Sample records for cortisol adrenocorticotropic hormone

  1. Effect of acute heat stress on adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, interleukin-2, interleukin-12 and apoptosis gene expression in rats

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LI; LIU, FADONG; LUO, YAN; ZHU, LINGQIN; LI, GUANGHUA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute heat stress on the neuroendocrine and immunological function in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups and respectively exposed to heat (32°C) or to room temperature (24°C). After 7 days of heat exposure, the heat-stress rat model was established. The organ coefficients of the pituitary and adrenal glands were determined. The body temperature was measured by telemetry. The average contents of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol (Cor), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 in serum were detected. The expression of apoptotic genes in the spleen was measured. The results showed that acute heat stress did not evidently affect the body temperature and body weight (P>0.05), but the exposure increased the organ coefficients of the pituitary and adrenal glands (P<0.05). Heat exposure significantly elevated the level of ACTH, Cor, IL-2 and IL-12 (P<0.05). The expression of caspase-3 and Bax were not changed significantly (P>0.05), while Bcl2 was reduced (P<0.05).

  2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone but not high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or salivary cortisol was a predictor of adrenal insufficiency in patients with septic shock.

    PubMed

    Festti, Josiane; Grion, Cintia Magalhães Carvalho; Festti, Luciana; Mazzuco, Tânia Longo; Lima-Valassi, Helena Pantelion; Brito, Vinícius Nahime; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Carrilho, Alexandre José Faria

    2014-07-01

    Relative adrenal insufficiency in sepsis has been extensively debated on; however, accurate diagnosis and therapeutic intervention remain controversial. The authors aimed to evaluate adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), salivary cortisol, total cortisol and estimated plasma-free cortisol, cholesterol, and lipoproteins as predictors of adrenal insufficiency in patients within 24 h of septic shock diagnosis. This prospective study evaluated all hospitalized patients older than 18 years who developed septic shock and were using vasoactive drugs within 24 h of diagnosis. Blood and saliva samples were drawn at baseline and 60 min (T60) after 250 ?g tetracosactide intravenous injection. Patients were divided into two groups: responders (? [T60 minus baseline] total cortisol >9 ?g/dL) and nonresponders (? total cortisol ? 9 ?g/dL or baseline total cortisol <10 ?g/dL). The latter group was considered to have adrenal insufficiency. A total of 7,324 hospitalized patients were monitored, and 34 subjects with septic shock were included in the analysis. Adrenal insufficiency was found in 32.4%. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and salivary cortisol did not differ between groups. Estimated plasma-free cortisol was not better than total plasma cortisol in estimating adrenal function. Baseline endogenous ACTH was higher in nonresponders than responders (55.5 pg/mL vs. 18.3 pg/mL, respectively; P = 0.01). The cutoff ACTH value that discriminated patients with adrenal insufficiency was 31.5 pg/mL. Thus, endogenous ACTH measured within 24 h of septic shock diagnosis could predict adrenal response to tetracosactide. PMID:24667620

  3. Serum concentrations of cortisol induced by exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are not predictive of residual feed intake (RFI) in Brahman cattle. 

    E-print Network

    Agado, Bryan Joseph

    2011-01-11

    is needed. Knott et al. reported that rams with poor feed efficiency (positive RFI values) are more responsive to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); thus, we tested the hypothesis that response to an ACTH challenge in Brahman cattle is directly...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system....

  5. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system....

  6. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system....

  7. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a)...

  8. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Dependent Cushing’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El-Shafie, Omayma T.; Al-Saffi, Nooralddin; Al-Sajwani, Ahmed; Woodhouse, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) overproduction is usually due to a pituitary tumour which is often not visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, ACTH overproduction may be due to an ectopic source. This study aimed to develop a simple non-invasive technique to differentiate these sources. Methods: This study took place in King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between 1988 and 2012. Serum cortisol levels were measured in nine patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome before and during a 72-hour trial of octreotide. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) scans. MRI scans were performed on six patients. Results: CT scans were abnormal in three patients with ectopic ACTH production. MRI scans showed that three patients had pituitary microadenomas. Serum cortisol levels returned to normal in those with confirmed ectopic ACTH production. No response was found in the other six patients. Conclusion: A 72-hour trial of octreotide is recommended for patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome and a normal pituitary MRI. This trial will be a useful alternative to petrosal sinus sampling. PMID:25685371

  9. Radioactive probes for adrenocorticotropic hormone receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, K.; Romovacek, H.; Stehle, C.J.; Finn, F.M.; Bothner-By, A.A.; Mishra, P.K.

    1986-03-25

    Our attempts to develop adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogues that can be employed for ACTH receptor identification and isolation began with the synthesis of ACTH fragments containing N epsilon-(dethiobiotinyl)lysine (dethiobiocytin) amide in position 25 to be used for affinity chromatographic purification of hormone-receptor complexes on Sepharose-immobilized avidin resins. Because labeling ACTH or ACTH fragments by conventional iodination techniques destroys biological activity due to oxidation of Met4 and incorporation of iodine into Tyr2, we have prepared (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24, (Phe2,Nle4,biocytin25)ACTH1-25 amide, and (Phe2,Nle4,dethiobiocytin25)ACTH1-25 amide by conventional synthetic techniques. The HPLC profiles and amino acid analyses of the final products indicate that the materials are of a high degree of purity. The amount of tertiary butylation of the Trp residue in the peptides was assessed by NMR and was found to be less than 0.5%. All three peptides are equipotent with the standard ACTH1-24 as concerns their ability to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP formation in bovine adrenal cortical cells. Iodination of (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24, with iodogen as the oxidizing agent, has been accomplished without any detectable loss of biological activity. The mono- and diiodo derivatives of (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24 have been prepared, separated by HPLC, and assayed for biological activity. Both peptides have the full capacity to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP production in bovine adrenal cortical cells.

  10. Repeated administrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone during gestation in gilts: Effects on growth, behaviour and immune responses of their piglets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winfried Otten; Ellen Kanitz; Margret Tuchscherer; Birger Puppe; Gerd Nürnberg

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether repeated administrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) during mid or late gestation, a treatment which induces endogenous cortisol release, affect growth performance, early vitality, open-field behaviour and immune responses of neonatal pigs. Administrations of ACTH (100 IU per animal, Synacthen® Depot) were given intramuscularly to gilts every second day either during mid (Day 49 until 75, Experiment

  11. Cellular/Molecular Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Enhances the Masculinity of

    E-print Network

    Stoddard, Philip

    adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) increasetheamplitudeanddurationoftheelectricsignalwaveformofthegymnotiform of ACTH, whereas inhibition of PKA by protein kinase A inhibitor 14­22 amide blocked the modulatory effects of ACTH, confirming the role of the cAMP/PKA pathway in EOD modulation by ACTH. Key words: action

  12. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests in healthy foals from birth to 12 weeks of age

    PubMed Central

    Wong, David M.; Vo, Dai Tan; Alcott, Cody J.; Stewart, Allison J.; Peterson, Anna D.; Sponseller, Brett A.; Hsu, Walter H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate total baseline plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations, and ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations in foals from birth to 12 wk of age. Plasma (baseline) cortisol and ACTH concentrations were measured in 13 healthy foals at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Each foal received cosyntropin (0.1 ?g/kg) intravenously. Plasma cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline), and 30, and 60 min after cosyntropin administration at birth and at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Compared with baseline, cortisol concentration increased significantly 30 min after administration of cosyntropin on all days. Cortisol concentration was highest at birth, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, compared with all other days. With the exception of birth measurements, cortisol concentration was significantly higher on day 84, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, when compared with all other days. Baseline plasma ACTH was lowest at birth when compared with concentrations on days 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 42, 56, and 84. Administration of 0.1 ?g/kg of cosyntropin, IV, reliably induces cortisol secretion in healthy foals. Differences in the magnitude of response to cosyntropin are observed depending on the age of the foal. These data should serve as a reference for the ACTH stimulation test in foals and should be useful in subsequent studies to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy and critically ill foals. PMID:19337398

  13. Enhanced Suppression of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Responses to Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function and Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Tests after Stressful Life Events in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takatoshi Hikichi; Jotaro Akiyoshi; Shugo Ichioka; Yoshihiro Tanaka; Jusen Tsuru; Shinjirou Goto; Hirotaka Matsushita; Hiroaki Hanada; Koichi Isogawa; Haruo Nagayama

    2007-01-01

    Background: It is commonly believed that there exists a relationship between the outcome of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test, the combined dexamethasone\\/corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX\\/CRH) test and stressful life events (SLEs) in major depressive disorder. Objective: SLEs influence the TRH and DEX\\/CRH tests in major depressive disorder when administered at the time of admission and improvement. Methods: The TRH and DEX\\/CRH tests

  14. Linkage of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency to the corticotropin releasing hormone locus using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kyllo, J.H.; Collins, M.M.; Vetter, K.L. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); and others

    1996-03-29

    Genetic screening techniques using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms were applied to investigate the molecular nature of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. We hypothesize that this rare cause of hypocortisolism shared by a brother and sister with two unaffected sibs and unaffected parents is inherited as an autosomal recessive single gene mutation. Genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis controlling cortisol sufficiency were investigated for a causal role in this disorder. Southern blotting showed no detectable mutations of the gene encoding pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the ACTH precursor. Other candidate genes subsequently considered were those encoding neuroendocrine convertase-1, and neuroendocrine convertase-2 (NEC-1, NEC-2), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Tests for linkage were performed using polymorphic di- and tetranucleotide simple sequence repeat markers flanking the reported map locations for POMC, NEC-1, NEC-2, and CRH. The chromosomal haplotypes determined by the markers flanking the loci for POMC, NEC-1, and NEC-2 were not compatible with linkage. However, 22 individual markers defining the chromosomal haplotypes flanking CRH were compatible with linkage of the disorder to the immediate area of this gene of chromosome 8. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the ACTH deficiency in this family is due to an abnormality of CRH gene structure or expression. These results illustrate the useful application of high density genetic maps constructed with simple sequence repeat markers for inclusion/exclusion studies of candidate genes in even very small nuclear families segregating for unusual phenotypes. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Isolated Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Deficiency with Transient Thyroiditis Inducing an Adrenal Crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Hiraiwa; Daisuke Furutama; Sadaki Sakane; Mitsuru Ito; Akihisa Imagawa; Fumiharu Kimura; Toshiaki Hanafusa

    2007-01-01

    Objective: It was the aim of this study to describe a patient with isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency presenting with a variety of involuntary movements who developed an adrenal crisis due to transient thyroiditis. Clinical Presentation and Intervention: A 61-year-old man was hospitalized with a variety of involuntary movements that were suspected manifestations of metabolic encephalopathy. After admission, his general status

  16. A Single Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulation Test Does Not Reveal Adrenal Insufficiency in Septic Shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pekka Loisa; Ari Uusaro; Esko Ruokonen

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of adrenocortical insufficiency in criti- cally ill patients is complex. The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test is a widely accepted method for assessing the adequacy of adrenal function in intensive care units, but it is possible that there may be wide variations in responses to the test over a short period of time. In this prospective study, we

  17. System identification of cortisol secretion : characterizing pulsatile dynamics

    E-print Network

    Faghih, Rose Taj

    2014-01-01

    Cortisol controls the body's metabolism and response to inflammation and stress. Cortisol is released in pulses from the adrenal glands in response to pulses of adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH) released from the anterior ...

  18. The adrenocorticotropic hormone-induced cortisol response in acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AB Johan Groeneveld

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The evidence that severe acute pancreatitis can result in critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency following impaired adrenal secretion is accumulating. The study by Peng and coworkers in Critical Care certainly contributes to that idea, even though the question whether relative adrenal insufficiency should prompt for treatment by substitution doses of corticosteroids remains unresolved. The study is discussed in terms of

  19. Positive gallium scan in the syndrome of opsoclonus-myoclonus treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Gumbinas; Edward S. Gratz; Gerald S. Johnston; Allen D. Schwartz

    1984-01-01

    The syndrome of opsoclonus and myoclonus may be the first presenting symptom of neuroblastoma. The disorder is often controlled by treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). A child with this disorder and treated with ACTH gel had abnormal uptake of ⁶⁷Ga in both adrenal glands during studies to attempt to detect an occult neuroblastoma. Repeat ⁶⁷Ga scans proved to be normal

  20. Hypofibrinogenemia caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone for infantile spasms: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Atsushi; Araya, Nami; Akasaka, Manami; Mizuma, Kanako; Asami, Maya; Tanifuji, Sachiko; Chida, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 7-month-old boy who developed hypofibrinogenemia (66.6 mg/dL; reference value, 170-405 mg/dL) during adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy for infantile spasms. Although the patient showed no clinical signs of a bleeding diathesis, we recommend that plasma fibrinogen levels should be monitored during ACTH therapy, which should be discontinued when fibrinogen levels fall below hemostatic levels (60.0mg/dL) or when bleeding tendencies are recognized. PMID:24735983

  1. Positive gallium scan in the syndrome of opsoclonus-myoclonus treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Gumbinas, M.; Gratz, E.S.; Johnston, G.S.; Schwartz, A.D.

    1984-09-01

    The syndrome of opsoclonus and myoclonus may be the first presenting symptom of neuroblastoma. The disorder is often controlled by treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). A child with this disorder and treated with ACTH gel had abnormal uptake of /sup 67/Ga in both adrenal glands during studies to attempt to detect an occult neuroblastoma. Repeat /sup 67/Ga scans proved to be normal once the ACTH was discontinued and the patient was treated with prednisone. It is concluded that ACTH stimulation of normal adrenal tissue was responsible for these abnormal findings.

  2. Modulation of the Oxidative Burst in Trout Myeloid Cells by Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Catecholamines: Mechanisms of Action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Bayne; Sharon Levy

    The oxidative burst of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) phagocytes was previously found to be differentially modulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the catecholamine receptor agonists phenylephrine and isoproterenol. From data obtained using both luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LECL) and ferricytochrome C (cyt C) reduction to measure oxidative burst kinetics, we postulated that the observed modula- tion was mediated by affects on enzymes

  3. Space weightlessness and hormonal changes in human subjects and experimental animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from spaceflight and bed rest studies are briefly described and the difficulties in interpreting these results are discussed. Growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, insulin, aldosterone, and other hormones are addressed.

  4. Growth hormone and cortisol in neonates during phototherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. v. Mühlendahl; L. Ballowitz

    1975-01-01

    In 22 neonates plasma growth hormone (GH) and cortisol concentrations were measured during phototherapy which was administered because of hyperbilirubinemia. These values were compared to the hormone levels before and after therapy and to control values taken from healthy nursery infants. Phototherapy significantly increased GH concentrations to 195%±108 (SD) (healthy control group=100%). Cortisol was not found to be augmented. There

  5. Effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation during adrenal vein sampling in primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Monticone, Silvia; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Giacchetti, Gilberta; Viola, Andrea; Morimoto, Ryo; Kudo, Masataka; Iwakura, Yoshitsugu; Ono, Yoshikiyo; Turchi, Federica; Paci, Enrico; Veglio, Franco; Boscaro, Marco; Rainey, William; Ito, Sadayoshi; Mulatero, Paolo

    2012-04-01

    Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is fundamental for subtype diagnosis in patients with primary aldosteronism. AVS protocols vary between centers, especially for diagnostic indices and for use of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. We investigated the role of both continuous ACTH infusion and bolus on the performance and interpretation of AVS in a sample of 76 patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism. In 36 primary aldosteronism patients, AVS was performed both under basal conditions and after continuous ACTH infusion, and in 40 primary aldosteronism patients, AVS was performed both under basal conditions and after ACTH IV bolus. Both ACTH protocols determined an increase in the rate of successful cannulation of the adrenal veins. Both ACTH infusion and bolus determined a significant increase in selectivity index for the right adrenal vein and ACTH bolus for the left adrenal vein. Lateralization index was not significantly different after continuous ACTH infusion and IV bolus. In 88% and 78% of the patients, the diagnosis obtained was the same before and after ACTH infusion and IV bolus, respectively. However, the reproducibility of the diagnosis was reduced using less stringent criteria for successful cannulation of the adrenal veins. This study shows that ACTH use during AVS may be of help for centers with lower success rates, because a successful adrenal cannulation is more easily obtained with this protocol; moreover, this technique performs at least as well as the unstimulated strategy and in some cases may be even better. Stringent criteria for cannulation should be used to have a high consistency of the diagnosis. PMID:22331382

  6. Serum corticosterone response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation in Florida sandhill cranes.

    PubMed

    Ludders, J W; Langenberg, J A; Czekala, N M; Erb, H N; McCormick, H

    1998-10-01

    Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement in an enclosure for 7 days, 6 hr a day. On day 8, cranes were catheterized and then confined in an enclosure. Venous blood (2 ml) was collected through the catheter and an attached IV line immediately before (-60 min) and 60 min after (0 min) confinement. Using a randomization table and a restricted cross-over experimental design, cranes were injected intravenously with either saline (control) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; cosyntropin, Cortrosyn; 0.25 mg). At 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection, blood samples were collected and assayed for corticosterone. The cranes receiving ACTH increased their serum corticosterone concentrations as much as fivefold above baseline concentrations. Serum corticosterone concentrations remained significantly elevated for approximately 60 min after ACTH stimulation. Physical restraint and catheterization caused an increase in serum corticosterone almost comparable to that induced by ACTH stimulation. In cranes injected with saline, serum corticosterone decreased within 1 hr after physical restraint and catheterization, and remained at lower levels throughout the remaining 5 hr of confinement. PMID:9813840

  7. Differential expression of functional adrenocorticotropic hormone receptors by subpopulations of lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, B.L.; Bost, K.L.

    1989-07-15

    In an effort to investigate the presence of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptors on rat lymphocytes, cells were separated by a panning procedure into T and B cell populations. By using the radiolabeled ACTH agonist, (/sup 125/I-Tyr23) phenylalanine2-norleucine4-ACTH1-24, substantial numbers of ACTH binding sites were detected on T and B lymphocytes, but not on thymocytes. Scatchard analysis revealed two types of binding sites on each cell population, one with Kd1 = 0.088 +/- 0.025 nM and one with Kd2 = 4.2 +/- 0.6 nM; however, the absolute number of binding sites per cell was different. B lymphocytes expressed approximately three times the number of Kd1 binding sites per cell when compared with T lymphocytes. However, ACTH receptor expression by these cell populations was not static as suggested by the ability to induce receptor expression via mitogens. B or T cells and thymocytes stimulated with the mitogens LPS or Con A, respectively, substantially increased their number of Kd1 binding sites per cell (approximately three-fold). Even more dramatic increases in Kd1 receptor expression (approximately 100-fold) were observed when comparing ''normal'' and stimulated thymocytes. To demonstrate that these ACTH binding sites were in fact functional, cAMP levels were measured in lymphocytes 10 min after exposure to varying concentrations of ACTH. Dose-dependent increases in cAMP levels were observed, with significant stimulation occurring with as little as 0.1 nM ACTH added. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the presence of functional ACTH receptors on normal, rat T and B lymphocytes.

  8. Clinical Usefulness of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Testing in Subclinical Cushing's Syndrome for Predicting Cortisol Replacement after Adrenalectomy

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Masahiro; Ide, Hisamitsu; Kurihara, Koji; Koseki, Tatsuro; Yu, Jingsong; China, Toshiyuki; Saito, Keisuke; Isotani, Shuji; Muto, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and hormonal features of patients with incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas in relation to corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) testing and the clinical outcome of adrenalectomy. Materials and Methods Twenty-three consecutive patients with incidentally detected adrenal adenomas were included in this retrospective study. All the patients underwent abdominal computed tomography scans and hormonal assays, including assessment of circadian rhythms of plasma cortisol and corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone, ACTH), a corticotropin stimulation test, and low-dose and high-dose dexamethasone tests. The patients were reevaluated at regular intervals (6, 12, and 24 months) for a median period of 24 months. Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) was diagnosed in patients with subtle hypercortisolism who did not present clinical signs of Cushing's syndrome. Results We calculated the responsive index (peak value of ACTH in CRH test/baseline value of ACTH in CRH test). Of 23 patients, 6 had Cushing's syndrome, 8 had SCS, and 9 had a non-functioning tumor. All patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Several patients (5 of 6 with Cushing's syndrome and 2 of 8 with SCS) required cortisol replacement therapy after surgery. The remaining patients required no hormonal replacement after surgery. Those who required hormone replacement had a responsive index of less than 1.2. Those who did not need hormone replacement therapy had a responsive index of more than 2.0. Conclusions In our limited experience, the responsive index of the CRH test might be a valuable tool for predicting the need for cortisol replacement after surgery in patients with SCS. PMID:22741051

  9. Peripheral blood corticotropin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cytokine (Interleukin Beta, Interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels after high- and low-dose total-body irradiation in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Girinsky, T.A.; Pallardy, M.; Comoy, E.; Benassi, T.; Roger, R.; Ganem, G.; Socie, G. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Cossett, J.M.; Magdelenat, H. [Institut Curie, Paris (France)

    1994-09-01

    Total-body irradiation (TBI) induces an increase in levels of granulocytes and cortisol in blood. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we studied 26 patients who had TBI prior to bone marrow transplantation. Our findings suggest that only a high dose of TBI (10 Gy) was capable of activating the hypothalamopituitary area since corticotropin-releasing factor and blood adrenocorticotropic hormone levels increased at the end of the TBI. There was a concomitant increase in the levels of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor in blood, suggesting that these cytokines might activate the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis. Interleukin 1 was not detected. Since vascular injury is a common after radiation treatment, it is possible that interleukin 6 was secreted by endothelial cells. The exact mechanisms of the production of cyctokines induced by ionizing radiation remain to be determined. 25 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Precocious development of UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity in chick-embryo liver after administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone and of certain 11beta-hydroxy corticosteroids.

    PubMed Central

    Leakey, J E; Wishart, G J; Dutton, G J

    1976-01-01

    1. Precocious development of UDP-glucuronyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.17) and of glucuronidation by endogenous compounds of known chemical composition is reported for the first time. 2. This development occurs precociously in chick-embryo liver after administration to the egg of mammalian adrenocorticotropic hormone, of Synacthen (a synthetic compound possessing adrenocorticotropic activity), or of certain corticosteroids possessing a hydroxy or an oxo group at C-11. 3. Corticosterone-dependent transferase development parallels the rise of infused corticosterone in plasma, but does not require the presence of embryo pituitary in ovo, and is demonstrable in embryo liver explants in vitro. 4. Competence of embryo liver transferase to respond to corticosterone (or dexamethasone) begins over days 13-14, the time of competence to respond to grafted pituitary gland. 5. The transferase appearing after treatment with corticosterone or adrenocorticotropic hormone, like that appearing after pituitary grafting or on natural development and unlike that from the untreated embryo, is markedly activated by membrane-perturbation procedures, suggesting it appears through induction, not activation. 6. Thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine accelerate transferase development after treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone or corticosteroid to the rate seen after pituitary grafting. 7. A wide range of other hormones and steroids did not obviously influence transferase development in this system. 8. We suggest that grafted pituitary gland evokes precocious transferase development in embryo liver through production of adrenocorticotropic hormone and hence of the active corticosteroids; thyrotropin and thyroxine hasten the process. The role of this mechanism in the natural development of UDP-glucuronyltransferase is discussed. PMID:186038

  11. Low dose adrenocorticotropic hormone test and adrenal insufficiency in critically ill acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Shashidhar, P. K.; Shashikala, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Prevalence of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is not uncommon in HIV infected population. However, AI is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice because many patients have non-specific symptoms and signs. Critical illness in such patients further complicates the evaluation of adrenal function. A 1?gm ACTH test can be used for diagnosis, since it results in more physiological levels of ACTH. A serum cortisol of <18 ?g/dL, 30 or 60-minutes after ACTH test has been accepted as indicative of AI, but many experts advocate the normal cortisol response should exceed 25 ?g/dL, in critically ill patients. Aim: To determine the prevalence of AI in critically ill AIDS patients, by using 1 ?g ACTH test and also, to compare the diagnostic criteria for adrenal insufficiency between cortisol response of <18 ?g/dL and <25 ?g/dL. Settings and Design: This prospective study was done in the Department of Medicine. Materials and Methods: After taking blood for basal plasma cortisol from AIDS affected fifty adult men and women aged over 18 yrs, 1 ?g ACTH was given intravenously, and blood samples were again collected at 30 and 60 minutes for plasma cortisol estimation. Statistical analysis: It was done by Mann-Whitney test. Results: Prevalence of AI was 74% (37 patients) and 92% (46 patients), when the peak stimulated cortisol level of <18 ?g/dL and <25 ?g/dL, respectively, was used. Conclusion: AI is more prevalent in critically ill AIDS patients. Hence, this test can be performed for early intervention and better management. PMID:22629505

  12. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone causes an increase in cortisol, but not parathyroid hormone, in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Scott; Gow, Adam G; Evans, Helen; Mellanby, Richard J

    2015-02-01

    Dogs with spontaneous disorders of glucocorticoid production often have marked disturbances in calcium homeostasis. For example, hypercalcaemia is frequently observed in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism and secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common feature of canine hyperadrenocorticism. The mechanism(s) by which glucocorticoids modulate calcium homeostasis in dogs remains ill-defined. The hypothesis of this study is that a marked increase in serum cortisol concentrations would lead to an immediate negative calcium balance state which would drive a compensatory increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. This hypothesis was investigated by measuring serum cortisol and plasma PTH concentration in 19 dogs before and after administration of adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) hormone. Post ACTH administration, there was a significant increase in serum cortisol, but not PTH, concentrations. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that an increase in endogenous glucocorticoids influences calcium balance sufficiently to cause an immediate, compensatory increase in parathyroid hormone concentration. PMID:25544698

  13. Levels of central oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Tai, Fadao; Wu, Ruiyong; Hao, Ping; Fang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shuwei

    2014-11-01

    Sociability is the prerequisite to social living. Oxytocin and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis mediate various social behaviors across different social contexts in different rodents. We hypothesized that they also mediate levels of non-reproductive social behavior. Here we explored naturally occurring variation in sociability through a social preference test and compared central oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptors, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability. We found that low-social voles showed higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in open field tests, and had more serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone than high-social voles. High-social individuals had more glucocorticoid receptor positive neurons in the hippocampus and more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than low-social individuals. Within the same level of sociability, females had more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than males. These results indicate that naturally occurring social preferences are associated with higher levels of central oxytocin and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor and lower levels of anxiety and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. PMID:25141210

  14. Reduction in glutamine/glutamate levels in the cerebral cortex after adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy in patients with west syndrome.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Mitsutoshi; Togashi, Noriko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Onuma, Akira; Iinuma, Kazuie; Kure, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    West syndrome (WS), an intractable epileptic encephalopathy of infancy, is refractory to many antiepileptic drugs; however, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is an effective treatment for WS. The mechanism behind the efficacy of ACTH is mediated by biochemical processes that remain unknown. We examined the effects of ACTH therapy with tetracosactide (TCS), a synthetic ACTH analogue, on brain metabolism in patients with WS, using (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS). In six patients with cryptogenic WS, we performed single-voxel ¹H-MRS at the occipital lobe cortex. Measurements were taken prior to TCS treatment, a few days after therapy, and several months after therapy. Data were also compared with subjects having only mild psychomotor delays. The metabolites measured were glutamine plus glutamate (Glx), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and myoinositol (mI); each was expressed as a ratio with creatine plus phosphocreatine (total creatine: tCr). The Glx/tCr ratio was significantly reduced after the TCS treatment. The NAA/tCr ratio was also significantly reduced after the treatment compared with the control group, although the change in NAA signal was heterogeneous among patients, correlating with respective outcomes. The Cho/tCr and mI/tCr ratios were not affected by TCS treatment. The reduction in Glx suggests a decrease in the glutamate-glutamine cycle, which plays a pivotal role in synthesizing neurotransmitters such as glutamate and GABA. TCS-induced Glx reduction may induce changes in synaptic signal transduction, thereby accounting for the effect of TCS on WS. The change in NAA indicates altered neuronal activity, which may be correlated with outcome in WS patients. PMID:24705707

  15. ACTH and cortisol response to critical illness in term and late preterm newborns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E F Fernandez; R Montman; K L Watterberg

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To determine cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) responses to critical illness in term and late preterm newborns and examine the relationship of these values to measures of clinical illness, including markers of cardiovascular dysfunction.Study Design:In this prospective observational study, we measured ACTH, baseline cortisol and ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations in mechanically ventilated infants ?34 weeks gestational age and <5 postnatal days.

  16. Predicting a low cortisol response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone in the critically ill: a retrospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margriet FC de Jong; Albertus Beishuizen; Jan-Jaap Spijkstra; Armand RJ Girbes; Rob JM Strack van Schijndel; Jos WR Twisk; AB Johan Groeneveld

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Identification of risk factors for diminished cortisol response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in the critically ill could facilitate recognition of relative adrenal insufficiency in these patients. Therefore, we studied predictors of a low cortisol response to ACTH. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a general intensive care unit of a university hospital over a three year period.

  17. Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide6 Stimulates Sleep, Growth Hormone, ACTH and Cortisol Release in Normal Man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf-Michael Frieboes; Harald Murck; Petra Maier; Thomas Schier; Florian Holsboer; Axel Steiger

    1995-01-01

    The synthetic hexapeptide growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP-6) stimulates growth hormone (GH) release in animals and man. GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) has the same effect. In addition, pulsatile administration of GHRH in normal men results in increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) and blunted cortisol levels. The effect of GHRP on nocturnal hormone secretion and on the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) is still unknown. We

  18. Antibody that blocks stimulation of cortisol secretion by adrenocorticotrophic hormone in Addison's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kendall-Taylor, Pat; Lambert, Ann; Mitchell, Robert; Robertson, William R

    1988-01-01

    To investigate whether Addison's disease may in some cases be due to the blocking of adrenocorticotrophic hormone's action at the adrenal cortex by antibodies IgG isolated from a woman with Addison's disease associated with the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I was studied. Its effects on guinea pig adrenal cells in vitro were investigated and compared with those of IgG from three normal subjects and IgG obtained commercially. IgG from the patient inhibited the stimulation of cortisol secretion by adrenocorticotrophic hormone by 77 (SD 2)% and 57 (12)% at concentrations of 0·5 and 0·05 g/l, respectively; IgG prepared five months after she had started treatment with replacement steroids inhibited cortisol secretion by 74 (1)% (0·5 g/l) and 51 (15)% (0·05 g/l). The other IgGs had no inhibitory effects. The IgG from the patient and that obtained commercially did not inhibit the stimulation of cortisol secretion by dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate or precursors of cortisol. None of the IgGs bound to adrenocorticotrophic hormone. These results suggest that the IgG from the patient acted against the receptor for adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and its presence may explain the patient's raised concentrations of adrenocorticotrophic hormone, failure to respond to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and normal basal cortisol concentrations. Addison's disease may thus in some instances be a receptor antibody disease. PMID:2839266

  19. Cortisol level measurements in fingernails as a retrospective index of hormone production.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Miki, Keiichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Mitani, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Toru; Fuchu, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

    2015-04-01

    The cortisol level in fingernails may reflect the hormone's cumulative production over a long period, but the notions have not been fully established. In this study, we investigated the association of cortisol in fingernails with cortisol accumulation over a long period (hair cortisol) and over a relatively short period (salivary cortisol). In study 1, hair and fingernail samples were collected from 58 middle-aged and elderly men. The cortisol level in hair samples was moderately associated with the level in fingernail samples (r = 0.29, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.36, p < 0.01). In study 2, 37 workers provided 4 saliva samples over the course of one day (at awakening, 30 min after awakening, before lunch, and after work) and another set a month later. Further, the workers were asked to provide fingernail samples during a six-month period. We found that the cortisol level in saliva over the whole day (area under the curve for cortisol) was moderately associated with the cortisol level measured in fingernail samples that were collected 4 months (r = 0.43, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.50, p < 0.01) and 5 months later (r = 0.45, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.53, p < 0.01). These results indicated that the cortisol level in fingernail samples might retrospectively represent hormone production during a given period. The cortisol level in fingernail samples may be useful in the investigation of the link between psychosocial stress and health. PMID:25662340

  20. Salivary Concentration of Progesterone and Cortisol Significantly Differs Across Individuals After Correcting for Blood Hormone Values

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O’Connor, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18–34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between-individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025

  1. Hormonal contraceptive use diminishes salivary cortisol response to psychosocial stress and naltrexone in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; King, Andrea C.; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Lovallo, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of hormonal contraception (HC) may affect salivary cortisol levels at rest and in response to a pharmacological or stress challenge. Therefore, the current study used a secondary data analysis to investigate the effect of HC on salivary cortisol levels in response to the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a psychosocial stressor, and also across the diurnal curve. Two hundred and nine women (n = 72 using hormonal contraception; HC+) completed a two-session stress response study that consisted of a stress day, in which they were exposed to public speaking and mental arithmetic, and a rest day, in which unstimulated cortisol levels were measured to assess the diurnal rhythm. A subset of seventy women (n = 24 HC+) also completed a second study in which they were administered oral naltrexone (50 mg) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind fashion. Women who were HC+ had a significantly reduced salivary cortisol response to both the psychosocial stressor (p < 0.001) and naltrexone (p < 0.05) compared to HC? women. Additionally, HC+ women had a significantly altered morning diurnal cortisol rhythm (p < 0.01), with a delayed peak and higher overall levels. The results of the current study confirm that HC attenuates salivary cortisol response to a psychosocial stressor and mu-opioid receptor antagonism, and also alters the morning diurnal cortisol curve. PMID:23672966

  2. Hormonal contraceptive use diminishes salivary cortisol response to psychosocial stress and naltrexone in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel J O; King, Andrea C; Cohoon, Andrew J; Lovallo, William R

    2013-08-01

    The use of hormonal contraception (HC) may affect salivary cortisol levels at rest and in response to a pharmacological or stress challenge. Therefore, the current study used a secondary data analysis to investigate the effect of HC on salivary cortisol levels in response to the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a psychosocial stressor, and also across the diurnal curve. Two hundred and nine women (n=72 using hormonal contraception; HC+) completed a two-session stress response study that consisted of a stress day, in which they were exposed to public speaking and mental arithmetic, and a rest day, in which unstimulated cortisol levels were measured to assess the diurnal rhythm. A subset of seventy women (n=24 HC+) also completed a second study in which they were administered oral naltrexone (50mg) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind fashion. Women who were HC+ had a significantly reduced salivary cortisol response to both the psychosocial stressor (p<0.001) and naltrexone (p<0.05) compared to HC- women. Additionally, HC+ women had a significantly altered morning diurnal cortisol rhythm (p<0.01), with a delayed peak and higher overall levels. The results of the current study confirm that HC attenuates salivary cortisol response to a psychosocial stressor and mu-opioid receptor antagonism, and also alters the morning diurnal cortisol curve. PMID:23672966

  3. Association of Psoriasis Severity with Serum Prolactin, Thyroid Hormones, and Cortisol before and after Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Robati, Reza M.; Toossi, Parviz; Rahmati-Roodsari, Mohammad; Khalilazar, Sara; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Namazi, Nastaran; Younespour, Shima

    2013-01-01

    Background. Prolactin (PRL) level is proposed to be associated with the severity of psoriasis although the previous studies reported different results. Objective. To find the association between PRL levels and severity of psoriasis before and after treatment. In addition, we aimed to find a difference in prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), and cortisol levels between patients with psoriasis and normal controls. Methods. First, the levels of hormones were measured in 30 patients with psoriasis and 30 matched controls. The severity was assessed by psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). Then, patients were treated, and PASI was assessed every week until achieving PASI-75 response. At this time, the hormones were measured again and compared to the baseline. Results. No statistical significant difference was observed in the mean PRL, T3, T4, TSH, and cortisol levels between cases and controls. Comparing to the baseline, a significant decrease in PRL levels and a significant increase in T3 and serum cortisol levels were observed after treatment (P < 0.05), while the changes in other hormones were not significant. Conclusion. After treatment, PRL significantly decreased, and T3 and cortisol levels significantly increased. No correlation between hormone levels and improvement of PASI score existed. PMID:24288511

  4. Mapping the human melanocortin 2 receptor (adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor; ACTHR) gene (MC2R) to the small arm of chromosome 18 (18p11. 21-pter)

    SciTech Connect

    Vamvakopoulos, N.C.; Chrousos, G.P. (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Rojas, K.; Overhauser, J. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Durkin, A.S.; Nierman, W.C. (American Type Collection, Rockville, MD (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The human adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR) was recently cloned and shown to belong to the superfamily of membrane receptors that couple to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and adenylyl cyclase. A genetically heterogeneous (including both X-linked and autosomally recessive forms) congenital syndrome of general hereditary adrenal unresponsiveness to ACTH has been documented in several kindreds. This inherited defect affects one of the steps in the cascade of events of ACTH action on glucocorticoid biosynthesis, without altering mineralocorticoid productions. Since candidate targets for pathophysiological manifestations of deficient responsiveness to ACTH include lesions of the ACTHR gene, the authors undertook to map it to a chromosomal location. They first used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of NIGMS Panel 1 DNA template to assign a 960-bp-long fragment of the human ACTHR gene to chromosome 18. Subsequently, they determined the location of the ACTHR gene within human chromosome 18 by PCR amplification of genomic DNA template from somatic cell hybrids that contain deletions of this chromosome.

