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Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. AIM: To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease

Rasha T Hamza; Doaa H Hewedi; Mona A Ismail



Effects of exhaustion and calcium supplementation on adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels in athletes.  


The present study was performed to investigate the effects of strenuous exercise and calcium supplementation on cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in athletes at rest and exhaustion. Thirty male athletes, ages 17-21 years, were enrolled in the 4-week study. They were divided into three groups as follows: group 1 (n = 10): training without supplementation; group 2 (n = 10): training and calcium supplemented, and group 3 (n = 10): calcium supplemented without training. Venous blood samples were obtained for determination of the hormones. One-month supplementation with calcium does not influence the cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone in athletes, but strenuous exercise results in a significant increase in their levels with or without supplementation (p < 0.05). PMID:18797825

Cinar, Vedat; Cakmakci, Oktay; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim



?-Endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol and catecholamines during aerobic and anaerobic exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Twelve non-specifically trained volunteers (aged 26.5 years, SD 3.6) performed exhausting incremental graded exercise (ST) and 1-min anaerobic cycle ergometer exercise (AnT) at 2-h intervals for the purpose of investigating -endorphin (-E) behaviour dependent on exercise intensity and anaerobic metabolism. In order to determine [-E], adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol [C], adrenaline [A] and noradrenaline [NA] concentrations, venous blood samples were

Lothar Schwarz; Wilfried Kindermann



Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle.

del Rosario Gonzalez-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vazquez-Chagoyan, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.



Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle.  


Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle. PMID:22210998

González-de-la-Vara, Marcela del Rosario; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C



Ramipril in angina pectoris: short-term effects on glucose, insulin, C-peptide, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril on plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in patients with coronary artery disease. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with ramipril 5 mg once daily, ramipril 5 mg once daily in combination with 20 mg of the oral nitrate isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), ISDN alone 20

Bernhard R. Winkelmann; Thomas Haak; Matti Verho; Daniel M. Kirsten; Karen Nelson; Kai Ihnken; Claudius Malerczyk; Gerd Oremek; Klaus-Henning Usadel



Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels in athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and exhaustion: effects of magnesium supplementation.  


The effects of a 1-month exercise program and magnesium supplementation on the adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels were studied in young tae-kwon-do and sedentary subjects both at rest and exhaustion. The hormone levels were compared before and after supplementation with 10 mg of magnesium (as magnesium sulfate) per kilogram of body weight. Both exercise and magnesium supplements caused significant increases of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (p < 0.05). The cortisol levels were increased in training subjects receiving supplements (p < 0.05) but not so in subjects that either trained or received magnesium supplements in an independent manner. The cortisol levels measured in resting individuals were higher in the supplemented and non-supplemented athletes than those in sedentary subjects (p < 0.05). The results of this study show that exercise and/or magnesium supplementation causes a rise of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, whereas cortisol is increased only as a result of combined exhaustion and magnesium supplements. PMID:17999037

Cinar, Vedat; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Polat, Yahya



Ethnic differences in adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol and corticotropin-releasing hormone during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant ethnic disparities exist in reproductive outcomes. A potential contributing factor may be the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and placenta during pregnancy. In the present study, levels of cortisol, ACTH and CRH were determined longitudinally from the plasma of 310 African American, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women at 18–20, 24–26 and 30–32 weeks’ gestation. During pregnancy, African American

Laura M. Glynn; Christine Dunkel Schetter; Aleksandra Chicz-DeMet; Calvin J. Hobel; Curt A. Sandman



21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section...1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a device intended...



21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section...1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a device intended...



High-end normal adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels are associated with specific cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric obesity: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and in particular cortisol, has been reported to be involved in obesity-associated metabolic disturbances in adults and in selected populations of adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between morning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese Caucasian children and adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study of 450 obese children and adolescents (aged 4 to 18 years) was performed in a tertiary referral center. ACTH, cortisol, cardiovascular risk factors (fasting and post-challenge glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, and hypertension) and insulin resistance were evaluated. All analyses were corrected for confounding factors (sex, age, puberty, body mass index), and odds ratios were determined. Results ACTH and cortisol levels were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin resistance. Cortisol, but not ACTH, was also positively associated with LDL-cholesterol. When adjusted for confounding factors, an association between ACTH and 2 h post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose was revealed. After stratification according to cardiovascular risk factors and adjustment for possible confounding factors, ACTH levels were significantly higher in subjects with triglycerides ?90th percentile (P <0.02) and impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (P <0.001). Higher cortisol levels were found in subjects with blood pressure ?95th percentile and LDL-cholesterol ?90th percentile. Overall, the highest tertiles of ACTH (>5.92 pmol/l) and cortisol (>383.5 nmol/l) although within the normal range were associated with increases in cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Conclusions In obese children and adolescents, high morning ACTH and cortisol levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. High ACTH levels are associated with high triglyceride levels and hyperglycemia, while high cortisol is associated with hypertension and high LDL-cholesterol. These specific relationships suggest complex mechanisms through which the HPA axis may contribute to metabolic impairments in obesity, and merit further investigations.



Reduced meal-related gastrointestinal hormone response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test in female athletes.  


This study was undertaken to elucidate the impact of hypercortisolism in meal-related gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite in female endurance athletes. Thirteen elite runners and seven sedentary women participated on two occasions, either receiving intravenous injection of 250 micrograms synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 1-24 or saline. Blood samples were collected before and after the injection, and then in connection with a standardized meal. Serum concentrations of cortisol, cholecystokinin (CCK), gastrin, insulin and glucose were analyzed. Self-ratings of appetite were assessed by visual analog scales. Elevated basal levels of cortisol and glucose were found in the athletes. ACTH-induced cortisol response was comparable between groups, but a negative correlation between basal cortisol levels and the ACTH-induced response was found. In sedentary women, ACTH challenge enhanced meal-related CCK and gastrin responses, whereas athletes showed a blunted response of these hormones combined with decreased satiety and reduced levels of insulin. Blunted meal-related response of gastrointestinal hormones and decreased satiety in female runners after ACTH stimulation compared to sedentary women are probably due to difference in the effect of cortisol, which could be explained by cortisol insensitivity as a result of basal hypercortisolism in the athletes. Decreased CCK response and satiety in female athletes may reflect increased nutritional requirements. PMID:9174848

Lindén Hirschberg, A; Lindholm, C; von Schoultz, B



Successful treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case series  

PubMed Central

Introduction Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, characterized by bilateral macronodular adrenal hypertrophy and autonomous cortisol production, is a rare cause of Cushing’s syndrome. Bilateral adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia but obliges the patient to receive lifetime steroid replacement therapy subsequently, and may increase the patient’s risk of adrenal insufficiency. These circumstances require surgeons to carefully consider operative strategies on an individual basis. Case presentation We performed successful laparoscopic adrenalectomy on four patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Computed tomography scans showed bilateral adrenal enlargement in all patients. Case 1: a 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with obvious Cushing’s symptoms during treatment for diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Case 2: a 37-year-old Japanese man also presented with Cushing’s symptoms during treatment for diabetes mellitus and hypertension. These patients were diagnosed as Cushing’s syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia based on endocrinologic testing, and underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Case 3: an 80-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized due to unusual weight gain and heightened general fatigue, and was diagnosed as Cushing’s syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. She underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy due to high operative risk. Case 4: a 66-year-old Japanese man was discovered to have bilateral adrenal tumors on medical examination. He did not have Cushing’s symptoms and was diagnosed as subclinical Cushing’s syndrome due to suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone serum levels and loss of cortisol circadian rhythm without abnormal levels of serum cortisol. He underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. During follow-up, serum cortisol levels were within the normal range in all cases, and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were not suppressed. Further, cases with Cushing’s syndrome experienced clinical improvement. Conclusions We were able to effectively treat adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia in patients with obvious Cushing’s symptoms by laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy, which promptly improved symptoms. Further, unilateral adrenalectomy was effective for treating an older patient at high operative risk and a patient with subclinical Cushing’s syndrome.



Metastatic esthesioneuroblastoma secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone in pediatric patients.  


The purpose of this article was to report a pediatric case of secondary cervical esthesioneuroblastoma involving the parapharyngeal lymph nodes. A 3-year-old boy came to our clinical observation because of a right lymphonodal mass evidenced by nuclear magnetic resonance and a diagnosis of Cushing syndrome associated with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion, moon face, central obesity, asthenia, and hirsutism. At the age of 10 months, the patient underwent endoscopic surgery for asportation of the World Health Organization stage IV esthesioneuroblastoma. At 38 months of age, the patient underwent right parapharyngeal lymphadenectomy with surgical access by a double mandibulectomy. After surgery, serum ACTH, cortisolemia, and urinary excretion of cortisol were within the reference range. Blood pressure was recorded at 110/70 mm Hg. Moon face disappeared, as well as central obesity and hirsutism. Clinical report is presented together with brief review of literature. PMID:21959469

Galioto, Silvestre; Di Petrillo, Alessandro; Pastori, Mauro; Arecchi, Alberto



21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




Reduced adrenocortical responsiveness to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in socially subordinate female marmoset monkeys.  


Socially subordinate female common marmoset monkeys undergo pronounced, chronic reductions in basal plasma cortisol levels, which appear to result both from socially induced suppression of reproductive hormones and from direct effects of social subordination. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that this cortisol suppression is mediated by reduced adrenocortical responsiveness to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Dominant, subordinate, and ovariectomized females were given dexamethasone (5 mg/kg, IM), followed the next morning by human ACTH(1-39) (10 microg/kg, IV) or sterile saline (0.5 ml/kg, IV); blood samples were collected at -20 through 150 min from ACTH or saline treatment and assayed for cortisol. ACTH, but not saline, caused a marked elevation of plasma cortisol levels. Prior to ACTH treatment, dominant females tended to have higher dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol levels than subordinate and ovariectomized females. After ACTH treatment, dominant females had significantly higher cortisol concentrations, as well as higher peak and net integrated cortisol responses to ACTH, than did subordinate and ovariectomized animals; the latter two groups showed comparable cortisol responses to ACTH. These results suggest that dampened adrenocortical responsiveness to ACTH contributes to chronic reductions in cortisol levels in subordinate female marmosets and may be mediated by suppression of reproductive hormones. PMID:10818281

Saltzman, W; Prudom, S L; Schultz-Darken, N J; Abbott, D H



Radioactive probes for adrenocorticotropic hormone receptors  

SciTech Connect

Our attempts to develop adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogues that can be employed for ACTH receptor identification and isolation began with the synthesis of ACTH fragments containing N epsilon-(dethiobiotinyl)lysine (dethiobiocytin) amide in position 25 to be used for affinity chromatographic purification of hormone-receptor complexes on Sepharose-immobilized avidin resins. Because labeling ACTH or ACTH fragments by conventional iodination techniques destroys biological activity due to oxidation of Met4 and incorporation of iodine into Tyr2, we have prepared (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24, (Phe2,Nle4,biocytin25)ACTH1-25 amide, and (Phe2,Nle4,dethiobiocytin25)ACTH1-25 amide by conventional synthetic techniques. The HPLC profiles and amino acid analyses of the final products indicate that the materials are of a high degree of purity. The amount of tertiary butylation of the Trp residue in the peptides was assessed by NMR and was found to be less than 0.5%. All three peptides are equipotent with the standard ACTH1-24 as concerns their ability to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP formation in bovine adrenal cortical cells. Iodination of (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24, with iodogen as the oxidizing agent, has been accomplished without any detectable loss of biological activity. The mono- and diiodo derivatives of (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24 have been prepared, separated by HPLC, and assayed for biological activity. Both peptides have the full capacity to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP production in bovine adrenal cortical cells.

Hofmann, K.; Romovacek, H.; Stehle, C.J.; Finn, F.M.; Bothner-By, A.A.; Mishra, P.K.



The ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome in carcinoid tumors  

PubMed Central

Ectopic production of adrenocorticotropic hormone by carcinoid tumors is relatively uncommon and may not be recognized by physicians. This report describes a woman who had Cushing syndrome from the ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone by a carcinoid tumor. Her cause of death was a pneumonia that may have been secondary to her untreated hypercortisolism. There are threeinstructive elements of this case: 1) the recognition of Cushing syndrome, 2) the association of Cushing syndrome with low-grade (carcinoid tumors) as well as with high-grade (small cell carcinoma) neuroendocrine tumors, and 3) the need to treat the hypercortisolism as well as the tumor.

Fazel, Poorya; Mennel, Robert G.; Austin, Ned A.



?-endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone production during marathon and incremental exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To evaluate the increases in concentration of -endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 16 healthy athletes, well-trained for endurance exercise, volunteered for an exhausting incremental graded treadmill exercise and a marathon run. Maximum oxygen uptake was determined during the treadmill exercise. Venous blood samples were drawn before and after exercise, and at 30, 60 and 120 min during the recovery phase.

H.-Ch. Heitkamp; K. Schmid; K. Scheib



Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests in healthy foals from birth to 12 weeks of age  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate total baseline plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations, and ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations in foals from birth to 12 wk of age. Plasma (baseline) cortisol and ACTH concentrations were measured in 13 healthy foals at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Each foal received cosyntropin (0.1 ?g/kg) intravenously. Plasma cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline), and 30, and 60 min after cosyntropin administration at birth and at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Compared with baseline, cortisol concentration increased significantly 30 min after administration of cosyntropin on all days. Cortisol concentration was highest at birth, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, compared with all other days. With the exception of birth measurements, cortisol concentration was significantly higher on day 84, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, when compared with all other days. Baseline plasma ACTH was lowest at birth when compared with concentrations on days 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 42, 56, and 84. Administration of 0.1 ?g/kg of cosyntropin, IV, reliably induces cortisol secretion in healthy foals. Differences in the magnitude of response to cosyntropin are observed depending on the age of the foal. These data should serve as a reference for the ACTH stimulation test in foals and should be useful in subsequent studies to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy and critically ill foals.

Wong, David M.; Vo, Dai Tan; Alcott, Cody J.; Stewart, Allison J.; Peterson, Anna D.; Sponseller, Brett A.; Hsu, Walter H.



Enhanced Suppression of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Responses to Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function and Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Tests after Stressful Life Events in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It is commonly believed that there exists a relationship between the outcome of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test, the combined dexamethasone\\/corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX\\/CRH) test and stressful life events (SLEs) in major depressive disorder. Objective: SLEs influence the TRH and DEX\\/CRH tests in major depressive disorder when administered at the time of admission and improvement. Methods: The TRH and DEX\\/CRH tests

Takatoshi Hikichi; Jotaro Akiyoshi; Shugo Ichioka; Yoshihiro Tanaka; Jusen Tsuru; Shinjirou Goto; Hirotaka Matsushita; Hiroaki Hanada; Koichi Isogawa; Haruo Nagayama



Improved response of growth hormone to growth hormone-releasing hormone and reversible chronic thyroiditis after hydrocortisone replacement in isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency.  


We report a 44-year-old Japanese man who showed a reversible blunted response of growth hormone (GH) to GH-releasing hormone (GRH) stimulation test and reversible chronic thyroiditis accompanied by isolated ACTH deficiency. He was admitted to our hospital because of severe general malaise, hypotension, and hypoglycemia. He showed repeated attacks of hypoglycemia, and his serum sodium level gradually decreased. Finally, he was referred to the endocrinology division, where his adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values were found to be low, and his GH level was slightly elevated. An increased value of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased values of free triidothyronine and free thyroxine were observed along with anti-thyroglobulin antibody, suggesting chronic thyroiditis. Pituitary stimulation tests revealed a blunted response of ACTH and cortisol to corticotropin-releasing hormone, and a blunted response of GH to GRH. Hydrocortisone replacement was then started, and this improved the patient's general condition. His hypothyroid state gradually ameliorated and his titer of anti-thyroglobulin antibody decreased to the normal range. Pituitary function was re-evaluated with GRH stimulation test under a maintenance dose of 20 mg/day hydrocortisone and showed a normal response of GH to GRH. It is suggested that re-evaluation of pituitary and thyroid function is useful for diagnosing isolated ACTH deficiency after starting a maintenance dose of hydrocortisone in order to avoid unnecessary replacement of thyroid hormone. PMID:21318995

Inagaki, Miho; Sato, Haruhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshiyasu; Hirukawa, Takashi; Sawaya, Asako; Miyakogawa, Takayo; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Kakuta, Takatoshi



Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Suppresses Gonadotropin-Stimulated Estradiol Release from Zebrafish Ovarian Follicles  

PubMed Central

While stress is known to impact reproductive performance, the pathways involved are not entirely understood. Corticosteroid effects on the functioning of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis are thought to be a key aspect of stress-mediated reproductive dysfunction. A vital component of the stress response is the pituitary secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which binds to the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) in the adrenal glands and activates cortisol biosynthesis. We recently reported MC2R mRNA abundance in fish gonads leading to the hypothesis that ACTH may be directly involved in gonadal steroid modulation. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles, we tested the hypothesis that acute ACTH stimulation modulates cortisol and estradiol (E2) secretion. ACTH neither affected cortisol nor unstimulated E2 release from ovarian follicles. However, ACTH suppressed human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated E2 secretion in a dose-related manner, with a maximum decrease of 62% observed at 1 I.U. ACTH mL?1. This effect of ACTH on E2 release was not observed in the presence of either 8-bromo-cAMP or forskolin, suggesting that the mechanism(s) involved in steroid attenuation was upstream of adenylyl cyclase activation. Overall, our results suggest that a stress-induced rise in plasma ACTH levels may initiate a rapid down-regulation of acute stimulated E2 biosynthesis in the zebrafish ovary, underscoring a novel physiological role for this pituitary peptide in modulating reproductive activity.

Alsop, Derek; Ings, Jennifer S.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.



Suppression of phagocytosis by adrenocorticotropic hormone in murine peritoneal macrophages.  


Phagocytosis of latex beads by peritoneal macrophages was examined by means of flow cytometry (FCM). This assay revealed that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) suppressed phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. ACTH (1-24) was more suppressive than ACTH (1-39). Control phagocytosis was partially suppressed in Ca(2+)-free solution. Phagocytosis was suppressed by ACTH in this solution to the same degree as in the normal solution. Suppression by ACTH was reduced in phosphodiesterase inhibitor-containing solution. These results suggest that (1) ACTH suppresses extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent phagocytosis, (2) the suppression is not mediated by cAMP and (3) the inhibition of macrophage phagocytosis by ACTH is one of the mechanisms that modulate immune responses in stressful situations. PMID:7534270

Ichinose, M; Sawada, M; Maeno, T



Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency associated with Hashimoto's disease and thyroid crisis triggered by head trauma. Case report.  


A 47-year-old man presented to our hospital after suffering transient loss of consciousness and falling to the floor. On admission, his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 11 (E3V3M5), and he exhibited restlessness. Blood examination revealed hyperthyroidism. Computed tomography showed slight traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. He developed fever and tachycardia, and was diagnosed with thyroid crisis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a brain contusion in the right frontal lobe, and encephalopathy signs in the right frontal and insular cortex. Immunocytochemical examinations suggested Hashimoto's disease, and hormone examinations revealed plasma levels were undetectably low of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and low of cortisol. Pituitary stimulation tests showed inadequate plasma ACTH and cortisol response, consistent with isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD). The final diagnosis was IAD associated with Hashimoto's disease. Hydrocortisone replacement therapy was continued, and the patient was nearly free from neurological deficits after 18 months. The neuroimaging abnormalities gradually improved with time. PMID:22278027

Tanei, Takafumi; Eguchi, Youko; Yamamoto, Yuka; Hirano, Masaki; Takebayashi, Shigenori; Nakahara, Norimoto



Glucocorticosteroid concentrations in feces and hair of captive caribou and reindeer following adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge.  


Climate change and industrial development are contributing to synchronous declines in Rangifer populations across the Arctic. Chronic stress has been implicated as a proximate factor associated with decline in free-ranging populations, but its role in Rangifer is unspecified. Analysis of glucocorticosteroid (GC) concentration in feces, and more recently in hair, is a non-invasive method for monitoring stress in wildlife. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) released from the pituitary gland stimulates GC release from the adrenals and can be administered to reflect adrenal activation. In this study, we assessed concentrations of GC metabolites in feces and cortisol in hair of Alaskan caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and reindeer (R. t. tarandus) following ACTH treatment. We predicted that ACTH challenge would increase concentrations of fecal GCs, but not hair cortisol because steroid deposited into the hair shaft occurs over an extended period of time (months) and is likely insensitive to acute adrenal stimulation. Adult caribou (n=10; mean age, 6.5 years old) exhibited a peak increase in fecal GCs 8h following a 2 IU/kg dose of ACTH compared to pre-injection concentrations. In contrast, sub-adult reindeer (n=10, 0.8 years old) elicited a diminished response to the same dose. Quadrupling the dose (8 IU/kg) prolonged the fecal GC response in female reindeer, but male reindeer were unresponsive. Hair cortisol was unaffected by a single ACTH challenge. Further investigation is required to ascertain whether subspecific differences in adrenal sensitivity are attributed to age or sex differences, or historical selective pressures from semi-domestication and/or sedentary life cycle in reindeer. PMID:21501613

Ashley, N T; Barboza, P S; Macbeth, B J; Janz, D M; Cattet, M R L; Booth, R K; Wasser, S K



Appropriateness of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulation Test for Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: In earlier work, it was shown that patients with septic shock who also have adrenal insufficiency experience a benefit in terms of lower mortality rates with hydrocortisone supplementation. As such, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test has been used frequently to identify these patients. However, recent evidence has suggested that the identification and treatment of adrenal insufficiency in patients with septic shock does not reduce mortality. These results call into question the utility of the ACTH stimulation test in this patient population. Objectives: To determine the indications for ordering the ACTH stimulation test for critically ill patients at a tertiary care hospital and to classify the indications as either appropriate (e.g., primary adrenal insufficiency or medication-induced suppression of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis) or inappropriate (e.g., patients with septic shock, prior etomidate exposure, or absence of steroid use). Methods: A retrospective analysis of health care records was conducted for all patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit and who had undergone an ACTH stimulation test during 2007. For each patient, the indication for the test was identified and classified as appropriate or inappropriate. Results: A total of 35 ACTH stimulation tests were performed during the study period, of which 8 (23%) were classified as having an appropriate indication and 27 (77%) as having an inappropriate indication. Of the tests with an inappropriate indication, 15 (56%) were ordered for patients with septic shock. However, the number of ACTH tests ordered for this indication declined as the year progressed. Conclusions: The ACTH stimulation test was often used inappropriately for patients with septic shock. Over time, there appeared to be a trend away from use of this test in this patient population, perhaps reflecting increasing awareness of the lack of benefit.

Sin, Osric; Brown, Glen; Grant, Greg



Linkage of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency to the corticotropin releasing hormone locus using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms  

SciTech Connect

Genetic screening techniques using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms were applied to investigate the molecular nature of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. We hypothesize that this rare cause of hypocortisolism shared by a brother and sister with two unaffected sibs and unaffected parents is inherited as an autosomal recessive single gene mutation. Genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis controlling cortisol sufficiency were investigated for a causal role in this disorder. Southern blotting showed no detectable mutations of the gene encoding pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the ACTH precursor. Other candidate genes subsequently considered were those encoding neuroendocrine convertase-1, and neuroendocrine convertase-2 (NEC-1, NEC-2), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Tests for linkage were performed using polymorphic di- and tetranucleotide simple sequence repeat markers flanking the reported map locations for POMC, NEC-1, NEC-2, and CRH. The chromosomal haplotypes determined by the markers flanking the loci for POMC, NEC-1, and NEC-2 were not compatible with linkage. However, 22 individual markers defining the chromosomal haplotypes flanking CRH were compatible with linkage of the disorder to the immediate area of this gene of chromosome 8. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the ACTH deficiency in this family is due to an abnormality of CRH gene structure or expression. These results illustrate the useful application of high density genetic maps constructed with simple sequence repeat markers for inclusion/exclusion studies of candidate genes in even very small nuclear families segregating for unusual phenotypes. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Kyllo, J.H.; Collins, M.M.; Vetter, K.L. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others



Adrenocorticotropic hormone, but not trilostane, causes severe adrenal hemorrhage, vacuolization, and apoptosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adrenal necrosis has been reported as a complication of trilostane application in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. One suspicion was that necrosis results from the increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) during trilostane therapy. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of ACTH and trilostane on adrenal glands of rats. For experiment 1, 36 rats were divided into 6

W. A. Burkhardt; F. Guscetti; F. S. Boretti; A. Ivos Todesco; N. Aldajarov; T. A. Lutz; C. E. Reusch; N. S. Sieber-Ruckstuhl



Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency presenting with hypercalcemia in a patient on long-term hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on a 44-year-old female hemodialysis (HD) patient who presented with hypercalcemia secondary to isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. She had been suffering from nausea and abdominal pain caused by recurrent esophageal ulcer. Blood calcium (Ca) adjusted for serum albumin concentration was increased to 14.9 mg\\/dL (3.72 mmol\\/L) concurrently with fever and hypotension. Serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related

Akihiko Kato; Shingo Shinozaki; Takao Goga; Akira Hishida



Isolated Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Deficiency and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)Thyroid Hormone Derangement: Report of Three Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present three cases of isolated adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) deficiency accompanied by derangement of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-thyroidal axis. Thyroid hormone and TSH levels were evaluated before and after cortisol replacement. Although markedly elevated levels of TSH were noted in one case, this patient also showed typical features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In the other two cases, basal TSH levels were increased,

Shigemitsu Yasuda; Seiki Wada; Miho Suzuki; Akinobu Minagawa; Shinji Kitahama; Makoto Iitaka; Shigehiro Katayama


Mechanisms of action of adrenocorticotropic hormone and other melanocortins relevant to the clinical management of patients with multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic benefits of adrenocorticotropic hormone in multiple sclerosis are usually ascribed to its corticotropic actions. Evidence is presented that adrenocorticotropic hormone, approved for multiple sclerosis relapses, acts via corticosteroid-independent melanocortin pathways to engender down-modulating actions on immune-system cells and the cytokines they synthesize. Immune response-dampening effects are also brought about by agent-induced neurotransmitters that inhibit immunocytes. The likelihood that adrenocorticotropic hormone promotes microglial quiescence and counteracts glucocorticoid-mediated bone resorption is discussed.

Berkovich, Regina; Catania, Anna; Lisak, Robert P; Zaidi, Mone



Reproducibility of the adrenal androgen response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation.  


Eleven healthy, eumenorrheic, nonhirsute women underwent acute adrenal stimulation testing at monthly intervals in order to measure the responses of cortisol (F), DHEA, and androstenedione, to a 60-minute acute stimulation with 1.0 mg ACTH (1-24). When the women were subdivided into either high or low responders to ACTH stimulation (relative to the group median), the relative adrenocortical response within individual subjects was found to be highly constant over time. PMID:16769063

Ghadir, Shahin; Azziz, Ricardo



Adrenocorticotropic hormone versus pulsatile dexamethasone in the treatment of infantile epilepsy syndromes.  


For treatment of intractable epilepsies, there are no data comparing conventional adrenocorticotropic hormone and pulsatile corticoid therapy with dexamethasone. A retrospective comparison of efficacy was therefore conducted for both forms of application. Between 1989 and 2001, a series of 11 children with West syndrome and 3 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (group 1); between 2003 and 2006, 7 children with West syndrome, 5 with electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep, and 2 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were treated with pulsatile corticoid therapy (group 2). In group 1 (n = 14), 9/11 West syndrome patients became seizure free, but none with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (0/3). In group 2 (n = 14), 4/7 West syndrome patients became seizure-free, 1/2 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome exhibited seizure-frequency reduction, and 2/5 patients with electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep exhibited significant improvement according to electroencephalograms. In West syndrome, pulsatile corticoid therapy was an effective alternative treatment to adrenocorticotropic hormone, whereas in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in general steroids did not lead to a significant seizure reduction. In electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep, treatment with pulsatile corticoid therapy seems to be effective and should be investigated in a larger group of patients. PMID:20004858

Haberlandt, Edda; Weger, Christine; Sigl, Sara Baumgartner; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine; Rostásy, Kevin; Karall, Daniela



Internal jugular vein: Peripheral vein adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio in patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome: Ratio calculated from one adrenocorticotropic hormone sample each from right and left internal jugular vein during corticotrophin releasing hormone stimulation test  

PubMed Central

Background: Demonstration of central: Peripheral adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gradient is important for diagnosis of Cushing's disease. Aim: The aim was to assess the utility of internal jugular vein (IJV): Peripheral vein ACTH ratio for diagnosis of Cushing's disease. Materials and Methods: Patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS) patients were the subjects for this study. One blood sample each was collected from right and left IJV following intravenous hCRH at 3 and 5 min, respectively. A simultaneous peripheral vein sample was also collected with each IJV sample for calculation of IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio. IJV sample collection was done under ultrasound guidance. ACTH was assayed using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Results: Thirty-two patients participated in this study. The IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio ranged from 1.07 to 6.99 (n = 32). It was more than 1.6 in 23 patients. Cushing's disease could be confirmed in 20 of the 23 cases with IJV: Peripheral vein ratio more than 1.6. Four patients with Cushing's disease and 2 patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome had IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio less than 1.6. Six cases with unknown ACTH source were excluded for calculation of sensitivity and specificity of the test. Conclusion: IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio calculated from a single sample from each IJV obtained after hCRH had 83% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosis of CD.

Chittawar, Sachin; Bhattacharya, Saptarshi; Sahoo, Jai Prakash; Prakash, Siva; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Arora, Arundeep; Gupta, Nandita; Tandon, Nikhil; Goswami, Ravinder; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Karak, Ashish Kumar; Bal, Chandra Sekhar; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Kumar, Guresh; Ammini, Ariachery C.



A novelty-related sustained elevation of vasopressin plasma levels in young men is not associated with an enhanced response of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) to human corticotropin releasing factor (hCRF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the effects of intravenously administered corticotropin releasing factor (i.e. exogenous CRF), in the\\u000a absence or presence of simultaneous opioid receptor blockade, versus stress (i.e., endogenous CRF) on plasma adrenocorticotropic\\u000a hormone (ACTH), cortisol and vasopressin (AVP) was carried out in ten healthy men (mean age 35.6±9.5 years) using an intra-individual\\u000a repeat setting. Three different stimuli were applied

Hannelore Ehrenreich; Nike Stender; Olaf Gefeller; Katrin tom Dieck; Lothar Schilling; Semiko Kaw



Thymic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Producing Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cushing's Syndrome.  


Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thymus, previously termed thymic carcinoid, is a rare clinical entity. Rarer still are such cases presenting with endocrinopathies. We report a case of thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma presenting with ectopic adrenocorticotroic hormone production and resultant Cushing's syndrome. PMID:24088497

Dixon, Jennifer L; Borgaonkar, Sanket P; Patel, Anupa K; Reznik, Scott I; Smythe, W Roy; Rascoe, Philip A



Breast metastases from an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting thymic neuro-endocrine tumor.  


Metastases to the breast from non-mammary sites are rare and pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. They can be mistaken for primary breast malignancy, which is much more common. In this case report we describe the clinical, radiological and pathological features of a patient who developed breast metastases from an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting thymic neuro-endocrine carcinoma. Patient was initially felt to have a primary breast malignancy, however, after further ancillary testing a diagnosis of metastatic thymic neuro-endocrine tumor was made. PMID:23948804

Gaur, Sumit; Ayyappan, Anoop P; Nahleh, Zeina



Modulation of the Oxidative Burst in Trout Myeloid Cells by Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Catecholamines: Mechanisms of Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative burst of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) phagocytes was previously found to be differentially modulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the catecholamine receptor agonists phenylephrine and isoproterenol. From data obtained using both luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LECL) and ferricytochrome C (cyt C) reduction to measure oxidative burst kinetics, we postulated that the observed modula- tion was mediated by affects on enzymes

Christopher J. Bayne; Sharon Levy


Gene array analysis of the effects of chronic adrenocorticotropic hormone in vivo on immature rat adrenal glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a mature adrenocortical phenotype is a critical event in the transition of mammals from fetal to postnatal life. We previously reported that the functional maturation of the adrenal glands of newborn rats is accelerated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We report here that chronic exposure of neonatal\\/juvenile rat pups to ACTH in vivo results in significant changes in expression

Julie J. Lee; Eric P. Widmaier



Adrenocorticotropic hormone (MC2) receptor mRNA is expressed in rat sympathetic ganglia and up-regulated by stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress triggered cardiovascular disorders are associated with elevated activity of the sympathetic nervous system, the major source of elevated plasma norepinephrine levels. Our previous studies revealed that administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) increases the gene expression of norepinephrine biosynthetic enzymes and several neuropeptides in rat sympathetic ganglia as much as stress. Here, we examine whether an ACTH-responsive receptor is expressed

B. B. Nankova; R. Kvetnansky; E. L. Sabban



Atorvastatin prevented and partially reversed adrenocorticotropic hormone-induced hypertension in the rat.  


1. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced hypertension is associated with nitric oxide (NO) deficiency and increased oxidative stress. Atorvastatin (Ato), an HMG-Co-enzyme-A reductase inhibitor has been reported to enhance availability of NO. The aim of the study was to assess whether pretreatment with Ato would prevent the development of ACTH-induced hypertension and whether established ACTH-induced hypertension could be reversed with subsequent administration of Ato in rats. 2. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) were treated with Ato (30 mg/kg per day in drinking water) or tap water for 15 days. ACTH (0.2 mg/kg per day s.c) or saline was started 4 days after Ato treatment or non-treated rats and continued for 11-13 days (prevention study). In the reversal study, Ato was given on day 8 of ACTH/Saline treatment for 5 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured on alternate days using the tail cuff method. 3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment increased SBP (110 +/- 2-136 +/- 2 mmHg, P < 0.001) and aortic superoxide production (P < 0.001). Ato alone did not alter SBP, but Ato pretreatment prevented ACTH-induced hypertension compared with that in rats treated with ACTH alone (118 +/- 2 and 136 +/- 2 mmHg, respectively, P cent < 0.01). Ato partially reversed ACTH-induced hypertension (124 +/- 3 and 136 +/- 2 mmHg, respectively, P cent < 0.05). Plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx) was decreased in ACTH-treated rats compared with saline treated rats (6.6 +/- 0.4 saline and 4.5 +/- 0.5 micromol/L ACTH, P < 0.001). Atorvastatin affected neither plasma NOx nor aortic superoxide production. 4. Atorvastatin prevented and partially reversed ACTH-induced hypertension in the rat. PMID:16620303

Mondo, Charles K; Yang, Wan-Song; Su, Ji-Zhou; Huang, Ti-Gang



Multiple Sclerosis, Relapses, and the Mechanism of Action of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone  

PubMed Central

Relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) are disruptive and frequently disabling for patients, and their treatment is often a challenge to clinicians. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of MS and development of new treatments for long-term management of MS, options for treating relapses have not changed substantially over the past few decades. Corticosteroids, a component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that modulate immune responses and reduce inflammation, are currently the mainstay of relapse treatment. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel is another treatment option. Although it has long been assumed that the efficacy of ACTH in treating relapses depends on the peptide’s ability to increase endogenous corticosteroid production, evidence from research on the melanocortin system suggests that steroidogenesis may only partly account for ACTH influences. Indeed, the melanocortin peptides [ACTH and ?-, ?-, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH)] and their receptors (Melanocortin receptors, MCRs) exert multiple actions, including modulation of inflammatory and immune mediator production. MCRs are widely distributed within the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues including immune cells (e.g., macrophages). This suggests that the mechanism of action of ACTH includes not only steroid-mediated indirect effects, but also direct anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating actions via the melanocortin system. An increased understanding of the role of the melanocortin system, particularly ACTH, in the immune and inflammatory processes underlying relapses may help to improve relapse management.

Ross, Amy Perrin; Ben-Zacharia, Aliza; Harris, Colleen; Smrtka, Jennifer



Adrenocorticotropic hormone ameliorates acute kidney injury by steroidogenic-dependent and -independent mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has a renoprotective effect in chronic kidney disease; however, its effect on acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. In a rat model of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–induced AKI, we found that ACTH gel prevented kidney injury, corrected acute renal dysfunction, and improved survival. Morphologically, ACTH gel ameliorated TNF-induced acute tubular necrosis, associated with a reduction in tubular apoptosis. While the steroidogenic response to ACTH gel plateaued, the kidney-protective effect continued to increase at even higher doses, suggesting steroid-independent mechanisms. Of note, ACTH also acts as a key agonist of the melanocortin system, with its cognate melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) abundantly expressed in renal tubules. In TNF-injured tubular epithelial cells in vitro, ACTH reinstated cellular viability and eliminated apoptosis. This beneficial effect was blunted in MC1R-silenced cells, suggesting that this receptor mediates the anti-apoptotic signaling of ACTH. Moreover, ACTH gel protected mice against cecal ligation puncture–induced septic AKI better than ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone: a protein equal in biological activity to ACTH except for steroidogenesis. Thus, ACTH has additive renoprotective actions achieved by both steroid-dependent mechanisms and MC1R-directed anti-apoptosis. ACTH may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent or treat AKI.

Si, Jin; Ge, Yan; Zhuang, Shougang; Juan Wang, Li; Chen, Shan; Gong, Rujun



Treating refractory dermatomyositis or polymyositis with adrenocorticotropic hormone gel: a retrospective case series  

PubMed Central

Background Effective and tolerable treatment options for patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis are limited. This retrospective case review describes treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel in five patients who experienced a disease exacerbation and either failed or were unable to tolerate the side effects of previous therapy with steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, and steroid-sparing drugs. Methods Patients received ACTH gel subcutaneous injections of 80 U (1 mL) twice weekly (four patients) or once weekly (one patient) over the course of 12 weeks for short-term treatment of symptom exacerbations. Manual muscle testing using the Medical Research Council scale was assessed at baseline and at 3 months. Results Improvement was seen in all patients, including improved muscle strength, decreased pain, and resolution of skin involvement. All patients tolerated the treatment well, and no significant side effects occurred. Conclusion The treatment of dermatomyositis and polymyositis is an approved use for ACTH gel, and these anecdotal reports would suggest consideration of ACTH gel as a therapeutic option. Further investigation is warranted.

Levine, Todd



Placental corticotropin-releasing hormone may be a stimulator of maternal pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in humans.  

PubMed Central

To clarify the physiological role of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), we measured plasma CRH, ACTH, and cortisol throughout pregnancy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CRH levels and ACTH responsiveness to synthetic CRH were also quantified in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Maternal plasma CRH levels, which increased progressively during pregnancy, correlated well with both ACTH and cortisol in early labor, delivery, and postpartum samples, and also with cortisol levels in samples before labor. CSF CRH levels in term pregnant women did not differ from those of nonpregnant women. CRH infusion that attained similar plasma CRH levels to those found in late pregnancy elicited significant ACTH release in vivo and regular CRH test provoked normal ACTH response during early pregnancy but no response during late pregnancy. We concluded that: (a) maternal pituitary-adrenal axis correlates well with plasma CRH levels, which are high enough to provoke ACTH release from maternal pituitary; (b) hypothalamic CRH secretion in term pregnant women is not exaggerated; and (c) maternal pituitary is responsive to synthetic CRH in early but not late pregnancy, suggesting that maternal pituitary-adrenal axis is already activated by high circulating CRH. Placental CRH may be an important stimulator of the maternal pituitary-adrenal axis during pregnancy. Images

Sasaki, A; Shinkawa, O; Yoshinaga, K



Adrenocorticotropic hormone, but not trilostane, causes severe adrenal hemorrhage, vacuolization, and apoptosis in rats.  


Adrenal necrosis has been reported as a complication of trilostane application in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. One suspicion was that necrosis results from the increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) during trilostane therapy. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of ACTH and trilostane on adrenal glands of rats. For experiment 1, 36 rats were divided into 6 groups. Groups 1.1 to 1.4 received ACTH in different doses (60, 40, 20, and 10 ?g/d) infused subcutaneously with osmotic minipumps for 16 wk. Group 1.5 received saline, and group 1.6 received no therapy. For experiment 2, 24 rats were divided into 3 groups. Group 2.1 and 2.2 received 5 and 50 mg/kg trilostane/d orally mixed into chocolate pudding for 16 wk. Eight control rats received pudding alone. At the end of the experiments, adrenal glands were assessed for necrosis by histology and immunohistochemistry; levels of endogenous ACTH and nucleosomes were assessed in the blood. Rats treated with 60 ?g ACTH/d showed more hemorrhage and vacuolization and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the adrenal glands than rats treated with 20 or 10 ?g ACTH/d, trilostane, or control rats. Rats treated with 60 ?g ACTH/d had a higher amount of nucleosomes in the blood compared with rats treated with 10 ?g ACTH/d, trilostane, or saline. We conclude that in healthy rats ACTH, but not trilostane, causes adrenal degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. Results of this study support the hypothesis that adrenal gland lesions seen in trilostane-treated dogs are caused by ACTH and not by trilostane. PMID:21194873

Burkhardt, W A; Guscetti, F; Boretti, F S; Ivos Todesco, A; Aldajarov, N; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S



Depressive-like behavior in adrenocorticotropic hormone-treated rats blocked by memantine.  


Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent studies suggest the role of the glutamatergic system in the pathophysiology of MDD, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have shown antidepressant effects in both preclinical and clinical studies. However, little is known about the role of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) specifically in the glutamatergic response to HPA axis activation. Glutamate is an NMDA receptor agonist, and glycine and D-serine act as co-agonists. Here, we measured brain concentrations of these amino acids in rats given repeated administration of ACTH (100 ?g/rat/day, sc, for 14 days). Further, we also evaluated behavioral effects of memantine, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist, on immobility time in the forced swimming test and on locomotor activity in ACTH-treated rats. Compared with control rats, glutamine, glycine, L-serine, and D-serine levels were increased in the hippocampus of ACTH-treated rats; glutamate, glutamine, glycine, L-serine, and D-serine were increased in the cerebellum; and glutamine and glycine were increased in the frontal cortex and striatum, all with statistical significance. Remarkably, these increases in agonists and co-agonists might have led to the augmentation of NMDA receptor activity. ACTH treatment increased immobility time in the forced swimming test and decreased locomotor activity in rats. On the contrary, memantine (10 mg/kg, ip) significantly decreased immobility time in the forced swimming test and increased locomotor activity in ACTH-treated rats. Furthermore, imipramine (15 mg/kg, ip) did not alter immobility time in the forced swimming test whereas this drug significantly decreased locomotor activity in ACTH-treated rats. These results suggest that depressive-like behaviors by chronic ACTH treatment could be blocked by memantine. PMID:22609796

Tokita, Kenichi; Fujita, Yuko; Yamaji, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Kenji



Clinical Usefulness of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Testing in Subclinical Cushing's Syndrome for Predicting Cortisol Replacement after Adrenalectomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and hormonal features of patients with incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas in relation to corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) testing and the clinical outcome of adrenalectomy. Materials and Methods Twenty-three consecutive patients with incidentally detected adrenal adenomas were included in this retrospective study. All the patients underwent abdominal computed tomography scans and hormonal assays, including assessment of circadian rhythms of plasma cortisol and corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone, ACTH), a corticotropin stimulation test, and low-dose and high-dose dexamethasone tests. The patients were reevaluated at regular intervals (6, 12, and 24 months) for a median period of 24 months. Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) was diagnosed in patients with subtle hypercortisolism who did not present clinical signs of Cushing's syndrome. Results We calculated the responsive index (peak value of ACTH in CRH test/baseline value of ACTH in CRH test). Of 23 patients, 6 had Cushing's syndrome, 8 had SCS, and 9 had a non-functioning tumor. All patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Several patients (5 of 6 with Cushing's syndrome and 2 of 8 with SCS) required cortisol replacement therapy after surgery. The remaining patients required no hormonal replacement after surgery. Those who required hormone replacement had a responsive index of less than 1.2. Those who did not need hormone replacement therapy had a responsive index of more than 2.0. Conclusions In our limited experience, the responsive index of the CRH test might be a valuable tool for predicting the need for cortisol replacement after surgery in patients with SCS.

Inoue, Masahiro; Ide, Hisamitsu; Kurihara, Koji; Koseki, Tatsuro; Yu, Jingsong; China, Toshiyuki; Saito, Keisuke; Isotani, Shuji; Muto, Satoru



Blood Rheology, Sex Hormones, and Cortisol in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelations of blood rheology, plasma proteins and lipids, and steroid hormones (total testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol) were studied in athletes (N = 14). Blood (BV), plasma (PV), and erythrocyte suspension (ESV) viscosities; fibrinogen; total cholesterol (Ch); low density lipoprotein (LDL) Ch; and plasminogen activity were lower in the athletes than in control subjects (N = 10). The specific peripheral

A. A. Mel'nikov; A. D. Vikulov



Peripheral blood corticotropin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cytokine (Interleukin Beta, Interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels after high- and low-dose total-body irradiation in humans  

SciTech Connect

Total-body irradiation (TBI) induces an increase in levels of granulocytes and cortisol in blood. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we studied 26 patients who had TBI prior to bone marrow transplantation. Our findings suggest that only a high dose of TBI (10 Gy) was capable of activating the hypothalamopituitary area since corticotropin-releasing factor and blood adrenocorticotropic hormone levels increased at the end of the TBI. There was a concomitant increase in the levels of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor in blood, suggesting that these cytokines might activate the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis. Interleukin 1 was not detected. Since vascular injury is a common after radiation treatment, it is possible that interleukin 6 was secreted by endothelial cells. The exact mechanisms of the production of cyctokines induced by ionizing radiation remain to be determined. 25 refs., 1 fig.

Girinsky, T.A.; Pallardy, M.; Comoy, E.; Benassi, T.; Roger, R.; Ganem, G.; Socie, G. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Cossett, J.M.; Magdelenat, H. [Institut Curie, Paris (France)



Secretion of high-molecular-weight adrenocorticotropic hormone from a pituitary adenoma in a patient without Cushing stigmata. Case report.  


The authors report a case in which a patient harbored a corticotroph macroadenoma that secreted biologically inactive high-molecular-weight adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as well as authentic ACTH 1-39. The secretion of the high-molecular-weight ACTH was determined using gel chromatography. The authors believe that these two molecules competed with each other at the ACTH receptor and, thus, the bioactivity of ACTH 1-39 was masked and Cushing features were not manifested in the patient. This type of silent corticotroph adenoma may be categorized as a clinically nonfunctioning adenoma. Plasmas from patients with silent corticotroph adenomas, which are identified by positive immunohistochemical staining of ACTH, should be frozen, stored, and analyzed using gel chromatography to examine whether the tumors produce and secrete high-molecular-weight ACTH. PMID:15540932

Matsuno, Akira; Okazaki, Ryo; Oki, Yutaka; Nagashima, Tadashi



Unusual suspects: pulmonary opportunistic infections masquerading as tumor metastasis in a patient with adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer.  


Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) are a rare group of neoplasms but with increasing incidence. The atypical complications that arise in the setting of functional endocrine tumors are underreported and therefore have not received sufficient attention and the necessary mention in the oncology literature. The clinical implications of these complications pose management challenges starting with the difficulty in establishing diagnosis, accurate staging and optimal treatment of the primary process. We present the case of a middle-aged woman diagnosed with adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing carcinoma arising from the pancreas whose case was complicated by excessive uncontrolled hypercortisolism and reactivation of pulmonary opportunistic infections that confounded her management. We believe that this case illustration will be of value to practicing oncologists and other groups of physicians who are called upon to participate in the multidisciplinary treatment of these relatively rare but highly challenging cases. PMID:23118805

Chowdry, Rajasree P; Bhimani, Chandar; Delgado, Maria A; Lee, Daniel J; Dayamani, Priya; Sica, Gabriel L; Owonikoko, Taofeek K



Unusual suspects: pulmonary opportunistic infections masquerading as tumor metastasis in a patient with adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) are a rare group of neoplasms but with increasing incidence. The atypical complications that arise in the setting of functional endocrine tumors are underreported and therefore have not received sufficient attention and the necessary mention in the oncology literature. The clinical implications of these complications pose management challenges starting with the difficulty in establishing diagnosis, accurate staging and optimal treatment of the primary process. We present the case of a middle-aged woman diagnosed with adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing carcinoma arising from the pancreas whose case was complicated by excessive uncontrolled hypercortisolism and reactivation of pulmonary opportunistic infections that confounded her management. We believe that this case illustration will be of value to practicing oncologists and other groups of physicians who are called upon to participate in the multidisciplinary treatment of these relatively rare but highly challenging cases.

Chowdry, Rajasree P.; Bhimani, Chandar; Delgado, Maria A.; Lee, Daniel J.; Dayamani, Priya; Sica, Gabriel L.



Detection of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency using 1 ?g adrenocorticotropic hormone test.  


Our objectives were to determine the incidence of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in patients with septic shock using a 1 ?g corticotropin (ACTH) test and to describe their clinical outcomes. We retrospectively identified 219 consecutive patients with septic shock assessed for CIRCI with a 1 ?g ACTH test. Standardized testing involved plasma cortisol measurements at baseline (T0) and at 30 min (T30) and 60 min (T60) after ACTH administration. The maximal increase in cortisol (? max) was calculated as the difference between T0 and the highest cortisol value at T30 or T60. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency was defined as ? max less than 9 ?g/dL after ACTH administration. The mean age of the cohort was 63.0 ± 15.8 years, mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 26.3 ± 8.1, 85.6% were mechanically ventilated, and the mean number of organ failures was 3.0 ± 1.2. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency was diagnosed in 70.8% of patients. Twenty-eight-day mortality was highest in patients with baseline cortisol greater than 65 ?g/dL (62.5%) and in those with baseline cortisol 34 ?g/dL or greater and ? max less than 9 ?g/dL (50.0%). There was no difference in mortality in patients with and without CIRCI (53.9% vs. 36.4%, P = 0.08). Corticosteroids were administered to 69.4% of patients for 5.3 ± 3.6 days. For patients with CIRCI, intensive care unit mortality was similar for those who received corticosteroids compared with those who did not (46.0% vs. 25.0%, P = 0.166). The incidence of CIRCI based on 1 ?g ACTH was high in this septic shock cohort. The highest mortality rates were observed in patients with high baseline cortisol and in those who failed to respond appropriately to ACTH. The administration of corticosteroids was not associated with a reduction in mortality. PMID:23324883

Burry, Lisa; Little, Anjuli; Hallett, David; Mehta, Sangeeta



Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows.  


Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but it has been reported to be as great as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether activation of the hypophyseal-adrenal axis with ACTH would mimic a stressful response and cause pregnancy loss in beef cattle. A secondary objective was to determine if a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine would attenuate the stress response and suppress serum PGF(2?) concentrations to prevent pregnancy loss. Forty nonlactating beef cows that were 34 ± 0.33 d pregnant were used for this study. In a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, cows were randomly assigned to receive ACTH [0 or 0.5 IU/kg of BW, intramuscularly (i.m.)] at 0 and 2 h of the study and flunixin meglumine (0, 1.1, or 2.2 mg/kg of BW, i.m.) at 0 h. Blood samples were collected from all cows at 0 h and every 30 min for 4 h to measure serum cortisol and PGF(2?) metabolite (PGFM) concentrations. Rectal temperature was collected for each cow at 0, 120, and 240 min. Pregnancy exams were conducted 31 and 58 d after treatment by transrectal ultrasonography, and the presence of a fetal heartbeat was used as an indicator of fetal viability. Serum cortisol concentration was affected (P < 0.01) by ACTH, time, and the interaction of ACTH × time, but not by flunixin meglumine (P ? 0.14) or any other interactions. Cortisol concentrations increased (P < 0.01) in the serum of ACTH-treated cows immediately after ACTH treatment and remained increased (P < 0.01) throughout the 4-h sampling period. Serum PGFM concentration was not affected by ACTH (P = 0.97) or by any interactions (P > 0.35) with ACTH, but was affected (P < 0.01) by flunixin meglumine, time, and the interaction of flunixin meglumine × time. Regardless of dosage (1.1 or 2.2 mg/kg of BW), flunixin meglumine decreased (P < 0.01) serum PGFM concentrations in both ACTH-treated and control cows for the duration of the study. Although ACTH treatment induced a prolonged increase in serum cortisol concentration, none of the cows used in this study lost a pregnancy. In conclusion, the activation of the hypophyseal-adrenal axis with ACTH increased serum cortisol concentrations but did not increase serum concentrations of PGFM or cause pregnancy loss during early gestation in cows. Flunixin meglumine treatment suppressed serum PGFM concentrations in control and ACTH-treated cows. PMID:21856895

Geary, T W



Corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.  


There is still some controversy concerning the question of whether Cushing's disease in man is caused by a primary dysfunction of the pituitary or a hypothalamic disorder. In the latter option, excessive hypothalamic stimulation of pituitary corticotropes would cause or contribute to the genesis of POMC-secreting adenomas. In the present study cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CRH levels and levels of ACTH and cortisol in CSF and plasma were measured in clinically healthy dogs, in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumor (ATH). In CSF from dogs with PDH, CRH concentrations (226.6 +/- 14.4 ng/liter) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in control dogs (309.5 +/- 20.3 ng/liter). In the dogs with ATH, CSF CRH concentrations (211.0 +/- 40.3 ng/liter) were in the range of those in PDH dogs. In dogs with ATH, CSF ACTH levels (13.0 +/- 3.0 ng/liter) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in control dogs (63.4 +/- 3.5 ng/liter), whereas in dogs with PDH, the levels (116.8 +/- 47.5 ng/liter) were not different from those in the control group. In control dogs, the concentrations of CSF CRH and plasma ACTH were significantly correlated (r = 0.635; P < 0.01). This functional dependency appeared to be disturbed in dogs with PDH, as in these dogs CSF CRH concentrations did not correlate with plasma ACTH concentrations. It is concluded that continuous hyperstimulation of pituitary corticotropes with hypothalamic CRH is probably not the cause of excessive ACTH secretion in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. PMID:1332844

Van Wijk, P A; Rijnberk, A; Croughs, R J; Voorhout, G; Sprang, E P; Mol, J A



ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) Test  


... 1060034 through . Clinical Chemistry: Principles, Procedures, Correlations. Bishop M, Duben-Engelkirk J, ... 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000. Clinical Chemistry: Theory, Analysis, and Correlations. Kaplan L, Pesce A, ...


Cortisol level  


A cortisol level is a blood test that measures the amount of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland. ... in the morning. This is important, because cortisol levels vary throughout the day. The health care provider ...


In vitro detection of adrenocorticotropic hormone levels by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy immunoassay for mathematical modeling of glucocorticoid-mediated feedback mechanisms.  


Performing quantitative, highly sensitive measurements at a single molecule level is often necessary to address specific issues related to complex molecular and biochemical systems. For that purpose, we present a technique exploiting both the flexibility of immunoassays as well as the low operating costs and high throughput rates of the fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) method. That way we have established a quantitative measurement technique providing accurate and flexibly time resolved data of single molecules. Nanomolar changes in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels have been detected in a short time-frame that are caused by fast feedback actions in AtT-20 anterior pituitary glands in vitro. Especially with respect to clinical diagnostic or mathematical modeling this improved FCS setup may be of high relevance in order to accurately quantify the amounts of peptide hormones-such as ACTH-as well as signaling molecules, transcription factors, etc., being involved in intra- and extracellular reaction networks. PMID:23102048

Puchinger, Martin Gerald; Zarzer, Clemens Alexander; Kügler, Philipp; Gaubitzer, Erwin; Köhler, Gottfried




Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted with the opioid antagonist naloxone to determine the effect of opioid receptor blockade on hormone secretion in postpartum beef cows. In Exp. 1, nine anestrous postpartum beef cows were used to measure the effect of naloxone on serum luteinizing hormone (LH), cortisol and prolactin concentrations. Cows received either saline (n = 4) or 200 mg naloxone

C. S. Whisnant; E N. Thompson; T. E. Kiser; C. R. Barb



Effects of growth hormone replacement therapy on levels of cortisol and cortisol-binding globulin in hypopituitary adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if human growth hormone (hGH) replacement therapy alters pharmaco- kinetics of hydrocortisone (CS) substitution in hypopituitary adults. Design: To this aim, we analysed serum and salivary CS profiles 270 min after oral CS administration at baseline and 6 and 12 months after initiation of hGH replacement therapy. Methods: Serum IGF-I, cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and

M Tschop; H Lahner; H Feldmeier; H Grasberger; K M Morrison; O E Janssen; A F Attanasio; C J Strasburger



Salivary concentration of progesterone and cortisol significantly differs across individuals after correcting for blood hormone values.  


Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18-34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between- individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025

Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O'Connor, Kathleen A



Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulated NFkappaB/p65 in human keratinocytes by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone peptides.  


Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) has pigmentary, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and general immunomodulatory roles. It can oppose several cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha in a number of tissues, including skin. We have previously shown that alpha-MSH can inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulated intercellular adhesion molecule 1 upregulation and nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) transcription factor activation in melanocyte and melanoma cells. It is thought, however, that this MSH biology may also extend to other cells of the skin and in this study we extend our work to keratinocytes. We have investigated in detail the ability of three alpha-MSH peptides to inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulated NFkappaB activation in nonpigmentary HaCaT keratinocytes (alpha-MSH, L-Lys-L-Pro-L-Val, and L-Lys-L-Pro-D-Val) and two adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) peptides (1-17 and 1-39), reported to be present in skin tissue. NFkappaB/p65 activation was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and immunofluorescent microscopy. alpha-MSH, L-Lys-L-Pro-L-Val, and L-Lys-L-Pro-D-Val all significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulated NFkappaB activation, whereas ACTH 1-17 and 1-39 did not, in the HaCaT keratinocytes. MSH peptides and ACTH 1-39 were effective, however, at inhibiting NFkappaB activation in normal human keratinocytes. Immunolabeling of inhibitor kappaBalpha of NFkappaB (IkappaBalpha) revealed an abnormal localization to the nucleus of HaCaT cells, which was unaffected by MSH/ACTH peptides. In contrast, normal human keratinocytes showed a normal IkappaBalpha distribution that responded to MSH/ACTH with nuclear translocation. Our data support previous work on the role of MSH/ACTH peptides as immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory regulators, and extend this work to keratinocytes identifying a novel IkappaBalpha mechanism and extends findings to ACTH peptides, identifying an abnormal IkappaBalpha mechanism in the immortal HaCaT versus normal keratinocyte. PMID:12485424

Moustafa, Manar; Szabo, Marika; Ghanem, Ghanem E; Morandini, Renato; Kemp, E Helen; MacNeil, Sheila; Haycock, John W



Cinétique du cortisol et de l'hormone de croissance plasmatiques lors de deux épreuves sous-maximales avec et sans récupération  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction – The purpose of this study is to evaluate cortisol and growth hormone kinetics in plasma during a sub-maximal exercise with and without recovery.Results – There is a significant difference of cortisol and growth hormone kinetics between the two tests. The cortisol concentration increased significantly during exercise without recovery period, the changes of plasmatic cortisol were not significant during

A Bouassida; M Zaouali; I Latiri; D Zelleg; S Ben Mdella; J. P Richalet; Z Tabka



Hormonal contraceptive use diminishes salivary cortisol response to psychosocial stress and naltrexone in healthy women.  


The use of hormonal contraception (HC) may affect salivary cortisol levels at rest and in response to a pharmacological or stress challenge. Therefore, the current study used a secondary data analysis to investigate the effect of HC on salivary cortisol levels in response to the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a psychosocial stressor, and also across the diurnal curve. Two hundred and nine women (n=72 using hormonal contraception; HC+) completed a two-session stress response study that consisted of a stress day, in which they were exposed to public speaking and mental arithmetic, and a rest day, in which unstimulated cortisol levels were measured to assess the diurnal rhythm. A subset of seventy women (n=24 HC+) also completed a second study in which they were administered oral naltrexone (50mg) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind fashion. Women who were HC+ had a significantly reduced salivary cortisol response to both the psychosocial stressor (p<0.001) and naltrexone (p<0.05) compared to HC- women. Additionally, HC+ women had a significantly altered morning diurnal cortisol rhythm (p<0.01), with a delayed peak and higher overall levels. The results of the current study confirm that HC attenuates salivary cortisol response to a psychosocial stressor and mu-opioid receptor antagonism, and also alters the morning diurnal cortisol curve. PMID:23672966

Roche, Daniel J O; King, Andrea C; Cohoon, Andrew J; Lovallo, William R



Cortisol reduces gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse frequency in follicular phase ewes: influence of ovarian steroids.  


Stress-like elevations in plasma glucocorticoids suppress gonadotropin secretion and can disrupt ovarian cyclicity. In sheep, cortisol acts at the pituitary to reduce responsiveness to GnRH but does not affect GnRH pulse frequency in the absence of ovarian hormones. However, in ewes during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, cortisol reduces LH pulse frequency. To test the hypothesis that cortisol reduces GnRH pulse frequency in the presence of ovarian steroids, the effect of cortisol on GnRH secretion was monitored directly in pituitary portal blood of follicular phase sheep in the presence and absence of a cortisol treatment that elevated plasma cortisol to a level observed during stress. An acute (6 h) cortisol increase in the midfollicular phase did not lower GnRH pulse frequency. However, a more prolonged (27 h) increase in cortisol beginning just before the decrease in progesterone reduced GnRH pulse frequency by 45% and delayed the preovulatory LH surge by 10 h. To determine whether the gonadal steroid milieu of the follicular phase enables cortisol to reduce GnRH pulse frequency, GnRH was monitored in ovariectomized ewes treated with estradiol and progesterone to create an artificial follicular phase. A sustained increment in plasma cortisol reduced GnRH pulse frequency by 70% in this artificial follicular phase, in contrast to the lack of an effect in untreated ovariectomized ewes as seen previously. Thus, a sustained stress-like level of cortisol suppresses GnRH pulse frequency in follicular phase ewes, and this appears to be dependent upon the presence of ovarian steroids. PMID:18801903

Oakley, Amy E; Breen, Kellie M; Clarke, Iain J; Karsch, Fred J; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Tilbrook, Alan J



Cortisol Reduces Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Pulse Frequency in Follicular Phase Ewes: Influence of Ovarian Steroids  

PubMed Central

Stress-like elevations in plasma glucocorticoids suppress gonadotropin secretion and can disrupt ovarian cyclicity. In sheep, cortisol acts at the pituitary to reduce responsiveness to GnRH but does not affect GnRH pulse frequency in the absence of ovarian hormones. However, in ewes during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, cortisol reduces LH pulse frequency. To test the hypothesis that cortisol reduces GnRH pulse frequency in the presence of ovarian steroids, the effect of cortisol on GnRH secretion was monitored directly in pituitary portal blood of follicular phase sheep in the presence and absence of a cortisol treatment that elevated plasma cortisol to a level observed during stress. An acute (6 h) cortisol increase in the midfollicular phase did not lower GnRH pulse frequency. However, a more prolonged (27 h) increase in cortisol beginning just before the decrease in progesterone reduced GnRH pulse frequency by 45% and delayed the preovulatory LH surge by 10 h. To determine whether the gonadal steroid milieu of the follicular phase enables cortisol to reduce GnRH pulse frequency, GnRH was monitored in ovariectomized ewes treated with estradiol and progesterone to create an artificial follicular phase. A sustained increment in plasma cortisol reduced GnRH pulse frequency by 70% in this artificial follicular phase, in contrast to the lack of an effect in untreated ovariectomized ewes as seen previously. Thus, a sustained stress-like level of cortisol suppresses GnRH pulse frequency in follicular phase ewes, and this appears to be dependent upon the presence of ovarian steroids.

Oakley, Amy E.; Breen, Kellie M.; Clarke, Iain J.; Karsch, Fred J.; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R.; Tilbrook, Alan J.



Effects of benzyl glucoside and chlorogenic acid from Prunus mume on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and catecholamine levels in plasma of experimental menopausal model rats.  


To investigate the effectiveness of benzyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (BG) and chlorogenic acid (CA), the constituents of the fruit of Prunus mume, for relieving tension in experimental menopausal model rats (M-rats) caused by ether stress, the effects of BG and CA on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and catecholamine (adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine) levels were examined in the plasma of M-rats. Caffeic acid, quinic acid, and rosmarinic acid, which are compounds structurally related to CA, were also examined. BG obviously recovered catecholamine levels decreased by ether stress and increased dopamine to high levels. On the other hand, CA significantly decreased the ACTH level increased by ether stress and showed the greatest effect of all compounds. These results suggest that BG and CA may contribute to relieving the tension in M-rats caused by ether stress. PMID:14709918

Ina, Hiroji; Yamada, Kenji; Matsumoto, Kosai; Miyazaki, Toshio



Sleep, Dreams, and Memory Consolidation: The Role of the Stress Hormone Cortisol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert…

Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn



Sleep, Dreams, and Memory Consolidation: The Role of the Stress Hormone Cortisol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert…

Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn



24Hour Plasma Levels of Prolactin, Cortisol, Growth Hormone and Catecholamines in Schizophrenic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 24-hour pattern of prolactin, cortisol and growth hormone (GH) secretion, and the diurnal variations of plasma catecholamine levels, were tested in a sample of DSM III schizophrenics and in a control population of patients hospitalized in the same ward and diagnosed as suffering from neurotic disorders. All subjects were acclimated to the ward and kept free from any drug

D. Kemali; M. Maj; M. G. Ariano; F. Arena; N. Lovero



Effect of blood plasma collected after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration during the preovulatory period in the sow on oocyte in vitro maturation.  


Reproduction may be affected by stressful events changing the female endocrine or metabolic profile. An altered environment during oocyte development could influence the delicate process of oocyte maturation. Here, the effect of simulated stress by media supplementation with blood plasma from sows after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration during the preovulatory period was assessed. Oocytes were matured for 46 hours in the presence of plasma from ACTH-treated sows, or plasma from NaCl-treated control sows, or medium without plasma (BSA group). The plasma used had been collected at 36 and 12 hours (±2 hours) before ovulation (for the first 24 hours + last 22 hours of maturation, respectively). Subsequent fertilization and embryo development were evaluated. Actin cytoskeleton and mitochondrial patterns were studied by confocal microscopy both in the oocytes and the resulting blastocysts. Nuclear maturation did not differ between treatments. Subtle differences were observed in the actin microfilaments in oocytes; however, mitochondrial patterns were associated with the treatment (P < 0.001). These differences in mitochondrial patterns were not reflected by in vitro outcomes, which were similar in all groups. In conclusion, an altered hormonal environment provided by a brief exposure to plasma from ACTH-treated sows during in vitro oocyte maturation could induce alterations in actin cytoskeleton and mitochondrial patterns in oocytes. However, these changes might not hamper the subsequent in vitro embryo development. PMID:23886600

González, R; Sjunnesson, Y C B



Changes of smoking behavior and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, prolactin, and endogenous opioids levels in nicotine dependence after naltrexone treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was done to evaluate the therapeutic effects of naltrexone on smoking behaviors and to measure the changing of brain substances for elucidating the mode of action by naltrexone. Twenty-five voluntarily participated healthy male smokers were randomly assigned to naltrexone group or placebo group for 2 weeks. In this study, naltrexone group showed significant reduction in daily cigarette consumption

Young Sik Lee; Keun Ho Joe; In Ki Sohn; Chul Na; Baik Seok Kee; Seok Lae Chae



Mu-opioid receptor A118G polymorphism in healthy volunteers affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis adrenocorticotropic hormone stress response to metyrapone.  


The mu-opioid receptor encoded by the gene OPRM1 plays a primary role in opiate, alcohol, cocaine and nicotine addiction. Studies using opioid antagonists demonstrate that the mu-opioid receptor (MOP-r) also mediates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response. A common polymorphism in exon one of the MOP-r gene, A118G, has been shown to significantly alter receptor function and MOP-r gene expression; therefore, this variant likely affects HPA-axis responsivity. In the current study, we have investigated whether the presence of the 118AG variant genotype affects HPA axis responsivity to the stressor metyrapone, which transiently blocks glucocorticoid production in the adrenal cortex. Forty-eight normal and healthy volunteers (32 men, 16 women) were studied, among whom nine men and seven women had the 118AG genotype. The 118G allele blunted the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) response to metyrapone. Although there was no difference in basal levels of ACTH, subjects with the 118AG genotype had a more modest rise and resultant significantly lower ACTH levels than those with the prototype 118AA at the 8-hour time point (P < 0.02). We found no significant difference between genders. These findings suggest a relatively greater tonic inhibition at hypothalamic-pituitary sites through the mu-opioid receptor and relatively less cyclical glucocorticoid inhibition in subjects with the 118G allele. PMID:21507151

Ducat, Elizabeth; Ray, Brenda; Bart, Gavin; Umemura, Yoshie; Varon, Jack; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne



Mapping the human melanocortin 2 receptor (adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor; ACTHR) gene (MC2R) to the small arm of chromosome 18 (18p11. 21-pter)  

SciTech Connect

The human adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR) was recently cloned and shown to belong to the superfamily of membrane receptors that couple to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and adenylyl cyclase. A genetically heterogeneous (including both X-linked and autosomally recessive forms) congenital syndrome of general hereditary adrenal unresponsiveness to ACTH has been documented in several kindreds. This inherited defect affects one of the steps in the cascade of events of ACTH action on glucocorticoid biosynthesis, without altering mineralocorticoid productions. Since candidate targets for pathophysiological manifestations of deficient responsiveness to ACTH include lesions of the ACTHR gene, the authors undertook to map it to a chromosomal location. They first used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of NIGMS Panel 1 DNA template to assign a 960-bp-long fragment of the human ACTHR gene to chromosome 18. Subsequently, they determined the location of the ACTHR gene within human chromosome 18 by PCR amplification of genomic DNA template from somatic cell hybrids that contain deletions of this chromosome.

Vamvakopoulos, N.C.; Chrousos, G.P. (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Rojas, K.; Overhauser, J. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Durkin, A.S.; Nierman, W.C. (American Type Collection, Rockville, MD (United States))



Sex differences in cortisol response to Corticotropin Releasing Hormone challenge over puberty: Pittsburgh Pediatric Neurobehavioral Studies  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective Consistent sex differences in regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis have been shown in animal models and emerge over puberty. However, parallel work in humans is lacking despite implications for elucidating the emergence of sex differences in depression over puberty. We investigated sex differences in HPA response to corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) challenge over puberty in a carefully screened normative sample. Methods Participants were 68 healthy children (41% girls), ages 6–16, with no personal or family history of psychiatric disorder. Pubertal maturation was determined by Tanner staging. Following 24 hours of adaptation, 9–10 plasma cortisol samples were collected over 30–40 minutes pre-infusion baseline, 1 ?g/kg CRH infusion, and 90–180 minutes post-infusion recovery. Thirty-seven participants completed 2+ CRH challenges allowing inclusion of cross-sectional and longitudinal data in all analyses. The influence of gender and pubertal maturation on parameters of cortisol response to CRH challenge was investigated using nonlinear mixed model metholodogy. Results Girls showed increasing total cortisol output following CRH challenge over puberty, while boys showed little change in total cortisol output over puberty. Increased cortisol output in girls was explained by slower reactivity and recovery rates leading to prolonged time to reach peak cortisol and delayed return to baseline over puberty. Girls also showed increasing baseline cortisol over puberty, while boys showed declining baseline over puberty. Conclusion Results reveal subtle normative sex differences in the influence of pubertal maturation on HPA regulation at the pituitary level. This normative shift may tip the balance towards stress response dysregulation in girls at high risk for depression, and may represent one potential mechanism underlying elevated rates of depression among pubescent girls.

Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Dahl, Ronald E.



Serum concentrations of cortisol and cortisone in healthy dogs and dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism treated with trilostane.  


The serum concentrations of cortisol and cortisone were measured in 19 healthy dogs and in 13 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) before and one hour after an injection of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In the dogs with pdh, the cortisol and cortisone concentrations were measured before and after one to two weeks and three to seven weeks of treatment with trilostane. The dogs with PDH had significantly higher baseline and poststimulation concentrations of cortisol and cortisone, and higher baseline cortisol:cortisone ratios than the healthy dogs. During the treatment with trilostane, the poststimulation cortisol, the baseline and poststimulation cortisone concentrations, and the baseline and poststimulation cortisol:cortisone ratios decreased significantly. The decrease in poststimulation cortisone was significantly smaller than the decrease in cortisol. PMID:18931355

Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Boretti, F S; Wenger, M; Maser-Gluth, C; Reusch, C E



Intracerebroventricular porcine corticotropin-releasing hormone and cortisol effects on pig immune measures and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of porcine corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH) and cortisol on the immune system and behavior were examined in domestic pigs. In Experiment 1, 50 ?g of pCRH in 200 ?l of saline or 200 ?l of vehicle was administered ICV at 0600 h. Blood samples were obtained at 0600 (prior to injection), 0700, and 0800 h.

Janeen L. Salak-Johnson; John J. McGlone; C. Scott Whisnant; Reid L. Norman; Robert R. Kraeling



The Effects of Estradiol and Estriol on Plasma Levels of Cortisol and Thyroid Hormone-Binding Globulins and on Aldosterone and Cortisol Secretion Rates in Man*  

PubMed Central

The effects of estriol and estradiol on the plasma levels of cortisol- and thyroxine-binding globulin activity, and on the secretion rates of aldosterone and cortisol were studied in man. The metabolite estriol had no consistent or significant influence on plasma levels of the hormone-binding globulin activities; the hormone estradiol increased these binding capacities significantly, as expected. Cortisol secretion rate rose slightly after estriol but was unchanged after estradiol. Both compounds induced substantial increases in the aldosterone secretion rate of most treated subjects. The mechanism of this apparently paradoxical effect of estrogens is not clear; it is suggested that the “salt-retaining” action of estrogens is mediated in part by the rapid enhancement of aldosterone output which follows their administration in man. Balance experiments in four subjects suggest that both estradiol and estriol may induce a transient early natriuresis in man; but other mechanisms for estrogen stimulation of aldosterone secretion may be operative as well.

Katz, Fred H.; Kappas, Attallah



Expression of aldosterone synthase and adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor in adrenal incidentalomas from normotensive and hypertensive patients: Distinguishing subclinical or atypical primary aldosteronism from adrenal incidentaloma.  


The present study aimed to investigate the expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTH-R) and their regulating transcription factors in adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) from normotensive and hypertensive patients to distinguish subclinical or atypical primary aldosteronism (PA) from AIs. Total RNA was extracted from 8 normal adrenal cortices (NAs), 46 AIs, 15 aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) and 6 idiopathic hyperaldosteronisms (IHAs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression of CYP11B2, ACTH-R, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) and dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, critical region on the X chromosome, gene-1 (DAX-1) in the different tissues. The AI hypertensive subgroup displayed increased plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and PAC/PRA ratio (ARR) and decreased plasma renin activity (PRA) compared to the normotensive group. CYP11B2, ACTH-R and SF1 mRNAs were signi?cantly higher in the APA group compared to the other groups, and gradually increased in AI hypertensive samples. DAX-1 mRNA was expressed faintly in PA compared with NA. In normotensive-AI samples, DAX-1 mRNA was higher compared to PA and AI hypertensive samples. Significant differences in gene expression levels in AIs were observed between probable and improbable PA patients. Immunohistochemical results were consistent with those of real-time PCR. Plasma aldosterone levels were positively correlated with CYP11B2, ACTH-R and SF1 mRNA and inversely correlated with DAX-1 mRNA. In conclusion, a significant number of hypertensive-AI patients may have subclinical forms of PA. CYP11B2, ACTH-R and their regulating transcription factors may be noteworthy in distinguishing subclinical PA from AIs. PMID:23023242

Cao, C X; Yang, X C; Gao, Y X; Zhuang, M; Wang, K P; Sun, L J; Wang, X S



Proteomic Analysis of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Treatment of an Infantile Spasm Model Induced by N-Methyl-d-Aspartic Acid and Prenatal Stress  

PubMed Central

Infantile spasms is an age-specific epileptic syndrome associated with poor developmental outcomes and poor response to nearly all traditional antiepileptic drugs except adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We investigated the protective mechanism of ACTH against brain damage. An infantile spasm rat model induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in neonate rats was used. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into the stress-exposed and the non-stress exposed groups, and their offspring were randomly divided into ACTH-treated spasm model, untreated spasm model, and control groups. A proteomics-based approach was used to detect the proteome differences between ACTH-treated and untreated groups. Gel image analysis was followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric protein identification and bioinformatics analysis. Prenatal stress exposure resulted in more severe seizures, and ACTH treatment reduced and delayed the onset of seizures. The most significantly up-regulated proteins included isoform 1 of tubulin ?-5 chain, cofilin-1 (CFL1), synaptosomal-associated protein 25, malate dehydrogenase, N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, annexin A3 (ANXA3), and rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA). In contrast, tubulin ?-1A chain was down-regulated. Three of the identified proteins, ARHGDIA, ANXA3, and CFL1, were validated using western blot analysis. ARHGDIA expression was assayed in the brain samples of five infantile spasm patients. These proteins are involved in the cytoskeleton, synapses, energy metabolism, vascular regulation, signal transduction, and acetylation. The mechanism underlying the effects of ACTH involves the molecular events affected by these proteins, and protein acetylation is the mechanism of action of the drug treatment.

Wang, Jing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Wen-Jing; Shang, Ai-Jia; Zou, Li-Ping



Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears  

PubMed Central

The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, ?-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p?-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis.

T?, Bechsh?ft; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Muir, DCG; Letcher, RJ; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS; Jenssen, BM; Villanger, GD



Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears.  


The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, ?-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p'-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. PMID:22575327

Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Muir, D C G; Letcher, R J; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S; Jenssen, B M; Villanger, G D



Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Directly Stimulates Cortisol and the Cortisol Biosynthetic Pathway in Human Fetal Adrenal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near term the human fetal adrenals (HFAs) initiate produc- tion of cortisol, which promotes organ maturation and acts to increase placental CRH biosynthesis. The objective of the present study was to determine whether CRH directly stim- ulates both cortisol production and expression of the steroi- dogenic enzymes in HFA-definitive zone cells. CRH stimu- lated the production of cortisol in a

Rosa Sirianni; Khurram S. Rehman; Bruce R. Carr; C. Richard Parker; William E. Rainey


Suppression by cyproheptadine of human growth hormone and cortisol secretion during sleep.  

PubMed Central

The effect of cyproheptadine on plasma growth hormone and cortisol levels was studied in seven male volunteers with polygraphic sleep monitoring. Sleep-related growth hormone release was completely inhibited in three of the seven normal subjects by the intravenous infusion of cyproheptadine (5 mg) which was started at the onset of sleep. In the other four, growth hormone release during sleep was significantly decreased or delayed by cyproheptadine when the drug infusion was started at 7:00 p.m., 1-2 h before the onset of sleep. The usual increase in plasma cortisol in the early morning was completely suppressed in all five subjects given cyproheptadine infusions from 4:00 to 7:00 a.m. The intravenous infusion of cyproheptadine increased slow wave sleep, although the time from sleep onset to the first occurrence of slow wave sleep was not affected. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep was significantly decreased by cyproheptadine. These results suggest that cyproheptadine inhibits growth hormone and ACTH secretion during sleep in man, possibly by antagonizing serotoninergic mechanisms although other actions of the drug are not ruled out. Images

Chihara, K; Kato, Y; Maeda, K; Matsukura, S; Imura, H



[Effect of somatostatin-octreotide on secretion of adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and neuro-hypophyseal hormones in acromegaly].  


The present work was aimed at studying the combined effects of somatostatin and corticotropin releasing hormone on the activities of the pituitary-adrenocortical axis and neurohypophysis. Patients with active acromegaly were intravenously injected with a 100 micrograms human corticotropin releasing hormone bolus before and after a 3-month subcutaneous treatment with somatostatin-octreotide (SMS 201 995; Sandostatin; 200 micrograms t. i. d.). When the Sandostatin effect was investigated, corticotropin releasing hormone test was started 2 hrs after its first daily dose. Peripheral venous blood samples were taken before and 20, 60, 90 and 120 min after the corticotropin releasing hormone load. Plasma corticotropin, arginine-8-vasopressin and oxytocin were measured by radioimmunoassay, and serum cortisol by fluorimetry. In healthy subjects, corticotropin releasing hormone stimulus elicited increases of plasma corticotropin, serum cortisol, plasma arginine-8-vasopressin and oxytocin levels by 186, 41, 178 and 58 per cent, respectively. Untreated acromegalics exhibited missing arginine-8-vasopressin, blunted corticotropin, and normal oxytocin and cortisol responses. Sandostatin therapy improved the arginine-8-vasopressin reaction, suppressed the basal levels of corticotropin and cortisol with the maintenance of cortisol stimulability; the peak-reaction of corticotropin became normal in two patients, however, with a shortened duration of response. Diuresis of the patients increased under the treatment. Sandostatin markedly alleviated the clinical symptoms and suppressed the growth hormone secretion, but did not influence the size of the pituitary adenomas. Among other factors, the alterations of growth hormone and cortisol may be hypothesized to take part in the changes of the corticotroph and neurohypophysial functions. PMID:9914727

Julesz, J; Vecsernyés, M; Szász, A; Szabados, E; Tóth, I; Laczi, F



Effects of handling regime and sex on changes in cortisol, thyroid hormones and body mass in fasting grey seal pups.  


Survival of seal pups may be affected by their ability to respond appropriately to stress. Chronic stress can adversely affect secretion of cortisol and thyroid hormones, which contribute to the control of fuel utilisation. Repeated handling could disrupt the endocrine response to stress and/or negatively impact upon mass changes during fasting. Here we investigated the effects of handling regime on cortisol and thyroid hormone levels, and body mass changes, in fasting male and female grey seal pups (Halichoerus grypus). Females had higher thyroid hormone levels than males throughout fasting and showed a reduction in cortisol midway through the fast that was not seen in males. This may reflect sex-specific fuel allocation or development. Neither handling frequency nor cumulative contact time affected plasma cortisol or thyroid hormone levels, the rate of increase in cortisol over the first five minutes of physical contact or the pattern of mass loss during fasting in either sex. The endocrine response to stress and the control of energy balance in grey seal pups appear to be robust to repeated, short periods of handling. Our results suggest that routine handling should have no additional impact on these animals than general disturbance caused by researchers moving around the colony. PMID:21945943

Bennett, Kimberley A; Moss, Simon E W; Pomeroy, Paddy; Speakman, John R; Fedak, Mike A



Five-day regimen of intramuscular or subcutaneous self-administered adrenocorticotropic hormone gel for acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis: a prospective, randomized, open-label pilot trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite over 50 years of experience with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as a treatment for acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis, there have been no trials examining the options of the 2–3-week dosing regimen or intramuscular injection protocol used in the original trials. At our clinic, we performed a small, prospective, randomized pilot study to examine the efficacy and safety of, and patient satisfaction with, a short (five-day) self-administered ACTH dosing protocol for exacerbations of multiple sclerosis, and to compare the subcutaneous and intramuscular routes of administration. Methods: Patients for this study were recruited from an outpatient treatment clinic. Each patient self-administered natural ACTH gel 80 U/day by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection for five consecutive days and was evaluated at baseline and on days 7 and 14. Patient feedback was collected using the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGI-C, the primary efficacy measure), a patient global visual analog scale, the Expanded Disability Status Scale, a timed walk, the Nine-hole Peg Test, and the Clinical Global Impression of Change. Results: Of the 20 enrolled patients (mean age 39.5 years), 19 completed the study. On day 14, 61.1% of patients (11 of 18 with day 14 scores) were treatment responders, and rated their condition as “very much improved” or “much improved” on the PGI-C. The intramuscular group had numerically more responders, but there was no significant difference in the proportion of responders between the intramuscular and subcutaneous groups at day 14 (P = 0.3). The intramuscular route of injection was associated with more injection site pain than the subcutaneous route. Conclusion: A shorter five-day course of intramuscular or subcutaneous ACTH gel may improve symptoms associated with acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis. Larger studies with standard of care controls are needed to confirm whether this shorter course of intramuscular or subcutaneous ACTH gel is effective and could potentially be substituted for the standard 14-day treatment.

Simsarian, James P; Saunders, Carol; Smith, D Michelle



Impact of corticotropin-releasing hormone on gastrointestinal motility and adrenocorticotropic hormone in normal controls and patients with irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a key role in modulating intestinal motility in stressed animals.Aims—To evaluate the effect of CRH on intestinal motility in humans and to determine whether patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have an exaggerated response to CRH.Subjects—Ten IBS patients diagnosed by Rome criteria and 10 healthy controls.Methods—CRH (2 ?g\\/kg) was intravenously administered during duodenal and colonic manometry

S Fukudo; T Nomura; M Hongo



Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?; 20?-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru



ACTH-stimulated cortisol release from head kidney of rainbow trout is modulated by glucose concentration.  


To assess the hypothesis that cortisol release in rainbow trout is modulated by glucose levels, we first evaluated cortisol release [basal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-regulated] by head kidney tissue superfused with medium reflecting hypoglycaemic, normoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic conditions. Next, cortisol release from head kidney fragments in static incubations was assessed in parallel with changes in parameters related to cortisol synthesis (mRNA abundance of StAR, P450scc, 3?HSD and 11?H) and the GK-mediated glucosensing mechanism (levels of glycogen and glucose, activities of GK, GSase and PK, and mRNA levels of GK, GLUT-2, Kir6.x-like and SUR-like). We then evaluated the effects of two inhibitors of glucose transport, cytochalasin B and phlorizin, on cortisol production and glucosensing mechanisms. The ACTH-induced release of cortisol proved to be modulated by glucose concentration such that increased release occurs under high glucose levels, and decreased ACTH-stimulated cortisol release occurs when glucose transport is inhibited by cytochalasin B. The release of cortisol can be associated with increased synthesis as enhanced mRNA abundance of genes related to cortisol synthesis was also noted in high glucose medium. Specific GK immunoreactivity in the cortisol-producing cells (not in chromaffin cells) further substantiates GK-mediated glucosensing in cortisol production. In contrast, no changes compatible with those of glucose levels and cortisol release/synthesis in the presence of ACTH were noted for any other putative glucosensor mechanisms based on LXR, SGLT-1 or Gnat3. These combined results are the first evidence for a mechanism in fish linking the synthesis and release of a non-pancreatic hormone like cortisol with circulating glucose levels. The relationship was evident for the regulated (ACTH-dependent) pathway and this suggests that under acute stress conditions glucose is important for the regulation of cortisol synthesis and release. PMID:23077165

Conde-Sieira, Marta; Alvarez, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Flik, Gert; Soengas, José L



Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related\\u000a corticosteroid insufficiency.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63 non-septic\\u000a patients with treatment-insensitive hypotension in whom an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test (250 ?g) was performed.\\u000a Serum total and free cortisol

Nienke Molenaar; A. B. Johan Groeneveld; Hilde M. Dijstelbloem; Margriet F. C. de Jong; Armand R. J. Girbes; Annemieke C. Heijboer; Albertus Beishuizen



Presence of immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing hormone and cortisol molecules in invertebrate haemocytes and lower and higher vertebrate thymus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticotropin-releasing hormone- and cortisol-like molecules are present in the haemocytes of different molluscan species and in the epithelial cells, interdigitating cells and macrophages -- but not in the lymphocytes -- of fish, frog, chicken and rat thymus. Taking into account the fact that other pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides, such as adrenocorticotropin hormone, are present in the haemocytes and thymus of the same

Enzo Ottaviani; Antonella Franchini; Claudio Franceschi



Cortisol and hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis hormones in follicular-phase women with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome and effect of depressive symptoms on these hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis and cortisol concentrations in women with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) who were in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle, and whether their scores for depressive symptoms were related to levels of these hormones. A total of 176 subjects participated – 46 healthy volunteers, 68 patients with fibromyalgia, and 62 patients

Ali Gur; Remzi Cevik; Kemal Nas; Leyla Colpan; Serdar Sarac



Validation of a cortisol enzyme immunoassay and characterization of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).  


Monitoring concentrations of stress hormones is an important tool for behavioral research and conservation for animals both in the wild and captivity. Glucocorticoids can be measured in mammals as an indicator of stress by analyzing blood, feces, urine, hair, feathers, or saliva. The advantages of using saliva for measuring cortisol concentrations are three-fold: it is minimally invasive, multiple samples can be collected from the same individual in a short timeframe, and cortisol has a relatively short response time in saliva as compared with other materials. The purpose of this study was to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge as a physiological validation for an enzyme immunoassay to measure salivary cortisol in chimpanzees and (2) characterize the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in chimpanzees. We determined that salivary cortisol concentrations peaked 45 min following the ACTH challenge, which is similar to humans. Also, salivary cortisol concentrations peaked early in the morning and decreased throughout the day. We recommend that saliva collection may be the most effective method of measuring stress reactivity and has the potential to complement behavioral, cognitive, physiological, and welfare studies. PMID:21538448

Heintz, Matthew R; Santymire, Rachel M; Parr, Lisa A; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V



A rare case of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome caused by a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas detected by 68Ga-DOTANOC and 18F-FDG PET/CT.  


We report a rare case of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome caused by a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas detected by PET/CT using different tracers. A 43-year-old female patient with Cushing syndrome (CS) by suspected ectopic ACTH secretion underwent a 68Ga-DOTANOC and a 18F-FDG PET/CT. Both these functional imaging techniques revealed increased tracer uptake in a pancreatic mass and multiple liver metastases. Histology showed the presence of a mildly differentiated pancreatic NET. 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT may be a useful functional imaging method, complementary to 18F-FDG PET/CT, in detecting ACTH-secreting pancreatic NETs. PMID:23486330

Treglia, Giorgio; Salomone, Enrica; Petrone, Gianluigi; Giaccari, Andrea; Rindi, Guido; Rufini, Vittoria



Characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone in primiparous, postpartum, anovular, suckled, beef cows exposed acutely to bulls  

PubMed Central

Background The physiological mechanism by which bulls stimulate resumption of ovarian cycling activity in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows after calving may involve the concurrent activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian (HPO) axis and hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, the objectives of this experiment were to determine if characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH) in postpartum, anovular, beef cows are influenced by acute exposure to bulls. The null hypotheses were that daily, temporal characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns do not differ between cows exposed acutely to bulls or steers. Methods Sixteen cows were assigned randomly 67 +/- 4 (+/- SE) after calving to be exposed to bulls (EB, n = 8) or steers (ES, n = 8) 5 h daily for 9 d (D 0 to 8). Blood samples were collected daily from each cow via jugular catheters at 15-min intervals for 6 h from 1000 to 1600 h each day. The 5-h exposure period began 1 h after the start of the intensive bleeding period. Characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns (mean, baseline, pulse frequency, pulse amplitude, and pulse duration) were identified by PULSAR analyses. Results Mean cortisol concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) in cows in both treatments from D 0 to D 2. Thereafter, mean cortisol concentrations stabilized and did not differ (P > 0.10) between EB and ES cows. The decrease in mean cortisol concentrations in EB and ES cows from D 0 to D 2 was attributed to cows acclimatizing to intensive blood sampling and handling procedures. Consequently, analyses for characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns included D 2 through 8 only. Cortisol mean and baseline concentrations, and pulse amplitude did not differ (P > 0.10) between EB and ES cows. However, cortisol pulse duration tended to be longer (P = 0.09) and pulse frequency was lower (P = 0.05) in EB than ES cows. LH pulse frequency was greater (P = 0.06) in EB than ES cows. All other characteristics of LH concentration patterns did not differ (P > 0.10) between EB and ES cows. Characteristics of cortisol concentration patterns were not related to characteristics of LH concentration patterns for ES cows (P > 0.10). However, as cortisol pulse amplitude increased, LH pulse amplitude decreased (b1 = -0.04; P < 0.05) for EB cows. Conclusions In conclusion, exposing primiparous, postpartum, anovular, suckled cows to bulls for 5-h daily over a 9-d period did not alter mean concentrations of cortisol or LH compared to mean concentrations of cortisol and LH in cows exposed to steers. However, exposing cows to bull in this manner altered characteristics of temporal patterns of both LH and cortisol by increasing LH pulse frequency and decreasing cortisol pulse frequency. Interestingly, in cows exposed to bulls, as amplitude and frequency of cortisol pulses decreased, amplitudes of LH pulses increased and frequency of LH pulses tended to increase. Thus, the physiological mechanism of the biostimulatory effect of bulls may initially involve modification of the HPA axis and these changes may facilitate activation of the HPO axis and resumption of ovulatory cycles in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows.



Nitric oxide inhibits ACTH-induced cortisol production in near-term, long-term hypoxic ovine fetal adrenocortical cells.  


