol levels was conducted by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection at the Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Laboratory Medicine of the Gdansk Medical University. Moreover, a 20-minute psychological test was conducted with the use of the CISS (coping inventory for stressful situations) survey in order to assess the patients in terms of their abilities to cope with stressful situations. The results obtained were submitted to a statistical analysis based on the conventional calculation procedures. The test group revealed significantly higher cortisol levels compared with the results obtained by the control group. The findings of the CISS survey confirmed the predominance of the emotion-focused strategy of coping with stressful situations in the test group. The results support the view that the psychoemotional factor is, to a considerable extent, conducive to the development of functional disorders. The elevated cortisol levels in patients with psychological disorders concur with the findings by other authors. The results obtained confirm that psychoemotional disorders may be one of the etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunctions. The CISS survey, which was not used in similar studies before, makes it possible to obtain information on the subject's method of coping with stress, thus allowing for the initiation of a relevant psychological therapy aiding the prosthetic treatment. PMID:25716974

  5. Anticipation of a psychosocial stressor differentially influences ghrelin, cortisol and food intake among emotional and non-emotional eaters.

    PubMed

    Raspopow, Kate; Abizaid, Alfonso; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2014-03-01

    Negative emotions trigger eating in some individuals (emotional eaters) possibly by influencing stress hormones that contribute to eating regulation (e.g., cortisol), or eating-related peptides (e.g., ghrelin) signaling food initiation. The present study assessed whether stressor-elicited cortisol and ghrelin changes would differ between emotional and non-emotional eaters, and whether eating would influence these neuroendocrine responses. Undergraduate women (N=103) who completed measures of emotional eating, were assigned to anticipate either a stressful (public speaking) or non-stressful event. During this period, participants were or were not offered food. Blood samples were taken continuously over a 40-min period to assess changes of cortisol and ghrelin levels, and mood was assessed after the anticipation period. Baseline ghrelin levels were lower in emotional than non-emotional eaters, and this relation was mediated by percent body fat. Ghrelin levels were elevated among women anticipating a stressor, compared to those in the control condition. Additionally, the normal decline of ghrelin following food consumption was not apparent among emotional eaters. Although food intake was not tied to hormone responses, reported hunger was associated with greater food intake for women in the stressor condition. It was suggested that emotional eating coupled with subjective feelings of hunger, might contribute to eating in response to an acute stressor. Additionally, feedback mechanisms controlling the normalization of ghrelin levels might be disturbed in emotional eaters. The similarity of the ghrelin profile of emotional eaters to that of binge eaters and obese individuals, raises the possibility that disturbed ghrelin response might be a risk factor for such conditions. PMID:24295926

  6. The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function. PMID:21195074

  7. Hormonal status and fluid electrolyte metabolism in motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, A I; Nichiporuk, I A; Yasnetsov, V V; Shashkov, V S

    1988-04-01

    In the first experimental series, 10 healthy male test subjects with a high susceptibility to motion sickness showed a significant increase of ACTH, cortisol, STH, prolactin, ADH, aldosterone concentrations, and plasma renin activity after vestibular tests. The 10 subjects with a moderate susceptibility exhibited a still higher increase of the hormones, except plasma renin. The 8 test subjects with a low susceptibility displayed a considerable increase in ACTH, cortisol, and STH after vestibular stimulation. In the second experimental series, the increase of STH, cortisol, ADH, aldosterone and renin occurred immediately after rotation in the moderate susceptibility subjects and an hour after exposure in the high susceptibility subjects. This may be indicative of specific immediate adaptation mechanisms or excitation transfer in the CNS in high susceptibility persons. In the third experimental animal series, the permeability of the blood-brain barrier for 125I and IgG increased after rotation. Greater concentrations of potassium, chloride, and urea in CSF are suggestive of an inhibition process activation in the CNS and, probably, of an active urea transport by the vascular plexus epithelium which maintains constant osmotic pressure of cerebral extracellular fluid and prevents hyper-hydration of CNS neurons. PMID:3370037

  8. Hormonal changes and couple bonding in consensual sadomasochistic activity.

    PubMed

    Sagarin, Brad J; Cutler, Bert; Cutler, Nadine; Lawler-Sagarin, Kimberly A; Matuszewich, Leslie

    2009-04-01

    In two studies, 58 sadomasochistic (SM) practitioners provided physiological measures of salivary cortisol and testosterone (hormones associated with stress and dominance, respectively) and psychological measures of relationship closeness before and after participating in SM activities. Observed activities included bondage, sensory deprivation, a variety of painful and pleasurable stimulation, verbal and non-verbal communication, and expressions of caring and affection. During the scenes, cortisol rose significantly for participants who were bound, receiving stimulation, and following orders, but not for participants who were providing stimulation, orders, or structure. Female participants who were bound, receiving stimulation, and following orders also showed increases in testosterone during the scenes. Thereafter, participants who reported that their SM activities went well showed reductions in physiological stress (cortisol) and increases in relationship closeness. Among participants who reported that their SM activities went poorly, some showed decreases in relationship closeness whereas others showed increases. The increases in relationship closeness combined with the displays of caring and affection observed as part of the SM activities offer support for the modern view that SM, when performed consensually, has the potential to increase intimacy between participants. PMID:18563549

  9. Hormonal status and fluid electrolyte metabolism in motion sickness

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, A.I.; Nichiporuk, I.A.; Yasnetsov, V.V.; Shashkov, V.S.

    1988-04-01

    In the first experimental series, 10 healthy male test subjects with a high susceptibility to motion sickness showed a significant increase of ACTH, cortisol, STH, prolactin, ADH, aldosterone concentrations, and plasma renin activity after vestibular tests. The 10 subjects with a moderate susceptibility exhibited a still higher increase of the hormones, except plasma renin. The 8 test subjects with a low susceptibility displayed a considerable increase in ACTH, cortisol, and STH after vestibular stimulation. In the second experimental series, the increase of STH, cortisol, ADH, aldosterone and renin occurred immediately after rotation in the moderate susceptibility subjects and an hour after exposure in the high susceptibility subjects. This may be indicative of specific immediate adaptation mechanisms or excitation transfer in the CNS in high susceptibility persons. In the third experimental animal series, the permeability of the blood-brain barrier for /sup 125/I and IgG increased after rotation. Greater concentrations of potassium, chloride, and urea in CSF are suggestive of an inhibition process activation in the CNS and, probably, of an active urea transport by the vascular plexus epithelium which maintains constant osmotic pressure of cerebral extracellular fluid and prevents hyper-hydration of CNS neurons.

  10. Growth hormone and prolactin response to growth hormone-releasing in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lomeo, A; Mazzocchi, G; Sessarego, P; Torre, R; Delmonte, P; Giusti, M

    1989-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with several endocrine disorders. In order to investigate the role of these alterations, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) was administered in a group of 9 AN patients and in 9 healthy normal-weight women as control. Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) levels were evaluated in both groups after GHRH and saline solution administration. In the AN group, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyrotropin (TSH) and cortisol serum levels were evaluated during GHRH administration; somatomedin-C (Sm-C) basal levels were also determined. In both groups, GHRH induced a prompt GH increase, which was significantly higher in AN patients (55.3 +/- 2.9 ng/ml, mean +/- SE) than in normal subjects (9.8 +/- 2.6 ng/ml: p less than 0.01). A significant positive correlation between mean GH basal values and GH peak after GHRH was observed only in the control group (R = 0.82, p less than 0.01). No significant relationship between GH mean peak and body mass index (BMI) or Sm-C, estradiol (E2) and glucose serum levels was found in AN patients. However, a positive significant correlation with triiodothyronine (T3) basal values was observed in this group (R = 0.80, p less than 0.01). Both groups showed no variation in PRL serum levels after GHRH infusion. Our data suggest the presence of a central derangement in hypothalamic control of pituitary function in patients with AN, which is not necessarily due to weight loss alone. PMID:2516349

  11. Differential effects of cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone on ion transport protein mRNA levels in gills of two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Kiilerich, Pia; Tipsmark, Christian K; Borski, Russell J; Madsen, Steffen S

    2011-04-01

    The role of cortisol as the only corticosteroid in fish osmoregulation has recently been challenged with the discovery of a mineralocorticoid-like hormone, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and necessitates new studies of the endocrinology of osmoregulation in fish. Using an in vitro gill explant incubation approach, DOC-mediated regulation of selected osmoregulatory target genes in the gill was investigated and compared with that of cortisol in two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The effects were tested in gills from both fresh water (FW)- and seawater (SW)-acclimated fish. Both cortisol and DOC caused an up-regulation of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase ?1 subunit in SW-acclimated tilapia but had no effect in FW-acclimated fish. Cortisol conferred an increase in Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) isoform 1a transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated tilapia, whereas DOC had a stimulatory effect only in SW-acclimated fish. Cortisol had no effect on NKCC isoform 1b mRNA levels at both salinities, while DOC stimulated this isoform in SW-acclimated fish. In striped bass, cortisol conferred an up-regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase ?1 and NKCC transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated fish, whereas DOC resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts in FW-acclimated fish. It was also found that both corticosteroids may rapidly (30 min) alter the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway in gill, inducing phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 in a salinity-dependent manner. The study shows a disparate organisation of corticosteroid signalling mechanisms involved in ion regulation in the two species and adds new evidence to a role of DOC as a mineralocorticoid hormone in teleosts. PMID:21282254

  12. TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS 2 AND 4, AND ACUTE PHASE CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION IN DEXAMETHASONE AND GROWTH HORMONE TREATED DAIRY CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle that are exposed to growth hormone stimulants and to stressors that cause cortisol release may have altered immune responses, reducing resistance to disease. Toll-like receptors and acute phase cytokines direct the early response to pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine ch...

  13. Exogenous cortisol causes a shift from deliberative to intuitive thinking.

    PubMed

    Margittai, Zsofia; Nave, Gideon; Strombach, Tina; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schwabe, Lars; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    People often rely on intuitive judgments at the expense of deliberate reasoning, but what determines the dominance of intuition over deliberation is not well understood. Here, we employed a psychopharmacological approach to unravel the role of two major endocrine stress mediators, cortisol and noradrenaline, in cognitive reasoning. Healthy participants received placebo, cortisol (hydrocortisone) and/or yohimbine, a drug that increases noradrenergic stimulation, before performing the cognitive reflection test (CRT). We found that cortisol impaired performance in the CRT by biasing responses toward intuitive, but incorrect answers. Elevated stimulation of the noradrenergic system, however, had no effect. We interpret our results in the context of the dual systems theory of judgment and decision making. We propose that cortisol causes a shift from deliberate, reflective cognition toward automatic, reflexive information processing. PMID:26658173

  14. Suppression of Cortisol Levels in Subordinate Female Marmosets: Reproductive

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Suppression of Cortisol Levels in Subordinate Female Marmosets: Reproductive and Social. Abbott*, Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, *Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology Program. Subordinate females also undergo hypoestrogenemic anovulation, and estrogen can elevate glucocorticoid levels

  15. Effects of ketoconazole on methylprednisolone pharmacokinetics and cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Glynn, A M; Slaughter, R L; Brass, C; D'Ambrosio, R; Jusko, W J

    1986-06-01

    The disposition of methylprednisolone was examined in six normal subjects after the injection of 20 mg iv methylprednisolone sodium succinate. Disposition studies were performed both without and with ketoconazole, 200 mg/day, for 6 days. Ketoconazole increased the methylprednisolone AUC and mean residence time (by 135% and 66%, respectively) and decreased clearance (60%), the terminal phase slope, and the volume of distribution. These findings are typical of macrolide antibiotic alteration of methylprednisolone disposition and consistent with reports of inhibition of drug metabolism by ketoconazole. Methylprednisolone reduced the 24-hour cortisol AUC by 44%, but morning cortisol concentrations returned to normal. Ketoconazole with methylprednisolone further reduced the 24-hour cortisol AUC and suppressed morning cortisol concentrations. Thus ketoconazole inhibits methylprednisolone disposition and extends the adrenal suppression effects of this corticosteroid. PMID:3709030

  16. The Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) in 2-to

    E-print Network

    four salivary cortisol samples (0, 15, 30, 45 min post-wake) follow- ing five polysomnographic sleep, Hucklebridge, Evans, & Clow, 2006). Although the CAR is an established biomarker of adrenocortical activity

  17. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  18. Was sind hormone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlson, P.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the meaning of the term hormone has changed during the last decades. Morphological studies of secreting cells lead Feyrter to the concept of paracrine action of some hormones. While endocrine regulators are blood-borne, paracrine messengers reach their target cells through the diffusion in the intracellular space. Though it is rather difficult to draw a line between true hormones and hormone-like substances, valid definitions for endocrine and paracrine regulatory systems can be given. The term ‘hormonal control’ should be restricted to endocrine systems. For effectors acting by paracrine mechanisms, the term paramone is proposed in this article.

  19. Cortisol, insulin and leptin during space flight and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Most ground based models for studying muscle atrophy and bone loss show reasonable fidelity to the space flight situation. However there are some differences. Investigation of the reasons for these differences can provide useful information about humans during space flight and aid in the refinement of ground based models. This report discusses three such differences, the relationships between: (i) cortisol and the protein loss, (ii) cortisol and ACTH and (iii) leptin, insulin and food intake.

  20. Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    Mossink, Joram C L; Verkuil, Bart; Burger, Andreas M; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Brosschot, Jos F

    2015-01-01

    One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-h ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit, and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 min thereafter (cortisol awakening response). Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems. PMID:25713550

  1. Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Mossink, Joram C. L.; Verkuil, Bart; Burger, Andreas M.; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Brosschot, Jos F.

    2015-01-01

    One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-h ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit, and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 min thereafter (cortisol awakening response). Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems. PMID:25713550

  2. From molecule to market: steroid hormones and financial risk-taking

    PubMed Central

    Coates, John M.; Gurnell, Mark; Sarnyai, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial decision-making. Here, we survey research on steroid hormones and their cognitive effects, and examine potential links to trader performance in the financial markets. Preliminary findings suggest that cortisol codes for risk and testosterone for reward. A key finding of this endocrine research is the different cognitive effects of acute versus chronic exposure to hormones: acutely elevated steroids may optimize performance on a range of tasks; but chronically elevated steroids may promote irrational risk-reward choices. We present a hypothesis suggesting that the irrational exuberance and pessimism observed during market bubbles and crashes may be mediated by steroid hormones. If hormones can exaggerate market moves, then perhaps the age and sex composition among traders and asset managers may affect the level of instability witnessed in the financial markets. PMID:20026470

  3. Concerns Regarding Hair Cortisol as a Biomarker of Chronic Stress in Exercise and Sport Science

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Pühse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.

    2012-01-01

    Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes’ elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels. Key points Hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive and painless means to capture long-term cortisol secretion. Individuals expected to have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to trauma) have increased hair cortisol. Preliminary evidence shows that exercisers have higher hair cortisol levels as well. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol secretion mediates stress-related effects on health and performance. There is a great dearth of knowledge about the relationship between sport, exercise and hair cortisol. PMID:24150065

  4. Hormones and psychosexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Giordano, G; Giusti, M

    1995-09-01

    The male phenotype arises from the optimal concordance of chromosomal, gonadal and hormonal sex. Hormonal sex depends directly on the type of gonads that have been formed, and is linked both to the production of hormones and to their optimal effect on target tissues. The present review underlines the fact that psychosexual orientation in the male is also related to factors linked to sex hormones. Many of the experimental and clinical data available militate against the long-held belief that the development of role and gender identity in man is predominantly determined by environmental factors. This study points out the importance of hormonal factors at the CNS level. The most common abnormalities of sexual orientation are homosexuality and transsexualism. Despite their relatively high frequency in the general population, research into possible biological influences in these abnormalities is very scant. The authors of the present paper have reviewed the literature data yielded by biological and hormonal studies on homosexuality and transsexualism. These data seem to support the hypothesis that androgens may be deficient in the CNS of male homosexuals. Morphological or functional (neurotransmitter) anomalies in androgen actions at the CNS level could also favor radical dissociation between psychological sex and gonadal, hormonal and phenotypic sex in transsexualism. In conclusion, the present review seems to indicate that hormonal factors (gonadal and adrenal hormones, hormone receptors, transduction mechanism of the hormonal signal, neurosteroids, neurotransmitters etc.) play a determining role in the formation of gender identity. PMID:8850137

  5. Hormonal Aspects of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Page B.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis The interactions between hormones, epilepsy, and the medications used to treat epilepsy are complex, with tridirectional interactions which affect both men and women in various ways. Abnormalities of baseline endocrine status occur more commonly in people with epilepsy, and are most often described for the sex steroid hormone axis. Common symptoms include sexual dysfunction, decreased fertility, premature menopause, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Antiepileptic drugs and hormones have a bidirectional interaction, with a decrease in the efficacy of hormonal contraceptive agents with some AEDs and a decrease in the concentration and efficacy of other AEDs with hormonal contraceptives. Endogenous hormones can influence seizure severity and frequency, resulting in catamenial patterns of epilepsy. However, this knowledge can be used to develop hormonal strategies to improve seizure control in people with epilepsy. PMID:19853217

  6. Neuroticism and cortisol: The importance of checking for sex differences.

    PubMed

    DeSoto, M Catherine; Salinas, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Existent research documents an unclear and contradictory pattern between cortisol and personality variables, especially neuroticism. Specifically, no effect, positive correlations and negative correlations have all been reported to exist between cortisol and neuroticism. The current study tested whether males and females have a fundamentally different relationship between HPA activation and neuroticism and if this might partially account for some of the discrepancy in findings. Saliva samples (n=183) for cortisol were collected three times across a 90min period. Neuroticism was measured via the NEO-FFI. For men, neuroticism was positively correlated with cortisol level (r=.29). For women it was negatively correlated. The negative correlation between neuroticism and cortisol level remained when oral contraceptive use was statistically controlled, and the statistical significance actually increased (partial r=-.20). This suggests a slight suppressor effect, explainable by prior research on correlates of oral contraceptive use. Overall, these findings may offer some explanation for the discrepant results that have been reported in the existing literature regarding neuroticism and cortisol measures. PMID:26318627

  7. Sleep and cortisol interact to support memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Bennion, Kelly A; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Payne, Jessica D

    2015-03-01

    Separate lines of research have demonstrated that rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can the occurrence of sleep soon after encoding. For the first time, we demonstrate that pre-learning cortisol interacts with sleep to benefit memory consolidation, particularly for negative arousing items. Resting cortisol levels during encoding were positively correlated with subsequent memory, but only following a period of sleep. There was no such relation following a period of wakefulness. Using eye tracking, we further reveal that for negative stimuli, this facilitative effect may arise because cortisol strengthens the relationship between looking time at encoding and subsequent memory. We suggest that elevated cortisol may "tag" attended information as important to remember at the time of encoding, thus enabling sleep-based processes to optimally consolidate salient information in a selective manner. Neuroimaging data suggest that this optimized consolidation leads to a refinement of the neural processes recruited for successful retrieval of negative stimuli, with the retrieval of items attended in the presence of elevated cortisol and consolidated over a night of sleep associated with activity in the amygdala and vmPFC. PMID:24072888

  8. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anish; Mahale, Rohan R.; Sudhir, Uchil; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no prior treatment were evaluated. Cortisol levels were compared with 20 patients with aseptic (viral) meningitis and 25 control subjects. Results: Mean CSF cortisol level was 13.85, 3.47, and 1.05 in bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis, and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in bacterial meningitis was significantly higher as compared to controls (P < 0.001). There was significant difference in CSFcortisol levels in bacterial and aseptic meningitis (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Cortisol levels in CSF are highly elevated in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. This suggests that intrathecalcortisol may serve as a valuable, rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic marker in discriminatingbetween bacterial and aseptic meningitis. This helps in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:26019421

  9. Influence of electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM-900 cellular telephones on the circadian patterns of gonadal, adrenal and pituitary hormones in men.

    PubMed

    Djeridane, Yasmina; Touitou, Yvan; de Seze, René

    2008-03-01

    The potential health risks of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted by mobile phones are currently of considerable public interest. The present study investigated the effect of exposure to 900 MHz GSM radiofrequency radiation on steroid (cortisol and testosterone) and pituitary (thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, prolactin and adrenocorticotropin) hormone levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. Each subject was exposed to RF EMFs through the use of a cellular phone for 2 h/day, 5 days/ week, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected hourly during the night and every 3 h during the day. Four sampling sessions were performed at 15-day intervals: before the beginning of the exposure period, at the middle and the end of the exposure period, and 15 days later. Parameters evaluated included the maximum serum concentration, the time of this maximum, and the area under the curve for hormone circadian patterns. Each individual's pre-exposure hormone concentration was used as his control. All hormone concentrations remained within normal physiological ranges. The circadian profiles of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropin and testosterone were not disrupted by RF EMFs emitted by mobile phones. For growth hormone and cortisol, there were significant decreases of about 28% and 12%, respectively, in the maximum levels when comparing the 2-week (for growth hormone and cortisol) and 4-week (for growth hormone) exposure periods to the pre-exposure period, but no difference persisted in the postexposure period. Our data show that the 900 MHz EMF exposure, at least under our experimental conditions, does not appear to affect endocrine functions in men. PMID:18302481

  10. The Effect of the Lunar Cycle on Fecal Cortisol Metabolite Levels and Foraging Ecology of Nocturnally and Diurnally Active Spiny Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-01-01

    We studied stress hormones and foraging of nocturnal Acomys cahirinus and diurnal A. russatus in field populations as well as in two field enclosures populated by both species and two field enclosures with individuals of A. russatus alone. When alone, A. russatus individuals become also nocturnally active. We asked whether nocturnally active A. russatus will respond to moon phase and whether this response will be obtained also in diurnally active individuals. We studied giving-up densities (GUDs) in artificial foraging patches and fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Both species exhibited elevated fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraged to higher GUDs in full moon nights; thus A. russatus retains physiological response and behavioral patterns that correlate with full moon conditions, as can be expected in nocturnal rodents, in spite of its diurnal activity. The endocrinological and behavioral response of this diurnal species to moon phase reflects its evolutionary heritage. PMID:21829733

  11. Towards Engineering Hormone-Binding Globulins as Drug Delivery Agents

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wee Lee; Zhou, Aiwu; Read, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of many diseases such as cancer requires the use of drugs that can cause severe side effects. Off-target toxicity can often be reduced simply by directing the drugs specifically to sites of diseases. Amidst increasingly sophisticated methods of targeted drug delivery, we observed that Nature has already evolved elegant means of sending biological molecules to where they are needed. One such example is corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the major carrier of the anti-inflammatory hormone, cortisol. Targeted release of cortisol is triggered by cleavage of CBG's reactive centre loop by elastase, a protease released by neutrophils in inflamed tissues. This work aimed to establish the feasibility of exploiting this mechanism to carry therapeutic agents to defined locations. The reactive centre loop of CBG was altered with site-directed mutagenesis to favour cleavage by other proteases, to alter the sites at which it would release its cargo. Mutagenesis succeeded in making CBG a substrate for either prostate specific antigen (PSA), a prostate-specific serine protease, or thrombin, a key protease in the blood coagulation cascade. PSA is conspicuously overproduced in prostatic hyperplasia and is, therefore, a good way of targeting hyperplastic prostate tissues. Thrombin is released during clotting and consequently is ideal for conferring specificity to thrombotic sites. Using fluorescence-based titration assays, we also showed that CBG can be engineered to bind a new compound, thyroxine-6-carboxyfluorescein, instead of its physiological ligand, cortisol, thereby demonstrating that it is possible to tailor the hormone binding site to deliver a therapeutic drug. In addition, we proved that the efficiency with which CBG releases bound ligand can be increased by introducing some well-placed mutations. This proof-of-concept study has raised the prospect of a novel means of targeted drug delivery, using the serpin conformational change to combat the problem of off-target effects in the treatment of diseases. PMID:25426859

  12. Highly selective and automated online SPE LC-MS3 method for determination of cortisol and cortisone in human hair as biomarker for stress related diseases.