  5. Nicotine self-administration diminishes stress-induced norepinephrine secretion but augments adrenergic-responsiveness in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and enhances adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone release

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guoliang; Sharp, Burt M.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic nicotine self-administration augments the thalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to stress. Altered neuropeptide expression within corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributes to this enhanced HPA response to stress. Herein, we determined the role of norepinephrine, a primary regulator of CRF neurons, in the responses to footshock during nicotine self-administration. On day 12-15 of self-administration, microdialysis showed nicotine reduced PVN norepinephrine release by footshock (<50% of saline). Yet, the reduction in footshock-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion due to intra-PVN prazosin (?1 adrenergic antagonist) was significantly greater in rats self-administering nicotine (2-fold) than saline. Additionally, PVN phenylephrine (?1 agonist) stimulated ACTH and corticosterone release to a similar extent in unstressed rats self-administering nicotine or saline. Nicotine self-administration also decreased footshock-induced c-Fos expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)-A2/C2 catecholaminergic neurons that project to the PVN. Therefore, footshock-induced NTS activation and PVN norepinephrine input are both attenuated by nicotine self-administration, yet PVN CRF neurons are more responsive to ?1 stimulation, but only during stress. This plasticity in noradrenergic regulation of PVN CRF neurons provides a new mechanism contributing to the HPA sensitization to stress by nicotine self-administration and smoking. PMID:20028457

  6. Hormones, behavior, and social network analysis: exploring associations between cortisol, testosterone, and network structure.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, Olga; Clemans, Katherine H; Out, Dorothée; Granger, Douglas A

    2014-08-01

    We used a new interdisciplinary paradigm of social network analysis (SNA) to investigate associations between hormones and social network structures. We examine these biobehavioral processes and test hypotheses about how hormones are associated with social network structures using exponential random graph modeling (ERGM) in a cohort of first-year students (n=74; 93% female; M age=27 years) from a highly competitive, accelerated nursing program. Participants completed friendship nominations and as a group simultaneously donated saliva (later assayed for cortisol and testosterone). ERGM analyses revealed that salivary cortisol levels were inversely associated with the number of outgoing ties (i.e., network activity). By contrast, testosterone was not related to friendship network structure. Integration of SNA and salivary bioscience creates a novel approach to understanding hormone-behavior relationships within the context of human social ecologies. PMID:25072982

  7. Possible new mechanism of cortisol action in female reproductive organs: physiological implications of the free hormone hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Yding Andersen

    2002-01-01

    The so-called free hormone hypothesis predicts that the biological activity of a given steroid correlates with the free protein-unbound concentration rather than with the total concentration (i.e. free plus protein-bound). Cortisol is a glucocorticoid with many diverse functions and the free hormone hypothesis seems to apply well to the observed effects of cortisol. The ovaries express glucocorticoid receptors and are

  8. Proteomic analysis of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment of an infantile spasm model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Wen-Jing; Shang, Ai-Jia; Zou, Li-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Infantile spasms is an age-specific epileptic syndrome associated with poor developmental outcomes and poor response to nearly all traditional antiepileptic drugs except adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We investigated the protective mechanism of ACTH against brain damage. An infantile spasm rat model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in neonate rats was used. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into the stress-exposed and the non-stress exposed groups, and their offspring were randomly divided into ACTH-treated spasm model, untreated spasm model, and control groups. A proteomics-based approach was used to detect the proteome differences between ACTH-treated and untreated groups. Gel image analysis was followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric protein identification and bioinformatics analysis. Prenatal stress exposure resulted in more severe seizures, and ACTH treatment reduced and delayed the onset of seizures. The most significantly up-regulated proteins included isoform 1 of tubulin ?-5 chain, cofilin-1 (CFL1), synaptosomal-associated protein 25, malate dehydrogenase, N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, annexin A3 (ANXA3), and rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA). In contrast, tubulin ?-1A chain was down-regulated. Three of the identified proteins, ARHGDIA, ANXA3, and CFL1, were validated using western blot analysis. ARHGDIA expression was assayed in the brain samples of five infantile spasm patients. These proteins are involved in the cytoskeleton, synapses, energy metabolism, vascular regulation, signal transduction, and acetylation. The mechanism underlying the effects of ACTH involves the molecular events affected by these proteins, and protein acetylation is the mechanism of action of the drug treatment. PMID:23028951

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Treatment of an Infantile Spasm Model Induced by N-Methyl-d-Aspartic Acid and Prenatal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Wen-Jing; Shang, Ai-Jia; Zou, Li-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Infantile spasms is an age-specific epileptic syndrome associated with poor developmental outcomes and poor response to nearly all traditional antiepileptic drugs except adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We investigated the protective mechanism of ACTH against brain damage. An infantile spasm rat model induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in neonate rats was used. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into the stress-exposed and the non-stress exposed groups, and their offspring were randomly divided into ACTH-treated spasm model, untreated spasm model, and control groups. A proteomics-based approach was used to detect the proteome differences between ACTH-treated and untreated groups. Gel image analysis was followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric protein identification and bioinformatics analysis. Prenatal stress exposure resulted in more severe seizures, and ACTH treatment reduced and delayed the onset of seizures. The most significantly up-regulated proteins included isoform 1 of tubulin ?-5 chain, cofilin-1 (CFL1), synaptosomal-associated protein 25, malate dehydrogenase, N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, annexin A3 (ANXA3), and rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA). In contrast, tubulin ?-1A chain was down-regulated. Three of the identified proteins, ARHGDIA, ANXA3, and CFL1, were validated using western blot analysis. ARHGDIA expression was assayed in the brain samples of five infantile spasm patients. These proteins are involved in the cytoskeleton, synapses, energy metabolism, vascular regulation, signal transduction, and acetylation. The mechanism underlying the effects of ACTH involves the molecular events affected by these proteins, and protein acetylation is the mechanism of action of the drug treatment. PMID:23028951

  10. Intracerebroventricular porcine corticotropin-releasing hormone and cortisol effects on pig immune measures and behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janeen L. Salak-Johnson; John J. McGlone; C. Scott Whisnant; Reid L. Norman; Robert R. Kraeling

    1997-01-01

    The effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of porcine corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH) and cortisol on the immune system and behavior were examined in domestic pigs. In Experiment 1, 50 ?g of pCRH in 200 ?l of saline or 200 ?l of vehicle was administered ICV at 0600 h. Blood samples were obtained at 0600 (prior to injection), 0700, and 0800 h.

  11. Long-term bioeffects of 435-MHz radiofrequency radiation on selected blood-borne endpoints in cannulated rats. Volume 2. Plasma ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and plasma corticosterone. Final report, 20 August 1984-16 February 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, V.P.; Toler, J.C.; Bonasera, S.J.; Popovic, P.P.; Honeycutt, C.B.

    1987-08-01

    Two hundred adult male white rats with chronically implanted aortic cannulas were randomly divided into two groups. Animals in the first group were exposed to low-level (1.0 mW/cm2) pulsed-wave 435-MHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) for approximately 22 h daily, 7 days each week, for 6 months. Animals in the second group were maintained under identical conditions, but were not radiated. The cannulas were used to draw microsamples (0.3 mL) of aortic blood from the unrestrained, unanesthetized rats on a cyclic schedule. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassays hormone (ACTH) and plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassays. Statistical analysis of the results did not indicate increased plasma ACTH and plasma corticosterone concentrations in exposed animals when compared to sham-exposed animals. Exposure to this low-level radiofrequency environment did not induce stresses that were manifested as an alteration in plasma hormones.

  12. Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears.

    PubMed

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Muir, D C G; Letcher, R J; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S; Jenssen, B M; Villanger, G D

    2012-07-01

    The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, ?-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p'-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. PMID:22575327

  13. Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears

    PubMed Central

    TØ, Bechshøft; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Muir, DCG; Letcher, RJ; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS; Jenssen, BM; Villanger, GD

    2012-01-01

    The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, ?-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p?-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. PMID:22575327

  14. Peripheral T lymphocyte changes in neonatal piglets: Relationship with growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and cortisol changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Borghetti; Elena De Angelis; Roberta Saleri; Valeria Cavalli; Antonio Cacchioli; Attilio Corradi; Eugenio Mocchegiani; Paolo Martelli

    2006-01-01

    Taking into account the role played by the neuroendocrine network in affecting the early development of the immune response, the present study aims to assess neonatal immunity in piglets by testing peripheral lymphocyte age-related changes in relationship to plasma levels of some relevant immunoregulatory hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and cortisol. For this purpose, we studied the

  15. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. PMID:25776460

  16. Differential Effects of Pregnancy on Mineralocorticoid and Glucocorticoid Receptor Availability and Immunoreactivity in Cortisol Feedback Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren M. Roesch; Maureen Keller-Wood

    1999-01-01

    The suppression of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone by very low levels of cortisol is reduced in pregnant adrenalectomized ewes, suggesting that pregnancy reduces the efficacy of the high-affinity corticosteroid receptor. This study was designed to determine the effects of pregnancy on the availability, immunoreactivity, and affinity of both corticosteroid receptors: the high-affinity mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the lower-affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR).

  17. Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nienke Molenaar; A. B. Johan Groeneveld; Hilde M. Dijstelbloem; Margriet F. C. de Jong; Armand R. J. Girbes; Annemieke C. Heijboer; Albertus Beishuizen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related\\u000a corticosteroid insufficiency.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63 non-septic\\u000a patients with treatment-insensitive hypotension in whom an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test (250 ?g) was performed.\\u000a Serum total and free cortisol

  18. ACTH-stimulated cortisol release from head kidney of rainbow trout is modulated by glucose concentration.

    PubMed

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Alvarez, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Flik, Gert; Soengas, José L

    2013-02-15

    To assess the hypothesis that cortisol release in rainbow trout is modulated by glucose levels, we first evaluated cortisol release [basal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-regulated] by head kidney tissue superfused with medium reflecting hypoglycaemic, normoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic conditions. Next, cortisol release from head kidney fragments in static incubations was assessed in parallel with changes in parameters related to cortisol synthesis (mRNA abundance of StAR, P450scc, 3?HSD and 11?H) and the GK-mediated glucosensing mechanism (levels of glycogen and glucose, activities of GK, GSase and PK, and mRNA levels of GK, GLUT-2, Kir6.x-like and SUR-like). We then evaluated the effects of two inhibitors of glucose transport, cytochalasin B and phlorizin, on cortisol production and glucosensing mechanisms. The ACTH-induced release of cortisol proved to be modulated by glucose concentration such that increased release occurs under high glucose levels, and decreased ACTH-stimulated cortisol release occurs when glucose transport is inhibited by cytochalasin B. The release of cortisol can be associated with increased synthesis as enhanced mRNA abundance of genes related to cortisol synthesis was also noted in high glucose medium. Specific GK immunoreactivity in the cortisol-producing cells (not in chromaffin cells) further substantiates GK-mediated glucosensing in cortisol production. In contrast, no changes compatible with those of glucose levels and cortisol release/synthesis in the presence of ACTH were noted for any other putative glucosensor mechanisms based on LXR, SGLT-1 or Gnat3. These combined results are the first evidence for a mechanism in fish linking the synthesis and release of a non-pancreatic hormone like cortisol with circulating glucose levels. The relationship was evident for the regulated (ACTH-dependent) pathway and this suggests that under acute stress conditions glucose is important for the regulation of cortisol synthesis and release. PMID:23077165

  19. REDUCTION IN CHANNEL CATFISH HEPATIC GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN RESPONSE TO FOOD DEPRIVATION AND EXOGENOUS CORTISOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of food deprivation and exogenous cortisol administration on somatic growth of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and examine the resultant changes in circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and growth hormone receptor ...

  20. A rare case of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome caused by a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas detected by 68Ga-DOTANOC and 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Treglia, Giorgio; Salomone, Enrica; Petrone, Gianluigi; Giaccari, Andrea; Rindi, Guido; Rufini, Vittoria

    2013-07-01

    We report a rare case of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome caused by a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas detected by PET/CT using different tracers. A 43-year-old female patient with Cushing syndrome (CS) by suspected ectopic ACTH secretion underwent a 68Ga-DOTANOC and a 18F-FDG PET/CT. Both these functional imaging techniques revealed increased tracer uptake in a pancreatic mass and multiple liver metastases. Histology showed the presence of a mildly differentiated pancreatic NET. 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT may be a useful functional imaging method, complementary to 18F-FDG PET/CT, in detecting ACTH-secreting pancreatic NETs. PMID:23486330

  1. Circulating ?-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of stallions before and after short road transport: stress effect of different distances

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Esterina; Medica, Pietro; Aronica, Vincenzo; Grasso, Loredana; Ferlazzo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Background Since transport evokes physiological adjustments that include endocrine responses, the objective of this study was to examine the responses of circulating ?-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels to transport stress in stallions. Methods Forty-two healthy Thoroughbred and crossbred stallions were studied before and after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein: first in a single box immediately before loading (pre-samples), then immediately after transport and unloading on arrival at the breeding stations (post-samples). Results An increase in circulating ?-endorphin levels after transport of 100 km (P < 0.01), compared to basal values was observed. Circulating ACTH levels showed significant increases after transport of 100 km (P < 0.001) and 200 km (P < 0.001). Circulating cortisol levels showed significant increases after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km (P < 0.001). An effect of transport on ?-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol variations was therefore evident for the different distances studied. No significant differences (P > 0.05) between horses of different ages and different breeds were observed for ?-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels. Conclusion The results obtained for short term transportation of stallions showed a very strong reaction of the adrenocortical system. The lack of response of ?-endorphin after transport of 200–300 km and of ACTH after transport of 300 km seems to suggest a soothing effect of negative feedback of ACTH and cortisol levels. PMID:18315878

  2. Localization of the genes encoding the melanocortin-2 (Adrenocorticotropic hormone) and melanocortin-3 receptors to chromosomes 18p11. 2 and 20q13. 2-q13. 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gantz, I.; Tashiro, Takao; Konda, Yoshitaka; Shimoto, Yoshimasa; Miwa, Hiroto; Munzert, G.; Barcroft, C.; Glover, T.; Yamada, Tadataka (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and [alpha]-, [beta]-, and [gamma]-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) are products of propiomelanocortin post-translational processing. These compounds are collectively labeled as melanocortins (MC). Aside from their established effects on the regulation of the adrenal cortex (ACTH) and melanocytes ([alpha]-MSH), the melanocortins have been implicated in a broad array of physiological events. Melanocortins mediate their effects through cell membrane receptors belonging to the superfamily of seven transmembrane G-protein-linked receptors. Using the technique of polymerase chain reaction with primers based on conserved areas of the seven transmembrane G-protein-linked receptor family, the authors recently isolated an [open quotes]orphan[close quotes] subfamily of this receptor group. Within the past year, two of these receptors were identified as specific for [alpha]-MSH (MC1) and ACTH (MC2). They have recently described a third melanocortin receptor (MC3) that appears to recognize the core heptapeptide sequence of melanocortins with equal potency and efficacy and identified its presence in the brain, placenta, and gut. Using the FISH technique, they localized the ACTH and the melanocortin-3 receptors to chromosome loci 18p11.2 and 20q12.3-q13.2, respectively. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Effect of stocking density on growth and serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and cortisol in Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dapeng Li; Zidong Liu; Congxin Xie

    This study investigated the effects of different stocking densities on growth and serum concentrations of thyroid hormones\\u000a and cortisol in Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii. Fish were reared at low, medium, and high stocking densities (initial experimental densities were 0.30, 0.75, and 1.78 kg m?2, respectively) for 70 days. The results showed that high stocking density had negative effects on growth and feeding efficiency,

  4. Regulation of cortisol bioavailability--effects on hormone measurement and action.

    PubMed

    Perogamvros, Ilias; Ray, David W; Trainer, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    Routine assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis relies on the measurement of total serum cortisol levels. However, most cortisol in serum is bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) and albumin, and changes in the structure or circulating levels of binding proteins markedly affect measured total serum cortisol levels. Furthermore, high-affinity binding to CBG is predicted to affect the availability of cortisol for the glucocorticoid receptor. CBG is a substrate for activated neutrophil elastase, which cleaves the binding protein and results in the release of cortisol at sites of inflammation, enhancing its tissue-specific anti-inflammatory effects. Further tissue-specific modulation of cortisol availability is conferred by corticosteroid 11?-dehydrogenase. Direct assessment of tissue levels of bioavailable cortisol is not clinically practicable and measurement of total serum cortisol levels is of limited value in clinical conditions that alter prereceptor glucocorticoid bioavailability. Bioavailable cortisol can, however, be measured indirectly at systemic, extracellular tissue and cell levels, using novel techniques that have provided new insight into the transport, metabolism and biological action of glucocorticoids. A more physiologically informative approach is, therefore, now possible in the assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which could prove useful in clinical practice. PMID:22890008

  5. Psoriatic arthritis: clinical improvement and correlation with hormone axes in etanercept-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Atzeni, Fabiola; Straub, Rainer H; Cutolo, Maurizio; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2010-04-01

    In a chronic inflammatory disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is altered in three ways: (1) the inflammation-related spontaneous and stimulated secretion of cortisol is inadequate; (2) the inflammation-related secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is low; and (3) the levels of adrenal androgens decrease. In patients with RA, long-term therapy with anti-TNF therapy sensitizes the pituitary gland and improves adrenal androgen secretion. We have recently found that the mean serum levels of ACTH, cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), and androstenedione (ASD) in 11 prednisolone-naïve patients with psoriatic arthritis did not markedly change during 12 weeks of etanercept treatment, nor did the serum cortisol/ACTH ratio. However, the greater increase in serum cortisol in comparison with serum 17OHP or ASD was related to clinical improvement, which indicates that the improvement was more related to the higher cortisol levels. PMID:20398026

  6. Profiling of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Arginine Vasopressin in Human Pituitary Gland and Tumor Thin Tissue Sections using Droplet-Based Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Calligaris, David [Brigham and Women's Hospital (Harvard Medical School); Feldman, Daniel R [Brigham and Women's Hospital (Harvard Medical School); Changelian, Armen [Brigham and Women's Hospital (Harvard Medical School); Laws, Edward R [Brigham and Women's Hospital (Harvard Medical School); Santagata, Sandro [Brigham and Women's Hospital (Harvard Medical School); Agar, Nathalie YR [Brigham and Women's Hospital (Harvard Medical School)

    2015-01-01

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections using a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectral detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system and those data obtained with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis) and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared to non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis as anticipated. This work demonstrates that a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, such as AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity and specificity of the current methodology support the potential of this basic technology with further advancement for assisting surgical decision-making.

  7. Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L

    2013-12-01

    Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling. PMID:24080086

  8. In vitro effects of cortisol on the release and gene expression of prolactin and growth hormone in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuhisa Uchida; Joanne S. M. Yoshikawa-Ebesu; Shingo Kajimura; Takashi Yada; Tetsuya Hirano; E. Gordon Grau

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to cortisol inhibits prolactin (PRL) release from the tilapia pituitary within 10–20min through a plasma membrane-associated, non-genomic pathway. In the present study, in vitro effects of cortisol on the release and mRNA levels of two PRLs (PRL188 and PRL177) and growth hormone (GH) were examined in the organ-cultured pituitary of the Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. The PRL release was

  9. The relationship between insulin, insulin resistance, parathyroid hormone, cortisol, testosterone, and thyroid function tests in the presence of nephrolithiasis: a comprehensive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Halit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that hormonal factors such as levels of insulin, cortisol, testosterone, and insulin resistance are related with increased nephrolithiasis (NL). However, no previous study has evaluated the relationship between insulin, insulin resistance, thyroid hormones, cortisol, intact parathyroid hormone and testosterone levels with the presence of NL in a comprehensive manner. Materials and methods All patients underwent the following procedures: history taking, physical examination, biochemical analysis [including measurement of levels of insulin, thyroid hormones, cortisol, and total testosterone (for male patients only)], urine analysis, 24–hour urine collection to measure urinary protein, sodium excretion, and creatinine clearance. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA–INDEX). The presence of NL was determined by ultrasonography. Results The study was composed of 136 patients. In total, 30 patients had NL. Patients with NL were more likely to be older, male, obese, and smokers. Uric acid and HOMA–INDEX were also higher in patients with NL. In the whole group, only insulin (Odds ratio:1.128, CI:1.029–1.236, P:0.01) but not other hormones, and HOMA–INDEX were related with the presence of NL. In males, none of the hormones including total testosterone were associated with NL. Conclusions Only levels of insulin, but not other hormones were associated with the presence of NL in a group of patients with suspicion of NL. More studies are needed to highlight the mechanisms regarding NL and hormone levels. PMID:24982784

  10. Low cortisol levels in active juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bilginer, Yelda; Topaloglu, Rezan; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Kara, Nazli; Besbas, Nesrin; Ozen, Seza; Bakkaloglu, Aysin

    2010-03-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the neuroendocrine system in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) regarding the activity of disease. Twenty-one JIA patients (mean age +/- standard deviation 10.5 +/- 4.1 years) were included. None of the patients was taking steroids or antitumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy during this study. Ten healthy volunteers and ten volunteers with upper respiratory tract infection composed the control groups. Furthermore, ten of the 21 JIA patients were also evaluated during the remission period. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3, free T3, free T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and 24-h urinary cortisol were evaluated both during the active period and remission. The median levels of ACTH and cortisol at 08:00 a.m. were significantly lower in patients with active JIA than patients in remission period and the control groups (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the median level of urine cortisol in active JIA patients was significantly lower than remission period and control groups (p < 0.05). The median level of IGF-1 was significantly lower in active patients than that of remission (p < 0.05). The median level of IL-6 in active JIA patients was significantly higher than those in remission and control groups (p < 0.05). Our preliminary study suggested that impaired secretion of adenohypophyseal hormones and distorted bilateral interactions between the immune and endocrine systems in JIA. Further studies are needed to clarify the consequences of the impaired hormone secretion in JIA. PMID:20013015

  11. The relationships between cortisol levels, insulin levels, and thyroid hormones with 24-h urinary sodium excretion in never treated essential hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Afsar, Baris; Ay, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND To study the relationship between cortisol, insulin, and thyroid hormone levels with 24-h urinary sodium (Na) excretion levels in essential hypertensive patients. METHODS All patients underwent history taking, physical examination, blood pressure (BP) measurement, 12 lead electocardiographic evaluation, routine urine analysis, biochemical analysis including measurement of cortisol, insulin, and thyroid hormone levels, 24-h urine collection to measure urinary Na and protein excretion and creatinine clearance. RESULTS In total, 68 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients were included. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that 24-h urinary Na excretion was correlated with insulin levels (? = ?0.473, P < 0.0001), serum cortisol levels (? = ?0.404, P = 0.0010) and creatinine clearance (? = 0.407, P = 0.0010). Linear regression of independent factors has revealed that systolic BP (B = 0.004, CI = 0.001-0.008, P = 0.0170), body mass index (B = 0.014, CI = 0.005-0.023, P = 0.0030), being male (B = 0.077, CI = 0.001-0.153, P = 0.0480), creatinine clearance (B = 0.003, CI = 0.001-0.006, P = 0.0120) and insulin levels (B = ?0.008, CI = ?0.014 to ?0.002, P = 0.0070) were independently related with logarithmically converted 24-h Na excretion. CONCLUSION In conclusion, we found that insulin but not cortisol and thyroid hormone levels were independently related with 24-h urinary Na excretion in newly diagnosed essential hypertensive patients. PMID:25161687

  12. The influence od melatonin receptors antagonists, luzindole and 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4-P-PDOT), on melatonin-dependent vasopressin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release from the rat hypothalamo-hypophysial system. In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, M; Roszczyk, M; Kowalczyk, E; Stempniak, B

    2014-12-01

    Melatonin exerts its biological role acting via G protein-coupled membrane receptors - MT1 and MT2, as well as through cytoplasmic and/or nuclear receptors. Melatonin has previously been shown to change vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion dependently on its concentration. To determine whether the response of vasopressinergic neurones to different concentrations of melatonin is mediated through the membrane MT1 and/or MT2 receptors, the influence of luzindole - an antagonist of both MT1 and MT2 receptors, and 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4-P-PDOT) - a selective MT2 receptor antagonist, on melatonin-dependent AVP release from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial (H-NH) system was studied in vitro (melatonin at the concentrations of 10(-9), 10(-7) and 10(-3) M) and in vivo (melatonin at the concentrations of 10(-9) and 10(-7) M). Moreover, the second goal of this study was to find out whether melatonin receptors MT1 and/or MT2 are involved in the regulation of ACTH and corticosterone secretion into the blood. We have demonstrated that melatonin, at the concentrations of 10(-9) and 10(-7) M, significantly inhibited AVP secretion from isolated rat H-NH explants when antagonists solvent (i.e. 0.1% DMSO) was present in the medium. Neither luzindole, nor 4-P-PDOT, applied without melatonin, did influence AVP release in vitro. Luzindole applied together with melatonin (10(-7) M and 10(-9) M) significantly suppressed melatonin-dependent effect, while 4-PPDOT did not eliminate the inhibitory influence of 10(-7) M and 10(-9) M melatonin on AVP secretion from isolated rat H-NH explants. Melatonin at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased AVP release when the H-NH explants were incubated in the medium containing luzindole or 4-P-PDOT. Under present experimental in vivo conditions, infused intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) melatonin, at a concentration close to its physiological level in the blood, significantly diminished AVP secretion into the blood, however, at higher concentration (10(-7) M) it remained inactive in this process. Moreover, melatonin at both concentrations of 10(-9) M and 10(-7) M, was able to inhibit AVP secretion into the blood (and increase its neurohypophysial content) when animals were previously i.c.v. injected with 4-P-PDOT, but not with luzindole. Blood plasma concentration of ACTH was diminished significantly by 10(-7) M melatonin in DMSO-infused, but not in luzindole- or 4-P-PDOT-injected rats, however, it remained inactive in modifying the corticosterone blood plasma concentrations in any of the studied subgroups. The present study demonstrates that subtype MT1 membrane receptor may contribute to the inhibitory effect of physiological concentration of melatonin on functional regulation of vasopressinergic neurones in the rat. However, for the stimulatory effect of pharmacological dose of the hormone on AVP secretion in vitro, mechanisms different from membrane MT1/MT2 receptors are involved. The present experiment do not determines whether MT1 and/or MT2 receptors affect the function of the rat pituitary-adrenal cortex axis. PMID:25554981

  13. Maternal adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and thyroid hormone responses to chronic binge alcohol exposure throughout gestation: ovine model 

    E-print Network

    Tress, Ursula

    2009-05-15

    This study investigated the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the responses of the maternal hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and thyroid hormones throughout gestation using an ovine model. Maternal plasma concentrations of ACTH...