We previously reported that in the sheep fetus, long-term hypoxia (LTH) resulted in elevated basal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH(1- 39)) whereas the cortisol levels were not different from normoxic controls. We also showed that LTH enhances endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in the fetal adrenal. This study was designed to determine the effect of NO on cortisol production in adrenocortical cells from LTH fetal sheep. Ewes were maintained at high altitude (3820 m) from ?40 days' gestation (dG) to near term. Between 138 and 141 dG, fetal adrenal glands were collected from LTH and age-matched normoxic control fetuses. Adrenal cortical cells were pretreated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP), nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), L-arginine, or diethyleneamine NO (DETA-NO) and then challenged with 10 nmol/L ACTH. Cortisol responses were compared after 1 hour. Adrenocorticotropic hormone -induced cortisol secretion was significantly higher in LTH versus control (P < .01). Enhancement of NO with L-arginine resulted in a significant reduction of ACTH-mediated cortisol production in the LTH group. DETA-NO also caused a significant decrease in ACTH-mediated cortisol production (P < .05). Inhibition of NOS with L-NAME significantly increased cortisol production in the LTH group (P < .05 compared to ACTH alone), whereas the effect on the control group was not significant. Nitric oxide synthase activity was significantly higher in the LTH group compared to control, but this difference was eliminated following ACTH treatment. These data indicate that LTH enhances adrenal cortical sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of NO on cortisol production. Nitric oxide may, therefore, play an important role in regulating ACTH-induced cortisol production in the LTH fetal adrenal. PMID:20713972

Monau, Tshepo R; Vargas, Vladimir E; Zhang, Lubo; Myers, Dean A; Ducsay, Charles A



Appetite-regulating hormones cortisol and peptide YY are associated with disordered eating psychopathology, independent of body mass index  

PubMed Central

Objective Disordered eating occurs in women at both weight extremes of anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity. Cortisol, peptide YY (PYY), Ieptin, and ghrelin are hormones involved in appetite and feeding behavior that vary with weight and body fat. Abnormal levels of these hormones have been reported in women with AN, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), and obesity. The relationship between appetite-regulating hormones and disordered eating psychopathology is unknown. We therefore studied the relationship between orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones and disordered eating psychopathology in women across a range of weights. Design A cross-sectional study of 65 women, 18–45 years: 16 with AN, 12 normal-weight with HA, 17 overweight or obese, and 20 normal-weight in good health. Methods Two validated measures of disordered eating psychopathology, the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), were administered. Fasting PYY, Ieptin, and ghrelin levels were measured; Cortisol levels were pooled from serum samples obtained every 20 min from 2000 to 0800 h. Results Cortisol and PYY levels were positively associated with disordered eating psychopathology including restraint, eating concerns, and body image disturbance, independent of body mass index (BMI). Although Ieptin levels were negatively associated with disordered eating psychopathology, these relationships were not significant after controlling for BMI. Ghrelin levels were generally not associated with EDE-Q or EDI-2 scores. Conclusions Higher levels of Cortisol and PYY are associated with disordered eating psychopathology independent of BMI in women across the weight spectrum, suggesting that abnormalities in appetite regulation may be associated with specific eating disorder pathologies.

Lawson, Elizabeth A; Eddy, Kamryn T; Donoho, Daniel; Misra, Madhusmita; Miller, Karen K; Meenaghan, Erinne; Lydecker, Janet; Herzog, David; Klibanski, Anne



Hexarelin, a Synthetic Growth-Hormone Releasing Peptide, Shows No Interaction with Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and Vasopressin on Adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol Secretion in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexarelin (HEX) is a synthetic growth-hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP) which acts via specific receptors at both the pituitary and the hypothalamic level to stimulate GH release both in animals and in man. Like other GHRPs, HEX possesses also significant prolactin-and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) cortisol-releasing activity, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are even less clear. To clarify the mechanisms by which HEX

Emanuela Arvat; Barbara Maccagno; Josefina Ramunni; Lidia di Vito; Fabio Broglio; Romano Deghenghi; Franco Camanni; Ezio Ghigo



Episodic variations of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, melatonin and cortisol in infertile women with subclinical hypothyroidism.  


Preliminary data have suggested that female infertility due to corpus luteum insufficiency may be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism [exaggerated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation]. L-Thyroxine supplementation has been recommended to achieve pregnancies in subclinical hypothyroid women. This controlled study was carried out in order to investigate the biochemical diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism as a possible infertility factor. Five infertile patients (aged 25-36 years) with subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 4, stimulated TSH >20 microU/ml) or primary hypothyroidism (n = 1) and five healthy controls (aged 22-39 years) with normal thyroid function (stimulated TSH <15 microU/ml), regular cycles and no history of infertility were studied in the early follicular phase. In the pre-study evaluation, eight of 23 volunteers (34.8%) had to be excluded because of subclinical hypothyroidism with stimulated TSH values (TSHs) >15 microU/ml. Cycle function of patients and controls was compared by the method of LH pulse pattern analysis. Therefore blood samples were drawn every 10 min during a 24 h period. Sleep was recorded from midnight to 7 a.m. Repetition of the TRH tests at the end of the 24 h blood sampling period confirmed the difference in stimulated TSH values of the two study groups. Pulse analysis for luteinizing hormone (LH), TSH and prolactin showed no differences between patients and controls for pulse frequency, amplitude, height, length, area under curve (AUC) and the 24 h mean. Even the hypothyroid patient had a normal LH pulse pattern. Additional measurement of melatonin in pooled sera every 30 min gave the well-documented diurnal profiles during day and night for both groups. Patients had significantly higher melatonin values at seven time points during the night. Peaks for LH, TSH, prolactin and cortisol were correlated with the sleep stages wake, rapid eye movement, 1 + 2 and 3 + 4. We concluded that corpus luteum insufficiency in female infertility cannot be explained by subclinical hypothyroidism and thus should not be treated with L-thyroxine for fertility reasons. PMID:9194636

Bals-Pratsch, M; De Geyter, C; Müller, T; Frieling, U; Lerchl, A; Pirke, K M; Hanker, J P; Becker-Carus, C; Nieschlag, E



A specific CRH antagonist attenuates ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in ovine adrenocortical cells.  


Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) has been detected in the adrenal gland of many species and may be involved in regulation of glucocorticoid secretion. In cultured human fetal adrenal definitive/transitional zone cells, CRH upregulates the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptor and steroidogenic enzymes and is blocked by the selective CRH type 1 receptor (CRH(1)) antagonist, antalarmin. Based on these findings and evidence that antalarmin infusion into sheep suppressed prepartum increases in cortisol, we hypothesized that antalarmin would influence adrenal cortisol secretion. Antalarmin strongly attenuated ACTH and forskolin (FSK)-stimulated cortisol and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) release from cultured ovine adrenocortical cells but did not prevent ACTH binding to cells or ACTH-induced proliferation in adult cells. Corticotropin releasing hormone was minimally effective as a secretagogue but increased the cortisol response to subsequent ACTH. These results suggest that antalarmin attenuates ACTH-induced cortisol secretion from cultured ovine adrenal cortical cells at a site distal to the ACTH receptor. Although CRH may modulate the secretory response to ACTH, it is probably not a direct cortisol secretagogue in the sheep. PMID:20220106

Valego, Nancy K; Rose, James C



Localization of the genes encoding the melanocortin-2 (Adrenocorticotropic hormone) and melanocortin-3 receptors to chromosomes 18p11. 2 and 20q13. 2-q13. 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and [alpha]-, [beta]-, and [gamma]-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) are products of propiomelanocortin post-translational processing. These compounds are collectively labeled as melanocortins (MC). Aside from their established effects on the regulation of the adrenal cortex (ACTH) and melanocytes ([alpha]-MSH), the melanocortins have been implicated in a broad array of physiological events. Melanocortins mediate their effects through cell membrane receptors belonging to the superfamily of seven transmembrane G-protein-linked receptors. Using the technique of polymerase chain reaction with primers based on conserved areas of the seven transmembrane G-protein-linked receptor family, the authors recently isolated an [open quotes]orphan[close quotes] subfamily of this receptor group. Within the past year, two of these receptors were identified as specific for [alpha]-MSH (MC1) and ACTH (MC2). They have recently described a third melanocortin receptor (MC3) that appears to recognize the core heptapeptide sequence of melanocortins with equal potency and efficacy and identified its presence in the brain, placenta, and gut. Using the FISH technique, they localized the ACTH and the melanocortin-3 receptors to chromosome loci 18p11.2 and 20q12.3-q13.2, respectively. 19 refs., 1 fig.

Gantz, I.; Tashiro, Takao; Konda, Yoshitaka; Shimoto, Yoshimasa; Miwa, Hiroto; Munzert, G.; Barcroft, C.; Glover, T.; Yamada, Tadataka (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))



Reduction in channel catfish hepatic growth hormone receptor expression in response to food deprivation and exogenous cortisol.  


The objective of this study was to assess the effects of food deprivation and exogenous cortisol administration on somatic growth of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and examine the resultant changes in circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expression. Integral to this objective, we report the isolation, sequence, and characterization of channel catfish GHR. Sequence analysis and characterization results indicate sequence identity and tissue distribution similar to GHRs in other teleost fish and several functional characteristics conserved in known vertebrate GHRs. The effects of food deprivation and dietary exogenous cortisol administration were assessed as part of a 4-week study. Growth was significantly reduced after 4 weeks in cortisol-fed fish compared to fed-control fish, and fasting resulted in weight loss. At the end of the 4-week study, both IGF-I plasma concentrations and hepatic GHR mRNA abundance were significantly reduced in fasted and cortisol-fed catfish. Levels of hepatic GHR mRNA were positively correlated to circulating IGF-I levels. These results suggest that a reduction in hepatic GHR gene expression might serve as a mechanism for the reduction of circulating IGF-I and growth in channel catfish during periods of food deprivation and stress. PMID:16423501

Small, Brian C; Murdock, Christopher A; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Peterson, Brian C



Canine plasma cortisol (hydrocortisone) measured by radioimmunoassay: clinical absence of diurnal variation and results of ACTH stimulation and dexamethasone suppression tests.  


A radioimmunoassay for plasma cortisol (hydrocortisone) was developed and validated for sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, and parallelism. Steroids were extracted with ethyl ether, and cortisol was purified by gel column chromatography prior to assay. [1,2-3H] cortisol and a commercially available sheep antibody to cortisol-21-hemisuccinate were used. Free steriods were separated from bound steroids by centrifugation after adsorption to dextran-coated charcoal. Plasma cortisol was measured by this technique in 6 normal dogs. Circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion was not detected in samples obtained by venipuncture at 8 different hours on 3 separate days, suggesting that adrenal function tests may be started in clinical patients at any time of day. Resting plasma cortisol concentrations averaged 19.4+/-3.0 (SD) ng/ml and ranged from nondetectable (less than 3 ng/ml) to 77.5 ng/ml. Of 144 canine plasma samples, 95% contained less than 50 ng of cortisol/ml. Intramuscular injection of 2.2 units of adrenocorticotropic hormone/kg of body weight caused detectable increase in plasma cortisol concentrations; maximum response (68.3 to 111.6 ng/ml) occurred 1 to 2 hours after injection. Oral administration of dexamethasone suppressed plasma cortisol to nondetectable concentrations for 32 hours in all 6 dogs. PMID:216290

Johnston, S D; Mather, E C



Cortisol infusion depresses the ratio of bioactive to immunoreactive ACTH in adrenalectomized sheep fetuses.  


We examined the effects of exogenous cortisol on plasma immunoreactive adrenocorticotropic hormone (iACTH), bioactive ACTH (bACTH), and ACTH-(1-39) in nine adrenalectomized fetuses at 126-130 and 136-140 days of gestation. Fetuses received 4 h of cortisol (2 or saline infusions on consecutive days. Blood was obtained before and at intervals during infusions. Arterial blood gases and hematocrits were normal and did not change with age. Plasma cortisol did not change during saline infusions but increased significantly (range 30-70 ng/ml) during cortisol infusions. Basal plasma iACTH, bACTH, ACTH-(1-39), and bACTH-to-iACTH and ACTH-(1-39)-to-iACTH ratios were significantly higher in the older fetuses. Cortisol infusions decreased plasma iACTH, bACTH, and ACTH-(1-39) in both groups, and the suppression as a percent of the baseline was similar. The bACTH-to-iACTH ratio declined to the same level at 126-130 (0.201 +/- 0.040 to 0.051 +/- 0.002) and 136-140 (0.389 +/- 0.088 to 0.046 +/- 0.002) days of gestation. These data suggest that physiological concentrations of cortisol selectively inhibit bACTH secretion, and the ACTH response to cortisol inhibition is not different between 126 and 140 days of gestation in adrenalectomized sheep fetuses. PMID:9530119

Zehnder, T J; Valego, N K; Schwartz, J; Green, J; Rose, J C



Cortisol and ACTH plasma levels in maternal filicides and violent psychiatric women.  


Maternal filicide may be considered the result of significant interactions between increased individual vulnerability and overwhelming environmental stress. The present study examined whether the biological vulnerability to stress and psychotic depression in criminally insane filicidal women was associated with an imbalance of stress-related hormones. Early-morning plasma levels of hormones associated with depression and chronic stress, i.e., thyroid hormones, Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), were measured in 10 filicidal inpatients recovered in a high-security psychiatric hospital for the criminally insane and 10 matched psychiatric, non-filicidal, criminal mothers with comparable traumatic/abuse records. Filicidal mothers had higher than normative Cortisol levels and significantly higher ACTH levels than both the normative values and plasma levels of non-filicidal women. Levels of thyroid hormones fell within normal ranges, without between-groups differences. In addition, while psychiatric controls had the expected Cortisol-ACTH positive correlation, mothers who killed their children revealed no relationship between the two hormones. HPA in the group of filicide perpetrators was altered despite they had received antidepressant pharmacological treatment. The observed imbalance of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis indicates a possible filicides' reduced sensitivity of the adrenal glands to ACTH, probably due to the pre-hospitalization long-term affective stress which preceded child homicide. The results reveal the existence of large psycho-biological stress-sensitivity in filicides, and careful post-discharge psychiatric follow-up of such women is recommended. PMID:23375405

Spironelli, Chiara; Gradante, Federica; Gradante, Giuseppe; Angrilli, Alessandro



Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone is associated with elevated cortisol in healthy young men and women  

PubMed Central

Background Recent attention has been given to subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as an elevation of TSH (4.5-10 uIU/L) with T4 and T3 levels still within the normal range. Controversy exists about the proper lower limit of TSH that defines patients in the subclinical hypothyroidism range and about if/when subclinical hypothyroidism should be treated. Additional data are needed to examine the relationship between markers of thyroid function in the subclinical hypothyroidism range, biomarkers of health and ultimately health outcomes. Objective We aimed to assess the relationship between serum TSH levels in the 0.5-10 uIU/L range and serum cortisol in a cohort of healthy young men and women without clinical evidence of hypothyroidism. Based on data in frank hypothyroidism, we hypothesized that serum TSH levels would be positively correlated with serum cortisol levels, suggesting derangement of the cortisol axis even in subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in 54 healthy, young (mean 20.98 +/? 0.37 yrs) men (19) and women (35). Lab sessions took place at 1300 hrs where blood was drawn via indwelling catheter for later assessment of basal serum TSH, free T3, free T4, and cortisol levels. Results All but 1 participant had free T3 levels within the normal reference intervals; free T4 levels for all participants were within the normal reference intervals. Linear regression modeling revealed that TSH levels in the 0.5-10 uIU/L were significantly and positively correlated with cortisol levels. This positive TSH-cortisol relationship was maintained below the accepted 4.5 uIU/L subclinical hypothyroid cutoff. Separate regression analyses conducted by systematically dropping the TSH cutoff by 0.50 uIU/L revealed that the TSH-cortisol relationship was maintained for TSH levels (uIU/L) ?4.0, ?3.5, ?3.0, and ?2.5 but not ?2.0. Linear regression modeling did not reveal a relationship between free T3 or free T4 levels and cortisol levels. Conclusions Results suggest a positive relationship between TSH and cortisol in apparently healthy young individuals. In as much as this relationship may herald a pathologic disorder, these preliminary results suggest that TSH levels > 2.0 uIU/L may be abnormal. Future research should address this hypothesis further, for instance through an intervention study.



Salivary cortisol in pregnant women suffering from blood and injection phobia.  


Stress and/or anxiety during pregnancy affect maternal and fetal well-being and can cause premature delivery and postnatal pathology in the child. Women suffering from phobias related to blood and injections are prone to high levels of stress, including anxiety and sometimes panic attacks, during pregnancy. Cortisol is amongst the mediators through which the neurohormonal expressions of maternal psychological factors may be transduced to the fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pregnant women suffering from blood and injection phobia have raised cortisol levels or are characterized by unusual diurnal salivary cortisol profiles compared with healthy controls. The sample consisted of 110 pregnant women with blood and injection phobia and 110 pregnant healthy controls. Both groups provided morning and evening saliva samples in weeks 25 and 36 for the assay of cortisol. In gestational week 25, when blood was drawn for the mandatory blood testing, extra blood was taken to analyze corticotrophin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol in serum. The diurnal decline in salivary cortisol as well as increased cortisol levels were observed during pregnancy. Pregnant women suffering from blood and injection phobia had a higher output of cortisol compared with women without the phobia (F?=?6.25, df?=?1, p?=?0.014), but no marked difference in the diurnal cortisol rhythm was found between groups. Our findings indicate that untreated blood and injection phobia during pregnancy increases cortisol concentrations. Blood and injection phobia is treatable, and cognitive behavioral therapy can be used. Women with blood and injection phobia during pregnancy therefore need to be recognized and offered treatment without delay in early pregnancy. PMID:21918849

Lilliecreutz, Caroline; Theodorsson, Elvar; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Josefsson, Ann



Effect of low blood glucose on plasma CRF, ACTH, and cortisol during prolonged physical exercise.  


The effects of low blood glucose concentration during low-intensity prolonged physical exercise on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis were investigated in healthy young men. In experiment 1, six subjects who had fasted for 14 h performed bicycle exercise at 50% of their maximal O2 uptake until exhaustion. At the end of the exercise, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol increased significantly. However, this hormonal response was totally abolished when the same subjects exercised at the same intensity while blood glucose concentrations were maintained at the preexercise level. In experiment 2, in addition to ACTH and cortisol, the possible changes in plasma concentration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) were investigated during exercise of the same intensity performed by six subjects. As suggested by a previous study (Tabata et al. Clin. Physiol. Oxf. 4: 299-307, 1984), when the blood glucose concentrations decreased to less than 3.3 mM, plasma concentrations of CRF, ACTH, and cortisol showed a significant increase. At exhaustion, further increases were observed in plasma CRF, ACTH, and cortisol concentrations. These results demonstrate that decreases in blood glucose concentration trigger the pituitary-adrenocortical axis to enhance secretion of ACTH and cortisol during low-intensity prolonged exercise in humans. The data also might suggest that this activation is due to increased concentration of CRF, which was shown to increase when blood glucose concentration decreased to a critical level of 3.3 mM. PMID:1662196

Tabata, I; Ogita, F; Miyachi, M; Shibayama, H



Cortisol-Induced Increases of Plasma Oxytocin Levels Predict Decreased Immediate Free Recall of Unpleasant Words  

PubMed Central

Cortisol and oxytocin have been shown to interact in both the regulation of stress responses and in memory function. In the present study we administered cortisol to 35 healthy female subjects in a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled design, while measuring oxytocin levels, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and free recall of pleasant and of unpleasant words. We found that cortisol administration suppressed ACTH levels and (1) induced a decrease in oxytocin associated with ACTH suppression and (2) an increase in oxytocin that was independent from ACTH suppression. This cortisol-induced increase in plasma oxytocin was associated with a selective decrease in immediate free recall of unpleasant words from primacy positions. The present results add to evidence that cortisol-induced increases in oxytocin could mediate some of the effects of stress and cortisol on memory, and possibly play a role in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary–adrenal stress response. This mechanism could significantly impact affective and social behaviors, in particular during times of stress.

Tops, Mattie; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke T. A.; Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Wijers, Albertus A.; Korf, Jakob



Effects of acute stress on plasma cortisol, sex steroid hormone and glucose levels in male and female sockeye salmon during the breeding season  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sockeye salmon (Onchorynchus nerka), as well as a number of migratory salmonid species, the plasma level of cortisol, the main stress hormone in fish, increases during the spawning period, and then fish die after the spawning. The response of cultured individuals of this species to an artificial acute stress during the spawning period was investigated by measuring levels

K Kubokawa; T Watanabe; M Yoshioka; M Iwata



Dissociation of plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol levels in critically ill patients: possible role of endothelin and atrial natriuretic hormone.  


The regulatory mechanisms of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system were studied in critically ill, intensive care unit patients. Serial measurements of immunoreactive ACTH-(1-39) (ACTHi), cortisol, endothelin-1 (ETi), and atrial natriuretic hormone (ANHi) were performed in blood samples of 18 patients with clinically defined sepsis, 12 critically ill patients after multiple trauma, and 15 hospitalized matched control subjects without acute illness for 8 consecutive days after admission. On admission, plasma levels of cortisol and ACTHi were significantly elevated in patients with sepsis (1.32 +/- 0.21 mumol/L and 130.0 +/- 38.2 pmol/L, mean +/- SD) and with multiple trauma (1.23 +/- 0.28 mumol/L and 123.7 +/- 41.3 pmol/L) compared to those in the control subjects (0.37 +/- 0.08 mumol/L and 15.6 +/- 5.8 pmol/L, respectively). The plasma cortisol levels of critically ill patients remained high (> 0.8 mumol/L) during the whole observation period. In contrast, plasma ACTHi levels decreased between days 3-5, reaching significantly lower levels on day 5 compared to those in the control group and remained below 5.0 pmol/L during the rest of the observation period. Plasma levels of ETi and ANHi were significantly elevated during the whole period in both patient groups (ETi, > 10 ng/L; ANHi, > 250 ng/L) compared to those in control subjects (< 5 and < 50 ng/L, respectively). The high plasma concentration of ETi observed in our patients may stimulate the steroid secretion of the adrenal cortex directly or potentiate the adrenal effect of ACTH. On the other hand, the increased concentration of ANHi found in critically ill patients together with the increased plasma cortisol level may explain the inhibition of ACTH secretion. Accordingly, we speculate that the high ET level exerts a positive drive on the adrenocortical level, that the high ANH level has an inhibitory effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary level, and that both mechanisms play a role in regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis during critical illness. PMID:7714094

Vermes, I; Beishuizen, A; Hampsink, R M; Haanen, C



Effect of bursal anti-steroidogenic peptide (BASP) on cortisol biosynthesis in ACTH-stimulated canine adrenocortical carcinoma cells in vitro.  


Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that bursal anti-steroidogenic peptide (BASP) inhibits progesterone biosynthesis from ovine luteinizing hormone-stimulated chicken ovarian granulosa cells. In the present investigation, we evaluated the efficacy of BASP for reducing cortisol secretion from normal canine adrenocortical cells and neoplastic adrenocortical cells from a dog with Cushing's syndrome. Treatment of adrenocortical cells derived from either normal healthy dogs or a cushingoid dog with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 0-10 nM) caused an approximately two-fold increase in cortisol production from both normal or tumor derived adrenocortical cells. Small but significant decreases (up to 34%) in cortisol production were observed from normal and tumor derived canine adrenocortical cells when exposed to increasing concentrations of BASP (0.0-0.15 bursal equivalents; BEQ). Incubation of adrenocortical carcinoma cells or normal adrenocortical cells with ACTH (0-10 nM) and BASP (0.0-0.15 BEQ) increased cyclic AMP formation up to 2.5-fold. Interestingly, BASP suppressed basal cortisol production from tumor derived adrenocortical cells to normal levels when compared to the basal cortisol levels from normal derived adrenocortisol cells. Data from the present studies indicate that BASP is capable of suppressing basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol production from normal or tumor derived adrenocortical cells in vitro. The possible clinical efficacy of homologous canine BASP on canine adrenal function or chicken BASP in other species of animals remains to be evaluated. PMID:8533298

Byrd, J A; Dean, C E; Fossum, T W; Hargis, B M



ACTH and cortisol responses to hypotension in fetal sheep after a prior CRF injection.  


To determine whether an ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (oCRF) injection modifies adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol responses to hypotension and whether the effect of any interactions between these stimuli changes across gestation, we studied chronically cannulated fetal lambs of 103-113 ("immature") and 133-139 days gestation ("mature"). Experimental groups received 500 ng/kg oCRF injections and 6 h later had arterial pressure reduced 20% for 10 min with nitroprusside. Blood samples were obtained before and after each manipulation. Controls received vehicle instead of oCRF. The oCRF increased plasma cortisol levels from 2.1 +/- 0.4 to 14.2 +/- 4.7 (SE) ng/ml in immature and 44.9 +/- 2.2 to 102.8 +/- 15 ng/ml in mature animals. In mature fetuses the oCRF did not alter plasma ACTH and cortisol increases due to hypotension. In immature animals ACTH increases were normal but cortisol increases were eliminated. This suggests that the CRF caused maximal stimulation of the adrenal gland. In older fetuses, it appears that the action of ACTH-releasing factors, secreted in response to arterial hypotension, can overcome the negative feedback effects of elevations in endogenous cortisol. PMID:1312790

Kerr, D R; Castro, M I; Valego, N K; Rawashdeh, N M; Rose, J C



Curcumin inhibits bTREK-1 K+ channels and stimulates cortisol secretion from adrenocortical cells  

PubMed Central

Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express bTREK-1 K+ channels that set the resting membrane potential. Inhibition of these channels by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is coupled to membrane depolarization and cortisol secretion. Curcumin, a phytochemical with medicinal properties extracted from the spice turmeric, was found to modulate both bTREK-1 K+ currents and cortisol secretion from AZF cells. In whole-cell patch clamp experiments, curcumin inhibited bTREK-1 with an IC50 of 0.93?M by a mechanism that was voltage-independent. bTREK-1 inhibition by curcumin occurred through interaction with an external binding site and was independent of ATP hydrolysis. Curcumin produced a concentration-dependent increase in cortisol secretion that persisted for up to 24 h. At a maximally effective concentration of 50 ?M, curcumin increased secretion as much as10-fold. These results demonstrate that curcumin potently inhibits bTREK-1 K+ channels and stimulates cortisol secretion from bovine AZF cells. The inhibition of bTREK-1 by curcumin may be linked to cortisol secretion through membrane depolarization. Since TREK-1 is widely expressed in a variety of cells, it is likely that some of the biological actions of curcumin, including its therapeutic effects, may be mediated through inhibition of these K+ channels.

Enyeart, Judith A.; Liu, Haiyan; Enyeart, John J.



Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Analogs and Related Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ACTH analog compounds of the present invention include compounds comprising an ACTH peptide sequence with one or more structural modifications that can have one or more of the following preferred ACTH analog biological functions: (1) reduction of corticos...

C. Haskell-Luevano J. I. Costa M. B. Brennan R. M. Dores U. H. Hochgeschwender



Reciprocal relationship between the level of circulating cortisol and growth hormone secretion in response to growth hormone-releasing hormone in man: studies in patients with adrenal insufficiency.  


The aim of our study was to elucidate the relationship between the level of circulating cortisol and the GH responsiveness to GHRH in six hypoadrenal patients (one male and five females; age range, 35-67 yr; body mass index range, 18-31 kg/m2). Twenty-four hours after taking the last dose of replacement therapy, each patient underwent the following experimental trials on nonconsecutive days: 1) saline, and 2) 12.5 mg, or 3) 25 mg, or 4) 250 mg hydrocortisone hemisuccinate in 250 mL saline constant iv infusion from 0-180 min. On each occasion, 1 micrograms/kg human GHRH-(1-29)NH2 was injected as an iv bolus at 60 min. During GHRH and saline infusion, serum cortisol levels were always less than the detection limit of the assay (55 nmol/L). During 12.5-, 25-, and 250-mg hydrocortisone infusions (from 15-180 min), serum cortisol averaged 413.8 +/- 19.3, 772.5 +/- 46.9, and 1520.2 +/- 110.4 nmol/L, respectively. The GH peaks after GHRH treatment during the various infusions of hydrocortisone were compared to the GH peaks observed after saline, which were normalized to 100% in each subject. GH peaks after GHRH and 25 mg hydrocortisone (70 +/- 11%) and GHRH and 250 mg hydrocortisone (69 +/- 7%) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the GH peaks after GHRH and saline or GHRH and 12.5 mg hydrocortisone (83 +/- 15%). No significant differences were observed between the GH peaks after GHRH and 12.5 mg hydrocortisone or GHRH and saline. Our data demonstrate that in hypoadrenal patients, the acute absence of circulating cortisol does not impair the GH secretory response to GHRH with respect to the eucortisolemic state. Moreover, our data suggest that 700 nmol/L is the approximate threshold serum cortisol concentration above which a decrease in the GH responsiveness to GHRH is observed in humans. Further increases in serum cortisol levels above this threshold value do not cause a proportional decrease in the GH responsiveness to GHRH. PMID:7962318

Giustina, A; Bresciani, E; Bossoni, S; Chiesa, L; Misitano, V; Wehrenberg, W B; Veldhuis, J D



Plasma Ghrelin in Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating Disorder: Relations with Eating Patterns and Circulating Concentrations of Cortisol and Thyroid Hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate the relations between plasma ghrelin concentrations, eating patterns, and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. The patterns of disordered eating behavior were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). In women with eating disorders, but not in

Alfonso Troisi; Giorgio Di Lorenzo; Ilaria Lega; Manfredi Tesauro; Aldo Bertoli; Roberto Leo; Micaela Iantorno; Chiara Pecchioli; Stefano Rizza; Mario Turriziani; Renato Lauro; Alberto Siracusano



Serotonin directly stimulates cortisol secretion from the interrenals in goldfish.  


While serotonin (5-HT) can stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal stress axis in fish, the specific site(s) of 5-HT action are poorly understood. In this study, goldfish (Carassius auratus) were injected intraperitoneally with either saline or the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT at a dose of 100 or 400?g/kg body weight and sampled 1.5 and 8h post-injection. Relative to unhandled controls, the saline and 100?g/kg 8-OH-DPAT treatments elicited similar transient 5- to 7-fold increases in plasma cortisol and the 400?g/kg 8-OH-DPAT dosage resulted in a sustained 16-fold increase in cortisol levels. Although the 5-HT1A receptor is expressed in the brain preoptic area (POA), the pituitary and the head kidney, neither the saline nor the 8-OH-DPAT treatments affected the mRNA abundance of POA corticotropin-releasing factor and pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin or plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. To assess the direct actions of 5-HT on cortisol secretion relative to those of ACTH, head kidney tissue were superfused with 10(-7)M 5-HT, ACTH or a combined 5-HT/ACTH treatment. Overall, the ACTH and 5-HT/ACTH treatments resulted in higher peak cortisol and total cortisol release than in the 5-HT treatment but the response time to peak cortisol release was shorter in the combined treatment than in either the 5-HT or ACTH alone treatments. Both 8-OH-DPAT and cisapride, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, also stimulated cortisol release in vitro and their actions were reversed by selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists, respectively. Finally, double-labeling with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase and anti-5-HT revealed that the chromaffin cells of the head kidney contain 5-HT. Thus, in goldfish, 5-HT can directly stimulate cortisol secretion from the interrenals via multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes and the chromaffin cells may be involved in the paracrine regulation of cortisol secretion via 5-HT. PMID:24013027

Lim, Jan E; Porteus, Cosima S; Bernier, Nicholas J



Effects of ginseng ingestion on growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor 1 responses to acute resistance exercise.  


Ginseng, an herbal plant, has been ingested by many athletes in Oriental regions of the world in order to improve stamina and to facilitate rapid recovery from injuries. However, adequate investigation has not been conducted to examine the ergogenic effects of ginseng. To examine the effects of ginseng supplements on hormonal status following acute resistance exercise, eight male college students were randomly given water (control; CON) or 20 g of ginseng root extract (GIN) treatment immediately after a standardized exercise bout. Venous blood samples were drawn before and immediately after exercise and at 4 time points during a 2-hour recovery period. Human growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The responses of plasma hormones following ginseng consumption were not significant between CON and GIN treatments during the 2-hour recovery period. These results do not support the use of ginseng to promote an anabolic hormonal status following resistance exercise. PMID:11991768

Youl Kang, Ho; Hwan Kim, Seung; Jun Lee, Woen; Byrne, Heidi K



Effects of oral contraceptives on diurnal profiles of insulin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, growth hormone and cortisol in endurance athletes with menstrual disturbance  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Menstrual disturbances in female athletes are often explained as a consequence of energy deficiency. Oral contraceptive (OC) treatment may have favorable metabolic effects. We evaluated effects of OCs on diurnal secretions of insulin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol in relation to changes in body composition in athletes with menstrual disturbance compared with regularly menstruating athletes and controls. METHODS Age- and BMI-matched groups of endurance athletes with menstrual disturbance (OAM, n = 9) and regularly cycling athletes (RM, n = 8) and sedentary controls (CTRL, n = 8) were examined, and hormone levels measured, before and after 8 months of treatment with a low-dose combined OC (30 µg ethinyl estradiol + 150 µg levonorgestrel). RESULTS Before OC treatment, the diurnal profile of insulin was lower (P < 0.01) and levels of IGFBP-1 (P < 0.05) and cortisol (P < 0.05) were higher in OAM athletes than in CTRL, whereas GH secretion was higher than in RM athletes (P < 0.05). After treatment, diurnal secretions of these hormones were similar between groups with an increase of IGFBP-1 in the regularly menstruating subjects only (P < 0.001). OC treatment increased body fat mass in OAM athletes (P < 0.01 versus baseline). The change in total fat mass correlated positively with pretreatment diurnal levels of GH (rs = 0.67, P < 0.01) and cortisol (rs = 0.64, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS OC treatment in endurance athletes with menstrual disturbance increases body fat mass and results in diurnal levels of insulin, IGFBP-1, GH and cortisol that are comparable to those in regularly menstruating subjects. These results suggest that OCs improve metabolic balance in OAM athletes.

Rickenlund, A.; Thoren, M.; Nybacka, A.; Frystyk, J.; Hirschberg, A. Linden



KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K63.a,b: Non-peptide hormones in serum: cortisol and progesterone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate many life functions. Deviations from normal hormone levels can have serious health consequences. Accurate measurement of hormone levels in serum can be beneficial in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating a number of diseases. Two steroid hormones, cortisol and progesterone, were selected by the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) to evaluate its member Institutes' measurement capabilities for this important class of measurand. Serum concentrations of cortisol range from 30 ng/mL to 230 ng/mL. Serum concentrations of progesterone in adult females range from 0.15 ng/mL to 25 ng/mL but can rise to approx230 ng/mL during pregnancy. The ability to measure cortisol is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones at concentration levels similar to cortisol. The ability to measure progesterone is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones with similar functional groups and concentration levels, such as testosterone. Pilot studies CCQM-P77.a and CCQM-P77.b on the determination of cortisol and progesterone in human serum were completed in 2006. There was good agreement among the results reported by participants who used isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (ID/MS) with either gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC). In 2007 the OAWG decided to proceed with key comparison (KC) CCQM-K63.a, cortisol in human serum, and CCQM-K63.b, progesterone in human serum. Thus, following established OAWG procedure, only results from participants that (1) used an ID/MS-based method, (2) participated in the relevant pilot study, and (3) used a metrologically traceable primary standard were to be eligible for use in calculating the key comparison reference value (KCRV) for each measurand. Six laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.a and eight laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.b. The same pooled frozen female serum material was used in both of the KCs. The mean value for the six ID/MS-based cortisol results is 100.4 ng/g with a relative standard deviation (%RSD) of 1.1%. The mean value for the seven ID/MS-based progesterone originally reported results is 2.83 with a %RSD of 1.8%. While a number of the reported results were not eligible to be used in establishing the KCRVs, the KCRVs as estimated from just the eligible results agree very well with these means. The excellent among-participant agreement indicates that ID/MS-based measurement procedures can provide precise and true results for steroid hormones at levels greater than about 1 ng/g. The progesterone result reported by a laboratory using a non-isotopically labelled internal standard was about 11% larger than the KCRV. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

S-C Tai, Susan; Duewer, David L.



Aldosterone-, corticosterone- and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog: case report.  


A 12-year-old, intact female beagle exhibited symptoms of polyuria-polydipsia and hyperorexia for two months. Blood tests showed elevated asparate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase levels, as well as marked hypokalemia. The results of adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test showed elevated cortisol, aldosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed a mass in the left adrenal gland. Masses were also seen in the liver and caudal vena cava. Diagnosis was a tumor of the adrenal cortex with metastases. Trilostane administration was initiated. The dog initially showed improved demeanor as a result of regulating hormone secretion. However, after 88 days, the dog weakened rapidly, before dying on the 117th day. Pathological findings confirmed a diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma. PMID:18388437

Machida, Tatsuhiko; Uchida, Eiji; Matsuda, Kazuya; Hirayama, Kazuko; Yoshii, Kengoro; Takiguchi, Mitsuhiko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki



Effects of Music Listening on Cortisol Levels and Propofol Consumption during Spinal Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Background: This study explores effects of instrumental music on the hormonal system (as indicated by serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone), the immune system (as indicated by immunoglobulin A) and sedative drug requirements during surgery (elective total hip joint replacement under spinal anesthesia with light sedation). This is the first study investigating this issue with a double-blind design using instrumental music. Methodology/Principal Findings: Patients (n?=?40) were randomly assigned either to a music group (listening to instrumental music), or to a control group (listening to a non-musical placebo stimulus). Both groups listened to the auditory stimulus about 2?h before, and during the entire intra-operative period (during the intra-operative light sedation, subjects were able to respond lethargically to verbal commands). Results indicate that, during surgery, patients of the music group had a lower propofol consumption, and lower cortisol levels, compared to the control group. Conclusion/Significance: Our data show that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels (reflecting stress-reducing effects) and reduces sedative requirements to reach light sedation.

Koelsch, Stefan; Fuermetz, Julian; Sack, Ulrich; Bauer, Katrin; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Wiegel, Martin; Kaisers, Udo X.; Heinke, Wolfgang



The effects of running and meditation on beta-endorphin, corticotropin-releasing hormone and cortisol in plasma, and on mood.  


The relations between three hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, beta-endorphin (beta-EP), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and cortisol, and mood change were examined in 11 elite runners and 12 highly trained mediators matched in age, sex, and personality. Despite metabolic differences between running and meditation, we predicted that mood change after these activities would be similar when associated with similar hormonal change. Compared to pre-test and control values, mood was elevated after both activities but not significantly different between the two groups at post-test. There were significant elevations of beta-EP and CRH after running and of CRH after meditation, but no significant differences in CRH increases between groups. CRH was correlated with positive mood changes after running and mediation. Cortisol levels were generally high but erratic in both groups. We conclude that positive affect is associated with plasma CRH immunoreactivity which itself is significantly associated with circulating beta-EP supporting a role for CRH in the release of beta-EP. Increased CRH immunoreactivity following meditation indicates, however, that physical exercise is not an essential requirement for CRH release. PMID:7669835

Harte, J L; Eifert, G H; Smith, R



Comparison of total and salivary cortisol in a low-dose ACTH (Synacthen) test: influence of three-month oral contraceptives administration to healthy women.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of low-dose combined oral contraception (COC) on basal and stimulated (1 microg ACTH test) levels of serum and salivary cortisol (F), cortisone and on basal serum cortisol binding globulin (CBG), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), dehydroepiadrosterone (DHEA) and calculated free cortisol in healthy young women. Three-month administration of COC resulted in 1) significant increase of basal (454.0+/-125.0 to 860.9+/-179.7 nmol/l) and ACTH-stimulated serum cortisol in 30th min (652.3+/-60.5 to 1374.1+/-240.6 nmol/l); 2) no significant change of basal (15.4+/-7.3 to 18.9+/-8.5 nmol/l) and ACTH-stimulated salivary cortisol at the 30th min (32.4+/-8.8 to 32.9+/-9.0 nmol/l); 3) no significant change of basal serum cortisone (38,8+/-7.68 to 45.2+/-24.2 nmol/l) and ACTH-stimulated cortisone at the 30th (34.8+/-10.9 to 47.0+/-35.7 nmol/l); 4) significant increase of basal ACTH (17.2+/-9.0 to 38.2+/-29.4 ng/l), CBG (991.0+/-161.0 to 2332.0+/-428.0 nmol/l), and 5) no significant change of basal DHEA (24.6+/-15.7 to 22.6+/-11.7 micromol/l) and calculated basal value for free cortisol (22.8+/-14.9 to 19.2+/-6.9 nmol/l). In conclusions, higher basal and ACTH-stimulated serum cortisol were found after three-month administration of COC, while basal and stimulated salivary cortisol were not significantly affected. Therefore, salivary cortisol can be used for assessment of adrenal function in women regularly using COC. PMID:18271677

Sim?nková, K; Stárka, L; Hill, M; Kríz, L; Hampl, R; Vondra, K



Suppression of cortisol responses to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and the occurrence of side effects attributable to glucocorticoid excess, in cats during therapy with megestrol acetate and prednisolone.  

PubMed Central

The major purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of prednisolone and megestrol acetate in cats on the adrenal cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone during drug administration at dose rates employed for management of some inflammatory feline dermatoses. Prednisolone (at least 2 mg/kg/day) and megestrol acetate (5 mg/cat/day) were each administered orally to seven cats from days 1 to 16. Three additional cats received no therapy. Basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, food and water intake, hematology, blood biochemistry, urinalyses, and hepatic and cutaneous histology were studied in all cats before, during, and two weeks following the end of treatment. Cats given prednisolone or megestrol acetate had significant suppression of stimulated cortisol levels on day 8. This change was more marked on day 15, when the suppression in cats given megestrol acetate was also significantly more severe than in those receiving prednisolone. Recovery of adrenal reserve was considered present on day 30 in six of seven cats given prednisolone, but in only three of seven receiving megestrol acetate. Eosinopenia, glycosuria and hepatocyte swelling from glycogen deposition were occasionally recorded in treated cats of both groups, providing additional circumstantial evidence for glucocorticoid activity of megestrol acetate in cats. It is advised that abrupt withdrawal of prednisolone or megestrol acetate therapy be avoided in this species to reduce the chance of precipitating clinical signs of hypoadrenocorticism, even after treatment for as little as one week. Images Fig. 2.

Middleton, D J; Watson, A D; Howe, C J; Caterson, I D



Ontogeny and ultradian rhythms of adrenocorticotropin and cortisol in the late-gestation fetal horse.  


Fetal maturation and the timing of parturition in both sheep and primates are thought to be controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis but little is known about the endocrinology of the equine fetus. We investigated the ontogeny of plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and corticosteroid binding capacity in the late-gestation fetal horse. We also wished to determine whether there is ultradian rhythmic release of ACTH and cortisol in fetal horses and we compared fetuses to maternal and non-pregnant adult horses. Six fetuses, 278-304 days gestation (term approximately 335), were catheterized and sampled daily until delivery. Mean (+/- S.E.M.) ACTH concentrations increased significantly from 159 +/- 21 to 246 +/- 42 pg/ml over the last 2 days before parturition. Fetal cortisol increased significantly from 3.1 +/- 1.0 to 13.4 +/- 3.7 ng/ml (mean +/- S.E.M.) over the last 9 days before delivery. The slope of regressions for ACTH and cortisol concentrations with respect to time were positive in all subjects and statistically significant in 3 of 6 for ACTH and 5 of 6 for cortisol. Fetal corticosteroid binding capacity declined from 49.5 +/- 20.5 to 16.1 +/- 2.2 ng/ml (mean +/- S.E.M.) over the last 10 days before parturition. However, the greatest changes in ACTH, cortisol and corticosteroid binding capacity occurred very late in gestation, during the last 48 to 72 h before parturition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7706980

Cudd, T A; LeBlanc, M; Silver, M; Norman, W; Madison, J; Keller-Wood, M; Wood, C E



Serum levels of testosterone, cortisol, prolactin and bioactive luteinizing hormone in adult male rhesus monkeys following cage-restraint or anaesthetizing with ketamine hydrochloride.  


The present studies were carried out to characterize and compare the acute effects of cage-restraint or administration of a mild anaesthetic on serum levels of testosterone (T) cortisol (C), prolactin (Prl) and bioactive luteinizing hormone (LH) in adult male rhesus monkeys. Serum T levels declined progressively while C levels increased in the 3 sequential blood samples obtained at 20 min intervals from restrained monkeys. Prl and LH levels in the serum remained unaltered. Following single or multiple injections of ketamine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg) serum T levels did not decline progressively as seen in the blood samples obtained from the cage-restrained, conscious monkeys. Serum C and Prl levels showed a progressive rise following anaesthetization. LH levels were not affected by the anaesthetic. The findings reported here are of pertinent relevance to the evaluation of acute effects of any experimental procedure aimed at altering circulating levels of the hormones studied. PMID:7223311

Puri, C P; Puri, V; Anand Kumar, T C



Psychosocial Stress Inhibits Amplitude of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Pulses Independent of Cortisol Action on the Type II Glucocorticoid Receptor  

PubMed Central

Our laboratory has developed a paradigm of psychosocial stress (sequential layering of isolation, blindfold, and predator cues) that robustly elevates cortisol secretion and decreases LH pulse amplitude in ovariectomized ewes. This decrease in LH pulse amplitude is due, at least in part, to a reduction in pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, caused by cortisol acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The first experiment of the current study aimed to determine whether this layered psychosocial stress also inhibits pulsatile GnRH release into pituitary portal blood. The stress paradigm significantly reduced GnRH pulse amplitude compared with nonstressed ovariectomized ewes. The second experiment tested if this stress-induced decrease in GnRH pulse amplitude is mediated by cortisol action on the type II GR. Ovariectomized ewes were allocated to three groups: nonstress control, stress, and stress plus the type II GR antagonist RU486. The layered psychosocial stress paradigm decreased GnRH and LH pulse amplitude compared with nonstress controls. Importantly, the stress also lowered GnRH pulse amplitude to a comparable extent in ewes in which cortisol action via the type II GR was antagonized. Therefore, we conclude that psychosocial stress reduces the amplitude of GnRH pulses independent of cortisol action on the type II GR. The present findings, combined with our recent observations, suggest that the mechanisms by which psychosocial stress inhibits reproductive neuroendocrine activity at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels are fundamentally different.

Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R.; Breen, Kellie M.; Oakley, Amy E.; Tilbrook, Alan J.; Karsch, Fred J.



Effects of Sleep and Sleep Deprivation on Interleukin6, Growth Hormone, Cortisol, and Melatonin Levels in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nocturnal sleep, partial night sleep deprivation, and sleep stages on circulating concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in relation to the secretory pro- files of GH, cortisol, and melatonin. In 31 healthy male volunteers, blood samples were obtained every 30 min during 2 nights: uninter- rupted, baseline sleep and partial sleep




Stimulation of cortisol release by the N terminus of teleost parathyroid hormone-related protein in interrenal cells in vitro.  