    PubMed

    Quinete, Natalia; Bertram, Jens; Reska, Marcus; Lang, Jessica; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Hair analysis has been increasingly used to establish long-term biomarkers of exposure to both endogenous and exogenous substances, with a special emphasis on steroidal hormones. Hair cortisol and cortisone have been associated to physiological and psychological strains, anxiety and depression. Hair is a very complex matrix, which might jeopardize analyte detection at low concentrations. A new, highly selective and sensitive method based on fragments of second order, MS(3) (MS/MS/MS), was developed and validated for the analysis of hair cortisol and cortisone. An online solid phase extraction was performed on a C8 restricted access material (RAM) phase following by separation on a reversed-phase C18 column using methanol and 0.02% ammonium hydroxide as mobile phase. The developed method required minimal sample preparation and the injection of only 50 µL of sample leading to a LOQ of 2 pg mg(-1). Good linear responses were observed in the range 2-200 pg mg(-1) (R(2)>0.99) and extraction recoveries ranged between 77-125% and 70-123% for cortisol and cortisone, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were between 1.4 and 14%. In order to evaluate the applicability of the method, preliminary tests (N=33) were conducted in 3 cm hair samples (close to scalp) of healthy volunteers with an age range of 4-63. Average concentrations in hair were 12.7±14 pg mg(-1) and 41.6±42 pg mg(-1) for cortisol and cortisone, respectively. Further investigations on cortisol and cortisone as biomarkers for chronic psychological strain will be assessed as a next step. PMID:25618673

  13. Dual-axis hormonal covariation in adolescence and the moderating influence of prior trauma and aversive maternal parenting.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Julian G; Byrne, Michelle L; Schwartz, Orli S; Whittle, Sarah L; Sheeber, Lisa; Kaess, Michael; Youssef, George J; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-09-01

    Adversity early in life can disrupt the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes and increase risk for negative health outcomes. The interplay between these axes and the environment is complex, and understanding needs to be advanced by the investigation of the multiple hormonal relationships underlying these processes. The current study examined basal hormonal associations between morning levels of cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone in a cohort of adolescents (mean age 15.56 years). The moderating influence of childhood adversity was also examined, as indexed by self-reported trauma (at mean age 14.91), and observed maternal aggressive parenting (at mean age 12.41). Between-person regressions revealed significant associations between hormones that were moderated by both measures of adversity. In females, all hormones positively covaried, but also interacted with adversity, such that positive covariation was typically only present when levels of trauma and/or aggressive parenting were low. In males, hormonal associations and interactions were less evident; however, interactions were detected for cortisol-testosterone - positively covarying at high levels of aggressive parenting but negatively covarying at low levels - and DHEA-cortisol - similarly positively covarying at high levels of parental aggression. These results demonstrate associations between adrenal and gonadal hormones and the moderating role of adversity, which is likely driven by feedback mechanisms, or cross-talk, between the axes. These findings suggest that hormonal changes may be the pathway through which early life adversity alters physiology and increases health risks, but does so differentially in the sexes; however further study is necessary to establish causation. PMID:25754696

  14. Modeling diurnal hormone profiles by hierarchical state space models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziyue; Guo, Wensheng

    2015-10-30

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) diurnal patterns contain both smooth circadian rhythms and pulsatile activities. How to evaluate and compare them between different groups is a challenging statistical task. In particular, we are interested in testing (1) whether the smooth ACTH circadian rhythms in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia patients differ from those in healthy controls and (2) whether the patterns of pulsatile activities are different. In this paper, a hierarchical state space model is proposed to extract these signals from noisy observations. The smooth circadian rhythms shared by a group of subjects are modeled by periodic smoothing splines. The subject level pulsatile activities are modeled by autoregressive processes. A functional random effect is adopted at the pair level to account for the matched pair design. Parameters are estimated by maximizing the marginal likelihood. Signals are extracted as posterior means. Computationally efficient Kalman filter algorithms are adopted for implementation. Application of the proposed model reveals that the smooth circadian rhythms are similar in the two groups but the pulsatile activities in patients are weaker than those in the healthy controls. PMID:26152819

  15. Acutely elevated vasopressin increases circulating concentrations of cortisol and aldosterone in fasting northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo; Talamantes, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The physiological actions of vasopressin (VP) in marine mammals are not well defined. To help elucidate its hormonal and renal effects in this group of mammals, northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups (N=7; 99+/-4 kg) were first infused with 0.9% saline (control; 220 ml), followed 24 h later with VP (as a 20 ng kg(-1) bolus, then 2 ng kg(-1) min(-1) for approximately 35 min in 225+/-16 ml saline). During both control and VP periods, blood samples were collected prior to infusion, and 15, 30, 60, 120 min and 24 h after infusion to examine the hormonal responses of the pups to VP. Renal responses were quantified from 24 h urine samples obtained prior to infusion (control) and 24 h post-infusion. Compared to the control period, infusion of VP increased plasma concentrations of cortisol over a 120 min period and aldosterone over 30 min, while plasma renin activity (PRA) was decreased for a 120 min period. The plasma urea:creatinine ratio was elevated following infusion of VP. Urine output and osmotic clearance were increased by 69+/-18% (mean +/- S.E.M.) and 36+/-10%, respectively, but free water clearance and glomerular filtration rate were not significantly altered 24 h post-infusion of VP. Solute (osmolality, Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-)) excretion and fractional excretion of electrolytes were also increased when compared to control values. The increase in cortisol concentration suggests that VP may possess corticotropin releasing hormone-like activity in elephant seals. If osmotic diuresis and natriuresis are typical consequences of elevated [VP] in fasting pups, then not increasing VP normally during the fast may serve as a protective mechanism to avoid the potential loss of Na(+) induced by elevated [VP]. Therefore, under natural fasting conditions, pups may be highly sensitive to small changes in [VP], resulting in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance.

  16. Modulatory mechanisms of cortisol effects on emotional learning and memory: Novel perspectives

    PubMed Central

    van Ast, Vanessa A.; Cornelisse, Sandra; Marin, Marie-France; Ackermann, Sandra; Garfinkel, Sara; Abercrombie, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary It has long been known that cortisol affects learning and memory processes. Despite a wealth of research dedicated to cortisol effects on learning and memory, the strength or even directionality of the effects often vary. A number of the factors that alter cortisol’s effects on learning and memory are well-known. For instance, effects of cortisol can be modulated by emotional arousal and the memory phase under study. Despite great advances in understanding factors that explain variability in cortisol’s effects, additional modulators of cortisol effects on memory exist that are less widely acknowledged in current basic experimental research. The goal of the current review is to disseminate knowledge regarding less well-known modulators of cortisol effects on learning and memory. Since several models for the aetiology of anxiety, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), incorporate stress and the concomitant release of cortisol as important vulnerability factors, enhanced understanding of mechanisms by which cortisol exerts beneficial as opposed to detrimental effects on memory is very important. Further elucidation of the factors that modulate (or alter) cortisol’s effects on memory will allow reconciliation of seemingly inconsistent findings in the basic and clinical literatures. The present review is based on a symposium as part of the 42nd International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology Conference, New York, USA, that highlighted some of those modulators and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:23845515

  17. Measuring cortisol in hair and saliva from dogs: coat color and pigment differences.

    PubMed

    Bennett, A; Hayssen, V

    2010-10-01

    Cortisol concentrations are frequently measured from a variety of sources including blood, saliva, urine, and feces to quantify stress in dogs. However, a need still exists for less intrusive collection methods in domestic animals and for more efficient means of measuring basal cortisol. The objectives of the present study were to minimize restraint for saliva sampling, to validate hair for basal cortisol measurement in dogs, and to determine concentrations of cortisol within the hair shaft and in relation to hair color. Using food luring, 79% of dogs required no restraint for saliva collection. Salivary and hair cortisol concentrations were positively correlated (P = 0.001), thus validating hair as a medium for basal cortisol quantification. Black dogs had less cortisol than nonblack dogs (P = 0.039) in hair, but not saliva. Across dogs, the average amount of cortisol did not differ between proximal and distal hair sections (P = 0.348). However, for 7 of the 9 dogs, more cortisol was present in the distal portions of the hair. We observed a difference in cortisol concentrations among hairs of different colors from individual dogs (P = 0.001). From the same 7 x 7 cm ischiatic patch from the same dog, black (eumelanin) hairs were consistently lower in cortisol than yellow (pheomelanin) hairs, and cortisol concentrations of agouti hairs were intermediate. This is the first evidence that hair of different colors might sequester cortisol differently. PMID:20705413

  18. Basal or stress-induced cortisol and asthma development: the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Vink, Nienke M; Boezen, H Marike; Postma, Dirkje S; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2013-04-01

    We examined the association between: 1) cortisol levels and asthma or asthma development; 2) cortisol levels upon stress and asthma. In addition, we performed a post hoc meta-analysis on results from the literature. Cortisol, cortisol upon stress, asthma (doctor diagnosis of asthma and/or symptoms and/or treatment in the past 12 months) and asthma development (asthma at a specific survey while not having asthma at the previous survey(s)) were assessed in the TRAILS study (n=2230, mean age at survey 1 11 years, survey 2 14 years and survey 3 16 years). Logistic regression models were used to study associations between: 1) cortisol (cortisol awakening response, area under the curve (AUC) with respect to the ground (AUCg) or with respect to the increase (AUCi), and evening cortisol) and asthma or asthma development; 2) cortisol upon stress (AUCg or AUCi) and asthma. The meta-analyses included nine case-control articles on basal cortisol in asthma. No significant association was found between: 1) cortisol and asthma (age 11 years) or asthma development (age 14 or 16 years); 2) cortisol upon stress and asthma (age 16 years). The meta-analysis found lower morning and evening cortisol levels in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics; however, the summary estimates were not significant. We found no evidence supporting a role for cortisol in asthma and asthma development. PMID:22790914

  19. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, p<.001), and where the mean age was 40 or above the association was negative (i.e., lower cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=-.129, p<.001). These findings confirm that HPA axis activity, as indicated by age-dependent variations in cortisol levels, is associated with suicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications. PMID:26555430

  20. Mapping the human corticotropin releasing hormone binding protein gene (CRHBP) to the long arm of chromosome 5 (5q11.2-q13.3)

    SciTech Connect

    Vamvakopoulos, N.C.; Sioutopoulou, T.O.; Durkin, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Unexpected stimulation or stress activates the heat shock protein (hsp) system at the cellular level and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the level of the whole organism. At the molecular level, these two systems communicate through the functional interaction between hsp90 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) system regulates the mammalian stress response by coordinating the activity of the HPA axis. It consists of the 41-amino-acid-long principal hypothalamic secretagogue for pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), CRH, its receptor (CRHR), and its binding protein (CRHBP). Because of its central role in the coordination of stress response and whole body homeostasis, the CRH system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroendocrine and psychiatric disease. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Monkeys after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Mukku, V. R.; Dotsenko, R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Bigbee, A. J.; Helwig, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12.5 day spaceflight on the endocrine status of Rhesus monkeys. Male monkeys (three to four years old; 4 kg) were adapted to chair restraint and trained for 20 months. Blood samples were obtained from four control (C) and two flight (F) monkeys preflight (PF), post-flight (Recovery-R; days 0, 3, 11, and 17), and before and after a mission length simulation (S). Cortisol, T4, T3, testosterone (T), and IGF-1 were measured by RIA (radioimmunassay). Growth hormone (GH) was measured by an in vitro bioassay. Cortisol (16-34 ug/dl), T4 (3.9-7.4 ug/dl), and T (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) did not differ between F and C or between PF, R, and S samples. The low T values reflect the immaturity of the animals. In F, T3 fell from C levels of 208 +/- 4 ng/dl to 44 on R+0 and 150 on R+3, then returned to C. F showed a 55% decrease in GH at R+0 and decreases of 93, 89, and 80%, respectively, at R+3, 11, and 17. IGF-1 decreased from PF levels of 675 ng/ml to 365 (R+0) and 243 (R+3), but returned to C at R+11. GH and IGF-1 levels before and after S did not differ from each other or from C. The cause of the transitory decrease in T3 is unknown. The suppressed GH levels for 17 days after flight may reflect reduced proprioceptive input during flight. The faster recovery of IGF-1 suggests that factors other than reduced GH secretion are involved.

  2. Deciding about hormone therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding ... ovaries stop making eggs. They also produce less estrogen and progesterone. Menstrual periods slowly stop over time. ...

  3. Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.L. Hontela, A.

    2011-06-01

    Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC{sub 50} > 2000 mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC{sub 50} = 8.7 mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC{sub 50} = 90.4 mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. - Research Highlights: > We investigated species-specific sensitivity to Se in trout adrenocortical cells. > Selenite, not Se-Met, disrupts cortisol secretion in trout adrenocortical cells. > Rainbow trout cells are more sensitive than brook trout cells to selenite toxicity. > Superoxide dismutase may protect adrenocortical cells from selenite toxicity.

  4. Effect of restorative yoga vs. stretching on diurnal cortisol dynamics and psychosocial outcomes in individuals with the metabolic syndrome: the PRYSMS randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Sarah M.; Epel, Elissa; Schembri, Michael; Pawlowsky, Sarah B.; Cole, Roger J.; Araneta, Maria Rosario G.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Kanaya, Alka M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Chronic stimulation and dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system by stress may cause metabolic abnormalities. We estimated how much cortisol and psychosocial outcomes improved with a restorative yoga (relaxation) versus a low impact stretching intervention for individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Methods We conducted a 1-year multi-center randomized controlled trial (6-month intervention and 6-month maintenance phase) of restorative yoga vs. stretching. Participants completed surveys to assess depression, social support, positive affect, and stress at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. For each assessment, we collected saliva at four points daily for three days and collected response to dexamethasone on the fourth day for analysis of diurnal cortisol dynamics. We analyzed our data using multivariate regression models, controlling for study site, medications (antidepressants, hormone therapy), body mass index, and baseline cortisol values. Results Psychosocial outcome measures were available for 171 study participants at baseline, 140 at 6 months, and 132 at the 1 year. Complete cortisol data were available for 136 of 171 study participants (72 in restorative yoga and 64 in stretching) and were only available at baseline and 6 months. At 6 months, the stretching group had decreased cortisol at waking and bedtime compared to the restorative yoga group, The pattern of changes in stress mirrored this improvement, with the stretching group showing reductions in chronic stress severity and perseverative thoughts about their stress. Perceived stress decreased by 1.5 points (?0.4; 3.3, p=0.11) at 6 months, and by 2.0 points (0.1; 3.9, p=0.04) at 1 year in the stretching compared to restorative yoga groups. Post hoc analyses suggest that in the stretching group only, perceived increases in social support (particularly feelings of belonging), but not changes in stress were related to improved cortisol dynamics. Conclusions We found significant decreases in salivary cortisol, chronic stress severity, and stress perception in the stretching group compared to the restorative yoga group. Group support during the interactive stretch classes may have contributed to these changes. PMID:25127084

  5. What Are the Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... woman who is not pregnant or breastfeeding Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) may cause: ... with weight gain in children Irregular menses Growth Hormone Too much growth hormone may cause: Headache Some ...

  6. Regulation of intra-adipose cortisol concentrations in vivo in humans 

    E-print Network

    Hughes, Katherine Ann

    2011-07-05

    Intra-adipose cortisol is derived from the systemic circulation via the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis (HPAA) and generated locally through conversion of inactive cortisone to cortisol by the intra-cellular enzyme ...

  7. Low basal salivary cortisol is associated with teacher-reported symptoms of conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Geurts, Hilde M; Knol, Dirk L; Sergeant, Joseph A

    2005-03-30

    Cortisol has been implicated in psychobiological explanations of antisocial behavior. This study measured basal salivary cortisol in a sample of 25 children (age range 6 to 12 years) selected to vary in levels of antisocial behavior. Regression analyses were used to predict cortisol concentrations from parent- and teacher-reported symptoms. Parent-reported symptoms did not predict basal cortisol. Teacher-reported conduct disorder (CD) symptoms explained 38% of the variance in the cortisol concentrations, with high symptom severity associated with low cortisol. When a distinction was made between aggressive and non-aggressive CD symptoms, aggressive CD symptoms were more clearly related to low cortisol than non-aggressive CD symptoms. In contrast to previous research, no evidence was found for a mediating role of anxiety symptoms in the relationship between CD and cortisol. The results support biologically based models of antisocial behavior in children that involve reduced autonomic activity. PMID:15808285

  8. The Influence of a Motivational Climate Intervention on Participant Salivary Cortisol and Motivational Responses

    E-print Network

    Hogue, Candace M

    2011-12-31

    that participating in the ego-involving climate elicited a significant salivary cortisol spike, while participating in the caring/task-involving climate led to a significant decrease in salivary cortisol levels. In addition, the ego-involving climate participants...

  9. Effect of the Nature of Subsequent Environment on Oxytocin and Cortisol Secretion in Maltreated Children

    PubMed Central

    Mizushima, Sakae G.; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Kumazaki, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Shiho; Tomoda, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM), including abuse and neglect, is a crucial factor that distorts child development. CM is associated with alterations in numerous brain regions, and may be associated with hormonal dysregulation. This study aimed to investigate differences in secretion patterns of cortisol (CT) and oxytocin (OT) among children who experienced CM, children living in residential care facilities and in unstable environments. Among 38 maltreated children, 23 (mean age?=?12.2?years, SD?=?3.0) were categorized as “Settled” and 15 (mean age?=?13.1?years, SD?=?2.2) as “Unsettled.” Twenty-six age- and gender-matched (mean age?=?12.6?years, SD?=?2.1), typically developing (TD) children were also included. Clinical and psychological assessments, including IQ and trauma evaluations, were conducted for all participants. Age, gender, and full-scale IQ were used as covariates in hormone analysis. Two saliva samples were collected, one on awakening and the other at bedtime. There were significant differences in the awakening CT levels of the “Unsettled” group, and in bedtime OT levels in the “Settled” group as compared with TD children, and between CM groups. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in trauma-symptomatic depression scores between the “Settled” and “Unsettled” CM group. These results suggest that CT diurnal secretions tend to be reactive to current stress rather than previous experience. OT diurnal secretions are presumably hyper-regulated for coping with the environment to survive and thrive. By measuring salivary CT/OT diurnal patterns, hormonal dysregulation of CM children living in “Settled” environments and “Unsettled” environments was indicated. PMID:26696910

  10. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  11. Circadian regulation of cortisol release in behaviorally split golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Travis R; Wotus, Cheryl; Taylor, Daniel; Lee, Jennifer M; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2012-02-01

    The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately 12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We show that unsplit control hamsters present a single peak of cortisol release that is concomitant with a single peak of ACTH release. In contrast, split hamsters show two peaks of cortisol release that are approximately 12 h appart and are appropriately phased to each locomotor activity bout but surprisingly do not rely on rhythmic release of ACTH. Our results are consistent with a model in which the circadian pacemaker within the SCN regulates the circadian release of GC via input to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and via a second regulatory pathway, which likely involves sympathetic innervation of the adrenal and can operate even in the absence of ACTH circadian rhythmic release. Furthermore, we show that although the overall 24-h cortisol output in split hamsters is lower than in unsplit controls, split hamsters release constant low levels of ACTH. This result suggests that the timing, rather than the absolute amount, of cortisol release is more critical for the induction of negative feedback effects that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:22128030

  12. Latent trait cortisol (LTC) levels: reliability, validity, and stability.

    PubMed

    Doane, Leah D; Chen, Frances R; Sladek, Michael R; Van Lenten, Scott A; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-05-01

    The regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has received empirical attention as a mechanism contributing to individual differences in health and human development. A variety of sampling tactics and strategies index daily HPA axis functioning including the cortisol awakening response (CAR), the diurnal slope, and the area under the curve (AUGg). In an ethnically diverse sample (54% European-American, 23% Latino) of 82 adolescents (24% male, M age=18.05 years), we assessed salivary cortisol 45 times over the transition to college: 5 times per day, over 3 sequential days, across 3 waves (initially, 5, and 9 months later). Samples were collected at waking; 30 min, 3, and 8h post waking; and bedtime. Latent state-trait modeling indicated that the waking and 30 min post waking samples contributed to indices of within and across wave latent trait cortisol (LTC) levels. As such, a latent trait factor of cortisol was derived to reflect both within- and across-wave trait components of the variance in cortisol. LTC was distinct from the CAR, differentially predicted components of the diurnal profile across the day, and was highly stable across assessment waves (months). As preliminary evidence for convergent validity of LTC levels, childhood trauma was positively associated with LTC. Findings document the reliability, divergent and convergent validity, and stability of a latent trait factor of individual differences in HPA axis activity that may provide a cost efficient alternative to existing strategies and minimize participant burden. PMID:25705799

  13. Childhood parental loss and cortisol levels in adult men.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, Nancy A

    2004-09-01

    Although data from animal studies show that early rearing experiences can have lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, little is known about the relationship between childhood parental loss and adult cortisol levels in humans. In the current study, 57 healthy adult men completed a telephone interview concerning parental loss or separations before age 17. Salivary cortisol measures, taken 10 times a day for 5 days in the daily environment, were available from an earlier study. Nine subjects had experienced the death of a parent during childhood. Compared to levels in 38 subjects who had experienced neither loss nor a separation > two weeks, parental loss by death was associated with higher cortisol throughout the day (F(1,44) = 4.73, p = 0.035). Men who had lost a parent scored no higher than those with no loss or separation on trait anxiety or current depressive symptoms, and the effect of parental loss on cortisol remained significant after controlling for these variables. Cortisol patterns in men who had been temporarily separated from one or both parents (n = 10) were inconsistent. Limitations include a lack of systematic information concerning the quality of care after parental death and other forms of childhood adversity. The sample was too small to assess effects of maternal vs. paternal loss or age at loss. Results suggest that parental death during childhood may have lasting effects on the HPA axis, even in the absence of psychopathology. PMID:15219652

  14. Abnormal serotonergic stimulation of cortisol production in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Hudgel, D W; Gordon, E A; Meltzer, H Y

    1995-07-01

    Because serotonin (5-HT) precursor or reuptake inhibitors improve obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), we hypothesized that brain serotonergic activity may be decreased in OSA. To test this hypothesis, we measured the cortisol response to the ingestion of L-5-hydroxytryptophan (L-5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor that is decarboxylated to 5-HT in the brain. Either L-5-HTP or an identical-looking placebo was administered at 0800, and blood was obtained over the following 4 h for serum cortisol determination. A placebo-controlled ACTH stimulation test was performed to evaluate adrenal function. We found that a group of 11 OSA patients had significantly higher cortisol production after L-5-HTP administration compared with a group of 11 control nonapneic subjects. The pretest cortisol levels and ACTH stimulation test results were not different between the two groups. We conclude that the cortisol response to L-5-HTP was elevated in the OSA patients studied, most likely as a result of increased hypophyseal 5-HT activity. We speculate that the 5-HT postsynaptic receptors that induce corticotropin releasing factor production and release are upregulated, or supersensitized, as a result of a brain 5-HT-deficient state that exists during sleep in OSA. We anticipate that medullary serotonergic neurons that affect ventilation would be altered similarly. PMID:7599822

  15. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Leslie B.; Wells, Randall S.; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lamb, Stephen V.; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S.; Schwacke, Lori H.