  14. Effects of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and cortisol on gene expression of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in sea bream hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2010-11-01

    The present study investigated the regulatory effects of growth hormone (GH), human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I), thyroxine (T(4)), triiodothyronine (T(3)) and cortisol, on mRNA expression of key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, including glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glycogen synthase (GS), glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in hepatocytes isolated from silver sea bream. Genes encoding GK, G6Pase, GS and GP were partially cloned and characterized from silver sea bream liver and real-time PCR assays were developed for the quantification of the mRNA expression profiles of these genes in order to evaluate the potential of these carbohydrate metabolic pathways. GK mRNA level was elevated by GH and hIGF-I, implying that GH-induced stimulation of GK expression may be mediated via IGF-I. GH was found to elevate GS and G6Pase expression, but reduce G6PDH mRNA expression. However, hIGF-I did not affect mRNA levels of GS, G6Pase and G6PDH, suggesting that GH-induced modulation of GS, G6Pase and G6PDH expression levels is direct, and occurs independently of the action of IGF-I. T(3) and T(4) directly upregulated transcript abundance of GK, G6Pase, GS and GP. Cortisol significantly increased transcript amounts of G6Pase and GS but markedly decreased transcript abundance of GK and G6PDH. These changes in transcript abundance indicate that (1) the potential of glycolysis is stimulated by GH and thyroid hormones, but attenuated by cortisol, (2) gluconeogenic and glycogenic potential are augmented by GH, thyroid hormones and cortisol, (3) glycogenolytic potential is upregulated by thyroid hormones but not affected by GH or cortisol, and (4) the potential of the pentose phosphate pathway is attenuated by GH and cortisol but unaffected by thyroid hormones. PMID:20647047

  15. Reciprocal relationship between the level of circulating cortisol and growth hormone secretion in response to growth hormone-releasing hormone in man: studies in patients with adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Giustina, A; Bresciani, E; Bossoni, S; Chiesa, L; Misitano, V; Wehrenberg, W B; Veldhuis, J D

    1994-11-01

    The aim of our study was to elucidate the relationship between the level of circulating cortisol and the GH responsiveness to GHRH in six hypoadrenal patients (one male and five females; age range, 35-67 yr; body mass index range, 18-31 kg/m2). Twenty-four hours after taking the last dose of replacement therapy, each patient underwent the following experimental trials on nonconsecutive days: 1) saline, and 2) 12.5 mg, or 3) 25 mg, or 4) 250 mg hydrocortisone hemisuccinate in 250 mL saline constant iv infusion from 0-180 min. On each occasion, 1 micrograms/kg human GHRH-(1-29)NH2 was injected as an iv bolus at 60 min. During GHRH and saline infusion, serum cortisol levels were always less than the detection limit of the assay (55 nmol/L). During 12.5-, 25-, and 250-mg hydrocortisone infusions (from 15-180 min), serum cortisol averaged 413.8 +/- 19.3, 772.5 +/- 46.9, and 1520.2 +/- 110.4 nmol/L, respectively. The GH peaks after GHRH treatment during the various infusions of hydrocortisone were compared to the GH peaks observed after saline, which were normalized to 100% in each subject. GH peaks after GHRH and 25 mg hydrocortisone (70 +/- 11%) and GHRH and 250 mg hydrocortisone (69 +/- 7%) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the GH peaks after GHRH and saline or GHRH and 12.5 mg hydrocortisone (83 +/- 15%). No significant differences were observed between the GH peaks after GHRH and 12.5 mg hydrocortisone or GHRH and saline. Our data demonstrate that in hypoadrenal patients, the acute absence of circulating cortisol does not impair the GH secretory response to GHRH with respect to the eucortisolemic state. Moreover, our data suggest that 700 nmol/L is the approximate threshold serum cortisol concentration above which a decrease in the GH responsiveness to GHRH is observed in humans. Further increases in serum cortisol levels above this threshold value do not cause a proportional decrease in the GH responsiveness to GHRH. PMID:7962318

  16. Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men's

    E-print Network

    Cosmides, Leda

    Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men's hormonal responses these differences. Replicating past research, the present study found that men's salivary testosterone and cortisol receptor gene, and lower baseline cortisol concentrations, each predicted larger testosterone responses

  17. A placebo-controlled study of sertraline’s effect on cortisol response to the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Lee, Janet K.; Tracy, Aaron P.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Price, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test is a neuroendocrine probe involving serial blood sampling of cortisol during a standardized pharmacological challenge without inducing psychological distress in humans. Some past studies in depressed patients have shown a “normalization” or decrease in cortisol response to the Dex/CRH test following successful treatment with an antidepressant. Studies in nondepressed healthy adult samples have also shown aberrant cortisol reactivity to be associated with depression risk factors. These findings prompted research into the use of the Dex/CRH test as a tool for developing antidepressant drugs. Objectives In this study, the Dex/CRH test was evaluated with regard to its potential utility for drug development in nonclinical samples. Methods The Dex/CRH test was administered before and after 6 weeks of blinded treatment with either sertraline 100 mg/day or matching placebo in 22 healthy adults (13 women, nine men). Results Cortisol response to the Dex/CRH test increased following treatment with standard doses of sertraline, compared to placebo, after controlling for age and sex. Conclusions The observed pattern of change contrasts with results from published studies in depressed patients and with our initial hypothesis. PMID:21617914

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Testosterone, Cortisol and Empathy

    E-print Network

    Maestripieri, Dario

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Testosterone, Cortisol and Empathy: Evidence for the Dual-Hormone Hypothesis hormone hypothesis posits that basal cortisol and testosterone have a joint effect on motivational testosterone manifest more in indi- viduals with low basal cortisol levels. Whether this hypothesis applies

  19. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated cortisol response to an acute stressor. PMID:24269985

  20. Effects of Music Listening on Cortisol Levels and Propofol Consumption during Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fuermetz, Julian; Sack, Ulrich; Bauer, Katrin; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Wiegel, Martin; Kaisers, Udo X.; Heinke, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study explores effects of instrumental music on the hormonal system (as indicated by serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone), the immune system (as indicated by immunoglobulin A) and sedative drug requirements during surgery (elective total hip joint replacement under spinal anesthesia with light sedation). This is the first study investigating this issue with a double-blind design using instrumental music. Methodology/Principal Findings: Patients (n?=?40) were randomly assigned either to a music group (listening to instrumental music), or to a control group (listening to a non-musical placebo stimulus). Both groups listened to the auditory stimulus about 2?h before, and during the entire intra-operative period (during the intra-operative light sedation, subjects were able to respond lethargically to verbal commands). Results indicate that, during surgery, patients of the music group had a lower propofol consumption, and lower cortisol levels, compared to the control group. Conclusion/Significance: Our data show that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels (reflecting stress-reducing effects) and reduces sedative requirements to reach light sedation. PMID:21716581

  1. State and trait related predictors of serum cortisol to DHEA(S) molar ratios and hormone concentrations in schizophrenia patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ritsner; Anatoly Gibel; Rachel Maayan; Yael Ratner; Eduard Ram; Ilan Modai; Abraham Weizman

    2007-01-01

    Objective:In previous studies we have demonstrated high serum molar ratios of cortisol to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (DHEAS) [together abbreviated DHEA(S)], and the value of both cortisol\\/DHEA(S) molar ratios for prediction of responsivity to antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia patients. The present study aimed to examine the contribution of anxiety, and severity of symptoms to the prediction of serum

  2. Endogenous Cortisol, Luteinizing Hormone, and Testosterone Secretion and GnRH-induced Luteinizing Hormone and Testosterone Secretion in Prenatally Stressed Sexually Mature Brahman Bulls 

    E-print Network

    Littlejohn, Brittni Paige

    2014-12-12

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of prenatal transportation stress (PNS) on LH, testosterone, and cortisol secretion before and after GnRH stimulation in sexually mature Brahman bulls. Forty-eight ...

  3. Effects of continuous elevated cortisol concentrations during oestrus on concentrations and patterns of progesterone, oestradiol and LH in the sow.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Y; Einarsson, S; Ljung, A; Lundeheim, N; Rodríguez-Martínez, H; Madej, A

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of continuous elevated cortisol concentrations during standing oestrus on time of ovulation and patterns of progesterone, oestradiol and luteinising hormone (LH) in sows. The elevation of cortisol concentrations was achieved through repeated intravenous injections of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) every 2 h for approximately 48 h, from the onset of the second standing oestrus after weaning. Treatment was terminated when ovulation was detected (monitored by transrectal ultrasonography every 4h) or when the sow had received a maximum of 24 injections. The dose of ACTH (2.5 microg/kg) was chosen to mimic the cortisol concentrations seen during mixing of unfamiliar sows. The sows (n=14) were surgically fitted with jugular vein catheters and randomly divided into a control (C group where only NaCl solution were injected) or an ACTH group. Blood samples were collected every 2 h. In parallel with the blood sampling, saliva samples for cortisol analyses were taken from eight sows before onset of treatment and from four of the sows during treatment. There was no difference in time from onset of standing oestrus to ovulation between the two groups. The interval between the peaks of oestradiol and LH to ovulation was prolonged in the ACTH group compared to the C group (p<0.05), with a tendency towards an earlier decline of oestradiol in the ACTH group. Cortisol and progesterone concentrations were significantly elevated during treatment in the ACTH group (p<0.001), with cortisol peak concentrations occurring between 40 and 80 min after each ACTH injection. Cortisol concentrations in saliva and plasma were highly correlated (p<0.001). In conclusion, elevated cortisol concentrations from the onset of standing oestrus increase progesterone concentrations and prolong the interval between oestradiol and LH peaks to ovulation, the latter possible due to an early decline in oestradiol concentrations and a change of the LH peak outline. The effect these hormonal changes have on reproductive performance need to be further investigated. Saliva samples might be a useful and non-invasive method to assess cortisol concentrations in sows. PMID:18308488

  4. Assessing the presence of abnormal regulation of cortisol secretion by membrane hormone receptors: in vivo and in vitro studies in patients with functioning and non-functioning adrenal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, C; Ballarè, E; Mantovani, G; Ambrosi, B; Spada, A; Barbetta, L; Colombo, P; Travaglini, P; Loli, P; Beck-Peccoz, P

    2004-08-01

    Regulation of cortisol secretion by aberrant hormone receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. In this study, the topic was evaluated by combining in vivo and in vitro approaches. Cortisol responses to various stimuli (standard meal, GnRH + TRH, cisapride, vasopressin, glucagon) were assessed in 6 patients with clinical or subclinical adrenal Cushing's syndrome, and non-functioning adrenal adenoma in two cases. Abnormal responses were observed in three patients with Cushing's syndrome; one patient showed a gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)-dependent cortisol rise after meal, together with responses after GnRH and cisapride; the second patient showed an LH-dependent cortisol response to GnRH, and in the third cortisol rose after cisapride. The pattern of receptor expression performed by RT-PCR showed that while GIP-R was only expressed in tumor from the responsive patient, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 receptor and LH-R were also present in normal adrenal tissues and tissues from non-responsive patients. Interestingly, an activating mutation of Gsalpha gene was identified in one of these tumors. Therefore, cortisol responses to agents operating via Gs protein coupled receptors (in one case associated with Gsalpha mutation) were found in Cushing's patients, while these responses were absent in the others. The finding of receptor expression in normal and non-responsive tumors suggests that different mechanisms are probably involved in inducing in vivo cortisol responses. PMID:15326569

  5. Effect of Orexin-A on Cortisol Secretion in H295R Cells via p70S6K/4EBP1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaocen; Guo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Orexin-A is a neuropeptide that orchestrates diverse central and peripheral processes. It is now clear that orexin system plays a central role in the regulation of endocrine, paracrine, and neurocrine. It is involved in the regulation of growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid, mineralocorticoid, and cortisol secretion. These hormones may also serve as a kind of signal linking energy balance regulation, reproduction, stress response, and cardiovascular regulation. Many studies have demonstrated the ability of orexin-A to regulate adrenocortical cells through the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) pathway. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of orexin-A on cortisol secretion via the protein 70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 (p70S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding proteins (4EBP1) signaling pathway in adrenocortical cells. We reported the first evidence that orexin-A stimulated p70S6K and 4EBP1 in human H295R adrenocortical cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. 10?6?M orexin-A treatment for 1 hour was the most potent. Our results also indicated that p70S6K and 4EBP1 kinases participated in controlling cortisol secretion via OX1 receptor in H295R cells, which implied important role of p70S6K and 4EBP1 kinases in regulating adrenal function induced by orexin-A.

  6. Yawning, fatigue, and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2014-10-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclerosis. This informs our understanding of the functional importance of the brain stem region of the brain in regulating stress and fatigue. PMID:25169036

  7. Elevated levels of circulating cortisol in young normotensive adult men with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Matuszek, Maria A; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2008-03-01

    1. Differences in blood lipids, glucose, insulin, amylin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone, angiotensin II, metabolites of nitric oxide (nitrate, nitrite), asymmetric dimethyl arginine, endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, C-reactive protein, homocysteine and oxidative status (urate, vitamin A, vitamin E, beta-carotene and total anti-oxidant capacity) were investigated in men (aged 18-25 years) with (+) or without (-) a family history (FH) of hypertension. 2. In the present study, FH+ was defined as having at least one parent or grandparent taking medication for hypertension. Blood (60 mL) was sampled (0800-1000 hours) from a cannulated forearm vein after an overnight fast and 24 h abstinence from caffeine-containing products and alcohol. 3. Comparing FH+ with FH-, systolic blood pressure (124 +/- 1 vs 117 + 3 mmHg, respectively; n = 50 and 14, respectively; P < 0.05) and plasma cortisol (377 +/- 23 vs 298 +/- 24 nmol/L, respectively; n = 43 and 12, respectively; P < 0.05) were found to be significantly higher in the former group. 4. No significant difference was found between the two groups for body mass index, resting heart rate, diastolic and mean blood pressures or any of the biochemical measures studied. 5. A significant correlation was found between cortisol and ACTH (r = 0.73). No correlation was found between cortisol and any other parameter measured. 6. These data indicate that elevated cortisol levels are characteristic of young lean normotensive FH+ men. The future impact of this on their vascular health and hypertension remains to be determined. PMID:18067596

  8. Brief report Relationship between salivary cortisol and progesterone levels in humans

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    Brief report Relationship between salivary cortisol and progesterone levels in humans Michelle M positively correlated with salivary cortisol in men and women taking hormonal contraceptives revealed that change in cortisol was positively related to change in progesterone levels; this effect

  9. Effect of endotoxin on pituitary hormone secretion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Coleman, E S; Elsasser, T H; Kemppainen, R J; Coleman, D A; Sartin, J L

    1993-07-01

    Endotoxin, a potent stimulator of the immune system and an important mediator in the pathophysiology of septic shock, has been shown to alter the release of certain hormones following its systemic administration. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of endotoxin on pituitary hormone secretion both in vivo and in vitro in sheep, with emphasis placed on its effects on growth hormone (GH) release. Endotoxin (400 ng/kg i.v.) increased plasma GH, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and prolactin, while it decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency (p < 0.05). Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor, a major mediator of endotoxin effects, also increased following endotoxin administration. Endotoxin did not affect the GH response to human GH-releasing hormone. In vitro studies evaluated the effect of endotoxin to alter GH secretion from dispersed sheep anterior pituitary cells at dosages of 1, 10 and 50 micrograms/ml, with samples collected at 4, 8 and 24 h. Endotoxin increased pituitary GH secretion at 24 h for 1 microgram/ml (p < 0.05) and at all time periods for 10 and 50 micrograms/ml (p < 0.05). It also led to an increased release of ACTH and LH in vitro. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of endotoxin to alter pituitary hormone secretion both in vivo and in vitro in sheep, suggesting a direct effect of endotoxin on the pituitary gland. PMID:8264844

  10. Age-dependent and gender-dependent regulation of hypothalamic-adrenocorticotropic-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Johannes D; Sharma, Animesh; Roelfsema, Ferdinand

    2013-06-01

    Tightly regulated output of glucocorticoids is critical to maintaining immune competence, the structure of neurons, muscle, and bone, blood pressure, glucose homeostasis, work capacity, and vitality in the human and experimental animal. Age, sex steroids, gender, stress, body composition, and disease govern glucocorticoid availability through incompletely understood mechanisms. According to an ensemble concept of neuroendocrine regulation, successful stress adaptations require repeated incremental signaling adjustments among hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin, pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone, and adrenal corticosteroids. Signals are transduced via (positive) feedforward and (negative) feedback effects. Age and gonadal steroids strongly modulate stress-adaptive glucocorticoid secretion by such interlinked pathways. PMID:23702398

  11. Psychological reactivity to laboratory stress is associated with hormonal responses in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Manzur, Angelica M.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Spiegel, David; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study examined associations between psychological reactivity and hormonal responses to a standardized laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) in postmenopausal women. METHODS Forty postmenopausal women ages 50–74 completed anxiety and mood assessments prior to and following the TSST. Blood samples were drawn across multiple time points for assessment of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and DHEA. RESULTS As expected, significant increases in anxiety and negative affect and decreases in positive affect were observed from pre- to post-TSST; however, the magnitude of change in anxiety and mood varied considerably across individuals. Analyses indicated that greater increases in anxiety and negative affect from pre- to post-TSST were associated with higher levels of cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA, controlling for race, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Changes in positive affect were not associated with cortisol, ACTH, or DHEA. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that enhanced reactivity to stress is associated with higher hormone levels among postmenopausal women, which could have potential implications for health. PMID:24595153

  12. Hormonal and Behavioral Responses to Stress in Lactating and Non-lactating Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

    2011-01-01

    In several mammalian species, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and behavioral responses to stressors are down-regulated in lactating females, possibly preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have been found to inhibit maternal behavior in lactating common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), raising the question of whether lactating female marmosets also have blunted endogenous responses to stress. Therefore, we compared HPA and behavioral responses to standardized stressors in reproductively experienced female common marmosets that were undergoing ovulatory cycles and that either were (N=7) or were not lactating (N=8). Each marmoset underwent (1) a restraint stressor during the early follicular phase of the ovarian cycle (approximately 5 weeks postpartum for lactating females) and (2) exposure to a simulated hawk predator during the early to mid-luteal phase (approximately 7 weeks postpartum for lactating females). Lactating females were tested in the presence of one of their infants. Blood samples were collected before, during, and immediately after each test for determination of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations. Both stressors caused significant elevations in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and significant decreases in cortisol:ACTH ratios; however, lactating and non-lactating females showed no significant differences in their endocrine or behavioral responses to either stressor, or in baseline ACTH or cortisol levels. These findings suggest that in contrast to several other mammalian species, lactating female marmosets maintain full behavioral and HPA responsiveness to stress, at least in the presence of their infants. PMID:21600906

  13. Increased cortisol release and transport stress do not influence semen quality and testosterone release in pony stallions.

    PubMed

    Deichsel, Katharina; Pasing, Stephanie; Erber, Regina; Ille, Natascha; Palme, Rupert; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine

    2015-07-01

    The use of breeding stallions for equestrian competitions requires that fertility is not negatively affected by competition or transport to the competition site. In this study, effects of cortisol release induced by road transport (600 km), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration (3 × 0.5 mg synthetic ACTH) and placebo treatment on semen quality and testosterone release were investigated in Shetland stallions (N = 13) using a crossover design. Saliva for cortisol and blood for testosterone analysis were collected for 10 weeks after treatments. Semen was collected daily for 5 days directly after treatments and twice weekly for another 9 weeks. Total sperm count, sperm morphology, motility, and membrane integrity were analyzed. We hypothesized that elevated cortisol decreases testosterone concentration and semen quality. Cortisol concentrations increased in response to transport and ACTH (P < 0.001) but not control treatments (peak concentration, transport: 7.6 ± 2.4, ACTH: 13.7 ± 1.5, control: 3.8 ± 0.9 ng/mL). No treatment effects on testosterone existed. Total sperm count decreased with daily semen collections in week 1 (P < 0.01) but did not differ between the treatments. The percentage of motile, progressively motile, membrane-intact, and morphologically defective spermatozoa did not change over time from Days 2 to 6, and there existed no differences between the treatments. In conclusion, road transport evoked a stress response which was mimicked by ACTH treatment. Both treatments had no effect on testosterone release and semen quality. Testicular function in stallions is apparently well protected against transiently elevated cortisol concentrations, and stallions can be transported over longer distances without negatively affecting their fertility. PMID:25794840

  14. [Adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy in acquired childhood epileptic aphasia].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Léna; Nagy, Judit; Kálmánchey, Rozália

    2008-11-30

    Although Landau-Kleffner syndrome, a childhood-acquired epileptic aphasia, is frequently studied either the underlying pathophysiology or the optimal therapy remained unknown. In our study we aimed to investigate the efficacy of ACTH therapy in Landau-Kleffner syndrome. We have analysed retrospectively the documentation of five children treated by ACTH, who suffered from Landau-Kleffner syndrome. We studied the longitudinal changes of the four most characteristic symptoms and signs of the syndrome: epileptiform EEG, speech and behaviour disorders, seizures together with the ACTH regimes. Besides, we analysed the relation between the starting date of the therapy and its efficacy. Before giving ACTH, epileptiform EEG and speech disorders were observed in all the five children, seizures in four of them, behaviour disorders in three of them. In two patients the speech disorder had been persisting for years before. Due to the starting ACTH stoss-therapy (20 E/day for one-two weeks) all the four examined signs disappeared or showed quick softening in all the five children in maximum two weeks. We adjusted long-term low dose maintenance therapy to avoid relapses in the long-term follow-up. Epileptiform EEGs have normalised in one case and have decreased in four cases. Speech disorders have disappeared in two and have softened in three children. Behaviour disorders have cured in 3/4 cases, softened in one case. Seizures have disappeared in all cases. One child is totally asymptomatic, four of them lives with softened symptoms. Analysing our data we found that the earlier the therapy starts, the more effective it is. On the basis of our data ACTH is an effective treatment for Landau-Kleffner syndrome. After giving it for only a short period, relapses often occur, to avoid relapses adjustment of long term low dose maintenance therapy is advisable. PMID:19070317

  15. Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing

    E-print Network

    Dahleh, Munther A.

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the ...

  16. Assessment of adrenocortical activity by non-invasive measurement of faecal cortisol metabolites in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Sid-Ahmed, Omer-Elfaroug; Sanhouri, Ahmed; Elwaseela, Badr-Eldin; Fadllalah, Imad; Mohammed, Galal-Eldin Elazhari; Möstl, Erich

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether glucocorticoid production could be monitored non-invasively in dromedary camels by measuring faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs). Five Sudanese dromedaries, two males and three females, were injected with a synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogue. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-ACTH injection. Faeces were sampled after spontaneous defecation for five consecutive days (2 days before and 3 days after ACTH injection). Baseline plasma cortisol values ranged from 0.6 to 10.8 ng/ml in males and from 1.1 to 16.6 ng/ml in females, while peak values after ACTH injection were 10.9-41.9 in males and 10-42.2 ng/ml in females. Peak blood cortisol values were reached between 1.5 and 2.0 h after ACTH injection. The concentration of FCMs increased after ACTH injection in the faeces of both sexes, although steroid levels peaked earlier in males [24 h; (286.7-2,559.7 ng/g faeces)] than in females [36-48 h; (1,182.6-5,169.1 ng/g faeces)], reflecting increases of 3.1-8.3- and 4.3-8-fold above baseline levels. To detect chromatographic patterns of immunoreactive FCMs, faecal samples with high FCM concentrations from both sexes were pooled and subjected to reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). RP-HPLC analysis revealed sex differences in the polarity of FCMs, with females showing more polar FCMs than males. We concluded that stimulation of adrenocortical activity by ACTH injection resulted in a measurable increase in blood cortisol that was reliably paralleled by increases in FCM levels. Thus, measurement of FCMs is a powerful tool for monitoring the adrenocortical responses of dromedaries to stressors in field conditions. PMID:23430659

  17. Management of Glucocorticoid Replacement in Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Filipsson; Gudmundur Johannsson

    2007-01-01

    In multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, interactions occur among thyroxine, cortisol and growth hormone (GH). This review addresses the issues of endogenous cortisol production and exogenous cortisol replacement and discusses cortisol metabolism in the context of adult GH deficiency. In addition, we review the effect of GH on 11-?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, the current literature regarding the choice of glucocorticoid (GC)

  18. Fecal cortisol metabolite levels in free-ranging North American red squirrels: Assay validation and the effects of reproductive condition.

    PubMed

    Dantzer, Ben; McAdam, Andrew G; Palme, Rupert; Fletcher, Quinn E; Boutin, Stan; Humphries, Murray M; Boonstra, Rudy

    2010-06-01

    Patterns in stress hormone (glucocorticoid: GC) levels and their relationship to reproductive condition in natural populations are rarely investigated. In this study, we (1) validate an enzyme-immunoassay to measure fecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) levels in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and (2) examine relationships between FCM levels and reproductive condition in a free-ranging red squirrel population. Injected radiolabeled cortisol was entirely metabolized and excreted in both the urine (mean+/-SE; 70.3+/-0.02%) and feces (29.7+/-0.02%), with a lag time to peak excretion in the feces of 10.9+/-2.3h. Our antibody reacted with several cortisol metabolites, and an adrenocorticotropic injection significantly increased FCM levels above baseline levels at 8h post-injection. Relative to baseline levels, manipulation by handling also tended to increase FCM levels at 8h post-manipulation, but this difference was not significant. FCM levels did not differ significantly between samples frozen immediately and 5h after collection. Reproductive condition significantly affected FCM levels in free-ranging females (pregnant>lactating>post-lactating>non-breeding) but not males (scrotal testes vs. abdominal testes). Among females with known parturition dates, FCM levels increased during gestation, peaked at parturition, and declined during lactation. The difference between pregnant and lactating females was therefore dependent upon when the fecal samples were obtained during these periods, suggesting caution in categorizing reproductive stages. This study demonstrates the utility of fecal hormone metabolite assays to document patterns of glucocorticoid levels in free-ranging animals. PMID:20346362

  19. Determination of steroid hormones in a human-serum reference material by isotope dilution--mass spectrometry: A candidate definitive method for cortisol

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, D.G.; Patterson, M.B.; Culbreth, P.H.; Fast, D.M.; Holler, J.S.; Sampson, E.J.; Bayse, D.D.

    1984-05-01

    We report a method, based on isotope dilution--mass spectrometry, for determining cortisol in a pooled specimen of human serum. Isotopically labeled cortisol is added to 5.0 mL of serum so that the molar concentrations of labeled cortisol and unlabeled cortisol are approximately equal. The specimen and two calibration standards are extracted with dichloromethane, and the extracted cortisol is converted to the methoxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivative. Samples and standards are analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry by monitoring the peak areas for m/z 605 and 608. The cortisol concentration is calculated by linear interpolation between the two bracketing standards. Variances of data collected during six weeks showed that the overall coefficient of variation (CV) was 0.69% (n . 32); the within-vial CV, 0.63%; the among-vial CV, 0.22%; and the among-day CV, 0.15% (means . 3.973 nmol/vial). Method specificity was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic as well as C/sub 8/ mini-column cleanup of samples before derivation, by alternative ion monitoring at m/z 636 and 639, and by negative-ion chemical ionization at m/z 459 and 462. Derivatives of all observed degradation products of cortisol under basic, neutral, and acidic conditions did not interfere.

  20. Measuring Endocrine (Cortisol) Responses of Zebrafish Peter R. Canavello, Jonathan M. Cachat, Esther C. Beeson,

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Chapter 11 Measuring Endocrine (Cortisol) Responses of Zebrafish to Stress Peter R. Canavello and rats use corticosterone as their main stress hormone, both humans and zebrafish utilize cortisol. This protocol explains the whole-body cortisol extraction procedure and the use of the human salivary cortisol

  1. Ultrasensitive detection of cortisol with enzyme fragment complementation technology using functionalized nanowire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun Kumar; Shyam Aravamudhan; Milorad Gordic; Shekhar Bhansali; Shyam S. Mohapatra

    2007-01-01

    Cortisol is a member of the glucocorticoid hormone family and a key metabolic regulator. Increased intracellular cortisol levels have been implicated in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Cortisol is an important bio-marker of stress and its detection is also important in sports medicine. However, rapid methods for sensitive detection of cortisol are limited. Functionalized gold nanowires were used

  2. Influence of academic stress and season on 24-hour mean concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, and beta-endorphin.

    PubMed

    Malarkey, W B; Pearl, D K; Demers, L M; Kiecolt-Glaser, J K; Glaser, R

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the influence of a common stressful event, i.e., academic examinations, on the 24-h mean concentration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and/or beta-endorphin. In addition, we evaluated the effect of season on the endocrine response to this stressor. We studied medical students (n = 55), screened for a variety of health and life style factors, from three consecutive medical school classes 1 month before, during, and 2 weeks following examinations. Hourly blood samples were obtained from an indwelling catheter and two serum pools were made (0800-2200h = day and 2300-0700h = night). Examinations produced a significant (p < .001) increase in perceived stress scores. In addition, we found a significant (p < .001) effect of examination stress on the increase in mean daytime but not nocturnal ACTH levels during autumn, but not during the spring. In contrast, the examination stress did not significantly affect day or night mean cortisol levels from baseline to examination week. We further divided the students by whether their perceived stress scores increased during examination week and fell during recovery (Group 1) or whether their perceived stress scores did not follow the expected pattern (Group 2). We found that in the Group 1 students who perceived the most stress, cortisol levels significantly increased (p < .001) from baseline to examination. Therefore, the nature of the stressor and the state of the responder were of equal importance in the observed cortisol response during examinations among these students. Further, academic stress had no significant effect on beta-endorphin levels. Finally, we found that the mean day and night ACTH levels were higher (p < .001) in the spring than in the fall; a seasonal influence on cortisol and beta-endorphin concentrations, however, was not observed. In summary, we have demonstrated that stress associated with the taking of examinations produces a dissociation among mean 24-h levels of ACTH, cortisol, and beta-endorphin. In addition, daytime cortisol levels increased during examinations only in the group of students whose perceived stress scores increased. Further, a seasonal influence on ACTH secretion was suggested by these results with higher levels observed in the spring than in the fall. PMID:7675934

  3. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone: Two-week stability, interhormone correlations, and effects of time of day, menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptive use

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    Salivary testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone: Two-week stability, interhormone correlations Accepted 2 October 2009 Keywords: Testosterone Cortisol Progesterone Steroid hormones Stability Test, we tested the reliability of testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone levels across two weeks

  4. Stressful politics: Voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States Presidential

    E-print Network

    Stressful politics: Voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States--774 KEYWORDS Salivary cortisol; Stress; Hypothalamic-- pituitary--adrenal (HPA) axis; Hormones; Election mammals lose dominance contests they have acute increases in the stress hormone cortisol. However, human

  5. Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97)?=?.20, p?=?.65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97)?=?.00, p?=?.99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, ??=?.27, p?=?.04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, ??=?.27, p?=?.06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, ??=?.72, p?=?.01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

  6. Circadian Rhythms of Glucocorticoid Hormone Actions in Target Tissues: Potential Clinical Implications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tomoshige Kino (NIH; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development REV)

    2012-10-02

    Organisms face unforeseen short- and long-term changes in the environment (stressors). To defend against these changes, organisms have developed a stress system that includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which employs glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) for signal transduction. In addition, organisms live under the strong influence of day-night cycles and, hence, have also developed a highly conserved circadian clock system for adjusting their activities to recurring environmental changes. This regulatory system creates and maintains internal circadian rhythmicity by employing a self-oscillating molecular pacemaker composed of the Clock-Bmal1 heterodimer and other transcription factors. The circadian clock consists of a central master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain hypothalamus and peripheral slave clocks in virtually all organs and tissues. The HPA axis and the circadian clock system communicate with each other at multiple levels. The central clock controls the HPA axis, creating the diurnal oscillation of circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, and the HPA axis adjusts the circadian rhythmicity of the peripheral clocks in response to various stressors through the GR. Further, Clock-Bmal1 regulates the response to glucocorticoids in peripheral tissues through acetylation of the GR, possibly antagonizing the biologic actions of diurnally fluctuating circulating cortisol. Importantly, dysregulation in the clock system and the HPA axis may cause similar pathologic manifestations—including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease—by uncoupling circulating cortisol concentrations from tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids.

  7. Effects of itopride hydrochloride on plasma gut-regulatory peptide and stress-related hormone levels in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Shiga, Toru; Inoue, Shin; Sato, Yuhki; Itoh, Hiroki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    Itopride hydrochloride (itopride), a gastrokinetic drug, has recently been evaluated for its clinical usefulness in functional dyspepsia. We investigated effects of itopride on human plasma gastrin-, somatostatin-, motilin-, and cholecystokinin (CCK)-like immunoreactive substances (IS); adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-immunoreactive substances (IS), and cortisol under stress conditions in healthy subjects. A single administration of itopride caused significant increases in plasma somatostatin- and motilin-IS levels compared to placebo. Itopride significantly decreased plasma CCK-IS, and suppressed the ACTH-IS level compared to placebo. We hypothesize that itopride may have an accelerating gastric emptying effect, and a modulatory effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous functions. These effects might be beneficial in stress-related diseases, suggesting that itopride has clinicopharmacological activities. PMID:16717477

  8. Effect of salinity changes on olfactory memory-related genes and hormones in adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Lim, Sang-Gu; Jeong, Minhwan; Jin, Deuk-Hee; Choi, Cheol Young

    2015-09-01

    Studies of memory formation have recently concentrated on the possible role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NRs). We examined changes in the expression of three NRs (NR1, NR2B, and NR2C), olfactory receptor (OR), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) during salinity change (seawater?50% seawater?freshwater). NRs were significantly detected in the diencephalon and telencephalon and OR was significantly detected in the olfactory epithelium. The expression of NRs, OR, and ACTH increased after the transition to freshwater. We also determined that treatment with MK-801, an antagonist of NRs, decreased NRs in telencephalon cells. In addition, a reduction in salinity was associated with increased levels of dopamine, ACTH, and cortisol (in vivo). Reductions in salinity evidently caused NRs and OR to increase the expression of cortisol and dopamine. We concluded that memory capacity and olfactory imprinting of salmon is related to the salinity of the environment during the migration to spawning sites. Furthermore, salinity affects the memory/imprinting and olfactory abilities, and cortisol and dopamine is also related with olfactory-related memories during migration. PMID:25933936

  9. Electrochemical sensing of cortisol: a recent update.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aparajita; Kaushik, Ajeet; Kumar, Rajesh; Nair, Madhavan; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Psychological stress caused by everyday lifestyle contributes to health disparities experienced by individuals. It affects many biomarkers, but cortisol - "a steroid hormone" - is known as a potential biomarker for psychological stress detection. Abnormal levels of cortisol are indicative of conditions such as Cushing's syndrome Addison's disease, adrenal insufficiencies and more recently post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Chromatographic techniques, which are traditionally used to detect cortisol, are a complex system requiring multistep extraction/purification. This limits its application for point-of-care (POC) detection of cortisol. However, electrochemical immunosensing of cortisol is a recent advancement towards POC application. This review highlights simple, low-cost, and label-free electrochemical immunosensing platforms which have been developed recently for sensitive and selective detection of cortisol in bio-fluids. Electrochemical detection is utilized for the detection of cortisol using Anti-Cortisol antibodies (Anti-Cab) covalently immobilized on nanostructures, such as self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and polymer composite, for POC integration of sensors. The observed information can be used as a prototype to understand behavioral changes in humans such as farmers and firefighters. Keeping the future directions and challenges in mind, the focus of the BioMEMS and Microsystems Research Group at Florida International University is on development of POC devices for immunosensing, integration of these devices with microfluidics, cross validation with existing technologies, and analysis of real sample. PMID:24723204

  10. New Mexico State University Department of Animal & Range Sciences

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    PUBLICATIONS Recent departmental publications include: "Technical note: Comparison of salivary and serum cortisol concentrations after adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge in ewes," Dustin Yates, Tim Ross

  11. Effects of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in postweaned northern elephant seal pups

    E-print Network

    Ortiz, Rudy M.