The mode of action of PTHrP in the regulation of sea bream (Sparus auratus) interrenal cortisol production was studied in vitro using a dynamic superfusion system. Piscine (1-34)PTHrP (10(-6)-10(-11) M) stimulated cortisol production in a dose-dependent manner. The ED50 of (1-34)PTHrP was 2.8 times higher than that of (1-39)ACTH, and maximum increase in cortisol production in response to 10(-8) M of (1-34)PTHrP was approximately 7-fold lower than for 10(-8) M of (1-39)ACTH. In contrast to (1-34)PTHrP, piscine (10-20)PTHrP, (79-93)PTHrP, and (100-125)PTHrP (10(-9)-10(-7) M) did not stimulate cortisol production. The effect of piscine (1-34)PTHrP on cortisol production was abolished by N-terminal peptides in which the first amino acid (Ser) was absent and by simultaneous addition of inhibitors of the adenylyl cyclase-protein kinase A and phospholipase C-protein kinase C intracellular pathways but not by each separately. The PTHrP-induced signal transduction was further investigated by measurements of cAMP production and [H3]myo-inositol incorporation in an interrenal cell suspension. Piscine (1-34)PTHrP increased cAMP and total inositol phosphate accumulation, which is indicative that the mechanism of action of PTHrP in interrenal tissue involves the activation of both the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP and phospholipase C-inositol phosphate signaling pathways. These results, together with the expression of mRNA for PTHrP and for PTH receptor (PTHR) type 1 and PTHR type 3 receptors in sea bream interrenal tissue, suggest a specific paracrine or autocrine steroidogenic action of PTHrP mediated by the PTHRs. PMID:15459121

Rotllant, J; Guerreiro, P M; Anjos, L; Redruello, B; Canario, A V M; Power, D M



Effects of steriod hormones on human fibroblasts in vitro. II. Antagonism by androgens of cortisol-induced inhibition.  


Inhibition of dermal activity by cortisol in culture was partially reversed by two naturally occurring androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. ACTH and the androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate showed not such antagonistic effect. These results suggest that increased production of adrenal androgens during ACTH therapy may account for the relative absnece of 'skin-thinning' and 'steroid-bruising' which are common side-effects of corticosteroid therapy. PMID:182091

Harvey, W; Grahame, R; Panayi, G S



Effects of steriod hormones on human fibroblasts in vitro. II. Antagonism by androgens of cortisol-induced inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of dermal activity by cortisol in culture was partially reversed by two naturally occurring androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. ACTH and the androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate showed not such antagonistic effect. These results suggest that increased production of adrenal androgens during ACTH therapy may account for the relative absnece of 'skin-thinning' and 'steroid-bruising' which are common side-effects of corticosteroid therapy.

W Harvey; R Grahame; G S Panayi



Adrenocorticotrope Deficiency with Clinical Evidence for Late Onset in Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency Caused by a Homozygous 301–302delAG Mutation of the PROP1 Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) can be caused by mutation of the pituitary transcription factors POU1F1 or PROP1. More recently mutations in the HESX1, the LHX3 and LHX4 transcription factor genes have also been described as a cause in patients with CPHD. In most patients the disorder is characterized by an impaired production of GH, TSH, PRL and gonadotropins. In

C. Lamesch; S. Neumann; R. Pfäffle; W. Kiess; R. Paschke



Effect of cortisol on the secretion of testosterone and estradiol-17 beta by human granulosa-luteal cell cultures. A model system for analyzing hormonal alterations in female athletes.  


The combination of hypercortisolism and usually low androgen and estrogen levels is frequently observed in female long distance athletes. In order to find a useful model system for studying the underlying mechanisms, the following studies were performed. The effect of cortisol on the secretion of testosterone (T) and estradiol-17 beta (E2) by human granulosa-luteal cells was studied in vitro in cultures of cells recovered from mature follicles of gonadotrophin stimulated women (participating in the IVF program). Following 24 hours of culture in tissue culture medium without hormonal additives, the granulosa-luteal cells were incubated for 6 hours in media with addition of 4-androstene-3,17-dione (A-4) as precursor and hMG and cortisol in different combinations. The secretion of T was significantly stimulated by cortisol but not by human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG). Cortisol, but not hMG, also increased the secretion of E2, although this effect was not statistically significant. These in vitro findings make a direct effect of cortisol upon ovarian sex steroid secretion less likely as the mechanism behind the subnormal sex steroid levels in female long distance athletes. Instead, inadequate gonadotrophic stimulation, related to hypothalamic amenorrhea, and/or a selective decrease in the adrenal secretion of precursor steroids, may be an explanation. PMID:1332368

Tsai, L; Pousette, A; Johansson, C; Carlström, K



Diurnal secretion of growth hormone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone in pre- and perimenopausal women with active rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot case-control study.  


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with neuroendocrine and immunologic dysfunction leading to rheumatoid cachexia. Although excess proinflammatory cytokines can decrease somatotropic axis activity, little is known about the effects of RA on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-I) axis function. We tested the hypothesis that patients with active RA exhibit decreased GH/IGF-I axis activity. To do so, we conducted a pilot case-control study at a clinical research center in 7 pre- and perimenopausal women with active RA and 10 age- and body mass index-matched healthy women. Participants underwent blood sampling every 20 minutes for 24 hours (8 a.m. to 8 a.m.), and sera were assayed for GH, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Sera obtained after overnight fasting were assayed for IGF-I, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-3, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), glucose, insulin, and lipids. Body composition and bone mineral density were evaluated by DEXA (dual emission x-ray absorptiometry) scans. In patients with RA, mean disease duration was 7.6 +/- 6.8 years, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP, and IL-6 were elevated. GH half-life was shorter than in control subjects (p = 0.0037), with no other significant group differences in GH deconvolution parameters or approximate entropy scores. IGF-I (p = 0.05) and IGFBP-3 (p = 0.058) were lower, whereas IGFBP-1 tended to be higher (p = 0.066), in patients with RA, with nonsignificantly increased 24-hour total GH production rates. There were no significant group differences in cortisol or DHEA secretion. Lean body mass was lower in patients with RA (p = 0.019), particularly in the legs (p = 0.01). Women with active RA exhibit a trend toward GH insensitivity and relatively diminished diurnal cortisol and DHEA secretion for their state of inflammation. Whether these changes contribute to rheumatoid cachexia remains to be determined. Trial registration number: NCT00034060. PMID:17662149

Blackman, Marc R; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Wilson, Mildred; Moquin, Barbara E; Baldwin, Howard L; Wong, Kelli A; Snyder, Christopher; Magalnick, Michael; Alli, Shaan; Reynolds, James; Steinberg, Seth M; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela



Hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in lactating and non-lactating female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).  


In several mammalian species, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and behavioral responses to stressors are down-regulated in lactating females, possibly preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have been found to inhibit maternal behavior in lactating common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), raising the question of whether lactating female marmosets also have blunted endogenous responses to stress. Therefore, we compared HPA and behavioral responses to standardized stressors in reproductively experienced female common marmosets that were undergoing ovulatory cycles and that either were (N=7) or were not lactating (N=8). Each marmoset underwent (1) a restraint stressor during the early follicular phase of the ovarian cycle (approximately 5 weeks postpartum for lactating females) and (2) exposure to a simulated hawk predator during the early to mid-luteal phase (approximately 7 weeks postpartum for lactating females). Lactating females were tested in the presence of one of their infants. Blood samples were collected before, during, and immediately after each test for determination of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations. Both stressors caused significant elevations in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and significant decreases in cortisol:ACTH ratios; however, lactating and non-lactating females showed no significant differences in their endocrine or behavioral responses to either stressor, or in baseline ACTH or cortisol levels. These findings suggest that in contrast to several other mammalian species, lactating female marmosets maintain full behavioral and HPA responsiveness to stress, at least in the presence of their infants. PMID:21600906

Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H



Ecological correlates of cortisol levels in two bat species with contrasting feeding habits.  


The immediate release of adrenal glucocorticoids can be crucial for an animal's survival when facing a stressor, but constantly elevated or exceptionally high glucocorticoid levels are usually detrimental for health. Although baseline and maximal secretion of glucocorticoids are regulated within narrow ranges within species, plasma glucocorticoid levels vary largely across vertebrates. We asked what ecological factors affect baseline plasma cortisol levels (CortI) and maximum levels (CortMax) following a physiological challenge through administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Specifically, we studied whether seasonal fluctuations in food abundance correlate with the capacity of cortisol increases in two phyllostomid bat species with contrasting feeding habits: the sanguinivorous vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the frugivorous short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). Both species coexist in habitats with various levels of seasonality (dry and rainforest). On a seasonal basis, resource abundance is more stable for vampire than for fruit bats, but previous studies suggested that daily foraging success may vary more for vampire than for fruit bats. CortI and CortMax varied seasonally in C. perspicillata from dry and rainforests, with the exception of CortMax in rainforest bats. Although we expected food availability to be stable year-round for vampire bats, we found CortI and CortMax of vampires to be higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Also, we found CortMax to be higher in vampires from the rainforest than in those from the dry forest. CortMax of vampires were among the highest measured for a free-ranging mammal; a pattern that could be related to the species' vulnerability to starvation. We conclude that food availability modulates cortisol levels in free-ranging species that face seasonally fluctuating resources; in species, however, that benefit from food which is constantly abundant, other factors than food may become more important in modulating cortisol levels. PMID:22429728

Lewanzik, Daniel; Kelm, Detlev H; Greiner, Sabine; Dehnhard, Martin; Voigt, Christian C



Age-dependent and gender-dependent regulation of hypothalamic-adrenocorticotropic-adrenal axis.  


Tightly regulated output of glucocorticoids is critical to maintaining immune competence, the structure of neurons, muscle, and bone, blood pressure, glucose homeostasis, work capacity, and vitality in the human and experimental animal. Age, sex steroids, gender, stress, body composition, and disease govern glucocorticoid availability through incompletely understood mechanisms. According to an ensemble concept of neuroendocrine regulation, successful stress adaptations require repeated incremental signaling adjustments among hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin, pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone, and adrenal corticosteroids. Signals are transduced via (positive) feedforward and (negative) feedback effects. Age and gonadal steroids strongly modulate stress-adaptive glucocorticoid secretion by such interlinked pathways. PMID:23702398

Veldhuis, Johannes D; Sharma, Animesh; Roelfsema, Ferdinand



Effects of Whole-body Magnetic Field on Changes of Glucose and Cortisol Hormone in Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of whole-body magnetic field (MF) exposure on the variations of glucose and corlisol hormone levels on 36 adult male Guinea pigs. in four separate experiments, male Guinea pigs, were exposed to sinusoidal 5Hz ,0.013 ?T and 50 Hz - 0.207?T MF. Duration of exposure was 2 and 4


Subjective Sleep Quality and hormonal modulation in long-term yoga practitioners.  


Yoga represents a fascinating mind-body approach, wherein body movements (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama) and meditation are integrated into a single multidimensional practice. Numerous beneficial mental and physical effects have been classically ascribed to this holistic ancient method. The purpose of the present study has been to examine the effects of long-term yoga practice on Subjective Sleep Quality (SSQ) and on several hormonal parameters of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Twenty-six subjects (16 experimental and 10 controls) were recruited to be part of the study. Experimental subjects were regular yoga practitioners with a minimum of 3 years of practice. Blood samples for the quantification of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) were drawn from all subjects. Likewise, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was employed to assess SSQ. As statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test was performed. The yoga group displayed lower PSQI scores and higher blood cortisol levels than control subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that long-term yoga practice is associated with significant psycho-biological differences, including better sleep quality as well as a modulatory action on the levels of cortisol. These preliminary results suggest interesting clinical implications which should be further researched. PMID:19482233

Vera, Francisca M; Manzaneque, Juan M; Maldonado, Enrique F; Carranque, Gabriel A; Rodriguez, Francisco M; Blanca, Maria J; Morell, Miguel



Heritability of Daytime Cortisol Levels in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in the level of the stress hormone cortisol play a prominent role as an explanatory variable in studies on psychopathology. Relatively few studies have paid attention to individual differences in cortisol levels and the etiology of these differences, in particular their possible genetic basis. All these studies have been in adults. The aim of this study was to

Meike Bartels; Eco J. C. de Geus; Clemens Kirschbaum; Frans Sluyter; Dorret I. Boomsma



Heritability of daytime cortisol levels in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in the level of the stress hormone cortisol play a prominent role as an explanatory variable in studies on psychopathology. Relatively few studies have paid attention to individual differences in cortisol levels and the etiology of these differences, in particular their possible genetic basis. All these studies have been in adults. The aim of this study was to

Meike Bartels; Geus de E. J. C; Clemens Kirschbaum; Frans Sluyter; Dorret I. Boomsma



Assessment of adrenocortical activity by non-invasive measurement of faecal cortisol metabolites in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).  


The aim of this study was to determine whether glucocorticoid production could be monitored non-invasively in dromedary camels by measuring faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs). Five Sudanese dromedaries, two males and three females, were injected with a synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogue. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-ACTH injection. Faeces were sampled after spontaneous defecation for five consecutive days (2 days before and 3 days after ACTH injection). Baseline plasma cortisol values ranged from 0.6 to 10.8 ng/ml in males and from 1.1 to 16.6 ng/ml in females, while peak values after ACTH injection were 10.9-41.9 in males and 10-42.2 ng/ml in females. Peak blood cortisol values were reached between 1.5 and 2.0 h after ACTH injection. The concentration of FCMs increased after ACTH injection in the faeces of both sexes, although steroid levels peaked earlier in males [24 h; (286.7-2,559.7 ng/g faeces)] than in females [36-48 h; (1,182.6-5,169.1 ng/g faeces)], reflecting increases of 3.1-8.3- and 4.3-8-fold above baseline levels. To detect chromatographic patterns of immunoreactive FCMs, faecal samples with high FCM concentrations from both sexes were pooled and subjected to reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). RP-HPLC analysis revealed sex differences in the polarity of FCMs, with females showing more polar FCMs than males. We concluded that stimulation of adrenocortical activity by ACTH injection resulted in a measurable increase in blood cortisol that was reliably paralleled by increases in FCM levels. Thus, measurement of FCMs is a powerful tool for monitoring the adrenocortical responses of dromedaries to stressors in field conditions. PMID:23430659

Sid-Ahmed, Omer-Elfaroug; Sanhouri, Ahmed; Elwaseela, Badr-Eldin; Fadllalah, Imad; Mohammed, Galal-Eldin Elazhari; Möstl, Erich



Determination of steroid hormones in a human-serum reference material by isotope dilution--mass spectrometry: A candidate definitive method for cortisol  

SciTech Connect

We report a method, based on isotope dilution--mass spectrometry, for determining cortisol in a pooled specimen of human serum. Isotopically labeled cortisol is added to 5.0 mL of serum so that the molar concentrations of labeled cortisol and unlabeled cortisol are approximately equal. The specimen and two calibration standards are extracted with dichloromethane, and the extracted cortisol is converted to the methoxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivative. Samples and standards are analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry by monitoring the peak areas for m/z 605 and 608. The cortisol concentration is calculated by linear interpolation between the two bracketing standards. Variances of data collected during six weeks showed that the overall coefficient of variation (CV) was 0.69% (n . 32); the within-vial CV, 0.63%; the among-vial CV, 0.22%; and the among-day CV, 0.15% (means . 3.973 nmol/vial). Method specificity was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic as well as C/sub 8/ mini-column cleanup of samples before derivation, by alternative ion monitoring at m/z 636 and 639, and by negative-ion chemical ionization at m/z 459 and 462. Derivatives of all observed degradation products of cortisol under basic, neutral, and acidic conditions did not interfere.

Patterson, D.G.; Patterson, M.B.; Culbreth, P.H.; Fast, D.M.; Holler, J.S.; Sampson, E.J.; Bayse, D.D.



Influence of academic stress and season on 24-hour mean concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, and beta-endorphin.  


We investigated the influence of a common stressful event, i.e., academic examinations, on the 24-h mean concentration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and/or beta-endorphin. In addition, we evaluated the effect of season on the endocrine response to this stressor. We studied medical students (n = 55), screened for a variety of health and life style factors, from three consecutive medical school classes 1 month before, during, and 2 weeks following examinations. Hourly blood samples were obtained from an indwelling catheter and two serum pools were made (0800-2200h = day and 2300-0700h = night). Examinations produced a significant (p < .001) increase in perceived stress scores. In addition, we found a significant (p < .001) effect of examination stress on the increase in mean daytime but not nocturnal ACTH levels during autumn, but not during the spring. In contrast, the examination stress did not significantly affect day or night mean cortisol levels from baseline to examination week. We further divided the students by whether their perceived stress scores increased during examination week and fell during recovery (Group 1) or whether their perceived stress scores did not follow the expected pattern (Group 2). We found that in the Group 1 students who perceived the most stress, cortisol levels significantly increased (p < .001) from baseline to examination. Therefore, the nature of the stressor and the state of the responder were of equal importance in the observed cortisol response during examinations among these students. Further, academic stress had no significant effect on beta-endorphin levels. Finally, we found that the mean day and night ACTH levels were higher (p < .001) in the spring than in the fall; a seasonal influence on cortisol and beta-endorphin concentrations, however, was not observed. In summary, we have demonstrated that stress associated with the taking of examinations produces a dissociation among mean 24-h levels of ACTH, cortisol, and beta-endorphin. In addition, daytime cortisol levels increased during examinations only in the group of students whose perceived stress scores increased. Further, a seasonal influence on ACTH secretion was suggested by these results with higher levels observed in the spring than in the fall. PMID:7675934

Malarkey, W B; Pearl, D K; Demers, L M; Kiecolt-Glaser, J K; Glaser, R



Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates a transient calcium uptake in rat lymphocytes.  


Freshly isolated rat lymphocytes were tested for corticotropin (ACTH)-dependent calcium uptake. Physiological levels of corticotropin (0.01-1 nM) were found to stimulate both an uptake of 45Ca2+ and a rise in cAMP. The calcium uptake was delayed by 2 min after ACTH addition, but was rapid and transient after the onset of uptake. The extent of calcium uptake was dose dependent on the corticotropin concentration and reached a maximum by 1 nM. Several fragments of corticotropin were tested for activity; both full-length 1-39 and a functional truncated form, 1-25, had equivalent effects on 45Ca influx at 1 nM; however, alpha MSH-(1-13), ACTH-(11-24), or a mixture of alpha MSH and ACTH-(11-24) had no effect on 45Ca influx. Extracellular calcium uptake was blocked by the calcium channel blockers lanthanum, diltiazem, nifedipine, and omega-conotoxin. Splenic lymphocytes that express ACTH receptors had ligand-dependent calcium uptake, but thymocytes that lack ACTH receptors had no ligand-dependent calcium uptake. A mouse adrenal cell line, Y-1, showed the same 45Ca uptake kinetics. These findings demonstrate that both lymphocytes and adrenal cells have a functional ACTH-dependent calcium uptake mechanism. PMID:7956901

Clarke, B L; Moore, D R; Blalock, J E



Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol  

PubMed Central

Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97)?=?.20, p?=?.65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97)?=?.00, p?=?.99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, ??=?.27, p?=?.04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, ??=?.27, p?=?.06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, ??=?.72, p?=?.01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications.

Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.



Circadian Rhythms of Glucocorticoid Hormone Actions in Target Tissues: Potential Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Organisms face unforeseen short- and long-term changes in the environment (stressors). To defend against these changes, organisms have developed a stress system that includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which employs glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) for signal transduction. In addition, organisms live under the strong influence of day-night cycles and, hence, have also developed a highly conserved circadian clock system for adjusting their activities to recurring environmental changes. This regulatory system creates and maintains internal circadian rhythmicity by employing a self-oscillating molecular pacemaker composed of the Clock-Bmal1 heterodimer and other transcription factors. The circadian clock consists of a central master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain hypothalamus and peripheral slave clocks in virtually all organs and tissues. The HPA axis and the circadian clock system communicate with each other at multiple levels. The central clock controls the HPA axis, creating the diurnal oscillation of circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, and the HPA axis adjusts the circadian rhythmicity of the peripheral clocks in response to various stressors through the GR. Further, Clock-Bmal1 regulates the response to glucocorticoids in peripheral tissues through acetylation of the GR, possibly antagonizing the biologic actions of diurnally fluctuating circulating cortisol. Importantly, dysregulation in the clock system and the HPA axis may cause similar pathologic manifestations—including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease—by uncoupling circulating cortisol concentrations from tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids.

Kino, Tomoshige



Lower Cortisol and Higher ACTH Levels in Individuals with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood concentrations of pituitary hormones adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), prolactin, growth hormone, and adrenal hormone–cortisol were measured in 36 autistic and 27 control individuals. Individuals with autism had significantly lower serum concentrations of cortisol (p -6), and significantly higher concentrations of ACTH (p = 0.002) than control age- and sex-matched subjects. Also, prolactin concentrations in autistic patients with epilepsy were significantly higher

Jasna Marinovi? ?urin; Janoš Terzi?; Zorana Bujas Petkovi?; Ljubinka Zekan; Ivana Marinovi? Terzi?; Ivana Marasovi? Šušnjara



Effects of 16 weeks of training prior to a major competition on hormonal and biochemical parameters in young elite gymnasts.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the response to 16 weeks of training on selected hormonal and biological parameters in seven international competition level female artistic gymnasts (14.5 +/- 1.2 years). Data were collected at the beginning of the first training week (W1) and in the 16th week (W16). Assessments also included anthropometric measurements, dietary intake for 7 days and Tanner staging. No gymnast had reached menarche and the puberty stages corresponded to Tanner's pubertal stage 2. The gymnasts were smaller than average for their age group, with a height:weight ratio above the 50th percentile. Energy intake was about 31% lower than recommendations. Significant decreases in IGF-I, IGFBP3, IGF-I:C ratio and triglyceride values and increases in uric acid and creatinine levels were noted. Cortisol values were high regardless of the period. This training provided evidence for alterations in resting somatotropic and adrenocorticotropic parameters. PMID:12880124

Filaire, E; Jouanel, P; Colombier, M; Bégue, R J; Lac, G



A case of low cortisol-binding globulin: use of plasma free cortisol in interpretation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis tests.  


We investigated a patient with suspected hypopituitarism who showed subnormal cortisol responses to stimulation tests with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and hypoglycaemia, but normal ACTH and 11-deoxycortisol responses in the metyrapone test. Cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and was used to calculate plasma free cortisol and free cortisol index. The patient had a low plasma CBG concentration. Reinterpreted in terms of free cortisol and free cortisol index, his responses to ACTH were normal. We conclude that despite subnormal total cortisol responses to ACTH and hypoglycaemia, the patient had a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Measurement of CBG concentration and calculation of free cortisol or free cortisol index can help avoid false interpretations of dynamic tests of the HPA axis based on plasma total cortisol. PMID:16704764

Davidson, James S; Bolland, Mark J; Croxson, Michael S; Chiu, Weldon; Lewis, John G



Trilostane-induced inhibition of cortisol secretion results in reduced negative feedback at the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.  


Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma in dogs is usually treated by medical treatment, and the efficacy of this treatment has been reported. However, controversy remains as to whether reduced negative feedback through the inhibition of cortisol secretion, similar to Nelson's syndrome, may appear as an adverse effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of reduced negative feedback through the inhibition of cortisol secretion by daily trilostane administration on the pituitary-adrenal axis in clinically normal dogs. Dogs were administered 5mg/kg trilostane twice a day every day for 8 weeks (n=8) or 16 weeks (n=3). After the initiation of trilostane administration, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were increased remarkably. As assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during administration, the pituitary became enlarged. After trilostane administration, the cytoplasmic areas of the pituitary corticotrophs were increased and the ratio of pituitary corticotrophs to all cells in the anterior lobe was greater in the trilostane-treated dogs than that in untreated animals. In addition, histological examinations revealed bilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia. Using real-time PCR quantification, the expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in the pituitary and ACTH receptor (ACTH-R) mRNA in the adrenal gland was greater in the dogs treated with trilostane than in untreated dogs. These results indicate that reduced negative feedback induced hyperfunction of the pituitary corticotrophs and pituitary enlargement in healthy dogs. These changes suggest that the inhibition of cortisol secretion by trilostane may increase the risk for accelerating the growth of corticotroph adenomas in dogs with Cushing's disease. PMID:19041802

Teshima, Takahiro; Hara, Yasushi; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nezu, Yoshinori; Harada, Yasuji; Yogo, Takuya; Teramoto, Akira; Osamura, Robert Y; Tagawa, Masahiro



Effect of fasting on nychthemeral concentrations of plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and cortisol in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).  


This experiment was conducted to characterize the effect of fasting versus satiety feeding on plasma concentrations of GH, IGF-I, and cortisol over a nychthemeron. Channel catfish fingerlings were acclimated for two weeks under a 12L:12D photoperiod, then fed or fasted for 21 d. On day 21, blood samples were collected every 2 h for 24 h. Weight of fed fish increased an average of 66.2% and fasted fish lost 21.7% of body weight on average. Average nychthemeral concentrations of plasma GH were not significantly different between fed (24.7 ng/mL) and fasted (26.8 ng/mL) fish, but average nychthemeral IGF-I concentrations were higher in fed (23.4 ng/mL) versus fasted (17.8 ng/mL) fish. An increase in plasma IGF-I concentrations was observed in fasted fish 2 h after a peak in plasma GH, but not in fed fish. Average nychthemeral plasma cortisol concentrations were higher in fed (14.5 ng/mL) versus fasted (11.0 ng/mL) fish after 21 d. Significant fluctuations and a postprandial increase in plasma cortisol were observed in fed fish and there was an overall increase in plasma cortisol of both fasted and fed fish during the scotophase. The present experiment indicates little or no effect of 21-d fasting on plasma GH levels but demonstrates fasting-induced suppression of plasma IGF-I and cortisol levels in channel catfish. PMID:16126422

Small, Brian C



Testosterone and cortisol changes in professional basketball players through a season competition.  


We analyze the outcome on testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses in 12 professional basketball players during a season of competition. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), C, total testosterone (TT), and free testosterone (FT) levels were analyzed in October, December, March, and April. A day after the games, blood samples were taken. Serum ACTH levels were maintained at the initial levels during the season. However, basal C significantly changed during the season, with lower levels in December and in April. Basal serum TT levels increased during the season until a maximum in March. No differences were presented in the TT values in December, March, and April. Basal FT presented high levels in October and December, followed by a low level in March, remaining low in April. The T/C increased during the season, attaining a maximum level in December, followed by a significant decrease in March. Free T/C ratio decreased during the season (lower level in March). In conclusion, the players maintained a good anabolic-catabolic balance. In our opinion, to prevent the stress provoked during the season, and control the recovery periods, it is useful to monitor C, T, and the level of training. PMID:20375720

Martínez, Alfredo Cordova; Seco Calvo, Jesus; Tur Marí, Josep A; Abecia Inchaurregui, Luis Carlos; Orella, Enrique Echevarría; Biescas, Antoni Pons



Ecological salivary cortisol analysis (Part 2): Relative impact of trauma history, posttraumatic stress, comorbidity, chronic stress, and known confounds on hormone levels  

PubMed Central

Background Although bio-psycho-social health research is an ideal, samples adequate for complex modeling require biomarker specimens from hundreds of participants. Ecological sampling departs from laboratory study norms, with implications for analysis. Objective This paper compares salivary cortisol levels and effect sizes of ‘focal’ psychiatric factors, such as trauma history, posttraumatic stress diagnosis, comorbidity, and chronic stress, and ‘nuisance’ factors, including endocrine disorders, medications, physiological factors, such as gestational age, and smoking, to inform ecological study designs. Study Design This is a descriptive analysis of ecologically collected cortisol specimens, assayed in an on-going perinatal psychobiological study, addressing methodological considerations. Results Focal and nuisance factors are often interdependent with similar effect sizes. Careful specimen deletion decisions and model specification are needed to achieve the hoped-for external validity while maintaining internal validity. Conclusions Results of multivariate models support the validity and usefulness of an ecological approach to incorporating biomarkers in health research.

King, Anthony; Leichtman, Jennifer; Abelson, James; Liberzon, Israel; Seng, Julia S.



Thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones synergistically control growth hormone mRNA in cultured GH1 cells.  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that thyroid hormone controls growth hormone synthesis in GH1 cells and that the induction of the growth hormone response by glucocorticoid appears to be highly dependent on thyroid hormone action. Thyroid hormone induces growth hormone synthesis approximately 5- to 20-fold and cortisol increases this response 2- to 6-fold further. Long-term kinetics of the growth hormone response show that, without added thyroid hormone, cortisol can induce a small-growth hormone response after 48 hr of incubation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins synthesized in intact cells demonstrates that the cortisol enhancement of growth hormone synthesis in cells incubated with thyroid hormone is a relatively selective process. Quantitation of growth hormone mRNA levels by cell-free protein synthesis demonstrates that the regulation of growth hormone synthesis by thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones is explained by a synergistic pretranslational control mechanism, presumably at the level of the growth hormone gene.

Shapiro, L E; Samuels, H H; Yaffe, B M




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Several experiments were conducted to evaluate serum cortisol concentrations and the circadian rhythm of this hormone in gilts tethered in stalls. Control animals were penned individually. In the initial experiment, 18 nongravid gilts were placed in tether stalls after being in either tether stalls or individual pens for 2 wk. No significant differences were found in serum cortisol concentrations.

B. A. Becker; J. J. Ford; R. K. Christenson; R. C. Manak; G. L. Hahn; J. A. DeShazer



Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.



Salivary cortisol and short and long-term memory for emotional faces in healthy young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol are associated with increased episodic memory for emotional events. Elevated levels of cortisol are also seen in anxiety and depression disorders. Because it is well documented how both depression and anxiety are related to valence-specific biases in attention and memory, the present study sought to establish relations between basal cortisol levels and episodic

Peter Putman; Jack van Honk; Roy P. C Kessels; Martijn Mulder; Hans P. F Koppeschaar



Incomplete deficiency of hypothalamic hormones in hypothalamic hypopituitarism associated with an old traumatic brain injury.  


A 62 year-old man was admitted to determine the pathogenesis of his hypoglycemia. He was unconscious and his plasma glucose level was 26 mg/dL. When he was 31 years old, he had a traffic accident and was unconscious for several days. Physical findings on admittance showed that the patient's BMI was 17.8 and blood pressure, 114/70 mmHg. He was alert. He had a hypogonadal face with a lack of beard, and he had an atrophic testis with a volume of 1 to 2 ml. Laboratory findings showed that his fasting plasma glucose was 73 mg/dL; serum sodium, 133 mmol/l; potassium, 4.1 mmol/l; serum insulin, less than 1.0 muU/ml.; plasma ACTH, 45.8 pg/ml; serum cortisol, 5.2 microg/dL; and free cortisol urinary excretion, less than 4.5 microg/day; serum LH, 0.8 mIU/ml; serum testosterone, less than 0.05 ng/ml; serum TSH, 2.0 uIU/ml; free T(4), 0.7 ng/dL; free T(3), 1.5 pg/ml; and serum prolactin, 29.0 ng/ml. The levels of all the pituitary hormones were elevated in response to a mixture of exogenous corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH). However, there was no increased secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in response to hypoglycemia (induced by the administration of insulin) and there was no increased secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in response to the administration of clomiphene. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an atrophied pituitary gland with an empty sella, but there were no abnormal findings of the hypothalamus. Hydrocortisone replacement at a dosage of 20 mg/day increased the patient's plasma glucose from 73 to 100 mg/dL and his serum sodium from 133 to 138 mmol/l. These findings therefore indicate a partial impairment in hypothalamic hormone release, resulting from a traumatic brain injury that the patient had received 31 years ago. PMID:19638713

Saito, Tomoyuki; Sato, Nobuaki; Kimoto, Mizuho; Asano, Tomoko; Aoki, Atsushi; Ikoma, Aki; Toyoshima, Hideo; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-e



The Use of Saliva Cortisol, Urinary Cortisol, and Catecholamine Measurements for a Noninvasive Assessment of Stress Responses in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem in assessing animal welfare is that collecting data in itself may be stressful to the animals. Therefore, noninvasive methods for collecting data have to be devised and tested. A first step in investigating saliva cortisol, urinary cortisol, and urinary catecholamine as noninvasive indicators of canine well-being is the validation of these hormonal measures as alternatives for those in

Bonne Beerda; Matthijs B. H. Schilder; Nicole S. C. R. M. Janssen; Jan A. Mol



Angiotensinergic Neurons Physiologically Inhibit Prolactin, Growth Hormone, and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, But Not Adrenocorticoptropic Hormone, Release in Ovariectomized Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

FRANCI, C. R., J. A. ANSELMO–FRANCI AND S. M. McCANN.Angiotensinergic neurons physiologically inhibit prolactin, growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone, but not adrenocorticotropic hormone, release in ovariectomized rats.PEPTIDES 18(7) 971–976, 1997.—Angiotensin II (AII)-containing neurons with cell bodies in the rostral medial hypothalamus and axons project to the external layer of the median eminence, so that AII maybe released into the hypophyseal

C. R Franci; S. M McCann



Responsiveness to corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin in canine Cushing's syndrome.  


Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin are the most important hypothalamic factors regulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. In this study we have investigated the responsiveness of the pituitary-adrenocortical axis to intravenous administration of CRH or lysine vasopressin (LVP) in 16 control dogs, 22 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism and five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumor, using doses of CRH and LVP that caused equivalent ACTH responses in the control dogs. After CRH administration, the increment in plasma ACTH was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (221 +/- 53 ng/l) than that in control dogs (279 +/- 41 ng/l). In the dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, the relative increases in ACTH after CRH were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those after LVP. Despite the absence of an increase in ACTH following LVP administration in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumor, there was a significant increase in plasma cortisol, the increment (790 +/- 238 nmol/l) being not statistically different from that in the control dogs (412 +/- 37 nmol/l). We conclude that in spite of the changes inherent to pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, i.e. neoplastic transformation of corticotropic cells and hypercortisolism, there is persistence of responsiveness to hypophysiotropic hormones. The ACTH secretion by corticotropic cells in pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was relatively less sensitive to stimulation with CRH than with LVP. Adrenocortical tumors develop an aberrant sensitivity to LVP. PMID:8162173

van Wijk, P A; Rijnberk, A; Croughs, R J; Wolfswinkel, J; Selman, P J; Mol, J A



Catecholamine and cortisol reaction to childbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to study the stressfulness of childbirth is to examine the output of stress hormones. In this study, urinary catecholamines\\u000a and salivary cortisol from 50 primiparous women were collected for 1 day during gestational weeks 37 to 39, hourly during\\u000a labor and delivery, and 2 hr and 2 days postpartum. All three stress hormones increased statistically significantly from pregnancy

Siw Alehagen; Klaas Wijma; Ulf Lundberg; Bo Melin; Barbro Wijma



Cortisol and behavior in fragile X syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if children with fragile X syndrome, who typically demonstrate a neurobehavioral phenotype that includes social anxiety, withdrawal, and hyper-arousal, have increased levels of cortisol, a hormone associated with stress. The relevance of adrenocortical activity to the fragile X phenotype also was examined.Method: One hundred and nine children with the fragile X

D. Hessl; B. Glaser; J. Dyer-Friedman; C. Blasey; T. Hastie; M. Gunnar; A. L. Reiss



Circadian rhythm of cortisol confounds cortisol responses to exercise: implications for future research.  


To investigate whether measurements of cortisol responses to exercise are confounded by neglect of the hormone's circadian rhythm, we measured the serum and salivary cortisol responses of eight women to 40 min of 70% maximal oxygen consumption treadmill exercise beginning at 0800 and 2000. Responses were calculated relative to the usually employed preexercise concentrations and also to concentrations at the same times of another day while subjects were at rest. Compared with areas under response curves (AUCs) calculated relative to their circadian baselines, AUCs for serum and salivary cortisol calculated by reference to preexercise concentrations were underestimated (serum, P < 0.001; salivary, P < 0.01) by 93 and 84% in the morning and by 37 and 35% in the evening, respectively. Calculated by the usual preexercise baseline method, rises in serum and salivary cortisol were similarly underestimated. More accurately calculated relative to their circadian baselines, serum and salivary cortisol AUCs were similar (P = 0.63 and P = 0.37, respectively) in the morning and evening, as were their rises (P = 0.23 and P = 0.70, respectively). In future investigations of the existence and magnitude of cortisol responses, those responses must be calculated relative to the hormone's circadian baseline. PMID:7649899

Thuma, J R; Gilders, R; Verdun, M; Loucks, A B



Diurnal secretion of growth hormone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone in pre- and perimenopausal women with active rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with neuroendocrine and immunologic dysfunction leading to rheumatoid cachexia. Although excess proinflammatory cytokines can decrease somatotropic axis activity, little is known about the effects of RA on growth hormone\\/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH\\/IGF-I) axis function. We tested the hypothesis that patients with active RA exhibit decreased GH\\/IGF-I axis activity. To do so, we conducted a

Marc R Blackman; Ranganath Muniyappa; Mildred Wilson; Barbara E Moquin; Howard L Baldwin; Kelli A Wong; Christopher Snyder; Michael Magalnick; Shaan Alli; James Reynolds; Seth M Steinberg; Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky



Social Behavior Correlates of Cortisol Activity in Child Care: Gender Differences and Time-of-Day Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relations between social behavior and daily patterns of a stress-sensitive hormone production in preschool children attending center-based child care. For boys, externalizing behavior was positively associated with cortisol reactivity, while internalizing behavior was negatively associated with median (typical) cortisol. Median cortisol

Tout, Kathryn; de Haan, Michelle; Campbell, Elizabeth Kipp; Gunnar, Megan R.



Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism  

PubMed Central

Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a novel environment; and (3) in response to a blood draw stressor. A significantly higher serum cortisol response was found in the group of children with autism. Analysis showed significantly higher peak cortisol levels and prolonged duration and recovery of cortisol elevation following the blood-stick stressor in children with autism. This study suggests increased reactivity of the HPA axis to stress and novel stimuli in children with autism.

Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.



Oral contraceptive usage alters the effects of cortisol on implicit fear learning.  


An important feature of the human defense system comprises fear learning, which stress hormones can crucially modulate. However, stress hormones might influence men and women differently, in part because of interactions with sex hormones. In women, distinct stages of the menstrual cycle or the intake of oral contraceptives (OC) affect sex hormone levels. In this study, we used a differential fear conditioning paradigm with electrical stimulation as unconditioned stimulus (UCS) following one neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS+), but not another (CS-).To investigate implicit fear learning, participants were distracted from detecting the contingencies between CS and UCS. To address interaction effects of sex and stress hormones, 32 men, 30 women in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (FO), 30 women in the luteal phase (LU), and 30 OC women received either 30 mg cortisol or a placebo. In the contrast CS+ minus CS-, an interaction between cortisol administration and sex hormone status emerged in the anterior parahippocampal gyrus and the hippocampus. Cortisol reduced fear learning in men, FO, and LU women, but enhanced it in OC women. Additionally, cortisol attenuated differential amygdala activation in the entire group. These results demonstrate that OC usage substantially modifies cortisol effects on emotional learning in women, particularly in memory-related medial temporal lobe regions. Further, a high dose of cortisol reduces amygdala differentiation pointing to a lowered learning ability of the defense system under high cortisol concentrations, irrespective of current sex hormone availability. PMID:22986336

Merz, Christian Josef; Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias



Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone\\u000a reflecting hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results.\\u000a This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a novel environment; and (3)\\u000a in response to a blood draw stressor. A

Eve G. Spratt; Joyce S. Nicholas; Kathleen T. Brady; Laura A. Carpenter; Charles R. Hatcher; Kirk A. Meekins; Richard W. Furlanetto; Jane M. Charles


Cortisol rapidly disrupts prepulse inhibition in healthy men.  


Stress is known to affect sensorimotor gating (measured with prepulse inhibition of startle, or PPI), possibly improving perception of threat signals at the expense of other input during states of arousal. Stress also induces a variety of autonomic nervous system and endocrine responses, such as an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The latter will result in the release of the stress hormone cortisol which is known to exert rapid and sustained action on several CNS processes. Since previous studies have not clarified whether and which stress response components may mediate effects on sensorimotor gating, this study asked whether a link may exist between cortisol and sensorimotor gating. We tested whether cortisol may affect PPI by assessing PPI before, during, and after non-stressful, covert 1mg IV cortisol infusions in 27 healthy men in a single-blind and placebo-controlled within-subject design. Cortisol induced a rapid reduction of PPI, with its maximum at 20 min after administration, and PPI returned to baseline after another 20 min. Startle magnitude in the absence of a prepulse was not affected. This rapid effect of the IV cortisol infusions is probably mediated by a non-genomic mechanism. We conclude that stress effects on sensorimotor gating may be mediated by glucocorticoids. The disruption of sensorimotor gating by the stress hormone cortisol may serve the processing of intense and potentially dangerous startling stimuli. PMID:20685043

Richter, Steffen; Schulz, André; Zech, Carina M; Oitzl, Melly S; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut



Diurnal Cortisol Dysregulation, Functional Disability, and Depression in Women With Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Multiple alterations in circadian rhythms have been observed in cancer patients, including the diurnal rhythm of the adrenal hormone cortisol. Diurnal cortisol alterations have been associated with cancer-related physiological processes as well as psychological stress. Here we investigate alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythm in ovarian cancer patients, and potential links with depression, life stress, and functional disability. METHODS Women (n = 177) with suspected ovarian cancer completed questionnaires and collected salivary cortisol 3× daily for 3 consecutive days before surgery. One hundred women were subsequently diagnosed with ovarian cancer and 77 with benign disease. In addition, healthy women (n = 33) not scheduled for surgery collected salivary cortisol at the same time points. RESULTS Ovarian cancer patients demonstrated significantly elevated nocturnal cortisol (P = .022) and diminished cortisol variability (P = .023) compared with women with benign disease and with healthy women (all P values <.0001). Among ovarian cancer patients, higher levels of nocturnal cortisol and less cortisol variability were significantly associated with greater functional disability, fatigue, and vegetative depression, but not with stress, distress, or depressed affect. There were no significant associations between functional or psychological variables and diurnal cortisol in women with benign disease. CONCLUSIONS Nocturnal cortisol and cortisol variability show significant dysregulation in ovarian cancer patients, and this dysregulation was associated with greater functional disability, fatigue, and vegetative depression. These findings suggest potential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal involvement in functional disability in ovarian cancer, and may have implications for disease progression.

Weinrib, Aliza Z.; Sephton, Sandra E.; DeGeest, Koen; Penedo, Frank; Bender, David; Zimmerman, Bridget; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Sood, Anil K.; Lubaroff, David M.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.



Effects of Testosterone Administration on Nocturnal Cortisol Secretion in Healthy Older Men  

PubMed Central

In animal studies, testosterone decreases, whereas estrogen increases, cortisol production. In one clinical study, short-term testosterone replacement attenuated corticotrophin-releasing hormone–stimulated cortisol secretion during leuprolide-induced hypogonadism in young men. The effects of longer term testosterone treatment on spontaneous cortisol secretion in younger or older men are unknown. In a randomized, double-masked placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of testosterone supplementation (100 mg intramuscular every 2 week) for 26 weeks on nocturnal cortisol secretory dynamics in healthy older men. Testosterone administration increased early morning serum concentrations of free testosterone by 34%, decreased sex hormone–binding globulin by 20%, and did not alter early morning concentrations of cortisol-binding globulin or cortisol compared with placebo treatment. Testosterone did not significantly alter nocturnal mean and integrated cortisol concentrations, cortisol burst frequency, mass/burst, basal secretion, pulsatile cortisol production rate, pattern regularity, or approximate entropy. We conclude that low-dose testosterone supplementation for 26 weeks does not affect spontaneous nocturnal cortisol secretion in healthy older men.

Muniyappa, Ranganath; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Harman, S. Mitchell; Sorkin, John D.



The brain and the stress axis: The neural correlates of cortisol regulation in response to stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is the major endocrine stress axis of the human organism. Cortisol, the final hormone of this axis, affects metabolic, cardiovascular and central nervous systems both acutely and chronically. Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques have led to the investigation of regulatory networks and mechanisms of cortisol regulation in the central nervous system in human populations. In the

Katarina Dedovic; Annie Duchesne; Julie Andrews; Veronika Engert; Jens C. Pruessner



Hormonal stress in adolescent female volleyball players  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCatecholamine and cortisol are markers of hormonal stress in young female athletes and may indicate adaptation to an active lifestyle and sports activity.ObjectiveTo discover if volleyball training produces changes in catecholamine and cortisol.DesignWe performed a prospective study during a sports season (September–May) with monthly measurements of catecholamine and cortisol in urine collected over a 24-h period, on a rest day

J C Cruz-Márquez; J C Cruz-Campos; A Cruz-Campos



Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis  

SciTech Connect

A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG.

Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.



Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor for the detection of salivary cortisol using the Thomson effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of a thermal biosensor based on bismuth nanowire that is fabricated for the detection of the human stress hormone cortisol using the Thomson effect. The Bi nanowire was grown using the On-Film Formation of Nanowires (OFF-ON) method. The thermal device was fabricated using photolithography, and the sensing area was modified with immobilized anti-cortisol antibodies conjugated with protein G for the detection of cortisol. The voltages were measured with two probe tips during surface modification to investigate the biochemical reactions in the fabricated thermal biosensor. The Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor exhibited low detection limit and good selectivity for the detection of cortisol.

Lee, Seunghyun; Hyun Lee, Jung; Kim, MinGin; Kim, Jeongmin; Song, Min-Jung; Jung, Hyo-Il; Lee, Wooyoung



Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study.  


This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene's Score (GMS) and Kupperman's Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT). PMID:23675006

Meissner, H O; Mscisz, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Barchia, I



Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study  

PubMed Central

This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene’s Score (GMS) and Kupperman’s Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT).

Meissner, H. O.; Mscisz, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Barchia, I.



Exogenous cortisol facilitates responses to social threat under high provocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress is one of the most important promoters of aggression. Human and animal studies have found associations between basal and acute levels of the stress hormone cortisol and (abnormal) aggression. Irrespective of the direction of these changes – i.e., increased or decreased aggressive behavior – the results of these studies suggest dramatic alterations in the processing of threat-related social information.

Katja Bertsch; Robina Böhnke; Menno R. Kruk; Steffen Richter; Ewald Naumann



Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies.

Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi



Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels.  


Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi



Gender differences in acculturation, stress, and salivary cortisol response among former Soviet immigrants.  


Post-immigration adaptation is characterized by chronic and acute acculturative stressors. Salivary cortisol is a commonly used hormonal marker of stress, but few studies have investigated its use as an indicator of acculturative stress and adjustment in immigrants. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among predictors of adjustment (environmental and language mastery), self-reported stress outcomes (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, alienation), and salivary cortisol response in immigrants from the former Soviet Union. The sample included 137 married men and women aged 42-80 who lived in the U.S. for 1-13 years. Results indicated that while men and women had similar values for cortisol response, relationships among adjustment measures, stress outcomes, and cortisol differed by gender. Among men, environmental mastery significantly reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and cortisol response. Among women, environmental mastery also reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and alienation, but language mastery increased cortisol response and decreased alienation. PMID:23224773

Nicholson, Lisa M; Miller, Arlene Michaels; Schwertz, Dorie; Sorokin, Olga



Anti-fatigue activity of Hovenia dulcis on a swimming mouse model through the inhibition of stress hormone expression and antioxidation.  