    2015-01-01

    Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones commonly associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these reference intervals will be used to gauge an individual’s response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000–2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91–4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32–6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of Sarasota Bay bottlenose dolphin aldosterone concentrations were below the assay’s detection limit (11 pg/mL), thus hindering the ability to derive 95th percentile RIs. Serum aldosterone concentrations from animals sampled at the three additional sites were compared to the detection limit, and the proportion of animals with low aldosterone concentrations was not significantly different than an expected prevalence of 16%. Although this study relied upon long-term, free-ranging bottlenose dolphin health data from a single site, the objective RIs can be used for future evaluation of adrenal function among individuals sampled during capture-release health assessments. PMID:25993341

  16. Light at night alters daily patterns of cortisol and clock proteins in female Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, T A; Galan, A; Vaughn, C A; Weil, Z M; Nelson, R J

    2013-06-01

    Humans and other organisms have adapted to a 24-h solar cycle in response to life on Earth. The rotation of the planet on its axis and its revolution around the sun cause predictable daily and seasonal patterns in day length. To successfully anticipate and adapt to these patterns in the environment, a variety of biological processes oscillate with a daily rhythm of approximately 24 h in length. These rhythms arise from hierarchally-coupled cellular clocks generated by positive and negative transcription factors of core circadian clock gene expression. From these endogenous cellular clocks, overt rhythms in activity and patterns in hormone secretion and other homeostatic processes emerge. These circadian rhythms in physiology and behaviour can be organised by a variety of cues, although they are most potently entrained by light. In recent history, there has been a major change from naturally-occurring light cycles set by the sun, to artificial and sometimes erratic light cycles determined by the use of electric lighting. Virtually every individual living in an industrialised country experiences light at night (LAN) but, despite its prevalence, the biological effects of such unnatural lighting have not been fully considered. Using female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), we investigated the effects of chronic nightly exposure to dim light on daily rhythms in locomotor activity, serum cortisol concentrations and brain expression of circadian clock proteins (i.e. PER1, PER2, BMAL1). Although locomotor activity remained entrained to the light cycle, the diurnal fluctuation of cortisol concentrations was blunted and the expression patterns of clock proteins in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hippocampus were altered. These results demonstrate that chronic exposure to dim LAN can dramatically affect fundamental cellular function and emergent physiology. PMID:23489976

  17. Radioimmunoassay and chemical ionization/mass spectrometry compared for plasma cortisol determination

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, C.; Johnson, S.; Hedner, P.; Gustafsson, A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for determination of cortisol in plasma and urine, based on chemical ionization/mass spectrometry with deuterium-labeled cortisol as the internal standard. The within-run precision (CV) was 2.5-5.7%, the between-run precision 4.6%. Results by this method were compared with those by a radioimmunological method (RIANEN Cortisol, New England Nuclear) for 395 plasma samples. The latter method gave significantly higher (approx. 25%) cortisol values.

  18. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Stress-Related Behaviors and Stress Hormones in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure. PMID:25489427

  19. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure. PMID:25489427

  20. Effects of mental resilience on neuroendocrine hormones level changes induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinyang; Dai, Xuyan; Yang, Tingshu; Song, Hongtao; Yang, Jialin; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Liyi

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mental resilience on the changes of serum rennin, angiotensin, and cortisol level induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen. By random cluster sampling, a total of 160 servicemen, aged from 18 to 30, were selected to undergo 24-hour total sleep deprivation and administered the military personnel mental resilience scale after the deprivation procedure. The sleep deprivation procedure started at 8 a.m. on Day 8 and ended at 8 a.m. on Day 9 after 7 days of normal sleep for baseline preparation. Blood samples were drawn from the 160 participants at 8 a.m. respectively on Day 8 and Day 9 for hormonal measurements. All blood samples were analyzed using radioimmunoassay. As hypothesized, serum rennin, angiotensin II, and cortisol level of the participants after sleep deprivation were significantly higher than those before (P < 0.05). The changes of serum rennin and cortisol in the lower mental resilience subgroup were significantly greater (P < 0.05); problem-solving skill and willpower were the leading influence factors for the increases of serum rennin and cortisol respectively induced by sleep deprivation. We conclude that mental resilience plays a significant role in alleviating the changes of neurohormones level induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen. PMID:24633577

  1. Maternal adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and thyroid hormone responses to chronic binge alcohol exposure throughout gestation: ovine model 

    E-print Network

    Tress, Ursula

    2009-05-15

    anesthesia until after the first trimester to avoid early embryonic losses. In brief, anesthesia was induced with diazepam (0.2 mg/kg intravenously, Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) and ketamine (0.4 mg/kg intravenously, Ketaset?, Fort Doge, IA...). The ewes were intubated and anesthesia was maintained using isoflurane (0.5-2.5%. IsoFlo?, Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) and oxygen. Arterial and venous vascular access ports were placed subcutaneously in the flank region. The catheters were...

  2. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... medicines you take. These include: Birth control pills Hormone therapy Testosterone DHEA (a supplement) If you are ...

  3. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePLUS

    ... made up of organs and tissues that produce hormones. Hormones are natural chemicals produced in one location, released ... then used by other target organs and systems. Hormones control the target organs. Some organ systems have ...

  4. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A fact sheet about the results of research on menopausal hormone therapy. Includes information about the effect of menopausal hormone therapy on the body. Also outlines the benefits and risks of using menopausal hormones.

  5. Endogenous Cortisol: Acute Modulation of Cytokine Gene Expression in Bovine PBMCs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar, Neuroimmunomod 2009;16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expres...

  6. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Feist, Grant W.; Varga, Zoltán M.; Westerfield, Monte; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. PMID:25587201

  7. Exposure to Maternal Distress in Childhood and Cortisol Activity in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahrer, Nicole E.; Luecken, Linda J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated cortisol is a risk factor for poor health outcomes. Children of distressed mothers exhibit dysregulated cortisol, yet it is unclear whether maternal distress predicts cortisol activity in later developmental stages. This longitudinal study examined the prospective relation between maternal distress during late childhood (9-12 years)…

  8. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  9. Cortisol Reactivity is Positively Related to Executive Function in Preschool Children Attending Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas; Razza, Rachel Peters

    2005-01-01

    This study examined relations among cortisol reactivity and measures of cognitive function and social behavior in 4- to 5-year-old children (N=169) attending Head Start. Saliva samples for the assay of cortisol were collected at the beginning, middle, and end of an approximately 45-min testing session. Moderate increase in cortisol followed by…

  10. Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine PBMCs by endogenous cortisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar, Neuroimmunomod 2009;16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expres...

  11. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  12. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by endogenous cortisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar. 2009. Neuroimmunomod. 16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expr...

  14. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E.; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V.; Dahl, Geoffrey E.; Tao, Sha

    2014-01-01

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg?1·day?1) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  15. Estrogenic plant consumption predicts red colobus monkey (Procolobus rufomitratus) hormonal state and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Michael D.; Chapman, Colin A.; Milton, Katharine; Gogarten, Jan F.; Wittwer, Dan J.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effects of anthropogenic endocrine disrupting compounds; however, very little is known about the effects of naturally occurring plant-produced estrogenic compounds (i.e., phytoestrogens) on vertebrates. To examine the seasonal pattern of phytoestrogen consumption and its relationship to hormone levels (407 fecal samples analyzed for estradiol and cortisol) and social behavior (aggression, mating, and grooming) in a primate, we conducted an 11-month field study of red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) in Kibale National Park, Uganda. The percent of diet from estrogenic plants averaged 10.7% (n = 45 weeks; range: 0.7 – 32.4%). Red colobus fed more heavily on estrogenic Millettia dura young leaves during weeks of higher rainfall, and the consumption of this estrogenic item was positively correlated to both their fecal estradiol and cortisol levels. Social behaviors were related to estradiol and cortisol levels, as well as the consumption of estrogenic plants and rainfall. The more the red colobus consumed estrogenic plants the higher their rates of aggression and copulation and the lower their time spent grooming. Our results suggest that the consumption of estrogenic plants has important implications for primate health and fitness through interactions with the endocrine system and changes in hormone levels and social behaviors. PMID:23010620

  16. Cortisol release in response to UVB exposure in Xiphophorus fish.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Adam J; Boswell, Mikki; Downs, Kevin P; Pasquali, Amanda; Walter, Ronald B

    2014-06-01

    Xiphophorus fishes are comprised of 26 known species. Interspecies hybridization between select species has been utilized to produce experimental models to study melanoma development. Xiphophorus melanoma induction protocols utilize ultraviolet light (UVB) to induce DNA damage and associated downstream tumorigenesis. However, the impact of induced stress caused by the UVB treatment of the experimental animals undergoing tumor induction protocols has not been assessed. Stress is an adaptive physiological response to excessive or unpredictable environmental stimuli. The stress response in fishes may be measured by an assay of cortisol released into the water. Here, we present results from investigations of stress response during an experimental treatment and UVB exposure in Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B, Xiphophorus couchianus, and F1 interspecies hybrids produced from the mating X. maculatus Jp 163 B×X. couchianus. Overall, cortisol release rates for males and females after UVB exposure showed no statistical differences. At lower UVB doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)), X. couchianus exhibited 2 fold higher levels of DNA damage then either X. maculatus or the F1 hybrid. However, based on the cortisol release rates, none of the fish types tested induced a primary stress response at the UVB lower doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)). In contrast, at a very high UVB dose (32kJ/m(2)) both X. maculatus and the F1 hybrid showed a 5 fold increase in the cortisol release rate. To determine the effect of pigmentation on UVB induced stress, wild type and albino Xiphophorus hellerii were exposed to UVB (32kJ/m(2)). Albino X. hellerii exhibited 3.7 fold increase in the cortisol release while wild type X. hellerii did not exhibit a significant cortisol response to UVB. Overall, the data suggest the rather low UVB doses often employed in tumor induction protocols do not induce a primary stress response in Xiphophorus fishes. PMID:24625568

  17. High and low protein? carbohydrate dietary ratios during gestation alter maternal-fetal cortisol regulation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kanitz, Ellen; Otten, Winfried; Tuchscherer, Margret; Gräbner, Maria; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Metges, Cornelia C

    2012-01-01

    Imbalanced maternal nutrition during gestation can cause alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system in offspring. The present study investigated the effects of maternal low- and high-protein diets during gestation in pigs on the maternal-fetal HPA regulation and expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11?-HSD1 and 11?-HSD2) and c-fos mRNAs in the placenta and fetal brain. Twenty-seven German Landrace sows were fed diets with high (HP, 30%), low (LP, 6.5%) or adequate (AP, 12.1%) protein levels made isoenergetic by varying the carbohydrate levels. On gestational day 94, fetuses were recovered under general anesthesia for the collection of blood, brain and placenta samples. The LP diet in sows increased salivary cortisol levels during gestation compared to the HP and AP sows and caused an increase of placental GR and c-fos mRNA expression. However, the diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol was disturbed in both LP and HP sows. Total plasma cortisol concentrations in the umbilical cord vessels were elevated in fetuses from HP sows, whereas corticosteroid-binding globulin levels were decreased in LP fetuses. In the hypothalamus, LP fetuses displayed an enhanced mRNA expression of 11?-HSD1 and a reduced expression of c-fos. Additionally, the 11?-HSD2 mRNA expression was decreased in both LP and HP fetuses. The present results suggest that both low and high protein?carbohydrate dietary ratios during gestation may alter the expression of genes encoding key determinants of glucocorticoid hormone action in the fetus with potential long-lasting consequences for stress adaptation and health. PMID:23300759

  18. High and Low Protein? Carbohydrate Dietary Ratios during Gestation Alter Maternal-Fetal Cortisol Regulation in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kanitz, Ellen; Otten, Winfried; Tuchscherer, Margret; Gräbner, Maria; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Metges, Cornelia C.

    2012-01-01

    Imbalanced maternal nutrition during gestation can cause alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system in offspring. The present study investigated the effects of maternal low- and high-protein diets during gestation in pigs on the maternal-fetal HPA regulation and expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11?-HSD1 and 11?-HSD2) and c-fos mRNAs in the placenta and fetal brain. Twenty-seven German Landrace sows were fed diets with high (HP, 30%), low (LP, 6.5%) or adequate (AP, 12.1%) protein levels made isoenergetic by varying the carbohydrate levels. On gestational day 94, fetuses were recovered under general anesthesia for the collection of blood, brain and placenta samples. The LP diet in sows increased salivary cortisol levels during gestation compared to the HP and AP sows and caused an increase of placental GR and c-fos mRNA expression. However, the diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol was disturbed in both LP and HP sows. Total plasma cortisol concentrations in the umbilical cord vessels were elevated in fetuses from HP sows, whereas corticosteroid-binding globulin levels were decreased in LP fetuses. In the hypothalamus, LP fetuses displayed an enhanced mRNA expression of 11?-HSD1 and a reduced expression of c-fos. Additionally, the 11?-HSD2 mRNA expression was decreased in both LP and HP fetuses. The present results suggest that both low and high protein?carbohydrate dietary ratios during gestation may alter the expression of genes encoding key determinants of glucocorticoid hormone action in the fetus with potential long-lasting consequences for stress adaptation and health. PMID:23300759

  19. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-KV Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jack Monroe, Jr.

    There is ongoing controversy about the possibility of adverse biological effects from environmental exposures to electric and magnetic fields. These fields are produced by all electrical equipment and appliances including electrical transmission lines. The objective of this environmental science study was to investigate the possible effects of a high voltage transmission line on domestic sheep (Ovis aries L.), a species that can often be found near such lines. The study was primarily designed to determine whether a specific effect of electric and magnetic fields found in laboratory animals also occurs in livestock under natural environmental conditions. The effect is the ability of fields, at levels found in the environment, to significantly depress the normally high nocturnal concentrations of the pineal hormone-melatonin. Ten female Suffolk lambs were penned for 10 months directly beneath a 500-kV transmission line near Estacada, Oregon. Ten other lambs of the same type were penned in a control area away from the transmission line where electric and magnetic fields were at ambient levels. Serum melatonin was analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) from 6618 blood samples collected at 0.5 to 3-hour intervals over eight 48-hour periods. Serum progesterone was analyzed by RIA from blood samples collected twice weekly. Serum cortisol was also assayed by RIA from the blood samples collected during the 48-hour samples. Results showed that lambs in both the control and line groups had the typical pattern of melatonin secretion consisting of low daytime and high nighttime serum concentrations. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in melatonin levels, or in the phase or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation. Age at puberty and number of reproductive cycles also did not differ between groups. Serum cortisol showed a circadian rhythm with highest concentrations during the day. There were, however, no differences in cortisol concentrations between groups. Statistical analyses on other biological parameters revealed no differences between groups for body weight gain, wool growth, or behavior.

  20. Intimate partner violence exposure, salivary cortisol, and childhood asthma

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara B; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Neuroendocrine alterations may help explain health differences between intimate partner violence (IPV) exposed children and non-exposed children. We sought to determine the feasibility of having families, recruited at a child asthma visit, collect at home and return via mail child salivary samples, and whether socio-demographic variables were associated with sample return. For those returning samples, we examined whether past-year IPV exposure was associated with total cortisol output (AUC) and the magnitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and whether these cortisol values were associated with asthma control. Methods Fifty five families with an asthmatic child of any age were recruited from 2 pediatric asthma clinics. At the time of the visit, parents completed a survey packet which included a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale to assess IPV. Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-minutes after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within two weeks, most commonly before we made a reminder call. Parental male sex was associated (p = .06) with increased rate of return at the trend level. In multivariable models, a one-unit increase in IPV was significantly associated with a .93 SD increase in root-transformed total cortisol output (AUC) (un-standardized beta = 2.5; SE .59; p = 0.001). The odds of uncontrolled asthma were marginally higher for every nmol/l increase in CAR (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.0, 1.1; p = .06). Conclusions This study provides support for the feasibility of obtaining a moderate return of salivary specimens from a convenience sample. Findings that IPV was associated with elevated total cortisol output and uncontrolled asthma was marginally associated with cortisol awakening response suggest that future studies should investigate whether cortisol mediates the IPV-child asthma relationship. PMID:22858093

  1. Corticosterone, cortisol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid plasma concentrations during foie gras production in male mule ducks (Anas platyrhynchos?×?Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Flament, A; Delleur, V; Poulipoulis, A; Marlier, D

    2012-01-01

    1. Corticosterone, cortisol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and uric acid (UA) plasma concentration were measured at 8 (7 days after group housing), 12 (after 7 days of force feeding) and 13 weeks of age (at slaughter after 12 days of force feeding), and 45?min after an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test at 8 weeks of age in 12 male mule ducks in an on-farm experiment. 2. No significant increase of corticosterone was found during the force-feeding period compared with the concentration after housing. 3. Comparison of corticosterone and cortisol values indicates that cortisol can be considered as a reliable acute stress indicator in future routine examinations. 4. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides and aspartate aminotransferase increased progressively from pre-force feeding period to slaughtering. 5. Plasma concentrations of uric acid increased from the start at 8 weeks of age to the mid-force feeding period but no difference was noticed between the mid-force feeding period and slaughtering. 6. It is concluded that acute stress induced by force-feeding is similar at the beginning and end of the commercial production of foie gras. PMID:23130574

  2. Mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolites are associated with vigilance, whereas immediate cortisol levels better reflect acute anti-predator responses in meerkats.

    PubMed

    Voellmy, Irene K; Goncalves, Ines Braga; Barrette, Marie-France; Monfort, Steven L; Manser, Marta B

    2014-11-01

    Adrenal hormones likely affect anti-predator behavior in animals. With experimental field studies, we first investigated associations between mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGC) excretion and vigilance and with behavioral responses to alarm call playbacks in free-ranging meerkats (Suricata suricatta). We then tested how vigilance and behavioral responses to alarm call playbacks were affected in individuals administered exogenous cortisol. We found a positive association between mean fGC concentrations and vigilance behavior, but no relationship with the intensity of behavioral responses to alarm calls. However, in response to alarm call playbacks, individuals administered cortisol took slightly longer to resume foraging than control individuals treated with saline solution. Vigilance behavior, which occurs in the presence and absence of dangerous stimuli, serves to detect and avoid potential dangers, whereas responses to alarm calls serve to avoid immediate predation. Our data show that mean fGC excretion in meerkats was associated with vigilance, as a re-occurring anti-predator behavior over long time periods, and experimentally induced elevations of plasma cortisol affected the response to immediate threats. Together, our results indicate an association between the two types of anti-predator behavior and glucocorticoids, but that the underlying mechanisms may differ. Our study emphasizes the need to consider appropriate measures of adrenal activity specific to different contexts when assessing links between stress physiology and different anti-predator behaviors. PMID:25218254

  3. Cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia: Relationship to psychosocial stress and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Alexis E.; Zunszain, Patricia A.; Dickson, Hannah; Roberts, Ruth E.; Fisher, Helen L.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Laurens, Kristin R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as indexed by elevated diurnal cortisol levels and/or a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR), has been observed among patients with first episode psychosis and associated with neurocognitive deficits in this population. However, the extent to which these features precede illness onset is unclear. The current study aimed to determine whether children who are at putatively elevated risk for psychosis because they present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), and high-risk children with a family history of illness (FHx), are characterized by abnormal cortisol levels when compared with their typically developing (TD) peers. A further aim was to investigate the extent to which cortisol levels are associated with psychosocial stress and neurocognitive function. Thirty-three ASz children, 22 FHx children, and 40 TD children were identified at age 9–12 years using a novel community-based screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. All participants were antipsychotic-naive and not currently seeking treatment for their symptoms. At age 11–14 years, participants provided salivary cortisol samples and completed psychosocial stress measures and tests of memory and executive function. Results indicated that FHx children, but not ASz children, were characterized by a blunted CAR relative to their TD peers (effect size = ?0.73, p = 0.01) that was not explained by psychosocial stress exposure or by distress relating to these experiences. Neither FHx nor ASz children were characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol. Among both FHx and ASz children, more pronounced HPA axis function abnormalities (i.e., higher diurnal cortisol levels and greater blunting of the CAR) were associated with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory and executive function. These findings support the notion that at least some HPA axis abnormalities described in psychosis precede illness onset, rather than being a subsequent epiphenomenon. We speculate that the blunted CAR may constitute an early (potentially genetically mediated) marker of psychosis vulnerability, whilst elevated diurnal cortisol levels may emerge only proximally to disease onset. PMID:24882153

  4. Gender and ethnic differences in urinary stress hormones: the population-based Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study.