    Effects of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in postweaned northern elephant seal pups of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in postweaned northern elephant seal pups. Am J Physiol Reg of their postweaning fast to examine the changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones (TH), which

  12. BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY -ORIGINAL ARTICLE Association of salivary-assessed oxytocin and cortisol levels

    E-print Network

    Weidemann, Christoph

    BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY - ORIGINAL ARTICLE Association of salivary-assessed oxytocin and cortisol in the promotion of attachment behaviour. The hormones cortisol and oxytocin, respec- tively, may be involved in these proposed REM sleep functions. However, there are conflicting reports on whe- ther levels of cortisol differ

  13. Inappropriately normal plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations in the face of increased circulating interleukin-6 concentration in exercise in patients with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Mastorakos, George; Paltoglou, George; Greene, Maria; Ilias, Ioannis; Papamichalopoulos, Antonios; Dimopoulos, Stavros; Pouliou, Eleni; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Nanas, Serafim

    2013-03-01

    Sarcoidosis is an autoimmune disease, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is blunted in autoimmunity. Exercise stimulates the HPA axis, and we hypothesized that in sarcoidosis patients responses to treadmill exercise would be reduced. Hence, we studied 44 sarcoidosis patients [27 untreated (age, mean ± SD, 42 ± 2 years, 12 males, 15 females) and 17 dexamethasone treated (age, 46 ± 4 years, 7 males, 10 females)] and 20 healthy controls (40 ± 5 years old, 9 males, 11 females). Blood samples were drawn before, at peak (exhaustion), and 15 min after treadmill exercise for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-6 measurements. At peak, plasma ACTH (pg/ml) was increased in untreated (mean ± SE, ?ACTH = 162.8 ± 29.9) and treated (?ACTH = 123.3 ± 48.1) patients and controls (?ACTH = 112.3 ± 41.7). Post-exercise, cortisol (ng/ml) was increased (p < 0.05) in untreated patients (?cortisol = 48.4 ± 14.7) and controls (?cortisol = 46.0 ± 15.9), but not significantly in treated patients (?cortisol = 1.43 ± 2.56). At baseline, serum IL-6 (pg/ml) and TNF (pg/ml) were higher in untreated (3.02 ± 0.54 and 3.89 ± 0.72) and treated (1.75 ± 0.33 and 2.16 ± 1.00) patients, respectively, than in controls (0.80 ± 0.66 and 1.58 ± 0.32). At peak exercise, IL-6 was increased in untreated (?IL-6 = 0.96 ± 0.14) and treated (?IL-6 = 0.91 ± 0.47) patients and controls (?IL-6 = 0.96 ± 0.18); IL-1? was increased only in controls. Hence, the HPA axis of untreated sarcoidosis patients and controls responded similarly to treadmill exercise. In sarcoidosis patients, increased IL-6 was associated with HPA stimulation. Cortisol concentrations were similar between patients and controls, although IL-6 concentrations were higher in patients. Thus, in the face of chronically elevated IL-6 levels in sarcoidosis, there may be dysfunctional IL-6-induced HPA responses or HPA adaptation to high IL-6 concentrations. PMID:22871212

  14. Pituitary and adrenal hormone responses to pharmacological, physical, and psychological stimulation in habitual smokers and nonsmokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kirschbaum; G. Scherer; C. J. Strasburger

    1994-01-01

    Hormone responses to injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone following bicycle ergometry and psychological stress were studied in ten habitual smokers and ten nonsmokers. Compared to injection of saline, significant increases were found in adrenocorticotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, total serum cortisol, and salivary cortisol under all three stimulations except for salivary cortisol under ergometry. Furthermore, the smokers showed significant elevations of all

  15. Variation in the ovine cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge is predominantly determined by signalling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    SciTech Connect

    You Qiumei [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Karrow, Niel A. [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: nkarrow@uoguelph.ca; Cao Honghe [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Rodriguez, Alexander [Department of Clinical Studies, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Mallard, Bonnie A. [Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Boermans, Herman J. [Department of Biomedical Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Bi-directional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is designed, in part, to maintain or restore homeostasis during physiological stress. Exposure to endotoxin during Gram-negative bacterial infection for example, elicits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). The secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids subsequently down regulates the host inflammatory response, minimizing potential tissue damage. Sequence and epigenetic variants in genes involved in regulating the neuroendocrine and immune systems are likely to contribute to individual differences in the HPAA response, and this may influence the host anti-inflammatory response to toxin exposure and susceptibility to inflammatory disease. In this study, high (HCR) and low (LCR) cortisol responders were selected from a normal population of 110 female sheep challenged iv with Escherichia coli endotoxin (400 ng/kg) to identify potential determinants that contribute to variation in the cortisol response phenotype. This phenotype was stable over several years in the HCR and LCR animals, and did not appear to be attributed to differences in expression of hepatic immune-related genes or systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Mechanistic studies using corticotrophin-releasing factor (0.5 {mu}g/kg body weight), arginine vasopressin (0.5 {mu}g/kg), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (0.5 {mu}g/kg) administered iv demonstrated that variation in this phenotype is largely determined by signalling within the HPAA. Future studies will use this ovine HCR/LCR model to investigate potential genetic and epigenetic variants that may contribute to variation in cortisol responsiveness to bacterial endotoxin.

  16. Cortisol and behavior in fragile X syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hessl; B. Glaser; J. Dyer-Friedman; C. Blasey; T. Hastie; M. Gunnar; A. L. Reiss

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if children with fragile X syndrome, who typically demonstrate a neurobehavioral phenotype that includes social anxiety, withdrawal, and hyper-arousal, have increased levels of cortisol, a hormone associated with stress. The relevance of adrenocortical activity to the fragile X phenotype also was examined.Method: One hundred and nine children with the fragile X

  17. Effects of syndyphalin-33 on feed intake and circulating measures of growth hormone, cortisol, and immune cell populations in the recently-weaned pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthetic met-enkephalin syndyphalin-33 (SD-33) increases feed intake in sheep and transiently increases circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep, rats, and pigs. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of SD-33 on recently-weaned pigs. In a preliminary experiment, ...

  18. Obesity and cortisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Björntorp; Roland Rosmond

    2000-01-01

    Cortisol in obesity is a much-studied problem. Previous information indicates that cortisol secretion is elevated but that circulatory concentrations are normal or low, suggesting that peripheral disappearance rate is elevated. These studies have usually not taken into account the difference between central and peripheral types of obesity. Recent studies using saliva cortisol have indicated that the problem is complex with

  19. RESEARCH ARTICLE Supraphysiological Cortisol

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Supraphysiological Cortisol Elevation Alters the Response of Wild Bluegill Sunfish implants to experimentally raise circulating cortisol in a group of fish for 10 days. We also maintained indicators of physiological status among cortisol-treated, sham-treated, and control groups following

  20. Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Adler, Gail K.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Emery N.

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

  1. Does cortisol influence core executive functions? A meta-analysis of acute cortisol administration effects on working memory, inhibition, and set-shifting.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Bonner, Joseph C; Moons, Wesley G

    2015-08-01

    The hormone cortisol is often believed to play a pivotal role in the effects of stress on human cognition. This meta-analysis is an attempt to determine the effects of acute cortisol administration on core executive functions. Drawing on both rodent and stress literatures, we hypothesized that acute cortisol administration would impair working memory and set-shifting but enhance inhibition. Additionally, because cortisol is thought to exert different nongenomic (rapid) and genomic (slow) effects, we further hypothesized that the effects of cortisol would differ as a function of the delay between cortisol administration and cognitive testing. Although the overall analyses were nonsignificant, after separating the rapid, nongenomic effects of cortisol from the slower, genomic effects of cortisol, the rapid effects of cortisol enhanced response inhibition, g(+)=0.113, p=.016, but impaired working memory, g(+)=-0.315, p=.008, although these effects reversed over time. Contrary to our hypotheses, there was no effect of cortisol administration on set-shifting. Thus, although we did not find support for the idea that increases in cortisol influence set-shifting, we found that acute increases in cortisol exert differential effects on working memory and inhibition over time. PMID:25973565

  2. Lower Baseline Plasma Cortisol and Prolactin together with Increased Body Temperature and Higher mCPP-Induced Cortisol Responses in Men with Pedophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Maes; Dirk van West; Nathalie De Vos; Herman Westenberg; Fran Van Hunsel; Dirk Hendriks; Paul Cosyns; Simon Scharpé

    2001-01-01

    There is some evidence that hormonal and serotonergic alterations may play a role in the pathophysiology of paraphilias. The aims of the present study were to examine: 1) baseline plasma cortisol, plasma prolactin, and body temperature; and 2) cortisol, prolactin, body temperature, as well as behavioral responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and placebo in pedophiles and normal men. Pedophiles showed significantly

  3. Pathway-specific response to cortisol in the metabolism of catfish.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, G; Verma, Priyanka

    2003-11-01

    Cortisol produced biochemical pathway-specific effects on metabolic enzymes and other macromolecules in the freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. Injection of cortisol increased 1.6-fold activity of citrate synthase (CS) in brain, liver and skeletal muscle of the fish over vehicle-injected control, while administration of metyrapone (a cortisol synthesis inhibitor) reduced CS activity by 52%. Cortisol treatment of metyrapone-treated fish induced CS activity by approximately 2.5-fold, which was blocked after administration of actinomycin D or cycloheximide. This shows de novo synthesis of CS to enhance aerobic capacity of fish. In contrast the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased in response to metyrapone and decreased after administration of cortisol in all the three tissues. The cortisol-mediated decrease in G6-PDH and LDH activities reflects reduction in biosynthetic and anaerobic capacity of fish. Administration of metyrapone significantly increased RNA/DNA ratio and protein but cortisol decreased these macromolecular contents in brain, liver and skeletal muscle. It shows cortisol-induced decrease in protein synthesis capacity of fish. The present study suggests that cortisol-induces catabolic and aerobic but inhibits anabolic and anaerobic processes in freshwater catfish. The cortisol-dependent metabolic responses may also be associated with the permissive effect of cortisol on other hormone(s) in fish. PMID:14602154

  4. Measuring water-borne cortisol in Poecilia latipinna:is the process stressful, can stress be minimized and is cortisol correlated with sex steroid release rates?

    PubMed

    Gabor, C R; Contreras, A

    2012-09-01

    The stress of water-borne hormone collection process was examined in sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna. Baseline release rates of the stress hormone cortisol were measured and minimum confinement time for water sampling was evaluated for a standard 60 min v. a 30 min protocol. A 30 min hormone collection period reflects release rates over 60 min. Potential stress response to confinement in the beaker for the water-borne collection process was tested over 4 days. There was no evidence of stress due to the collection methods, as cortisol release rates did not differ significantly across four sequential days of handling for P. latipinna. Males and females did not differ significantly in baseline cortisol release rates. Baseline cortisol release rates from fish immediately after being collected in the field were also not significantly different than those in the 4 day confinement experiment. After exposure to a novel environment, however, P. latipinna mounted a stress response. Stress may also affect sex steroids and behaviour but cortisol release rates were not significantly correlated with sex steroids [11-ketotestosterone (KT), testosterone, or oestradiol], or mating attempts. The correlation between water-borne release rates and plasma steroid levels was validated for both cortisol and KT. Finally, normalizing cortisol release rates using standard length in lieu of mass is viable and accurate. Water-borne hormone assays are a valuable tool for investigating questions concerning the role of hormones in mediating stress responses and reproductive behaviours in P. latipinna and other livebearing fishes. PMID:22957873

  5. Correlations of plasma cortisol levels, chaperone expression and mammalian longevity: a review of published data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Krøll

    2010-01-01

    The data presented demonstrates a correlation of plasma cortisol levels and receptor sensitivity with mammalian longevity\\u000a and replicative senescence; observations possibly related to the influence of cortisol on chaperone expression and cancer\\u000a resistance. The molecular chaperones are essential structural and functional elements of the steroid hormone receptors, and\\u000a serve to modify the sensitivity of the cortisol receptor. Cushing’s syndrome illustrates

  6. Central corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors modulate hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical and sympathoadrenal activity during stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Jezova; T Ochedalski; M Glickman; A Kiss; G Aguilera

    1999-01-01

    The role of brain corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors in modulating hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal and sympathoadrenal responses to acute immobilization stress was studied in conscious rats under central corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor blockade by intracerebroventicular injection of a peptide corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist. Blood for catecholamines, adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels was collected through vascular catheters, and brains were removed at 3h for in situ

  7. Within-Person Coupling of Changes in Cortisol, Testosterone, and DHEA Across the Day in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively examined within-person and between-person associations between cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone across the day. Data are from a sample of 213 adolescents aged 11–16 (M = 13.7, SD = 1.5 years) from the Northeastern US who were oversampled for psychopathology symptoms. Six repeated measures of hormone levels across 3 days were used to test three specific questions of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone associations within individuals (coupling) across the day, and one question of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone diurnal slopes were associated between adolescents. Results consistently revealed positive cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone coupling across the day, often more pronounced in girls relative to boys. Cortisol and DHEA slopes were positively associated, whereas cortisol and testosterone were negatively associated between-adolescents. Findings suggest multiple mechanisms and highlight the multifaceted nature of associations of hormone changes during adolescence and importance of considering both axes for between- and within-person aspects of neuroendocrine development. PMID:24166536

  8. Absence d'effets d'un excs alimentaire en leucine sur les cintiques postprandiales du glucagon et du cortisol plasmatiques chez l'agneau

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    du cortisol plasmatiques chez l'agneau préruminant Isabelle PAPET, Michèle GARDY-GODILLOT M. DALLE J concentrations of cortisol and glucagon have been measured in preruminant lambs after feeding a meal containing, renouvellement des protéines) (Papet, 1987). Diverses hormones pourraient être impliquées : le cortisol puisque

  9. [A critical analysis of cortisol measurements: an update].

    PubMed

    Maidana, Patricia; Bruno, Oscar D; Mesch, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Serum cortisol measurement is a very useful tool in the biochemical evaluation of adrenocortical function. Since this hormone circulates in blood mainly linked to binding globulins but is also partially free, it can be measured not only in the blood but also in urine, saliva and other biological fluids and tissues. Basal determinations as well as dynamic testing may be performed to evaluate the circadian variations, to estimate the diurnal cortisol secretion and to analyze its relations with other components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Measurements of cortisol in blood, saliva and urine may reflect the cortisol secretion at the time of sample collection or during a 24 h span. Recently, it has been proposed the determination of cortisol in tissues such as hair and nails like a means of evaluating the hormonal status during prolonged periods. The aim of this paper is to update the methodology for measuring cortisol and its usefulness for the clinical diagnosis of troubles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:24356273

  10. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG.

  11. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a specific job. For example, they affect growth, metabolism, bone health, production of sex hormones, and more. ... Many areas of the body Control growth and metabolism Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Adrenal gland Produce cortisol, needed ...

  12. Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor for the detection of salivary cortisol using the Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Hyun Lee, Jung; Kim, MinGin; Kim, Jeongmin; Song, Min-Jung; Jung, Hyo-Il; Lee, Wooyoung

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of a thermal biosensor based on bismuth nanowire that is fabricated for the detection of the human stress hormone cortisol using the Thomson effect. The Bi nanowire was grown using the On-Film Formation of Nanowires (OFF-ON) method. The thermal device was fabricated using photolithography, and the sensing area was modified with immobilized anti-cortisol antibodies conjugated with protein G for the detection of cortisol. The voltages were measured with two probe tips during surface modification to investigate the biochemical reactions in the fabricated thermal biosensor. The Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor exhibited low detection limit and good selectivity for the detection of cortisol.

  13. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ?PCBs and ?PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g(-1) lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, p<0.01 for each), and the mean level of ?PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g(-1) lipid, p>0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ?PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ?PCBs (r=0.60, p<0.05) and ?PCDD/Fs (r=0.61, p<0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ?PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r=0.61, p<0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e-waste might contribute to abnormal changes in hormone levels. PMID:25173862

  14. In situ hybridization study of growth hormone, prolactin, and proopiomelanocortin mRNAs in adenohypophyses of mice transgenic for human growth hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Stefaneanu; K. Kovacs; A. Bartke

    1993-01-01

    In mice transgenic for human growth hormone (GH) gene, pituitaries are significantly decreased in size and show morphologic\\u000a changes in somatotrophs, lactotrophs, corticotrophs, and gonadotrophs that are due to the dual somatotropic and lactotropic\\u000a effect exerted by the foreign hormone. To further elucidate the mechanisms by which GH, prolactin (PRL), and adrenocorticotropic\\u000a hormone (ACTH) biosynthesis is regulated in this line

  15. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

  16. Shiftwork Duration and the Awakening Cortisol Response Among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michael; Burch, James; Violanti, John; Burchfiel, Cecil; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael; Zhang, Hongmei; Miller, Diane B.; Hébert, James R.; Vena, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Police officers are required to work irregular hours, which induces stress, fatigue, and sleep disruption, and they have higher rates of chronic disease and mortality. Cortisol is a well-known “stress hormone” produced via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. An abnormal secretion pattern has been associated with immune system dysregulation and may serve as an early indicator of disease risk. This study examined the effects of long- and short-term shiftwork on the cortisol awakening response among officers (n = 68) in the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) pilot study (2001–2003). The time each officer spent on day (start time: 04:00–11:59 h), afternoon (12:00–19:59 h), or night (20:00–03:59 h) shifts was summarized from 1994 to examination date to characterize long-term (mean: 14 ± 9 yrs) and short-term (3, 5, 7, or 14 days prior to participation) shiftwork exposures. The cortisol awakening response was characterized by summarizing the area under the curve (AUC) for samples collected on first awakening, and at 15-, 30-, and 45-min intervals after waking. Data were collected on a scheduled training or off day. The cortisol AUC with respect to ground (AUCG) summarized total cortisol output after waking, and the cortisol AUC with respect to increase (AUCI) characterized the waking cortisol response. Officers also completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Waking cortisol AUC values were lower among officers working short-term night or afternoon shifts than day shifts, with maximal differences occurring after 5 days of shiftwork. The duration of long-term shiftwork was not associated with the cortisol awakening response, although values were attenuated among officers with more career shift changes. PMID:21721860

  17. Effects of Handling and Vehicle Injections on Adrenocorticotropic and Corticosterone Concentrations in Sprague–Dawley Compared with Lewis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch-Feldman, Molly; Picetti, Roberto; Seip-Cammack, Katharine; Zhou, Yan; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is a key factor in the trajectory of the addiction-like cycle (a pattern of behavior characterized by escalating drug use, withdrawal, and relapse) in preclinical and clinical studies. Concentrations of HPA hormones change in laboratory animals in response to standard experimental procedures, including handling and vehicle injections. We compared HPA activity in adult male Lewis (inbred) and Sprague–Dawley (outbred) rats, 2 common strains in rodent models of addiction, after different schedules of handling and saline injections, to explore the extent to which HPA responses differ by strain and whether interindividual differences underlie addiction vulnerability. The 4 treatment conditions were no, short, or long handling and saline injections. In handled groups, rats were handled for 1 to 2 min for 3 times daily and were euthanized after 7 d (short handling) or 14 d (long handling). The injection schedule in the saline injection group mimicked that in a model of binge-like cocaine exposure. Across all treatment groups, concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone were higher in Sprague–Dawley than in Lewis rats. In Sprague–Dawley rats, corticosterone concentrations decreased after continued handling but remained constant in Lewis rats. Interindividual variability in hormone levels was greater in Sprague–Dawley than Lewis rats, although corticosterone variability decreased after continued handling. Prolactin did not differ between groups of either Sprague–Dawley and Lewis rats before or after handling. This study underscores the importance of prolonged handling before experimenter-provided drug-administration paradigms and of strain-associated differences that may affect study outcomes. PMID:25651089

  18. Effects of handling and vehicle injections on adrenocorticotropic and corticosterone concentrations in Sprague-Dawley compared with Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Deutsch-Feldman, Molly; Picetti, Roberto; Seip-Cammack, Katharine; Zhou, Yan; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a key factor in the trajectory of the addiction-like cycle (a pattern of behavior characterized by escalating drug use, withdrawal, and relapse) in preclinical and clinical studies. Concentrations of HPA hormones change in laboratory animals in response to standard experimental procedures, including handling and vehicle injections. We compared HPA activity in adult male Lewis (inbred) and Sprague-Dawley (outbred) rats, 2 common strains in rodent models of addiction, after different schedules of handling and saline injections, to explore the extent to which HPA responses differ by strain and whether interindividual differences underlie addiction vulnerability. The 4 treatment conditions were no, short, or long handling and saline injections. In handled groups, rats were handled for 1 to 2 min for 3 times daily and were euthanized after 7 d (short handling) or 14 d (long handling). The injection schedule in the saline injection group mimicked that in a model of binge-like cocaine exposure. Across all treatment groups, concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone were higher in Sprague-Dawley than in Lewis rats. In Sprague-Dawley rats, corticosterone concentrations decreased after continued handling but remained constant in Lewis rats. Interindividual variability in hormone levels was greater in Sprague-Dawley than Lewis rats, although corticosterone variability decreased after continued handling. Prolactin did not differ between groups of either Sprague-Dawley and Lewis rats before or after handling. This study underscores the importance of prolonged handling before experimenter-provided drug-administration paradigms and of strain-associated differences that may affect study outcomes. PMID:25651089

  19. Hormonal Changes During and After Cardiac Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello Maggio; Chiara Cattabiani; Gian Paolo Ceda

    \\u000a Aging is associated with changes in serum concentrations of various hormones, including growth hormone, insulin-like growth\\u000a factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone, estrogens, dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Studies suggest that these\\u000a hormonal alterations may be responsible for some of the physiologic changes seen with aging and also play a path physiological\\u000a role in many age-related medical conditions. The overall result of the

  20. Pituitary-adrenal function in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stepani Bendel; Timo Koivisto; Esko Ruokonen; Jaakko Rinne; Jarkko Romppanen; Ilkka Vauhkonen; Vesa Kiviniemi; Ari Uusaro

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) may damage the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis and disturb cortisol metabolism. There are no available data that relates to the response of the HPA axis in the acute phase of SAH. We aimed to characterise the behavior of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), total cortisol, stimulated total cortisol and free cortisol concentrations in acute aneurysmal SAH. METHODS:

  1. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but has been reported to be as high as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The objective of this study was to determine effects of ACTH administration on mimicking a stress response and whether this respon...

  2. Testosterone, cortisol and anxiety in elite field hockey players.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Raúl; Jiménez, Manuel; Alvero-Cruz, José R

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the change in the levels of testosterone and cortisol after victory and defeat in male field hockey players during an important tournament. In the beginning of the game series, the players were ranked very closely to achieve (for the first time) the championship rising to The Honor Division-A, the highest status national category. The first game resulted in a 7-4 victory, the second game resulted in a 6-1 victory, and the third game resulted in a 1-2 defeat. As expected, there were changes in testosterone levels after the competition, dropping in the game which ended in defeat, and rising slightly in the two games which ended in victory; there were also changes in cortisol levels, rising in the game which ended in defeat, and showing no variations in the games which ended in victory; correlational analyses congruently showed that defeat led to rises in cortisol whereas victory led to rises in testosterone; anticipatory somatic anxiety was related to cortisol levels prior to games, and physical exertion during competition was related to the change in testosterone levels (suggesting an inhibitory effect) but not to the change in cortisol levels. Hence, this pattern of hormonal responses to a real-life dominance challenge complied with Mazur's (1985) [16] biosocial model of status and dominance motivation, by showing that testosterone and cortisol are linked to victory and defeat in a theoretically predictable fashion. PMID:23743274

  3. Effects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone concentrations assessed in saliva

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    increase, relative to no-gum controls and attenuated salivary testosterone and cortisol concentra- tionsEffects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone November 2012 Accepted 28 November 2012 Available online 6 December 2012 Keywords: Salivary hormone assay

  4. Affiliative and disciplinary behavior of human handlers during play with their dog affects cortisol concentrations in opposite directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsuzsánna Horváth; Antal Dóka; Ádám Miklósi

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that cortisol concentrations change characteristically in the course of agonistic interactions; our aim was to find out how a playful situation may affect concentrations of this hormone in the saliva. We studied dogs' behavior and the changes of cortisol concentrations in a play situation, where the dogs played with their handler for 3 min with a tug

  5. Dose effects of recombinant human interleukin-6 on pituitary hormone secretion and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Tsigos, C; Papanicolaou, D A; Defensor, R; Mitsiadis, C S; Kyrou, I; Chrousos, G P

    1997-07-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), the main circulating cytokine, is putatively a major mediator of the effects of the immune system on several endocrine axes and intermediate metabolism. We performed dose-response studies of recombinant human IL-6 on pituitary hormone secretion in 15 healthy male volunteers, using 5 single, escalating subcutaneous doses of IL-6 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 and 10.0 micrograms/kg body weight), each in 3 volunteers. We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) with indirect calorimetry and plasma anterior pituitary hormones and vasopressin (AVP) at baseline and half-hourly over 4 h after the injection. All doses examined were tolerated well and produced no significant adverse effects. Dose-dependent RMR increases were observed in response to the 3.0- and 10.0-microgram/kg doses of IL-6, beginning at 60 min and slowly peaking between 180 and 240 min. Plasma adrenocorticotropic-hormone concentrations increased dramatically and dose-dependently in all the patients who received the 3.0- and 10.0-microgram/kg doses of IL-6, respectively, peaking to 150 and 255 pg/ml at 60 min, and slowly returning to normal by 4 h. Corresponding plasma cortisol levels peaked dose-dependently between 90 and 150 min, but remained elevated throughout the sampling period. In contrast, the growth hormone (GH) dose-response was bell-shaped, with maximum (approximately 100-fold) stimulation achieved by 3.0 micrograms/kg IL-6. Prolactin (PRL) showed a similar but less pronounced response pattern. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) dose-dependently and progressively decreased over the 240 min, while gonadotropins showed no clear-cut changes. In conclusion, subcutaneous IL-6 administration induced synchronized dose-dependent increases in the RMR and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, suggesting that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone may mediate both of these functions in humans. IL-6 also acutely stimulated GH and PRL secretion and suppressed TSH secretion. The dose of 3.0 micrograms/kg could be used safely in the study of patients with disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit or of thermogenesis. PMID:9258919

  6. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  7. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N?=?142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100?mg hydrocortisone, N?=?34) or testosterone (three doses of 10?g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48?hours, N?=?41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  8. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N?=?142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100?mg hydrocortisone, N?=?34) or testosterone (three doses of 10?g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48?hours, N?=?41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  9. Aldosterone-cortisol imbalance immediately after fontan operation with implications for abnormal fluid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Hirofumi; Kuwata, Seiko; Kurishima, Clara; Iwamoto, Yoichi; Ishido, Hirotaka; Masutani, Satoshi; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2014-11-15

    Abnormal water metabolism is frequently observed after Fontan surgery. We hypothesized that patients' adrenal hormones show unique responses immediately after Fontan operation and that such a hormonal profile is related to postoperative hemodynamics and water imbalance. Twenty-eight patients who underwent a Fontan operation (n = 16) or a non-Fontan type operation (n = 12; controls) under cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. Postoperative urine cortisol and aldosterone levels were measured daily to minimize the influence of circadian rhythms and temporal hemodynamic variations. Cortisol excretion was markedly elevated on postoperative day (POD) 0 in controls, consistent with a stress-induced cortisol response. Cortisol excretion was not high on POD 0 in Fontan patients and was markedly lower than that in the controls (444 ± 150 vs 34 ± 6 ?g/m(2)/day, p <0.05), indicating an adrenal insufficiency status. Conversely, aldosterone levels were significantly higher in Fontan patients than in controls immediately after surgery and remained so thereafter. The cortisol-to-aldosterone ratio was significantly lower in Fontan patients on POD 0 (p <0.05 vs controls); low cortisol-to-aldosterone ratios were associated with a longer pleural drainage duration and intensive care unit stay. Daily cortisol and aldosterone levels were significantly associated with postoperative hemodynamics; low cortisol levels correlated with low cardiac and urine outputs, whereas high aldosterone levels correlated with low cardiac output and increased blood pressure and central venous pressure. Thus, aldosterone-to-cortisol imbalance occurred specifically after the Fontan operation. This unique hormonal profile significantly affected patients' postoperative water balance and hemodynamics. Modulation of the adrenal hormone could be useful for reducing postoperative complications after the Fontan operation. PMID:25261875

  10. The face of female dominance: Women with dominant faces have lower cortisol.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Santoyo, Isaac; Wheatley, John R; Welling, Lisa L M; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A; Jimenez-Trejo, Francisco; Dawood, Khytam; Puts, David A

    2015-05-01

    The human face displays a wealth of information, including information about dominance and fecundity. Dominance and fecundity are also associated with lower concentrations of the stress hormone cortisol, suggesting that cortisol may negatively predict facial dominance and attractiveness. We digitally photographed 61 women's faces, had these images rated by men and women for dominance, attractiveness, and femininity, and explored relationships between these perceptions and women's salivary cortisol concentrations. In a first study, we found that women with more dominant-appearing, but not more attractive, faces had lower cortisol levels. These associations were not due to age, ethnicity, time since waking, testosterone, or its interaction with cortisol. In a second study, composite images of women with low cortisol were perceived as more dominant than those of women with high cortisol significantly more often than chance by two samples of viewers, with a similar but non-significant trend in a third sample. However, data on perceptions of attractiveness were mixed; low-cortisol images were viewed as more attractive by two samples of US viewers and as less attractive by a sample of Mexican viewers. Our results suggest that having a more dominant-appearing face may be associated with lower stress and hence lower cortisol in women, and provide further evidence regarding the information content of the human face. PMID:25857930

  11. Stress and reward: long term cortisol exposure predicts the strength of sexual preference.

    PubMed

    Chumbley, J R; Hulme, O; Köchli, H; Russell, E; Van Uum, S; A Pizzagalli, D; Fehr, E

    2014-05-28

    Healthy individuals tend to consume available rewards like food and sex. This tendency is attenuated or amplified in most stress-related psychiatric conditions, so we asked if it depends on endogenous levels of the 'canonical stress hormone' cortisol. We unobtrusively quantified how hard healthy heterosexual men would work to consume erotic images of women versus men and also measured their exposure to endogenous cortisol in the prior two months. We used linear models to predict the strength of sexual preference from cortisol level, after accounting for other potential explanations. Heterosexual preference declines with self-reported anhedonia but increases with long term exposure to endogenous cortisol. These results suggest that cortisol may affect reward-related behavior in healthy adults. PMID:24732415

  12. Social regulation of the cortisol levels in early human development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan R. Gunnar; Bonny Donzella

    2002-01-01

    Other papers in this special edition provide evidence to implicate activity of the limbic hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (L–HPA) system in the etiology of drug and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, studies in rodents and primates suggest that responsivity and regulation of this system later in life may be shaped by social experiences during early development. Cortisol is the major hormonal product of the L–HPA

  13. EFFECTS OF STORAGE TIMES AND TEMPERATURES ON T3, T4, LH, PROLACTIN, INSULIN, CORTISOL AND PROGESTERONE CONCENTRATIONS IN BLOOD SAMPLES FROM COWS l

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Reimers; J. P. McCann; R. G. Cowan

    Summary Little is known about stability of hormones in blood samples stored under various condi- tions. This study was conducted to examine sta- bility of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, insulin, cortisol and progesterone in blood and serum samples. Experiment 1 was designed to deter- mine if concentrations of these hormones were affected by exposure to cellular

  14. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  15. Dynamics and Correlation of Serum Cortisol and Corticosterone under Different Physiological or Stressful Conditions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shuai; Miao, Yi-Long; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Sun, Ming-Ju; Li, Hong; Lin, Juan; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2015-01-01

    Although plasma corticosterone is considered the main glucocorticoid involved in regulation of stress responses in rodents, the presence of plasma cortisol and whether its level can be used as an indicator for rodent activation of stress remain to be determined. In this study, effects of estrous cycle stage, circadian rhythm, and acute and chronic (repeated or unpredictable) stressors of various severities on dynamics and correlation of serum cortisol and corticosterone were examined in mice. A strong (r = 0.6–0.85) correlation between serum cortisol and corticosterone was observed throughout the estrous cycle, all day long, and during acute or repeated restraints, chronic unpredictable stress and acute forced swimming or heat stress. Both hormones increased to the highest level on day 1 of repeated-restraint or unpredictable stresses, but after that, whereas the concentration of cortisol did not change, that of corticosterone showed different dynamics. Thus, whereas corticosterone declined dramatically during repeated restraints, it remained at the high level during unpredictable stress. During forced swimming or heat stress, whereas cortisol increased to the highest level within 3 min., corticosterone did not reach maximum until 40 min. of stress. Analysis with HPLC and HPLC-MS further confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum. Taken together, results (i) confirmed the presence of cortisol in mouse serum and (ii) suggested that mouse serum cortisol and corticosterone are closely correlated in dynamics under different physiological or stressful conditions, but, whereas corticosterone was a more adaptation-related biomarker than cortisol during chronic stress, cortisol was a quicker responder than corticosterone during severe acute stress. PMID:25699675