Hovenia dulcis (H. dulcis) Thunb., which is distributed in Korea, China, and Japan, has been known to show hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects and enhance physical activity. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to determine the anti-fatigue activity of hot-water extract from H. dulcis peduncle, and to find the reason why H. dulcis extract (HDE)-ingested mice had enhanced physical activity against swimming performance. The mice orally administrated with HDE (HDE-mice) dramatically enhanced their swimming time compared to the control mice. HDE significantly decreased serum levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in mice. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were dramatically decreased in gastrocnemius muscle from both 100 mg/kg of HDE (LHDE) and 200 mg/kg of HDE (HHDE)-ingested mice compared to the control mice. The liver activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased in HHDE-mice with increasing tendency in LHDE-mice. In addition, HHDE-mice significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (T-Chol), and triglyceride (TG). These results suggest that HDE had a significant anti-fatigue effect via its anti-stress and antioxidant activities, and thereby enhanced physical activity in swimming performance. PMID:23895162

Na, Chun-Soo; Yoon, Sun Young; Kim, Jin Beom; Na, Dae-Seung; Dong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Hong, Cheol Yi



Role of ketoconazole treatment in urinary-free cortisol-to-cortisone and tetrahydrocortisol-to-tetrahydrocortisone ratios in nonectopic Cushing's syndrome.  


We hypothesized that in nonectopic Cushing syndrome there is an insufficient activity of type II (renal) 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2) that is related to cortisol excess, rather than to corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH]) levels. We measured plasma ACTH and urinary-free cortisol (UFF), urinary-free cortisone (UFE), tetrahydrocortisol (UTHF), and tetrahydrocortisone (UTHE) in 24-h urine samples of 24 healthy subjects and 15 patients diagnosed with nonectopic Cushing syndrome. Then, in the group of patients, a new 24-h urine sample was collected after treatment with 800 mg daily of ketoconazole. The UFF/UFE and UTHF/UTHE ratios were calculated as an estimation of 11beta-HSD2 activity. The patients had an increase in both the UFF/UFE (19.95 +/- 10.3 vs 5.78 +/- 4.72 nmol/24 h; p < 0.0001) and UTHF/UTHE ratios (5.36 +/- 5.23 vs 1.39 +/- 0.95 nmol/24 h; p < 0.001). Both UFF/UFE and UTHF/UTHE ratios decreased after ketoconazole treatment (19.95 +/- 10.3 vs 12.2 +/- 6.9 nmol/24 h; p < 0.005; and 5.36 +/- 5.23 vs 1.62 vs 1.21 nmol/24 h; p < 0.001, respectively). The control subjects had a significant relationship between UFF and UFE (r = 0.70, p < 0.0001), and between UTHF and UTHE (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001) that did not exist in the patient group. After ketoconazole treatment, the decrease in cortisol excretion in the patient group allowed a positive and significant relation between UFF and UFE (r = 0.64, p < 0.01) and between UTHF and UTHE (r = 0.56, p < 0.05) to appear. There was not any significant relationship between either UFF/UFE or UTHF/UTHE ratios and plasma levels of ACTH. PMID:12450320

Stiefel, Pablo; García-Morillo, José S; Jimenez, Luis; Pamies, Encarnación; Miranda, María Luisa; Carneado, Joaquín; Villar, José; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso



Correlations of plasma cortisol levels, chaperone expression and mammalian longevity: a review of published data.  


The data presented demonstrates a correlation of plasma cortisol levels and receptor sensitivity with mammalian longevity and replicative senescence; observations possibly related to the influence of cortisol on chaperone expression and cancer resistance. The molecular chaperones are essential structural and functional elements of the steroid hormone receptors, and serve to modify the sensitivity of the cortisol receptor. Cushing's syndrome illustrates the harmful effects of sustained high levels of cortisol; thus probably the circadian and stress-induced variations, as well as the hormone levels are important for the homeostatic effects of the steroid hormones in counteracting the age related decline of chaperone response and of possible importance for the evolution of mammalian longevity. PMID:20111999

Krøll, Jens



Psychophysiological evidence for cortisol-induced reduction in early bias for implicit social threat in social phobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The stress hormone cortisol is important for the regulation of social motivational processes. High cortisol levels have been associated with social fear and avoidance, which play an important role in social anxiety disorder (SAD), as does hypervigilant processing of social threat. However,causal effects ofcortisolon threatprocessing inSADremain unclear.In anevent-related potential (ERP) study we investigated the effects of cortisol on task-irrelevant

Jacobien M. van Peer; Philip Spinhoven; Karin Roelofs



Effects of long-term cortisol treatments on gonadal development, sex steroids levels and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso.  


The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cortisol implantations on gonadal development, sex steroid levels, and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso. Three groups of 5 fish for each treatment were considered. The experimental groups included: control (capsules containing cocoa butter alone), low cortisol (C(5); 5mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter) and, high cortisol (C(50); 50mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter). The capsules containing hormones and cocoa butter were intraperitoneally implanted into 3-year-old female fish at pre-vitellogenic stage (mean initial body mass 6809.7 ± 73 g) every 6 weeks over a 6-month period from January to June. The serum levels of cortisol, glucose, cholesterol and sex steroids (testosterone and 17?-estradiol) were determined at the initial time and three weeks after each implantation. Oocyte histological characteristics (the diameter and area of the oocyte, the diameter and area of the nucleus and the ratio of the nucleus area to the oocyte area) were measured at the end of the experiment and compared to those at the initial time. Ovarian cortisol content was measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that serum cortisol levels varied in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest cortisol concentrations were observed in C(5)-treated fish throughout the experiment. Serum glucose levels were significantly higher in cortisol-treated groups than those in the control group. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant constant increase in serum cholesterol concentrations. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose showed significant declines in serum testosterone and 17?-estradiol concentrations throughout the experiment. No significant differences were found in oocyte histological characteristics among experimental groups. The cortisol implants elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovarian cortisol content. At the end of trial, body-growth indices were the lowest in C(50)-implanted fish, while the low cortisol dose had no effect on growth relative to the controls. These results indicated that chronic stress induced by cortisol implantation in great sturgeon suppressed gonadal steroidogenesis and somatic growth but had no effect on ovarian growth and development. PMID:22643336

Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Van Der Kraak, Glen



Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress.  


Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no "best practice" in how to investigate the anticipatory cortisol stress response has emerged. The goal of the current research was to develop a protocol that would allow for a sensitive and easy-to-implement laboratory-based investigation into anticipatory cortisol stress levels. We initially tested 26 healthy men in either an anticipation- or stress-only condition of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to map the distinct timelines of anticipatory and reactive cortisol release profiles (study 1). Subsequently, we administered the TSST to 50 healthy men such that the cortisol responses to anticipatory and reactive stress components could be dissociated (study 2). In both studies we sampled saliva cortisol at high frequency (at baseline, during 10min of anticipation and during and after 10min of acute stress) and the current mood state pre- and post-stress. We found anticipatory responder rates of 20% and 40%, with peak anticipatory cortisol levels between 14 and 20min after onset of anticipation. Visible changes in reactive cortisol levels occurred only after the termination of the acute stressor. We conclude that the best practice to detect a maximum number of anticipatory responders in the TSST would be to extend the anticipation phase to 15min. In doing so, the anticipatory cortisol peak could be captured at a time-point of the actual stressor that is uninfluenced by reactive cortisol levels. Overall, we could reveal several features of anticipatory responders. Most importantly, there was a positive correlation between anticipatory and reactive stress responses. There was no association between anticipatory cortisol and alpha-amylase as well as subjective-psychological stress responses. Future studies will have to determine whether the anticipatory responders differ with respect to various stress-sensitive parameters like sex, personality, psychological wellbeing or chronic stress. PMID:23246327

Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I; Duchesne, Annie; Vogel, Susanne; Corbo, Vincent; Pruessner, Jens C



Measuring Salivary Cortisol in the Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory  

PubMed Central

It is often difficult for instructors teaching laboratory courses in behavioral neuroscience to find appropriate experiments that can ethically examine biological parameters in human participants. In most instances, the default experiments that allow students to act as both experimenter and subject tend to be electrophysiological in nature (e.g., EEG, GSR, etc.). We report here the use of an experiment module that utilizes an easily-obtained enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit to measure human salivary cortisol. Cortisol is a hormone of the adrenal cortex that can be used as a peripheral indicator of hypothalamic neural activity. Plasma (and salivary) cortisol levels rise due to circadian influences as well as perturbations in the organism’s environment (i.e., stressors). The involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the pathophysiology of depression makes this an appealing module to students in behavioral neuroscience laboratories. Measurement of salivary cortisol takes advantage of a simple, painless, non-invasive sampling procedure. The assay can be performed successfully by anyone with access to a plate reader, a shaker or rotary mixer, and a few commonly used pipettors. A single plate assay can be completed in two to three hours. Students in our behavioral neuroscience laboratory class have utilized this kit successfully to examine the circadian cortisol rhythm as well as the effect of stress/relaxation on cortisol levels.

Kalman, Brian A.; Grahn, Ruth E.



Affiliative and disciplinary behavior of human handlers during play with their dog affects cortisol concentrations in opposite directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that cortisol concentrations change characteristically in the course of agonistic interactions; our aim was to find out how a playful situation may affect concentrations of this hormone in the saliva. We studied dogs' behavior and the changes of cortisol concentrations in a play situation, where the dogs played with their handler for 3 min with a tug

Zsuzsánna Horváth; Antal Dóka; Ádám Miklósi



Fecal cortisol metabolite levels in free-ranging North American red squirrels: Assay validation and the effects of reproductive condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns in stress hormone (glucocorticoid: GC) levels and their relationship to reproductive condition in natural populations are rarely investigated. In this study, we (1) validate an enzyme-immunoassay to measure fecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) levels in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and (2) examine relationships between FCM levels and reproductive condition in a free-ranging red squirrel population. Injected radiolabeled cortisol

Ben Dantzer; Andrew G. McAdam; Rupert Palme; Quinn E. Fletcher; Stan Boutin; Murray M. Humphries; Rudy Boonstra



Increased Lead Biomarker Levels Are Associated with Changes in Hormonal Response to Stress in Occupationally Exposed Male Participants  

PubMed Central

Background: Lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with a host of pathological conditions in humans. In rodents Pb exposure has been shown to alter the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function. Objective: We investigated the effects of lead on responses of the HPA axis to a psychosocial laboratory stressor administered to Pb-exposed workers. Methods: Seventy male participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Serum cortisol (CORT) and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were assessed in response to and during recovery from the stressor. We measured Pb in blood, a biomarker of recent exposure, and in tibia bone by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), a biomarker of chronic exposure. Results: The TSST induced statistically significant increases in ACTH and CORT in the participants. At baseline, ACTH was not significantly higher (p = 0.052) in participants with higher blood Pb concentration, but CORT was significantly lower in these participants (p = 0.016). Adjusted linear regression models indicated a positive association between blood and bone Pb and the increase in ACTH in response to stress. However, Pb was not strongly associated with changes in CORT in response to stress. Pb was also associated with the ACTH:CORT ratio at baseline and throughout the course of the protocol, suggesting an adrenal hyporesponsiveness in participants with higher Pb concentrations. Conclusion: The altered HPA-axis stress response observed in participants exposed to higher levels of Pb further supports the idea that lead may contribute to a host of biological dysfunctions beyond the classical neurotoxic effects.

Fortin, Marie C.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Nwankwo, Chizoba; Yanger, T. Steven; Todd, Andrew C.; Moynihan, Jan; Walton, James; Brooks, Andrew



Hair as a retrospective calendar of cortisol production-Increased cortisol incorporation into hair in the third trimester of pregnancy.  


Hair has long been used in toxicology, forensic science, doping control and other fields as a biological specimen for the detection of environmental agents, drugs, or toxins. Most recent evidence suggests that also hormones are incorporated and trapped inside the growing hair. This has led to the hypothesis that cortisol measurement of distinct hair segments could provide a retrospective calendar of cortisol production for the individual. In this first proof-of-concept study in humans, we analyzed cortisol in hair donated by mothers with a neonate child (n-Mothers; N=103), mothers with toddlers 3-9 months of age (t-Mothers; N=19), and control women (N=20). We cut hair strands from each women into at least three 3-cm segments, which, based on an average hair growth rate of 1cm per month, would represent hair grown over the past three, six, and nine months, respectively. Since in the third trimester of pregnancy there is a well-documented increased production of cortisol, we expected to see elevated levels of cortisol in the most proximal hair segment of women who had just given birth to a child (n-Mothers) compared with the control women. Likewise, we expected to see elevated levels in the second, third, or fourth segment of mothers of 3-month olds, 6-months olds, and 9-months olds, respectively. These hair segments, cut at 4-12 cm from the scalp, would represent hair grown throughout the third trimester of pregnancy. Results showed that there was a strong monotonic decline in cortisol concentration from the segment closest to the scalp to the most distal hair segment (p<0.0001). Cortisol levels decreased by 30-40% from one segment to the next for the most recent four hair segments. Segments from hair older than one year had similarly, low levels of cortisol. Comparisons of cortisol levels in hair between n-Mothers and control women yielded the expected results: cortisol levels in the first 3-cm hair segment (i.e., closest to the scalp) of n-Mothers were two-fold higher than in controls (p<0.0001), probably reflecting increased cortisol levels throughout the third trimester of pregnancy. No differences in cortisol content were apparent for the second or third 3-cm segments in n-Mothers (p>0.2). When hair from mothers with 6-9 months old toddlers was analyzed, the hair segment representing the third trimester period contained the same amount of cortisol as the hair grown more recently in mothers with 3-4 months old toddlers only. Age of the women, hair curvature, hair color, and frequency of hair washes per week were unrelated to cortisol levels. We conclude that cortisol measured in human hair can be a valid reflection of increased cortisol production for a period of up to six months. Due to a rapid decline of cortisol levels in human adult hair, a retrospective calendar of cortisol exposure may be limited to the past six months. PMID:18947933

Kirschbaum, Clemens; Tietze, Antje; Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia



[Depression of cortisol secretion with dexamethasone in healthy persons].  


1. Cortisol secretion inhibition in 70 healthy individuals was followed-up, after the peroral application of dexametason 2,5 mg/24. Plasma cortisol, with initial values of 18,8 +/- 0,64 mkg/100 ml was inhibited to 5,7 +/- 0,21 mkg/100 ml. The decrease is with 69,7 per cent of the basic level. 2. The indices for normal values were drawn as well as a positive hormonal response to dexametason: initial level between 6,3 and 29,4 mkg/100 ml, cortisol decrease at least with 4,8 mkg/100 ml plasma and the plasma cortisol level after 2,5 mg dexametason--under 9,9 mkg/100 ml. 3. In case of hormonal response absence to dexametason those three indices were not observed. The hormonal response is disturbed if the decrease is under 4,8 mkg/100 ml or the inhibitory level does not reach the values under 9,9 mkg/100 ml plasma. PMID:1189401

Kolebinov, N Kh; Ankov, V K; Belovezhdov, N I



What Does Their Saliva Say? Salivary Cortisol Levels in Children Exposed to Severe Stressors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stress is an unavoidable aspect of the human experience. When the brain interprets a situation as stressful, it triggers the release of a hormone called cortisol that acts as a catalyst of the body's "fight or flight" response system. In small amounts this hormone can provide the body with the necessary tools to escape a stressful situation.…

McCabe, Paul C.; Schneider, Marissa



What Does Their Saliva Say? Salivary Cortisol Levels in Children Exposed to Severe Stressors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stress is an unavoidable aspect of the human experience. When the brain interprets a situation as stressful, it triggers the release of a hormone called cortisol that acts as a catalyst of the body's "fight or flight" response system. In small amounts this hormone can provide the body with the necessary tools to escape a stressful situation.…

McCabe, Paul C.; Schneider, Marissa



Chromosome 10: gene which creates cortisol, Matt RidleySite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Matt Ridley DNAi Location:Genome>tour>genome spots>Stress genes Location: chromosome 10 gene name: CYP17 The gene CYP17, located on chromosome 10, is responsible for making an enzyme that converts cholesterol into several different hormones. One of these hormones, cortisol, turns genes on or off to regulate our physical responses to stressful situations.



Gene array and real time PCR analysis of the adrenal sensitivity to adrenocorticotropic hormone in pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Variability in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been shown to be influenced by genetic factors and related to great metabolic differences such as obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate molecular bases of genetic variability of the adrenal sensitivity to ACTH, a major source of variability, in Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs, MS being reported

Dominique Hazard; Laurence Liaubet; Magali SanCristobal; Pierre Mormède



Effects of Divalent Cations and of a Calcimimetic on Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Release in Pituitary Tumor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), a member of the G-protein coupled receptor family, is expressed on a variety of cell types and responds to extracellular calcium. We have characterized pharmacological properties of (±)NPS 568, a calcimimetic, toward cloned rat brain extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and constitutive mouse CaSR in AtT-20 cells. In the

Sandrine Ferry; Bruno Chatel; Robert H. Dodd; Christine Lair; Danielle Gully; Jean-Pierre Maffrand; Martial Ruat



Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome caused by a carcinoid tumor of the thymus. A case report.  


Ectopic ACTH secretion accounts for less that 10% of all causes of endogenous Cushing's syndrome. Carcinoids are rare thymic tumors, and when associated with ACTH hypersecretion display local or distant aggressive behavior. A 32-year-old woman was admitted to the Endocrinology Unit for obesity, moon face, facial hirsutism, hyperpigmentation, and secondary amenorrhea. Laboratory test confirmed the hypercortisolism and excess ACTH, while dexamethasone suppressive test was negative. Thorax computed tomography (CT) showed an antero-superior mediastinal tumor invading the pericardium and left mediastinal pleura. A complete resection through median sternotomy of the tumor, pericardium and left mediastinal pleura was performed. After a one-year symptom-free period, hypercortisolism recurred, confirmed by laboratory findings. Although no signs of local recurrence were seen on thorax CT, left internal mammary lymph nodes involvement and vertebral body metastases at C7 and LI were found. Refractory electrolyte disturbances could not be corrected resulting in severe cardiac arrhythmia and death from cardiac arrest. The reported case draws attention on the aggressiveness of ACTH-secralso due to the refractory electrolyte disturbances with fatal outcome. PMID:21870729

Ionescu, Lidia; D?nil?, R; Ungureanu, Christina; Vulpoi, Carmen; Ciobanu, Delia; Stef?nescu, Cipriana; Fotea, V; Negru, D


Effects of exogenous cortisol on the GH/IGF-I/IGFBP network in channel catfish.  


Glucocorticoids are known to hinder somatic growth in a number of vertebrate species. In order to better understand the mechanisms through which they may act in channel catfish, we examined the effects of feeding cortisol on the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) network. Fish (30.6+/-3.0 g) were fed once daily for 4 weeks and treatments included: (1) High-cortisol (dietary cortisol provided at 400 mg/kg feed), (2) Low-cortisol (dietary cortisol provided at 200 mg/kg feed), and (3) Control (commercial catfish feed). Fish fed diets with cortisol weighed approximately 50% less than Controls. Feed intake was reduced by approximately 30% in both treatments of cortisol fed fish compared to Controls. A approximately 20-kDa IGFBP was observed in plasma from High- and Low-treated fish while it was not detected in Control fish plasma. High-cortisol treatment increased pituitary GH mRNA expression approximately 10-fold while liver IGF-I mRNA expression was not different between cortisol-treated fish and Controls. Cortisol treatments decreased plasma levels of IGF-I. These data indicate that feeding cortisol for 4 weeks reduces weight gain, feed intake, and plasma levels of IGF-I and induces a approximately 20-kDa IGFBP. One mechanism through which cortisol may impede growth of catfish is through an increase in a low molecular weight IGFBP which may lead to inhibitory effects on the action of IGF-I. PMID:15826774

Peterson, Brian C; Small, Brian C



Endogenous testosterone and cortisol jointly influence reactive aggression in women.  


The dual-hormone hypothesis posits that the effect of testosterone on social behavior is moderated by cortisol. The present study tested this hypothesis with a competitive reactive aggression paradigm in 53 healthy undergraduate women. Salivary cortisol and testosterone were assessed at baseline. Participants were personally insulted and subsequently given the opportunity to retaliate by administering blasts of white noise to the provocateur. Participants were randomly assigned to win or lose the aggressive competition. Basal testosterone positively predicted reactive aggression and state dominance, but only among participants with high concentrations of basal cortisol. The corresponding, reverse pattern was found for state submissiveness. Winners also had higher concentrations of testosterone than losers following the aggressive competition. We discuss the role of heightened reactivity to social provocation as a possible explanation for these effects. PMID:22854014

Denson, Thomas F; Mehta, Pranjal H; Ho Tan, Daniela



Maternal trait anxiety, emotional distress, and salivary cortisol in pregnancy.  


Animal models suggest that stress-induced hormonal changes in the mother during pregnancy lead to enduring changes in the fetus and empirical links between prenatal maternal stress and negative child development have been discerned repeatedly in human studies. But the role of heritable personality traits has received little attention in the latter work. The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between maternal personality, psychological measures of maternal distress and maternal salivary cortisol during pregnancy. Maternal reports of personality (16 PF) and stress-related psychological measures (depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived stress, negative life events) as well as salivary cortisol samples of 66 healthy pregnant women were collected in early and late pregnancy. Maternal trait anxiety proved related to all stress-related psychological measures and high anxiety predicted low baseline cortisol awakening levels in early pregnancy. Maternal trait anxiety is related to both psychological and biological stress measures during pregnancy. PMID:20026376

Pluess, Michael; Bolten, Margarete; Pirke, Karl-Martin; Hellhammer, Dirk



Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high-intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period.  


Abstract This study examined salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to two, different high-intensity, ?30-min cycles separated by 2 h rest before and after an 11-day intensified training period. Twelve recreationally active, healthy males completed the study. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after and 30 min after both bouts with salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations assessed. Compared with pre-training blunted exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone responses to both bouts post-training were observed (P < 0.05 for all). Comparing pre- with post-training the absolute exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone decreased from 11.1 to 3.1 and 7.0 to 4.4 nmol · L(-1) (cortisol), from 407 to 258 and from 473 to 274 pmol · L(-1) (testosterone) and from 12 to 4 and 7 to 5 (cortisol/testosterone) for the first and second bouts, respectively (P < 0.05). No differences in the pre- and post-training rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) responses during the cycles or times to fatigue were found (P > 0.05). Fatigue and Burnout scores were higher post- compared with pre-training (P < 0.05). These high-intensity exercise bouts can detect altered hormonal responses following intensified training. This test could assess an athlete's current hormonal status, reductions in salivary cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue. PMID:23710973

Hough, John; Corney, Robert; Kouris, Antonios; Gleeson, Michael



Salivary alpha-amylase, cortisol and chromogranin A responses to a lecture: impact of sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to (1) examine the presence of stress on professors when they teach in front of 200 students and\\u000a analyse objectively such stress using biomarkers such as salivary cortisol, chromogranin A (CgA) and alpha-amylase (AA) (2)\\u000a investigate whether sex affects the reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol concentrations and the interaction\\u000a of both hormonal

Edith Filaire; B. Dreux; A. Massart; B. Nourrit; L. M. Rama; A. Teixeira



Exogenous cortisol facilitates responses to social threat under high provocation.  


Stress is one of the most important promoters of aggression. Human and animal studies have found associations between basal and acute levels of the stress hormone cortisol and (abnormal) aggression. Irrespective of the direction of these changes--i.e., increased or decreased aggressive behavior--the results of these studies suggest dramatic alterations in the processing of threat-related social information. Therefore, the effects of cortisol and provocation on social information processing were addressed by the present study. After a placebo-controlled pharmacological manipulation of acute cortisol levels, we exposed healthy individuals to high or low levels of provocation in a competitive aggression paradigm. Influences of cortisol and provocation on emotional face processing were then investigated with reaction times and event-related potentials (ERPs) in an emotional Stroop task. In line with previous results, enhanced early and later positive, posterior ERP components indicated a provocation-induced enhanced relevance for all kinds of social information. Cortisol, however, reduced an early frontocentral bias for angry faces and--despite the provocation-enhancing relevance--led to faster reactions for all facial expressions in highly provoked participants. The results thus support the moderating role of social information processing in the 'vicious circle of stress and aggression'. PMID:21199658

Bertsch, Katja; Böhnke, Robina; Kruk, Menno R; Richter, Steffen; Naumann, Ewald



Acute cortisol release during stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy to an ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma.  


A 33-year old male was diagnosed with Cushing's disease due to a large and invasive ACTH-secreting macroadenoma. After surgical failure ketoconazole therapy was initiated to control cortisol hypersecretion and his symptoms. He was referred to radiotherapy, and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in 30 fractions was delivered. After 12 daily fractions of radiotherapy the urinary cortisol release increased abruptly together with clinical deterioration. The daily ketoconazole dose was increased, and 10 days after concluding radiotherapy his urinary cortisol returned to normal values. Hormonal remission was observed less than 1 year following radiotherapy. PMID:21556812

Shimon, I; Manisterski, Y; Kanner, A A



Relationship between social rank and cortisol and testosterone concentrations in male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).  


In nonhuman primate social groups, biological differences related to social status have proven useful for investigating the mechanisms of sensitivity to various disease states. Physiological and neurobiological differences between dominant and subordinate monkeys have been interpreted in the context of chronic social stress. The present experiments were designed to investigate the relationships between basal cortisol and testosterone concentrations and the establishment and maintenance of the social hierarchy in male cynomolgus monkeys. Cortisol concentrations were measured at baseline and following suppression with dexamethasone (DEX) and subsequent administration of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) while monkeys were individually housed (n = 20) and after 3 months of social housing (n = 4/group), by which time dominance hierarchies had stabilised. Cortisol was also measured during the initial 3 days of social housing. Neither pre-social housing hormone concentrations, nor hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis sensitivity predicted eventual social rank. During initial social housing, cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in monkeys that eventually became subordinate; this effect dissipated within 3 days. During the 12 weeks of social housing, aggressive and submissive behaviours were observed consistently, forming the basis for assignment of social ranks. At this time, basal testosterone and cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in dominant monkeys and, after DEX suppression, cortisol release in response to a challenge injection of ACTH was significantly greater in subordinates. These results indicate that basal cortisol and testosterone concentrations and HPA axis function are state variables that differentially reflect position in the dominance hierarchy, rather than trait variables that predict future social status. PMID:19094095

Czoty, P W; Gould, R W; Nader, M A



A short note on how tied fights affect cortisol levels.  


Previous work exploring the interrelationships between sex steroids (e.g. androgens, testosterones and 11-ketotestosterones) and social behavior in teleosts suggest that mirror-elicited aggression in cichlid fish may not trigger a hormonal response. Using the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) to analyze immune responses as a result of social stress, we measured levels of cortisol and melatonin using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) assays. In this work, we demonstrated that cortisol concentrations are significantly lower yet the levels of melatonin remain unchanged in tilapia that are fighting their mirror image. Our results suggested that in tied fights, certain hormone levels remain unchanged (e.g. androgens) due to the lack of melatonin induction. PMID:24020471

Cooper, Edwin L; Ngo, Kathy T



Seasonal rhythms of salivary cortisol secretion in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).  


Salivary cortisol has been recently used to assess welfare of captive and free-ranging animals. However, rhythms of cortisol secretion may vary annually and thus, it is necessary to take into account these rhythms when evaluating the physiological significance of fluctuations of this hormone throughout the year as stress indicator in animals. Here, we analyze monthly differences in cortisol secretion in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) during a year. Saliva samples of eight adult female Asian elephants were collected and analyzed using Radioimmunoassay. Results revealed an overall seasonal pattern of salivary cortisol secretion and significant differences in cortisol concentration among months were found. Overall, the highest cortisol levels were recorded in October, and then decreased until reaching the lowest concentration in April. However, some individual variations were found respect this annual overall trend. The occurrence of this annual pattern of cortisol secretion should be taken into account when using cortisol as a tool to assess animal welfare in captive animal at zoological parks, as well as it opens new questions to further analyze this pattern and its variations, as well as the endogenous mechanisms controlling it. PMID:22366473

Menargues Marcilla, Asunción; Urios, Vicente; Limiñana, Rubén



The increase of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the plasma of chronic fatigue syndrome patients  

PubMed Central

Background Despite extensive research, no reliable biological marker for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has yet been identified. However, hyperactivation of melanotrophs in the pituitary gland and increased levels of plasma alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) have recently been detected in an animal model of chronic stress. Because CFS is considered to be caused partly by chronic stress events, increased ?-MSH plasma levels may also occur in CFS patients. We therefore examined ?-MSH levels in CFS patients. Methods Fifty-five CFS patients, who were previously diagnosed within 10 years of with the disease, were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy volunteers were studied as controls. Fasting bloods samples were collected in the morning and evaluated for their plasma levels of ?-MSH, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S). Mean levels of ?-MSH were compared between the CFS and control groups using Welch's t test. Results The mean plasma ?-MSH concentration in the CFS group (17.9 ± 1.0 pg/mL) was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (14.5 ± 1.0 pg/mL, p = 0.02). However, there was a wide range of values in the CFS group. The factors correlated with the plasma ?-MSH values were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation. A negative correlation was found between the duration of the CFS and the plasma ?-MSH values (p = 0.04, rs = -0.28), but no correlations with ACTH, cortisol or DHEA-S levels were identified (p = 0.55, 0.26, 0.33, respectively). The CFS patients were divided into two groups: patients diagnosed for ? 5 years' duration, and those diagnosed for 5-10 years' duration. They were compared with the healthy controls using one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests. The mean ?-MSH concentration in the ? 5 years group was 20.8 ± 1.2 pg/mL, which was significantly higher than that in the healthy controls (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the 5-10 year group (15.6 ± 1.4 pg/mL) and the healthy controls. Conclusions CFS patients with a disease duration of ? 5 years had significantly higher levels of ?-MSH in their peripheral blood. ?-MSH could be a potent biological marker for the diagnosis of CFS, at least during the first 5 years after onset of the disease.



Sex Hormone Studies by Radioimmunoassay in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women and in Women Treated with Hormonal Contraceptives. Final Report for the Period 1 December 1975-31 July 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurement...

C. A. Tafurt



Parotid Fluid Cortisol and Cortisone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concentrations of parotid fluid cortisol and cortisone, and of plasma dialyzable cortisol, were measured in normal men before and 2 hours after treatment with 40 units of ACTH, and also before and after 10 days of receiving 5 mg. of diethylstilbestrol dai...

F. H. Katz I. L. Shannon



Cushing’s disease  


... in which the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The pituitary gland is an organ of the ... brain. People with Cushing's disease have too much ACTH. ACTH stimulates the production and release of cortisol, ...


Detection of FITC-cortisol via modulated supraparticle lighthouses.  


Hormones are important bioactive compounds in blood and tissue that vary in concentration in response to stress and certain disease states. Establishing the changes in physiological hormone concentrations over time can lead to more effective diagnoses and perhaps a better understanding of the evolution of stress and disease. To monitor concentration over time, the sampling must be rapid and noninvasive; specimens such as saliva that require little effort to collect are preferred. However, more sensitive assay techniques are needed when compared to blood analysis since free hormone concentration in saliva is only a small fraction of the concentration in circulating blood. In this work, magnetic field-induced structures of paramagnetic particles are used as a solid substrate to demonstrate improved detection limits for a separation-free assay of cortisol. Once formed, the structures are subjected to a rotating magnetic field and this leads to two important features. First is the ability to utilize frequency and phase filtering (lock-in amplification) for the signal generated from surface-bound labeled species. Second is the improved mass transport of the antigen to the surface of the rotating structures. These two unique capabilities result in a quantifiable signal at a relatively low target antigen concentration. This method has been demonstrated with the detection of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled cortisol (FITC-cortisol) at a concentration of 300 pM. PMID:16503587

Petkus, Matthew M; McLauchlin, Melissa; Vuppu, Anil K; Rios, Lynnette; Garcia, Antonio A; Hayes, Mark A



Parotid fluid cortisol and cortisone  

PubMed Central

Parotid fluid corticosteroids, substantially comprised of cortisol and cortisone, were previously demonstrated to rise to far greater levels 4 hr after administration of ACTH than they did in the third trimester of pregnancy, although the plasma total corticosteroid concentrations were similar in these two states. It was therefore suggested that only nonproteinbound corticosteroid gains access to parotid fluid. In the present study parotid fluid cortisol and cortisone and plasma dialyzable cortisol concentrations have been measured in normal men before and 2 hr after 40 U ACTH, and, in another group, before and after 10 days of diethystilbestrol (5 mg daily). Total plasma cortisol rose from a mean of 6.3 to 17.9 ?g/100 ml after ACTH and from 14.6 to 39.4 mg/100 ml after the estrogen. However parotid fluid cortisol plus cortisone rose from 0.8 to 2.6 ?g/100 ml after ACTH and to only 2.2 after estrogen. This rise resembled that of the plasma dialyzable cortisol (control 0.4, ACTH 1.8, estrogen 1.2 ?g/100 ml) rather than the increase in total plasma cortisol which was over twice as high after estrogen as after ACTH. Thus parotid fluid corticosteroids seem to be a good measure of nonprotein-bound corticosteroid, the cortisol available to the cell. The total amount of cortisol plus cortisone excreted is approximately constant, independent of parotid fluid flow rate. Cortisone exceeds cortisol in parotid fluid in the basal state, but after ACTH the situation is reversed.

Katz, Fred H.; Shannon, Ira L.



Adrenocorticotropic stimulation and insulin inhibition of adipocyte phospholipid methylation.  


Treatment of isolated rat adipocytes with adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) caused a 1.5-fold increase in phospholipid methyltransferase activity within 5 min. This effect of ACTH was concentration-dependent with maximal activation at 2 milliunits/ml ACTH, and was reproduced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. ACTH (2 milliunits/ml) caused an increase in the Vmax value of phospholipid methyltransferase without changing the Km for S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Insulin caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of both control and ACTH-stimulated phospholipid methyltransferase. Half-maximal inhibition by insulin was demonstrated with 5 microunits/ml insulin in control cells and with 25 microunits/ml insulin in ACTH-stimulated cells. The rapid and sensitive activation of adipocyte phospholipid methyltransferase by ACTH and inhibition by insulin are consistent with a role for this pathway in the hormonal response of the adipocyte. PMID:2982871

Kelly, K L; Wong, E H; Jarett, L



Ecological momentary assessment of maternal cortisol profiles over a multiple-day period predict the length of human gestation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Biobehavioral models of prenatal stress highlight the importance of the stress-related hormone cortisol. However, the association between maternal cortisol levels and length of human gestation require further investigation because most previous studies have relied on one-time cortisol measures assessed at varying gestational ages. This study assessed whether ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of cortisol sampling improves the ability to predict the length of human gestation. In addition, associations between EMA based measures of psychological state (negative affect) with cortisol levels during pregnancy were assessed. METHODS Over a 4-day period, 25 healthy pregnant women (mean gestational age at assessment 23.4 ± 9.1 weeks) collected 7 salivary samples per day for assessment of cortisol and provided a rating of negative affect every waking hour using an electronic diary. RESULTS Higher salivary cortisol concentrations at awakening and throughout the day (p=.001) as well as a flatter cortisol response to awakening (p=.005) were associated with shorter length of gestation. Women delivering at 36 weeks gestations had 13% higher salivary cortisol levels at awakening than women delivering at 41 weeks gestation. The EMA-based measure of negative affect was associated with higher cortisol throughout the day (p=.006), but not to gestational length (p=.641). The one-time measure of cortisol was not associated with length of gestation, and traditional retrospective recall measures of negative affect were not associated with cortisol. CONCLUSION Our findings support the ecological validity of repeated ambulatory assessments of cortisol in pregnancy and their ability to improve the prediction of adverse birth outcomes.

Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Andersen, Judith; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Wadhwa, Pathik D.



Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.



Circadian pattern of hepatosomatic index, liver glycogen and lipid content, plasma non-esterified fatty acid, glucose, T 3 , T 4 , growth hormone and cortisol concentrations in Oncorhynchus mykiss held under different photoperiod regimes and fed using demand-feeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circadian patterns of several tissue and plasma metabolites, and several plasma hormone concentrations are described in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that were held in groups under three different photoperiod regimes, and given free access to a demand-feeder. Regardless of photoperiod regime, all the measured parameters showed significant diel rhythms that appeared to be synchronized by dawn; dawn was represented

T. Boujard; J. F. Leatherland



Diurnal cortisol rhythms among Latino immigrants in Oregon, USA.  


One of the most commonly used stress biomarkers is cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone released by the adrenal glands that is central to the physiological stress response. Free cortisol can be measured in saliva and has been the biomarker of choice in stress studies measuring the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Chronic psychosocial stress can lead to dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and results in an abnormal diurnal cortisol profile. Little is known about objectively measured stress and health in Latino populations in the United States, yet this is likely an important factor in understanding health disparities that exist between Latinos and whites. The present study was designed to measure cortisol profiles among Latino immigrant farmworkers in Oregon (USA), and to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of stress in this population. Our results indicate that there were no sex differences in average cortisol AUCg (area under the curve with respect to the ground) over two days (AvgAUCg; males = 1.38, females = 1.60; P = 0.415). AUCg1 (Day 1 AUCg) and AvgAUCg were significantly negatively associated with age in men (P<0.05). AUCg1 was negatively associated with weight (P<0.05), waist circumference (P<0.01) and waist-to-stature ratio (P<0.05) in women, which is opposite of the expected relationship between cortisol and waist-to-stature ratio, possibly indicating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. Among men, more time in the United States and immigration to the United States at older ages predicted greater AvgAUCg. Among women, higher lifestyle incongruity was significantly related to greater AvgAUCg. Although preliminary, these results suggest that chronic psychosocial stress plays an important role in health risk in this population. PMID:22738123

Squires, Erica C; McClure, Heather H; Martinez, Charles R; Eddy, J Mark; Jiménez, Roberto A; Isiordia, Laura E; Snodgrass, J Josh



Diurnal cortisol rhythms among Latino immigrants in Oregon, USA  

PubMed Central

One of the most commonly used stress biomarkers is cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone released by the adrenal glands that is central to the physiological stress response. Free cortisol can be measured in saliva and has been the biomarker of choice in stress studies measuring the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Chronic psychosocial stress can lead to dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and results in an abnormal diurnal cortisol profile. Little is known about objectively measured stress and health in Latino populations in the United States, yet this is likely an important factor in understanding health disparities that exist between Latinos and whites. The present study was designed to measure cortisol profiles among Latino immigrant farmworkers in Oregon (USA), and to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of stress in this population. Our results indicate that there were no sex differences in average cortisol AUCg (area under the curve with respect to the ground) over two days (AvgAUCg; males?=?1.38, females?=?1.60; P?=?0.415). AUCg1 (Day 1 AUCg) and AvgAUCg were significantly negatively associated with age in men (P<0.05). AUCg1 was negatively associated with weight (P<0.05), waist circumference (P<0.01) and waist-to-stature ratio (P<0.05) in women, which is opposite of the expected relationship between cortisol and waist-to-stature ratio, possibly indicating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. Among men, more time in the United States and immigration to the United States at older ages predicted greater AvgAUCg. Among women, higher lifestyle incongruity was significantly related to greater AvgAUCg. Although preliminary, these results suggest that chronic psychosocial stress plays an important role in health risk in this population.



The role of cytokines and cortisol in the non-thyroidal illness syndrome following acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A number of different hormone changes have been described during the acute myocardial infarction (AMI), including those of the non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). Design and methods: We assessed the alterations of serum thyroid hormones, cytokines and cortisol levels in 30 patients with a first episode of AMI 4, 24, 48 h and 10 days (240 h) after the onset

Helen Karga; Panayotis Papaioannou; Kyriaki Venetsanou; Fotini Papandroulaki; Lazaros Karaloizos; Garyphallia Papaioannou; Peter Papapetrou



Application of sensitive enzymeimmunoassay for determination of cortisol in blood plasma of yaks (Poephagus grunniens L.).  


As an alternative to radioimmunoassays, a simple, highly sensitive and quick enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for determination of cortisol in blood plasma of yaks on microtiterplates using second antibody coating technique and cortisol-horseradish peroxidase as a label has been developed. The wells of the microtiterplate were coated with affinity-purified goat IgG (antirabbit IgG) that binds the hormone specific antibody. The EIA was carried out directly in 20 microl of heat treated plasma after 1:5 dilution with PBS. The cortisol standard curve, with doses ranged from 0.4 to 100 pg/well. The sensitivity of the assay was 20 pg/ml. Cortisol standard curve in buffer showed parallelism with serially diluted yak plasma containing high endogenous cortisol. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) determined using pooled plasma was found 6.58 and 11.35%, respectively. Recovery of known concentrations of added cortisol in charcoal stripped plasma was linear (r = 0.98). For biological validation of cortisol enzymeimmunoassay, the blood samples were collected from yak cows at -48 and -24h before and 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 h after dexamethasone administration. The plasma cortisol before dexamethasone administration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than after dexamethasone administration. The developed EIA was further validated biologically by estimating cortisol in peri-parturient cows beginning day 10 prior to calving till day 10 post-calving; the concentrations were along with the expected lines as reported in bovine. In conclusion, the EIA developed in this study is simple, highly sensitive, valid and sufficiently reliable method for estimation of cortisol directly in bovine plasma. PMID:17655848

Sarkar, M; Das, B C; Bora, B Dutta; Kumar, Vijay; Mohan, Krishna; Meyer, H H D; Prakash, B S



Effects of Cortisol Administered through Slow-Release Implants on Innate Immune Responses in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  


Cortisol is a key hormone in the fish stress response with a well-known ability to regulate several physiological functions, including energy metabolism and the immune system. However, data concerning cortisol effects on fish innate immune system using a more controlled increase in cortisol levels isolated from any other stress related signaling is scarce. The present study describes the effect of doses of cortisol corresponding to acute and chronic levels on the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We also evaluated the effects of these cortisol levels (from intraperitoneally implanted hydrocortisone) on the mRNA levels quantified by RT-qPCR of selected key immune-related genes in the liver, head kidney, and spleen. For that purpose, 60 specimens of rainbow trout were divided in to two groups: a control group injected with a coconut oil implant and another group injected with the same implant and cortisol (50? ? g cortisol/g body weight). Our results demonstrate the role of cortisol as a modulator of the innate immune response without the direct contribution of other stress axes. Our results also show a relationship between the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma and mRNA levels in liver, supporting the important role of this organ in producing these immune system proteins after a rise of cortisol in the fish plasma. PMID:24073392

Cortés, R; Teles, M; Trídico, R; Acerete, L; Tort, L



Effects of Cortisol Administered through Slow-Release Implants on Innate Immune Responses in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

PubMed Central

Cortisol is a key hormone in the fish stress response with a well-known ability to regulate several physiological functions, including energy metabolism and the immune system. However, data concerning cortisol effects on fish innate immune system using a more controlled increase in cortisol levels isolated from any other stress related signaling is scarce. The present study describes the effect of doses of cortisol corresponding to acute and chronic levels on the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We also evaluated the effects of these cortisol levels (from intraperitoneally implanted hydrocortisone) on the mRNA levels quantified by RT-qPCR of selected key immune-related genes in the liver, head kidney, and spleen. For that purpose, 60 specimens of rainbow trout were divided in to two groups: a control group injected with a coconut oil implant and another group injected with the same implant and cortisol (50??g cortisol/g body weight). Our results demonstrate the role of cortisol as a modulator of the innate immune response without the direct contribution of other stress axes. Our results also show a relationship between the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma and mRNA levels in liver, supporting the important role of this organ in producing these immune system proteins after a rise of cortisol in the fish plasma.

Cortes, R.; Teles, M.; Tridico, R.; Acerete, L.; Tort, L.



Biosynthesis in vivo and excretion of cortisol by fish larvae.  


There is a posthatching rise in levels of endogenous cortisol during the ontogeny of those teleosts studied to date. This is thought to be the result of de novo synthesis of cortisol by the larvae, although there is no direct evidence for this. The present study aimed to demonstrate this process in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Larvae (4 days posthatching) were maintained for up to 12 hours in seawater containing [3H]17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts of the medium, before and after treatment with glucuronidase, indicates conversion of the precursor to several metabolites. One of these was identified as cortisol on the basis of its isopolarity with authentic standard in thin-layer chromatography, and confirmed by recrystallisation to constant specific activity. Immunohistochemistry on siblings shows that the interrenals are immunoreactive for adrenodoxin (adrenal ferredoxin) and cytochrome P-450(21) (steroid 21-monooxygenase [steroid, hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase, 21-hydroxylating]; EC, and the pituitary for adrenocorticotrophic hormone. These findings suggest that the pituitary-interrenal axis is functional even at this early stage, and are consistent with the hypothesis that the posthatching rise in endogenous cortisol levels is the result of de novo steroidogenesis. PMID:9097461

Sampath-Kumar, R; Lee, S T; Tan, C H; Munro, A D; Lam, T J



Stressful politics: voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States Presidential election.  


Social subordination can be biologically stressful; when mammals lose dominance contests they have acute increases in the stress hormone cortisol. However, human studies of the effect of dominance contest outcomes on cortisol changes have had inconsistent results. Moreover, human studies have been limited to face-to-face competitions and have heretofore never examined cortisol responses to shifts in political dominance hierarchies. The present study investigated voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States Presidential election. 183 participants at two research sites (Michigan and North Carolina) provided saliva samples at several time points before and after the announcement of the winner on Election Night. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure levels of cortisol in the saliva samples. In North Carolina, John McCain voters (losers) had increases in post-outcome cortisol levels, whereas Barack Obama voters (winners) had stable post-outcome cortisol levels. The present research provides novel evidence that societal shifts in political dominance can impact biological stress responses in voters whose political party becomes socio-politically subordinate. PMID:19962831

Stanton, Steven J; Labar, Kevin S; Saini, Ekjyot K; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Beehner, Jacinta C



Physiology of Urinary Cortisol Excretion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present study represents an attempt to define in greater detail the interrelationships between the concentration of cortisol, its binding by plasma protein and the renal mechanisms which appear to protect it from excessive loss. In normal subjects wit...

W. R. Beisel



Plasma cortisol levels and reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus in response to examination stress.  