    PubMed

    Masi, Christopher M; Rickett, Edith M; Hawkley, Louise C; Cacioppo, John T

    2004-09-01

    Gender and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease and mortality have spurred interest in the epidemiology of stress hormone production. Greater disease burden among men and blacks raises the possibility of gender and ethnic differences in stress hormone production. The purpose of this study was to determine whether urinary stress hormones were higher among men and blacks in a population-based sample. Urinary hormone analysis permits a time-integrated assessment of the stress response system. However, differences in collection and standardization strategies have led to inconsistent findings. Subjects were an ethnically diverse population-based sample of 229 men and women aged 50-67 yr who provided an overnight urine specimen. Urine concentration was standardized using a traditional creatinine-based approach as well as a new method that accounts for muscle mass. With the use of creatinine standardization, no gender or ethnic differences were noted in epinephrine or cortisol production. Norepinephrine levels were higher among women compared with men (P = 0.001), however. After accounting for muscle mass, we found that both epinephrine (P = 0.018) and norepinephrine (P = 0.033) levels were higher among men compared with women. No significant differences in cortisol production were found by gender or ethnicity. The consistency of these results with previous studies of 24-h urine samples suggests muscle mass should be accounted for when comparing overnight urinary hormone values across gender and ethnicity. PMID:15145921

  5. Aggressive behavioral characteristics and endogenous hormones in women with Bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Cotrufo, P; Monteleone, P; d'Istria, M; Fuschino, A; Serino, I; Maj, M

    2000-01-01

    Increased aggressiveness frequently occurs in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), but its neurobiological correlates have been poorly investigated. In this study, we investigated possible relationships between such clinical measure and blood levels of endogenous hormones in patients with BN. Morning plasma levels of testosterone, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin (PRL) and cortisol were measured in 33 bulimic women and 22 healthy female controls. The eating-related psychopathology, depression and aggressiveness were rated by specific psychometric scales. Bulimic patients showed decreased plasma levels of PRL and 17beta-estradiol, and increased concentrations of cortisol and testosterone. Moreover, patients scored higher than healthy controls on rating scales assessing eating-related psychopathology, depressive symptoms and aggressiveness. A significant positive correlation was found between testosterone plasma levels and aggressiveness in patients but not in controls. These findings suggest that in BN, increased plasma levels of testosterone may play a role in the modulation of aggressiveness. PMID:10940759

  6. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. Methods We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Results Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Conclusions Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders. PMID:26317554

  7. Diagnostic value and clinical significance of stress hormones in patients with tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Kee; Chung, Dae Young; Bae, Seung Chun; Park, Kyoung-Ho; Yeo, Sang Won; Park, Shi-Nae

    2014-11-01

    Tinnitus has been found to be modulated by stress and is also closely related to the emotional state and the limbic system. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic and clinical values of several stress hormones in a large number of tinnitus patients. This study included 344 patients with sensorineural tinnitus and 87 normal controls. A questionnaire about tinnitus was administered to the participants, and blood levels of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (Epi), a metabolite of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA) and cortisol were compared between groups. In results, the mean values of Beck's depression inventory (BDI), Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument (BEPSI), NE, and 5-HIAA levels were higher in the tinnitus group, although there was no statistical significance. But, the proportion of participants with elevated 5-HIAA was significantly higher in the tinnitus group (21.8 vs. 8.0 %, P < 0.05), and the 5-HIAA level significantly correlated with the duration of tinnitus, NE and cortisol. Elevated stress-related hormones, as well as hearing loss, BDI, and BEPSI were the most related factors with tinnitus in multiple regression test with age adjustment. However, levels of stress-related hormones did not correlate with subjective measures including BDI, BEPSI and severity of tinnitus. In conclusion, blood stress hormones seemed to have some diagnostic and clinical value in patients with tinnitus, and serotonin is supposed to be the most important hormone in tinnitus. Further studies about the values of stress and stress hormones in tinnitus patients may lead to new approaches regarding diagnosis and clinical management of the disease. PMID:24162769

  8. [Blood glucose, ACTH, cortisol, T4, T3 and rT3 after cholecystectomy. Comparative studies of continuous peridural anesthesia and neuroleptanalgesia].

    PubMed

    Seeling, W; Altemeyer, K H; Butters, M; Fehm, H L; Loos, U; Mayer, R; Nabjinsky, M; Schmitz, J E

    1984-01-01

    15 patients (12 women and 3 men) undergoing cholecystectomy were randomized into two groups. 8 patients were operated on under continuous thoracic epidural anaesthesia in combination with light general anaesthesia. Postoperatively they were kept painfree by continuous infusion of an 0.125% solution of bupivacaine via epidural catheter at a rate of 0.25-0.3 ml/kg X h over a period of four days. The 7 patients in the control group were operated on under neuroleptanalgesia. Piritramide was given for postoperative analgesia. All patients received 40 ml/kg X day of electrolyte solution during the period of investigation. Blood was collected at 8 am, 12 am, 4 pm, 8 pm, and 12 pm on the day of operation and on the third postoperative day, at 8 am on the first and second postoperative day, and at 8 am, 12 am, and 4 pm on the fourth postoperative day. Plasma glucose, ACTH, cortisol, T4, T3, and reverse T3 were measured. During the operation and for 12 h thereafter a mild hyperglycaemia was observed in the neuroleptanalgesia group but not in the epidural group. The differences were significant. A rise in ACTH was seen in both groups during and shortly after operation. The increase in cortisol concentration following this ACTH release was significant only in the neuroleptanalgesia, but not in the epidural group. From the first to the fourth postoperative day ACTH levels were low and cortisol concentrations within the normal range. On the third day it appeared that a diurnal variation in cortisol levels was again present. Cortisol suppression following the administration of 2 mg dexamethasone on the fourth postoperative day was detectable in both groups. Of the thyroid hormones, T4 remained unchanged and at a normal level during the investigation. T3 decreased and reverse T3 increased significantly, the maximum rise being observed on the second day. There were no differences between the groups. These changes are defined as low T3 syndrome, following caloric deprivation, injury, and stress. The metabolic and hormonal alterations caused by cholecystectomy are marked only during operation and shortly thereafter and only in this period are they influenced by epidural analgesia. From the first postoperative day onwards they are almost negligible so that a mitigation by using continuous epidural analgesia is not to be expected. PMID:6324295

  9. Cortisol Levels and Children's Orientation in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Children's stress in day care is related to the stressful qualities of the environment and to children's orientations in that environment. The study involved 55 children in five day centres in Finland. Baseline saliva samples for measuring cortisol (stress) levels were collected five times during the day. Children were interviewed to measure their…

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Social and Reproductive Factors Affecting Cortisol

    E-print Network

    French, Jeffrey A.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Social and Reproductive Factors Affecting Cortisol Levels in Wild Female Golden- tive status than of chronic stress. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that wild golden lion-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), talapoin

  11. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  12. Decreased cortisol awakening response after early loss experience.

    PubMed

    Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Heim, Christine

    2005-07-01

    Early loss experience (ELE) due to death or separation is a major risk factor for the development of several psychiatric and physical disorders in adulthood. Few studies have focused on the effects of ELE on neuroendocrine systems, which might mediate this risk in part. The goal of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol responses to awakening in individuals with and without ELE. A total of 95 healthy college students (29 men, 66 women) completed a questionnaire on ELE and were instructed to collect saliva immediately after awakening and 30 min later. Fifty-five of the 95 subjects reported having experienced the separation or divorce of their parents and/or the death of a close relative before the age of 14 years. Subjects with such ELE exhibited decreased salivary cortisol responses to awakening compared to subjects without ELE (net increase: 4.78 nmol/l versus 9.83 nmol/l; t93 = 2.88, p = 0.005). The effect was most pronounced in individuals who experienced multiple types of ELE, while there were no sex differences. In conclusion, ELE appears to be associated with decreased salivary cortisol responses to awakening. Low cortisol awakening responses are believed to reflect altered dynamics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, possibly conferring risk for certain stress-related disorders. PMID:15808926

  13. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  14. Ship noise and cortisol secretion in European freshwater fishes

    E-print Network

    Ladich, Friedrich

    Ship noise and cortisol secretion in European freshwater fishes Lidia Eva Wysocki*, John P. Dittami October 2005 Accepted 11 October 2005 Available online 28 November 2005 Keywords: Fish Ship noise Stress addressed the effects of ship noise and continuous Gaussian noise on adrenal activity in three European

  15. Free cortisol awakening responses are influenced by awakening time.

    PubMed

    Federenko, Ilona; Wüst, Stefan; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Dechoux, Ralph; Kumsta, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2004-02-01

    Psychobiological investigations on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis depend on markers that adequately describe the activity of this system. There is evidence that the free cortisol response to awakening, proposed as a marker for the HPA axis, can be influenced by time of awakening. To further investigate this possible confounder, 24 shift working nurses and 31 female students on a regular sleep-wake cycle collected saliva samples 0, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after awakening. Nurses were investigated on the first and second day of their early (awakening: 04:00-05:30 h), late (awakening: 06:00-09:00 h), and night shift (awakening: 11:00-14:00 h), respectively. Students were studied after taking a short nap on two consecutive weekdays (awakening: 18:45-20:30 h). Mean cortisol levels after awakening increased significantly under all three shift conditions (p<0.01), but decreased in the student sample (p<.05). Within the three shift conditions, cortisol responses following waking in the early shift were more pronounced than in late (p<.01) and night shift (p<.05). The present study shows that in a sample with a large range of awakening times, an impact of this variable on the cortisol awakening response can be observed. The data furthermore strongly suggest that waking up per se is insufficient for adrenocortical stimulation. PMID:14604599

  16. Salivary Cortisol, Salivary Alpha Amylase, and the Dental Anxiety Scale

    PubMed Central

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels. PMID:23763559

  17. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    It was previously shown that magnetic storms lead to an increase in the level of cortisol and noradrenalin in healthy and sick people with cardiovascular diseases [Breus Rapoport. 2003]. However, in the healthy group in the cited study was only 4 people and it seemed that these results need to be checked. In the present work the 4 examinations (January, March, June, October) of large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements) on the blood levels of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3 ) and thyroxine T4) have been done. The aim was to study the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters in three independent groups of people living in this region (men working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women (280 samples)) to variations in external natural factors of high latitudes. For the analysis we used the following parameters of space and terrestrial weather :index of intensity of solar radio emission at a wavelength 10.7sm (RF10.7), planetary geomagnetic activity index - daily Kp index ( Kp) , the daily average Ap index ( Ap) , the maximum per every 3 -hour Kp index ) as well as the daily average indicators of flow rate of galactic cosmic rays neutron component (N), atmospheric pressure ( RATM ) and its rate of change ( the difference between the Ratm today and yesterday ) according to the geophysical station Oulu (Finland , http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of the level of studied three hormones is from the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA)-Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p <0.05) increase in cortisol levels in all three independent groups of people was shown. Amplitude increases in cortisol levels in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the average intragroup level in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average amplitude of intragroup variations). Thus, we showed for the first time that at high latitudes increase in the level of geomagnetic activity leads to a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones in residing at high latitudes area healthy individuals, indicating that they revealed the type of adaptive stress reaction in reply on GMA disturbance. 1. Breus T.K. and Rapoport S.I. Magnetic storms. Medico- biological aspects (in Russian), Publ.Co Soviet Sport,.Moscow, 2003, 271p.

  18. [Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor with Cushing's Syndrome in a Patient who Underwent Pulmonary Resection by Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Mishina, Taijiro; Miyajima, Masahiro; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2015-07-01

    Pulmonary carcinoid tumor with Cushing's syndrome is comparatively rare disease. It is difficult to make an early diagnosis due to small size lesion in its early stage. We report a case of pulmonary carcinoid tumor with Cushing's syndrome successfully localised by positron emission tomography/computed tomography and was resected in the early stage. The levels of serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone( ACTH) decreased immediately after surgery, and the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome were relieved. PMID:26197833

  19. Sweat-inducing physiological challenges do not result in acute changes in hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Gao, Wei; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to provide a stable, integrative marker of long-term systemic cortisol secretion. However, contrary to this assumption, some recent observations have raised the possibility that HCC may be subject to acute influences, potentially related to cortisol incorporation from sweat. Here, we provide a first detailed in vivo investigation of this possibility comprising two independent experimental studies: study I (N=42) used a treadmill challenge to induce sweating together with systemic cortisol reactivity while in study II (N=52) a sauna bathing challenge induced sweating without systemic cortisol changes. In both studies, repeated assessments of HCC, salivary cortisol, cortisol in sweat and individuals' sweating rate (single assessment) were conducted on the experimental day and at a next-day follow-up. Results across the two studies consistently revealed that HCC were not altered by the acute interventions. Further, HCC were found to be unrelated to acute salivary cortisol reactivity, sweat cortisol levels, sweating rate or the time of examination. In line with previous data, cortisol levels in sweat were strongly related to total salivary cortisol output across the examined periods. The present results oppose recent case report data by showing that single sweat-inducing interventions do not result in acute changes in HCC. Our data also tentatively speak against the notion that cortisol in sweat may be a dominant source of HCC. Further, our findings also indicate that HCC are not subject to diurnal variation. This research provides further support for hair cortisol analysis as a marker of integrated long-term systemic cortisol secretion. PMID:25615913

  20. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePLUS

    ... There are two types of bioidentical hormone products: • Pharmaceutical products. These products have been approved by the ... can vary, however, it is safer to use pharmaceutical products. This way, you’ll know exactly what ...

  1. Adrenal fasciculata cells express T-type and rapidly and slowly activating L-type Ca2+ channels that regulate cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Enyeart, John J; Enyeart, Judith A

    2015-06-01

    In whole cell patch-clamp recordings, we characterized the L-type Ca(2+) currents in bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells and explored their role, along with the role of T-type channels, in ACTH- and angiotensin II (ANG II)-stimulated cortisol secretion. Two distinct dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type currents were identified, both of which were activated at relatively hyperpolarized potentials. One activated with rapid kinetics and, in conjunction with Northern blotting and PCR, was determined to be Cav1.3. The other, expressed in approximately one-half of AZF cells, activated with extremely slow voltage-dependent kinetics and combined properties not previously reported for an L-type Ca(2+) channel. The T-type Ca(2+) channel antagonist 3,5-dichloro-N-[1-(2,2-dimethyl-tetrahydro-pyran-4-ylmethyl)-4-fluoro-piperidin-4-ylmethyl]-benzamide (TTA-P2) inhibited Cav3.2 current in these cells, as well as ACTH- and ANG II-stimulated cortisol secretion, at concentrations that did not affect L-type currents. In contrast, nifedipine specifically inhibited L-type currents and cortisol secretion, but less effectively than TTA-P2. Diphenylbutylpiperidine Ca(2+) antagonists, including pimozide, penfluridol, and fluspirilene, and the dihydropyridine niguldipine blocked Cav3.2 and L-type currents and inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion with similar potency. This study shows that bovine AZF cells express three Ca(2+) channels, the voltage-dependent gating and kinetics of which could orchestrate complex mechanisms linking peptide hormone receptors to cortisol secretion through action potentials or sustained depolarization. The function of the novel, slowly activating L-type channel is of particular interest in this respect. Regardless, the well-correlated selective inhibition of T- and L-type currents and ACTH- and ANG II-stimulated cortisol secretion by TTA-P2 and nifedipine establish the critical importance of these channels in AZF cell physiology. PMID:25788571

  2. Higher Perceived Stress but Lower Cortisol Levels Found among Young Greek Adults Living in a Stressful Social Environment in Comparison with Swedish Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Chatziarzenis, Marios; Sapouna, Vasiliki; Claesson, Hans-Peter; Koppner, Jenny; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide financial crisis during recent years has raised concerns of negative public health effects. This is notably evident in southern Europe. In Greece, where the financial austerity has been especially pronounced, the prevalence of mental health problems including depression and suicide has increased, and outbreaks of infectious diseases have risen. The main objective in this study was to investigate whether different indicators of health and stress levels measured by a new biomarker based on cortisol in human hair were different amongst comparable Greek and Swedish young adults, considering that Sweden has been much less affected by the recent economic crises. In this cross-sectional comparative study, young adults from the city of Athens in Greece (n?=?124) and from the city of Linkoping in Sweden (n?=?112) participated. The data collection comprised answering a questionnaire with different health indicators and hair samples being analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol, a biomarker with the ability to retrospectively measure long-term cortisol exposure. The Greek young adults reported significantly higher perceived stress (p<0.0001), had experienced more serious life events (p?=?0.002), had lower hope for the future (p<0.0001), and had significantly more widespread symptoms of depression (p<0.0001) and anxiety (p<0.0001) than the Swedes. But, the Greeks were found to have significantly lower cortisol levels (p<0.0001) than the Swedes, and this difference was still significant in a multivariate regression (p<0.0001), after adjustments for potential intervening variables. A variety of factors related to differences in the physical or socio-cultural environment between the two sites, might possibly explain this finding. However, a potential biological mechanism is that long-term stress exposure could lead to a lowering of the cortisol levels. This study points out a possible hypothesis that the cortisol levels of the Greek young adults might have been suppressed and their HPA-axis down-regulated after living in a stressful environment with economic and social pressure. PMID:24066077

  3. Comparison of the effects of acute exercise after overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese men

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Woon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Choi, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Han, Tae Kyung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We compared the effects of acute aerobic exercise following overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese male college students. [Subjects and Methods] This crossover study recruited 10 obese male college students with a body mass index >25?kg/m2 or >20% body fat. One week post-recruitment, the subjects exercised in the morning after an overnight fast. At 2 weeks, they exercised post-breakfast. Energy substrate (glucose, free fatty acid) and metabolic hormone (insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol) levels were measured immediately before and after exercise and at 60?min post-exercise. [Results] We observed interaction effects between the measurement time and exercise treatment for glucose; significant differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for free fatty acids; interaction effects between the measurement time and exercise treatment for insulin and significant differences in the measurement time; significance differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for growth hormone; and significant differences between measurement times and between exercise treatments for cortisol. [Conclusion] Morning exercise following an overnight fast can be more effective in reducing body fat than post-prandial exercise. However, increased cortisol levels following exercise after overnight fasting may negatively affect long-term weight loss in obese men. PMID:26180350

  4. Steroid hormone excretion is enhanced by sucrose feeding to rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, T.C.; Hsu, H.; Saunders, J.P.; Kim, S.S.; Given-Proctor, J.; Ahrens, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    The hypothesis tested was that feeding rats sucrose rather than invert sugar (50:50 mixture of glucose and fructose) or cornstarch would result in a more rapid excretion of intravenously injected 1,2-/sup 3/H aldosterone or 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H cortisol. The three carbohydrate sources provided 45% of dietary energy when fed, respectively, to one of three groups of 10 male, Sprague Dawley rats. After 4 or 8 weeks of ad lib feeding of the three diets 5 ..mu..CI of /sup 3/H-labeled hormones were injected intravenously and % recovery in urine and feces was measured for 4 days by liquid scintillation counting. Nearly 90% of the /sup 3/H injected as 1,2-/sup 3/H aldosterone was recovered over 4 days in the excreta of the sucrose fed rats. This recovery of /sup 3/H from aldosterone was significantly greater (P < 0.01) than when invert sugar (65%) or cornstarch (60%) were fed. The recovery of /sup 3/H from intravenously injected 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H cortisol followed a similar pattern. The authors anticipate that the excretion of all metabolic end products and xenobiotics excreted as glucuronides would be enhanced by sucrose feeding. Oxocarbonium ions from the glucose portion of sucrose digestion in the mammalian small intestine are thought to compete with oxocarbonium ions from the glucuronic acid portion of glucuronide hydrolysis. Such competition may slow glucuronide hydrolysis and promote glucuronide excretion, including the glucuronides derived from aldosterone and cortisol.

  5. Mercury and cortisol in Western Hudson Bay polar bear hair.

    PubMed

    Bechshoft, T; Derocher, A E; Richardson, E; Mislan, P; Lunn, N J; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Janz, D M; St Louis, V L

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive methods of assessing animal health and life history are becoming increasingly popular in wildlife research; hair samples from polar bears (Ursus maritimus), are being used to study an ever broader range of anthropogenic and endocrine compounds. A number of contaminants are known to disrupt endocrine function in polar bears. However, the relationship between mercury and cortisol remains unknown, although mercury is an endocrine disruptor in other species. Here, we examine the relationship between concentrations of cortisol and total mercury (THg) analyzed in guard hair from 378 polar bears (184 females, 194 males) sampled in Western Hudson Bay, 2004-2012. The difference in mean cortisol concentration between female (0.8 ± 0.6 pg/mg) and male (0.7 ± 0.5 pg/mg) polar bears bordered on significance (p = 0.054). However, mean mercury concentration was significantly greater (p = 0.009) in females (4.7 ± 1.4 ?g/g) than males (4.3 ± 1.2 ?g/g). Hair cortisol in males was significantly influenced by mercury, age, and fatness, as well as interactions between mercury and year, mercury and fatness, and year and fatness (all: p < 0.03) (multiple regression analysis, whole model: r(2) = 0.14, F(7,185) = 4.43, p = 0.0001). Fatness was the only significant variable in the multiple regression analysis for females (r(2) = 0.06, F(1,182) = 13.0, p = 0.0004). In conclusion, a significant, but complex, relationship was found between mercury and cortisol concentrations in hair from male, but not female, polar bears. PMID:26044932

  6. Association of Maternal and Infant Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol and Infant Gender With Mother-Infant Interaction in Very-Low-Birthweight Infants.