  16. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample. PMID:25921588

  17. Maternal melatonin selectively inhibits cortisol production in the primate fetal adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Richter, Hans G; Germain, Alfredo M; Valenzuela, Guillermo J; Campino, Carmen; Rojas-García, Pedro; Forcelledo, María Luisa; Torrealba, Fernando; Serón-Ferré, María

    2004-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that in primates, maternal melatonin restrains fetal and newborn adrenal cortisol production. A functional G-protein-coupled MT1 membrane-bound melatonin receptor was detected in 90% gestation capuchin monkey fetal adrenals by (a) 2-[125I] iodomelatonin binding (Kd, 75.7 ± 6.9 pm; Bmax, 2.6 ± 0.4 fmol (mg protein)?1), (b) cDNA identification, and (c) melatonin inhibition of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)- and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-stimulated cortisol but not of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS) production in vitro. Melatonin also inhibited ACTH-induced 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA expression. To assess the physiological relevance of these findings, we next studied the effect of chronic maternal melatonin suppression (induced by exposure to constant light during the last third of gestation) on maternal plasma oestradiol during gestation and on plasma cortisol concentration in the 4- to 6-day-old newborn. Constant light suppressed maternal melatonin without affecting maternal plasma oestradiol concentration, consistent with no effect on fetal DHAS, the precursor of maternal oestradiol. However, newborns from mothers under constant light condition had twice as much plasma cortisol as newborns from mothers maintained under a normal light–dark schedule. Newborns from mothers exposed to chronic constant light and daily melatonin replacement had normal plasma cortisol concentration. Our results support a role of maternal melatonin in fetal and neonatal primate cortisol regulation. PMID:14673186

  18. Effects of Cortisol Administered through Slow-Release Implants on Innate Immune Responses in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Cortés, R; Teles, M; Trídico, R; Acerete, L; Tort, L

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol is a key hormone in the fish stress response with a well-known ability to regulate several physiological functions, including energy metabolism and the immune system. However, data concerning cortisol effects on fish innate immune system using a more controlled increase in cortisol levels isolated from any other stress related signaling is scarce. The present study describes the effect of doses of cortisol corresponding to acute and chronic levels on the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We also evaluated the effects of these cortisol levels (from intraperitoneally implanted hydrocortisone) on the mRNA levels quantified by RT-qPCR of selected key immune-related genes in the liver, head kidney, and spleen. For that purpose, 60 specimens of rainbow trout were divided in to two groups: a control group injected with a coconut oil implant and another group injected with the same implant and cortisol (50? ? g cortisol/g body weight). Our results demonstrate the role of cortisol as a modulator of the innate immune response without the direct contribution of other stress axes. Our results also show a relationship between the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma and mRNA levels in liver, supporting the important role of this organ in producing these immune system proteins after a rise of cortisol in the fish plasma. PMID:24073392

  19. Loss of the pregnancy-induced rise in cortisol concentrations in the ewe impairs the fetal insulin-like growth factor axis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Ellen C.; Bennet, Laura; Wood, Charles; Vickers, Mark; Breier, Bernhard; Gunn, Alistair J.; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Maternal cortisol levels increase during pregnancy. Although this change is important for optimal fetal growth, the mechanisms of the changes in growth remain unclear. We examined whether alterations in maternal plasma cortisol concentrations are associated with changes in the fetal insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis. Pregnant ewes in late gestation (115 ± 0.4 days) were studied: six control animals, five ewes given 1 mg/kg/day cortisol (high cortisol), and five adrenalectomized ewes given 0.5-0.6 mg cortisol/kg/day (low cortisol). Blood samples were taken throughout the experiment and at necropsy (130 ± 0.2 days) and fetal liver was frozen for mRNA analysis. Fetal IGF-I and insulin plasma concentrations were lower and IGFBP-1 concentrations were higher in the low cortisol group compared with those in controls (p<0.05). Fetal liver IGF-II and IGFBP-3 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3) mRNA were decreased in low cortisol animals compared with those in controls (p<0.05). There were no significant changes in these parameters in the high cortisol group, and there were no changes in fetal liver IGF-I, growth hormone receptor, IGF-I receptor, IGF-II receptor, IGFBP-1 or IGFBP-2 mRNA levels between the groups. These data suggest that reduced fetal IGF availability contributes to reduced fetal growth when maternal cortisol secretion is impaired, but not during exposure to moderate increases in cortisol. PMID:21635815

  20. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  1. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential

    PubMed Central

    Running, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75–90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose. PMID:26170887

  2. Condition dependent intra-individual repeatability of stress-induced cortisol in a freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Cook, K V; O'Connor, C M; McConnachie, S H; Gilmour, K M; Cooke, S J

    2012-03-01

    The glucocorticoid (GC) stress response is thought to be an individual trait associated with behaviour and life history strategies. Studies exploring such relationships typically assume measured hormone values to be repeatable within an individual. However, repeatability of GCs has proven variable in wild animals and underlying reasons remain unknown. We assessed individual repeatability of circulating stress-induced cortisol, the primary GC in teleost fish, and glucose concentrations in a wild teleost fish held under consistent laboratory conditions. We also tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of intra-individual variability in stress-induced cortisol concentrations ("cortisol variability") is influenced by body condition. Wild-caught bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were subjected to repeated standardized stressors and blood sampled (3 times over 6 days) once cortisol concentrations peaked. Various indicators of fish condition, both whole body and physiological, were also measured. Overall, stress-induced circulating cortisol concentrations were repeatable but stress-induced glucose was not. Cortisol variability was related to Fulton's condition factor and size (eviscerated mass) where smaller fish in poor condition exhibited increased cortisol variability. The findings have implications for the interpretation of studies that examine correlates of GC concentrations as they suggest consistency in stress responsiveness is influenced by factors such as size and condition. PMID:22179071

  3. Successful treatment with hydrocortisone for heat stroke with critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency: transitional changes in serum cytokine and cortisol concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Miyauchi; Ryosuke Tsuruta; Satoshi Kutsuna; Takashi Nakahara; Motoki Fujita; Shunji Kasaoka; Tsuyoshi Maekawa

    2009-01-01

    A 37-year-old man was transferred to our emergency center because of heat stroke with circulatory shock. Despite aggressive\\u000a body cooling, massive intravenous transfusion, and supply of inotropic agents, shock was persistent. To evaluate adrenal function,\\u000a an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was conducted and the results indicated that he had critical illness-related\\u000a corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) as a result of adrenal insufficiency.

  4. Dual-hormone changes are related to bargaining performance.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Pranjal H; Mor, Shira; Yap, Andy J; Prasad, Smrithi

    2015-06-01

    In the present research, we found that endogenous testosterone and cortisol changes were jointly related to bargaining outcomes. In a face-to-face competitive negotiation (Study 1) and a laboratory-based bargaining game (Study 2), testosterone rises were associated with high earnings and high relationship quality, but only if cortisol dropped. If cortisol rose, testosterone rises were associated with low earnings and poor relationship quality. Conflict between financial and social goals was related to the financially costly dual-hormone profile (testosterone increase and cortisol decrease), whereas the absence of such conflict was related to the financially adaptive dual-hormone profile (testosterone increase and cortisol increase). The findings suggest that when cortisol decreases, rising testosterone is implicated in adaptive bargaining behavior that maximizes earnings and relationship quality. But when cortisol increases, rising testosterone is related to conflict between social and financial motives, weak earnings, and poor relationship quality. These results imply that there are both bright and dark sides to rising testosterone in economic social interactions that depend on fluctuations in cortisol. PMID:25926477

  5. Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

  6. Anticipatory cortisol, testosterone and psychological responses to judo competition in young men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Salvador; F. Suay; E. González-Bono; M. A. Serrano

    2003-01-01

    This study compares the anticipatory hormonal and psychological responses of 17 male judo players to an official competition with the data obtained during eight resting sessions carried out at the same time of day, throughout an entire sports season. Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) levels were determined 1 h and 30 min before competition, and mood, anxiety and expectancies were

  7. Classroom Emotional Support Predicts Differences in Preschool Children's Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Bridget E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; O'Brien, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests children enrolled in full-time child care often display afternoon elevations of the hormone cortisol, which is an indicator of stress. Recent advances in immunoassays allow for measurement of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic sympathetic nervous system from saliva, and measurement…

  8. Modulation of attentional inhibition by norepinephrine and cortisol after psychological stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick D Skosnik; Robert T Chatterton; Tara Swisher; Sohee Park

    2000-01-01

    Two of the most salient physiological responses to stress are increased norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT) activities. However, it is unclear how these neurochemical events affect cognition, especially attention. We examined the effects of mild psychological stress on selective attention, as assessed by the negative priming (NP) paradigm. Salivary measures of the stress hormone CORT and ?-amylase (a correlate of

  9. Sexy thoughts: Effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine L. Goldey; Sari M. van Anders

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of

  10. The influence of temperament on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced secretion of epinephrine and cortisol in bulls.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host's complex reaction to a pathogenic stressor involves interaction of the neural, endocrine, and immune systems. For example, exposure to bacteria stimulates secretion of the stress-related hormones, cortisol (CS) and epinephrine (Epi; 1). Innate and induced secretion of CS and Epi are influe...

  11. Casino gambling increases heart rate and salivary cortisol in regular gamblers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Meyer; Berthold P Hauffa; Manfred Schedlowski; Cornelius Pawlak; Michael A Stadler; Michael S Exton

    2000-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of gambling on cardiovascular parameters have been documented, no data exists describing the effect of gambling on stress hormone secretion. Our study investigated the effect of gambling on heart rate and salivary cortisol in a casino environment.Methods: Ten male gamblers participated in both an experimental and control session. In the experimental session, gamblers played a game

  12. Association of DHEA, DHEAS, and cortisol with childhood trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a great deal of interest in the role of the neuroendocrine hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis on the expression of stress-related psychopathology such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This investigation examined the association of PTSD and childhood maltreatment with three key HPA axis hormones: cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Regression analyses were undertaken on a sample of 43 participants with and 57 participants without PTSD. Results demonstrated that after controlling for age, gender, and PTSD status, exposure to childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with cortisol secretion (F[4,95]=11.68, ?R2=0.11, p=.0009) and cortisol/DHEA ratio (F[4,95]=6.20, ?R2=.05, p=.01). PTSD status was not associated with any of these neuroendocrine variables. Findings are discussed in the context of the complexity of the relationship of these neuroendocrine variables with trauma exposure and trauma-related psychopathology. It is suggested that DHEA(S) or cortisol/DHEA(S) ratios may not be biomarkers of specific forms of psychopathology per se, but that instead, the severity and developmental timing of trauma may set the HPA axis in ways that are reflected in interactions among these neuroendocrine hormones. In adulthood, these HPA axis hormones may continue to be dynamically affected by personal and environmental resources. PMID:23907073

  13. Cortisol suppresses prolactin release through a non-genomic mechanism involving interactions with the plasma membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell J. Borski; Gregory N. Hyde; Shira Fruchtman; Wellington S. Tsai

    2001-01-01

    In the classical theory of steroid hormone action, steroids diffuse through the membrane and alter transcription of specific genes resulting in synthesis of proteins important for modulating cell function. Most often, steroids work solely through the genome to exert their physiological actions in a process that normally takes hours or days to occur. In tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), cortisol inhibits prolactin

  14. Stress hormone masculinizes female morphology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah

    2011-02-23

    Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:20659923

  15. Hormonal response to competition among male coalitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Wagner; Mark V. Flinn; Barry G. England

    Previous research has shown that testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) are released in response to a wide variety of social stimuli including dyadic (one on one) competitive events, but humans also compete as groups. Here we report results from a pilot study of hormonal responses to competition between male coalitions. Salivary T and C levels were assessed in adult males

  16. Hormonal response to competition among male coalitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D Wagner; Mark V Flinn; Barry G England

    2002-01-01

    Previous research has shown that testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) are released in response to a wide variety of social stimuli including dyadic (one on one) competitive events, but humans also compete as groups. Here we report results from a pilot study of hormonal responses to competition between male coalitions. Salivary T and C levels were assessed in adult males

  17. Aquatic Toxicology 78 (2006) 5965 Effects of Cu on plasma cortisol and cortisol secretion by

    E-print Network

    Hontela, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic Toxicology 78 (2006) 59­65 Effects of Cu on plasma cortisol and cortisol secretion stress indicators in the whole fish as well as cortisol secretion by adrenocortical cells in vitro were on basal plasma cortisol (fish sampled without air exposure stress) however, the air exposure

  18. Need for achievement and cortisol 1 Running head: NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT AND CORTISOL

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    Need for achievement and cortisol 1 Running head: NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT AND CORTISOL Implicit need for achievement predicts attenuated cortisol responses to difficult tasks Oliver C. Schultheiss Friedrich, Germany, email: oliver.schultheiss@psy.phil.uni-erlangen.de #12;Need for achievement and cortisol 2

  19. Cortisol Levels and Longitudinal Cortisol Change as Predictors of Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested cortisol-emotion relationships, little is known regarding the effect of anxiety type on cortisol levels or relationships between anxiety and longitudinal cortisol change in adolescents. The authors examine the differential relationship of cortisol levels with generalized and social anxiety and relationships…

  20. [Salivary cortisol as an indicator of physological stress in children and adults; a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; García García, I; Rodríguez López, M A; Ortegón Piñero, A; Cortés Castell, E

    2014-01-01

    Salivary cortisol is a steroid hormone that is produced in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and secreted into saliva when persons are under stress. High levels of cortisol in saliva can be produced by many different factors, including obesity and certain psychological disorders. The articles selected for inclusion in this review were identified using Google Scholar and Medline, and this search obtained a total of 57 items. The validity of these studies was established according to the degree of evidence presented, by citations and by their applicability to the healthcare context in Spain. Specifically, this review takes into consideration studies of salivary cortisol and stress in children and adults, and those examining the relation between high levels of salivary cortisol and other disorders such as anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, social phobia or emotional deprivation. These studies show that salivary cortisol is a clear indicator of stress in both children and adults. High levels of this hormone in saliva are associated with the following main consequences: reduced immune function, affecting healing and thus prolonging recovery time; delayed growth in children; increased blood pressure and heart rate in both children and adults. PMID:24951973

  1. Cortisol response to cosyntropin administration in military veterans with or without posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Golier, Julia A; Caramanica, Kimberly; Makotkine, Iouri; Sher, Leo; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-02-01

    Studies have demonstrated altered sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to its direct regulators in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but little is known about the adrenal response to hormonal stimulation in PTSD. An increased cortisol response to synthetic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was recently found to be associated with war-zone deployment and not PTSD specifically. To more accurately assess whether there is altered adrenocortical responsivity to hormonal stimulation in relation to war-zone deployment or PTSD, we performed the low-dose cosyntropin stimulation test in a sample of 45 male veterans: 13 war-zone exposed veterans with chronic PTSD (PTSD+), 22 war-zone exposed veterans without chronic PTSD (PTSD-), and 10 veterans not exposed to a war-zone and without chronic PTSD (non-exposed). Plasma cortisol and ACTH were measured at baseline and at intervals over a one hour period following intravenous administration of 1?g of cosyntropin. A significant main effect of group (PTSD+, PTSD-, non-exposed) on the cortisol response to cosyntropin was observed. Cosyntropin-stimulated plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in the PTSD+ and PTSD- groups compared to the non-exposed group. A significant main effect of group was also observed on peak cortisol levels. These findings suggest that war-zone exposure itself has persistent effects on adrenocortical activity. PMID:24485487

  2. The influence of selected factors and sport results of endurance horses on their saliva cortisol concentration.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, I; Bereznowski, A; Strzelec, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the influence of the selected factors (gender, age, transportation time, riding distance and air temperature during the ride) on the cortisol secretion and finding a correlation between the hormone level and the horses' sport results (veterinary parameters and the ride route parameters). The research was performed on 38 Arabian pure breed horses taking part in the endurance rides. The cortisol level was measured with enzyme-immunological method in saliva samples, taken four times from each horse. In order to verify the differences between the mean results the repeated measures design was applied. The significance of the differences between the mean values was determined by the Tukey test. To evaluate the interrelations between the analysed attributes Pearson's correlation analysis was applied. The cortisol level at rest was not affected by any of the analysed factors. In case of other results, the most significant influence (P < or = 0.05) was related to the gender, as well as the ride distance and air temperature during the ride. Higher cortisol level was noted in mares, horses running the longest distances and at the highest temperatures. A significant increase in the cortisol level was noted when the ride distance was longer. There were no clear correlation between the adrenal cortex activity and the veterinary parameters at different riding speed. High cortisol concentration can negatively affect the heart rate (HR) by increasing it, but it can simultaneously stimulate the body to fight dehydration. PMID:24195289

  3. Are we missing a mineralocorticoid in teleost fish? Effects of cortisol, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone on osmoregulation, gill Na +,K +ATPase activity and isoform mRNA levels in Atlantic salmon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. McCormick; Amy Regish; Michael F. O’Dea; J. Mark Shrimpton

    2008-01-01

    It has long been held that cortisol, acting through a single receptor, carries out both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions in teleost fish. The recent finding that fish express a gene with high sequence similarity to the mammalian mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) suggests the possibility that a hormone other than cortisol carries out some mineralocorticoid functions in fish. To test for this

  4. Ultrasensitive detection of cortisol with enzyme fragment complementation technology using functionalized nanowire.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Aravamudhan, Shyam; Gordic, Milorad; Bhansali, Shekhar; Mohapatra, Shyam S

    2007-04-15

    Cortisol is a member of the glucocorticoid hormone family and a key metabolic regulator. Increased intracellular cortisol levels have been implicated in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Cortisol is an important bio-marker of stress and its detection is also important in sports medicine. However, rapid methods for sensitive detection of cortisol are limited. Functionalized gold nanowires were used to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of cortisol detection. Gold nanowires are used to improve the electron transfer between the electrodes. Moreover, the large surface to volume ratio, small diffusion time and high electrical conductivity and their aligned nature will enhance the sensitivity and detection limit of the biosensor several fold. The biosensor was fabricated using, aligned gold (Au) nanowires to behave as the working electrode, platinum deposited on a silicon chip to function as the counter electrode, and silver/silver chloride as reference electrode. The gold nanowires were coupled with cortisol antibodies using covalent linkage chemistry and a fixed amount of 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was introduced into the reaction cell during each measurement to convert (reduce) ketosteroid into hydroxyl steroid. Furthermore, the micro-fluidic, micro-fluid part of the sensor was fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology to have better control on liquid flow over Au nanowires to minimize the signal to noise ratio. The biosensor was characterized using SEM, AFM and FTIR technique. The response curve of the biosensor was found to be linear in the range of 10-80 microM of cortisol. Moreover, the presence of hydrocortisone is sensitively detected in the range of 5-30 microM. It is concluded that the functionalized gold nanowires with micro-fluidic device using enzyme fragment complementation technology can provide an easy and sensitive assay for cortisol detection in serum and other biological fluids. PMID:17097283

  5. Cortisol modulates vasotocinergic and isotocinergic pathways in the gilthead sea bream.

    PubMed

    Cádiz, Laura; Román-Padilla, Javier; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A

    2015-01-15

    In the present study, we assessed the responses of the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems to chronic stress induced by cortisol administration in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Pituitary and plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) levels, as well as hypothalamic pro-vasotocin (pro-VT) and pro-isotocin (pro-IT) mRNA expression levels, were analysed. In addition, the mRNA levels of three receptors, AVTR type V1a2, AVTR type V2 and ITR, were analysed in several target organs associated with the following physiological processes: (i) integration and control (hypothalamus), (ii) metabolism and its control (liver and hypothalamus), (iii) osmoregulation (gills) and (iv) stress response (head kidney). Specimens were injected intraperitoneally with slow-release implants (5 ?L g(-1) body mass) containing coconut oil alone (control group) or with cortisol (50 ?g g(-1) body mass; cortisol group). Both AVT and IT synthesis and release were correlated with plasma cortisol values, suggesting a potential interaction between both hormonal systems and cortisol administration. Our results suggest that the activation of hepatic metabolism as well as the hypothalamic control of metabolic processes provide the energy necessary to overcome stress, which could be partly mediated by AVTRs and ITR. Upregulation of branchial AVT and IT receptor expression following cortisol treatment suggests an involvement of the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems in the regulation of ion channels/transporters during stressful situations. Finally, changes in AVT and IT receptor mRNA expression in the head kidney suggest these nonapeptides participate in feedback mechanisms that regulate the synthesis/release of cortisol. Our results indicate a relationship between cortisol and both the vasotocinergic and isotocinergic systems during simulated chronic stress in S. aurata. PMID:25524977

  6. Assessment of tissue cortisol activity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeremy; Venkatesh, Bala

    2009-12-01

    The concept of relative adrenal insufficiency in patients with severe sepsis continues to be controversial. This arises in part from the lack of an accepted "gold standard" for the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill. Historically, assessment of adrenal function in this population has relied on measurement of plasma total cortisol level, in a blood sample taken either at random or as part of a corticotropin stimulation test. However, an alternative is to focus on the site of glucocorticoid activity within the tissues as a potentially more useful index of functional adrenal status. We review the mechanisms known to affect tissue glucocorticoid activity and examine how they may be modified by critical illness. These include both free and interstitial cortisol concentrations, intracellular cortisol generation, and glucocorticoid-receptor activity and density. Changes in these factors are not reflected in plasma total cortisol concentrations, and more sophisticated techniques, including genetic transcriptional surveys, may be required to reveal the role of glucocorticoid insufficiency in critical illness. PMID:20001880

  7. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

  8. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

  9. Influence of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-infusion on acid-base balance and blood physiological variables in broiler chickens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic selection has been a primary factor in growing broilers to heavier weights more efficiently. However, the genetic potentiality of poultry may not be utilized fully due to environmental constraints. The combination of external conditions (biological and physiological) such as weather and clim...

  10. Child diurnal cortisol rhythms, parenting quality, and externalizing behaviors in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A

    2014-02-01

    This study examined a neurobiologically informed model of the emergence of child externalizing behaviors in an ethnically diverse community sample of 232 9-12 year old children. Replicating extensive prior research, our analyses revealed that parents' inconsistent discipline and poor quality monitoring were predictive of child externalizing behavior. In addition, poor parental monitoring, but not inconsistent discipline, was associated with children having a significantly flatter morning-to-evening cortisol slope, which was in turn, related to higher levels of externalizing behaviors. An indirect effect of parental monitoring on externalizing behaviors, through child diurnal cortisol rhythms, was also supported. These findings highlight the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its hormonal end product, cortisol, in the relationship between the caregiving environment and the development of externalizing behaviors. PMID:24485489

  11. Evidence for a synchronization of hormonal states between humans and dogs during competition.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Thompson, Breanna; Strasser, Rosemary; Santo, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    Social interactions with humans have been shown to influence hormonal processes in dogs, but it is unclear how the hormonal states of humans factor into this relationship. In this study, we explored the associations between changes in the cortisol levels of dogs with humans' hormonal changes, behavior, and perceptions of their performance at an agility competition. A total of 58 dogs and their handlers (44 women, 14 men) provided saliva samples before and after competing. Dogs' saliva samples were later assayed for cortisol and humans' samples for cortisol and testosterone. Following the competition, handler-dog interactions were observed for affiliative and punitive behavior towards their dogs, and handlers completed questionnaires that included personal ratings of their performance. Structural equation modeling revealed that elevations in handlers' cortisol levels were associated with increases in their dogs' cortisol levels. Handlers' affiliative and punitive behaviors towards their dogs following competition were associated with their ratings of their performance, but these variables were unrelated to changes in their own cortisol levels and their dogs', implying their behavior did not mediate the relationship. These findings suggest that changes in the hormonal states were reflected between humans and their dogs, and this relationship was not due to handlers' perceptions of their performance or the behaviors we observed during post-competition social interactions. This study is one of the first to provide evidence for a synchronization of hormonal changes between species. PMID:25862521

  12. In vitro evidence that cortisol directly modulates stress-related responses in the skin epidermis of the rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. van der Salm; D. T. Nolan; S. E. Wendelaar Bonga

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of fish to stressors leads to multiple changes in the skin epithelium. We investigated the role of the stress hormone\\u000a cortisol in the control of these changes by exposure of pieces of skin from the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with an in vitro tissue culture incubation procedure. The effects of 24 h exposure to 4 cortisol concentrations (0, 50, 500

  13. Influence of Cortisol on the Larval Bullfrog Thyroid Axis in Vitro and in Vivo and on Plasma and Ocular Melatonin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary L. Wright; Beata A. Rzasa; Robert J. Weir; Amy M. Babski

    1999-01-01

    Adrenal (interrenal) steroids have an important role in amphibian development, antagonizing the metamorphic changes induced by the thyroid at first and then synergizing with the thyroid hormones as their level rises during metamorphosis. Because most of the studies of corticoids at metamorphosis have focused on peripheral tissues, we investigated the effect of cortisol (hydrocortisone; HC) in vitro and in vivo

  14. Symptoms at the menopausal and premenopausal years: their relationship with insulin, glucose, cortisol, FSH, prolactin, obesity and attitudes towards sexuality.

    PubMed

    Huerta, R; Mena, A; Malacara, J M; de León, J D

    1995-01-01

    The symptoms of 81 premenopausal and 70 menopausal women were studied to determine the association with obesity, attitudes towards sexuality (ATS), and diverse hormone values: fasting and postprandial glucose (FG, PG) and insulin (FI, PI), cortisol, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The mean age of the women studied was 49.1 years. The frequency of symptoms was 35.4% for depression, 34.3% for nonspecific symptoms of depression (NSSD), 38.6% for empty nest syndrome (ENS), and 42.3% for anxiety. NSSD, ENS, FSH and cortisol levels all possessed higher values at late-menopausal stage. A multiple regression analysis revealed the following results; NSSD was associated to ATS (negative); sleep alterations were correlated to prolactin, FSH, PI/PG, FI/FG and waist/hip ratio; FSH was associated with both a decreased sexual interest and depression. In the study of hormone levels it was found that cortisol, insulin and FI/FG were associated with ATS; PI, cortisol, FI/FG and PI/PG were associated with body mass index (BMI) and FSH; prolactin and FI/FG were associated with age. We concluded that: (1) data indicative of insulin resistance correlated to both depression and sleep alterations; (2) overweight is related to NSSD, sleep alterations, and hormonal changes. PMID:8834092

  15. Sexually dimorphic secretion of cortisol but not catecholamines in response to an endotoxin challenge in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge on secretion of the adrenal stress-related hormones cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in bull and heifer calves. Brahman calves (n = 12; 269 ± 11.7 kg) were randomly selected from the fall 2007 c...

  16. Chronic Stress, Cortisol Dysfunction, and Pain: A Psychoneuroendocrine Rationale for Stress Management in Pain Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a primary symptom driving patients to seek physical therapy, and its attenuation commonly defines a successful outcome. A large body of evidence is dedicated to elucidating the relationship between chronic stress and pain; however, stress is rarely addressed in pain rehabilitation. A physiologic stress response may be evoked by fear or perceived threat to safety, status, or well-being and elicits the secretion of sympathetic catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinepherine) and neuroendocrine hormones (cortisol) to promote survival and motivate success. Cortisol is a potent anti-inflammatory that functions to mobilize glucose reserves for energy and modulate inflammation. Cortisol also may facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories for future survival and avoidance of danger. Although short-term stress may be adaptive, maladaptive responses (eg, magnification, rumination, helplessness) to pain or non–pain-related stressors may intensify cortisol secretion and condition a sensitized physiologic stress response that is readily recruited. Ultimately, a prolonged or exaggerated stress response may perpetuate cortisol dysfunction, widespread inflammation, and pain. Stress may be unavoidable in life, and challenges are inherent to success; however, humans have the capability to modify what they perceive as stressful and how they respond to it. Exaggerated psychological responses (eg, catastrophizing) following maladaptive cognitive appraisals of potential stressors as threatening may exacerbate cortisol secretion and facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories of pain or non–pain-related stressors; however, coping, cognitive reappraisal, or confrontation of stressors may minimize cortisol secretion and prevent chronic, recurrent pain. Given the parallel mechanisms underlying the physiologic effects of a maladaptive response to pain and non–pain-related stressors, physical therapists should consider screening for non–pain-related stress to facilitate treatment, prevent chronic disability, and improve quality of life. PMID:25035267

  17. Supraphysiological cortisol elevation alters the response of wild bluegill sunfish to subsequent stressors.

    PubMed

    McConnachie, Sarah H; O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Iwama, George K; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-06-01

    Wild fish are frequently exposed to multiple stressors, but the influence of previous or ongoing stress on an animal's subsequent response is poorly understood. Using wild-caught bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) as a model, we used exogenous hormone implants to experimentally raise circulating cortisol in a group of fish for ?10 days. We also maintained sham-treated and control groups of fish. We subjected all animals to a secondary stressor in the form of either a heat challenge or fasting challenge. We compared survival, body condition, and plasma-borne indicators of physiological status among cortisol-treated, sham-treated, and control groups following the secondary stressor. In order to compare short- and long-term effects of cortisol treatment, we initiated the secondary stressor either 4 or 30 days following initial cortisol treatment. Cortisol-treated fish succumbed to the fasting challenge sooner than sham-treated and control fish at both 4 and 30 days. Interestingly, cortisol-treated fish lost equilibrium sooner than sham-treated and control fish during the heat challenge when conducted at 30 days, but not at 4 days. These results demonstrate that multiple simultaneous stressors have cumulative effects on bluegill sunfish. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological cortisol doses alter the long-term responses of bluegill sunfish to additional challenges, even after apparent recovery. Such cumulative and long-term effects may be an important factor in mediating the response of wild animals to natural and anthropogenic stressors, and should be considered in ecological studies. PMID:25363581

  18. Detection of cortisol at a gold nanoparticle|Protein G-DTBP-scaffold modified electrochemical immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Zhao, Ruoxia; Mao, Wenling; Feng, Heqing; Liu, Xiuhua; Wong, Danny K Y

    2011-12-21

    An ultrasensitive electrochemical immmunosensor was demonstrated to be capable of detecting the hormone cortisol down to concentrations as low as 16 pg mL(-1). In addition, the immunosensor displayed a sensitivity of 1.6 ?A pg(-1) mL(-1) and a linear range up to ?2500 pg mL(-1) of cortisol. This immunosensor was constructed based on a Au nanoparticle|dimethyl 3,3'-dithiobispropionimidate·2HCl (DTBP)-Protein G scaffold-modified Au electrode. In this work, the Au nanoparticles were used to increase the electrochemically active surface area by 28% (with a standard deviation of 3%) to enhance the quantity of the Protein G scaffold on the electrode. Thiolation of Protein G by DTBP aided in avoiding the confirmation change of Protein G, while this Protein G-DTBP component offered an orientation-controlled immobilisation of the capture antibody on the Au electrode. In this immunosensor, a monoclonal anti-cortisol capture antibody was optimally aligned by the scaffold before a competitive immunoassay between sample cortisol and a horseradish peroxidase-labelled cortisol conjugate was conducted. For quantitative analysis, square wave voltammetry was used to monitor the reduction current of benzoquinone produced from a horseradish peroxidase catalysed reaction. The improved analytical performance of our immunosensor was attributed to the synergetic effect of Au nanoparticles and the Protein G-DTBP scaffold. PMID:22005508

  19. Detection of cortisol in saliva with a flow-filtered, portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor system.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard C; Soelberg, Scott D; Near, Steve; Furlong, Clement E

    2008-09-01

    Saliva provides a useful and noninvasive alternative to blood for many biomedical diagnostic assays. The level of the hormone cortisol in blood and saliva is related to the level of stress. We present here the development of a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor system for detection of cortisol in saliva. Cortisol-specific monoclonal antibodies were used to develop a competition assay with a six-channel portable SPR biosensor designed in our laboratory. The detection limit of cortisol in laboratory buffers was 0.36 ng/mL (1.0 nM). An in-line filter based on diffusion through a hollow fiber hydrophilic membrane served to separate small molecules from the complex macromolecular matrix of saliva prior to introduction to the sensor surface. The filtering flow cell provided in-line separation of small molecules from salivary mucins and other large molecules with only a 29% reduction of signal compared with direct flow of the same concentration of analyte over the sensor surface. A standard curve for detection of cortisol in saliva was generated with a detection limit of 1.0 ng/mL (3.6 nM), sufficiently sensitive for clinical use. The system will also be useful for a wide range of applications where small molecular weight analytes are found in complex matrixes. PMID:18656950

  20. Suppression of Cortisol Levels in Subordinate Female Marmosets: Reproductive

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Suppression of Cortisol Levels in Subordinate Female Marmosets: Reproductive and Social marmosets (Cal- lithrix jacchus) have markedly lower plasma cortisol levels than dominant females. Therefore, we previously hypothe- sized that this cortisol difference is mediated by rank- related

  1. Hypoestrogenism does not mediate social suppression of cortisol in subordinate

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Hypoestrogenism does not mediate social suppression of cortisol in subordinate female marmosets Marmoset; Reproductive suppression; Subordination; Ovariectomy; Adrenal cortex; Cortisol Summary as chronic reductions in circulating basal cortisol concentrations. Because estrogen elevates hypothalamic

  2. The relation between early life adversity, cortisol awakening response and diurnal salivary cortisol

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    The relation between early life adversity, cortisol awakening response and diurnal salivary cortisol levels in postpartum women Andrea Gonzalez a,d,*, Jennifer M. Jenkins b , Meir Steiner c Psychoneuroendocrinology (2009) 34, 76--86 KEYWORDS Diurnal cortisol; Awakening response; Early adversity; Postpartum

  3. HPLC-RIA analysis of the ectopic cortisol production in a cancerous pancreas tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Szécsi; I. Tóth; J. Gardi; M. Vecsernyés; J. Németh; J. Julesz

    2006-01-01

    Steroidal pathophysiology of a malignant, ACTH-producing pancreas tumor was investigated via HPLC-RIA determinations of intratissular concentrations of eleven main steroid hormones. The tumor specimen underwent extraction procedure with ethyl acetate and the extract was purified on a C18 minicolumn. Steroids were isolated by HPLC (C18-silica reversed phase stationary phase and methanol–water eluent system) and quantified by specific RIAs. Cortisol content

  4. Effect of Vibrio anguillarum endotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism and cortisol actions in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) 

    E-print Network

    Fajardo, Elizabeth Deirdre

    1989-01-01

    demonstrated liver glycogen depletion in coho salmon (Onco~rh c ~ ~h) exposed to endotoxin, but failed to find any alteration in the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver. Increased plasma levels of cortisol, the primary corticosteroid hormone... gluconeogenic enzyme in the liver of both mammals (Tilghman &e al. , 1976) and fish (Walton & Cowey, 1982). PEPCK catalyzes the reversible conversion of oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate. Lactate and amino acids are catalyzed by series of reactions...