In this study, we explored the possibility that glucocorticoid hormones, known to increase under stress, might be one component of the mechanism involved in induction of latent Epstein Barr virus (EBV). We obtained blood samples from 45 male medical students during examinations and approximately 3-4 weeks before the examinations (baseline) and measured antibody titers to EBV and plasma cortisol levels. We found reproducible changes in EBV, virus capsid antigen (VCA) antibody titers, with higher antibody titers observed in the examination blood samples consistent with the reactivation of latent virus. However, we found no evidence that day and night plasma cortisol values across the sampling points changed significantly from baseline to examinations. Therefore, academic stress did not elevate cortisol levels, but increases in EBV VCA antibody titers were still observed. The data suggest in these subjects that other neuropeptides or hormones were involved in the induction of latent EBV. PMID:7991763

Glaser, R; Pearl, D K; Kiecolt-Glaser, J K; Malarkey, W B



Basic psychological need satisfaction, stress-related appraisals, and dancers' cortisol and anxiety responses.  


Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) posits basic psychological need satisfaction (BPNS) as essential for optimal functioning and health. Grounded in this framework, the current study examined the role of BPNS in dancers' cognitive appraisals and hormonal and emotional responses to performance stress. Dancers reported their degree of BPNS 1 month before a solo performance. Threat and challenge appraisals of the solo were recorded 2 hr before the performance. Salivary cortisol and anxiety were measured 15 min before, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min postperformance. Higher BPNS was associated with lower cortisol responses and anxiety intensity. Challenge appraisals mediated the association between BPNS and cortisol. Threat appraisals mediated the BPNS-anxiety intensity relationship. These findings point to the potential importance of performers' BPNS for optimal emotional and hormonal homeostasis in performance conditions. PMID:22262707

Quested, Eleanor; Bosch, Jos A; Burns, Victoria E; Cumming, Jennifer; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L



Hormone levels  


Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...


Transient pituitary hypothyroidism in a patient with ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion.  


We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with hypercortisolism secondary to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion and severe non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) due to metastatic small cell lung carcinoma associated with severe infections. The patient initially showed hormonal profiles of pituitary hypothyroidism and gonadal hypofunction. After decrease in cortisol production following treatment with chemotherapy and metyrapone, serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations normalized. Study of the relative contributions of cortisol and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) to the overall variability in thyroid function tests disclosed a significant and independent effect of serum cortisol on serum TSH concentrations; the variability in free thyroid hormone concentration was explained only by changes in TSH concentration. These observations indicate that cortisol could be the major determinant of changes in serum TSH concentrations in clinical conditions accompanied by hypercortisolism, as occurs in NTIS. PMID:10817242

Rodríguez-Espinosa, J; Urgell, E; Montesinos, J; Domingo, P; Webb, S M




EPA Science Inventory

Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...


The modulatory role of cortisol on prolactin secretion in anestrus Iranian fat-tailed ewes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Release of prolactin, a milk-secreting hormone, is normally inhibited by the neurotransmitter dopamine. Numerous attempts\\u000a have been made to explain the effects of environmental stress on the level of prolactin, proposing a basic role for cortisol\\u000a in the modulation of the hormone secretion. The pharmacologic properties of antagonists in the release of prolactin, during\\u000a the anovulatory early postpartum period, were

Hamid Rajaian; Saeed Nazifi; Arash Bidadkosh; Tahereh Azimpour


Lipopolysaccharide-induced increases in porcine serum cortisol and progesterone concentrations are not mediated solely by prostaglandin F 2?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in steroid hormone blood levels in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) appears to be an important mechanism by which mammalian species regulate inflammation. This study examined changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2a (PGFM) in diestrous pigs following the intravenous injection of LPS and determined whether indomethacin would attenuate these changes. Serum cortisol and progesterone

R. Gregg Richards; Glen W. Almond



Stereotypic behavior and fecal cortisol level in captive giant pandas in relation to environmental enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotypic behavior is exhibited by a wide range of captive animals. Its association with hormones, especially elevated cortisol level and lack of naturalistic stimuli in the environment, has been little studied. This study hypothesizes that stereotypic behavior is caused by stress due to lack of appropriate, naturalistic stimuli in the environment. Using four adult pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in the Beijing

Juan Liu; Yue Chen; Liran Guo; Bo Gu; Hui Liu; Anyan Hou; Xuefeng Liu; Lixing Sun; Dingzhen Liu



Classroom Emotional Support Predicts Differences in Preschool Children's Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Accumulating evidence suggests children enrolled in full-time child care often display afternoon elevations of the hormone cortisol, which is an indicator of stress. Recent advances in immunoassays allow for measurement of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic sympathetic nervous system from saliva, and measurement…

Hatfield, Bridget E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; O'Brien, Marion



No effect of the cortisol-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone on alcohol drinking: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bases for this study were the theory of stress as a provoking factor for high alcohol consumption in human being and findings that the stress hormones stimulate ethanol intake in rats. We therefore investigated whether the cortisol-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone could reduce high alcohol consumption in socially stable subjects who reported drinking mainly for relaxation purposes. Most of the investigated

Matts Eriksson; Claudia Fahlke; Stefan Hansen; Ulf Berggren; Per Mårin; Jan Balldin



Seasonal and Social Correlates of Fecal Testosterone and Cortisol Levels in Wild Male Muriquis ( Brachyteles arachnoides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal testosterone and cortisol levels were analyzed from six wild male muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) over a 19-month period at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga in Minas Gerais, Brazil, to investigate the hormonal correlates of seasonal sexual behavior and environmental conditions. Group mean testosterone levels based on weekly samples from the six males did not differ between copulatory and noncopulatory periods

Karen B. Strier; Toni E. Ziegler; Daniel J. Wittwer



G-308A Polymorphism of the Tumor Necrosis Factor a Gene Promoter and Salivary Cortisol Secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current study was to examine the potential impact of the G3 A substitution at position 2308 of the tumor ne- crosis factor a (TNF-a) gene promoter on obesity and estimates of insulin, glucose, and lipid metabolism as well as circulating hormones including salivary cortisol in 284 unrelated Swedish men born in 1944. The subjects were genotyped




Sexy thoughts: Effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of

Katherine L. Goldey; Sari M. van Anders



The influence of temperament on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced secretion of epinephrine and cortisol in bulls.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The host's complex reaction to a pathogenic stressor involves interaction of the neural, endocrine, and immune systems. For example, exposure to bacteria stimulates secretion of the stress-related hormones, cortisol (CS) and epinephrine (Epi; 1). Innate and induced secretion of CS and Epi are influe...


Hormonal correlates of dominance in meerkats ( Suricata suricatta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cooperatively breeding meerkats (Suricata suricatta), individuals typically live in extended family groups in which the dominant male and female are the primary reproductives, while their offspring delay dispersal, seldom breed, and contribute to the care of subsequent litters. Here we investigate hormonal differences between dominants and subordinates by comparing plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and cortisol in

Anne A. Carlson; Andrew J. Young; Andrew F. Russell; Nigel C. Bennett; Alan S. McNeilly; Tim Clutton-Brocka



Cortisol Levels and Longitudinal Cortisol Change as Predictors of Anxiety in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although previous research has suggested cortisol-emotion relationships, little is known regarding the effect of anxiety type on cortisol levels or relationships between anxiety and longitudinal cortisol change in adolescents. The authors examine the differential relationship of cortisol levels with generalized and social anxiety and…

Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.



Evaluation of postmortem serum and cerebrospinal fluid growth hormone levels in relation to the cause of death in forensic autopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that postmortem serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were significantly lower in\\u000a cases of asphyxia and poisoning than in other groups, whereas ACTH levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were significantly\\u000a lower for hypothermia and hyperthermia. This study comparatively analyzed growth hormone (GH) levels in serum and CSF in relation\\u000a to cause of death in routine forensic

Takaki Ishikawa; Tomomi Michiue; Hitoshi Maeda



Stress hormone masculinizes female morphology and behaviour  

PubMed Central

Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function.

Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah



Stress hormone masculinizes female morphology and behaviour.  


Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:20659923

Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah



Negative Emotionality, Depressive Symptoms and Cortisol Diurnal Rhythms: Analysis of a Community Sample of Middle-Aged Males  

PubMed Central

Prior research suggests that individuals with particular personality traits, like negative emotionality, are at greater risk for adverse health outcomes. Despite bivariate associations between negative emotionality, depressive symptoms and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA axis), few studies have sought to understand the biological pathways through which negative emotionality, depressive symptomology and cortisol--one of the primary hormonal products of the HPA axis--are associated. The present study explored whether negative emotionality influenced cortisol dysregulation through current depressive symptomatology and whether negative emotionality served as a moderator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and cortisol. In the community-based Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging, 783 male twins completed two days of cortisol saliva sampling in their natural environments. Three measures of cortisol were analyzed: waking levels, the cortisol awakening response, and the peak to bed slope. Depressive symptoms significantly mediated the associations between negative emotionality and the peak to bed slope. A 2-way interaction between depressive symptoms and negative emotionality was significant for the peak to bed slope and for waking levels of cortisol. Exploration of the interactions illustrated that depressive symptoms only affected cortisol slopes at average or high levels of negative emotionality and only affected waking levels at low levels of negative emotionality. Negative emotionality and depressive symptoms were not related to the cortisol awakening response. This is the first study to find indirect associations between negative emotionality and peak to bed cortisol slopes through depressive symptoms. These findings illustrate the complex interplay between personality characteristics, depressive symptoms and different indices of the cortisol diurnal rhythm.

Doane, Leah D.; Franz, Carol E.; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Eaves, Lindon J.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Lupien, Sonia; Xian, Hong; Lyons, Michael J.; Kremen, William; Jacobson, Kristen C.



Hormonally mediated maternal effects shape offspring survival potential in stressful environments.  


In most egg-laying vertebrates, maternal responses to stressful conditions are translated into the release of glucocorticoid hormones such as cortisol, which are then transmitted to their developing embryos. Although such maternally transmitted hormonal resources have been shown to influence or even interfere with the optimal developmental trajectories of offspring in many taxa, their influence on the dynamics of wild fish populations remains largely unexplored. Here, we examined the extent to which simulated hormonally mediated maternal effects influence the development and early survival of the coral reef damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis. Concentrations of cortisol in the eggs were manipulated within naturally occurring limits by immersion. We found that the proportion of embryos that delayed hatching when exposed to high levels of cortisol was considerably lower than in the other two treatments (low cortisol dose and control). High cortisol levels in P. amboinensis eggs resulted in increased egg mortality and greater asymmetry in hatchlings. For embryos that successfully hatched, individuals from the elevated cortisol treatments (especially low dose) survived longer after hatching. Although individuals that originated from eggs with elevated cortisol levels survived longer after hatching, they may not gain an overall survival advantage. Our results suggest that subtle increases in the allocation of maternally derived hormones, such as cortisol, to offspring are a direct way for stressed mothers to endow their young with an immediate survival advantage. We propose that this immediate benefit outweighs the developmental costs which may be expressed as reduced fitness at later life stages. PMID:19352712

Gagliano, Monica; McCormick, Mark I



Seasonal levels of metabolic hormones and substrates in male and female reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal levels of cortisol, growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), glucose, triiodothyronine (T3), free T3, thyroxine and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured every 3 weeks for 54 weeks in the plasma of five adult bulls, and four barren and five pregnant Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) cows. Three consecutive samples were taken from each animal. Cortisol levels

George A. Bubenik; Dieter Schams; Robert G. White; Janice Rowell; John Blake; Ludek Bartos



Salivary cortisol and short and long-term memory for emotional faces in healthy young women.  


Elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol are associated with increased episodic memory for emotional events. Elevated levels of cortisol are also seen in anxiety and depression disorders. Because it is well documented how both depression and anxiety are related to valence-specific biases in attention and memory, the present study sought to establish relations between basal cortisol levels and episodic memory for neutral, positive and negative stimuli. Thirty-nine healthy young women performed an immediate recall and long-term (20 min) version of a task measuring spatial memory for neutral, happy and fearful faces. The sample as a whole showed a valence-specific better performance for happy faces than for neutral faces in the immediate recall condition, and a better performance for all emotional faces in the long-term condition. Salivary cortisol measures were found to be related to better memory for emotional faces in the long-term condition. This relation to cortisol was not valence-specific and is similar to effects predicted by a model on long-term consolidation and the influence of cortisol in this process. PMID:15177712

Putman, Peter; Van Honk, Jack; Kessels, Roy P C; Mulder, Martijn; Koppeschaar, Hans P F



Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers  

PubMed Central

The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW) and with irregular shift work (ISW) while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1) was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio). The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P < 0.001), severe stress (P < 0.05), and less sleep (P < 0.05) were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health.

Lindholm, Harri; Ahlberg, Jari; Sinisalo, Juha; Hublin, Christer; Hirvonen, Ari; Partinen, Markku; Sarna, Seppo; Savolainen, Aslak



Salivary concentrations of cortisol and testosterone and prediction of performance in a professional triathlon competition.  


The aim of this study was to examine salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations in professional male athletes during a short triathlon competition using non-invasive methods, and to determine whether these hormone concentrations could be accurate predictors of performance. Eight adult male athletes (age, mean ± SEM: 27.8 ± 3.2 years; body mass index: 21.66 ± 0.42) in a professional triathlon team volunteered to participate in this study. Saliva samples were taken on the competition day and 7 days after competition on a rest day. The performance of the athletes was assessed by their rank order in the competition. Salivary cortisol concentrations were greater on the competition day than on the rest day in the early morning, immediately after waking up, 30 min later, immediately before the start of the competition, and later in the evening. Testosterone concentrations were greater on the competition day in the morning and in the evening. The diurnal rhythm of both cortisol and testosterone concentrations was maintained on both days and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C ratio) was similar between days. The performance of the athletes was positively correlated with salivary cortisol concentration in the early morning of the competition day, but was not correlated with testosterone concentrations at any of the time points. In conclusion, early morning salivary cortisol concentration, but not T/C ratio, could be used to predict performance in athletes during a professional triathlon competition. PMID:22128832

Balthazar, Cláudio Heitor; Garcia, Marcia Carvalho; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia



Smelling a single component of male sweat alters levels of cortisol in women.  


Rodents use chemosignals to alter endocrine balance in conspecifics. Although responses to human sweat suggest a similar mechanism in humans, no particular component of human sweat capable of altering endocrine balance in conspecifics has yet been isolated and identified. Here, we measured salivary levels of the hormone cortisol in women after smelling pure androstadienone (4,16-androstadien-3-one), a molecule present in the sweat of men that has been suggested as a chemosignal in humans. We found that merely smelling androstadienone maintained significantly higher levels of the hormone cortisol in women. These results suggest that, like rodents, humans can influence the hormonal balance of conspecifics through chemosignals. Critically, this study identified a single component of sweat, androstadienone, as capable of exerting such influence. This result points to a potential role for synthetic human chemosignals in clinical applications. PMID:17287500

Wyart, Claire; Webster, Wallace W; Chen, Jonathan H; Wilson, Sarah R; McClary, Andrew; Khan, Rehan M; Sobel, Noam



Hair cortisol levels track phylogenetic and age related differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in non-human primates.  


Hair has been shown to archive a uniquely time averaged signal of endocrine activity, and holds attractive advantages for both laboratory and field research. Prior research has explored the potential of hair hormone analysis to examine hormone-behavior relationships. To date, no research has focused on the potential of the technique to investigate age-related changes or taxon differences in endocrine function. It is known that non-human primate infants of many taxa exhibit high cortisol levels after parturition, which rapidly decline with age. It has also been shown that hypercortisolism generally characterizes platyrrhine (New World monkey) endocrine function. These endocrine trends have been characterized using cortisol levels determined from serum, plasma, and feces. Here we test whether cortisol levels determined from hair recover similar phylogenetic and age related patterns in endocrine function in non-human primates. In order to test whether hair cortisol reflect infant hypercortisolism with significant age-related decline, hair cortisol levels are measured in samples from wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) and captive Guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio), ranging in age from infants through juveniles. Further, in order to test whether platyrrhines exhibit significantly higher hair cortisol levels compared to strepsirrhines and catarrhines, and therefore faithfully recover similar signals as more traditionally used substrates (e.g. serum), hair cortisol levels are quantified in adult female hair samples collected from a broad range of non-human primate taxa. Results confirm that hair cortisol levels accurately reflect known phylogenetic and age related patterns of circulating cortisol levels. Therefore, these results suggest that hair may be an ideal hormone bearing substrate for research focused on the examination of population endocrine profiles, cross-sectional studies of endocrine function and taxon variation in hormone levels, as well as stable behavioral trends. PMID:21893059

Fourie, Nicolaas H; Bernstein, Robin M



Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.  


Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (p<.001). Positive correlations between the cortisol concentration in the first hair segment and each indicator of training volume were found (all p<.01). These data suggest that repeated physical stress of intensive training and competitive races among endurance athletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research. PMID:21944954

Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens



Hormone Anabolic\\/Catabolic Balance in Female Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anabolic\\/catabolic hormone balance in 13 female endurance athletes was studied during basal conditions by comparing their serum concentrations of androgenic and catabolic steroids, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin with corresponding values in 15 matched sedentary controls. Higher cortisol and lower levels sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were found in the athletes, and these differences were enhanced

Caroline Lindholm; Angelica Linden Hirschberg; Kjell Carlström; Bo von Schoultz



Psychophysiological evidence for cortisol-induced reduction in early bias for implicit social threat in social phobia.  


The stress hormone cortisol is important for the regulation of social motivational processes. High cortisol levels have been associated with social fear and avoidance, which play an important role in social anxiety disorder (SAD), as does hypervigilant processing of social threat. However, causal effects of cortisol on threat processing in SAD remain unclear. In an event-related potential (ERP) study we investigated the effects of cortisol on task-irrelevant (implicit) processing of social threat in SAD, exploring the temporal dynamics as well as the role of symptom severity and stimulus awareness. Angry face processing was measured in participants with clinical SAD after double-blind, within-subject oral administration of cortisol (50mg) and placebo, using a masked and an unmasked emotional Stroop task. Both tasks showed significantly increased P2 midline ERP amplitudes for angry compared to neutral and happy faces in the placebo condition, reflecting an early attentional bias for social threat in SAD. Furthermore, cortisol administration significantly decreased P2 amplitudes for masked angry faces. This effect correlated with social anxiety, showing stronger decreases in patients with higher levels of social anxiety. These results indicate a highly specific effect of cortisol on early motivated attention to social threat and, together with previous findings, highlight the importance of motivational context (stimulus- or task-relevance) as well as symptom severity. PMID:19836898

van Peer, Jacobien M; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin



Examining Infants' Cortisol Responses to Laboratory Tasks Among Children Varying in Attachment Disorganization: Stress Reactivity or Return to Baseline?  

PubMed Central

Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the children's arrival at the laboratory and at 40, 65, and 80 min after arrival. The authors examined changes in cortisol using piecewise hierarchical linear modeling, testing whether observed increases reflected a return to baseline or stress reactivity. An interaction between attachment disorganization and task emerged, such that disorganized infants showed increases in cortisol in response to the stressor compared with play, whereas organized infants did not show cortisol reactivity to either task. Implications for the buffering effects of maternal care on stress reactivity are discussed.

Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary



Examining infants' cortisol responses to laboratory tasks among children varying in attachment disorganization: stress reactivity or return to baseline?  


Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the children's arrival at the laboratory and at 40, 65, and 80 min after arrival. The authors examined changes in cortisol using piecewise hierarchical linear modeling, testing whether observed increases reflected a return to baseline or stress reactivity. An interaction between attachment disorganization and task emerged, such that disorganized infants showed increases in cortisol in response to the stressor compared with play, whereas organized infants did not show cortisol reactivity to either task. Implications for the buffering effects of maternal care on stress reactivity are discussed. PMID:20873923

Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary



Children's hair cortisol as a biomarker of stress at school entry.  


Abstract Quantification of cortisol in scalp hair seems a promising measurement for long-term cortisol levels, and thereby a biomarker for stress. We examined hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in children when first entering elementary school. Participants were 42 children (45% boys) with a mean age of 4.2 years (SD?=?0.42 months). Hair samples (?5?cm) were collected 2 months after school entry. Hair analysis was conducted using two 2-cm long segments, reflecting the first 2 months of school attendance (the scalp-near segment) and 2 months prior to school entry. HCC were higher after school entry than before, especially for fearful children. Alterations in HCC were not moderated by experience in group daycare before school entry. Thus, HCC suggest that starting elementary school is accompanied by increased stress hormone levels in young (in particular fearful) children. PMID:23786528

Groeneveld, Marleen G; Vermeer, Harriet J; Linting, Mariëlle; Noppe, Gerard; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H



ACTH Response to a Low Dose but Not a High Dose of Bacterial Endotoxin in Rats Is Completely Mediated by Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experimental animals and humans, bacterial endotoxin activates the hypo-thalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The pathways by which endotoxin stimulates adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion are uncertain. In the present study we compared the role of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the activation of the HPA axis by a low (2.5 ?g\\/kg) and a high (2.5 mg\\/kg) dose of bacterial endotoxin.

Karel Schotanus; Gábor B. Makara; Fred J. H. Tilders; Frank BerkenboschTilders



Cortisol, DHEA, and testosterone concentrations in saliva in response to an international powerlifting competition.  


The purpose of this study was to examine salivary cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and testosterone responses to the bench press in an international powerlifting competition and to determine whether these salivary hormone concentrations could be used to predict performance. Twenty-six elite athletes (13 females and 13 males) provided saliva samples during the official weighing-in and after the last attempt at the bench press, as well as at baseline on a non-competition day. Performance index was determined with the Wilks formula, which adjusts powerlifting scores according to body mass. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly increased in all subjects after the bench press (p < 0.01), whereas DHEA concentrations were significantly increased in women (p < 0.01) but not in men after the bench press. No significant change in testosterone concentrations was observed during the experiment in either men or women, which resulted in a marked decrease in the testosterone/cortisol ratio. The performance index showed no significant correlation with any of the hormone responses to competition. In conclusion, despite the increase in stress adrenocortical hormone responses to an international powerlifting competition, these hormone concentrations alone are not predictors of bench press performance in elite powerlifting athletes. PMID:20666655

Le Panse, B; Vibarel-Rebot, N; Parage, G; Albrings, D; Amiot, V; De Ceaurriz, J; Collomp, K



HPLC-RIA analysis of the ectopic cortisol production in a cancerous pancreas tumor.  


Steroidal pathophysiology of a malignant, ACTH-producing pancreas tumor was investigated via HPLC-RIA determinations of intratissular concentrations of eleven main steroid hormones. The tumor specimen underwent extraction procedure with ethyl acetate and the extract was purified on a C18 minicolumn. Steroids were isolated by HPLC (C18-silica reversed phase stationary phase and methanol-water eluent system) and quantified by specific RIAs. Cortisol content of the tumor specimen was 15,700 pmol/g, the further steroid hormones were found in much lower concentrations (< 1.5-28 pmol/g). The extremely high cortisol concentration in the tissue witnesses the synthesis of the main glucocorticoid steroid in the ACTH-producing pancreas tumor and suggests a stimulating paracrine effect of ACTH on cortisol production. The present data verify that the determination of intratissular steroid concentrations by HPLC-RIA methods may identify even the most peculiar hormone sources and the hormone profiles facilitate studying pathophysiology of ectopic endocrine tumors. PMID:16828873

Szécsi, M; Tóth, I; Gardi, J; Vecsernyés, M; Németh, J; Julesz, J



Seasonal Changes in CRF-I and Urotensin I Transcript Levels in Masu Salmon: Correlation with Cortisol Secretion During Spawning  

PubMed Central

Pacific salmon employ a semelparous reproductive strategy where sexual maturation is followed by rapid senescence and death. Cortisol overproduction has been implicated as the central physiologic event responsible for the post-spawning demise of these fish. Cortisol homeostasis is regulated through the action of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. These include corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin-I (UI). In the present study, masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) were assayed for changes in the levels CRF-I and UI mRNA transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results were compared to plasma cortisol levels in juvenile, adult, and spawning masu salmon to identify specific regulatory factors that appear to be functionally associated with changes in cortisol levels. Intramuscular implantation of GnRH analog (GnRHa) capsules was also used to determine whether GnRH influences stress hormone levels. In both male and female masu salmon, spawning fish experienced a 5–7 fold increase in plasma cortisol levels relative to juvenile non-spawning salmon. Changes in CRF-I mRNA levels were characterized by 1–2 distinctive short-term surges in adult masu salmon. Conversely, seasonal changes in UI mRNA levels displayed broad and sustained increases during the pre-spawning and spawning periods. The increases in UI mRNA levels were positively correlated (R2 = 0.21 male and 0.26 female, p<0.0001) with levels of plasma cortisol in the pre-spawning and spawning periods. Despite the importance of GnRH in sexual maturation and reproduction, the administration of GnRHa to test animals failed to produce broad changes in CRF-I, UI or plasma cortisol levels. These findings suggest a more direct role for UI than for CRF-I in the regulation of cortisol levels in spawning Pacific salmon.

Westring, Christian G.; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Ueda, Hiroshi; Urano, Akihisa; Dores, Robert M.; Sher, Anna A.; Danielson, Phillip B.



Cortisol response to stress is associated with myocardial remodeling in salmonid fishes.  


Cardiac disease is frequently reported in farmed animals, and stress has been implicated as a factor for myocardial dysfunction in commercial fish rearing. Cortisol is a major stress hormone in teleosts, and this hormone has adverse effects on the myocardium. Strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) selected for divergent post-stress cortisol levels [high responsive (HR) and low responsive (LR)] have been established as a comparative model to examine how fish with contrasting stress-coping styles differ in their physiological and behavioral profiles. We show that the mean cardiosomatic index (CSI) of adult HR fish was 34% higher than in LR fish, mainly because of hypertrophy of the compact myocardium. To characterize the hypertrophy as physiological or pathological, we investigated specific cardiac markers at the transcriptional level. HR hearts had higher mRNA levels of cortisol receptors (MR, GR1 and GR2), increased RCAN1 levels [suggesting enhanced pro-hypertrophic nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) signaling] and increased VEGF gene expression (reflecting increased angiogenesis). Elevated collagen (Col1a2) expression and deposition in HR hearts supported enhanced fibrosis, whereas the heart failure markers ANP and BNP were not upregulated in HR hearts. To confirm our results outside the selection model, we investigated the effect of acute confinement stress in wild-type European brown trout, Salmo trutta. A positive correlation between post-stress cortisol levels and CSI was observed, supporting an association between enhanced cortisol response and myocardial remodeling. In conclusion, post-stress cortisol production correlates with myocardial remodeling, and coincides with several indicators of heart pathology, well-known from mammalian cardiology. PMID:21430209

Johansen, Ida B; Lunde, Ida G; Røsjø, Helge; Christensen, Geir; Nilsson, Göran E; Bakken, Morten; Overli, Oyvind



Low Calorie Dieting Increases Cortisol  

PubMed Central

Objective Prior research has demonstrated that dieting, or the restriction of caloric intake, does not lead to long-term weight loss. This study tested the hypothesis that dieting is ineffective because it increases chronic psychological stress and cortisol production – two factors that are known to cause weight gain. Further, this study examined the respective roles of the two main behaviors that comprise dieting – monitoring one’s caloric intake and restricting one’s caloric intake – on psychological and biological stress indicators. Methods In a 2 (monitoring vs. not) × 2 (restricting vs. not) fully crossed, controlled experiment, 121 female participants were randomly assigned to one of four dietary interventions for three weeks. The monitoring + restricting condition tracked their caloric intake and restricted their caloric intake (1200 kcal/day); the monitoring only condition tracked their caloric intake but ate normally; the restricting only condition was provided 1200 kcal/day of food but did not track their calories, and the control group ate normally and did not track their intake. Before and after the interventions, participants completed measures of perceived stress and two days of diurnal saliva sampling to test for cortisol. Results Restricting calories increased the total output of cortisol, and monitoring calories increased perceived stress. Conclusions Dieting may be deleterious to psychological well-being and biological functioning, and changes in clinical recommendations may be in order.

Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci; Vinas, Danielle; Hunger, Jeffrey M.; DeJager, Jill; Taylor, Shelley E.



Rapid and opposite effects of cortisol and estradiol on human erythrocyte NA +,K +-atpase activity: Relationship to steroid intercalation into the cell membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined whether two naturally occurring steroids, cortisol and 17?-estradiol (E2), can rapidly modulate the activity of an important membrane protein, human erythrocyte (RBC) Na+,K+-ATPase, an enzyme that does not bind either hormone directly. We also determined the membrane binding locations for cortisol and E2 and their effects on membrane molecular structure and fluidity. Direct application of both steroids to

Gil A. Golden; R. Preston Mason; Thomas N. Tulenko; George S. Zubenko; Robert T. Rubin



Diagnosis of secondary adrenal insufficiency in patients with hypothalamic-pituitarydisease: comparison between serum and salivary cortisol during the high-dose short synacthen test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Accurate assessment of adrenal function is essential in patients with hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) disease. The measurement of salivary cortisol (SaC) instead of serum cortisol (SeC) offers several advantages, such as the determination of the free hormone. We evaluated the diagnostic value of SeC and SaC both unstimulated and during a high-dose short synacthen test (HDT) in comparison to the

Timo Deutschbein; Nicole Unger; Klaus Mann; Stephan Petersenn


Synergistic effect of cortisol and HIV-1 envelope peptide on the NK activities of normal lymphocytes.  


In order to examine the potential role of stress hormones and circulating HIV-1-derived products in the progression of HIV infections, we developed an in vitro model system that investigates the effects of cortisol and HIV soluble gene products on the natural killer cell activity of normal lymphocytes. The system employs a 4-h 51Cr release assay and K562- and LAV-infected 8E5/LAV target cells. Direct addition of cortisol at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 microgram/ml or the HIV recombinant peptide, env-gag, at 1, 10, and 50 ng/ml separately to the mixture of effector and prelabeled target cells did not produce any significant immunoregulatory effects on NK cell activity against either target. However, cortisol or env-gag at concentrations that did not produce any inhibitory effect on NK activity when used separately, manifested significant inhibitory effects when added in combination. Suppression was evident at concentrations as low as 1 ng/ml of env-gag and 0.05 microgram/ml of cortisol and was observed at different effector:target cell ratios. Suppression was not caused by nonspecific toxicity of cortisol or HIV peptides when added in combination to the effector cells nor was due to decreased susceptibility of targets to lysis by effector cells. A non-HIV viral antigen (Rubeola virus) and another HIV-1 envelope-derived sequence (env 578-608 aa) were used as controls separately or in combination with cortisol and did not produce significant inhibition thus demonstrating the specificity of env-gag-induced inhibition. The synergistic inhibitory effect of cortisol- and HIV-derived soluble products in patients with HIV infections are consistent with a model that proposes that stress and circulating HIV-1-derived products may be involved in the progression of HIV infections. PMID:7620208

Nair, M P; Schwartz, S A



Aldosterone and cortisol affect the risk of sudden cardiac death in haemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Sudden cardiac death is common and accounts largely for the excess mortality of patients on maintenance dialysis. It is unknown whether aldosterone and cortisol increase the incidence of sudden cardiac death in dialysis patients. Methods and results We analysed data from 1255 diabetic haemodialysis patients participating in the German Diabetes and Dialysis Study (4D Study). Categories of aldosterone and cortisol were determined at baseline and patients were followed for a median of 4 years. By Cox regression analyses, hazard ratios (HRs) were determined for the effect of aldosterone, cortisol, and their combination on sudden death and other adjudicated cardiovascular outcomes. The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 8 years (54% male). Median aldosterone was <15 pg/mL (detection limit) and cortisol 16.8 µg/dL. Patients with aldosterone levels >200 pg/mL had a significantly higher risk of sudden death (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.69) compared with those with an aldosterone <15 pg/mL. The combined presence of high aldosterone (>200 pg/mL) and high cortisol (>21.1 µg/dL) levels increased the risk of sudden death in striking contrast to patients with low aldosterone (<15 pg/mL) and low cortisol (<13.2 µg/dL) levels (HR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.32–6.21). Furthermore, all-cause mortality was significantly increased in the patients with high levels of both hormones (HR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.01–2.62). Conclusions The joint presence of high aldosterone and high cortisol levels is strongly associated with sudden cardiac death as well as all-cause mortality in haemodialysed type 2 diabetic patients. Whether a blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor decreases the risk of sudden death in these patients must be examined in future trials.

Drechsler, Christiane; Ritz, Eberhard; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan; Schonfeld, Stephan; Blouin, Katja; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Hammer, Fabian; Krane, Vera; Marz, Winfried; Allolio, Bruno; Fassnacht, Martin; Wanner, Christoph



Carotid sinus nerve section and the increase in plasma cortisol during acute hypoxia in fetal sheep.  

PubMed Central

1. We studied the effects of acute isocapnic hypoxia on plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in sixteen sheep fetuses at 118-125 days of gestation (term is 147 days). Eight fetuses had their carotid sinus nerves cut (denervation); the remaining eight had these nerves left intact. 2. There were no differences in the plasma concentrations of ACTH or cortisol between intact and denervated fetuses during normoxia. 3. Whilst plasma cortisol increased in early (after 15 min) and late (after 45 min) hypoxia in intact fetuses, the rise in cortisol in denervated fetuses was delayed, increasing significantly only by late hypoxia. 4. In contrast, plasma ACTH concentrations were increased in early and late hypoxia in both intact and denervated fetuses. The rise was smaller in denervated fetuses, but was not significantly different from that in intact fetuses. 5. Our results indicate that, in the sheep fetus, carotid sinus nerve section delays the rise in plasma cortisol in response to acute hypoxia without affecting the ACTH response. Further work is needed to establish the mechanism underlying this effect of denervation.

Giussani, D A; McGarrigle, H H; Moore, P J; Bennet, L; Spencer, J A; Hanson, M A



Rate of decline of cortisol concentrations in ovarian follicles following ACTH treatment in the sow.  

PubMed Central

The rates of decline in cortisol concentrations in blood and ovarian follicular fluid were assessed in cyclic sows (n = 30) after treatment with saline or a depot form of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). After a single injection of ACTH (0.5 iu/kg, BW, i.m.), peak cortisol values were achieved in blood within 3 to 4 h followed by a half-life net clearance rate (t1/2 of 2.40 +/- 0.29 (SE) h. The same dose of ACTH was then given at 12 h intervals from days 9 to 13 of the estrous cycle. On day 14 the concentrations of cortisol in follicular fluid were higher (P < 0.05) in ACTH-injected sows than in saline-injected controls. A t1/2 value of 37.81 h was determined for cortisol based on the decline in concentrations in follicular fluid collected on days 14, 16 and 18. This relatively slow rate of removal from developing ovarian follicles may have implications for the previously observed detrimental effects of increased cortisol concentrations on follicular development.

Montgomery, A; Viveiros, M; Cummings, E; Liptrap, R



When endocrinology and democracy collide: emotions, cortisol and voting at national elections.  


Faced with stressful experiences, such as uncertainty or novelty, the adrenal glands secrete glucocorticoid hormones to help us cope with stress. Since many decision-making situations are stressful, there is reason to believe that voting is a stressful event. In this study, we asked voters in Israel's national election (N=113) to report on their general affective state immediately before entering the polling place using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and to provide us with a saliva sample through which we could evaluate their cortisol levels. Compared to a second sample of voters who reported their affective state on election night (N=70), we found that voters at the ballot box had higher positive and negative affect. Moreover, our voters at the polling place exhibited cortisol levels that were significantly higher than their own normal levels obtained on a similar day, and significantly higher than those of a second control group sampled the day after the elections (N=6). Our data demonstrate that elections are exciting, yet stressful events, and it is this stress, among other factors, that elevates the cortisol levels of voters. Since elevated cortisol has been found to affect memory consolidation, impair memory retrieval and lead to risk-seeking behavior, we discuss how these outcomes of elevated cortisol levels may affect voting in general and the field of electoral studies in particular. PMID:21482457

Waismel-Manor, Israel; Ifergane, Gal; Cohen, Hagit



Stress induced Salmonella Typhimurium recrudescence in pigs coincides with cortisol induced increased intracellular proliferation in macrophages  

PubMed Central

Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs often result in the development of carriers that intermittently excrete Salmonella in very low numbers. During periods of stress, for example transport to the slaughterhouse, recrudescence of Salmonella may occur, but the mechanism of this stress related recrudescence is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the role of the stress hormone cortisol in Salmonella recrudescence by pigs. We showed that a 24 h feed withdrawal increases the intestinal Salmonella Typhimurium load in pigs, which is correlated with increased serum cortisol levels. A second in vivo trial demonstrated that stress related recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs can be induced by intramuscular injection of dexamethasone. Furthermore, we found that cortisol, but not epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, promotes intracellular proliferation of Salmonella Typhimurium in primary porcine alveolar macrophages, but not in intestinal epithelial cells and a transformed cell line of porcine alveolar macrophages. A microarray based transcriptomic analysis revealed that cortisol did not directly affect the growth or the gene expression or Salmonella Typhimurium in a rich medium, which implies that the enhanced intracellular proliferation of the bacterium is probably caused by an indirect effect through the cell. These results highlight the role of cortisol in the recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium by pigs and they provide new evidence for the role of microbial endocrinology in host-pathogen interactions.



Detection of cortisol in saliva with a flow-filtered, portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor system  

PubMed Central

Saliva provides a useful and non-invasive alternative to blood for many biomedical diagnostic assays. The level of the hormone cortisol in blood and saliva is related to the level of stress. We present here the development of a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor system for detection of cortisol in saliva. Cortisol-specific monoclonal antibodies were used to develop a competition assay with a 6-channel portable SPR biosensor designed in our laboratory. The detection limit of cortisol in laboratory buffers was 0.36 ng/ml (1.0 nM). An in-line filter based on diffusion through a hollow fiber hydrophilic membrane served to separate small molecules from the complex macromolecular matrix of saliva prior to introduction to the sensor surface. The filtering flow cell provided in-line separation of small molecules from salivary mucins and other large molecules with only a 29% reduction of signal compared with direct flow of the same concentration of analyte over the sensor surface. A standard curve for detection of cortisol in saliva was generated with a detection limit of 1.0 ng/ml (3.6 nM), sufficiently sensitive for clinical use. The system will also be useful for a wide range of applications where small molecular weight analytes are found in complex matrices.

Stevens, Richard C.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Near, Steve; Furlong, Clement E.



Depressive symptoms, cortisol, and cognition during human aging: the role of negative aging perceptions.  


Depressive symptoms and memory impairments are associated with heightened stress hormone levels during aging. A factor that is related to memory deficits during aging is internalized negative aging stereotypes; the idea people have about the process of aging. In this study, we assessed the associations between internalized negative aging stereotypes, depressive symptoms, subjective and objective memory assessments, and cortisol concentration among older adults. Forty older adults aged between 58 and 85 years (18 females and 22 males; mean age ± SD: 71.25 ± 8.80 years) were assessed in this study. Measures of internalized negative aging stereotypes, depressive symptoms, and both subjective and objective memory performance were assessed. Salivary samples were obtained for measurement of cortisol concentration. Stepwise linear regressions were executed in our main analyses. Internalized negative aging stereotypes were associated with increased depressive symptoms and subjective memory complaints. No significant differences were observed for objective memory performance, or cortisol concentration. Internalized negative aging stereotypes are associated with increased depressive symptomatology and subjective complaints of memory; however, they do not predict increased cortisol concentration nor objective memory performance during aging. These results indicate that the mechanism underlying the association between internalized negative aging stereotypes and cognitive impairments may not be related to dysregulations of cortisol secretion among older adults. PMID:21801079

Sindi, S; Juster, R P; Wan, N; Nair, N P V; Ying Kin, N; Lupien, S J



Sexually dimorphic secretion of cortisol but not catecholamines in response to an endotoxin challenge in beef cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was designed to determine the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge on secretion of the adrenal stress-related hormones cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in bull and heifer calves. Brahman calves (n = 12; 269 ± 11.7 kg) were randomly selected from the fall 2007 c...


Examining Infants' Cortisol Responses to Laboratory Tasks among Children Varying in Attachment Disorganization: Stress Reactivity or Return to Baseline?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the…

Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary



Physical exercise stimulates marked concomitant release of ?-endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in peripheral blood in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary ACTH and ?-endorphin have been evaluated by means of a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay in athletes reaching a status of physical stress. A concomitant marked increase of these 2 peptides has been recorded. The implications of this finding lead to the conclusion that stress stimulates the synthesis of the common precursor (31 K) in the pituitary.

F. Fraioli; C. Moretti; D. Paolucci; E. Alicicco; F. Crescenzi; G. Fortunio



[Changes in the duration of pauses between self-stimulations in response to cortisol].  


Intraperitoneal administration of glucocorticoid hormone cortisol (10 mg/kg) decelerated the self-stimulation (SS) frequency within 5-7 min. The maximal effect occurred within 10 to 20 min. Histograms of pauses duration between SS revealed a shift of mean values from 2.0-2.5 to 4-6 sec. A sharp increase of long pauses transformed chiefly mono- modal forms of control histograms into bimodal those under the hormonal effect. Behaviourally this was manifested by occurrence of burst type of SS responses when series of uninterrupted instrumental responses alternated with prolonged pauses between them. The data obtained are considered from the stand-point of systemic approach to analysis of organization of willed behaviour and role of cortisol in central mechanisms of positive reinforcement. PMID:3582695

Bely?, V P



Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: comparison to salivary cortisol.  


Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair cortisol provides a simple way to monitor total cortisol release over an extended period of time. Hair cortisol levels were determined from each trimester (15, 26 and 36 weeks gestation) and 3 months postpartum. Hair cortisol levels were compared to diurnal salivary cortisol collected over 3 days (3 times/day) at 14, 18, 23, 29, and 34 weeks gestational age and 6 weeks postpartum from 21 pregnant women. Both salivary and hair cortisol levels rose during pregnancy as expected. Hair cortisol and diurnal salivary cortisol area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were also correlated throughout pregnancy. Levels of cortisol in hair are a valid and useful tool to measure long-term cortisol activity. Hair cortisol avoids methodological problems associated with collection other cortisol measures such as plasma, urine, or saliva and is a reliable metric of HPA activity throughout pregnancy reflecting total cortisol release over an extended period. PMID:21397617

D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L; Ross, Randal G; Natvig, Crystal L; Laudenslager, Mark L



Novel Human Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Variant with Low Cortisol-Binding Affinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is the plasma transport pro- tein that regulates the access of glucocorticoid hormones to target cells. Genetic deficiencies of CBG are rare, and only a single human CBG variant (Trancortin Leuven) has been related so far to decreased cortisol-binding affinity. We report here on a 43-yr-old woman, re- ferred for chronic asthenia and hypotension, with repeatedly low



Relationships among training stress, mood and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate\\/cortisol ratio in female cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the effect of rapidly increased training volume and intensity on hormonal responses (salivary cortisol [C] and urinary dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate [DHEA-S]) and recovery-stress state perceived by 12 female cyclists. Over the 4-day experimental period, there was an average increase in training load of approximately 122% compared with that during the previous 12 days. Scores on subscales

Mikaël Bouget; Mathieu Rouveix; Odile Michaux; Jean-Marc Pequignot; Edith Filaire



Salivary cortisol levels and the cortisol response to dexamethasone before and after EMDR: a case report.  


Trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been shown to have lower basal cortisol levels in the urine, plasma, and saliva than in trauma survivors without PTSD, nontraumatized mentally ill, or healthy subjects. We report on a case study in which we measured pre- and post-Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment salivary cortisol levels and salivary cortisol response to 0.50 mg of dexamethasone in a 41-year-old female with chronic PTSD symptoms. Our goal was to determine whether symptom improvement following trauma-focused treatment (EMDR) is associated with changes in basal salivary cortisol or in the cortisol response to dexamethasone administration. Our findings show moderate symptom improvement, an increase in basal cortisol levels, and a more attenuated cortisol hypersuppression in response to the dexamethasone suppression test following EMDR treatment. These results suggest the potential utility of including neuroendocrine measures in the assessment of treatment outcome in PTSD. PMID:12455019

Heber, Ruth; Kellner, Michael; Yehuda, Rachel



Lactation and pregnancy in Iran. III. Hormonal factors.  


Lactation failure is common in urban areas of industrially developing countries, but little is known about its epidemiology and causality. The study reported here was undertaken to investigate the serum levels of some hormones other than prolactin that have been shown in animal studies to play a role in lactation, and to examine their relationship to adequacy of lactation and to nutritional and socioeconomic status in urban Iranian women. Serum levels of placental lactogen, growth hormone, cortisol, and thyroid hormones were measured under standard conditions in two groups of pregnant women from low and low middle socioeconomic areas of Teheran, 1 or 2 weeks before parturition and the latter three hormones again in the 3rd month postpartum. Significant differences were found in the biochemical parameters between socioeconomic groups. Hemoglobin and serum albumin values were lower and all the globulin fractions (except alpha 2 globulin during pregnancy), growth hormone and cortisol were higher in the low than the middle socioeconomic subjects, both during pregnancy and postpartum. The discrepancies between the socioeconomic groups were greater postpartum. Growth hormone level was significantly lower in subjects with adequate lactation than inadequate or ceased, and cortisol values show the same trend. No correlations were found between the measured parameters of nutritional status nor free thyroxine values and lactation adequacy. In view of the role of growth hormone and cortisol in stress and malnutrition and some evidence of a reciprocal relationship between growth hormone and prolactin, these hormones may be a link in the chain between the urban environment, malnutrition and lactation failure. PMID:433822

Geissler, C; Margen, S; Calloway, D H



A bioluminescent probe for salivary cortisol.  


Cortisol is a classical biomarker for the stress levels of human beings. We fabricated highly sensitive bioluminescent probes for salivary cortisol. The following strategies were contrived in the molecular design. Gaussia princeps luciferase (GLuc) was dissected into two fragments, between which an N-terminal-extended ligand binding domain of glucocorticoid receptor (GR HLBD), named Simgr4, was inserted. First, this unique single-chain probe was then situated downstream of a glucocorticoid response element (GRE) promoter in a reporter-gene system for constructing two ON-OFF switches for cortisol. Second, a circularly permutated (CP) variant of Simgr4 was formulated. The reporter-gene system exerted an improved signal-to-background (S/B) ratio of 8.5 to cortisol. Furthermore, a circularly permutated (CP) variant of Simgr4 exerted a 10× enhanced detection limit to cortisol and a long dynamic range from 10(-9) to 10(-6) M cortisol, covering all of the normal clinical ranges of serum, urine, and saliva. This optimized probe successfully determined daily fluctuations of salivary cortisol and the correlations with those by ELISA. This study is the first to investigate the contribution of the HLBD of a nuclear receptor and multiple ON-OFF switches for molecular probes and salivary cortisols. PMID:21838298

Kim, Sung Bae; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Torimura, Masaki



Effect of adrenal hormones on thyroid secretion and thyroid hormones on adrenal secretion in the sheep.  