    PubMed

    Cho, June; Su, Xiaogang; Phillips, Vivien; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2015-10-01

    Male very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants are more prone than females to health and developmental problems and less positive mother-infant interactions. Because gender differences in brain development and social relationships suggest hormonal influences on quality of mother-infant interaction, the authors explored the associations of maternal and infant salivary testosterone and cortisol levels with mother-infant interactions in the sample as a whole and by gender, after controlling for covariates. Data were collected prospectively from 62 mothers and their VLBW infants through infant record review, maternal interview, biochemical measurement of both mothers and infants, and observation of mother-infant interactions at 40 weeks postmenstrual age and at three and six months corrected age. Infants' positive interactions increased and mothers' decreased from three to six months. In generalized estimating equation (GEE) analyses, after controlling for covariates, higher maternal testosterone and infant cortisol were associated with more positive and more frequent maternal interactive behaviors. In GEE analyses by infant gender, after controlling for covariates, effects of maternal and infant hormone levels became more significant, especially on infants' interactive behaviors. Based on these preliminary findings, among VLBW infants, males with high testosterone are expected to have less positive mother-infant interactions than males with low testosterone or female infants. PMID:26152823

  7. Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eurycoma longifolia is a medicinal plant commonly called tongkat ali (TA) and “Malaysian ginseng.” TA roots are a traditional “anti-aging” remedy and modern supplements are intended to improve libido, energy, sports performance and weight loss. Previous studies have shown properly-standardized TA to stimulate release of free testosterone, improve sex drive, reduce fatigue, and improve well-being. Methods We assessed stress hormones and mood state in 63 subjects (32 men and 31 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized hot-water extract of TA root (TA) or Placebo (PL) for 4?weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance set at p?hormone profile (salivary cortisol and testosterone) was significantly improved by TA supplementation, with reduced cortisol exposure (?16%) and increased testosterone status (+37%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with tongkat ali root extract improves stress hormone profile and certain mood state parameters, suggesting that this “ancient” remedy may be an effective approach to shielding the body from the detrimental effects of “modern” chronic stress, which may include general day-to-day stress, as well as the stress of dieting, sleep deprivation, and exercise training. PMID:23705671

  8. Modulation of attentional inhibition by norepinephrine and cortisol after psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Skosnik, P D; Chatterton, R T; Swisher, T; Park, S

    2000-04-01

    Two of the most salient physiological responses to stress are increased norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT) activities. However, it is unclear how these neurochemical events affect cognition, especially attention. We examined the effects of mild psychological stress on selective attention, as assessed by the negative priming (NP) paradigm. Salivary measures of the stress hormone CORT and alpha-amylase (a correlate of NE) were assayed to probe the relationship between the stress response and attentional inhibition. Healthy subjects (N = 20) engaged in the attention task, which was then followed by 15 min of a stressful video game before a return to the attentional task. Baseline saliva samples were obtained before the experiment began, 1 min after the video-game stressor, and 20 min post-stress. Subjects showed a significant reduction in NP and a decrease in reaction time (RT) after the video game. Moreover, alpha-amylase levels increased significantly after the stressor, indicating the role of NE in the acute stress response. While CORT levels remained unchanged after stress, CORT correlated significantly with both NP scores and RT after the stressor. These results imply that mild psychological stress can significantly alter attentional processes. Given the increase in alpha-amylase and the correlation between attention and CORT after stress, it seems likely that attentional processes are under tight control by brain systems which mediate the fight-or-flight response. PMID:10700623

  9. Prolactin, cortisol secretion and thyroid function in patients with stroke of mild severity.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulou, A; Metallinos, I C; Elloul, J; Taleli, P; Lekka, N; Vagenakis, A G; Kyriazopoulou, V

    2006-09-01

    Different attempts were made to identify the variables that may be involved in the clinical course of cerebrovascular ischemia. In the case of stroke with mild severity (SMS), the clinical significance of neuroendocrine changes as well as of post-stroke depression (PSD) remains unknown. We therefore evaluated the presence of neuroendocrine changes in the acute and post-acute phase of SMS, and their potential role during convalescence. Serum cortisol, T4, T3, FT4, FT3, TSH and PRL levels were measured in 17 euthyroid patients with stroke on admission (day 1), following morning (day 2), 7 days and 3 months later. TSH and PRL secretion after TRH test were measured. Stroke severity on admission was determined by Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS). Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (Madrs) was used for assessment of post-stroke depression. On admission, TSH and T3, were within normal limits and were greater compared to values on day 2. Lower basal TSH and decreased TSH response to TRH on day 2, were associated with stroke of greater severity. Delta-PRL after TRH on day 2 was higher in patients who develop PSD. Changes in serum thyroid hormones in SMS, reflects those of non-thyroidal illness. A mild stimulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was detected. We provide evidence that PRL response to TRH, in the acute phase of stroke may be used as an index for early detection of PSD. PMID:16981141

  10. Temporal relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteriod-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs in response to adrenal stimulation or suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In swine, more than 60% of cortisol in circulation is bound to its carrier glycoprotein, porcine corticosteroid-binding globulin (pCBG), and is considered biologically inactive. Limitations exist when only total plasma cortisol levels are used to assess the stress response in swine in situations whe...

  11. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably constitutes another point at which intervention may promote efficient digestion and nutrient uptake. In recent decades, gut hormones have come to occupy a central place in the complex neuroendocrine interactions that underlie the regulation of energy balance. Many gut peptides have been shown to influence energy intake. The most well studied in this regard are cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin and ghrelin. With the exception of ghrelin, these hormones act to increase satiety and decrease food intake. The mechanisms by which gut hormones modify feeding are the subject of ongoing investigation. Local effects such as the inhibition of gastric emptying might contribute to the decrease in energy intake. Activation of mechanoreceptors as a result of gastric distension may inhibit further food intake via neural reflex arcs. Circulating gut hormones have also been shown to act directly on neurons in hypothalamic and brainstem centres of appetite control. The median eminence and area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood–brain barrier. Some investigators argue that this renders neighbouring structures, such as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the brainstem, susceptible to influence by circulating factors. Extensive reciprocal connections exist between these areas and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and other energy-regulating centres of the central nervous system. In this way, hormonal signals from the gut may be translated into the subjective sensation of satiety. Moreover, the importance of the brain–gut axis in the control of food intake is reflected in the dual role exhibited by many gut peptides as both hormones and neurotransmitters. Peptides such as CCK and GLP-1 are expressed in neurons projecting both into and out of areas of the central nervous system critical to energy balance. The global increase in the incidence of obesity and the associated burden of morbidity has imparted greater urgency to understanding the processes of appetite control. Appetite regulation offers an integrated model of a brain–gut axis comprising both endocrine and neurological systems. As physiological mediators of satiety, gut hormones offer an attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity. PMID:16815798

  12. Hair cortisol, stress exposure, and mental health in humans: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Spijker, Anne T; Elzinga, Bernet M; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2013-08-01

    The deleterious effects of chronic stress on health and its contribution to the development of mental illness attract broad attention worldwide. An important development in the last few years has been the employment of hair cortisol analysis with its unique possibility to assess the long-term systematic levels of cortisol retrospectively. This review makes a first attempt to systematically synthesize the body of published research on hair cortisol, chronic stress, and mental health. The results of hair cortisol studies are contrasted and integrated with literature on acutely circulating cortisol as measured in bodily fluids, thereby combining cortisol baseline concentration and cortisol reactivity in an attempt to understand the cortisol dynamics in the development and/or maintenance of mental illnesses. The studies on hair cortisol and chronic stress show increased hair cortisol levels in a wide range of contexts/situations (e.g. endurance athletes, shift work, unemployment, chronic pain, stress in neonates, major life events). With respect to mental illnesses, the results differed between diagnoses. In major depression, the hair cortisol concentrations appear to be increased, whereas for bipolar disorder, cortisol concentrations were only increased in patients with a late age-of-onset. In patients with anxiety (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder), hair cortisol levels were reported to be decreased. The same holds true for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, in whom - after an initial increase in cortisol release - the cortisol output decreases below baseline. The effect sizes are calculated when descriptive statistics are provided, to enable preliminary comparisons across the different laboratories. For exposure to chronic stressors, the effect sizes on hair cortisol levels were medium to large, whereas for psychopathology, the effect sizes were small to medium. This is a first implication that the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the development and/or maintenance of psychopathology may be more subtle than it is in healthy but chronically stressed populations. Future research possibilities regarding the application of hair cortisol research in mental health and the need for multidisciplinary approaches are discussed. PMID:23253896

  13. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement'eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  14. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenmai, A.K.; Nielsen, F.K.; Pedersen, M.; Hadrup, N.; Trier, X.; Christensen, J.H.; Vinggaard, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17?-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ? Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ? Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ? Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited synthesis of male sex hormones. ? Generally, levels of estrogens and cortisol stayed unaffected or increased. ? The effect on steroid synthesis was specific on gene expression of Bzrp and CYP19.

  15. [Hormonal contraception in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, F; Buttarelli, M; Cromi, A; Di Naro, E; Franchi, M

    2001-12-01

    The proper use of hormonal contraceptives represents an effective and safe prevention of unintended pregnancies which are still associated with morbidity and mortality. The side effects of the hormonal method are of concern to many young women even if a lot of adolescents are unaware of health benefits associated with their use except for those regarding menstrual disorders. Effective contraception improves health and may gives non contraceptives benefits such as a decreased risk of developing pelvic inflammatory diseases and improvement of endometriosis. However, incorrect or inconsistent use and discontinuation rate are higher in young girls than in older women determining a higher incidence of voluntary abortion. The use of hormonal contraception in adolescents is still a topic of discussion among medical practitioners. Adolescents require an accurate screening and a more frequent follow-up to reduce side effects and improve compliance and use. PMID:11723425

  16. Bioidentical Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Files, Julia A.; Ko, Marcia G.; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2011-01-01

    The change in hormonal milieu associated with perimenopause and menopause can lead to a variety of symptoms that can affect a woman's quality of life. Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is an effective, well-tolerated treatment for these symptoms. However, combined HT consisting of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been associated with an increased number of health risks when compared with conjugated equine estrogen alone or placebo. As a result, some women are turning to alternative hormonal formulations known as compounded bioidentical HT because they perceive them to be a safer alternative. This article defines compounded bioidentical HT and explores the similarities and differences between it and US Food and Drug Administration–approved HT. We will examine the major claims made by proponents of compounded bioidentical HT and recommend strategies for management of patients who request bioidentical HT from physicians. PMID:21531972

  17. Towards a Biopsychological Understanding of Costly Punishment: The Role of Basal Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Keller, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings have documented a negative relation of basal endogenous cortisol and aggression after a provocation (i.e., reactive aggression) in humans. We build on these findings and investigated the relation of endogenous cortisol and reactive aggression in a social dilemma situation, that is, costly punishment of individuals who did not appropriately contribute to a common group project. Specifically, we predicted that basal cortisol is negatively related to costly punishment of uncooperative individuals. In the present study, basal cortisol was assessed prior to a public goods game with the option to punish other group members. In line with previous research on reactive aggression and basal cortisol, we found that basal cortisol was indeed negatively related to costly punishment. The findings are important for understanding costly punishment because this tendency has been documented as a possible basis for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:24416441

  18. Bone-muscle unit activity, salivary steroid hormones profile, and physical effort over a 3-week stage race.

    PubMed

    Grasso, D; Corsetti, R; Lanteri, P; Di Bernardo, C; Colombini, A; Graziani, R; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G

    2015-02-01

    Muscle traction and bone metabolism are functionally linked and co-regulated by a series of factors. Although a role for steroid hormones was hypothesized, a clear definition of the bone-muscle interconnection still lacks. To investigate this relationship, we studied bone metabolism, muscle activity, and salivary steroid hormones profile in relation with the physical effort across a cycling stage race, a model of effort in absence of load. Nine pro-cyclists were recruited; body weight and power output/energy expenditure were recorded. Diet was kept constant. Saliva was collected at days -1, 4, 8, 12, 14, 19, and 23; blood and urine were collected at days -1, 12, and 23. Salivary steroid hormones [cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, and estradiol], serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) activities, plasma sclerostin, and urinary calcium and phosphorous were measured. Cortisol remained constant, testosterone decreased at day 4, and estradiol and DHEA firstly increased and then returned to basal levels. Hormone concentrations were not correlated with plasma volume shifts. LDH, CK, AST, sclerostin, and urinary calcium and phosphorous increased. DHEA and estradiol correlated with the physical effort and the bone-muscular markers. A relationship between muscle activity, in absence of load, and bone resorption emerged under a putative regulation by DHEA and estradiol. PMID:24433517

  19. Stress and hormones.

    PubMed

    Ranabir, Salam; Reetu, K

    2011-01-01

    In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves' disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm. PMID:21584161

  20. Cortisol, Interleukins and S100B in Delirium in the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Munster, Barbara C.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Endert, Erik; Wiersinga, W. Joost; van Oosten, Hannah E.; Goslings, J. Carel; de Rooij, Sophia E. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In independent studies delirium was associated with higher levels of cortisol, interleukin(IL)s, and S100B. The aim of this study was to simultaneously compare cortisol, IL-6, IL-8, and S100B levels in patients aged 65 years and older admitted for hip fracture surgery with and without delirium. Cortisol, IL-6, IL-8, and S100B were assayed in…

  1. Increased maternal nighttime cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter glucose and insulin in the neonatal lamb

    PubMed Central

    Antolic, Andrew; Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E; Richards, Elaine M; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that a modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol concentrations impairs maternal glucose metabolism and increases the incidence of perinatal stillbirth. The dramatic outcomes prevented our ability to study the effects of maternal hypercortisolemia on neonatal growth, glucose metabolism, and hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis response. Therefore, we developed a model in which pregnant ewes are infused for 12 h/day at 0.5 mg·kg–1·day–1 from day 115 of gestation until delivery (˜145), elevating nighttime plasma cortisol concentrations. This pattern of elevation of cortisol mimics that in patients with elevated evening cortisol concentrations, as in Cushing’s syndrome or chronic depression. Plasma cortisol, glucose, insulin, and electrolytes were measured during pregnancy and postpartum in control and cortisol-infused ewes and their postnatal lambs for the first 14 days after delivery. Neonatal growth and plasma ACTH, aldosterone, renin activity, and electrolytes, and organ weights at 14 days of age were also measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal plasma cortisol during pregnancy but not postpartum, and did not alter neonatal ACTH or cortisol. Although maternal glucose and insulin concentrations were not changed by the maternal infusion of cortisol, neonatal plasma glucose was increased and plasma insulin was decreased compared to those in the control group. Neonatal ponderal index and kidney weight were reduced, left ventricular wall thickness was increased, and plasma sodium and creatinine were increased after maternal cortisol infusion. These results suggest that excess maternal cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter growth, glucose and insulin regulation, and organ maturation in the neonate. PMID:26371232

  2. Cortisol modulates men's affiliative responses to acute social stress.

    PubMed

    Berger, Justus; Heinrichs, Markus; von Dawans, Bernadette; Way, Baldwin M; Chen, Frances S

    2016-01-01

    The dominant characterization of the physiological and behavioral human stress reaction is the fight-or-flight response. On the other hand, it has been suggested that social affiliation during stressful times ("tend-and-befriend") also represents a common adaptive response to stress, particularly for women. In the current study, we investigate the extent to which men may also show affiliative responses following acute stress. In addition, we examine a potential neuroendocrine modulator of the hypothesized affiliative response. Eighty male students (forty dyads) were recruited to undergo either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a non-stressful control situation. Subsequently, participants completed a dyadic interaction task and were then asked to report their feelings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner. Although participants assigned to the stress condition did not differ overall on psychological closeness from participants assigned to the control condition, participants with high cortisol responses to the stressor showed significantly higher ratings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner than participants with low cortisol responses. Our findings suggest that men may form closer temporary bonds following stressful situations that are accompanied by a significant cortisol response. We suggest that the traditional characterization of the male stress response in terms of "fight-or-flight" may be incomplete, and that social affiliation may in fact represent a common, adaptive response to stress in men. PMID:26398000

  3. Cortisol production rates measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban, N.V.; Yergey, A.L. )

    1990-04-01

    Cortisol production rates (FPRs) in physiologic and pathologic states in humans have been investigated over the past 30 years. However, there has been conflicting evidence concerning the validity of the currently accepted value of FPRs in humans (12 to 15 mg/m2/d) as determined by radiotracer methodology. The present study reviews previous methods proposed for the measurement of FPRs in humans and discusses the applications of the first method for the direct determination of 24-hour plasma FPRs during continuous administration of a stable isotope, using a thermospray high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The technique is fast, sensitive, and, unlike gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, does not require derivatization, allowing on-line detection and quantification of plasma cortisol after a simple extraction procedure. The results of determination of plasma FPRs by stable tracer/mass spectrometry are directly in units of mass/time and, unlike radiotracer methods, are independent of any determination of volume of distribution or cortisol concentration. Our methodology offers distinct advantages over radiotracer techniques in simplicity and reliability since only single measurements of isotope ratios are required. The technique was validated in adrenalectomized patients. Circadian variations in daily FRPs were observed in normal volunteers, and, to date, results suggest a lower FRP in normal children and adults than previously believed. 88 references.

  4. Behavioral and hormonal reactivity to threat: Effects of selective amygdala, hippocampal or orbital frontal lesions in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Christopher J.; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2008-01-01

    Summary We compared the effects of bilateral amygdala, hippocampal or orbital frontal cortex lesions on emotional and hormonal reactivity in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Experiment 1 measured behavioral reactivity to an unfamiliar human intruder before and after surgery. Animals with amygdala lesions demonstrated decreases in one passive defensive behavior (freezing), whereas animals with hippocampal lesions showed decreases in a more stimulus-directed defensive behavior (tooth grinding). Orbital frontal cortex lesions also reduced these two defensive behaviors, as well as decreased cage-shaking dominance displays. Animals with amygdala, hippocampal or sham lesions also demonstrated increased tension-related behaviors after surgery, but those with orbital frontal lesions did not. Finally, all three lesions diminished the operated animals' ability to modulate tension-related behaviors depending on the magnitude of threat posed by the human intruder. Experiment 2 measured circulating levels of cortisol and testosterone when a subset of these same animals were at rest and following physical restraint, temporary isolation, exposure to threatening objects and social interactions with an unfamiliar conspecific. None of the lesions impacted on testosterone levels in any condition. Amygdala or orbital frontal lesions blunted cortisol reactivity during isolation from peers, but not during any other condition. Hippocampal lesions did not alter circulating levels of cortisol under any conditions. These results indicate that the amygdala, hippocampus and orbital frontal cortex play distinct, yet complimentary roles in coordinating emotional and hormonal reactivity to threat. PMID:18650022

  5. Endocrine and immunological responses to adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) administration in juvenile harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) during winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Mandy J; Atkinson, Shannon

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing interest in measuring endocrine and immune parameters in free-ranging seals and sea lions, but there is a lack of understanding in how an acute stress response, often associated with capture and handling, influences these parameters of interest. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of a simulated stressor on both endocrine and immune parameters. During two seasons, exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was administered to seven female juvenile harbor seals and the response of several hormones (cortisol, aldosterone, total and free thyroxine and total triiodothyronine) and immunological parameters (total and differential leukocyte counts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) proliferation) were assessed. Cortisol peaked at 165 min (winter 203.1±84.7 ng/ml; summer 205.3±65.7 ng/ml) and remained significantly elevated 240 min after ACTH infusion in both seasons. Aldosterone peaked at 90 min (winter 359.3±249.3 pg/ml; summer 294.1±83.7 pg/ml) and remained elevated 240 min after administration of ACTH in both seasons. An increase in circulating total white blood cells was driven primarily by the increase in neutrophils which occurred simultaneously with a decrease in lymphocytes leading to an overall increase in neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio. These findings demonstrate that a simulated stress response in juvenile harbor seals results in a predictable increase in both cortisol and aldosterone concentrations, and were associated with altered immunological parameters. PMID:26086360

  6. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, Bioavailable ... should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used to ...

  7. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  8. Increasing correlations between personality traits and cortisol stress responses obtained by data aggregation.

    PubMed

    Pruessner, J C; Gaab, J; Hellhammer, D H; Lintz, D; Schommer, N; Kirschbaum, C

    1997-11-01

    Attempts to link personality traits and cortisol stress responses have often been inconclusive. The aim of this paper was to investigate this association by aggregating cortisol stress responses. Therefore, 20 healthy men were exposed to a task consisting of public speaking and mental arithmetics in front of an audience on five days. Six cortisol levels were measured in relation to the stressful task obtained at 10-min intervals on each day. Psychological assessment included the Questionnaire for Competence and Control (FKK) and the Giessen-Test (G-T). These questionnaires focus on assessing personality traits, i.e. locus of control and self-concept. Areas under the response curve (AUC) of the six cortisol samples were computed to obtain an index of the individual's cortisol stress response on each day. Since novelty is a random situational factor likely to mask individual differences in the stress response, the AUC cortisol stress responses of days two to five were consecutively aggregated, excluding the first day. Scales of the two questionnaires employed did not correlate with the AUC cortisol stress response of the first stress trial. The correlation pattern of the AUC cortisol measures of days two to five with the questionnaire scales was inconclusive. However, significant correlations emerged with an increasing number of cortisol stress responses aggregated. Correlations between the measure of social dominance and aggregated AUC cortisol stress responses rose from r = -.47 on day two of the experimental session to r = -.70 after aggregating days two to five. Similarly, measures of locus of control and cortisol stress responses became increasingly correlated with aggregation of several stress exposures. These data provide preliminary evidence for a relationship between questionnaire scales aiming at assessing personality traits and cortisol stress responses uncovered by repeated stress exposure and data aggregation. While novelty may mask the impact of personality on the cortisol stress response on the first exposure, differences in the ability to cope with the stressful situation may lead to different cortisol stress response patterns on subsequent stress exposures. With data aggregation, an association between the trait component of cortisol stress responses and questionnaire scales might be uncovered. For reliable investigation of correlations between personality variables and cortisol stress responses, repeated stress exposure and data aggregation is suggested. PMID:9483706

  9. Long-term storage of salivary cortisol samples at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yu-Ming; Cintron, Nitza M.; Whitson, Peggy A.

    1992-01-01

    Collection of saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol during space flights provides a simple technique for studying changes in adrenal function due microgravity. In the present work, several methods for preserving saliva cortisol at room temperature were investigated using radioimmunoassays for determining cortisol in saliva samples collected on a saliva-collection device called Salivettes. It was found that a pretreatment of Salivettes with citric acid resulted in preserving more than 85 percent of the salivary cortisol for as long as six weeks. The results correlated well with those for a sample stored in a freezer on an untreated Salivette.