  5. Relationship between heart rate variability and the serum testosterone-to-cortisol ratio during military service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jukka Huovinen; Mikko Tulppo; Juuso Nissilä; Vesa Linnamo; Keijo Häkkinen; Heikki Kyrolainen

    2009-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system and circulating hormones control a stress reaction through a complex interaction. We tested the hypothesis that changes in cardiac vagal regulation may be positively associated with the serum testosterone-to-cortisol ratio during the first week of military service in 24 conscripts aged 19.0±0.3 years. Cardiac autonomic function was assessed by measuring high-frequency (HF: 0.15–0.4 Hz) and low-frequency

  6. Loss of the pregnancy-induced rise in cortisol concentrations in the ewe impairs the fetal insulin-like growth factor axis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ellen C; Bennet, Laura; Wood, Charles; Vickers, Mark; Breier, Bernhard; Gunn, Alistair J; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Maternal cortisol levels increase during pregnancy. Although this change is important for optimal fetal growth, the mechanisms of the changes in growth remain unclear. The hypothesis examined was that alterations in maternal plasma cortisol concentrations are associated with changes in the fetal insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis. Pregnant ewes in late gestation (115 ± 0.4 days) were studied: six control animals, five ewes given 1 mg kg(-1) day(-1) cortisol (high cortisol) and five adrenalectomised ewes given 0.5-0.6 mg kg(-1) day(-1) cortisol (low cortisol). Blood samples were taken throughout the experiment and at necropsy (130 ± 0.2 days) and fetal liver was frozen for mRNA analysis. Fetal IGF-I and insulin plasma concentrations were lower and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) concentrations were higher in the low cortisol group compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). Fetal liver IGF-II and IGFBP-3 mRNA were decreased in low cortisol animals compared with controls (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in these parameters in the high cortisol group, and there were no changes in fetal liver IGF-I, growth hormone receptor, IGF-I receptor, IGF-II receptor, IGFBP-1 or IGFBP-2 mRNA levels between the groups. These data suggest that reduced fetal IGF availability contributes to reduced fetal growth when maternal cortisol secretion is impaired, but not during exposure to moderate increases in cortisol. PMID:21635815

  7. Effect of ACTH (tetracosactide) on steroid hormone levels in the mare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Hedberg; A.-M. Dalin; M. Forsberg; N. Lundeheim; B. Hoffmann; C. Ludwig; H. Kindahl

    2007-01-01

    Ovariectomized mares and mares with inactive ovaries may show signs of estrus. The reason behind this phenomenon is not clear; however, steroid hormones of adrenal origin have been suggested. Moreover, aberrant adrenal hormone production has been implied as a reason why some intact mares may change behavior. In the present study, the effect of ACTH on plasma levels of cortisol,

  8. Affiliative and disciplinary behavior of human handlers during play with their dog affects cortisol concentrations in opposite directions.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsuzsánna; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Adám

    2008-06-01

    It has been shown that cortisol concentrations change characteristically in the course of agonistic interactions; our aim was to find out how a playful situation may affect concentrations of this hormone in the saliva. We studied dogs' behavior and the changes of cortisol concentrations in a play situation, where the dogs played with their handler for 3 min with a tug toy. In this experiment working dogs were divided into two groups by the type of their work, namely police dogs and border guard dogs. We found that the cortisol concentrations of old police dogs significantly increased, while the adult border guard dogs' hormone levels decreased, which shows that playing with the handler has an effect on both groups, but interestingly this effect was opposite. Behavior analysis showed differences only in the behavior of the human handlers during the play sessions, while the behavior analysis did not reveal significant differences in the two groups of dogs, except that old border guard dogs generally needed more time to begin playing than old police dogs. During the play sessions police officers were mainly disciplining their dogs, while the border guards were truly playing with them (including affiliative and affectionate behavior). Our results are in accordance with those of recent studies, which show that behaviors associated with control, authority or aggression increase cortisol concentrations, while play and affiliative behavior decrease cortisol levels. PMID:18353328

  9. Exaggerated and prolonged thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) test responses in tertiary hypothyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, G H; Ellis, R D; Beck, P R

    1991-01-01

    A 60 year old man with panhypopituitarism due to a large meningioma and prolonged and exaggerated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) responses is described. Initial investigations showed a subnormal urinary free cortisol concentration, a low serum cortisol taken at 0900 hours, and a low free T4 concentration. The TSH was towards the upper end of the normal range. Subsequently pituitary function tests showed subnormal production of luteinising hormone in response to luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) and a short synacthen test with a low 30 minute cortisol value. Long synacthen testing showed a normal response at four days, confirming that the abnormalities were due to a pituitary or hypothalamic cause. A computed tomogram showed a large meningioma compressing the hypothalamus, pituitary, and temporal lobe. TRH testing showed a prolonged and exaggerated response, consistent with tertiary hypothyroidism. PMID:1906072

  10. Stress, Social Support, and Cortisol: Inverse Associations?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milagros C. Rosal; Jean A. King; Yunsheng Ma; George W. Reed

    2004-01-01

    An association between stress and health has been hypothesized. However, the association pathways are unclear. In this article, the authors examined the associations between stress, social support, and cortisol and the mediating effect of several psychosocial variables. Adult men and women (n = 146) completed psychosocial surveys and provided saliva samples for cortisol assessments, quarterly, for 1 year. Cross-sectional analysis

  11. Salivary Cortisol Profiles in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Wood; Simon Wessely; Andrew Papadopoulos; Lucia Poon; Stuart Checkley

    1998-01-01

    Salivary cortisol profiles (hourly sampling over a 16-hour period) of 10 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) but without concurrent depressive disorder were compared with those of 10 healthy volunteers matched for age, sex and menstrual cycle. The mean saliva cortisol concentration over the 16-hour period was slightly but significantly greater in the patients than the controls (p < 0.05).

  12. Short-day aggression is independent of changes in cortisol or glucocorticoid receptors in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Rendon, Nikki M; Greives, Timothy J; Romeo, Russell D; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Testosterone mediates aggression in many vertebrates. In some species, aggression remains high during the non-breeding season (e.g., winter), when testosterone levels are low. In Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), we have demonstrated photoperiodic changes in aggression with hamsters housed in short, "winter-like" days displaying significantly more territorial aggression than long-day animals, despite low levels of testosterone. The mechanisms by which photoperiod regulates aggression, however, remain largely unknown. Adrenocortical hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids) have been implicated in mediating seasonal aggression; circulating concentrations of these hormones have been correlated with aggression in some species. The goal of this study was to examine the role of cortisol and glucocorticoid receptors in mediating photoperiodic changes in aggression in male Siberian hamsters. Males were housed in long or short days and treated with either exogenous cortisol or vehicle. Circulating levels of cortisol, adrenal cortisol content, and aggression were quantified. Lastly, photoperiodic effects on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels were quantified in limbic brain regions associated with aggression, including medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. Short-day hamsters were more aggressive than long-day hamsters, however cortisol treatment did not affect aggression. Photoperiod had no effect on serum or adrenal cortisol or GR levels in the brain regions examined. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in cortisol levels do not cause increases associated with short-day aggression, and further that GR protein levels are not associated with photoperiodic changes in aggression. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the role of adrenocortical steroids in mediating seasonal aggression. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 331-342, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25802186

  13. An inverse relationship between cortisol and BDNF levels in schizophrenia: data from human postmortem and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Issa, George; Wilson, Christina; Terry, Alvin V; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2010-09-01

    Stress and stress-induced glucocorticoids have been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. In addition, the neurotrophin, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play an important role in stress-mediated changes in neuroplasticity, however, the exact relationship between glucocorticoid and BDNF levels in schizophrenia is unclear. Here, we measured the levels of cortisol (a major glucocorticoid hormone in humans) and BDNF in prefrontal cortex and CSF samples of postmortem schizophrenia subjects. We also assessed the levels of cortisol and BDNF in the frontal cortex and plasma from an animal model (the offspring of prenatally stressed rats), which demonstrates several behavioral and neuroendocrine abnormalities similar to schizophrenia. A significant increase in cortisol levels was found in prefrontal cortex and CSF samples from subjects with schizophrenia. The BDNF levels were significantly lower in prefrontal cortex and CSF samples of subjects with schizophrenia (compared to age-matched controls). Data from animal studies indicated that prenatally stressed offspring have significantly higher plasma and prefrontal cortex cortisol, whereas BDNF levels were significantly lower when compared to control, non-stressed offspring. Moreover, olanzapine treatment for 45 days starting at postnatal day 60 significantly attenuated prenatal stress-induced increase in cortisol levels in prefrontal cortex, but no change in BDNF levels was observed after olanzapine treatment. A significant negative correlation between BDNF and cortisol was observed in both human and animal studies. The above data from human and animal studies suggest that a negative association between stress hormone, cortisol and neuroprotective molecule, BDNF plays an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:20451611

  14. Influence of cortisol on the attachment and metamorphosis of larval Utterbackia imbecillis on bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus).

    PubMed

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitaker, Brian; Galvez, Fernando

    2011-04-01

    The larvae of unionid freshwater mussels (i.e., glochidia) undergo a parasitic stage requiring their attachment to the external epithelia of fish hosts, where they metamorphose into free-living juveniles. We describe the physiological effects in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) of infection with glochidia from the paper pondshell (Utterbackia imbecillis). Glochidia accumulation on bluegill increased dramatically at concentrations of 2000 glochidia liter(-1) and above, reaching a maximum attachment density of about 30 glochidia g(-1) fish at 4000 glochidia liter(-1). Plasma cortisol was the most sensitive indicator of biological effect to glochidial exposure, increasing significantly in hosts exposed to 2000 glochidia liter(-1) or greater. Glochidia were 31% more likely to undergo successful juvenile metamorphosis when attached to bluegill with elevated plasma cortisol, largely due to the enhanced survivorship of these larvae during the first 48 h after infection. We tested the hypothesis that glochidial attachment and juvenile metamorphosis were stimulated directly by plasma cortisol in fish hosts. Bluegill were given an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol, then infected with 1000 glochidia liter(-1) at 48 h after hormone supplementation. Cortisol-injected fish had a 42% increase in the number of attached glochidia g(-1) fish and a 28% increase in larval metamorphosis compared to sham-injected and control fish. We provide evidence that cortisol enhances glochidial metamorphosis on hosts by improving the retention of attached glochidia. This study gives insights into the influence of host physiology on glochidial attachment and juvenile mussel transformation. PMID:21551446

  15. Occupational exposure of dentists to electromagnetic fields produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons alters the serum cortisol level

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Vazife-Doost, S.; Yaghooti, M.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Rajaie-Far, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Some studies indicate that dentistry is one of the job categories with high potential exposure to elevated levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields. In spite of this, information on occupational exposure of dentists to these fields is scarce. Studies on other common sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) such as mobile base stations have shown alterations in the cortisol level following exposure of humans to these sources. The aim of this study is to compare the level of cortisol among dentists and dentistry students who are being occupationally exposed to EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitrons (case group) and among their counterparts who are not being exposed to these fields (control group). Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, blood samples were collected from 41 dentists and dentistry students, 21 of whom were exposed to EMFs emitted by cavitrons as the case group and 20 who were not exposed as the control group, twice; i.e. before work (at 8:30–9:30 a.m.) and after work (11:30–12:30 a.m.). The samples were coded and the serum cortisol level was investigated using the ELISA method (Cortisol AccuBind ELISA Kits). Results: The serum cortisol level of dentists and dental students in the morning (before starting the work) in the control group was 189.15 ± 110.70 (mean ± SD) whereas it was 157.77 ± 112.03 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.373). In contrast, the serum cortisol level of the participants in the noon (after stopping the work) in the control group was 136.25 ± 67.91 (mean ± SD) while it was 88.58 ± 52.83 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This time, the observed difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016). In this light, while the difference between serum cortisol levels of dentists and dental students in the morning and after stopping the work was not statistically significant (P = 0.06), in the EMF-exposed group the cortisol level decreased significantly from 157.77 ± 112.03 in the morning to 88.58 ± 52.83 in the noon (P = 0.001). Conclusions: As far as we know, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of occupational exposure of dentists to EMFs on their serum cortisol level. The EMFs produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons can decrease the serum cortisol level in dentists. As cortisol plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, cardiovascular, and immune system function, a low cortisol level may threaten health. More studies are needed to clearly understand the effects of EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitron on the level of stress hormones. As some studies have shown that exposure to EMFs has no effect on the cortisol level, whereas other studies reported either an increase or a decrease in the cortisol level, it can be concluded that the effects of exposure to EMFs may occur only at specific absorbed energies or energy absorption rates (usually known as window) similar to that exists in the case of exposure to the low doses of ionizing radiations. PMID:22690053

  16. Forebrain Pathways Mediating Stress-Induced Hormone Secretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis D. Van de Kar; Martha L. Blair

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to hostile conditions initiates the secretion of several hormones, including corticosterone\\/cortisol, catecholamines, prolactin, oxytocin, and renin, as part of the survival mechanism. Such conditions are often referred to as “stressors” and can be divided into three categories: external conditions resulting in pain or discomfort, internal homeostatic disturbances, and learned or associative responses to the perception of impending endangerment, pain,

  17. Hormonal therapy of intrinsic aging.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C; Makrantonaki, E

    2012-06-01

    Intrinsic skin aging represents the biological clock of the skin cells per se and reflects the reduction processes that are common in internal organs. The reduced secretion of the pituitary, adrenal glands, and the gonads contributes to characteristic aging-associated body and skin phenotypes as well as behavior patterns. Our knowledge of whether there is a direct or indirect connection between hormonal deficiency and skin aging still remains limited. In females, serum levels of 17?-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, growth hormone (GH), and its downstream hormone insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are significantly decreased with increasing age. In males, serum levels of GH and IGF-I decrease significantly, whereas it can decrease in late age in a part of the population. Hormones have been shown to influence skin morphology and functions, skin permeability, wound healing, sebaceous lipogenesis, and the metabolism of skin cells. Prevention of skin aging by estrogen/progesterone replacement therapy is effective if administered early after menopause and influences intrinsically aged skin only. Vitamin D substitution and antioxidant treatment may also be beneficial. Replacement therapy with androgens, GH, IGF-I, progesterone, melatonin, cortisol, and thyroid hormones still remains controversial. PMID:22533363

  18. Social cognition under stress: differential effects of stress-induced cortisol elevations in healthy young men and women.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Tom; Dziobek, Isabel; Wolf, Oliver T

    2009-04-01

    Humans as social beings often have to perform complex social cognitive tasks while under stress (e.g., during a social conflict). Previous research has established that the brain regions responsible for social cognitive tasks are target regions for stress hormones. However, little experimental research has been done testing the acute effects of stress on social cognition. Here, we investigated whether stress exposure and the ensuing glucocorticoid (i.e., cortisol) elevations affect social cognition. Thirty-two men and 32 women were exposed to either a psychosocial stress or a non-stressful control test before assessing their social cognition using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). Results showed differential effects of stress-induced cortisol responses among men and women for the MASC, but not the RMET. Among men, high cortisol responders displayed elevated MASC scores compared with low cortisol responders. Moreover, for stressed men a positive association between the magnitude of the cortisol responses to the stressor and MASC scores emerged. Among women, enhanced MASC scores were found for low cortisol responders relative to high cortisol responders and non-stressed controls. A strong negative association between cortisol reactivity and MASC scores was found among women. These results imply sex specific effects of glucocorticoids on social cognition and partially support the idea of sex differences in biobehavioral stress responses, with men engaging in fight-or-flight responses while women may react to stress with tending and befriending behavior. PMID:19470361

  19. Elucidating Molecular Networks That Either Affect or Respond to Plasma Cortisol Concentration in Target Tissues of Liver and Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Du, Yang; Murani, Eduard; Schwerin, Manfred; Wimmers, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Cortisol is a steroid hormone with important roles in regulating immune and metabolic functions and organismal responses to external stimuli are mediated by the glucocorticoid system. Dysregulation of the afferent and efferent axis of glucocorticoid signaling have adverse effects on growth, health status, and well-being. Glucocorticoid secretion and signaling show large interindividual variation that has a considerable genetic component; however, little is known about the underlying genetic variants. Here, we used trait-correlated expression analysis, screening for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), genome-wide association (GWA) studies, and causality modeling to identify candidate genes in porcine liver and muscle that affect or respond to plasma cortisol levels. Through trait-correlated expression, we characterized transcript activities in many biological functions in liver and muscle. Candidates from the list of trait-correlated expressed genes were narrowed using only those genes with an eQTL, and these were further prioritized by determining whether their expression was predicted to be related to variation in plasma cortisol levels. Using network edge orienting (NEO), a causality modeling algorithm, 26 of 990 candidates in liver were predicted to affect and 70 to respond to plasma cortisol levels. Of 593 candidates in muscle that were correlated with cortisol levels and were regulated by eQTL, 2 and 25 were predicted as effective and responsive, respectively, to plasma cortisol levels. Comprehensive data integration has helped to elucidate the complex molecular networks contributing to cortisol levels and thus its subsequent metabolic effects. The discrimination of up- and downstream effects of transcripts affecting or responding to plasma cortisol concentrations improves the understanding of the biology of complex traits related to growth, health, and well-being. PMID:22904034

  20. Differences in Salivary Alpha-Amylase and Cortisol Responsiveness following Exposure to Electrical Stimulation versus the Trier Social Stress Tests

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Okamoto, Shizuko; Ando, Tomoko; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Imanaga, Junko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-01-01

    Background Cortisol is an essential hormone in the regulation of the stress response along the HPA axis, and salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels. Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has also emerged as a novel biomarker for psychosocial stress responsiveness within the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system. Principal Findings We measured sAA and salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electric stimulation stress. One hundred forty-nine healthy volunteers participated in this study. All subjects were exposed to both the TSST and electric stimulation stress on separate days. We measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels three times immediately before, immediately after, and 20 min after the stress challenge. The State (STAI-S) and Trait (STAI-T) versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test and the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests were administered to participants before the electrical stimulation and TSST protocols. We also measured HF, LF and LF/HF Heart Rate Variability ratio immediately after electrical stimulation and TSST exposure. Following TSST exposure or electrical stimulation, sAA levels displayed a rapid increase and recovery, returning to baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Salivary cortisol responses showed a delayed increase, which remained significantly elevated from baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Analyses revealed no differences between men and women with regard to their sAA response to the challenges (TSST or electric stimulations), while we found significantly higher salivary cortisol responses to the TSST in females. We also found that younger subjects tended to display higher sAA activity. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly correlated with the strength of the applied electrical stimulation. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that the HPA axis (but not the SAM system) may show differential response patterns to distinct kinds of stressors. PMID:22859941

  1. Effects of Cortisol on the Intestinal Mucosal Immune Response during Cohabitant Challenge with IPNV in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Niklasson, Lars; Sundh, Henrik; Olsen, Rolf-Erik; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Skjødt, Karsten; Nilsen, Tom O.; Sundell, Kristina Snuttan

    2014-01-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes high incidence of disease in salmonids during the first period after SW transfer. During this period as well as during periods of stress, cortisol levels increase and indications of a relationship between IPNV susceptibility and cortisol have been suggested. The intestine is an entry route and a target tissue for IPNV displaying severe enteritis and sloughing of the mucosa in infected fish. The mechanisms behind effects of the virus on the intestinal tissue and the impact of cortisol on the effect remain unclear. In the present study, Atlantic salmon post smolts treated with or without slow release cortisol implants were subjected to a cohabitant IPNV challenge. Analysis of genes and proteins related to the innate and acquired immune responses against virus was performed 6 days post-challenge using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. An increased mRNA expression of anti-viral cytokine interferon type I was observed in the proximal intestine and head kidney as a response to the viral challenge and this effect was suppressed by cortisol. No effect was seen in the distal intestine. T-cell marker CD3 as well as MHC-I in both intestinal regions and in the head kidney was down regulated at the mRNA level. Number of CD8? lymphocytes decreased in the proximal intestine in response to cortisol. On the other hand, mRNA expression of Mx and IL-1? increased in the proximal intestine and head kidney in IPNV challenged fish in the presence of cortisol suggesting that the immune activation shifts in timing and response pathway during simulated stress. The present study clearly demonstrates that IPNV infection results in a differentiated epithelial immune response in the different intestinal regions of the Atlantic salmon. It also reveals that the epithelial immune response differs from the systemic, but that both are modulated by the stress hormone cortisol. PMID:24809845

  2. Original article Response of milk yield, plasma cortisol,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Response of milk yield, plasma cortisol, amino acids, urea and glucose to a single yield, plasma cortisol, free amino acids, urea and glucose in lactating cows. The animals were treated cortisol occurred within 10 min of administration of 6 IU ACTH. The maximum increase in plasma cortisol

  3. Adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone rhythms in male golden hamsters on long and short days

    SciTech Connect

    Ottenweller, J.E.; Tapp, W.N.; Pitman, D.L.; Natelson, B.H. (Veterans Administration Center, East Orange, NJ (USA) New Jersey Medical School, Newark (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormones were measured at 4-h intervals around the clock in male hamsters on long (14:10-h light-dark cycle) and short (10:14-h light-dark cycle) days. Plasma corticosterone, cortisol, thyroxine (T{sub 4}), triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and testosterone rhythms were present on long days. The only one of these hormones to have a significant rhythm on short days was cortisol, but even its amplitude was suppressed compared with the cortisol rhythm on long days. Short days also lowered mean plasma levels of cortisol, T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, and testosterone. Finally, short days raised the ratio of corticosterone to cortisol and lowered the ratio of T{sub 4} to T{sub 3}. Both ratios had significant rhythms on long days but not on short days. Because of the many interactions among adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone axes, it is unclear whether the primary effect of short days is on one of these endocrine systems or on another factor that has separate effects on each of the hormone rhythms that was measured. Nonetheless, it is clear that a major effect of short day lengths in hamsters is to suppress hormone rhythms. Explanations of photoperiodic effects that depend on endocrine mediation should take this into account.

  4. Circadian hormonal rhythms in two new cases of fatal familial insomnia.

    PubMed

    Avoni, P; Cortelli, P; Montagna, P; Tinuper, P; Sforza, E; Contin, M; Parchi, P; Pierangeli, G; Maltoni, P; Pavani, A

    1991-12-01

    We used a chronobiological inferential statistical method to investigate circadian rhythms of hypophyseal hormones, cortisol, melatonin and catecholamines in two females of the same family affected by fatal familial insomnia. Case 1 (confirmed at autopsy) presented an absent or progressive loss of circadian rhythms of all hormones. In case 2 there was a loss of GH circadian rhythm and a less significant rhythm for melatonin, catecholamines and gonadotropins. These results confirm the role of the thalamus in regulating hormonal circadian rhythm. PMID:1805556

  5. Cortisol is not associated with telomere shortening or chromosomal instability in human lymphocytes cultured under low and high folate conditions.

    PubMed

    Bull, Caroline; Christensen, Helen; Fenech, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress and nutritional deficiencies are factors that impact negatively on human health and disease risk. Chronic stress has been associated with accelerated leukocyte telomere shortening in numerous cohorts, however, a mechanistic link has proven elusive. This study tested the hypotheses that chronic exposure to the stress hormone, cortisol, causes telomere shortening and chromosome instability (CIN) in vitro, and that these effects would be further exacerbated by folate (vitamin B9) deficiency. Primary human lymphocytes were maintained in vitro for 12 days in medium containing either 25 nM folic acid (FA(low)) or 100 nM FA (FA(high)), together with either 0, 400, 1000 or 3500 nM cortisol. The interactive effects of cortisol and FA were examined by comparing telomere length (TL), biomarkers of DNA damage, and cytostasis. At day 12 TL was 5-17% longer in lymphocytes cultured in FA(low) conditions (mean ± SD;10.2% ± 1.6), compared with those in FA(high) medium (9.1% ± 1, p = 0.02). Refuting the hypothesis, TL was consistently greater in the presence of cortisol. The effect of FA deficiency on the frequency of DNA damage was significant for nucleoplasmic bridges, circular nuclei, micronuclei and nuclear buds, (p < 0.0001-0.001). The effect of cortisol, however, was negligible, only reaching statistical significance for the frequency of fused nuclei (p = 0.04). Cortisol was significantly associated with reduced cell division and growth and had an apparent protective effect on cell viability in the FA(low) conditions. Conclusions: Both chronic cortisol exposure, and folate deficiency, resulted in telomere elongation, however, the effect of cortisol was marginal relative to that of folate. Cortisol was not associated with increased chromosomal instability, but caused a significant reduction in cell division and growth. Together these results indicate that cortisol is not directly genotoxic and that the telomere shortening associated with increased psychological stress in vivo may not be explained by a direct effect of cortisol. PMID:25748629

  6. Salivary cortisol measurement in normal-weight, obese and anorexic women: comparison with plasma cortisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pietro Putignano; Antonella Dubini; Paola Toja; Cecilia Invitti; Simona Bonfanti; Gabriella Redaelli; Daniela Zappulli; Francesco Cavagnini

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare salivary, plasma and urinary free cortisol (UFC) measurements in patients with anorexia nervosa, in whom an overdrive of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is well established but information on salivary cortisol is lacking, in viscerally obese patients in whom subtle abnormalities of cortisol secretion and metabolism are postulated, and in normal-weight healthy women. Participants and experimental design: Measurement

  7. Melatonin and cortisol assessment of circadian shifts in astronauts before flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Putcha, L.; Chen, Y. M.; Baker, E.

    1995-01-01

    Melatonin and cortisol were measured in saliva and urine samples to assess the effectiveness of a 7-day protocol combining bright-light exposure with sleep shifting in eliciting a 12-hr phase-shift delay in eight U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts before launch. Baseline acrophases for 15 control subjects with normal sleep-wake cycles were as follows: cortisol (saliva) at 0700 (0730 in urine); melatonin (saliva) at 0130 (6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate at 0230 in urine). Acrophases of the astronaut group fell within 2.5 hr of these values before the treatment protocols were begun. During the bright-light and sleep-shifting treatments, both absolute melatonin production and melatonin rhythmicity were diminished during the first 3 treatment days; total daily cortisol levels remained constant throughout the treatment. By the fourth to sixth day of the 7-day protocol, seven of the eight crew members showed phase delays in all four measures that fell within 2 hr of the expected 11- to 12-hr shift. Although cortisol and melatonin rhythms each corresponded with the phase shift, the rhythms in these two hormones did not correspond with each other during the transition.

  8. Development and application of stable carbon isotope analysis to the detection of cortisol administration in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bichon, E; Kieken, F; Cesbron, N; Monteau, F; Prévost, S; André, F; Le Bizec, B

    2007-01-01

    The use of anabolic agents in food-producing animals has been prohibited within the EU since 1988. The control of the illegal use of natural steroid hormones in cattle is still an exciting analytical challenge as no definitive method and nonambiguous analytical criteria are available. We have used gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) to demonstrate the administration of cortisol to cattle. The method consisted of an efficient combination between OASIS HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE), oxidation, SiOH SPE and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for glucocorticoid purification. By comparison of the (13)C/(12)C isotopic ratio of the oxidised product of cortisol, i.e. 5 beta-androstane-3,11,17-trione (5 beta AAT), with an endogenous reference compound (ERC), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the differentiation of cortisol metabolite origin, either endogenous or exogenous, has been achieved. After treatment of an animal, the delta(13)C(VPDB) values of 5 beta AAT reached -30 to -32 per thousand, whereas the delta(13)C(VPDB) values of DHEA remained at -25 per thousand. A significant difference in the delta(13)C(VPDB) values between DHEA and 5 beta AAT was measurable over a period of 3 days after a single administration of cortisol to the animal. PMID:17639573

  9. Glucocorticoid receptors, fibromyalgia and low back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. W. M. Lentjes; E. N. Griep; J. W. Boersma; F. P. T. H. M. Romijn; E. R. de Kloer

    1997-01-01

    Recently, fibromyaglia (FMS) was shown to be a disorder associated with an altered functioning of the stress response system. FMS patients display a hyperreactive pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. We suggested that negative feedback of cortisol could be deranged. Therefore we investigated the properties and function of the glucocorticoid receptors

  10. Adrenal function in newborns undergoing surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E F Fernandez; R Montman; K L Watterberg

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To measure cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol and ACTH values in the newborn intensive care unit-admitted newborn infants within 48 h before surgery and to describe the relationship of these values to measures of clinical illness before and after surgery.Study Design:In this prospective observational study, we measured baseline and ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations within 48 h before surgery in newborn infants

  11. The relationship between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol profiles in daily life

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Tara; Carvalho, Livia A.; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between cortisol responses to laboratory stress and cortisol output over the day have not been studied extensively. We tested associations between cortisol responses to a set of laboratory challenges (colour/word interference and mirror tracing) and three aspects of cortisol output over the day, namely total area under the curve (AUCday), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the slope of cortisol decline over the day. Participants were 466 men and women aged 54–76 years. We found that cortisol responses to laboratory stress were positively associated with cortisol AUCday independently of sex, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and time of laboratory testing (B = 0.212, 95% C.I. 0.143–0.282, p < 0.001). No associations between laboratory responses and the CAR or cortisol slope were observed. The laboratory–field association was not moderated by demographic or psychosocial factors. The study provides evidence for the ecological validity of acute laboratory stress testing. PMID:24582772

  12. Absence of detectable melatonin and preservation of cortisol and thyrotropin rhythms in tetraplegia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitzer, J. M.; Ayas, N. T.; Shea, S. A.; Brown, R.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The human circadian timing system regulates the temporal organization of several endocrine functions, including the production of melatonin (via a neural pathway that includes the spinal cord), TSH, and cortisol. In traumatic spinal cord injury, afferent and efferent circuits that influence the basal production of these hormones may be disrupted. We studied five subjects with chronic spinal cord injury (three tetraplegic and two paraplegic, all neurologically complete injuries) under stringent conditions in which the underlying circadian rhythmicity of these hormones could be examined. Melatonin production was absent in the three tetraplegic subjects with injury to their lower cervical spinal cord and was of normal amplitude and timing in the two paraplegic subjects with injury to their upper thoracic spinal cord. The amplitude and the timing of TSH and cortisol rhythms were robust in the paraplegics and in the tetraplegics. Our results indicate that neurologically complete cervical spinal injury results in the complete loss of pineal melatonin production and that neither the loss of melatonin nor the loss of spinal afferent information disrupts the rhythmicity of cortisol or TSH secretion.

  13. Pregnancy Anxiety and Prenatal Cortisol Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 to 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  14. Pregnancy anxiety and prenatal cortisol trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kane, Heidi S; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A

    2014-07-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 and 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  15. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Birnbaumer; B. W. OMalley

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action.

  16. Synchrony of diurnal cortisol pattern in couples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siwei; Rovine, Michael J; Klein, Laura Cousino; Almeida, David M

    2013-08-01

    Cortisol is a biomarker of stress reactivity, and its diurnal pattern is an indicator of general neuroendocrine health. Despite theories conceptualizing marital dyads as dynamic systems wherein spouses are interdependent in their physiology and stress coping, little is known about the daily processes in which spouses possibly influence each other in biological stress. Nineteen heterosexual couples provided saliva samples containing cortisol 4 times a day for 4 consecutive days. We used multilevel modeling to examine whether one's cortisol awaking response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) predict those of the spouse's on the same day and/or on the next day. We found that spouses synchronize their DCS, such that on days when one experiences faster or slower decline in diurnal cortisol than usual, the spouse also experiences faster or slower decline than usual. For CAR, positive synchrony was only observed in couples reporting high levels of marital strain and disagreement. Cross-lagged regression analysis reveals stability in diurnal cortisol pattern. A steeper cortisol slope on a particular day predicts a steeper slope on the next day within an individual, but no significant cross-lagged relation was found between spouses. Couples reporting more spousal support tend to have stronger stability in CAR. These findings provide evidence that spouses are interdependent in their diurnal cortisol patterns on a day-to-day basis, and that these daily dynamics are associated with marital relationship quality. The study contributes to our understanding of marital processes and biobehavioral health. It also contributes methodologically to the advancement of longitudinal dyadic analysis. PMID:23978320

  17. Zinc oxide nanostructures for electrochemical cortisol biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Kaushik, Ajeet; Tracy, Kathryn; Bhansali, Shekhar; Pala, Nezih

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report on fabrication of a label free, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical cortisol immunosensors using one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and two dimensional nanoflakes (ZnO-NFs) as immobilizing matrix. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures (NSs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selective area diffraction (SAED) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) which showed that both ZnO-NRs and ZnO-NFs are single crystalline and oriented in [0001] direction. Anti-cortisol antibody (Anti-Cab) are used as primary capture antibodies to detect cortisol using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increase in cortisol concentration and exhibits a sensitivity of 3.078 K?. M-1 for ZnO-NRs and 540 ?. M -1 for ZnO-NFs. The developed ZnO-NSs based immunosensor is capable of detecting cortisol at 1 pM. The observed sensing parameters are in physiological range. The developed sensors can be integrated with microfluidic system and miniaturized potentiostat to detect cortisol at point-of-care.