PubMed Central

1. Previous work has shown that after stressful stimuli, sheep initially secrete increased amounts of thyroid hormone, at a time when adrenal secretion is also elevated. 2. This study was designed to evaluate (a) any short-term activation or inhibition of thyroid secretion by exogenous cortisol or ACTH administered in quantities comparable to those secreted after stress in sheep and (b) any short-term effect that exogenous thyroxine or triiodothyronine may have on the concentration of plasma cortisol in the sheep. 3. Thyroid activity was measured by determination of plasma protein bound 125I (PB125I) and total 125I in thyroid vein and mixed venous (jugular) blood. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine concentrations were measured by a competitive protein-binding assay at intervals for up to 5 hr after commencement of the experiment. 4. No evidence of an activation of thyroid secretion was found during cortisol or ACTH infusion, as monitored by thyroid vein PB125I. Similarly there was no evidence of any inhibition of thyroid function, as measured by continued secretion of thyroid hormones into thyroid vein blood. 5. No effect on plasma cortisol concentration due to thyroid hormone treatment was observed. 6. It was concluded that (a) elevated circulating corticosteroids in physiological concentrations have no short-term effects on thyroid activity in the sheep and (b) the short-term alterations in thyroid and adrenal cortical secretion observed during stress in the sheep could not be attributed to direct interaction of elevated thyroid hormone concentrations with adrenal cortical secretion.

Falconer, I R; Jacks, F



Affiliative and disciplinary behavior of human handlers during play with their dog affects cortisol concentrations in opposite directions.  


It has been shown that cortisol concentrations change characteristically in the course of agonistic interactions; our aim was to find out how a playful situation may affect concentrations of this hormone in the saliva. We studied dogs' behavior and the changes of cortisol concentrations in a play situation, where the dogs played with their handler for 3 min with a tug toy. In this experiment working dogs were divided into two groups by the type of their work, namely police dogs and border guard dogs. We found that the cortisol concentrations of old police dogs significantly increased, while the adult border guard dogs' hormone levels decreased, which shows that playing with the handler has an effect on both groups, but interestingly this effect was opposite. Behavior analysis showed differences only in the behavior of the human handlers during the play sessions, while the behavior analysis did not reveal significant differences in the two groups of dogs, except that old border guard dogs generally needed more time to begin playing than old police dogs. During the play sessions police officers were mainly disciplining their dogs, while the border guards were truly playing with them (including affiliative and affectionate behavior). Our results are in accordance with those of recent studies, which show that behaviors associated with control, authority or aggression increase cortisol concentrations, while play and affiliative behavior decrease cortisol levels. PMID:18353328

Horváth, Zsuzsánna; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Adám



Aphasia severity and salivary cortisol over time.  


The current study explored the complicated interplay between aphasia and the stress biomarker, cortisol, in left-hemisphere (LH) and right-hemisphere (RH) stroke patients. Nineteen LH patients and 12 RH patients began the study between one to six months post stroke and were followed for three months. During this time, language skills were assessed monthly while afternoon salivary cortisol samples were collected biweekly. The LH and RH groups showed improvements in language test scores over the course of three months; however, only naming skills in the RH group appeared to be associated with afternoon salivary cortisol levels. Furthermore, contradicting previous reports regarding laterality and cortisol regulation in humans, the current study found that both LH patients and RH patients exhibited similar afternoon salivary cortisol levels across all time points. PMID:22352852

Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S



Aphasia Severity and Salivary Cortisol over Time  

PubMed Central

The current study explored the complicated interplay between aphasia and the stress biomarker, cortisol, in left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) stroke patients. Nineteen LH patients and 12 RH patients began the study between one to six months post-stroke and were followed for three months. During this time, language skills were assessed monthly while afternoon salivary cortisol samples were collected biweekly. The LH and RH groups showed improvements in language test scores over the course of three months; however, only naming skills in the RH group appeared to be associated with afternoon salivary cortisol levels. Furthermore, contradicting previous reports regarding laterality and cortisol regulation in humans, the current study found that both LH patients and RH patients exhibited similar afternoon salivary cortisol levels across all time points.

Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S.



Effects of local anesthetics on experiential, physiologic and endocrine measures in healthy humans and on rat hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone release in vitro: clinical and psychobiologic implications.  


Local anesthetics, given i.v. to treat cardiac arrhythmias and for regional anesthesia, exert prominent central nervous system side effects, such as sensory distortions and mood changes. In experimental animals, these drugs activate limbic structures, such as the amygdala, that may coordinately regulate sensory processing, mood and pituitary hormone secretion during stress. Clinically relevant i.v. doses of the short-acting local anesthetic procaine were administered to 17 healthy volunteers and topographic electroencephalographic (EEG) spectra, stress-responsive neuroendocrine and cardiovascular parameters and sensory-cognitive and mood changes were examined. Because corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mimics the behavioral and physiologic responses to stress and activates limbic structures in experimental animals, the effects of procaine and lidocaine on immunoreactive CRH release from rat hypothalami in vitro were also explored. Procaine administration produced a dose-related increase in fast (21-50 Hz) EEG activity, a significant decrease in alpha EEG activity and dose-dependent increases in heart rate, systolic blood pressure and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol and prolactin secretion. Dose-dependent increases in sensory distortions involved virtually all modalities, particularly auditory, visual and somatosensory. Mood changes occurred in most subjects, including anxiety, euphoria and arousal. In vitro, procaine and lidocaine both produced significant dose-related increases in immunoreactive CRH release from rat hypothalami, maximal at 10(-6) M, that were blocked by carbamazepine, a limbic anticonvulsant used in the management of mood disorders. The electrophysiologic effects of procaine in these volunteers were analogous to local anesthetic effects in experimental animals and consistent with the activation of subcortical structures localized within the temporal lobe, such as the amygdala. The effects of procaine on stress-responsive neurohormones were similar to those of amygdala stimulation both in experimental animals and human subjects. The in vitro data suggested that procaine-induced pituitary-adrenal activation involves stimulation of hypothalamic CRH, although additional (e.g., limbic-hypothalamic) mechanisms may contribute in vivo. These data were compatible with a direct action of local anesthetics on limbic structures that might account for many of the central effects seen with the systemic use of these agents in clinical practice. PMID:8138967

Kling, M A; Gardner, D L; Calogero, A E; Coppola, R; Trettau, J; Kellner, C H; Lefter, L; Hart, M J; Cowdry, R W; Post, R M



Psychopathic personality traits and cortisol response to stress: the role of sex, type of stressor, and menstrual phase.  


Previous research indicates that psychopathic personality traits are associated with lower cortisol secretion in response to stress in men but not in women. The current study explored whether prior null results for women were related to the latency of the cortisol stress response to two different types of stressors. Additionally, accuracy of self-reported menstrual phase was explored via salivary progesterone levels. A mixed-sex sample of 145 participants characterized by high (36 men, 37 women) and low (34 men, 38 women) scores on a screening measure of psychopathic personality traits were randomly assigned to either a performance-based stressor task or a social rejection stressor task. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to task onset (baseline) and at 0, 20, 40, and 60 min post-stressor. Results indicated that both men and women characterized by psychopathic personality traits exhibited lower stress-induced cortisol levels to the performance-based task in comparison with controls at 20 min post-stressor. The social rejection task produced a cortisol response 20 min post-stressor in the male controls only. Removal of women with low progesterone from the analyses strengthened the psychopathy group differences. Results could suggest that deficient cortisol production in response to stress might be another important neurobiological feature associated with psychopathic traits, and that biological verification of menstrual phase is an important aspect to obtaining accurate cortisol results in women. PMID:20302872

O'Leary, Megan M; Taylor, Jeanette; Eckel, Lisa



Effects of oral prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone) on single-dose pharmacokinetics of oral prednisone and cortisol suppression in normal women.  


This study sought to determine effects of multiple dosing of prasterone (DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone) on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone and endogenous cortisol secretion. These drugs are likely to be coadministered to patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Fourteen normal women (ages 30.1 +/- 5.4 years) received single-dose oral prednisone (20 mg) before and after 200 mg/day of oral prasterone for one menstrual cycle (approximately 28 days). Identical assessments, timed to onset of menses, were conducted pretreatment (baseline) and at days 28 and 29 of prasterone treatment and included serum total and free prednisolone, prednisone, DHEA, DHEA-S (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), ACTH-stimulated cortisol, and sex hormones and 24-hour urine free cortisol. Pharmacokinetic parameters of prednisolone as assessed by Cmax, t 1/2, AUC, or serum protein binding were not affected by prasterone. The ACTH-stimulated plasma cortisol concentrations were mildly reduced, but 24-hour urinefree cortisol excretion was unchanged during prasterone administration. Serum androstenedione and testosterone increased, while no changes in serum estradiol or estrone occurred. The administration of 200 mg oral prasterone produced serum concentrations of DHEA and DHEA-S significantly greater than endogenous levels. Chronic dosing with 200 mg/day of prasterone did not alter either prednisolone pharmacokinetics or inhibition of cortisol secretion by prednisolone. PMID:11697752

Meno-Tetang, G M; Blum, R A; Schwartz, K E; Jusko, W J



Glucocorticoid stimulates expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in human placenta  

SciTech Connect

Primary cultures of purified human cytotrophoblasts have been used to examine the expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene in placenta. The authors report here that glucocorticoids stimulate placental CRH synthesis and secretion in primary cultures of human placenta. This stimulation is in contrast to the glucocorticoid suppression of CRH expression in hypothalamus. The positive regulation of CRH by glucocorticoids suggests that the rise in CRH preceding parturition could result from the previously described rise in fetal glucocorticoids. Furthermore, this increase in placental CRH could stimulate, via adrenocorticotropic hormone, a further rise in fetal glucocorticoids, completing a positive feedback loop that would be terminated by delivery.

Robinson, B.G.; Emanuel, R.L.; Frim, D.M.; Majzoub, J.A. (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))



Steroid Hormones and Uterine Vascular Adaptation to Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy is a physiological state that involves a significant decrease in uterine vascular tone and an increase in uterine blood flow, which is mediated in part by steroid hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of these hormones in the regulation of uterine artery contractility through signaling pathways specific to the endothelium and the vascular smooth muscle. Alterations in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity, nitric oxide production, and expression of enzymes involved in PGI2 production contribute to the uterine artery endothelium-specific responses. Steroid hormones also have an effect on calcium-activated potassium channel activity, PKC signaling pathway and myogenic tone, and alterations in pharmacomechanical coupling in the uterine artery smooth muscle. This review addresses current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which steroid hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol modulate uterine artery contractility to alter uterine blood flow during pregnancy with an emphasis on the pregnant ewe model.

Chang, Katherine; Zhang, Lubo



Substrate utilization and hormonal responses to moderate intensity exercise during pregnancy and after delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to examine substrate utilization and hormonal responses to moderate intensity exercise in the same group of women across gestation. Study design: Glucose, triglyceride, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, and blood urea nitrogen levels were measured in 12 women at rest and after exercise. Heart rate, oxygen uptake, and respiratory exchange ratio were measured at rest

Raymond C. Bessinger; Robert G. McMurray; Anthony C. Hackney



The role of hormones in the acclimation of fish to low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The known cases elucidating the role of hormones in the regulation of physiological and biochemical changes which occur when fish are acclimated to low temperatures are sparse, but evidence is accumulating to implicate prolactin, glucagon, insulin and perhaps thyroxine and cortisol in at least some of the physiological adjustments observed in some species. The need for further research on hormonal

Bruce L. Umminger



Psychoendocrinological Assessment of the Menstrual Cycle: The Relationship Between Hormones, Sexuality, and Mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of sex hormones in sexuality and mood across the menstrual cycle was investigated. Twenty-one normal healthy women were followed for one menstrual cycle. Blood samples were taken frequently, and analyzed for estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin. A diary concerning sexual interest and behavior, and different moods, was completed daily. Although the sample

Stephanie H. M. Van Goozen; Victor M. Wiegant; Erik Endert; Frans A. Helmond; Nanne E. Van de Poll



Non-breeding feather concentrations of testosterone, corticosterone and cortisol are associated with subsequent survival in wild house sparrows  

PubMed Central

Potential mechanistic mediators of Darwinian fitness, such as stress hormones or sex hormones, have been the focus of many studies. An inverse relationship between fitness and stress or sex hormone concentrations has been widely assumed, although empirical evidence is scarce. Feathers gradually accumulate hormones during their growth and provide a novel way to measure hormone concentrations integrated over time. Using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, we measured testosterone, corticosterone and cortisol in the feathers of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in a wild population which is the subject of a long-term study. Although corticosterone is considered the dominant avian glucocorticoid, we unambiguously identified cortisol in feathers. In addition, we found that feathers grown during the post-nuptial moult in autumn contained testosterone, corticosterone and cortisol levels that were significantly higher in birds that subsequently died over the following winter than in birds that survived. Thus, feather steroids are candidate prospective biomarkers to predict the future survival of individuals in the wild.

Koren, Lee; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry; Soma, Kiran K.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Geffen, Eli



Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol, plasma cortisol, and plasma ACTH in end-stage renal disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can display the features of endogenous hypercortisolism but are difficult to evaluate for Cushing's syndrome. We evaluated the circadian rhythm of plasma compared with salivary cortisol in subjects with ESRD. Design Plasma and salivary cortisol and plasma ACTH samples were drawn frequently over 24?h in an inpatient research unit in stable ESRD subjects on daytime chronic hemodialysis (n=16) vs controls (n=8). Methods Plasma cortisol was measured every 2?h from 0800 to 0600?h the following day. Salivary cortisol was measured every 2?h, except between 2400 and 0400?h (sleep time). Plasma ACTH measured in a subset of samples and C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured as a marker of a subclinical inflammatory state in all subjects. Results ESRD subjects had a discernable circadian rhythm in plasma and salivary cortisol, but with a significantly higher nadir (1800–2400?h) compared with the controls (P=0.016–<0.001). After excluding four ESRD subjects without a normal circadian rhythm, the ESRD subjects still had higher nadir plasma and salivary cortisol and plasma ACTH compared with controls. There was no difference in the correlation of salivary and plasma cortisol in control vs ESRD subjects. ESRD subjects had higher CRP levels compared with controls. Conclusions ESRD subjects had increased late-night plasma and salivary cortisol and plasma ACTH levels. Late-night salivary cortisol is a reliable index of plasma cortisol in ESRD patients.

Raff, Hershel; Trivedi, Hariprasad



Evaluation of a method to measure long term cortisol levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionElevated levels of cortisol are known to induce various symptoms and diseases, e.g. abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Measuring serum, saliva and urine cortisol is limited to one time point. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a recently developed method to measure long term cortisol levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether

Laura Manenschijn; Jan W. Koper; Steven W. J. Lamberts; Elisabeth F. C. van Rossum



Daily profile in two circadian markers "melatonin and cortisol" and associations with metabolic syndrome components.  


OBJETIVE: The aim of the present work was to investigate associations in circadian markers, melatonin (MT) and cortisol, with metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters, and with leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin plasma values. METHODS: The study was conducted in 70 women (mean age: 41±10years) that were classified without MetS (n=30) and with MetS (n=40). Blood collection, plasma separation and processing, and biochemical analyses for plasma lipids were performed. For measuring salivary melatonin, participants collected two samples. The first simple was obtained before lunch (at 14:00 p.m.) and the second sample was taken at night (3:00 a.m.). On a random working day, participants delivered repeated salivary cortisol samples. The first sample was obtained in the morning (09:00 a.m.), then before lunch at (14:00 p.m.), and finally just before bedtime (23:00 p.m.). RESULTS: Significant differences were found between the MT measurements taken at night in women without and with MetS. With respect to cortisol, significant differences were found in the different times cortisol levels toward a more flattened pattern among MetS women. Both parameters were positive correlated between them. Of note MT and cortisol night/morning ratios were associated with MetS score and metabolic syndrome components. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that diminished daily amplitude in MT and cortisol circadian patterns was associated with metabolic disturbances in blood pressure, glucose and plasma lipids regulation, ghrelin and adipocyte-secreted hormones such as leptin and adiponectin. PMID:22705307

Corbalán-Tutau, Dolores; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Nicolás, Francisco; Garaulet, Marta



Adrenal Steroid Hormones and Metaphyseal Bone in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives: The responses of metaphyseal bone tissue to physiological variations of endogenous adrenal steroid hormones during childhood are unclear. Therefore, we studied potential hormonal influences in children before the appearance of pubic hair (onset of pubarche). Methods: Excretions of major glucocorticoid metabolites (C21), cortisol, sum of adrenarchal dehydroepiandrosterone and its immediate 16-hydroxylated metabolites (DHEA&M), and 5-androstene-3?,17?-diol (hermaphrodiol) were analyzed in

Thomas Remer; Kai R. Boye; Michaela F. Hartmann; Christina Neu; Eckhard Schoenau; Friedrich Manz; Stefan A. Wudy



Isolated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) deficiency associated with acute adrenal crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 37 year old black female presented with congestive cardiac failure, 2 months postpartum. She developed spontaneous hypoglycaemia and symptoms of acute adrenal crisis (hypotension, nausea, abdominal pain and tachycardia with small thready pulse), which responded to i.v. dextrose, sodium chloride and hydrocortisone. Biochemical investigations revealed low serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) levels. The patient initially showed an

I. Jialal; R. K. Desai; I. C. Maharaj; A. S. Pala; S. M. Joubert



The effects of cannabinoids on serum cortisol and prolactin in humans  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit substances, and there is growing interest in the therapeutic applications of cannabinoids. While known to modulate neuroendocrine function, the precise acute and chronic dose-related effects of cannabinoids in humans are not well-known. Furthermore, the existing literature on the neuroendocrine effects of cannabinoids is limited by small sample sizes (n=6–22), heterogeneous samples with regard to cannabis exposure (lumping users and nonusers), lack of controlling for chronic cannabis exposure, differing methodologies, and limited dose–response data. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?-9-THC) was hypothesized to produce dose-related increases in plasma cortisol levels and decreases in plasma prolactin levels. Furthermore, relative to controls, frequent users of cannabis were hypothesized to show altered baseline levels of these hormones and blunted ?-9-THC-induced changes of these hormones. Materials and methods Pooled data from a series of laboratory studies with multiple doses of intravenous ?-9-THC in healthy control subjects (n=36) and frequent users of cannabis (n=40) was examined to characterize the acute, chronic, and acute on chronic effects of cannabinoids on plasma cortisol and prolactin levels. Hormone levels were measured before (baseline) and 70 min after administration of each dose of ?-9-THC. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models with +70 min hormonal levels as the dependant variable and baseline hormonal level as the covariate. Results At socially relevant doses, ?-9-THC raised plasma cortisol levels in a dose-dependent manner but frequent users showed blunted increases relative to healthy controls. Frequent users also had lower baseline plasma prolactin levels relative to healthy controls. Conclusions These group differences may be related to the development of tolerance to the neuroendocrine effects of cannabinoids. Alternatively, these results may reflect inherent differences in neuroendocrine function in frequent users of cannabis and not a consequence of cannabis use.

Ranganathan, Mohini; Braley, Gabriel; Pittman, Brian; Cooper, Thomas; Perry, Edward; Krystal, John; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril



Cortisol and antidepressant effects of yoga  

PubMed Central

Context: Hypercortisolemia is well-known in depression and yoga has been demonstrated earlier to reduce the parameters of stress, including cortisol levels. Aim: We aimed to find the role of yoga as an antidepressant as well as its action on lowering the serum cortisol levels. Settings and Design: An open-labeled study consisting of three groups (yoga alone, yoga along with antidepressant medication and antidepressant medication alone) was conducted at a tertiary care psychiatry hospital. Methodology: Out-patient depressives who were not suicidal were offered yoga as a possible antidepressant therapy. A validated yoga module was used as therapy taught over a month and to be practiced at home daily. Patients were free to choose the drugs if their psychiatrist advised. Patients (n=54) were rated on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) with serum cortisol measurements at baseline and after 3 months. In 54 patients, assessments and blood test results were both available. 19 each received yoga alone or with drugs and 16 received drugs only. Healthy comparison subjects (n=18) too underwent morning cortisol measurements once. Results: Serum cortisol was higher in depressives compared with controls. In the total sample, the cortisol level dropped significantly at the end of treatment. More patients in the yoga groups had a drop in cortisol levels as compared to drug-only group. In the yoga-only group, the cortisol drop correlated with the drop in HDRS score (antidepressant effect). Conclusion: The findings support that yoga may act at the level of the hypothalamus by its ‘anti-stress’ effects (reducing the cortisol), to bring about relief in depression.

Thirthalli, J.; Naveen, G. H.; Rao, M. G.; Varambally, S.; Christopher, R.; Gangadhar, B. N.



Therapeutic Effects of Pre-Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon) used as a Non-Hormonal Alternative to HRT in Perimenopausal Women - Clinical Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Roots of cruciferous plant Lepidium peruvianum Chacon cultivated in high plateaus of Andes and known under its common name Maca, have been traditionally-used as an energizing vegetable with therapeutic properties for both men and women. Maca has been recognized by natives of Peru as herbal remedy helping to treat conditions affecting menopausal women. Objective: The effects of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO) on quantitative physiological responses and alleviation of symptoms contributing to menopausal discomfort in perimenopausal women was examined. Methods: In this, four months, double blind, crossover, randomized pilot trial, monthly measurements of the following blood serum constituents were taken: Estrogen (E2), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, T4), minerals (Ca, K, Fe) and lipid profile (Triglicerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). In monthly interviews conducted by gynecologist, body weight and blood pressure were registered and Menopausal Index according to Kupperman’s was determined. Toxicity of Maca -GO determined on rats showed its safe use at the level of 7.5mg/kg body weight. A group of 20 women (aged 41-50 years), who fulfilled criteria of being in perimenopausal stage (E2 above 40pg/ml and FSH below 30IU/ml), were randomly allocated to two even groups, one receiving for two months Maca-GO and the other Placebo capsules followed by a crossover with treatment change for another two months period. All participants signed informed consent to participate. Two 500mg hard capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo were self-administered by participants twice daily with meals (total 2g/day). Results: Two months administration of Maca-GO significantly alleviated symptoms of discomfort observed in majority of women involved in the study (74%-87%) as assessed by Kupperman’s Menopausal index. This was associated with significant increase in E2 and FSH, Progesterone and ACTH levels, and reduction in blood pressure, body weight, Triglycerides and Cholesterol levels. There was a distinctive placebo effect observed at the beginning of the study. Conclusions: The results showed that in addition to reduction in body weight, blood pressure and increasing serum HDL and Iron, pre-gelatinized Maca-GO may be a valuable non-hormonal plant preparation for balancing levels of hormones (FSH, E2, PG and ACTH) and alleviating negative physiological and psychological symptoms (frequency of hot flushes, incidence in night sweating, interrupted sleep pattern, nervousness, depression and heart palpitations) experienced by women in perimenopausal stage. It appears that Maca-GO may act as a toner of hormonal processes, leading to alleviation of discomfort felt by perimenopausal women, hence, its potential use as non-hormonal alternative to HRT program.

Meissner, H. O.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mscisz, A.; Kedzia, B.



Salivary cortisol measurement in normal-weight, obese and anorexic women: comparison with plasma cortisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare salivary, plasma and urinary free cortisol (UFC) measurements in patients with anorexia nervosa, in whom an overdrive of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is well established but information on salivary cortisol is lacking, in viscerally obese patients in whom subtle abnormalities of cortisol secretion and metabolism are postulated, and in normal-weight healthy women. Participants and experimental design: Measurement

Pietro Putignano; Antonella Dubini; Paola Toja; Cecilia Invitti; Simona Bonfanti; Gabriella Redaelli; Daniela Zappulli; Francesco Cavagnini



Hormonal therapy of intrinsic aging.  


Intrinsic skin aging represents the biological clock of the skin cells per se and reflects the reduction processes that are common in internal organs. The reduced secretion of the pituitary, adrenal glands, and the gonads contributes to characteristic aging-associated body and skin phenotypes as well as behavior patterns. Our knowledge of whether there is a direct or indirect connection between hormonal deficiency and skin aging still remains limited. In females, serum levels of 17?-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, growth hormone (GH), and its downstream hormone insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are significantly decreased with increasing age. In males, serum levels of GH and IGF-I decrease significantly, whereas it can decrease in late age in a part of the population. Hormones have been shown to influence skin morphology and functions, skin permeability, wound healing, sebaceous lipogenesis, and the metabolism of skin cells. Prevention of skin aging by estrogen/progesterone replacement therapy is effective if administered early after menopause and influences intrinsically aged skin only. Vitamin D substitution and antioxidant treatment may also be beneficial. Replacement therapy with androgens, GH, IGF-I, progesterone, melatonin, cortisol, and thyroid hormones still remains controversial. PMID:22533363

Zouboulis, C C; Makrantonaki, E



Hormonal activity in clinically silent adrenal incidentalomas  

PubMed Central

Introduction The rapid development of modern imaging techniques, has led to an increase in accidentally discovered adrenal masses without clinically apparent hormonal abnormalities. Such tumours have been termed “incidentalomas”. The diagnostic work-up in patients with adrenal incidentalomas is aimed at the determination of hormonal activity of the tumour and identification of patients with potentially malignant tumours. The aim of our study was a retrospective analysis of selected clinical characteristics and hormonal studies in accidentally discovered adrenal tumours. Material and methods Fourty hundred sixty-three patients with serendipitously discovered adrenal masses, diagnosed and treated in the Department of Endocrinology and Internal Diseases, Medical University of Gdansk as well as in the affiliated Endocrinology Clinic between 1993 and October of 2009 were included in the analysis. Out of all patients, 245 were referred for adrenalectomy. Results We found that clinically “silent” tumours often demonstrate subclinical hormonal activity. In our report, increased 24-h urinary excretion of cortisol correlated positively with tumour size (p < 0.001). Moreover, a statistical relationship was demonstrated between tumour size and serum cortisol concentration assessed in the 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (p < 0.001). Increased values of dehydroepiandrosterone/dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate were more often found in malignant than in benign tumours (p < 0.01). Urinary concentrations of 17-ketosteroids correlate positively with diagnosis of adrenocortical cancer (p = 0.02). Conclusions We found that clinically “silent” tumours often demonstrate subclinical hormonal activity (subclinical Cushing syndrome, subclinical pheochromocytoma, low-symptomatic adrenocortical cancer).

Siekierska-Hellmann, Malgorzata; Blaut, Krzysztof; Lewczuk, Anna; Wisniewski, Piotr; Gnacinska, Maria; Obolonczyk, Lukasz; Swiatkowska-Stodulska, Renata; Sworczak, Krzysztof




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hormones are produced and released from endocrine glands directly into the bloodstream and transported to distant tissues. They direct physiological processes to maintain homeostasis and direct growth, developmental, and reproduction. Hormone secretion is regulated by genetic and environmental inp...


Adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone rhythms in male golden hamsters on long and short days  

SciTech Connect

Plasma concentrations of adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormones were measured at 4-h intervals around the clock in male hamsters on long (14:10-h light-dark cycle) and short (10:14-h light-dark cycle) days. Plasma corticosterone, cortisol, thyroxine (T{sub 4}), triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and testosterone rhythms were present on long days. The only one of these hormones to have a significant rhythm on short days was cortisol, but even its amplitude was suppressed compared with the cortisol rhythm on long days. Short days also lowered mean plasma levels of cortisol, T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, and testosterone. Finally, short days raised the ratio of corticosterone to cortisol and lowered the ratio of T{sub 4} to T{sub 3}. Both ratios had significant rhythms on long days but not on short days. Because of the many interactions among adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone axes, it is unclear whether the primary effect of short days is on one of these endocrine systems or on another factor that has separate effects on each of the hormone rhythms that was measured. Nonetheless, it is clear that a major effect of short day lengths in hamsters is to suppress hormone rhythms. Explanations of photoperiodic effects that depend on endocrine mediation should take this into account.

Ottenweller, J.E.; Tapp, W.N.; Pitman, D.L.; Natelson, B.H. (Veterans Administration Center, East Orange, NJ (USA) New Jersey Medical School, Newark (USA))



Association of salivary-assessed oxytocin and cortisol levels with time of night and sleep stage.  


There have been proposals for REM to have a function of emotional memory consolidation, and also for REM sleep to be involved in the promotion of attachment behaviour. The hormones cortisol and oxytocin, respectively, may be involved in these proposed REM sleep functions. However, there are conflicting reports on whether levels of cortisol differ between sleep stages when time since sleep onset (SSO) is controlled, and virtually no literature on whether levels of oxytocin differ between sleep stages. This study thus investigated the changes in levels of oxytocin (OT) and cortisol (CT) across the night, and whether these levels differ between REM and N2 sleep when time SSO is controlled. 20 participants (10 males, 10 females, mean age = 20.45, SD = 2.01) were awakened 10 min into REM and N2 sleep periods in the sleep laboratory and gave saliva samples which were assayed for OT and CT. Levels of OT were relatively constant across the night, whereas CT increased significantly. REM and N2 did not differ significantly neither for OT nor for CT. The study has implications for models of sleep-dependent memory consolidation that incorporate the late sleep increase in cortisol as a functional component of memory consolidation, and also for the medical diagnostic assaying of OT during sleep. PMID:22911329

Blagrove, Mark; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Baird, Alison L; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Davies, Anna C; Neuschaffer, Jennifer L; Henley-Einion, Josephine A; Weidemann, Christoph T; Thome, Johannes; McNamara, Patrick; Turnbull, Oliver H



Environmental stress-induced testis differentiation: Androgen as a by-product of cortisol inactivation.  


This review deals with the gonadal masculinization induced by thermal stress in fish with focus on the action of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD) as this mechanism key transducer. High temperatures have been reported to produce male-skewed sex ratios in several species with TSD (temperature-dependent sex determination), and in some of them, this process was reported to be associated with high levels of cortisol, the hormone-related stress in vertebrates, during early gonad development. In addition, in pejerrey larvae reared at high-masculinizing temperatures, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), the main and most potent androgen in fish, was also detected at high levels. In testicular explants, cortisol induced the synthesis of 11-KT, suggesting that its synthesis could be under the control of the stress axis at the time of gonadal fate determination. 11?-HSD is one of the enzymes shared by the glucocorticoid and androgen pathways; this enzyme converts cortisol to cortisone and also participates in the finals steps of the synthesis of the 11-oxigenated androgens. Based on these data and literature information, here we propose that the masculinization induced by thermal stress can be considered as a consequence of cortisol inactivation and the concomitant synthesis of 11-KT and discussing this as a possible mechanism of masculinization induced by different types of environmental stressors. PMID:23770022

Fernandino, Juan I; Hattori, Ricardo S; Moreno Acosta, Omar D; Strüssmann, Carlos A; Somoza, Gustavo M



Short communication: hair cortisol concentrations in Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity of Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers by analysis of the cortisol concentrations in hair samples. Cortisol, the primary hormone of the HPA axis, is the biological endpoint for the investigation of the HPA response. The study was conducted on 290 prepubertal heifers; 142 heifers were pure Holstein-Friesian and 148 were crossbreed F1 heifers obtained from the 3-way rotational system with Swedish Red and Montbéliarde breeds. Extraction was performed on the hair using methanol, and cortisol concentrations were determined by a radioimmunoassay method. Cortisol concentrations measured in regrown hair of crossbreed F1 heifers were significantly lower than those in hair of Holstein-Friesian heifers. This result helps us to better understand the differences in HPA activity and allostatic load between Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers and allows us to better assess the adaptability of these animals to the environment and the importance of crossbreed traits for profitability in dairy farming. PMID:23522680

Peric, T; Comin, A; Corazzin, M; Montillo, M; Cappa, A; Campanile, G; Prandi, A



Cortisol rapidly affects amplitudes of heartbeat-evoked brain potentials-Implications for the contribution of stress to an altered perception of physical sensations?  


Little is known about the impact of stress and stress hormones on the processing of visceral-afferent signals. Clinical data suggest that cortisol may lower the threshold for interoceptive stimuli, while a pharmacological administration of cortisol decreases the sensitivity for physical symptoms. To clarify the role of cortisol for the processing of interoceptive signals, we investigated 16 healthy men on two occasions, once during the infusion of 4mg of cortisol and once during the infusion of a placebo substance. Heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEP; derived from resting EEG and ECG, during open and closed eyes), which are psychophysiological indicators for the cortical processing of cardioceptive signals, were measured over 6-min periods once before, and four times after the infusion (1-7, 11-17, 21-27 and 31-37min). We found that HEP amplitudes were higher during open than during closed eyes between 1 and 17min after cortisol infusion. There was no effect of cortisol on heart rate. We conclude that cortisol may rapidly modulate the cortical processing of cardioceptive neural signals. These results may have relevance for the effects of stress on the development and maintenance of psychosomatic symptoms. PMID:23850227

Schulz, André; Strelzyk, Florian; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Naumann, Ewald; Vögele, Claus; Schächinger, Hartmut



Facial attractiveness is related to women's cortisol and body fat, but not with immune responsiveness.  


Recent studies suggest that facial attractiveness indicates immune responsiveness in men and that this relationship is moderated by stress hormones which interact with testosterone levels. However, studies testing whether facial attractiveness in women signals their immune responsiveness are lacking. Here, we photographed young Latvian women, vaccinated them against hepatitis B and measured the amount of specific antibodies produced, cortisol levels and percentage body fat. Latvian men rated the attractiveness of the women's faces. Interestingly, in women, immune responsiveness (amount of antibodies produced) did not predict facial attractiveness. Instead, plasma cortisol level was negatively associated with attractiveness, indicating that stressed women look less attractive. Fat percentage was curvilinearly associated with facial attractiveness, indicating that being too thin or too fat reduces attractiveness. Our study suggests that in contrast to men, facial attractiveness in women does not indicate immune responsiveness against hepatitis B, but is associated with two other aspects of long-term health and fertility: circulating levels of the stress hormone cortisol and percentage body fat. PMID:23697641

Rantala, Markus J; Coetzee, Vinet; Moore, Fhionna R; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Krama, Tatjana; Kivleniece, Inese; Krams, Indrikis



Expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) peptides in skin of basal cell carcinoma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed that local expression and production of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides may play a role in human skin physiology and pathology, including the development and progression of skin cancers. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blotting hybridization techniques were used to study gene expression. Reversed-phase (RP) high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with subsequent radioimmunoassays were used to identify

Andrzej Slominski; Diane Heasley; Joseph E Mazurkiewicz; Gennady Ermak; James Baker; J Andrew Carlson



Immunosensor with fluid control mechanism for salivary cortisol analysis.  


The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample solution. A calibration curve using the relative detected current showed a R(2)=0.98 and CV=14% for a range of standard cortisol solutions corresponding to the concentrations of native salivary cortisol (0.1-10 ng/ml). The measurement could be accomplished within 35 min and the cortisol immunosensor could be reused. These results show promise for realizing an on-site and easy-to-use biosensor for cortisol. Used for evaluation of human salivary cortisol levels, the cortisol immunosensor measurement corresponded closely with commercially available ELISA method (R(2)=0.92). Our results indicate the promise of the new cortisol immunosensor for noninvasive, point of care measurement of human salivary cortisol levels. PMID:22939507

Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek



Cortisol Metabolism in Human Obesity: Impaired Cortisone3Cortisol Conversion in Subjects with Central Adiposity  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a given body mass index (BMI), mortality is higher in patients with central compared to generalized obesity. Glucocorticoids play an important role in determining body fat distribution, but circulating cortisol concentrations are reported to be normal in obese patients. Our recent studies show enhanced conversion of inactive cortisone (E) to active cortisol (F) through the expression of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase




Diurnal Salivary Cortisol is Associated With Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65±9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 minutes post-awakening), early decline (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (p<0.05), AUC during awakening rise and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (p<0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, beta blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates.

Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Seeman, Teresa; DeSantis, Amy S.; Roux, Ana Diez; Shrager, Sandi; Golden, Sherita Hill




Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) on the circadian rhythms in melatonin and cortisol were examined in the rhesus monkey. The concentrations of the two hormones were monitored in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) withdrawn from two sham-operated animals, two animals with complete bilateral SCN lesions, and two animals with partial SCN damage at 4 and 8 months after



Effects of an Early Family Intervention on Children's Memory: The Mediating Effects of Cortisol Levels  

PubMed Central

Developmental psychologists have long been concerned with the ways that early adversity influences children’s long-term outcomes. In the current study, activity of the HPA axis of medically at-risk (e.g., preterm) infants was measured as a result of maternal participation in a novel cognitively-based home visitation program (versus a Healthy Start home visitation program). Maternal participation in the cognitive intervention predicted lower basal cortisol levels among infants – with reduced levels of maternal avoidance/withdrawal serving as a mediator of this relation. Lower cortisol levels in infancy, in turn, predicted higher verbal short-term memory at age 3. Short-term memory represents a cognitive ability that has importance for children’s later educational outcomes. Findings provide experimental evidence concerning the pathway by which an early intervention may produce hormonal changes that can, in turn, influence children’s learning outcomes.

Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Schwartz, Alex; Lynch, Colleen



Prenatal dysthymia versus major depression effects on maternal cortisol and fetal growth.  


To determine differences between pregnant women diagnosed with Dysthymia versus Major Depression, depressed pregnant women (N=102) were divided by their diagnosis into Dysthymic (N=48) and Major Depression (N=54) groups and compared on self-report measures (depression, anxiety, anger, daily hassles and behavioral inhibition), on stress hormone levels (cortisol and norepinephrine), and on fetal measurements. The Major Depression group had more self-reported symptoms. However, the Dysthymic group had higher prenatal cortisol levels and lower fetal growth measurements (estimated weight, femur length, abdominal circumference) as measured at their first ultrasound (M=18 weeks gestation). Thus, depressed pregnant women with Dysthymia and Major Depression appeared to have different prenatal symptoms. PMID:17587221

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel A; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Ascencio, Angela; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia



Biomedical Evaluation of Cortisol, Cortisone, and Corticosterone along with Testosterone and Epitestosterone Applying Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography  

PubMed Central

The validated micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was proposed for the determination of five steroid hormones in human urine samples. That technique allowed for the separation and quantification of cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, testosterone, and epitestosterone and was sensitive enough to detect low concentrations of these searched steroids in urine samples at the range of 2–300?ng/mL. The proposed MEKC technique with solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure was simple, rapid, and has been successfully applied as a routine procedure to analyze steroids in human urine samples. The MEKC method offered a potential in clinical routine practice because of the short analysis time (8?min), low costs, and simultaneous analysis of five endogenous hormones. Due to its simplicity, speed, accuracy, and high recovery, the proposed method could offer a tool to determine steroid hormones as potential biomarkers in biomedical investigations, what was additionally revealed with healthy volunteers.

Baczek, Tomasz; Oledzka, Ilona; Konieczna, Lucyna; Kowalski, Piotr; Plenis, Alina



Isolated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) deficiency associated with acute adrenal crisis.  

PubMed Central

A 37 year old black female presented with congestive cardiac failure, 2 months postpartum. She developed spontaneous hypoglycaemia and symptoms of acute adrenal crisis (hypotension, nausea, abdominal pain and tachycardia with small thready pulse), which responded to i.v. dextrose, sodium chloride and hydrocortisone. Biochemical investigations revealed low serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) levels. The patient initially showed an impaired cortisol response to intramuscular aqueous tetracosactrin, but an exuberant response after priming with intramuscular tetracosactrin depot. These findings, together with the normal remaining pituitary function, led us to conclude that this patient had isolated ACTH deficiency associated with congestive cardiac failure and acute adrenal crisis.

Jialal, I.; Desai, R. K.; Maharaj, I. C.; Pala, A. S.; Joubert, S. M.



Timing of Fetal Exposure to Stress Hormones: Effects on Newborn Physical and Neuromuscular Maturation  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to determine the specific periods during pregnancy in which human fetal exposure to stress hormones affects newborn physical and neuromuscular maturation. Blood was collected from 158 women at 15, 19, 25, and 31 weeks’ gestation. Levels of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and maternal cortisol were determined from plasma. Newborns were evaluated with the New Ballard Maturation Score. Results indicated that increases in maternal cortisol at 15, 19, and 25 weeks and increases in placental CRH at 31 weeks were significantly associated with decreases in infant maturation among males (even after controlling for length of gestation). Results also suggested that increases in maternal cortisol at 31 weeks were associated with increases in infant maturation among females, although these results were not significant after controlling for length of gestation. Findings suggest that stress hormones have effects on human fetal neurodevelopment that are independent of birth outcome.

Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin J.; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.



Relationships between the pituitary-adrenal hormones, insulin, and glucose in middle-aged men: Moderating influence of psychosocial stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether the relationships between the pituitary-adrenal hormones (corticotropin [ACTH] and cortisol), insulin, and glucose differ as a function of psychosocial stress defined in terms of vital exhaustion (VE) and depressive behavior (DB). The participants were 69 normotensive and 21 unmedicated borderline hypertensive (BH) middle-aged men whose work is stressful. Hormonal and metabolic variables were measured during an oral

Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen; Niklas Ravaja; Katri Räikkönen; Aarno Hautanen; Herman Adlercreutz



Circulating leptin and cortisol after burn injury: loss of diurnal pattern.  


Leptin, a hormone involved in appetite and metabolic energy expenditure, could have a role in the reduced appetite and/or energy expenditure after burn injury. In this study, the diurnal pattern of circulating leptin concentrations was compared with body mass index (BMI), sex, glucose, insulin, and the diurnal cortisol rhythm in burn patients. Plasma samples were collected at 12:00 pm and 02:00 am from severely burned adults and children. Circulating leptin, insulin, and cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results were compared with previously published data from healthy control subjects. Overall, plasma leptin levels were lower in burn patients (5.7 +/- 1.2 ng/mL) compared with control subjects (10.5 +/- 1.7 ng/mL, P = .02). The normal nocturnal increase of circulating leptin concentrations observed in control subjects was completely absent in burn patients. Cortisol levels were higher in burn patients (20.4 +/- 1.0 mg/dL) than in control subjects (9.8 +/- 1.6 mg/dL, P < .0001) and the normal circadian decrease of circulating cortisol levels was markedly blunted in burn patients. Plasma cortisol did not correlate with circulating leptin levels. Plasma insulin and plasma glucose levels were significantly elevated in burn patients and the insulin:glucose ratio was dramatically increased compared with control subjects. Patients with burn injuries exhibited significantly decreased circulating leptin levels. This decrease may be the result of marked insulin resistance, as suggested by the elevated insulin to glucose ratio in burn patients. The loss of the diurnal pattern in burn patients is likely to result from the continuous nutritional supplementation. Because low leptin levels should induce appetite, burn-related anorexia is probably controlled by other regulatory systems. PMID:15534457

Hobson, Kristina G; Havel, Peter J; McMurtry, Addison L; Lawless, Mary Beth; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David D


Blood glucose concentration dependent ACTH and cortisol responses to prolonged exercise.  


The purpose of this study is to investigate responses of serum ACTH and cortisol concentration to low intensity prolonged exercise. In experiment 1, 10 subjects fasted for 12 h and performed bicycle exercise at 49.3% VO2max (+/- 4.3%) until exhaustion or up to 3 h. During the early part of the exercise, serum ACTH and cortisol concentrations did not increase from the pre-exercise values (ACTH: 44 +/- 5 micrograms/l, cortisol: 139 +/- 52 micrograms/l). Whilst the time to serum ACTH concentration increasing varied among the subjects (60-180 min), the increases of this hormone occurred for all subjects (175 +/- 85 ng/l, P less than 0.05) when blood glucose concentration decreased to a critical level of 3.3 mmol/l. At the end of the exercise, blood glucose concentration decreased to 2.60 +/- 0.21 mmol/l, and serum ACTH and cortisol concentrations increased to 313 +/- 159 ng/l and 371 +/- 151 micrograms/l, respectively. In experiment 2, four subjects performed the same intensity exercise until exhaustion, and were then given 600 ml of 20 g glucose solution, and immediately afterwards, they were asked to repeat the same exercise. The subjects continued the exercise for between 30 to 90 min until again reaching exhaustion. During the second exercise, blood glucose concentration increased to the pre-exercise value (2.72 +/- 0.58 to 4.00 +/- 0.22 mmol/l, P less than 0.05) and simultaneously, serum ACTH concentration decreased considerably (354 +/- 22 to 119 +/- 54 ng/l, P less than 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that serum ACTH and cortisol concentration during low intensity prolonged exercise may be dependent on blood glucose concentration. PMID:6088160

Tabata, I; Atomi, Y; Miyashita, M



Hormone Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hormone transport in plants is a fundamental process governing all aspects of plant development. Identification and functional\\u000a analysis of plasma membrane proteins, which regulate the import and export of plant hormones, is a requirement if we are to\\u000a develop a systems biology level understanding of these processes. For several plant hormones, the characterization of the\\u000a transporters has produced remarkable steps

Ian D. Kerr; David J. Carrier; Jamie Twycross


Effects of smoking on ACTH and cortisol secretion  

SciTech Connect

The relationships among changes in plasma nicotine, ACTH, and cortisol secretion after smoking were investigated. Ten male subjects smoked cigarettes containing 2.87 mg nicotine and 0.48 mg nicotine. No rises in cortisol or ACTH were detected after smoking 0.48 mg nicotine cigarettes. Cortisol rises were significant in 11 of 15 instances after smoking 2.87 mg nicotine cigarattes, but ACTH rose significantly in only 5 of the 11 instances where cortisol increased. Each ACTH rise occurred in a subject who reported nausea and was observed to be pale, sweaty, and tachycardic. Peak plasma nicotine concentrations were not significantly different in sessions when cortisol rose with or without ACTH increases, but cortisol increases were significantly greater in nauseated than in non-nauseated smokers. This data suggest that smoking-induced nausea stimulates cortisol release by stimulating ACTH secretion and that cortisol secretion in non-nauseated smokers may occur through a non-ACTH mechanism.

Seyler, L.E. Jr.; Fertig, J.; Pomerleau, O.; Hunt, D.; Parker, K.



Psychological Correlates of Cortisol Excretion in Normal Individuals Under Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cortisol excretion is a potential biological link between psychosocial stimuli and illness, but recent studies of normal individuals in everyday settings generally have failed to demonstrate significant correlations between cortisol excretion and perceive...

R. R. Vickers L. K. Hervig M. T. Wallick R. E. Poland R. T. Rubin



Hormonal changes when falling in love.  