  10. Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations between Diurnal Cortisol and Body Mass Index across Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ruttle, Paula L.; Javaras, Kristin N.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Burk, Linnea R.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Childhood and adolescent obesity have reached epidemic levels; however little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings of obesity in youth and whether these differ from the mechanisms identified in adults. The current study examines concurrent (i.e. measured at the same point in time) and longitudinal (i.e. using earlier cortisol measures to predict later BMI) associations between diurnal cortisol and body mass index (BMI) across adolescence. Methods Adolescent diurnal cortisol was measured over three days at each 11, 13, and 15 years. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to extract average measures of predicted morning, afternoon, evening levels of cortisol and the diurnal slope at each assessment. Adolescent BMI (kg/m2) was measured at 11, 13, 15, and 18 years. Sex, family socioeconomic status, mother’s BMI, pubertal status, and adolescent mental health were examined as possible confounding variables. Results Linear regressions revealed that blunted patterns of adolescent cortisol were associated with increased measures of BMI across adolescence both concurrently and longitudinally, particularly when examining measures of cortisol in early adolescence. Multinomial logistic regressions extended the linear regression findings beyond BMI scores to encompass categories of obesity. Conclusions The current study builds on previous research documenting diurnal cortisol-obesity findings in adults by demonstrating similar findings exist both concurrently and longitudinally in adolescents. Findings suggest the association between cortisol and BMI is developmentally influenced and that blunted diurnal cortisol patterns can be identified in overweight individuals at a younger age than previously thought. PMID:23402983

  11. Can the neural–cortisol association be moderated by experience-induced changes in awareness?

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Way K. W.; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Wong, Samuel S. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol homeostasis is important for cognitive and affective functions that depend on cortisol-sensitive brain regions including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Recent studies have shown that training induces changes in the brain. We report the findings of a longitudinal study that verified the moderation effect of experience-induced changes in awareness on the neural–cortisol association in cortisol-sensitive brain regions. These findings provide the first piece of evidence that planned behavioral experience can moderate the neural–cortisol association. A range of changes in awareness was achieved in a sample of 21 Chinese participants, divided into two groups: Awareness-based compassion meditation (ABCM) (n?=?10) and relaxation (n?=?11). We observed that changes in awareness were significant moderators of hippocampal–cortisol changes. Furthermore, a significant negative association between changes in plasma cortisol level and the resting-state synchrony of the right hippocampal and insular-frontal-operculum regions was observed. These novel findings shed light on the inter-relationships between changes in hippocampal–cortisol levels and changes in awareness and preliminarily identify the neural underpinnings of interventions for cortisol-related abnormal functioning for further study. PMID:26577539

  12. Cortisol covariation within parents of young children: Moderation by relationship aggression.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby E; Adam, Emma K; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Guardino, Christine M; Simon, Clarissa; McKinney, Chelsea O; Shalowitz, Madeleine U

    2015-12-01

    Covariation in diurnal cortisol has been observed in several studies of cohabiting couples. In two such studies (Liu et al., 2013; Saxbe and Repetti, 2010), relationship distress was associated with stronger within-couple correlations, suggesting that couples' physiological linkage with each other may indicate problematic dyadic functioning. Although intimate partner aggression has been associated with dysregulation in women's diurnal cortisol, it has not yet been tested as a moderator of within-couple covariation. This study reports on a diverse sample of 122 parents who sampled salivary cortisol on matched days for two years following the birth of an infant. Partners showed strong positive cortisol covariation. In couples with higher levels of partner-perpetrated aggression reported by women at one year postpartum, both women and men had a flatter diurnal decrease in cortisol and stronger correlations with partners' cortisol sampled at the same timepoints. In other words, relationship aggression was linked both with indices of suboptimal cortisol rhythms in both members of the couples and with stronger within-couple covariation coefficients. These results persisted when relationship satisfaction and demographic covariates were included in the model. During some of the sampling days, some women were pregnant with a subsequent child, but pregnancy did not significantly moderate cortisol levels or within-couple covariation. The findings suggest that couples experiencing relationship aggression have both suboptimal neuroendocrine profiles and stronger covariation. Cortisol covariation is an understudied phenomenon with potential implications for couples' relationship functioning and physical health. PMID:26298691

  13. Label-free, chemiresistor immunosensor for stress biomarker cortisol in saliva.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Chaker; Myung, Nosang V; Shetty, Vivek; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2011-07-15

    Salivary cortisol is commonly used as a bioindicator of the psychobiologic response to environmental and psychological stressors. Current analytical approaches rely on immunoassays performed at distant, centralized laboratories and involve an elaborate specimen collection-processing-transportation-storage-analysis-reporting cycle. To facilitate point-of-use measurement of salivary cortisol levels, we describe the development and proof-of-concept testing of an ultrasensitive, label-free immunosensor based on a single-walled, carbon nanotube-based chemiresistive transducer. Carbon nanotubes were functionalized with a cortisol analog [cortisol-3-CMO-NHS ester] and a monoclonal anti-cortisol antibody was ligated to this receptor. Addition of phosphate buffer as well as artificial saliva spiked with varying cortisol concentrations displaced the anti-cortisol antibody producing corresponding decreases in the resistance/conductance of the nanotube-biomolecule hybrid. The immunosensor demonstrated an ultralow detection limit of 1 pg/ml and excellent binding selectivity for cortisol even in the presence of structurally similar steroids such as 21-hydroprogesterone. The nanotube immunosensor offers attractive prospects for the development of highly sensitive biosensor for rapid, label-free measurement of salivary cortisol in a variety of clinical and research settings. PMID:21621995

  14. Effects of grapefruit juice on cortisol metabolism in healthy male Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ya-Jie; Hu, Miao; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Grapefruit juice (GFJ) inhibits intestinal CYP3A4 activity and it has been suggested that GFJ may also inhibit renal 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11?-HSD2), which converts cortisol to cortisone. This study examined the effect of GFJ on the urinary excretion of cortisol, cortisone and 6?-hydroxycortisol (6?-OHC) and their ratios to asses these effects. Healthy male Chinese subjects took single doses of GFJ (200, 400, and 600?mL, respectively) at weekly intervals. Urine was collected over 24?h the day before and following GFJ intake. Subsequently, volunteers drank 400?mL GFJ for 7 days and urine was collected from 0 to 4?h daily. GFJ had dose-dependent effects on increasing cortisol excretion (P?<0.05) and the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (P?<0.005) and reducing 6?-OHC excretion (P?<0.05) and the ratio of 6?-OHC to cortisol (P?<0.005). There was no significant effect on cortisone excretion. Maximal effects were observed within 4?h after GFJ ingestion. Repeated doses had persistent but no cumulative effects. GFJ significantly reduced the ratio of 6?-OHC to cortisol. It increased the ratio of cortisol to cortisone and this appeared largely due to increased cortisol excretion related to impaired CYP3A4-mediated cortisol metabolism although a true inhibitory effect on 11?-HSD2 in the kidney cannot be excluded. PMID:25265455

  15. Temporal patterns, heterogeneity, and stability of diurnal cortisol rhythms in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tomarken, Andrew J; Han, Gloria T; Corbett, Blythe A

    2015-12-01

    The current study used a multifaceted approach to assess whether children with ASD have a distinctive diurnal rhythm of cortisol that differentiates them from typically developing (TD) peers and whether sub-groups of ASD children can be identified with unique diurnal profiles. Salivary cortisol was sampled at four time points during the day (waking, 30-min post-waking, afternoon, and evening) across three days in a sample of 36 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 27 typically developing (TD) peers. Between-group comparisons on both mean levels and featural components of diurnal cortisol indicated elevated evening cortisol and a dampened linear decline across the day in the ASD group. No differences were evident on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Group-based trajectory modeling indicated that a subgroup (25%) of ASD children demonstrated an attenuated linear decline while the cortisol trajectory of the second subgroup was indistinguishable from that of the TD group. Intraclass correlations indicated that, when aggregated across days, cortisol measures were generally stable over the interval assessed. There were few significant relations between cortisol measures or sub-groups and measures of stress, temperament, and symptoms. Results encourage follow-up studies to investigate the functional significance, heterogeneity and longer-term stability of diurnal cortisol profiles in children with ASD. PMID:26318632

  16. Can the neural-cortisol association be moderated by experience-induced changes in awareness?

    PubMed

    Lau, Way K W; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Wong, Samuel S Y; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol homeostasis is important for cognitive and affective functions that depend on cortisol-sensitive brain regions including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Recent studies have shown that training induces changes in the brain. We report the findings of a longitudinal study that verified the moderation effect of experience-induced changes in awareness on the neural-cortisol association in cortisol-sensitive brain regions. These findings provide the first piece of evidence that planned behavioral experience can moderate the neural-cortisol association. A range of changes in awareness was achieved in a sample of 21 Chinese participants, divided into two groups: Awareness-based compassion meditation (ABCM) (n?=?10) and relaxation (n?=?11). We observed that changes in awareness were significant moderators of hippocampal-cortisol changes. Furthermore, a significant negative association between changes in plasma cortisol level and the resting-state synchrony of the right hippocampal and insular-frontal-operculum regions was observed. These novel findings shed light on the inter-relationships between changes in hippocampal-cortisol levels and changes in awareness and preliminarily identify the neural underpinnings of interventions for cortisol-related abnormal functioning for further study. PMID:26577539

  17. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  20. Cyclic changes in cortisol across the estrous cycle in parous and nulliparous Asian elephants

    PubMed Central

    Fanson, Kerry V; Keeley, Tamara; Fanson, Benjamin G

    2014-01-01

    In the context of reproduction, glucocorticoids (GCs) are generally considered to have negative effects. However, in well-studied model species, GCs fluctuate predictability across the estrous cycles, and short-term increases promote healthy ovarian function. Reproductive challenges have plagued captive elephant populations, which are not currently self-sustaining. Efforts to understand reproductive dysfunction in elephants have focused on the suppressive effects of cortisol, but the potential permissive or stimulatory effects of cortisol are unknown. In this study, we provide a detailed examination of cortisol patterns across the estrous cycle in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Time series analysis was used to analyze cortisol and progesterone data for a total of 73 cycles from eight females. We also compared cortisol profiles between females that successfully conceived and females that failed to conceive despite repeated mating attempts. Our results revealed that cortisol fluctuates predictably across the estrous cycle, with a peak during the second half of the follicular phase followed by low levels throughout the luteal phase. Furthermore, this pattern was significantly altered in nulliparous females; cortisol concentrations did not decline during the luteal phase to the same extent as in parous females. This study highlights the complexity of cortisol signaling and suggests future directions for understanding the role of cortisol in reproductive dysfunction. PMID:24623735

  1. The association between cortisol and the BOLD response in male adolescents undergoing fMRI.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Stiers, Peter; Nicolson, Nancy A; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-02-19

    MRI participation has been shown to induce subjective and neuroendocrine stress reactions. A recent aging study showed that cortisol levels during fMRI have an age-dependent effect on cognitive performance and brain functioning. The present study examined whether this age-specific influence of cortisol on behavioral and brain activation levels also applies to adolescence. Salivary cortisol as well as subjective experienced anxiety were assessed during the practice session, at home, and before, during and after the fMRI session in young versus old male adolescents. Cortisol levels were enhanced pre-imaging relative to during and post-imaging in both age groups, suggesting anticipatory stress and anxiety. Overall, a negative correlation was found between cortisol output during the fMRI experiment and brain activation magnitude during performance of a gambling task. In young but not in old adolescents, higher cortisol output was related to stronger deactivation of clusters in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In old but not in young adolescents, a negative correlation was found between cortisol and activation in the inferior parietal and in the superior frontal cortex. In sum, cortisol increased the deactivation of several brain areas, although the location of the affected areas in the brain was age-dependent. The present findings suggest that cortisol output during fMRI should be considered as confounder and integrated in analyzing developmental changes in brain activation during adolescence. PMID:25514334

  2. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  6. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Targeted therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy ... fatigue, and pain at the injection site. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs and anti-androgens LHRH ...

  7. Assessment of Salivary Hormones

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    ; Oyegbile & Marler, 2005); when encounters with an attractive member of the other sex have an impact of blood to other parts of the body. Which spe- cific responses they trigger in target organs depends on an individual's sex hormones (e.g., Graham & Desjardins, 1980; Roney, Lukaszewski, & Simmons, 2007); or when

  8. Bioidentical Hormones for Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Variation on a Theme

    PubMed Central

    Bythrow, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progesterone creams and natural or bioidentical compounded estrogen preparations are being promoted to consumers as safe alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy and as health-promoting tonics. No reliable data support these claims. SAFETY Natural hormones, including estradiol, estriol, estrone, and progesterone, can be expected to have the same adverse event profile as conventional menopausal hormone regimens. SALIVARY HORMONE TESTS Salivary tests may be used to persuade asymptomatic consumers to use hormones (or symptomatic patients to use higher doses than those needed to mitigate symptoms), a practice that can be expected to result in adverse events. PMID:17549577

  9. Stress-related hormones and genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, S.; Monson, D.; Ballachey, B.; Jameson, R.; Wasser, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) once ranged throughout the coastal regions of the north Pacific, but were extirpated throughout their range during the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries, leaving only small, widely scattered, remnant populations. All extant sea otter populations are believed to have experienced a population bottleneck and thus have lost genetic variation. Populations that undergo severe population reduction and associated inbreeding may suffer from a general reduction in fitness termed inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression may result in decreased testosterone levels in males, and reduced ability to respond to stressful stimuli associated with an increase in the stress-related adrenal glucocorticoid hormones, cortisol and corticosterone. We investigated correlations of testosterone, cortisol, and corticosterone with genetic diversity in sea otters from five populations. We found a significant negative correlation between genetic diversity and both mean population-level (r2 = 0.27, P < 0.001) and individual-level (r2 = 0.54, P < 0.001) corticosterone values, as well as a negative correlation between genetic diversity and cortisol at the individual level (r2 = 0.17, P = 0.04). No relationship was found between genetic diversity and testosterone (P = 0.57). The strength of the correlations, especially with corticosterone, suggests potential negative consequences for overall population health, particularly for populations with the lowest genetic diversity. ?? 2009 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

  10. The effects of season, daylight saving and time of sunrise on serum cortisol in a large population.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, Narelle C; Brown, Suzanne; Wardrop, Robert; Henley, David

    2014-03-01

    Cortisol is critical for maintenance of health and homeostasis and factors affecting cortisol levels are of clinical importance. There is conflicting information about the effects of season on morning cortisol and little information on the effects of sunlight on population cortisol assessment. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in median serum cortisol occurred in a population in conjunction with changing seasons, daylight saving time (DST) or time of sunrise. We analysed serum cortisol results (n?=?27,569) from a single large laboratory over a 13-year period. Subjects with confounding medications or medical conditions were excluded and data analysed in 15-minute intervals. We assessed the influence of traditional seasons, seasons determined by equinox/solstice, DST and time of sunrise on median cortisol. The median time of cortisol collection did not vary significantly between seasons. Using traditional seasons, median cortisol was lowest in summer (386?nmol/L) and spring (384?nmol/L) with higher cortisol in autumn (406?nmol/L) and winter (414?nmol/L). Median cortisol was lowest in the summer solstice quarter with significant comparative increases in the spring equinox quarter (3.1%), the autumn equinox quarter (4.5%) and the winter solstice quarter (8.6%). When cortisol was modelled against time, with adjustment for actual sunrise time on day of collection, for each hour delay in sunrise there was a 4.8% increase in median cortisol (95% CI: 3.9-5.7%). In modelling to explain the variation in cortisol over the morning, sunrise time was better than season in explaining seasonal effects. A subtle cyclic pattern in median cortisol also occurred throughout the months of the year. A 3-year trial of DST allowed comparison of cortisol in DST and non DST periods, when clock time differed by one hour. There was modest evidence of a difference in acrophase between DST and non DST cortisol (p?=?0.038), with DST peak cortisol estimated to occur 58?minutes later than non-DST peak. In summary, we found that time of sunrise and time of cortisol collection were the most important factors influencing median cortisol. For each hour later that the sun rose there was an almost 5% increase in median cortisol. There was significant seasonal variability with lowest cortisol noted in summer coinciding with the earliest sunrise time. This is an important finding which is consistent with the understanding that light is the major zeitgeber in entrainment of the human circadian cortisol rhythm. Our data suggest this rhythm is resistant to the arbitrary changes in clock time with daylight saving. PMID:24156521

  11. Adrenal insufficiency in a child following unilateral excision of a dual-hormone secreting phaeochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Sjoeholm, Annika; Li, Cassandra; Leem, Chaey; Lee, Aiden; Stack, Maria P; Hofman, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phaeochromocytomas are a rare clinical entity, with dual hormone-secreting lesions particularly uncommon, seen in <1%. ACTH is the most common hormone co-produced, and is potentially lethal if not diagnosed. We present the case of a previously well 10-year-old boy, who presented acutely with a hypertensive crisis and was found to have a unilateral, non-syndromic phaeochromocytoma. Medical stabilization of his hypertension was challenging, and took 3 weeks to achieve, before proceeding to unilateral adrenalectomy. Post-operatively the child experienced severe fatigue and was subsequently confirmed to have adrenal insufficiency. He improved markedly with hydrocortisone replacement therapy, which is ongoing 6 months post-operatively. In retrospect this likely represents unrecognized, sub-clinical ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome secondary to an ACTH/or precursor dual-hormone secreting phaeochromocytoma. At follow-up, his hypertension had resolved, there was no biochemical evidence of recurrence of the phaeochromocytoma, and genetic analysis was indicative of a sporadic lesion. Learning points Dual hormone secreting phaeochromocytomas with ACTH/or a precursor may cause secondary adrenal insufficiency following surgical removal.The concurrent features of Cushing's syndrome can be mild and easily overlooked presenting diagnostic and management pitfalls.As concomitant syndromes of hormone excess are rare in phaeochromocytomas; the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion.Serial/diurnal cortisol levels, ACTH measurement +/? low dose dexamethasone suppression (when clinically stable, appropriate adrenergic blockade in place, and well supervised), can all be considered as needed. PMID:26113981

  12. Do We Need Hormonal Screening In Patients With Subcentimeter Pituitary Microadenomas?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Méndez, José Hernán; Gutiérrez-Acevedo, Madeleine; Palermo-Garofalo, Coromoto; Miranda-Adorno, María de Lourdes; Mangual-García, Michelle; Sánchez-Cruz, Alfredo; Rivera-Anaya, Carmen; Mansilla-Letelier, Paola; Laboy-Ortiz, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman came to our endocrinology clinics presenting with upper and lower extremity paresthesia, salt cravings, episodes of hypotension, fatigue and a long term history of depression. Physical exam was unremarkable. Cervical and brain MRI ordered by her neurologist three years ago revealed sella and pituitary normal in size, stable very small 3 mm pituitary incidentaloma and mild disc bulging. Basal pituitary hormonal screening showed low cortisol and ACTH levels. Insulin Tolerance Test and Glucagon Stimulation Test confirmed secondary ACTH deficiency with concomitant GH deficiency. In spite of medical counseling the patient refused glucocorticoid replacement. Due to the non-specific symptoms of this condition it remains a challenge to be diagnosed by clinicians. In conclusion: Our case shows that hormonal deficiencies may occur in small tumors less than 6 mm. PMID:26434093

  13. [Hormones and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Lacka, Katarzyna; Czyzyk, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Hormones have an influence on many tissues and organs, including the cardio-vascular system (CVS). Depending on their activity on CVS, they can be divided into 4 groups: having hypertensive or hypotensive influence and chronotropic positive or negative action. Endocrine regulation in CVS may occur in many ways. Apart from hormones usually connected with CVS regulation, other more recently, discovered ones can act on it. A few of these act directly through specific receptors in heart or vessel wall cells, whereas some act indirectly - stimulating other neuroendocrine factors. Additionally, novel mechanisms of signal transduction have been discovered for steroid and thyroid hormones, which are independent of gene transcription regulation and are - known as "nongenomic". Hormones which increase blood pressure include: urotensin II, endothelins, angiotensin II, catecholamines, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and leptin. On the other hand, blood pressure can be decreased by: natriuretic peptides, the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family, angiotensin 1-7, substance P, neurokinin A, ghrelin, Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), oxytocin, and, sex hormones. Hormones which when appearing in excess increase the heart rate are: catecholamines, endothelins, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, leptin and PTHrP. Those which decrease the heart rate include: natriuretic peptides, substance P, neurokinin A, oxytocin, angiotensin 1-7. This paper describes the contemporary view of the functions of hormones which act on the vessel tree and heart. The particular effect of mediator depends on many circumstances i.e.: hormone concentration, receptor type. It may also undergo contraregulation. The majority of those hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of CVS diseases', which can result in the development of new medicines. PMID:18979453

  14. A putative corticosteroid hormone in Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus.

    PubMed

    Rai, Satbir; Szeitz, András; Roberts, Brent W; Christie, Quill; Didier, Wesley; Eom, Junho; Yun, Sang-Seon; Close, David A

    2015-02-01

    Great efforts have been put forth to elucidate the mechanisms of the stress response in vertebrates and demonstrate the conserved response across different vertebrate groups, ranging from similarities in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to the release and role of corticosteroids. There is however, still very little known about stress physiology in the Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus), descendants of the earliest vertebrate lineage, the agnathans. In this paper we demonstrate that 11-deoxycortisol, a steroid precursor to cortisol in the steroidogenic pathway, may be a functional corticosteroid in Pacific lamprey. We identified the putative hormone in Pacific lamprey plasma by employing an array of methods such as RIA, HPLC and mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrated that plasma levels of 11-deoxycortisol significantly increased in Pacific lamprey 0.5 and 1 h after stress exposure and that lamprey corticotropin releasing hormone injections increased circulating levels of 11-deoxycortisol, suggesting that the stress response is under the control of the HPA/I axis as it is in higher vertebrates. A comprehensive understanding of vertebrate stress physiology may help shed light on the evolution of the corticosteroid signaling system within the vertebrate lineage. PMID:24971804

  15. [Growth hormone therapy].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopie?, Bogus?aw; Gdula-Dymek, Anna

    2007-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a polypeptide secreted by somatotropic cells of the anterior part of the hypophysis. Its usage was firstly restricted to children with growth hormone deficiency. Because of molecular biology development and greater availability of GH, the range of its therapeutic applications has widened. Apart from supplementary management of GH deficiency in children and adults, nowadays it is commonly used as first-line therapy in many disorders associated with short height. The aim of this paper is to present the exact role of GH in contemporary pharmacotherapy and adverse effects of treatment with GH. We review both well-known and less-commonly known indications for this form of treatment. Suggested dosage and the time of the beginning and duration of therapy are also discussed. PMID:17684932

  16. Effects on postoperative salivary cortisol of relaxation/music and patient teaching about pain management.

    PubMed

    Good, Marion; Albert, Jeffrey M; Arafah, Baha; Anderson, Gene Cranston; Wotman, Stephen; Cong, Xiaomei; Lane, Deforia; Ahn, Sukhee

    2013-07-01

    The physiological and psychological stress of surgery and postoperative pain can leave patients more susceptible to infection and complications. The present study was designed to determine whether two interventions, patient teaching (PT) for pain management and relaxation/music (RM), reduced cortisol levels, an indicator of stress, following abdominal surgery. Patients (18-75 years) were randomly assigned to receive PT, RM, a combination of the two, or usual care; the 205 patients with both pre- and posttest cortisol values were analyzed. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to compare groups for PT effects and RM effects. Stress was measured by salivary cortisol before and after 20-min tests of the interventions in the morning and afternoon of postoperative Day 2. Saliva was stimulated with lemon juice and analyzed with high-sensitivity salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay. Comparisons using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for baseline levels, showed no PT effect or RM effect on cortisol in the morning or afternoon. Post hoc ANCOVA showed no significant effects when intervention groups were compared to the control group. Although in previous studies, RM reduced pain and music reduced cortisol on Day 1, in the present study the cortisol response to surgery was not attenuated by PT or RM on Day 2. The RM intervention can be used for pain but needs to be further tested for effects on plasma cortisol in abdominal surgery patients on their first postoperative day. PMID:22472905

  17. Urinary Cortisol Circadian Rhythm in a Group of High-Functioning Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richdale, Amanda L.; Prior, Margot R.