  18. Immunosensor with Fluid Control Mechanism for Salivary Cortisol Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample solution. A calibration curve using the relative detected current showed an R2 = 0.98 and CV = 14% for a range of standard cortisol solutions corresponding to the concentrations of native salivary cortisol (0.1 – 10 ng/ml). The measurement could be accomplished within 35 minutes and the cortisol immunosensor could be reused. These results show promise for realizing an on-site and easy-to-use biosensor for cortisol. Used for evaluation of human salivary cortisol levels, the cortisol immunosensor measurement corresponded closely with commercially available ELISA method (R2 = 0.92). Our results indicate the promise of the new cortisol immunosensor for noninvasive, point-of care measurement of human salivary cortisol levels. PMID:22939507

  19. Immunosensor with fluid control mechanism for salivary cortisol analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample solution. A calibration curve using the relative detected current showed a R(2)=0.98 and CV=14% for a range of standard cortisol solutions corresponding to the concentrations of native salivary cortisol (0.1-10 ng/ml). The measurement could be accomplished within 35 min and the cortisol immunosensor could be reused. These results show promise for realizing an on-site and easy-to-use biosensor for cortisol. Used for evaluation of human salivary cortisol levels, the cortisol immunosensor measurement corresponded closely with commercially available ELISA method (R(2)=0.92). Our results indicate the promise of the new cortisol immunosensor for noninvasive, point of care measurement of human salivary cortisol levels. PMID:22939507

  20. Isolated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) deficiency associated with acute adrenal crisis.

    PubMed Central

    Jialal, I.; Desai, R. K.; Maharaj, I. C.; Pala, A. S.; Joubert, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    A 37 year old black female presented with congestive cardiac failure, 2 months postpartum. She developed spontaneous hypoglycaemia and symptoms of acute adrenal crisis (hypotension, nausea, abdominal pain and tachycardia with small thready pulse), which responded to i.v. dextrose, sodium chloride and hydrocortisone. Biochemical investigations revealed low serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) levels. The patient initially showed an impaired cortisol response to intramuscular aqueous tetracosactrin, but an exuberant response after priming with intramuscular tetracosactrin depot. These findings, together with the normal remaining pituitary function, led us to conclude that this patient had isolated ACTH deficiency associated with congestive cardiac failure and acute adrenal crisis. PMID:2991871

  1. Reduced nocturnal ACTH-driven cortisol secretion during critical illness.

    PubMed

    Boonen, Eva; Meersseman, Philippe; Vervenne, Hilke; Meyfroidt, Geert; Guïza, Fabian; Wouters, Pieter J; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2014-04-15

    Recently, during critical illness, cortisol metabolism was found to be reduced. We hypothesize that such reduced cortisol breakdown may suppress pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion via feedback inhibition. To test this hypothesis, nocturnal ACTH and cortisol secretory profiles were constructed by deconvolution analysis from plasma concentration time series in 40 matched critically ill patients and eight healthy controls, excluding diseases or drugs that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Blood was sampled every 10 min between 2100 and 0600 to quantify plasma concentrations of ACTH and (free) cortisol. Approximate entropy, an estimation of process irregularity, cross-approximate entropy, a measure of ACTH-cortisol asynchrony, and ACTH-cortisol dose-response relationships were calculated. Total and free plasma cortisol concentrations were higher at all times in patients than in controls (all P < 0.04). Pulsatile cortisol secretion was 54% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.005), explained by reduced cortisol burst mass (P = 0.03), whereas cortisol pulse frequency (P = 0.35) and nonpulsatile cortisol secretion (P = 0.80) were unaltered. Pulsatile ACTH secretion was 31% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.03), again explained by a lower ACTH burst mass (P = 0.02), whereas ACTH pulse frequency (P = 0.50) and nonpulsatile ACTH secretion (P = 0.80) were unchanged. ACTH-cortisol dose response estimates were similar in patients and controls. ACTH and cortisol approximate entropy were higher in patients (P ? 0.03), as was ACTH-cortisol cross-approximate entropy (P ? 0.001). We conclude that hypercortisolism during critical illness coincided with suppressed pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion and a normal ACTH-cortisol dose response. Increased irregularity and asynchrony of the ACTH and cortisol time series supported non-ACTH-dependent mechanisms driving hypercortisolism during critical illness. PMID:24569590

  2. Effects of Seasonal Differences in Testosterone and Cortisol Levels on Pain Responses Under Resting and Anxiety Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Choi, Eunhee; Chung, Myung-il; Seo, Sang Min; Lim, Hyun Kyo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated whether hormones and pain perception are associated with exam anxiety, and also whether exam anxiety is affected by seasonal differences in testosterone and cortisol levels. Materials and Methods Forty-six healthy males were recruited from a medical college. Anxiety was induced by having participants perform the Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Pressure was applied to the participants to induce pain. Pain thresholds, pain ratings, anxiety ratings, blood pressure, heart rate, salivary testosterone and cortisol levels were measured under resting and anxiety conditions in the spring and summer. Data were collected from 46 participants during the spring (n=25) and summer (n=21). Results Pain thresholds and testosterone levels were significantly lower under anxiety than at rest for all participants (n=46), while cortisol levels, pain ratings, and anxiety ratings were significantly higher under anxiety than at rest. In the spring (n=25), testosterone levels were significantly higher at rest than under anxiety, while there was no difference in cortisol levels between resting and anxiety conditions. In the summer (n=21), cortisol levels were significantly higher under anxiety than at rest, while there was no difference in testosterone levels between resting and anxiety conditions. There were no significant seasonal differences in pain and anxiety ratings and pain threshold. Conclusion These results indicate that seasonal differences in testosterone and cortisol levels under anxiety and at rest may affect pain responses. These results also suggest that acute clinical pain may be relieved by managing anxiety that is related to a decrease of testosterone in spring and a large increase of cortisol in summer. PMID:24339310

  3. The Effort-reward Imbalance work-stress model and daytime salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) among Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Atsuhiko; Mase, Junji; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Rajatanun, Thitipat; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ono, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    We examined the influence of work-related effort–reward imbalance and overcommitment to work (OC), as derived from Siegrist's Effort–Reward Imbalance (ERI) model, on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We hypothesized that, among healthy workers, both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion would be increased by effort–reward imbalance and OC and, as a result, cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) would not differ by effort–reward imbalance or OC. The subjects were 115 healthy female nursery school teachers. Salivary cortisol, DHEA, and C/D ratio were used as indexes of HPA activity. Mixed-model analyses of variance revealed that neither the interaction between the ERI model indicators (i.e., effort, reward, effort-to-reward ratio, and OC) and the series of measurement times (9:00, 12:00, and 15:00) nor the main effect of the ERI model indicators was significant for daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that none of the ERI model indicators was significantly associated with area under the curve of daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. We found that effort, reward, effort–reward imbalance, and OC had little influence on daytime variation patterns, levels, or amounts of salivary HPA-axis-related hormones. Thus, our hypotheses were not supported. PMID:25228138

  4. The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The levels of several hormones fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle and are also affected by sleep, feeding, and general behavior. The regulation and metabolism of several hormones are influenced by interactions between the effects of sleep and the intrinsic circadian system; growth hormone, melatonin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin levels are highly correlated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity. There are also endogenous circadian mechanisms that serve to regulate glucose metabolism and similar rhythms pertaining to lipid metabolism, regulated through the actions of various clock genes. Sleep disturbance, which negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism, is also associated with obesity, insulin insensitivity, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and appetite dysregulation. Circadian disruption, typically induced by shift work, may negatively impact health due to impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis, reversed melatonin and cortisol rhythms, and loss of clock gene rhythmicity. PMID:25861266

  5. Between- and within-sex variation in hormonal responses to psychological stress in a large sample of college students.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Baran, Nicole M; Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated (1) sex differences in hormonal responses to psychosocial stress; (2) the relation between variability in pre-test hormone concentrations and stress-induced hormonal changes; and (3) some possible sources of within-sex variation in pre-test hormone concentrations and in hormonal responses to the test in a large human subject population. To this end, changes in salivary concentrations of testosterone and cortisol in response to a mild psychosocial stressor (a set of computerized economic decision-making tests) were measured in a sample of over 500 MBA students. Males had higher concentrations of testosterone and cortisol than females both before and after the test. After taking effects of time of testing on hormone concentrations into account, testosterone showed a post-test decrease in males but not in females. Cortisol level increased in both sexes but the post-test increase was larger in females than in males. At the individual level, the pre-test concentrations of testosterone and cortisol predicted both the direction and the magnitude of the post-test hormone change, so that low pre-test hormone concentrations showed large post-test increases whereas high pre-test concentrations showed large post-test decreases. Within-sex variation in hormone concentrations was not accounted for by variation in 2D:4D digit length ratio, a marker of prenatal androgen exposure, but by social variables. Single males without a stable romantic partner had higher testosterone level than males with stable partners, and both males and females without a partner showed a greater cortisol response to the test than married individuals with or without children. Studies conducted with large sample sizes such as this one can help understand normative patterns of hormonal responses to psychosocial stimuli as well as identify the sources of interindividual variation in endocrine function. PMID:20666639

  6. Effects of cortisol and angiotensin II on the number and size of juxtaglomerular cells in masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mizuno; N. Misaka; N. Kasahara

    2001-01-01

    The authors previously reported that the number and size of juxtaglomerular cells (JGCs) in the kidney increased during smoltification\\u000a in masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou. In the present study, the effects of cortisol and\\/or angiotensin (Ang) II ([Asn1, Val5]-Ang II) on the JGC number and size in masu salmon were examined to elucidate hormonal regulation of the changes in the JGC\\u000a number and

  7. A non-arousing test situation abolishes the impairing effects of cortisol on delayed memory retrieval in healthy women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrina Kuhlmann; Oliver T. Wolf

    2006-01-01

    Animal and human studies have repeatedly shown that stress hormones influence memory. Glucocorticoids (GCs) enhance memory consolidation but impair memory retrieval. Studies in rodents indicate that adrenergic activation is necessary for GC induced effects on memory. We have shown, in two previous placebo-controlled double-blind experiments, that memory retrieval is significantly impaired after oral cortisol (30mg) treatment in healthy young women.

  8. Association between Stress Response Genes and Features of Diurnal Cortisol Curves in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis: A New Multi-Phenotype Approach for Gene-Based Association Tests

    PubMed Central

    He, Zihuai; Payne, Erin K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Lee, Seunggeun; Smith, Jennifer A.; Ware, Erin B.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    The hormone cortisol is likely to be a key mediator of the stress response that influences multiple physiologic systems that are involved in common chronic disease, including the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and metabolism. In this paper, a candidate gene approach was used to investigate genetic contributions to variability in multiple correlated features of the daily cortisol profile in a sample of European Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). We proposed and applied a new gene-level multiple-phenotype analysis and carried out a meta-analysis to combine the ethnicity specific results. This new analysis, instead of a more routine single marker-single phenotype approach identified a significant association between one gene (ADRB2) and cortisol features (meta-analysis p-value=0.0025), which was not identified by three other commonly used existing analytic strategies: 1. Single marker association tests involving each single cortisol feature separately; 2. Single marker association tests jointly testing for multiple cortisol features; 3. Gene-level association tests separately carried out for each single cortisol feature. The analytic strategies presented consider different hypotheses regarding genotype-phenotype association and imply different costs of multiple testing. The proposed gene-level analysis integrating multiple cortisol features across multiple ethnic groups provides new insights into the gene-cortisol association. PMID:25993632

  9. Association between Stress Response Genes and Features of Diurnal Cortisol Curves in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis: A New Multi-Phenotype Approach for Gene-Based Association Tests.

    PubMed

    He, Zihuai; Payne, Erin K; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Lee, Seunggeun; Smith, Jennifer A; Ware, Erin B; Sánchez, Brisa N; Seeman, Teresa E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2015-01-01

    The hormone cortisol is likely to be a key mediator of the stress response that influences multiple physiologic systems that are involved in common chronic disease, including the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and metabolism. In this paper, a candidate gene approach was used to investigate genetic contributions to variability in multiple correlated features of the daily cortisol profile in a sample of European Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). We proposed and applied a new gene-level multiple-phenotype analysis and carried out a meta-analysis to combine the ethnicity specific results. This new analysis, instead of a more routine single marker-single phenotype approach identified a significant association between one gene (ADRB2) and cortisol features (meta-analysis p-value=0.0025), which was not identified by three other commonly used existing analytic strategies: 1. Single marker association tests involving each single cortisol feature separately; 2. Single marker association tests jointly testing for multiple cortisol features; 3. Gene-level association tests separately carried out for each single cortisol feature. The analytic strategies presented consider different hypotheses regarding genotype-phenotype association and imply different costs of multiple testing. The proposed gene-level analysis integrating multiple cortisol features across multiple ethnic groups provides new insights into the gene-cortisol association. PMID:25993632

  10. Effects of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in postweaned northern elephant seal pups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups rely on the oxidation of fat stores as their primary source of energy during their 8- to 12-wk postweaning fast; however, potential endocrine mechanisms involved with this increased fat metabolism have yet to be examined. Therefore, 15 pups were serially blood sampled in the field during the first 7 wk of their postweaning fast to examine the changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones (TH), which are involved in fat metabolism in other mammals. Cortisol increased, indicating that it contributed to an increase in lipolysis. Increased total triiodothyronine (tT(3)) and thyroxine (tT(4)) may not reflect increased thyroid gland activity, but rather alterations in hormone metabolism. tT(3)-to-tT(4) ratio decreased, suggesting a decrease in thyroxine (T(4)) deiodination, whereas the negative correlation between total proteins and free T(4) suggests that the increase in free hormone is attributed to a decrease in binding globulins. Changes in TH are most similar to those observed during hibernation than starvation in mammals, suggesting that the metabolic adaptations to natural fasting are more similar to hibernation despite the fact these animals remain active throughout the fasting period.

  11. Noninvasive Measurement of Steroid Hormones in Zebrafish Holding-Water

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Ana S.; Faustino, Ana I.; Cabral, Eduarda M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a new animal model in neuroendocrinology and behavior (e.g., stress physiology and ecotoxicology studies). In these areas, the concentrations of steroid hormones in the blood are often used to study the endocrinological status of individuals. However, due to the small body size of zebrafish, blood sampling is difficult to perform and the amount of plasma obtained per sample for assaying hormones is very small (ca. 1–5??L), and therefore most studies have been using whole-body hormone concentrations, which implies sacrificing the individuals and hampers sequential sampling of the same individual. Here a noninvasive method to assay steroid hormones from zebrafish holding-water, based on the fact that steroids are released into the fish holding-water through the gills by passive diffusion, is validated. Cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (KT) were measured in water samples and compared to plasma levels in the same individuals. Cortisol released to holding-water correlates positively with plasma concentrations, but there was a lack of correlation between KT water and circulating levels. However, KT levels showed a highly significant sex difference that can be used to noninvasively sex individuals. An ACTH challenge test demonstrated that an induced increase in circulating cortisol concentration can be reliably detected in holding-water levels, hence attesting the responsiveness of holding-water levels to fluctuations in circulating levels. PMID:23445429

  12. Altered anxiety and weight gain in corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Karolyi, I J; Burrows, H L; Ramesh, T M; Nakajima, M; Lesh, J S; Seong, E; Camper, S A; Seasholtz, A F

    1999-09-28

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is widely recognized as the primary mediator of the neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress, including stress-induced anxiety. The biological activity of CRH and other mammalian CRH-like peptides, such as urocortin, may be modulated by CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP). To assess directly the CRH-BP function, we created a mouse model of CRH-BP deficiency by gene targeting. Basal adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels are unchanged in the CRH-BP-deficient mice, and the animals demonstrate a normal increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone after restraint stress. In contrast, adult male CRH-BP-deficient mice show significantly reduced body weight when compared with wild-type controls. CRH-BP-deficient mice also exhibit a significant increase in anxiogenic-like behavior as assessed by the elevated plus maze and defensive withdrawal tests. The increased anorectic and anxiogenic-like behavior most likely is caused by increased "free" CRH and/or urocortin levels in the brain of CRH-BP-deficient animals, suggesting an important role for CRH-BP in maintaining appropriate levels of these peptides in the central nervous system. PMID:10500222

  13. Altered anxiety and weight gain in corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Karolyi, I. Jill; Burrows, Heather L.; Ramesh, Tennore M.; Nakajima, Masaharu; Lesh, J. Shonee; Seong, Eunju; Camper, Sally A.; Seasholtz, Audrey F.

    1999-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is widely recognized as the primary mediator of the neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress, including stress-induced anxiety. The biological activity of CRH and other mammalian CRH-like peptides, such as urocortin, may be modulated by CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP). To assess directly the CRH-BP function, we created a mouse model of CRH-BP deficiency by gene targeting. Basal adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels are unchanged in the CRH-BP-deficient mice, and the animals demonstrate a normal increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone after restraint stress. In contrast, adult male CRH-BP-deficient mice show significantly reduced body weight when compared with wild-type controls. CRH-BP-deficient mice also exhibit a significant increase in anxiogenic-like behavior as assessed by the elevated plus maze and defensive withdrawal tests. The increased anorectic and anxiogenic-like behavior most likely is caused by increased “free” CRH and/or urocortin levels in the brain of CRH-BP-deficient animals, suggesting an important role for CRH-BP in maintaining appropriate levels of these peptides in the central nervous system. PMID:10500222

  14. Metabolic effects of low cortisol during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Del Corral, P; Howley, E T; Hartsell, M; Ashraf, M; Younger, M S

    1998-03-01

    This study examined the physiological effect of reduced plasma cortisol (C) during prolonged exercise in humans. The effects of normal C (NC) were compared with metyrapone-induced low C (LC) on plasma substrate availability and the respiratory exchange ratio during 2 h of exercise at approximately 60% peak O2 consumption in nine subjects. The C responses were compared with preexercise (Pre) levels and with a rest day (Con). At rest, C was attenuated by approximately 70% for LC compared with NC. At rest, plasma glucose, lactate, glycerol, beta-hydroxybutyrate, alanine, branched-chain amino acids, insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were similar under LC and NC (P > 0.05). During exercise under NC, plasma C increased compared with Pre, whereas it remained unchanged during LC. During NC, plasma C was elevated at 90 min (compared with Con) and at 120 min (compared with Con and Pre). During exercise, plasma glucose decreased to the same extent and lactate was similar under both conditions, whereas plasma glycerol, beta-hydroxybutyrate, alanine, and branched-chain amino acids were higher (P < 0.01) under NC. Plasma insulin declined (P = 0.01) to a greater extent under LC, whereas growth hormone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine tended to be higher (0.05 hormone adjustments maintain glucose homeostasis; and 3) LC does not alter whole body substrate utilization or the ability to complete 2 h of moderate exercise. PMID:9480955

  15. Catecholamines, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, and sex hormones in anaerobic and aerobic exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Kindermann; A. Schnabel; W. M. Schmitt; G. Biro; J. Cassens; F. Weber

    1982-01-01

    Summary  Seventeen male physical education students performed three types of treadmill exercise: (1) progressive exercise to exhaustion, (2) prolonged exercise of 50 min duration at the anaerobic threshold of 4 mmol·1–1 blood lactate (AE), (3) a single bout of short-term high-intensity exercise at 156% of maximal exercise capacity in the progressive test, leading to exhaustion within 1.5 min (ANE).Immediately before and

  16. Cortisol responses to physical and pharmacological stimuli in heifers

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Cortisol responses to physical and pharmacological stimuli in heifers Isabelle VEISSIER P. LE of this study was to assess bovine plasma cortisol response to blood sampling, to 5-min isolation in a novel no significant effect on cortisol level. This level increased by about 20 ng/ml 10 min after the heifers were

  17. Cortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Mommsen; Mathilakath M. Vijayan; Thomas W. Moon

    1999-01-01

    Cortisol is the principal corticosteriod in teleost fishes and its plasma concentrations rise dramatically during stress. The relationship between this cortisol increase and its metabolic consequences are subject to extensive debate. Much of this debate arises from the different responses of the many species used, the diversity of approaches to manipulate cortisol levels, and the sampling techniques and duration. Given

  18. Children's Context Inappropriate Anger and Salivary Cortisol Robin L. Locke

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Children's Context Inappropriate Anger and Salivary Cortisol Robin L. Locke University-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, as manifest in salivary cortisol measures. About 23% of the 360 children (ages 6 the hypothesized lower levels of cortisol beyond that attributed to context appropriate anger. Boys' CI anger

  19. Early morning salivary cortisol is not associated with extraversion

    E-print Network

    Early morning salivary cortisol is not associated with extraversion Marcus R. Munafo` a,*, Laura salivary cortisol levels and neuroticism has recently been reported, but it is unclear whether early morning salivary cortisol levels in individuals selected for high and low extraversion. Thirty

  20. Circadian Regulation of Cortisol After Hippocampal Damage in Humans

    E-print Network

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    Circadian Regulation of Cortisol After Hippocampal Damage in Humans Tony W. Buchanan, Simone Kern was designed to examine the effects of HC damage on basal cortisol secretion in humans. Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured in 22 patients with HC damage (12 with bilateral damage and 10 with unilateral damage

  1. DPC Coat-A-Count Cortisol modified protocol for saliva

    E-print Network

    Michigan, University of

    DPC Coat-A-Count Cortisol modified protocol for saliva From: Wirth, M. M., Welsh, K., & Schultheiss, O. C. (in preparation). Implicit power motivation predicts cortisol increases after social defeat. 1 to overestimate true levels by about 15%) 6. Add 1.0 ml 125 I cortisol tracer to each tube. Centrifuge all tubes

  2. RESEARCH Open Access Elevated cortisol during play is associated with

    E-print Network

    Palmeri, Thomas

    RESEARCH Open Access Elevated cortisol during play is associated with age and social engagement by cortisol by comparing children with autism to neurotypical peers during an ecologically valid 20-minute.78, P = 0.0004) play. Repeated measures analysis of the cortisol values revealed a significant model (c

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Social and Reproductive Factors Affecting Cortisol

    E-print Network

    French, Jeffrey A.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Social and Reproductive Factors Affecting Cortisol Levels in Wild Female Golden cortisol has been associated with different levels of ``stress'' as well as different reproductive conditions in many primates. In callitrichids, cortisol has more often been reflective of female reproduc

  4. Salivary cortisol for screening of Cushing's syndrome in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos E. Martinelli Jr; Soraya L. Sader; Eduardo B. Oliveira; Julio C. Daneluzzi; Ayrton C. Moreira

    1999-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE Cushing's syndrome (CS) is character- ized by changes in diurnal cortisol variation and total or partial resistance to cortisol suppression by dexa- methasone (DEX). Diagnosing CS is a challenge espe- cially in childhood and requires differentiation from primary obesity. The aim was verify the efficacy of salivary cortisol in differentiating primary obesity from CS in children. SUBJECTS AND

  5. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol…

  6. Increased salivary cortisol after waking in depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zubin Bhagwagar; Sepehr Hafizi; Philip J. Cowen

    2005-01-01

    Rationale  Cortisol hypersecretion is regarded as important in the pathophysiology of major depression. However, recent studies in community-based\\u000a samples have been inconclusive.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To determine whether acutely depressed, medication-free subjects show an exaggerated release of cortisol in saliva in relation\\u000a to awakening.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied the pattern of waking salivary cortisol in 20 unmedicated acutely depressed subjects and 40 healthy controls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In both

  7. Steroid hormones and BDNF.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, N; Russo, M; Santoro, A N; Litta, P; Cela, V; Genazzani, A R

    2013-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin abundantly expressed in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to induce a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy, to enhance specific learning and memory processes. BDNF is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity and it affects cognitive deficit associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies have shown an altered BDNF production and secretion in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also in mood disorders like depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Plasma BDNF is also a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in aging women. Gonadal steroids are involved in the regulation of several CNS processes, specifically mood, affective and cognitive functions during fertile life and reproductive aging. These observations lead many scientists to investigate a putative co-regulation between BDNF and gonadal and/or adrenal steroids and their relationship with gender difference in the incidence of mental diseases. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the correlation between BDNF expression/function and both gonadal (progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone) and adrenal hormones (mainly cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) with relevance in clinical application. PMID:23380505

  8. Stress-Immune-Growth Interactions: Cortisol Modulates Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling and JAK/STAT Pathway in Rainbow Trout Liver

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Anju M.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is a major factor in the poor growth and immune performance of salmonids in aquaculture. However, the molecular mechanisms linking stress effects to growth and immune dysfunction is poorly understood. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS), a family of genes involved in the inhibition of JAK/STAT pathway, negatively regulates growth hormone and cytokine signaling, but their role in fish is unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that cortisol modulation of SOCS gene expression is a key molecular mechanism leading to growth and immune suppression in response to stress in fish. Exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver slices to cortisol, mimicking stress level, upregulated SOCS-1 and SOCS-2 mRNA abundance and this response was abolished by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. Bioinformatics analysis confirmed the presence of putative glucocorticoid response elements in rainbow trout SOCS-1 and SOCS-2 promoters. Prior cortisol treatment suppressed acute growth hormone (GH)-stimulated IGF-1 mRNA abundance in trout liver and this involved a reduction in STAT5 phosphorylation and lower total JAK2 protein expression. Prior cortisol treatment also suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 but not IL-8 transcript levels; the former but not the latter cytokine expression is via JAK/STAT phosphorylation. LPS treatment reduced GH signaling, but this was associated with the downregulation of GH receptors and not due to the upregulation of SOCS transcript levels by this endotoxin. Collectively, our results suggest that upregulation of SOCS-1 and SOCS-2 transcript levels by cortisol, and the associated reduction in JAK/STAT signaling pathway, may be a novel mechanism leading to growth reduction and immune suppression during stress in trout. PMID:26083490

  9. Using testosterone and cortisol as biomarker for training individualization in elite basketball: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Schelling, Xavi; Calleja-González, Julio; Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Terrados, Nicolás

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the responses of testosterone and cortisol, with special reference to playing positions, playing time (PT), and phase of the season. We performed a follow-up study during 4 consecutive seasons to investigate the effects of PT, positional role, and phase of the season on anabolic-catabolic biomarkers (plasma total testosterone -TT- and cortisol -C-) on 20 professional male basketball players (27.0 ± 4.2 years; 24.4 ± 1.2 kg·m). First blood samples were collected right after the off-season period and considered as baseline. Samples were taken periodically every 4-6 weeks, always after a 24- to 36-hour break after the last game played. Statistical procedures were nonparametric mainly. Hormonal status was playing position-dependent, power forward (PF) showed the lowest TT values (median ± interquartile range [IQR]; PF: 18.1 ± 4.9; nmol·L), and small forwards showed the highest ones of cortisol (0.55 ± 0.118 ?mol·L). Players who played between 13 and 25 minutes per game showed the highest values of TT (22.8 ± 6.9 nmol·L) and TT/C (47.1 ± 21.2). March and April showed the most catabolic or stressed hormonal state (low TT/C values and high ones of cortisol) and that is necessary to take into account according to PT (>25-minute per game) and specific playing position. Monitoring plasma TT and cortisol is recommended to prevent excessive stress caused by professional basketball season requirements. PMID:25144130

  10. Cortisol secretion and rate of bone loss in a population-based cohort of elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, R M; Dennison, E M; Walker, B R; Syddall, H E; Wood, P J; Andrew, R; Phillips, D Iw; Cooper, C

    2005-09-01

    Although excessive glucocorticoids are a well-recognized cause of osteoporosis, little is known about the role of endogenous glucocorticoids in determining skeletal mass. We have performed a detailed study of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to explore the relationships between cortisol secretion and adult bone mass in 151 healthy men and 96 healthy women aged 61 to 73 years. At baseline and 4-year follow-up, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and proximal femur; a lifestyle questionnaire was completed; and height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured. At follow-up subjects underwent a very low-dose (0.25 mg) dexamethasone suppression test, a low-dose (1 microg) short synacthen test, and a 24-hour urine collection for measurement of cortisol and its metabolites. In men, elevated peak plasma cortisol was associated with accelerated loss of mineral density in the lumbar spine (r = 0.16, P = 0.05). This relationship remained significant after adjustment for testosterone, estradiol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and parathyroid hormone levels (r = 0.22, P = 0.01) and after additional adjustment for age, (BM), activity, cigarette and alcohol consumption, and Kellgren/Lawrence score (r = 0.19, P = 0.03). In contrast in women, elevated peak plasma cortisol was associated with lower baseline BMD at the femoral neck (r = -0.23, P = 0.03) and greater femoral neck loss rate (r = 0.24, P = 0.02). There was no association between plasma cortisol concentrations after dexamethasone or urinary total cortisol metabolite excretion and bone density or bone loss rate at any site. These data provide evidence that circulating endogenous glucocorticoids influence the rate of involutional bone loss in healthy individuals. PMID:16151676

  11. Comparison of hormone and electrolyte circadian rhythms in male and female humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. E.; Reilly, T.

    1977-01-01

    Circadian rhythm characteristics in healthy male and female humans were studied at 4-hour intervals for urine volume, cortisol, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), Na, K, Na/K ratios in the urine, as well as plasma cortisol. While plasma and urinary cortisol rhythms were very similar in both sexes, the described rhythms in urine volume, electrolyte, and 5-HIAA excretion differ for the two sexes. The results suggest that sex differences exist in the circadian patterns of important hormone and metabolic functions and that the internal synchrony of circadian rhythms differs for the two sexes. The results seem to indicate that the rhythmical secretion of cortisol does not account for the pattern of Na and K excretion.