To fall in love is the first step in pair formation in humans and is a complex process which only recently has become the object of neuroscientific investigation. The little information available in this field prompted us to measure the levels of some pituitary, adrenal and gonadal hormones in a group of 24 subjects of both sexes who had recently (within the previous six months) fallen in love, and to compare them with those of 24 subjects who were single or were part of a long-lasting relationship. The following hormones were evaluated by means of standard techniques: FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), cortisol, testosterone and androstenedione. The results showed that estradiol, progesterone, DHEAS and androstenedione levels did not differ between the groups and were within the normal ranges. Cortisol levels were significantly higher amongst those subjects who had recently fallen in love, as compared with those who had not. FSH and testosterone levels were lower in men in love, while women of the same group presented higher testosterone levels. All hormonal differences were eliminated when the subjects were re-tested from 12 to 24 months later. The increased cortisol and low FSH levels are suggestive of the "stressful" and arousing conditions associated with the initiation of a social contact. The changes of testosterone concentrations, which varied in opposite directions in the two sexes, may reflect changes in behavioural and/or temperamental traits which have yet to be clarified. In conclusion, the findings of the present study would indicate that to fall in love provokes transient hormonal changes some of which seem to be specific to each sex. PMID:15177709

Marazziti, Donatella; Canale, Domenico



A non-arousing test situation abolishes the impairing effects of cortisol on delayed memory retrieval in healthy women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal and human studies have repeatedly shown that stress hormones influence memory. Glucocorticoids (GCs) enhance memory consolidation but impair memory retrieval. Studies in rodents indicate that adrenergic activation is necessary for GC induced effects on memory. We have shown, in two previous placebo-controlled double-blind experiments, that memory retrieval is significantly impaired after oral cortisol (30mg) treatment in healthy young women.

Sabrina Kuhlmann; Oliver T. Wolf



Simultaneous measurement of endogenous cortisol, cortisone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in nails by use of UPLC–MS–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid hormone concentrations are mostly determined by using different body fluids as matrices and applying immunoassay techniques.\\u000a However, usability of these approaches may be restricted for several reasons, including ethical barriers to invasive sampling.\\u000a Therefore, we developed an ultra-performance LC–MS–MS method for high-throughput determination of concentrations of cortisol,\\u000a cortisone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) in small quantities of human

Mehdi Ben Khelil; Marion Tegethoff; Gunther Meinlschmidt; Carole Jamey; Bertrand Ludes; Jean-Sébastien Raul


Relationship between oxidative stress and circulating testosterone and cortisol in pre-spawning female brown trout.  


Reproduction in vertebrates is an energy-demanding process that is mediated by endogenous hormones and potentially results in oxidative stress. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between oxidative stress parameters (antioxidant capacity and levels of reactive oxygen metabolites) and circulating testosterone and cortisol in a common and widespread teleost fish, the brown trout (Salmo trutta, L.). Results show that trout with higher testosterone levels prior to spawning have higher levels of oxidative damage at the time that they spawn (although by the time of spawning testosterone levels had dropped, leading to a negative relationship between testosterone and oxidative damage at that time). Cortisol levels were not directly related to oxidative damage or antioxidant capacity, but concentrations of this hormone were positively related to levels of fungal infection, which was itself associated both with lower antioxidant capacity and lower levels of oxidative damage. These results highlight the complexity of interactions between different components of the endocrine system and metabolism and suggest that caution be used in interpreting relationships between a single hormone and indicators of oxidative balance or other fitness proxies. PMID:22841606

Hoogenboom, Mia O; Metcalfe, Neil B; Groothuis, Ton G G; de Vries, Bonnie; Costantini, David



Sources of sampling variation in saliva cortisol in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main advantage of collecting saliva cortisol as opposed to plasma cortisol is that it is non-invasive and therefore it is now widely used in stress measurement studies on farm animals and dogs. Although a plasma cortisol response to handling associated with blood collection generally occurs at 3 min from the commencement of handling, there is no information in the

A. J Kobelt; P. H Hemsworth; J. L Barnett; K. L Butler



Electrochemical flow injection immunoassay for cortisol using magnetic microbeads  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a novel flow injection assay for cortisol based on competitive immunologic reactions, magnetic separation, and electrochemical measurement. The proposed flow assay system was composed of two reaction units. An anti-cortisol antibody was immobilised on magnetic beads and injected into the reaction coil of a competitive reaction unit with a blood sample and a specific quantity of acetylcholinesterase-labelled cortisol

Tadayoshi Muramatsu; Hitoshi Ohnuki; Hideki Ushio; Kyoko Hibi; Maki Igarashi; Tetsuhito Hayashi; Huifeng Ren; Hideaki Endo



Understanding and Assessing Cortisol Levels in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trauma is associated with alterations in cortisol activity and reactivity that may vary in relationship to development, time, predisposition, personality, the nature of a traumatic event, and other circumstances. This article reviews existing research findings related to cortisol in laboratory, general stress, and traumatic conditions. We discuss variables that may influence cortisol activity and reactivity in an effort to discover

Kathleen Nader; Carl F. Weems



Stop-Flow Analysis of the Reabsorption of Cortisol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stop-flow studies were done in 2 dogs during the infusion of cortisol-3H. The cortisol-3H U/P to creatinine U/P ratio decreases maximally at the site where minimal sodium concentration is reached and indicates reabsorption of cortisol in the distal tubule...

M. T. Scurry L. Shear




Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The stress response in humans is a healthy response and is necessary for life. The effects of chiropractic manipulation (CM), if any, on stress are ill-defined. Cortisol has been used as an accurate measure of the stress response system in humans. Salivary cortisol is a noninvasive technique to accurately quantify biologically active cortisol. Objective: To determine whether basal salivary

Tara L. Whelan; J. Donald Dishman; Jean Burke; Seymour Levine; Veronica Sciotti


The effect of chiropractic manipulation on salivary cortisol levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The stress response in humans is a healthy response and is necessary for life. The effects of chiropractic manipulation (CM), if any, on stress are ill-defined. Cortisol has been used as an accurate measure of the stress response system in humans. Salivary cortisol is a noninvasive technique to accurately quantify biologically active cortisol. Objective: To determine whether basal salivary

Tara L. Whelan; J. Donald Dishman; Jean Burke; Seymour Levine; Veronica Sciotti



Cortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortisol is the principal corticosteriod in teleost fishes and its plasma concentrations rise dramatically during stress. The relationship between this cortisol increase and its metabolic consequences are subject to extensive debate. Much of this debate arises from the different responses of the many species used, the diversity of approaches to manipulate cortisol levels, and the sampling techniques and duration. Given

Thomas P. Mommsen; Mathilakath M. Vijayan; Thomas W. Moon



Salivary cortisol for screening of Cushing's syndrome in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary OBJECTIVE Cushing's syndrome (CS) is character- ized by changes in diurnal cortisol variation and total or partial resistance to cortisol suppression by dexa- methasone (DEX). Diagnosing CS is a challenge espe- cially in childhood and requires differentiation from primary obesity. The aim was verify the efficacy of salivary cortisol in differentiating primary obesity from CS in children. SUBJECTS AND

Carlos E. Martinelli Jr; Soraya L. Sader; Eduardo B. Oliveira; Julio C. Daneluzzi; Ayrton C. Moreira



Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol

Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.



Decreased hair cortisol concentrations in generalised anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research examining hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) has suggested a general hypercortisolism. These studies have mostly relied on salivary, plasma or urinary assessments, reflecting cortisol secretion over short time periods. The current study utilised the novel method of cortisol assessment in hair to obtain a retrospective index of cortisol secretion over a prolonged period of

Susann Steudte; Tobias Stalder; Lucia Dettenborn; Elisabeth Klumbies; Paul Foley; Katja Beesdo-Baum; Clemens Kirschbaum



Children's Context Inappropriate Anger and Salivary Cortisol  

PubMed Central

Some children show emotion that is not consistent with normative appraisal of the context and can therefore be defined as context inappropriate (CI). The authors used individual growth curve modeling and hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine whether CI anger predicts differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, as manifest in salivary cortisol measures. About 23% of the 360 children (ages 6–10 years, primarily 7–8) showed at least 1 expression of CI anger in situations designed to elicit positive affect. Expression of anger across 2 positive assessments was less common (around 4%). CI anger predicted the hypothesized lower levels of cortisol beyond that attributed to context appropriate anger. Boys' CI anger predicted lower morning cortisol and flatter slopes. Results suggest that this novel approach to studying children's emotion across varying contexts can provide insight into affective style.

Locke, Robin L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.; Goldsmith, H. Hill



The effect of oral contraceptives on cortisol metabolism  

PubMed Central

The administration of oral contraceptives which contain oestrogen increases non-protein-bound plasma cortisol levels at 9 am as well as protein-bound and total cortisol levels. These increases are dependent on the dose of oestrogen; they are not usually seen with progestogen-only or `low-dose' oestrogen (0·05 mg mestranol or less) preparations. `Standard' oral contraceptives (0·1 mg mestranol or equivalent) produce some elevation of unbound cortisol levels at 9 am (from a normal mean of 0·66 ?g/100 ml to 1·02 on the `pill') but this elevation is less than that associated with high-dose oestrogen treatment of, for example, prostate cancer (mean 1·8 ?g/100 ml). Since unbound cortisol levels in plasma are controlled by a hypothalamic feedback mechanism, it appears that oral contraceptives have some effect on this mechanism. Possible long-term effects of oral contraceptives on hypothalamopituitary function require examination. However, the plasma unbound cortisol to which the tissues are exposed at 9 am does not measure the overall exposure of tissues to cortisol throughout the 24 hours. Neither does measurement of cortisol production rate or urinary metabolite excretion accurately reflect the exposure of tissues to cortisol during oestrogen treatment, because of the complex effects of oestrogen on hepatic metabolism of steroids, steroid-protein binding, and the increased size of the extracellular cortisol pool. The overall exposure of tissues to unbound cortisol is measured better by urinary free cortisol excretion. Urinary free cortisol excretion is a measure of the integrated area under the diurnal curve of plasma unbound cortisol, ie, of the 24-hour exposure of tissues to unbound cortisol. Urinary free cortisol excretion is normal in women taking low-dose oestrogen or progestogen-only contraceptives, and is only trivially increased by the standard `pill'. Thus increased exposure of tissues to unbound cortisol is likely to be only a minor factor in the metabolic responses to oral contraceptives. In contrast, urinary free cortisol excretion (mean normal 38 ?g/24 hours) is increased by high-dose oestrogen administration for prostatic cancer (mean 110 ?g/24 hours); this is because the diurnal rhythm of unbound cortisol is impaired. It is thus unwise to ascribe effects of oral contraceptives to increased exposure of tissues to cortisol, except in the liver where it is possible that the increased concentration of protein-bound cortisol they cause may exert metabolic effects. The preparations which cause least change in cortisol metabolism are the low-dose oestrogen or progestogen-only contraceptives.

Burke, C. W.



Catecholamines, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, and sex hormones in anaerobic and aerobic exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Seventeen male physical education students performed three types of treadmill exercise: (1) progressive exercise to exhaustion, (2) prolonged exercise of 50 min duration at the anaerobic threshold of 4 mmol·1–1 blood lactate (AE), (3) a single bout of short-term high-intensity exercise at 156% of maximal exercise capacity in the progressive test, leading to exhaustion within 1.5 min (ANE).Immediately before and

W. Kindermann; A. Schnabel; W. M. Schmitt; G. Biro; J. Cassens; F. Weber



Cytokine and hormone responses to resistance training.  


This study examined the effects of heavy resistance training on physiological acute exercise-induced fatigue (5 x 10 RM leg press) changes after two loading protocols with the same relative intensity (%) (5 x 10 RM(Rel)) and the same absolute load (kg) (5 x 10 RM(Abs)) as in pretraining in men (n = 12). Exercise-induced neuromuscular (maximal strength and muscle power output), acute cytokine and hormonal adaptations (i.e., total and free testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-10 and metabolic responses (i.e., blood lactate) were measured before and after exercise. The resistance training induced similar acute responses in serum cortisol concentration but increased responses in anabolic hormones of FT and GH, as well as inflammation-responsive cytokine IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, when the same relative load was used. This response was balanced by a higher release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and cytokine inhibitors (IL-1ra) when both the same relative and absolute load was used after training. This enhanced hormonal and cytokine response to strength exercise at a given relative exercise intensity after strength training occurred with greater accumulated fatigue and metabolic demand (i.e., blood lactate accumulation). The magnitude of metabolic demand or the fatigue experienced during the resistance exercise session influences the hormonal and cytokine response patterns. Similar relative intensities may elicit not only higher exercise-induced fatigue but also an increased acute hormonal and cytokine response during the initial phase of a resistance training period. PMID:19649649

Izquierdo, Mikel; Ibañez, Javier; Calbet, Jose A L; Navarro-Amezqueta, Ion; González-Izal, Miriam; Idoate, Fernando; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kraemer, William J; Palacios-Sarrasqueta, Mercedes; Almar, Mar; Gorostiaga, Esteban M



Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function in the rat after prolonged treatment with cortisol  

PubMed Central

1. Cortisol, administered subcutaneously every day for long periods, caused growth retardation, adrenal atrophy and impaired hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in the rat. 2. The growth rate and the functional activity of the HPA system gradually returned to normal after steroid withdrawal. 3. Normal adrenal sensitivity to corticotrophin returned more rapidly than normal pituitary corticotrophic function, suggesting that the initial impairment of HPA function was due both to reduced responsiveness of the adrenal gland to corticotrophin and failure of the pituitary gland to secrete the hormone.

Hodges, J. R.; Sadow, Janet



The Effects of Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone on Steroid Metabolomic Profiles in Human Adrenal Cells  

PubMed Central

The adrenal glands are the primary source of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and the so-called adrenal androgens. Under physiological conditions, cortisol and adrenal androgen synthesis are controlled primarily by adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Although it is well established that ACTH can stimulate steroidogenesis in the human adrenal gland, the effect of ACTH on overall production of different classes of steroid hormones has not been defined. In this study, we examined the effect of ACTH on the production of twenty-three steroid hormones in adult adrenal (AA) primary cultures and 20 steroids in the adrenal cell line, H295R. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) revealed that in primary cultures that cortisol and corticosterone were the two most abundant steroid hormones produced with or without ACTH treatment (48 h). Cortisol production responded the most to ACTH treatment, with a 64-fold increase. Interestingly, the production of two androgens, androstenedione and 11?-hydroxyandrostenedione, that were also produced in large amounts under basal conditions significantly increased after ACTH incubation. In H295R cells 11-deoxycortisol and androstenedione were the major products under basal conditions. Treatment with forskolin increased the percentage of 11?-hydroxylated products including cortisol and 11?-hydroxyandrostenedione. This study illustrates that normal adrenal cells respond to ACTH through the secretion of a variety of steroid hormones, thus supporting the role of adrenal cells as a source of both corticosteroids and androgens.

Xing, Yewei; Edwards, Michael A.; Ahlem, Clarence; Kennedy, Mike; Cohen, Anthony; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.; Rainey, William E.



Effects of thyroid hormones on pulmonary and renal angiotensin-converting enzyme concentrations in fetal sheep near term  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sheep fetus, pulmonary and renal concentrations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) increase towards term in parallel with the prepartum surges in plasma cortisol and tri-iodothyronine (T3). The ontogenic change in pulmonary ACE has been shown to be induced, at least in part, by cortisol but the role of the thyroid hormones is unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the effects

A J Forhead; A L Fowden



Altered anxiety and weight gain in corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is widely recognized as the primary mediator of the neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress, including stress-induced anxiety. The biological activity of CRH and other mammalian CRH-like peptides, such as urocortin, may be modulated by CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP). To assess directly the CRH-BP function, we created a mouse model of CRH-BP deficiency by gene targeting. Basal adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels are unchanged in the CRH-BP-deficient mice, and the animals demonstrate a normal increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone after restraint stress. In contrast, adult male CRH-BP-deficient mice show significantly reduced body weight when compared with wild-type controls. CRH-BP-deficient mice also exhibit a significant increase in anxiogenic-like behavior as assessed by the elevated plus maze and defensive withdrawal tests. The increased anorectic and anxiogenic-like behavior most likely is caused by increased “free” CRH and/or urocortin levels in the brain of CRH-BP-deficient animals, suggesting an important role for CRH-BP in maintaining appropriate levels of these peptides in the central nervous system.

Karolyi, I. Jill; Burrows, Heather L.; Ramesh, Tennore M.; Nakajima, Masaharu; Lesh, J. Shonee; Seong, Eunju; Camper, Sally A.; Seasholtz, Audrey F.



The regulation of adrenocorticotrophic hormone receptor by corticotropin-releasing hormone in human fetal adrenal definitive/transitional zone cells.  


As gestation progresses, human fetal adrenals (HFA) initiate the production of cortisol, which increases placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) biosynthesis. While adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) is important for the onset of cortisol production, the late gestational surge in cortisol production occurs despite falling ACTH levels in the fetal circulation. The authors determine if CRH directly regulates the expression of the ACTH receptor (ACTHR) in HFA definitive/transitional zone (DZ/TZ) cells. DZ/TZ cells isolated from midgestation HFA were cultured before treatment with 0.01 nM to 100 nM CRH or ACTH. Cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to measure ACTHR mRNA. Whole-cell ACTH binding studies were performed using I(125) (Tyr-23) ACTH. CRH produced a dose-dependent rise in cortisol production and caused a time-dependent increase in ACTHR mRNA levels between 12 and 24 hours. As little as 0.1 nM CRH induced ACTHR transcript by 12-fold at 24 hours. Together with ACTH 0.01 nM, 0.03 or 0.1 nM CRH increased ACTHR expression more than ACTH alone. Binding assays demonstrated a 3.5-fold increase in ACTHR protein at 48 hours with combined CRH and ACTH treatment. Physiologic levels of CRH seen in the late-gestation fetus stimulate DZ/TZ ACTHR expression. Since placental CRH production increases strikingly near the end of gestation, the authors suggest that CRH-induced ACTH receptor expression may increase TZ responsiveness to circulating ACTH and contribute to the late gestational rise in cortisol secretion by the HFA, participating in an endocrine cascade that is involved in fetal organ maturation and potentially in the timing of human parturition. PMID:17959886

Rehman, Khurram S; Sirianni, Rosa; Parker, C Richard; Rainey, William E; Carr, Bruce R



Serum cortisol concentration and testosterone to cortisol ratio in elite prepubescent male gymnasts during training.  


Serum cortisol concentrations and testosterone:cortisol concentration ratios of eight prepubescent elite male gymnasts (mean age 10 years 11 months) and 11 controls (mean age 11 years 1 month) were examined during 5 consecutive training days. During this period, the gymnasts trained 3 h each day with moderate intensity mobility, strength and skill exercises while the controls were relatively sedentary. Blood samples were taken from all the boys in both groups before (1630 hours) and 30 min after (2000 hours) training on 4 days. Serum cortisol concentrations of the gymnasts were not significantly different from those of the controls throughout the experiment. Serum cortisol concentrations of both groups were significantly larger (P < 0.05) at 1630 hours than at 2000 hours, indicating that cortisol secretion followed the typical adult circadian change, seemingly unaltered by training. However, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the testosterone:cortisol ratio of the gymnasts when compared with controls from day 1 to day 3. After a rest on day 4 the testosterone: cortisol ratio of the gymnasts significantly increased (P < 0.05) but the ratio of the control group also increased indicating that there may have been some day-to-day change by factor(s) other than training. The most obvious factor which may have accounted for the unresponsiveness of serum cortisol concentration to the gymnastics training was that the exercise intensity was too low. However, several days of the training seemed to reduce the anabolic to catabolic balance but further experiments are needed to confirm this finding. PMID:1425643

Rich, P A; Villani, R; Fulton, A; Ashton, J; Bass, S; Brinkert, R; Brown, P



Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson's disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations  

PubMed Central

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group. Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain. Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2) nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4) at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0) at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7) at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm) and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L) in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found. Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Salivary cortisol concentrations in PD patients were increased in the morning compared with the reference group, and were not influenced by motor dysfunction, duration of disease, or coexistence of chronic or acute pain.

Skogar, O; Fall, P-A; Hallgren, G; Lokk, J; Bringer, B; Carlsson, M; Lennartsson, U; Sandbjork, H; Tornhage, C-J



Steroid hormones and BDNF.  


Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin abundantly expressed in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to induce a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy, to enhance specific learning and memory processes. BDNF is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity and it affects cognitive deficit associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies have shown an altered BDNF production and secretion in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also in mood disorders like depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Plasma BDNF is also a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in aging women. Gonadal steroids are involved in the regulation of several CNS processes, specifically mood, affective and cognitive functions during fertile life and reproductive aging. These observations lead many scientists to investigate a putative co-regulation between BDNF and gonadal and/or adrenal steroids and their relationship with gender difference in the incidence of mental diseases. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the correlation between BDNF expression/function and both gonadal (progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone) and adrenal hormones (mainly cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) with relevance in clinical application. PMID:23380505

Pluchino, N; Russo, M; Santoro, A N; Litta, P; Cela, V; Genazzani, A R



Comparing cortisol, stress, and sensory sensitivity in children with autism.  


Previously we reported that children with autism show significant variability in cortisol. The current investigation was designed to extend these findings by exploring plausible relationships between cortisol and psychological measures of stress and sensory functioning. Salivary cortisol values for diurnal rhythms and response to stress in children with and without autism were compared to parent-report measures of child stress, the Stress Survey Schedule (SSS), sensory functioning, Short Sensory Profile (SSP), and Parenting Stress Index. In autism, a negative relationship between morning cortisol and the SSS revealed that higher observed symptoms of stress were related to lower cortisol. Lower cortisol is seen in conditions of chronic stress and in social situations characterized by unstable social relationships. Sensory sensitivity painted a more complicated picture, in that some aspects of SSP were associated with higher while others were associated with lower cortisol. We propose that increased sensory sensitivity may enhance the autistic child's susceptibility to the influence of zeitgeibers reflected in variable cortisol secretion. Evening cortisol was positively associated with SSS such that the higher the level of evening cortisol, the higher the child's parent-reported daily stress, especially to changes, such as in daily routine. Regarding the response to stress, the psychological and parent variables did not differentiate the groups; rather, discrete subgroups of cortisol responders and nonresponders were revealed in both the autism and neurotypical children. The results support a complex interplay between physiological and behavioral stress and sensory sensitivity in autism and plausible developmental factors influencing stress reactivity across the groups. PMID:19358306

Corbett, Blythe A; Schupp, Clayton W; Levine, Seymour; Mendoza, Sally



Circadian secretion of cortisol in bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

411 Objective: To compare the 24-h cortisol secretion profiles of normal control subjects and patients with bipolar disorder who were in the depressive, manic and euthymic phases of the disorder. Participants: Eigh- teen patients, 25-62 years of age, in depressed (n = 5), manic (n = 5) or euthymic (n = 8) phase of bipolar disorder recruited through a psychiatric

Pablo Cervantes; Stephen Gelber; François N. K. Ng; Ying Kin; Vasavan N. P. Nair; George Schwartz



Leptin, cortisol and distinct concurrent training sequences.  


In order to investigate the effects of distinct concurrent training sequences on serum leptin and cortisol levels, 10 subjects (27.1±4.8 years, body mass index 25.38±0.09) were submitted to a control session, concurrent training 1 and concurrent training 2. Samples of leptin and cortisol were collected. Concurrent training 1 consisted of indoor cycling followed by strength training and concurrent training 2 of strength training followed by indoor cycling. No exercises were performed at the control session. Blood was collected once again to verify the same variables. Shapiro-Wilk, 2-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests were used. There was a reduction in leptin levels after concurrent training 1 (?%=?-?16.04; p=0.05) and concurrent training 2 (?%=?-?8.54; p=0.02). Cortisol decreased after concurrent training 1 (?%=?-?26.32; p=0.02) and concurrent training 2 (?%=?-?33.57; p=0.05). There was a high and significant correlation between blood variables only in CS (lep PRE X cort PRE and cort POST: r=?-?0.80 and r=?-?0.81; lep POST X cort PRE and cort POST: r=?-?0.62 and r=?-?0.62). Concurrent training promoted a reduction in leptin and cortisol levels irrespective of sequence. PMID:22261823

Rosa, G; Dantas, E; Biehl, C; de Castro e Silva, H; Montano, M A E; de Mello, D B



In humans, early cortisol biosynthesis provides a mechanism to safeguard female sexual development  

PubMed Central

In humans, sexual differentiation of the external genitalia is established at 7–12 weeks post conception (wpc). During this period, maintaining the appropriate intrauterine hormone environment is critical. In contrast to other species, this regulation extends to the human fetal adrenal cortex, as evidenced by the virilization that is associated with various forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The mechanism underlying these clinical findings has remained elusive. Here we show that the human fetal adrenal cortex synthesized cortisol much earlier than previously documented, an effect associated with transient expression of the orphan nuclear receptor nerve growth factor IB-like (NGFI-B) and its regulatory target, the steroidogenic enzyme type 2 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B2). This cortisol biosynthesis was maximal at 8–9 wpc under the regulation of ACTH. Negative feedback was apparent at the anterior pituitary corticotrophs. ACTH also stimulated the adrenal gland to secrete androstenedione and testosterone. In concert, these data promote a distinctive mechanism for normal human development whereby cortisol production, determined by transient NGFI-B and HSD3B2 expression, provides feedback at the anterior pituitary to modulate androgen biosynthesis and safeguard normal female sexual differentiation.

Goto, Masahiro; Piper Hanley, Karen; Marcos, Josep; Wood, Peter J.; Wright, Sarah; Postle, Anthony D.; Cameron, Iain T.; Mason, J. Ian; Wilson, David I.; Hanley, Neil A.



Occupational role stress is associated with higher cortisol reactivity to acute stress.  


We investigated whether occupational role stress is associated with differential levels of the stress hormone cortisol in response to acute psychosocial stress. Forty-three medication-free nonsmoking men aged between 22 and 65 years (mean ± SEM: 44.5 ± 2) underwent an acute standardized psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic in front of an audience. We assessed occupational role stress in terms of role conflict and role ambiguity (combined into a measure of role uncertainty) as well as further work characteristics and psychological control variables including time pressure, overcommitment, perfectionism, and stress appraisal. Moreover, we repeatedly measured salivary cortisol and blood pressure levels before and after stress exposure, and several times up to 60 min thereafter. Higher role uncertainty was associated with a more pronounced cortisol stress reactivity (p = .016), even when controlling for the full set of potential confounders (p < .001). Blood pressure stress reactivity was not associated with role uncertainty. Our findings suggest that occupational role stress in terms of role uncertainty acts as a background stressor that is associated with increased HPA-axis reactivity to acute stress. This finding may represent a potential mechanism regarding how occupational role stress may precipitate adverse health outcomes. PMID:23566275

Wirtz, Petra H; Ehlert, Ulrike; Kottwitz, Maria U; La Marca, Roberto; Semmer, Norbert K



Effects of chronic intensive training on androgenic and cortisol profiles in premenarchal female gymnasts.  


The effect of intensive exercise training on urinary androgen and cortisol excretions in prepubertal girls of various ages was tested in competitive premenarchal gymnasts ( n=56) and in age-matched controls ( n=53). Both sexual maturation and bone age were assessed. Urinary excretions of androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), testosterone and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay procedures. The gymnasts were taller [mean (SD) 138.3 (9.0) cm vs 144.7 (8.3) cm; P<0.001] and lighter [32.0 (6.9) kg vs 36.7 (8.2) kg; P<0.001], and had a lower percentage of fat mass [16.8 (2.2)% vs 22.5 (6.6)%; P<0.0001] than the controls. There was no difference between groups in urinary testosterone, cortisol and DHEA-S levels, while androstenedione levels were significantly lower in gymnasts than in controls [mean (SEM) 187.10 (18.00) nmol/24 h vs 256.50 (15.00) nmol/24 h; P<0.01). There was no difference in the regression slopes between the two groups for all hormonal values. In conclusion, these results suggest that during the prepubertal period, intensive training alters only urinary androstenedione concentrations in girls. PMID:12012081

Jaffré, Christelle; Lac, Gérard; Benhamou, Claude Laurent; Courteix, Daniel



Effect of cortisol on a model of stereotyped behavior of rabbits in the form of thumping.  


Experiments conducted on 10 adult male Chinchilla rabbits showed that single 5-sec electrostimulation of the region of the medial hypothalamus induces a series of stereotyped behavioral responses in the form of synergic thumping on the floor of the experimental chamber. When the stimuli are repeated every 1.5-2 min adaptation to stimulation is observed, which is expressed in a gradual decrease of the number of thumps. To study the pharmacological and hormonal effects on the described behavior, an experimental model is proposed which consists of two series of stimulation, each of which consists of 10 successive stimuli. The investigated pharmacological agent (cortisol [hydrocortisone] hemisuccinate) was injected into the animals in the interval between the two series of stimulation. A statistical analysis of the experimental results showed that intraperitoneal injection of cortisol in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg enhances the simulation-induced behavioral response and shortens the latent period of its manifestation compared with the control. Key words: rabbit, electrostimulation, medial hypothalamus, stereotyped behavior, cortisol. PMID:3683827

Belyi, V P; Gonzalez, B B


Are we missing a mineralocorticoid in teleost fish? Effects of cortisol, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone on osmoregulation, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and isoform mRNA levels in Atlantic salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It has long been held that cortisol, acting through a single receptor, carries out both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions in teleost fish. The recent finding that fish express a gene with high sequence similarity to the mammalian mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) suggests the possibility that a hormone other than cortisol carries out some mineralocorticoid functions in fish. To test for this possibility, we examined the effect of in vivo cortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and aldosterone on salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA levels of NKA ?1a and ?1b in Atlantic salmon. Cortisol treatment for 6–14 days resulted in increased, physiological levels of cortisol, increased gill NKA activity and improved salinity tolerance (lower plasma chloride after a 24 h seawater challenge), whereas DOC and aldosterone had no effect on either NKA activity or salinity tolerance. NKA ?1a and ?1b mRNA levels, which increase in response to fresh water and seawater acclimation, respectively, were both upregulated by cortisol, whereas DOC and aldosterone were without effect. Cortisol, DOC and aldosterone had no effect on gill glucocorticoid receptor GR1, GR2 and MR mRNA levels, although there was some indication of possible upregulation of GR1 by cortisol (p = 0.07). The putative GR blocker RU486 inhibited cortisol-induced increases in salinity tolerance, NKA activity and NKA ?1a and ?1b transcription, whereas the putative MR blocker spironolactone had no effect. The results provide support that cortisol, and not DOC or aldosterone, is involved in regulating the mineralocorticoid functions of ion uptake and salt secretion in teleost fish.

McCormick, S. D.; Regish, A.; O'Dea, M. F.; Shrimpton, J. M.



Hormone therapy  


... of menopause include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, mood swings, sleep disorders, and decreased sexual desire. Hormone therapy ... therapy may have: Bloating Breast soreness Headaches Mood swings Nausea Water retention Changing the dose or form ...


Acute hormonal responses following different velocities of eccentric exercise.  


The aim of this study was to compare the acute hormonal responses following two different eccentric exercise velocities. Seventeen healthy, untrained, young women were randomly placed into two groups to perform five sets of six maximal isokinetic eccentric actions at slow (30° s(-1) ) and fast (210° s(-1) ) velocities with 60-s rest between sets. Growth hormone, cortisol, free and total testosterone were assessed by blood samples collected at baseline, immediately postexercise, 5, 15 and 30 min following eccentric exercise. Changes in hormonal responses over time were compared between groups, using a mixed model followed by a Tukey's post hoc test. The main findings of the present study were that the slow group showed higher growth hormone values immediately (5·08 ± 2·85 ng ml(-1) , P = 0·011), 5 (5·54 ± 3·01 ng ml(-1) , P = 0·004) and 15 min (4·30 ± 2·87 ng ml(-1) , P = 0·021) posteccentric exercise compared with the fast group (1·39 ± 2·41 ng ml(-1) , 1·34 ± 1·97 ng ml(-1) and 1·24 ± 1·87 ng ml(-1) , respectively), and other hormonal responses were not different between groups (P>0·05). In conclusion, slow eccentric exercise velocity enhances more the growth hormone(GH) response than fast eccentric exercise velocity without cortisol and testosterone increases. PMID:23701469

Libardi, Cleiton A; Nogueira, Felipe R D; Vechin, Felipe C; Conceição, Miguel S; Bonganha, Valéria; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia T



Effect of synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor. Dose response of plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol.  

PubMed Central

Synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was administered to normal male volunteer subjects as an intravenous bolus or 30-s infusion. Doses of CRF ranging from 0.001 to 30 micrograms/kg body wt were administered, and plasma immunoreactive (IR)-ACTH and IR-cortisol concentrations were measured. The threshold dose appeared to be 0.01-0.03 micrograms/kg, the half-maximal dose 0.3-1 micrograms/kg, and the maximally effective dose 3-10 micrograms/kg. Basal concentrations of IR-ACTH and IR-cortisol were 14 +/- 7.6 pg/ml (mean +/- SD) and 5.6 +/- 2.2 micrograms/dl, respectively. IR-ACTH rose as early as 2 min after CRF injection, reached peak levels in 10-15 min, and declined slowly thereafter. IR-cortisol rose at 10 min or later and reached peak levels in 30-60 min. At a dose of 30 micrograms/kg, neither IR-ACTH nor IR-cortisol fell from peak levels of 82 +/- 21 pg/ml (mean +/- SE) and 23 +/- 1.4 micrograms/dl, respectively, during the 2-h course of the experiment, indicating that CRF has a sustained effect on ACTH release and/or a prolonged circulating plasma half-life. There was little or no increase in the levels of other anterior pituitary hormones. At doses of 1 microgram/kg and higher, facial flushing, tachycardia, and, in some subjects, a 15-29-mmHg decline in systemic arterial blood pressure were observed, even though blood volume was replaced and the subjects remained supine. These data indicate that synthetic ovine CRF is a very potent and specific ACTH secretagogue in man. Administered with caution until its vasomotor effects are more fully defined, CRF promises to be a safe and very useful investigative, diagnostic, and, possibly, therapeutic agent in man. Images

Orth, D N; Jackson, R V; DeCherney, G S; DeBold, C R; Alexander, A N; Island, D P; Rivier, J; Rivier, C; Spiess, J; Vale, W



Association of Aldosterone and Cortisol with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Prehypertension Stage  

PubMed Central

Background. The Pakistani population has higher incidence of cardiovascular (CV) diseases at younger ages, due to undiagnosed, uncontrolled hypertension (HTN). A variety of associated HTN stressors is also reported. The study plans to understand the variables associated with initiation of HTN in this population. Objective. To find plasma aldosterone and cortisol relationship with some CV risk factors (obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, sodium and potassium) in different stages of HTN particularly prehypertension. Subjects and Methods. The study conducted on 276 subjects (25–60 years), classified into prehypertensive (n = 55), HTN stage-1 (n = 70) and II (n = 76) according to 7th JNC report and compared with normotensive controls (n = 75). The anthropometric profiles (height, weight, waist circumference, Body Mass index) and BP recorded. Serum cortisol, aldosterone, total cholesterol, Low density lipoproteins, blood glucose, Na+ and K+, using standard laboratory techniques, were determined in fasting blood samples. Results. Subjects were mostly overweight and obese (80%, 90%, and 76% in pre-HTN, stage-I and II versus 69% in controls). The aldosterone level (ng/dl) was in higher normal range (9.17–12.41) and significantly correlated to BMI (0.587) in controls, and to TC (0.726) and LDL (0.620) in pre-HTN stage-I. The cortisol level was positively correlated (P < 0.01) to BMI (0.538), Na+ (0.690) and K+ (0.578) in control, and to BMI (0.628) and WC (0.679) in pre-HTN group, showing its association with BMI > 25. Conclusion. Pre-HTN stage among Pakistani population with successive increase in various risk factors of HTN in relation to aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. Interaction of the risk factors with endogenous levels of these hormones may initiate stages of HTN.

Syed, Sadiqa Badar; Qureshi, Masood Anwar



Cortisol and Depressive Symptoms in a Population-Based Cohort of Midlife Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether there is a relationship between depressive symptoms and cortisol assessed at first morning awakening, 6PM, and 9PM in a population-based sample of midlife women. If this relationship is not linear, we aim to test whether this relationship is nonlinear, only present in those with more severe depressive symptoms, better accounted for by diurnal slope, or only apparent under uncontaminated conditions. Methods We investigated the cross-sectional association between cortisol and depressive symptoms, assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in 408 midlife women (45.7% African-Americans, 54.3% white; mean age = 50.4) participating in the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Results Diurnal cortisol slope is significantly flatter for women with higher CES-D scores than for less depressed women (p<.05 for the interaction). This relationship remains significant even after adjusting for age, smoking status, race, education, income, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), body mass index (BMI), medications, and wake time as well as possibly contaminating factors including physical activity, smoking, eating, or caffeine or alcohol consumption prior to saliva collection. Results using depression assessed categorically (CES-D cutoff ? 16) were similar to those using continuous depression in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses (p=.005 for the interaction of CES-D by time). Conclusions In this population-based sample of midlife women, greater depressive symptoms were associated with a significantly flatter diurnal cortisol slope than those with fewer symptoms, even after adjusting for covariates and possibly contaminating behaviors.

Knight, Jennifer M.; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.



Predictors and patterns of participant adherence to a cortisol collection protocol  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Cortisol, a stress-related hormone, has been measured in many psychoimmunological studies via collection of saliva; however, patterns of participant adherence to protocol procedures are rarely described in the literature. Objectives In this paper we examine adherence to a cortisol morning rise collection protocol and explore its associations with demographic predictors and fatigue. Method Participants included 262 breast cancer survivors enrolled in a National Institute of Nursing Research funded longitudinal intervention study (5R01NR010190, M. Mishel, P.I.). Self-reported times of salivary cortisol collection were recorded for each of 12 saliva samples. Adherence was assessed with respect to various demographic factors and fatigue. Participants were categorized as having high, moderate, or low adherence to the saliva collection protocol. Results Overall, 117 (45%) participants had high adherence to the protocol, 117 (45%) participants had moderate adherence, and 28 (~11%) participants had low adherence. Tests for proportionality for the polytomous logistic regression indicated that demographic predictors in our model had a similar association with each level of participant adherence. Women who did not adhere to the saliva collection were more likely to be African American (OR .50, CI .29 – .88) and to report a high impact of fatigue on their behaviors (OR .88, CI .79 – .98). Though other predictors in the model were not statistically significant (working full time and living with at least one child under 18 years of age), the overall model was significant (?2(4) = 17.35, p<.01). Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine profiles of participant adherence to a cortisol sampling protocol over multiple timepoints. By conceptualizing adherence as a polytomous outcome, future studies may give us insights into adherence trends in other populations with the aim of promoting adherence and designing more informed saliva collection protocols.

Hall, Daniel; Blyler, Diane; Allen, Deborah; Mishel, Merle H; Crandell, Jamie; Germino, Barbara B; Porter, Laura S



Cortisol and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Basal cortisol and cortisol stress responsivity are valuable biological characteristics of children with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). In this study, the predictive value of cortisol to outcome of intervention was investigated. Method: Basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels under stress were studied in 22 children with DBD…

van de Wiel, Nicolle M.H.; van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Matthys, Walter; Snoek, Heddeke; van Engeland, Herman



Effect of dietary vitamin E on cortisol and glucose responses to handling stress in juvenile beluga Huso huso.  


An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E on the physiological response to handling stress in juvenile beluga Huso huso. Fish were fed six experimental diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50,100, 200, or 400 mg Dl-all-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate/kg diet. At the end of the experiment, the fish in each tank were subjected to acute handling and air exposure stress. Cortisol and glucose were measured as the primary hormonal and secondary metabolic responses to the stressors, both before and 3 h after application of the stressors. The growth parameters and feed utilization rates were significantly lower in fish fed the diet not supplemented with vitamin E than in fish fed diets supplemented with vitamin E. Cortisol concentration was not affected by dietary treatment but glucose concentration was. Fish fed vitamin E at 0, 25, 100, and 400 mg/kg diet had higher concentrations of glucose than those fed vitamin E at 50 and 200 mg/kg. However, fish fed diets with 50 and 200 mg/kg exhibited higher growth rates. These results indicate that dietary vitamin E has some effect on plasma glucose but no effect on plasma cortisol. In general, when the stressors were applied to belugas, the glucose and cortisol responses were relatively low. This may be due to higher resistance and lower physiological responses to these types of stressors by this species or by chondrosteans in general. PMID:22779208

Falahatkar, B; Amlashi, A Safarpour; Conte, F



Action of Cortisol on Sodium Transport in Canine Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Incubation of blood from deoxycorticosterone-treated, adrenalectomized dogs with glucose, 22NaCl, and cortisol, added in vitro, revealed log dose-related acceleration of sodium influx, of glucose utilization, and of lactate formation by cortisol in concentrations between 150 and 1000 µg/liter. Addition of 2-deoxyglucose, or preincubation of the blood until blood glucose concentration had fallen below 2.0 mg per 100 ml, reduced or abolished the acceleratory action of added cortisol on sodium influx but had no effect on sodium influx in the absence of added cortisol. Cortisol did not change the ATP or ATPase content of erythrocytes, or the metabolism of glucose via the pentose phosphate pathway, or the rate of efflux of 22Na from the erythrocytes. The acceleratory actions of cortisol on sodium, influx, glucose utilization, and lactate formation were significantly correlated. Cortisol (1000 µg/liter) enhanced sodium influx by approximately 8.7 mmole per liter erythrocytes per hour for each 1 mmole cortisol-induced increment in ATP production. It is concluded that sodium influx in canine erythrocytes comprises a passive component, unchanged by cellular metabolism, and a second component which is accelerated and inhibited in proportion to prevailing plasma concentrations of cortisol and aldosterone, and which (for cortisol) depends upon accelerated ATP production via glycolysis. These steroid actions probably result from effects on enzyme activity rather than on new enzyme induction.

Streeten, David H. P.; Moses, Arnold M.



Decreased hair cortisol concentrations in generalised anxiety disorder.  


Previous research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) has suggested a general hypercortisolism. These studies have mostly relied on salivary, plasma or urinary assessments, reflecting cortisol secretion over short time periods. The current study utilised the novel method of cortisol assessment in hair to obtain a retrospective index of cortisol secretion over a prolonged period of time. Hair cortisol levels were determined in 15 GAD patients and in 15 age- and gender-matched controls. In addition, participants collected six saliva samples (on awakening, +30 min, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00 h and at bedtime) on two consecutive weekdays for the assessment of the diurnal cortisol profile. Results revealed significantly lower (50-60%) cortisol levels in the first and second 3-cm hair segments of GAD patients compared to those of controls. No significant between-group differences were seen in diurnal cortisol profiles. The hair cortisol findings tentatively suggest that under naturalistic conditions GAD is associated with hypocortisolism. If corroborated by future research, this demonstrates the important qualities of cortisol measurement in hair as an ecologically valid, retrospective index of long-term cortisol secretion and as a marker for psychiatric disorders associated with hypo- or hypercortisolism. PMID:20889215

Steudte, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Dettenborn, Lucia; Klumbies, Elisabeth; Foley, Paul; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Kirschbaum, Clemens



Aberrant Expression of Hormone Receptors in Adrenal Cushing's Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of adrenal Cushing's syndrome has emerged. The ectopic or aberrant\\u000a expression of G-protein-coupled hormone receptors in the adrenal cortex was found to play a central role in the regulation\\u000a of cortisol secretion in ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) and in some unilateral adrenal adenomas.\\u000a Various aberrant receptors, functionally coupled to steroidogenesis,

Stavroula Christopoulos; Isabelle Bourdeau; André Lacroix



Exercise-induced hormone responses in girls at different stages of sexual maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of exercise-induced hormone responses on sexual maturation was tested in a 3-year longitudinal experiment\\u000a on 34 girls (aged 11–12 years at the beginning). Sexual maturation was evaluated by Tanners five-stage scale. Children cycled\\u000a for 20-min at 60% maximal oxygen uptake once a year. Cortisol, insulin, growth hormone, ?-oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone\\u000a concentrations in venous blood were determined by

Atko Viru; Livian Laaneots; Kalle Karelson; Tamara Smirnova; Mehis Viru



Female social and sexual interest across the menstrual cycle: the roles of pain, sleep and hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although research suggests that socio-sexual behavior changes in conjunction with the menstrual cycle, several potential factors are rarely taken into consideration. We investigated the role of changing hormone concentrations on self-reported physical discomfort, sleep, exercise and socio-sexual interest in young, healthy women. METHODS: Salivary hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-DHEAS, progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and estriol) and socio-sexual variables were measured in

Chrisalbeth J. Guillermo; Heidi A. Manlove; Peter B. Gray; David T. Zava; Chandler R. Marrs



Changes in excretion rates of stress hormones in medical staff exposed to electromagnetic radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to study the effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the excretion rates of stress hormones\\u000a of medical staff in physiotherapy. The excretion rates of stress hormones cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed\\u000a during morning shift in 15 female physiotherapists using RIA kits and a spectrofluorimetric method. The mean number of treatments\\u000a with EMR emitting

Katia Vangelova; Michel Israel; Desimira Velkova; Michaela Ivanova



Excretion of infused 14C-steroid hormones via faeces and urine in domestic livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this comparative study was to gain more information about the excretion of steroid hormones in farm animals. This should help to establish or improve non-invasive steroid monitoring procedures, especially in zoo and wildlife animals. Over a period of 4 h the 14C-steroid hormones (3.7 MBq) progesterone (three females), testosterone (three males), cortisol and oestrone (two males, two

R. Palme; P. Fischer; H. Schildorfer; M. N. Ismail



Hormonal and psychological adaptation in elite male rowers during prolonged training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined possible hormonal and psychological changes in elite male rowers during a 24-week preparatory period. Eleven elite male rowers were tested on seven occasions over the 6-month training season. Fasting testosterone, growth hormone, cortisol, and creatine kinase activity, together with perceived recovery-stress state were evaluated after a day of rest. Maximal oxygen consumption ([Vdot]O2max) was determined

P. Purge; J. Jürimäe; T. Jürimäe



Experimental test of the effect of maternal hormones on larval quality of a coral reef fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal hormones can play an important role in the development of fish larvae. Levels of the stress hormone, cortisol, in\\u000a females are elevated by social interactions and transferred directly to the yolk of eggs, where they may influence developmental\\u000a rates. In some vertebrates, prenatal exposure to high levels of testosterone determine early growth rates, social status and\\u000a reproductive success. The

M. I. McCormick



Cortisol and androgen concentrations in female and male elite endurance athletes in relation to physical activity.  


To evaluate the effect of variations in physical activity on selected hormone concentrations in male versus female athletes, fasting serum concentrations of cortisol (C), total-testosterone, free-testosterone, non sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) bound testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, 4-androstene-3,17-dione and SHBG were studied. The tests were performed in nine male and seven female elite endurance athletes during the off-season (test 1), early in the competition season (test 2) and at the end of the competition season (test 3). The C concentration increased significantly during the competition season in women but not in men. Further, the mean C concentrations at test 3 as well as the mean level during the whole observation period (tests 1, 2, 3) were significantly higher in women than in men. No significant changes were found in androgen concentrations or androgen:cortisol ratios within the two groups. The differences between the sexes in C response may indicate different adaptive mechanisms to similar physical stress. PMID:1836993

Tsai, L; Johansson, C; Pousette, A; Tegelman, R; Carlström, K; Hemmingsson, P