    1992-01-01

    This study found no evidence for abnormal temporal placement of the basal urinary cortisol circadian rhythm in a group of 18 high-functioning children (ages 4-14) with autism. There was a tendency toward cortisol hypersecretion during the day, predominantly in autistic children who were integrated into the normal school system. (Author/JDD)

  18. Time-of-Day Effects in Arousal: Disrupted Diurnal Cortisol Profiles in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Swanson, James; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fluctuations in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms related to regulatory deficits in arousal states are themselves characterized by circadian rhythms. Although cortisol is an important circadian arousal-related marker, studies focusing on across-the-day cortisol variations in ADHD are scarce. There is no study…

  19. Planned Missing Data Designs for Spline Growth Models in Salivary Cortisol Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Candace M.; Pornprasertmanit, Sunthud; Fry, Mary D.; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Little, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary cortisol is often used as an index of physiological and psychological stress in exercise science and psychoneuroendocrine research. A primary concern when designing research studies examining cortisol stems from the high cost of analysis. Planned missing data designs involve intentionally omitting a random subset of observations from data…

  20. Maternal negative affect during infancy is linked to disrupted patterns of diurnal cortisol and alpha

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Maternal negative affect during infancy is linked to disrupted patterns of diurnal cortisol infancy were associated with dysregulation of diurnal cortisol and electroencephalograph (EEG) asymmetry.elsevier.com/locate/jecp Please cite this article in press as: Brooker, R. J., et al. Maternal negative affect during infancy

  1. The costs of dominance: testosterone, cortisol and intestinal parasites in wild male chimpanzees

    E-print Network

    Muehlenbein, Michael

    The costs of dominance: testosterone, cortisol and intestinal parasites in wild male chimpanzees://www.bpsmedicine.com/content/4/1/21 (9 December 2010) #12;RESEARCH Open Access The costs of dominance: testosterone, cortisol and maintain dominance status, and testosterone has been considered the quintessential physiological moderator

  2. Cortisol and Children's Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Erath, Stephen A.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Mize, Jacquelyn

    2008-01-01

    We examined relations among cortisol, markers of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity (including salivary alpha-amylase and skin conductance level), and children's adjustment. We also tested the Bauer et al. ("Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics," 23(2), 102-113, 2002) hypothesis that interactions between the SNS and cortisol

  3. Anxious Attachment Style and Salivary Cortisol Dysregulation in Healthy Female Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…

  4. Child Care Quality and Children's Cortisol in Basque Country and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Larrea, Inaki; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Barandiaran, Alexander; Linting, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    A cross-country comparison of children's cortisol levels at child care was performed in relation to their cortisol levels at home and the quality and quantity of child care they received. Participants were toddlers visiting child care centers in Spanish Basque Country (N = 60) and the Netherlands (N = 25) with substantial variation in structural…

  5. Comparison of the transplacental pharmacokinetics of cortisol and triamcinolone acetonide in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Althaus, Z.R.; Rowland, J.M.; Hill, D.E.; Hendrickx, A.G.

    1982-11-01

    The late gestational age rhesus monkey was used to study the transplacental pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) and cortisol. Tritiated-TAC and (/sup 14/C)cortisol were administered simultaneously via the maternal radial vein were administered simultaneously via the maternal radial vein and blood samples were serially drawn from catheters implanted in both the maternal femoral artery and fetal umbilical vein and artery. High-performance liquid chromatography of the processed blood samples revealed that from 93 to 100% of the /sup 3/H in the fetal circulation was parent TAC, whereas only 14 to 49% of the /sup 14/C was cortisol during the 40-min period after dose administration. Fetal tissue samples taken at 3 hr after dose administration showed that 75 to 96% of the /sup 3/H present was TAC, whereas no cortisol was observed. TAC demonstrated dose-independent kinetics. Samples collected from the umbilical vein of the in situ placenta after fetectomy revealed that cortisol was extensively converted to cortisone by the placenta, whereas TAC was refractory to placental metabolism. This placental conversion of cortisol to cortisone and the further metabolism and conjugation of cortisol by the fetoplacental unit resulted in a fetal to maternal plasma cortisol ratio of 0.2. In contrast, the lack of placental or fetoplacental metabolism of TAC resulted in a fetal to maternal plasma TAC ratio of 0.6.

  6. CORTISOL RESPONSES OF GOLDEN SHINER (NOTEMIGONUS CRYSOLEUCAS) FED DIETS DIFFERING IN LIPID CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the plasma cortisol response in golden shiners under crowding stress, and to determine whether dietary lipid composition affects the cortisol response. In experiment 1, triplicate groups of golden shiners were fed diets with 4 or 13% menhaden fish oil, ...

  7. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  8. Impaired Memory Retrieval Correlates with Individual Differences in Cortisol Response but Not Autonomic Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph; Buchanan, Tony W.

    2006-01-01

    Stress can enhance or impair memory performance. Both cortisol release and sympathetic nervous system responses have been implicated in these differential effects. Here we investigated how memory retrieval might be affected by stress-induced cortisol release, independently of sympathetic nervous system stress responses. Thirty-two healthy…

  9. Natural variation in gestational cortisol is associated with patterns of growth in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix geoffroyi)

    E-print Network

    French, Jeffrey A.

    of the primate hypothalamic­pituitary­adrenal (HPA) axis, is essential for normal fetal development. Cortisol previously reported to retard fetal growth. Although cortisol plays a pivotal role in prenatal maturation the relationship between natural variation in gestational corti- sol and fetal and postnatal growth in marmoset

  10. Peer Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and High Salivary Cortisol Predict Poorer Memory in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Becker, Suzanna; Schmidt, Louis A.; Nicol, Jeffrey; Muir, Cameron; MacMillan, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    The predictive relations of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and salivary cortisol on memory in 168 children aged 12 at Time 1 (T1) were examined using a longitudinal design in which data were collected on four occasions over a 2-year period. Results indicated that: (1) peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and evening cortisol were…

  11. Cortisol Reactivity and Performance Abilities in Social Situations in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lense, Miriam D.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypersociability and anxiety. However, little is known about how these salient aspects of the phenotype are related or their underlying physiology. We examined cortisol reactivity in WS because cortisol is responsive to psychosocial stress. Compared to typically developing…

  12. INFLUENCE OF CORTISOL ON PROSTAGLANDIN SYNTHESIS BY FETAL MEMBRANES, PLACENTA, AND UTERUS OF PREGNANT RABBITS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two experiments were designed to assess the effects of cortisol on prostaglandin-forming cyclooxygenase in 4 gestational tissues of rabbits. Cortisol treatment (12 mg/kg body wt/h) was initiated on day 21 of pregnancy and continued for a 24-h period. In cortisol-treated rabbits, ...

  13. Genetic Moderation of Cortisol Secretion in Holocaust Survivors: A Pilot Study on the Role of ADRA2B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridman, Ayala; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we tested whether "ADRA2B" moderates stress regulation of Holocaust survivors as indexed by their diurnal cortisol secretion and cortisol reactivity to a stressor. Salivary cortisol levels of 54 female Holocaust survivors and participants in the comparison group were assessed during a routine day and in response to a…

  14. Environmental prenatal stress eliminates brain and maternal behavioral sex differences and alters hormone levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Del Cerro, M C R; Ortega, E; Gómez, F; Segovia, S; Pérez-Laso, C

    2015-07-01

    Environmental prenatal stress (EPS) has effects on fetuses that are long-lasting, altering their hormone levels, brain morphology and behavior when they reach maturity. In previous research, we demonstrated that EPS affects the expression of induced maternal behavior (MB), the neuroendocrine system, and morphology of the sexually dimorphic accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involved in reproductive behavior patterns. The bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) is another vomeronasal (VN) structure that plays an inhibitory role in rats in the expression of induced maternal behavior in female and male virgins. In the present study, we have ascertained whether the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neuromorphological alterations of the AOB found after EPS also appear in the BAOT. After applying EPS to pregnant rats during the late gestational period, in their female offspring at maturity we tested induced maternal behavior, BAOT morphology and plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (Cpd B). EPS: a) affected the induction of MB, showed a male-like pattern of care for pups, b) elevated plasma levels of Cpd B and reduced E2 in comparison with the controls, and c) significantly increased the number of BAOT neurons compared to the control females and comparable to the control male group. These findings provide further evidence that stress applied to pregnant rats produces long-lasting behavioral, endocrine and neuroanatomical alterations in the female offspring that are evident when they become mature. PMID:26163152

  15. Pigments, parasites and personalitiy: towards a unifying role for steroid hormones?

    PubMed

    Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida Beitnes; Braastad, Bjarne Olai; Øverli, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    A surging interest in the evolution of consistent trait correlations has inspired research on pigment patterns as a correlate of behavioural syndromes, or "animal personalities". Associations between pigmentation, physiology and health status are less investigated as potentially conserved trait clusters. In the current study, lice counts performed on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar naturally infected with ectoparasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis showed that individual fish with high incidence of black melanin-based skin spots harboured fewer female sea lice carrying egg sacs, compared to less pigmented fish. There was no significant association between pigmentation and lice at other developmental stages, suggesting that host factors associated with melanin-based pigmentation may modify ectoparasite development to a larger degree than settlement. In a subsequent laboratory experiment a strong negative correlation between skin spots and post-stress cortisol levels was revealed, with less pigmented individuals showing a more pronounced cortisol response to acute stress. The observation that lice prevalence was strongly increased on a fraction of sexually mature male salmon which occurred among the farmed fish further supports a role for steroid hormones as mediators of reduced parasite resistance. The data presented here propose steroid hormones as a proximate cause for the association between melanin-based pigmentation and parasites. Possible fundamental and applied implications are discussed. PMID:22493685

  16. Pigments, Parasites and Personalitiy: Towards a Unifying Role for Steroid Hormones?

    PubMed Central

    Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida Beitnes; Braastad, Bjarne Olai; Øverli, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    A surging interest in the evolution of consistent trait correlations has inspired research on pigment patterns as a correlate of behavioural syndromes, or “animal personalities”. Associations between pigmentation, physiology and health status are less investigated as potentially conserved trait clusters. In the current study, lice counts performed on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar naturally infected with ectoparasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis showed that individual fish with high incidence of black melanin-based skin spots harboured fewer female sea lice carrying egg sacs, compared to less pigmented fish. There was no significant association between pigmentation and lice at other developmental stages, suggesting that host factors associated with melanin-based pigmentation may modify ectoparasite development to a larger degree than settlement. In a subsequent laboratory experiment a strong negative correlation between skin spots and post-stress cortisol levels was revealed, with less pigmented individuals showing a more pronounced cortisol response to acute stress. The observation that lice prevalence was strongly increased on a fraction of sexually mature male salmon which occurred among the farmed fish further supports a role for steroid hormones as mediators of reduced parasite resistance. The data presented here propose steroid hormones as a proximate cause for the association between melanin-based pigmentation and parasites. Possible fundamental and applied implications are discussed. PMID:22493685

  17. Stress hormonal factors, fatigue, and antioxidant responses to prolonged speed driving.

    PubMed

    Tsopanakis, C; Tsopanakis, A

    1998-07-01

    Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in exercise-induced cell and tissue injury, indicating an oxidative stress. Fatigue accompanied by a number of physiological and metabolic changes is in indication of overtraining. This study aimed to examine the influence of a continuous 24-h intermittent speed driving (1 h driving/1 h stop), on the response of hormones, antioxidative factors, lipid, and enzyme levels. Seven race car drivers of national level were examined before, during, and immediately after the trial of speed driving on a test designed to check endurance to stress. The parameters measured were: testosterone (Tes), cortisol (Cor), IgM, IgA, cholesterol, HDL, billirubin, ceruloplasmin, urea, uric acid, creatine kinase, and transaminases. Stress hormone Cor declined significantly (p < 0.05), while Tes did not change significantly. Fatigue enzyme, aspartate transaminase (GOT) increased significantly (p < 0.05), while alanine transaminase (GPT) did not change and urea declined. Muscle enzyme, creatine kinase (CK) increased to sixfold (p < 0.01). IgA, IgM and lipids did not change. The primary antioxidant ceruloplasmin increased significantly (p < 0.001), while antioxidants uric acid and glucose remained unchanged. Among the factors measured, ceruloplasmin, cortisol, urea, GOT, and CK seem to give a picture of the organism's alertness and defence capabilities in conditions of stress and fatigue. PMID:9678660

  18. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (?27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05). None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period) but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training. PMID:26635619

  19. Telomere length and cortisol reactivity in children of depressed mothers

    PubMed Central

    Gotlib, I H; LeMoult, J; Colich, N L; Foland-Ross, L C; Hallmayer, J; Joormann, J; Lin, J; Wolkowitz, O M

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) are characterized by shortened telomere length, which has been posited to underlie the association between depression and increased instances of medical illness. The temporal nature of the relation between MDD and shortened telomere length, however, is not clear. Importantly, both MDD and telomere length have been associated independently with high levels of stress, implicating dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and anomalous levels of cortisol secretion in this relation. Despite these associations, no study has assessed telomere length or its relation with HPA-axis activity in individuals at risk for depression, before the onset of disorder. In the present study, we assessed cortisol levels in response to a laboratory stressor and telomere length in 97 healthy young daughters of mothers either with recurrent episodes of depression (i.e., daughters at familial risk for depression) or with no history of psychopathology. We found that daughters of depressed mothers had shorter telomeres than did daughters of never-depressed mothers and, further, that shorter telomeres were associated with greater cortisol reactivity to stress. This study is the first to demonstrate that children at familial risk of developing MDD are characterized by accelerated biological aging, operationalized as shortened telomere length, before they had experienced an onset of depression; this may predispose them to develop not only MDD but also other age-related medical illnesses. It is critical, therefore, that we attempt to identify and distinguish genetic and environmental mechanisms that contribute to telomere shortening. PMID:25266121

  20. ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas: size does not correlate with hormonal activity

    PubMed Central

    Mathioudakis, Nestoras; Pendleton, Courtney; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Wand, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas (Cushing’s disease, CD) are the most frequent cause of Cushing’s syndrome. To test whether the size of ACTH-secreting adenomas correlates with the degree of biochemical and clinical features of hypercortisolism, we retrospectively reviewed all newly diagnosed CD patients seen at our institution by two neuro-endocrinologists over a 10-year time period. We documented the number of clinical manifestations and baseline hormonal measurements. There were 37 microadenomas (?As) and 16 macroadenomas (MAs). We sought to characterize the relationship between tumor size (?A vs. MA) and number of signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism and biochemical assessment of hypercortisolemia. There were no significant differences in mean age, BMI, or prevalence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes between the ?A and MA groups. However, the MAs had fewer clinical manifestations of hypercortisolism (29.4% vs. 36.1%, P = 0.02) compared to ?As. There was a higher prevalence of easy bruisability and proximal muscle weakness in the ?As, but otherwise the prevalence of signs and symptoms were similar between groups. The MAs had a lower random serum cortisol (18.2 ± 2.4 vs. 25.9 ± 1.8 mcg/dl, P = 0.018), lower cortisol:ACTH ratio (0.25 ± 0.03 vs. 0.42 ± 0.05, P < 0.048), and lower cortisol:tumor diameter ratio (14.1 ± 2.2 vs. 56.8 ± 7.2, P < 0.0001) than the ?As. We conclude that tumor size does not directly correlate with the extent of hormonal activity in ACTH-secreting adenomas. Biochemical activity and clinical manifestations may be mild even in larger tumors, and therefore a high index of suspicion may be necessary to recognize hypercortisolism in pituitary MAs. PMID:22057967

  1. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure (N = 860). Cortisol reactivity was assessed at age 11. Among African-Americans, prenatal substance exposure exerted an indirect effect through early adversity and cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior, delinquency, and a positive student-teacher relationship at age 11. Decreased cortisol reactivity was related to maladaptive outcomes, and increased cortisol reactivity predicted better executive functioning and a more positive student-teacher relationship. PMID:25376131

  2. A time to be stressed? Time perspectives and cortisol dynamics among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A; Juster, Robert-Paul; Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Lupien, Sonia J

    2015-10-01

    Perceptions of past, present, and future events may be related to stress pathophysiology. We assessed whether Time Perspective (TP) is associated with cortisol dynamics among healthy adults (N=61, Ages=18-35, M=22.9, SD=4.1) exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). TP was measured according to two profiles: maladaptive Deviation from Balanced TP (DBTP) and adaptive Deviation from Negative TP (DNTP). Eight salivary cortisol samples were analyzed using area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) and to increase (AUCi). Statistic analyses involved partial correlations controlling for depressive symptoms. Results for both sexes showed that higher DBTP scores were associated with lower cortisol AUCg scores, while higher DNTP scores were associated with higher cortisol AUCg scores. These novel findings suggest that maladaptive TP profiles influence hypocortisolism, whereas adaptive TP profiles influence hypercortisolism. Thus, TP profiles may impact conditions characterized by altered cortisol concentrations. PMID:26362588

  3. Effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health in servicemen.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, p<0.001). Sleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation. PMID:25913092

  4. THE OUTWARD TRANSPORT OF CORTISOL BY MAMMALIAN CELLS IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Stephen R.; Aronow, Lewis; Pratt, William B.

    1970-01-01

    It has been determined that cortisol and a few other steroids are transported outward from certain mammalian cells growing in vitro. The extrusion process is temperature dependent, glucose dependent, saturable, and operates for only a few selected steroids. Many, but not all, steroids are able to block the extrusion process but are not themselves transported. The outward transport process for steroids has been found in mouse fibroblasts, mouse lymphoma cells, and functional mouse adrenal gland tumor cells growing in vitro. The transport process is not present in two varieties of cells cultured from human sources—HeLa or diploid fibroblasts, WI-38. PMID:4242926

  5. Tumor Necrosis Factor ? and Interleukin 1? Enhance the Cortisone/Cortisol Shuttle

    PubMed Central

    Escher, Geneviève; Galli, Ivo; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe S.; Frey, Brigitte M.; Frey, Felix J.

    1997-01-01

    Endogenously released or exogenously administered glucocorticosteroids are relevant hormones for controlling inflammation. Only 11?-hydroxy glucocorticosteroids, but not 11-keto glucocorticosteroids, activate glucocorticoid receptors. Since we found that glomerular mesangial cells (GMC) express 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11?-OHSD1), which interconverts 11-keto glucocorticosteroids into 11?-hydroxy glucocorticosteroids (cortisone/cortisol shuttle), we explored whether 11?-OHSD1 determines the antiinflammatory effect of glucocorticosteroids. GMC exposed to interleukin (IL)-1? or tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) release group II phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a key enzyme producing inflammatory mediators. 11?-hydroxy glucocorticosteroids inhibited cytokine-induced transcription and release of PLA2 through a glucocorticoid receptor–dependent mechanism. This inhibition was enhanced by inhibiting 11?-OHSD1. Interestingly, 11-keto glucocorticosteroids decreased cytokine-induced PLA2 release as well, a finding abrogated by inhibiting 11?-OHSD1. Stimulating GMC with IL-1? or TNF-? increased expression and reductase activity of 11?-OHSD1. Similarly, this IL-1?– and TNF-?–induced formation of active 11?-hydroxy glucocorticosteroids from inert 11-keto glucocorticosteroids by the 11?-OHSD1 was shown in the Kiki cell line that expresses the stably transfected bacterial ?-galactosidase gene under the control of a glucocorticosteroids response element. Thus, we conclude that 11?-OHSD1 controls access of 11?-hydroxy glucocorticosteroids and 11-keto glucocorticosteroids to glucocorticoid receptors and thus determines the anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticosteroids. IL-1? and TNF-? upregulate specifically the reductase activity of 11?-OHSD1 and counterbalance by that mechanism their own proinflammatory effect. PMID:9221748

  6. Effects of damage to the suprachiasmatic area of the anterior hypothalamus on the daily melatonin and cortisol rhythms in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Reppert, S.M.; Perlow, M.J.; Ungerleider, L.G.; Mishkin, M.; Tamarkin, L.; Orloff, D.G.; Hoffman, H.J.; Klein, D.C.

    1981-12-01

    The effects of lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) on the circadian rhythms in melatonin and cortisol were examined in the rhesus monkey. The concentrations of the two hormones were monitored in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) withdrawn from two sham-operated animals, two animals with complete bilateral SCN lesions, and two animals with partial SCN damage at 4 and 8 months after surgery. In the sham-operated animals, as in the intact animal, the daily melatonin rhythm was entrained to the daily light-dark cycle, was suppressed in constant light, and persisted in constant darkness. In contrast, neither animal with complete SCN ablation exhibited a daily pattern of CSF melatonin in diurnal lighting at 4 months after surgery nor were their melatonin levels at constant low values. Furthermore, CSF melatonin concentrations were not suppressed in either animal by constant light. Surprisingly, at 8 months after surgery, spectral analysis revealed a 24-hr component to the melatonin patterns for each animal with complete SCN ablation in both diurnal lighting and constant darkness. The two animals with partial SCN damage exhibited a daily melatonin rhythm in diurnal lighting, but constant light did not suppress CSF melatonin concentrations consistently. Daily rhythms persisted in both for a 6 1/2-d period of study in constant darkness. In contrast to the alterations in the melatonin rhythm after SCN damage, there was no apparent effect of either partial or complete SCN ablation on the daily CSF cortisol rhythm. These data indicate that, in the rhesus monkey, the SCN is important for the generation, photic entrainment, and photic suppression of the melatonin rhythm. However, circadian oscillators located outside of the SCN region may control the normal daily cortisol rhythm and perhaps the melatonin rhythm in the absence of the SCN.

  7. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER, SMOKING, AND CORTISOL IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, William D; Seng, Julia S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the United States is higher among pregnant women than women generally. PTSD is related to adverse birth outcomes via physiological and behavioral alterations, such as smoking. We utilize salivary cortisol measures to examine how traumatic stress, smoking and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis interact. Pregnant women (n =395) gave cortisol specimens as part of a cohort study of PTSD and pregnancy at three health systems in the Midwestern United States. Women were divided into three groups: nonsmokers, quitters (who stopped smoking during pregnancy), and pregnancy smokers. Mean cortisol values at three points, sociodemographics, trauma history, and PTSD were compared across groups. We assessed the association of smoking group and PTSD with late afternoon cortisol levels. Smokers, quitters, and nonsmokers differed on demographic risk factors and PTSD symptom load. Late afternoon and bedtime cortisol measures were significantly positively correlated with smoking in pregnancy, with smokers with PTSD presenting the highest cortisol levels. Regression analysis showed that smoking in pregnancy was associated with higher late afternoon cortisol in an additive manner with PTSD symptoms. Smoking appears to have a different relationship with cortisol level for those with and without PTSD. This is the first study to show additive effects of smoking and PTSD on cortisol levels in pregnant women. Since high cortisol, smoking, and PTSD have been shown to adversely affect perinatal outcomes, and since those continuing to smoke in pregnancy had the highest PTSD symptom load, PTSD-specific smoking cessation programs in maternity settings are warranted. PMID:24926909

  8. Effects of Acute Cortisol Administration on Perceptual Priming of Trauma-Related Material

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Markus; Pfaltz, Monique; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They reflect excessive and uncontrolled retrieval of the traumatic memory. Acute elevations of cortisol are known to impair the retrieval of already stored memory information. Thus, continuous cortisol administration might help in reducing intrusive memories in PTSD. Strong perceptual priming for neutral stimuli associated with a “traumatic” context has been shown to be one important learning mechanism that leads to intrusive memories. However, the memory modulating effects of cortisol have only been shown for explicit declarative memory processes. Thus, in our double blind, placebo controlled study we aimed to investigate whether cortisol influences perceptual priming of neutral stimuli that appeared in a “traumatic” context. Two groups of healthy volunteers (N?=?160) watched either neutral or “traumatic” picture stories on a computer screen. Neutral objects were presented in between the pictures. Memory for these neutral objects was tested after 24 hours with a perceptual priming task and an explicit memory task. Prior to memory testing half of the participants in each group received 25 mg of cortisol, the other half received placebo. In the placebo group participants in the “traumatic” stories condition showed more perceptual priming for the neutral objects than participants in the neutral stories condition, indicating a strong perceptual priming effect for neutral stimuli presented in a “traumatic” context. In the cortisol group this effect was not present: Participants in the neutral stories and participants in the “traumatic” stories condition in the cortisol group showed comparable priming effects for the neutral objects. Our findings show that cortisol inhibits perceptual priming for neutral stimuli that appeared in a “traumatic” context. These findings indicate that cortisol influences PTSD-relevant memory processes and thus further support the idea that administration of cortisol might be an effective treatment strategy in reducing intrusive reexperiencing. PMID:25192334

  9. No Effect of Caloric Restriction on Salivary Cortisol Levels in Overweight Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Charmaine S.; Frost, Elizabeth A.; Xie, Wenting; Rood, Jennifer; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The effect of weight loss by diet or diet and exercise on salivary cortisol levels, a measure of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal activity, in overweight individuals is not known. To test the hypothesis that 24 weeks of moderate caloric restriction (CR) (25%) by diet or diet and aerobic exercise would alter morning and diurnal salivary cortisol levels. Design and Setting Randomized control trial in an institutional research center. Participants Thirty-five overweight (BMI:27.8±0.7kg/m2) but otherwise healthy participants (16M/19F). Intervention Participants were randomized to either calorie restriction (CR: 25% reduction in energy intake, n=12), calorie restriction+exercise (CR+EX: 12.5% reduction in energy intake+12.5% increase in exercise energy expenditure, n=12) or control (healthy weight-maintenance diet, n=11) for 6 months. Main outcome measure Salivary cortisol measured at 8:00, 8:30, 11:00, 11:30, 12:30, 1300, 16:00 and 16:30. Morning cortisol was defined as the mean cortisol concentration at 08:00 and 08:30. Diurnal cortisol was calculated as the mean of the 8 cortisol measures across the day. Results In the whole cohort, higher morning and diurnal cortisol levels were associated with impaired insulin sensitivity (morning: P=0.004, r2=0.24; diurnal: P=0.02, r2=0.15). Using mixed model analysis, there was no significant effect of group, time or sex on morning or diurnal cortisol levels. Conclusion A 10% weight loss with a 25% CR diet alone or with exercise did not impact morning or diurnal salivary cortisol levels. PMID:24268369

  10. A Realtime and Continuous Assessment of Cortisol in ISF Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Manju; Arya, Sunil K; Chornokur, Ganna; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2011-12-01

    This study describes the functioning of a novel sensor to measure cortisol concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF) of a human subject. ISF is extracted by means of vacuum pressure from micropores created on the stratum corneum layer of the skin. The pores are produced by focusing a near infrared laser on a layer of black dye material attached to the skin. The pores are viable for approximately three days after skin poration. Cortisol measurements are based on electrochemical impedance (EIS) technique. Gold microelectrode arrays functionalized with Dithiobis (succinimidyl propionate) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) have been used to fabricate an ultrasensitive, disposable, electrochemical cortisol immunosensor. The biosensor was successfully used for in-vitro measurement of cortisol in ISF. Tests in a laboratory setup show that the sensor exhibits a linear response to cortisol concentrations in the range 1 pm to 100 nM. A small pilot clinical study showed that in-vitro immunosensor readings, when compared with commercial evaluation using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) method, correlated well with cortisol levels in saliva and ISF. Further, circadian rhythm could be established between the subject's ISF and the saliva samples collected over 24 hours time-period. Cortisol levels in ISF were found reliably higher than in saliva. This Research establishes the feasibility of using impedance based biosensor architecture for a disposable, wearable cortisol detector. The projected commercial in-vivo real-time cortisol sensor device, besides being minimally invasive, will allow continuous ISF harvesting and cortisol monitoring over 24 hours even when the subject is asleep. Forthcoming, this sensor could be interfaced to a wireless health monitoring system that could transfer sensor data over existing wide-area networks such as the internet and a cellular phone network to enable real-time remote monitoring of subjects. PMID:22163154

  11. Determination of cortisol production rates with contemporary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure cortisol-d3 dilution after infusion of deuterated tracer

    PubMed Central

    Klopfenstein, Bethany J.; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Brandon, David D.; Isabelle, Lorne M.; DeBarber, Andrea E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Measurement of 24-hour cortisol production rate (CPR) using steady-state infusion of deuterated cortisol and analysis of stable-isotope dilution by MS is a valuable tool to examine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in humans. We have developed and validated an improved method for measuring cortisol dilution with contemporary LC-MS technology. Design and Methods Plasma samples and calibrators were extracted with ethylacetate. LC-MS was performed with a Surveyor HPLC and TSQ Quantum triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source. Results Selectivity was improved over previous methods via elimination of an interferent identified as 20?-dihydrocortisol. The LLOQ for cortisol-d3 was 2.73 nmol/L and LOD 1.37 nmol/L. Plasma calibrators were linear over the concentration range 1.5%-10% cortisol-d3, with correlation coefficients >0.995. Conclusions This APCI LC-MS method offers simplified sample work-up and analysis and enables selective detection of the low concentration of cortisol-d3 infused for determination of 24-hour CPR. PMID:21185275

  12. Steroid hormone related effects of marine persistent organic pollutants in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Rijk, Jeroen C W; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T; Murk, Albertinka J

    2015-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) 126 and 153, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tributyltin (TBT), and methylmercury (MeHg) can be accumulated in seafood and then form a main source for human exposure. Some POPs have been associated with changes in steroid hormone levels in both humans and animals. This study describes the in vitro effects of these POPs and mixtures thereof in H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Relative responses for 13 steroid hormones and 7 genes involved in the steroidogenic pathway, and CYP1A1, were analyzed. PFOS induced the most pronounced effects on steroid hormone levels by significantly affecting 9 out of 13 hormone levels measured, with the largest increases found for 17?-estradiol, corticosterone, and cortisol. Furthermore, TCDD, both PCBs, and TBT significantly altered steroidogenesis. Increased steroid hormone levels were accompanied by related increased gene expression levels. The differently expressed genes were MC2R, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, and CYP19A1 and changes in gene expression levels were more sensitive than changes in hormone levels. The POP mixtures tested showed mostly additive effects, especially for DHEA and 17?-estradiol levels. This study shows that some seafood POPs are capable of altering steroidogenesis in H295R cells at concentrations that mixtures might reach in human blood, suggesting that adverse health effects cannot be excluded. PMID:25765474

  13. Naphthalene treatment alters liver intermediary metabolism and levels of steroid hormones in plasma of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Tintos, Adrián; Gesto, Manuel; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2007-02-01

    To assess the effects of naphthalene on liver intermediary metabolism and plasma steroid hormones, immature female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), in a first experiment, were intraperitoneally injected (2 microLg(-1)) with vegetable oil alone (control) or containing naphthalene (10 and 50 mgkg(-1)) and returned to their tanks. At 1, 3, and 6h after injection, eight fish were sampled from each group. A second experiment was similarly designed but used fish intraperitoneally implanted (10 microLg(-1)) with slow-release coconut oil implants alone (control) or containing naphthalene at doses of 10 and 50 mgkg(-1) body weight that were sampled 1, 3, and 5 days after injection. At each sampling time, plasma hormone levels (cortisol and 17beta-estradiol) and metabolic parameters in plasma (glucose and lactate) and liver (glucose, lactate, and glycogen levels and HK, GK, GPase, GDH, FBPase, and PK activities) were assessed. Changes described for both hormonal systems resulted in a decrease in plasma levels of cortisol and 17beta-estradiol. Changes observed in intermediary metabolism described effects in several pathways of liver energy metabolism due to naphthalene. These changes can be summarized as increased glycogenolysis, use of exogenous glucose, and glycolysis and decreased gluconeogenesis. The increased energy production in liver suggested by these changes can be related to the increased detoxification activity known to occur in liver after PAH exposure, and can be also related directly or indirectly to the changes observed in the levels of plasma steroids. PMID:16466791

  14. Cushing's Disease: The Relevance of a Combined Dexamethasone Desmopressin Test as a Component of Postoperative Hormonal Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Witek, Przemys?aw; Zieli?ski, Grzegorz; Szamotulska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Background. The risk of Cushing's disease (CD) recurring may persist for years, even after initially successful surgery. Objective. To prospectively assess the relevance of a combined dexamethasone desmopressin test (CDDT) as a component of postoperative hormonal evaluation, including the dynamics of ACTH and cortisol concentrations. Material and Methods. We included 28 patients after TSS for CD. Eighteen months after surgery the standard hormonal evaluation was performed, followed by a CDDT. Results. Fifteen patients (53.6%) were in remission whereas in 13 subjects (46.4%) hypercortisolemia was confirmed. Positive results of CDDT were observed in 12 noncured patients (92.3%) and in one subject in remission (6.7%). Negative results were obtained in 12 patients with remission (80%) and in one noncured patient (7.7%). With 2 patients in CD remission (13.3%) the test results were inconclusive. We confirmed a high compatibility between CDDT and standard hormonal assessment results (? = 0.846; P < 0.001). Significant differences in ACTH and cortisol levels at each CDDT time point between the two studied subgroups were shown. Conclusions. A negative CDDT result can be regarded as one of the factors indicative of CD remission during follow-up. Additionally, CDDT can help distinguish persistent hypercortisolemia from naturally recurring adrenal function after TSS. PMID:26185496

  15. Do cortisol and corticosterone play the same role in coping with stressors? Measuring glucocorticoid serum in free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe).

    PubMed

    Ovejero, Ramiro; Novillo, Agustina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Mosca-Torres, Maria E; Cuello, Pablo; Gregório, Pablo; Jahn, Graciela; Carmanchahi, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Habitat can constrain and shape successful ecological and physiological strategies, thus providing the context for the evolution of life-history traits. However, unpredictable challenges, such as storms, natural disasters, and human activities can also have great effects on stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are adrenal steroid hormones that play an important role in how vertebrates cope with these predictable and unpredictable environmental challenges. Although assessing GCs levels can have many applications in the study of wildlife and/or captive animals, with or without capturing individuals, it requires a species-specific complete validation (analytical and biological) before its use. In this work, our aim was to: (a) validate a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring GCs levels in L. guanicoe serum; (b) assess cortisol and corticosterone levels (if present) in serum of wild L. guanicoe individuals; and (c) compare the response to acute stressors (handling, shearing, and release). Our results successfully: (a) validated RIA for asses GCs levels in wild ungulates; (b) confirmed the presence for cortisol and corticosterone and showed that both GCs are differently affected by environmental stimuli in L. guanicoe; and (c) showed that GCs exhibit different patterns in the field and in response to acute stressors, making these camelids an interesting endocrinological model when seeking the adaptive functions of a given variation and further emphasizing the complexity of GC physiology in wild mammals. PMID:24115389

  16. Influence of sleep deprivation and circadian misalignment on cortisol, inflammatory markers, and cytokine balance.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kenneth P; Drake, Amanda L; Frey, Danielle J; Fleshner, Monika; Desouza, Christopher A; Gronfier, Claude; Czeisler, Charles A

    2015-07-01

    Cortisol and inflammatory proteins are released into the blood in response to stressors and chronic elevations of blood cortisol and inflammatory proteins may contribute to ongoing disease processes and could be useful biomarkers of disease. How chronic circadian misalignment influences cortisol and inflammatory proteins, however, is largely unknown and this was the focus of the current study. Specifically, we examined the influence of weeks of chronic circadian misalignment on cortisol, stress ratings, and pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins in humans. We also compared the effects of acute total sleep deprivation and chronic circadian misalignment on cortisol levels. Healthy, drug free females and males (N=17) aged 20-41 participated. After 3weeks of maintaining consistent sleep-wake schedules at home, six laboratory baseline days and nights, a 40-h constant routine (CR, total sleep deprivation) to examine circadian rhythms for melatonin and cortisol, participants were scheduled to a 25-day laboratory entrainment protocol that resulted in sleep and circadian disruption for eight of the participants. A second constant routine was conducted to reassess melatonin and cortisol rhythms on days 34-35. Plasma cortisol levels were also measured during sampling windows every week and trapezoidal area under the curve (AUC) was used to estimate 24-h cortisol levels. Inflammatory proteins were assessed at baseline and near the end of the entrainment protocol. Acute total sleep deprivation significantly increased cortisol levels (p<0.0001), whereas chronic circadian misalignment significantly reduced cortisol levels (p<0.05). Participants who exhibited normal circadian phase relationships with the wakefulness-sleep schedule showed little change in cortisol levels. Stress ratings increased during acute sleep deprivation (p<0.0001), whereas stress ratings remained low across weeks of study for both the misaligned and synchronized control group. Circadian misalignment significantly increased plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p<0.05). Little change was observed for the TNF-?/IL-10 ratio during circadian misalignment, whereas the TNF-?/IL-10 ratio and CRP levels decreased in the synchronized control group across weeks of circadian entrainment. The current findings demonstrate that total sleep deprivation and chronic circadian misalignment modulate cortisol levels and that chronic circadian misalignment increases plasma concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins. PMID:25640603

  17. Diurnal salivary cortisol, glycemia and insulin resistance: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshua J; Wang, Xu; Spanakis, Elias; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary; Needham, Belinda; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-12-01

    Hypercortisolism is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes mellitus (DM); however, to our knowledge prior studies have not examined the association of diurnal cortisol curve features with measures of glycemia or IR in a population-based setting. Using log-transformed salivary cortisol data on 850 ethnically diverse men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated the cross-sectional association of cortisol curve features with (1) glycemia in those with and without DM and (2) IR, in non-diabetic subjects. The log-transformed salivary cortisol curve features included wake-up cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR), early decline slope (30min to 2h post-awakening), late decline slope (2h post-awakening to bedtime), overall decline slope (0min to bedtime, excluding 30min cortisol), bedtime cortisol and total area under the curve (AUC). Overall, following multivariable adjustment, among those with diabetes mellitus (DM), early decline slope, overall decline slope, bedtime cortisol, and AUC were significantly and positively associated with a 5.4% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.7), 54.7% (95% CI: 12.4, 112.9), 4.0% (95% CI: 1.6,6.4), and 6.8% (95% CI: 3.3,10.4) higher HbA1c per 1 unit increase in log cortisol feature, respectively. Cortisol curve features were not associated with HbA1c among non-diabetic participants; however, wake-up cortisol and AUC were associated with a 8.2% lower (95% CI: -13.3,-2.7) and 7.9% lower (95% CI: -14.6, -0.6) log HOMA-IR, respectively. This was attenuated by adjustment for waist circumference. Among participants with DM, cortisol curve parameters suggestive of higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and dysfunction were associated with higher HbA1c. In non-diabetic participants, greater HPA activity was paradoxically associated with lower insulin resistance. PMID:26356041

  18. Profiles of Steroid Hormones in Canine X-Linked Muscular Dystrophy via Stable Isotope Dilution LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Júnior, Helio A.; Simas, Rosineide C.; Brolio, Marina P.; Ferreira, Christina R.; Perecin, Felipe; Nogueira, Guilherme de P.; Miglino, Maria A.; Martins, Daniele S.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Ambrósio, Carlos E.

    2015-01-01

    Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) provides the best animal model for characterizing the disease progress of the human disorder, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The purpose of this study was to determine steroid hormone concentration profiles in healthy golden retriever dogs (control group - CtGR) versus GRMD-gene carrier (CaGR) and affected female dogs (AfCR). Therefore, a sensitive and specific analytical method was developed and validated to determine the estradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone levels in the canine serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To more accurately understand the dynamic nature of the serum steroid profile, the fluctuating levels of these four steroid hormones over the estrous cycle were compared across the three experimental groups using a multivariate statistical analysis. The concentration profiles of estradiol, cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone revealed a characteristic pattern for each studied group at each specific estrous phase. Additionally, several important changes in the serum concentrations of cortisol and estradiol in the CaGR and AfCR groups seem to be correlated with the status and progression of the muscular dystrophy. A comprehensive and quantitative monitoring of steroid profiles throughout the estrous cycle of normal and GRMD dogs were achieved. Significant differences in these profiles were observed between GRMD and healthy animals, most notably for estradiol. These findings contribute to a better understanding of both dog reproduction and the muscular dystrophy pathology. Our data open new venues for hormonal behavior studies in dystrophinopathies and that may affect the quality of life of DMD patients. PMID:26010907

  19. Profiles of Steroid Hormones in Canine X-Linked Muscular Dystrophy via Stable Isotope Dilution LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Martins-Júnior, Helio A; Simas, Rosineide C; Brolio, Marina P; Ferreira, Christina R; Perecin, Felipe; Nogueira, Guilherme de P; Miglino, Maria A; Martins, Daniele S; Eberlin, Marcos N; Ambrósio, Carlos E

    2015-01-01

    Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) provides the best animal model for characterizing the disease progress of the human disorder, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The purpose of this study was to determine steroid hormone concentration profiles in healthy golden retriever dogs (control group - CtGR) versus GRMD-gene carrier (CaGR) and affected female dogs (AfCR). Therefore, a sensitive and specific analytical method was developed and validated to determine the estradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone levels in the canine serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To more accurately understand the dynamic nature of the serum steroid profile, the fluctuating levels of these four steroid hormones over the estrous cycle were compared across the three experimental groups using a multivariate statistical analysis. The concentration profiles of estradiol, cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone revealed a characteristic pattern for each studied group at each specific estrous phase. Additionally, several important changes in the serum concentrations of cortisol and estradiol in the CaGR and AfCR groups seem to be correlated with the status and progression of the muscular dystrophy. A comprehensive and quantitative monitoring of steroid profiles throughout the estrous cycle of normal and GRMD dogs were achieved. Significant differences in these profiles were observed between GRMD and healthy animals, most notably for estradiol. These findings contribute to a better understanding of both dog reproduction and the muscular dystrophy pathology. Our data open new venues for hormonal behavior studies in dystrophinopathies and that may affect the quality of life of DMD patients. PMID:26010907

  20. Influence of Spinal and General Anesthesia on the Metabolic, Hormonal, and Hemodynamic Response in Elective Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Milosavljevic, Snezana B.; Pavlovic, Aleksandar P.; Trpkovic, Sladjana V.; Ili?, Aleksandra N.; Sekulic, Ana D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine the significance of spinal anesthesia in the suppression of the metabolic, hormonal, and hemodynamic response to surgical stress in elective surgical patients compared to general anesthesia. Material/Methods The study was clinical, prospective, and controlled and it involved 2 groups of patients (the spinal and the general anesthesia group) who underwent the same surgery. We monitored the metabolic and hormonal response to perioperative stress based on serum cortisol level and glycemia. We also examined how the different techniques of anesthesia affect these hemodynamic parameters: systolic arterial pressure (AP), diastolic AP, heart rate (HR), and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). These parameters were measured before induction on anesthesia (T1), 30 min after the surgical incisions (T2), 1 h postoperatively (T3) and 24 h after surgery (T4). Results Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in the general anesthesia group compared to the spinal anesthesia group (p<0.01). Glycemia was significantly higher in the general anesthesia group (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant, positive correlation between serum cortisol levels and glycemia at all times observed (p<0.01). Systolic and diastolic AP did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.191, p=0.101). The HR was significantly higher in the general anesthesia group (p<0.01). SpO2 values did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.081). Conclusions Based on metabolic, hormonal, and hemodynamic responses, spinal anesthesia proved more effective than general anesthesia in suppressing stress response in elective surgical patients. PMID:25284266