  12. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and acute phase cytokine gene expression in dexamethasone and growth hormone treated dairy calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Eicher; K. A. McMunn; H. M. Hammon; S. S. Donkin

    2004-01-01

    Cattle are exposed to growth hormone stimulants and to stressors that cause cortisol release. Both of these hormones affect immune responses which may reduce disease resistance. Toll-like receptors are the pattern recognition molecules of pathogens that are on immune cells. They then orchestrate the induction of the appropriate acute phase cytokines of the early innate response. The objective of this

  13. Effects of liquid carbohydrate\\/essential amino acid ingestion on acute hormonal response during a single bout of resistance exercise in untrained men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen P. Bird; Kyle M. Tarpenning; Frank E. Marino

    2006-01-01

    ObjectiveThe primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of nutritive interventions on acute hormonal responses to a single bout of resistance exercise in untrained young men. Specifically, the aim was to determine whether the acute hormonal milieu conducive to enhancing skeletal muscle hypertrophic adaptation to resistance training could be created. The potential role of cortisol in inhibiting

  14. Stress and cortisol in disaster evacuees: an exploratory study on associations with social protective factors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, David Javier; Weissbecker, Inka; Cash, Elizabeth; Simpson, David M; Daup, Meagan; Sephton, Sandra E

    2015-03-01

    Though cumulative emotional and physical effects of disasters may diminish evacuees' short and long-term mental and physical health, social factors may buffer such consequences. We approached survivors of the October 2007 San Diego, California firestorms. We gathered data during the evacuation and 3 months afterward. Questionnaires measured social support as well as PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Saliva samples were used to assess the stress hormone, cortisol. Analyses, adjusting for age, gender, and socioeconomic status, showed PTSD symptoms were associated with flattening of the diurnal cortisol rhythm during evacuation. Secondary analyses showed those reporting a family emphasis on moral and religious values had lower psychological distress. Though anxiety symptoms had significantly decreased in the overall sample at follow-up, blunted cortisol rhythms persisted among those individuals with continued high anxiety. Results highlight a possible psychological, and perhaps a physiological, benefit of social and existential factors in disaster situations. Future work should explore the role of psychosocial factors and stress physiology in the development of long-term health concerns among individuals exposed to disaster. PMID:25787070

  15. Cortisol Level and Hemodynamic Changes During Tooth Extraction at Hypertensive and Normotensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Agani, Zana Bajrami; Benedetti, Alberto; Krasniqi, Vjosa Hamiti; Ahmedi, Jehona; Sejfija, Zana; Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Murtezani, Arben; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Ibraimi, Zana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The patients that are subjects to oral-surgical interventions produce large amounts of steroids in comparison with healthy patients which are not a subject to any dental intervention. The aim of research was to determine the level of stress hormone cortisol in serum, arterial blood pressure and arterial pulse, and to compare the effectiveness of the usage of lidocaine with adrenalin in comparison with lidocaine without adrenalin during the tooth extraction. Patients and methods: This clinical research includes patients with indication of tooth extraction divided in hypertensive and normotensive patients. Results: There is no important statistical distinction between groups, for the cortisol levels before, during and after tooth extraction regardless of the type of anesthetic used, while we registered higher values of systolic and diastolic values at hypertensive patients, regardless of the type of anesthetic Conclusion: There is significant systolic and diastolic blood pressure rise in both groups of patients hypertensive and normotensive patients, (regardless of anesthetic used with or without vasoconstrictor), who underwent tooth extraction. The special emphasize is attributed to hypertensive patients where these changes are more significant. As per cortisol level and pulse rate, our results indicate no significant statistical difference in between groups. PMID:26005263

  16. Occupational role stress is associated with higher cortisol reactivity to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Petra H; Ehlert, Ulrike; Kottwitz, Maria U; La Marca, Roberto; Semmer, Norbert K

    2013-04-01

    We investigated whether occupational role stress is associated with differential levels of the stress hormone cortisol in response to acute psychosocial stress. Forty-three medication-free nonsmoking men aged between 22 and 65 years (mean ± SEM: 44.5 ± 2) underwent an acute standardized psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic in front of an audience. We assessed occupational role stress in terms of role conflict and role ambiguity (combined into a measure of role uncertainty) as well as further work characteristics and psychological control variables including time pressure, overcommitment, perfectionism, and stress appraisal. Moreover, we repeatedly measured salivary cortisol and blood pressure levels before and after stress exposure, and several times up to 60 min thereafter. Higher role uncertainty was associated with a more pronounced cortisol stress reactivity (p = .016), even when controlling for the full set of potential confounders (p < .001). Blood pressure stress reactivity was not associated with role uncertainty. Our findings suggest that occupational role stress in terms of role uncertainty acts as a background stressor that is associated with increased HPA-axis reactivity to acute stress. This finding may represent a potential mechanism regarding how occupational role stress may precipitate adverse health outcomes. PMID:23566275

  17. Are we missing a mineralocorticoid in teleost fish? Effects of cortisol, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone on osmoregulation, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and isoform mRNA levels in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Regish, A.; O'Dea, M. F.; Shrimpton, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    It has long been held that cortisol, acting through a single receptor, carries out both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions in teleost fish. The recent finding that fish express a gene with high sequence similarity to the mammalian mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) suggests the possibility that a hormone other than cortisol carries out some mineralocorticoid functions in fish. To test for this possibility, we examined the effect of in vivo cortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and aldosterone on salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA levels of NKA ?1a and ?1b in Atlantic salmon. Cortisol treatment for 6–14 days resulted in increased, physiological levels of cortisol, increased gill NKA activity and improved salinity tolerance (lower plasma chloride after a 24 h seawater challenge), whereas DOC and aldosterone had no effect on either NKA activity or salinity tolerance. NKA ?1a and ?1b mRNA levels, which increase in response to fresh water and seawater acclimation, respectively, were both upregulated by cortisol, whereas DOC and aldosterone were without effect. Cortisol, DOC and aldosterone had no effect on gill glucocorticoid receptor GR1, GR2 and MR mRNA levels, although there was some indication of possible upregulation of GR1 by cortisol (p = 0.07). The putative GR blocker RU486 inhibited cortisol-induced increases in salinity tolerance, NKA activity and NKA ?1a and ?1b transcription, whereas the putative MR blocker spironolactone had no effect. The results provide support that cortisol, and not DOC or aldosterone, is involved in regulating the mineralocorticoid functions of ion uptake and salt secretion in teleost fish.

  18. Salivary cortisol patterns in vital exhaustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy A Nicolson; Rob van Diest

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The syndrome of vital exhaustion (VE), a risk indicator for myocardial infarction, is characterized by excessive fatigue, irritability, and demoralization. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is a potential pathogenic mechanism in fatigue syndromes, but little is known about HPA function in syndromal VE. Method: We assessed basal free cortisol levels and responses to a speech task and to

  19. Friendship network position and salivary cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, Olga; Clemans, Katherine H; Out, Dorothée; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    We employed a social network analysis approach to examine the associations between friendship network position and cortisol levels. The sample consisted of 74 first-year students (93% female, ages 22-38 years, M = 27) from a highly competitive, accelerated Nursing program. Participants completed questionnaires online, and the entire group met at one time to complete a series of sociometric nominations and donated a saliva sample. Saliva was later assayed for cortisol. Metrics derived from directed friendship nominations indexed each student's friendship network status regarding popularity, gregariousness, and degree of interconnectedness. Results revealed that (1) individuals with lower gregariousness status (i.e., lowest number of outgoing ties) had higher cortisol levels, and (2) individuals with higher popularity status (i.e., higher numbers of incoming ties) had higher cortisol levels. Popularity and gregariousness-based network status is significantly associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Implications for prevailing theories of the social determinants of individual differences in biological sensitivity and susceptibility to context are discussed. PMID:23682997

  20. 45. CORTISOL LEVELS ARE CORRELATED WITH HIPPOCAMPAL

    E-print Network

    of PTSD patients when compared to control subjects in the absence of volume loss. This study focuses NAA in PTSD and control subjects. Methods: Eighteen male patients with combat-related PTSD (mean age by sampling morning salivary cortisol pre and post low dose dexamethasone (0.5mg). PTSD symptoms were assessed

  1. Effect of ACTH (tetracosactide) on steroid hormone levels in the mare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Hedberg; A.-M. Dalin; M. Forsberg; N. Lundeheim; G. Sandh; B. Hoffmann; C. Ludwig; H. Kindahl

    2007-01-01

    The mare is the only non-primate species known to display estrous signs after ovariectomy and adrenal hormones have been implicated as a possible cause. Moreover, in several species, estradiol seems to have a stimulatory effect on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of ACTH (tetracosactide) on pertinent hormones [cortisol, progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone

  2. Hormone profile of an edible, freshwater teleost, Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters) under endosulfan toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Thangavel; K. Sumathiral; S. Maheswari; S. Rita; M. Ramaswamy

    2010-01-01

    The hormone profile of Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters) under endosulfan (an organochlorine pesticide) toxicity was investigated by estimating the serum levels of T3 (triiodothyronine), T4 (thyroxine), cortisol, prolactin and insulin in control and sub-lethal (0.001mgL?1) endosulfan-exposed fish for 1, 6, 12, 24h and 5days. Exposure of fish to sub-lethal concentration of endosulfan caused varying changes in the levels of serum hormones

  3. The HPA axis response to critical illness: New study results with diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Peeters, B; Boonen, E; Langouche, L; Van den Berghe, G

    2015-06-15

    For decades, elevated plasma cortisol concentrations in critically ill patients were exclusively ascribed to a stimulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis with increased circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) inferred to several-fold increase adrenal cortisol synthesis. However, 'ACTH-cortisol dissociation' has been reported during critical illness, referring to low circulating ACTH coinciding with elevated circulating cortisol. It was recently shown that metabolism of cortisol is significantly reduced in critically ill patients explained by a suppression of the activity and expression of cortisol metabolizing enzymes in kidney and liver. This reduced cortisol breakdown determines hypercortisolemia, much more than increased cortisol production, in the critically ill. Although the low plasma ACTH concentrations, evoked by the elevated plasma cortisol via feedback inhibition, are part of this adaptation, they may negatively affect adrenocortical structure and function in the prolonged phase of critical illness. These new insights have implications for diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients. PMID:25462585

  4. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice.

    PubMed

    MacLean, C R; Walton, K G; Wenneberg, S R; Levitsky, D K; Mandarino, J P; Waziri, R; Hillis, S L; Schneider, R H

    1997-05-01

    Stress has been implicated in both somatic and mental disorders. The mechanisms by which stress leads to poor health are largely unknown. However, studies in animals suggest that chronic stress causes high basal cortisol and low cortisol response to acute stressors and that such changes may contribute to disease. Previous studies of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique as a possible means of countering effects of stress have reported altered levels of several hormones both during the practice and longitudinally after regular practice of this technique. In this prospective, random assignment study, changes in baseline levels and acute responses to laboratory stressors were examined for four hormones-cortisol, growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and testosterone-before and after 4 months of either the TM technique or a stress education control condition. At pre- and post-test, blood was withdrawn continuously through an indwelling catheter, and plasma or serum samples were frozen for later analysis by radioimmunoassay. The results showed significantly different changes for the two groups, or trends toward significance, for each hormone over the 4 months. In the TM group, but not in the controls, basal cortisol level and average cortisol across the stress session decreased from pre- to post-test. Cortisol responsiveness to stressors, however, increased in the TM group compared to controls. The baselines and/or stress responsiveness for TSH and GH changed in opposite directions for the groups, as did the testosterone baseline. Overall, the cortisol and testosterone results appear to support previous data suggesting that repeated practice of the TM technique reverses effects of chronic stress significant for health. The observed group difference in the change of GH regulation may derive from the cortisol differences, while the TSH results are not related easily to earlier findings on the effects of chronic stress. PMID:9226731

  5. Obesity and gender influence cortisol secretion and metabolism in man.

    PubMed

    Andrew, R; Phillips, D I; Walker, B R

    1998-05-01

    In obesity, urinary cortisol excretion is enhanced but plasma cortisol levels are not elevated, suggesting that metabolic clearance of cortisol is increased. Cortisol is metabolised in liver and fat by A-ring reductases but also regenerated from inactive cortisone in liver, fat, and skeletal muscle by 11 beta-reductase. These enzymes are regulated by estrogen. This study addressed whether there are differences in cortisol metabolism in obesity, and whether these differences are estrogen dependent. 31 men and 37 post-menopausal women (9 on estrogen replacement therapy) aged 47-53 y supplied 24 h urine for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total cortisol metabolite excretion was higher in men than women, but weakly related to indices of obesity. By contrast, metabolism of cortisol favoured 5 alpha-rather than 5 beta-reduction in obese men and obese women, and favoured cortisol rather than cortisone in obese men. In women compared with men ratios of 5 alpha-/5 beta-reduced and cortisol/cortisone metabolites were also higher but these variables were not affected by estrogen replacement therapy. We conclude that in obesity, inactivation of cortisol by 5 alpha-reductase is enhanced but this is offset by impaired metabolism of cortisol by 5 beta-reductase in women and enhanced conversion of cortisone to cortisol by 11 beta-reductase in men. These observations suggest that cortisol clearance is altered in obesity, and this may account for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Moreover, these data predict that obese subjects will have higher concentrations of cortisol in key target tissues including liver and visceral fat. This may contribute to the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity. PMID:9589697

  6. Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M.; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W.; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0–12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

  7. Interspecies hormonal interactions between man and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)

    E-print Network

    Josephs, Robert

    Interspecies hormonal interactions between man and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) Amanda C not been examined. In a study of a dog agility competition among human/dog teams, men's pre-competition basal testosterone (T) levels were positively related to changes in dogs' cortisol levels from pre

  8. Effect of synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor. Dose response of plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol.

    PubMed Central

    Orth, D N; Jackson, R V; DeCherney, G S; DeBold, C R; Alexander, A N; Island, D P; Rivier, J; Rivier, C; Spiess, J; Vale, W

    1983-01-01

    Synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was administered to normal male volunteer subjects as an intravenous bolus or 30-s infusion. Doses of CRF ranging from 0.001 to 30 micrograms/kg body wt were administered, and plasma immunoreactive (IR)-ACTH and IR-cortisol concentrations were measured. The threshold dose appeared to be 0.01-0.03 micrograms/kg, the half-maximal dose 0.3-1 micrograms/kg, and the maximally effective dose 3-10 micrograms/kg. Basal concentrations of IR-ACTH and IR-cortisol were 14 +/- 7.6 pg/ml (mean +/- SD) and 5.6 +/- 2.2 micrograms/dl, respectively. IR-ACTH rose as early as 2 min after CRF injection, reached peak levels in 10-15 min, and declined slowly thereafter. IR-cortisol rose at 10 min or later and reached peak levels in 30-60 min. At a dose of 30 micrograms/kg, neither IR-ACTH nor IR-cortisol fell from peak levels of 82 +/- 21 pg/ml (mean +/- SE) and 23 +/- 1.4 micrograms/dl, respectively, during the 2-h course of the experiment, indicating that CRF has a sustained effect on ACTH release and/or a prolonged circulating plasma half-life. There was little or no increase in the levels of other anterior pituitary hormones. At doses of 1 microgram/kg and higher, facial flushing, tachycardia, and, in some subjects, a 15-29-mmHg decline in systemic arterial blood pressure were observed, even though blood volume was replaced and the subjects remained supine. These data indicate that synthetic ovine CRF is a very potent and specific ACTH secretagogue in man. Administered with caution until its vasomotor effects are more fully defined, CRF promises to be a safe and very useful investigative, diagnostic, and, possibly, therapeutic agent in man. Images PMID:6298280

  9. Effects of treadmill running on plasma beta-endorphin, corticotropin, and cortisol levels in male and female 10K runners.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, R R; Blair, S; Kraemer, G R; Castracane, V D

    1989-01-01

    Reports of plasma beta-endorphin (B-EN) levels in response to submaximal exercise have been highly disparate. Variations in experimental design have complicated interpretation of previous research. The present study was designed to determine whether a sequential change in plasma beta-endorphin (B-EN), corticotropin (ACTH), and cortisol levels occurs in response to a 30-min submaximal run. Twenty-three subjects were divided into four groups: male runners, female runners, sedentary males and sedentary females. Subjects ran on a treadmill at 80% of previously determined maximum heart rate. Five plasma samples were obtained through an indwelling catheter before exercise (-30 and 0 min), at 15 and 30 min of exercise, and after 30 minutes of recovery. The run resulted in no rise in B-EN, ACTH, and cortisol despite an elevated rectal temperature. B-EN values were significantly higher in males than in females (p less than 0.01). No sex or training differences were seen with respect to change of hormone concentrations over the course of the run. Three male runners developed symptoms of vasovagal syncope after the catheter placement and had high initial B-EN, ACTH, and cortisol concentrations which decreased throughout the run. These data indicate that gender and training do not affect ACTH and cortisol concentrations before, during, and after 30 min of treadmill running at 80% of maximum heart rate, whereas B-EN concentrations are higher in males under these conditions. PMID:2548864

  10. Prolonged weightlessness effect on postflight plasma thyroid hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Driscoll, T. B.

    1977-01-01

    Blood drawn before and after spaceflight from the nine Skylab astronauts showed a statistically significant increase in mean plasma thyroxine (T-4) of 1.4 micro g/dl and in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of 4 microunits ml. Concurrent triiodothyronine (T-3) levels decreased 27 ng/dl indicating inhibited conversion of T-4 to T-3. The T-3 decrease is postulated to be a result of the increased cortisol levels noted during and following each mission. These results confirm the thyroidal changes noted after the shorter Apollo flights and show that thyroid hormone levels change during spaceflight.

  11. A day-centered approach to modeling cortisol: diurnal cortisol profiles and their associations among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, Natalia O; Almeida, David M; Dmitrieva, Julia; Loken, Eric; Pieper, Carl F

    2013-10-01

    Diurnal cortisol is a marker of HPA-axis activity that may be one of the biological mechanisms linking stressors to age-related health declines. The current study identified day-centered profiles of diurnal cortisol among 1101 adults living in the United States. Participants took part in up to four consecutive days of salivary cortisol collection, assessed at waking, 30min post-waking, before lunch, and before bedtime. Growth mixture modeling with latent time basis was used to estimate common within-day trajectories of diurnal cortisol among 2894 cortisol days. The 3-class solution provided the best model fit, showing that the majority of study days (73%) were characterized by a Normative cortisol pattern, with a robust cortisol awakening response (CAR), a steep negative diurnal slope, coupled with low awakening and bedtime levels. Relative to this profile, diurnal cortisol on the remainder of days appeared either elevated throughout the day (20% of days) or flattened (7% of days). Relative to the normative trajectory, the elevated trajectory was distinguished by a higher morning cortisol level, whereas the flattened trajectory was characterized by a high bedtime level, with weaker CAR and diurnal slope parameters. Relative to the normative profile, elevated profile membership was associated with older age and cigarette smoking. Greater likelihood of the flattened cortisol pattern was observed among participants who were older, male, smoked cigarettes, used medications that are known to affect cortisol output, and reported poorer health. The current study demonstrates the value of a day-centered growth mixture modeling approach to the study of diurnal cortisol, showing that deviations from the classic robust rhythm of diurnal cortisol are associated with older age, male sex, use of medications previously shown to affect cortisol levels, poorer health behaviors, and poorer self-reported health. PMID:23770247

  12. A day-centered approach to modeling cortisol: Diurnal cortisol profiles and their associations among U.S. adults

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Almeida, David M.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Loken, Eric; Pieper, Carl F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Diurnal cortisol is a marker of HPA-axis activity that may be one of the biological mechanisms linking stressors to age-related health declines. The current study identified day-centered profiles of diurnal cortisol among 1,101 adults living in the United States. Participants took part in up to four consecutive days of salivary cortisol collection, assessed at waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch, and before bedtime. Growth Mixture Modeling with latent time basis was used to estimate common within-day trajectories of diurnal cortisol among 2,894 cortisol days. The 3-class solution provided the best model fit, showing that the majority of study days (73%) were characterized by a Normative cortisol pattern, with a robust cortisol awakening response (CAR), a steep negative diurnal slope, coupled with low awakening and bedtime levels. Relative to this profile, diurnal cortisol on the remainder of days appeared either Elevated throughout the day (20% of days) or Flattened (7% of days). Relative to the Normative trajectory, the Elevated trajectory was distinguished by a higher morning cortisol level, whereas the Flattened trajectory was characterized by a high bedtime level, with weaker CAR and diurnal slope parameters. Relative to the Normative profile, Elevated profile membership was associated with older age and cigarette smoking. Greater likelihood of the Flattened cortisol pattern was observed among participants who were older, male, smoked cigarettes, used medications that are known to affect cortisol output, and reported poorer health. The current study demonstrates the value of a day-centered Growth Mixture Modeling approach to the study of diurnal cortisol, showing that deviations from the classic robust rhythm of diurnal cortisol are associated with older age, male sex, use of medications previously shown to affect cortisol levels, poorer health behaviors, and poorer self-reported health. PMID:23770247

  13. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ...

  14. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ...

  15. Hormone Health Network

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ...

  16. Extraction and Analysis of Cortisol from Human and Monkey Hair

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

  17. Cortisol and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wiel, Nicolle M.H.; van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Matthys, Walter; Snoek, Heddeke; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Basal cortisol and cortisol stress responsivity are valuable biological characteristics of children with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). In this study, the predictive value of cortisol to outcome of intervention was investigated. Method: Basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels under stress were studied in 22 children with DBD…

  18. Mirtazapine decreases stimulatory effects of reboxetine on cortisol, adrenocorticotropin and prolactin secretion in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Schüle, Cornelius; Baghai, Thomas; Laakmann, Gregor

    2004-01-01

    Reboxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, whereas mirtazapine acts as an antagonist at noradrenergic alpha(2), serotonin (5-HT(2)), 5-HT(3) and histamine H(1) receptors. In a former study we could demonstrate an inhibitory impact of mirtazapine on cortisol secretion. In the present investigation, the influence of combined administration of 15 mg mirtazapine and 4 mg reboxetine on the cortisol (COR), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), and prolactin (PRL) secretion was examined in 12 healthy male subjects, compared to reboxetine alone (4 mg). In a randomized order, the subjects received reboxetine (4 mg) alone or the combination of reboxetine (4 mg) and mirtazapine (15 mg) at 8:00 a.m. on two different days. After insertion of an intravenous catheter, blood samples were drawn 1 h prior to the administration of single reboxetine or the combination (reboxetine and mirtazapine), at time of administration, and during the time of 5 h thereafter in periods of 30 min. Serum concentrations of COR, GH, and PRL as well as plasma levels of ACTH were determined in each blood sample by means of double antibody RIA, fluoroimmunoassay and chemiluminescence immunometric assay methods. The area under the curve (AUC) was used as parameter for the COR, ACTH, GH, and PRL response. For statistical evaluation, the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was performed. There was a pronounced stimulation of COR, ACTH, GH, and PRL concentrations after single administration of reboxetine. When reboxetine was given in combination with mirtazapine, a significant reduction of the COR, ACTH, and PRL stimulation was observed whereas GH secretion patterns remained unchanged, compared to single administration of reboxetine. Apparently, the stimulatory effects of reboxetine on pituitary hormone secretion via noradrenergic mechanisms are counteracted in part by the alpha(2)-blocking properties of mirtazapine and its inhibitory influence on cortisol secretion. PMID:14755134

  19. Stronger pharmacological cortisol suppression and anticipatory cortisol stress response in transient global amnesia.

    PubMed

    Griebe, Martin; Nees, Frauke; Gerber, Benjamin; Ebert, Anne; Flor, Herta; Wolf, Oliver T; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24?h. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence, it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure) in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress, and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p?=?0.027). The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p?=?0.008 and 0.010 respectively), as well as prior to and after the control condition (p?=?0.022 and 0.024, respectively). The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p?=?0.021) and anxiety (p?=?0.007), but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA. PMID:25805980

  20. Cosyntropin-stimulated salivary cortisol in hospitalized patients with hypoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Raff, Hershel; Brock, Scott; Findling, James W

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of adrenocortical function in acutely ill, hospitalized patients can be challenging due to changes in plasma binding proteins. This study used dynamic testing of salivary cortisol levels to evaluate adrenal function in hospitalized patients with low/low-normal plasma protein concentration in whom adrenal insufficiency was suspected. Twenty-eight patients with low serum albumin and proteins hospitalized for acute illness were evaluated for decreased adrenocortical function because of clinical presentations suspicious for adrenal insufficiency. Baseline and post cosyntropin-stimulated levels of serum total and salivary cortisol levels were assessed. Data were gathered by a retrospective analysis of medical records. Eight patients had normal peak serum total and salivary cortisol responses, consistent with intact adrenocortical function. Five patients had abnormal peak serum total and salivary cortisol responses indicating decreased adrenocortical function. Fifteen patients had subnormal peak serum total cortisol, but normal peak salivary cortisol responses indicating normal adrenal function. Salivary cortisol testing can identify hospitalized patients with apparently intact adrenal function in whom low serum protein confounded interpretation of serum total cortisol measurements. Salivary cortisol is a clinically useful surrogate for serum free cortisol in dynamic testing of adrenocortical function. PMID:18946745

  1. Cortisol awakening response and subsequent depression: prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Carnegie, Rebecca; Araya, Ricardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Glover, Vivette; O’Connor, Thomas G.; O’Donnell, Kieran J.; Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Some studies have found an association between elevated cortisol and subsequent depression, but findings are inconsistent. The cortisol awakening response may be a more stable measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and potentially of stress reactivity. Aims To investigate whether salivary cortisol, particularly the cortisol awakening response, is associated with subsequent depression in a large population cohort. Method Young people (aged 15 years, n = 841) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected salivary cortisol at four time points for 3 school days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for developing depression meeting ICD-10 criteria at 18 years. Results We found no evidence for an association between salivary cortisol and subsequent depression. Odds ratios for the cortisol awakening response were 1.24 per standard deviation (95% CI 0.93-1.66, P = 0.14) before and 1.12 (95% CI 0.73-1.72, P = 0.61) after adjustment for confounding factors. There was no evidence that the other cortisol measures, including cortisol at each time point, diurnal drop and area under the curve, were associated with subsequent depression. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated salivary cortisol increases the short-term risk of subsequent depressive illness. The results suggest that if an association does exist, it is small and unlikely to be of clinical significance. PMID:24311550

  2. Behavioral and physiological responses of a wild teleost fish to cortisol and androgen manipulation during parental care.

    PubMed

    Dey, Cody J; O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Cooke, Steven J

    2010-09-01

    Proximate mediators of reproductive behaviors in vertebrates have a long history of study. In fishes, relatively few studies have focused on hormonal control of parental care, despite a comprehensive background on the general physiology of fishes, and the frequent occurrence of parental care behaviors. Studies on this taxon have repeatedly found that the relationships between androgens and paternal care do not follow the predictions made in the avian and mammalian literature. Glucocorticoids may also have a role in mediating parental behaviors, possibly through their role as regulators of metabolism. As such, we investigated the role of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and cortisol in mediating parental effort of male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) by manipulating hormone titers in wild fish. In smallmouth bass, males spawn annually with a single female and defend a single brood for up to 30 days. Treatment of parental fish with cyproterone acetate (CYA; an androgen receptor antagonist) resulted in a decrease in nest defense in response to a simulated brood predator; however, no changes in nest success, nest tending or biochemical indicators of nutritional status were detected. Treatment with exogenous cortisol did not change parental behavior, but did increase the rate of nest failure, possibly owing to the energetic cost of chronically elevated cortisol concentrations. We discuss these findings in the context of resource-driven trade-offs and highlight life history as an important factor controlling parental effort in species with costly parental care behaviors. PMID:20615409

  3. Stress hormones and sleep disturbances - electrophysiological and hormonal aspects.

    PubMed

    Maschke, C; Hecht, K

    2004-01-01

    In noise effect research often the awakening reaction is maintained to be the only important health related reaction. The main argument is that sleep represents a trophotropic phase ("energy storing"). In contrast to this awakening reactions or lying awake belong to the ergotropic phase ("energy consuming"). Frequent or long awakening reactions endanger therefore the necessary recovery in sleep and, in the long-run, health. Findings derived from arousal and stress hormone research make possible a new access to the noise induced nightly health risk. An arousal is a short change in sleeping condition, raising the organism from a lower level of excitation to a higher one. Arousals have the function to prevent life-threatening influences or events through activation of compensation mechanisms. Frequent occurrences of arousal triggered by nocturnal noise leads to a deformation of the circadian rhythm. Additionally, the deep sleep phases in the first part of the night are normally associated with a minimum of cortisol and a maximum of growth hormone concentrations. These circadian rhythms of sleep and neuroendocrine regulation are necessary for the physical as well as for the psychic recovery of the sleeper. Noise exposure during sleep which causes frequent arousal leads to decreased performance capacity, drowsiness and tiredness during the day. Long-term disturbances of the described circadian rhythms have a deteriorating effect on health, even when noise induced awakenings are avoided. PMID:15070528

  4. Risk Factors and Outcome of Changes in Adrenal Response to ACTH in the Course of Critical Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margriet Fleur Charlotte de Jong; Albertus Beishuizen; Rob Joris Maria Strack van Schijndel; Armand Roelof Johan Girbes; Arie Bastiaan Johan Groeneveld

    2012-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the concept of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) by studying the clinical significance, in terms of risk factors and outcome, of changes in the cortisol response to repeated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) testing in the course of critical illness. Patients and Methods. In a retrospective study in a medical–surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital, we

  5. Gene expression in Atlantic salmon skin in response to infection with the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, cortisol implant, and their combination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The salmon louse is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes major economic losses in the aquaculture industry of Atlantic salmon. This host displays a high level of susceptibility to lice which can be accounted for by several factors including stress. In addition, the parasite itself acts as a potent stressor of the host, and outcomes of infection can depend on biotic and abiotic factors that stimulate production of cortisol. Consequently, examination of responses to infection with this parasite, in addition to stress hormone regulation in Atlantic salmon, is vital for better understanding of the host pathogen interaction. Results Atlantic salmon post smolts were organised into four experimental groups: lice + cortisol, lice + placebo, no lice + cortisol, no lice + placebo. Infection levels were equal in both treatments upon termination of the experiment. Gene expression changes in skin were assessed with 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR at the chalimus stage 18 days post infection at 9°C. The transcriptomic effects of hormone treatment were significantly greater than lice-infection induced changes. Cortisol stimulated expression of genes involved in metabolism of steroids and amino acids, chaperones, responses to oxidative stress and eicosanoid metabolism and suppressed genes related to antigen presentation, B and T cells, antiviral and inflammatory responses. Cortisol and lice equally down-regulated a large panel of motor proteins that can be important for wound contraction. Cortisol also suppressed multiple genes involved in wound healing, parts of which were activated by the parasite. Down-regulation of collagens and other structural proteins was in parallel with the induction of proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix (MMP9 and MMP13). Cortisol reduced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in formation of various tissue structures, regulators of cell differentiation and growth factors. Conclusions These results suggest that cortisol-induced stress does not affect the level of infection of Atlantic salmon with the parasite, however, it may retard repair of skin. The cortisol induced changes are in close concordance with the existing concept of wound healing cascade. PMID:22480234

  6. Changes in glucocorticoids, IGF-I and thyroid hormones as indicators of nutritional stress and subsequent refeeding in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    du Dot, Tiphaine Jeanniard; Rosen, David A S; Richmond, Julie P; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Zinn, Steven A; Trites, Andrew W

    2009-04-01

    Physiological responses to changes in energy balance are tightly regulated by the endocrine system through glucocorticoids, IGF-I and thyroid hormones. Changes in these hormones were studied in eight captive female Steller sea lions that experienced changes in food intake, body mass, body composition, and blood metabolites during summer and winter. During a period of energy restriction, one group of sea lions was fed reduced amounts of Pacific herring and another was fed an isocaloric diet of walleye pollock, after which both groups returned to their pre-experimental diets of herring. Cortisol was negatively and IGF-I was positively associated with changes in body mass during periods of energy restriction (mass loss associated with increase in cortisol and decrease in IGF-I) and refeeding (body mass maintenance associated with stable hormone concentrations in summer and compensatory growth linked to decrease in cortisol and increase in IGF-I in winter). Cortisol and IGF-I were also correlated with changes in lipid and lean mass, respectively. Consequently, these two hormones likely make adequate biomarkers for nutritional stress in sea lions, and when combined provide indication of the energetic strategy (lipid vs lean mass catabolism) animals adopt to cope with changes in nutrient intake. Unlike type of diet fed to the sea lions, age of the animals also impacted hormonal responses, with younger animals showing more intense hormonal changes to nutritional stress. Thyroid hormones, however, were not linked to any physiological changes observed in this study. PMID:19146974

  7. Different methods to estimate serum free cortisol: a comparison during cortisol tetracosactide testing.

    PubMed

    Brossaud, Julie; Gatta, Blandine; Tabarin, Antoine; Corcuff, Jean-Benoît

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background: Serum cortisol is routinely quantified by immunoassays. In intensive care units serum free cortisol (FC) determination has been described as a better indicator of survival than total cortisol (TC). To estimate FC different methods are available including saliva sampling. We compared five methods to estimate FC, before and after an ACTH stimulating test in patients suspected of adrenal insufficiency. Method: Serum and saliva was collected from 130 patients from the Endocrine Department of a university hospital before and after tetracosactide injection for TC determination. FC was estimated: after serum ultrafiltration, quadratic (Coolens') or cubic (Dorin's) equations, using TC/cortisol-binding globulin concentrations ratio or using cortisol concentration determination in saliva. Results: FC concentrations obtained by different techniques were significantly correlated and Passing-Bablok regressions showed no deviation from linearity between salFC and filtFC or quadFC. Using the routine assumption that the patients were correctly diagnosed using a post-tetracosactide TC threshold of 550 nmol/L the FC methods generating the best ROC curves were salFC and filtFC or cubFC 30 min after tetracosactide injection. Conclusions: FC concentrations obtained by different techniques are significantly but not similarly correlated with TC. As, salFC and filtFC are more convenient to perform than methods involving CBG assays and are better correlated to TC during tetracosactide tests they may be preferred as FC surrogate assays. PMID:25381955

  8. Salivary Cortisol in Psychobiological Research: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clemens Kirschbaum; Dirk H. Hellhammer

    1989-01-01

    The measurement of cortisol in saliva provides the basic scientist as well as the clinician with a reliable tool for investigations of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Since saliva samples can be obtained stress-free and independent from medically trained personnel this method may be well suited for use in psychobiological studies. This overview intends to give a comprehensive introduction to the method

  9. Hormonal changes associated with the transition between nursing and natural fasting in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Houser, Dorian S.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    To better interpret previously described hormonal changes observed during the natural postweaning fast (2-3 months) endured by pups of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), we compared plasma cortisol, thyroid hormones, and leptin in pups (n=5) measured during nursing and fasting periods. Blood samples were taken at four times; early (9 days postpartum) and late (18-22 days postpartum) nursing, and early (second week postweaning) and late (eighth week postweaning) fasting. Plasma cortisol increased 39% between early and late nursing and almost 4-fold by late fasting. After the early nursing period, cortisol and body mass were negatively correlated (y=28.3-0.19 x; R=0.569; p=0.027). Total thyroxine (tT(4)), free T(4) (fT(4)), total triiodothyronine (tT3) and reverse T(3) (rT(3)) were greatest at early nursing and reduced by late nursing and remained so throughout the fast, with the exception of tT(4), which increased between late nursing (17.7+/-2.1 ng mL(-1)) and late fasting (30.1+/-2.8 ng mL(-1)) periods. Leptin remained unaltered among the four sampling periods and was not correlated with body mass. Pups appear to exhibit a shift in the relationship between cortisol and body mass suggesting a potential role for cortisol in the regulation of body fat. The higher concentrations of tT(3) and tT(4) during early nursing may reflect enhanced growth and development during this period, however the increase late in fasting is likely physiologically insignificant and an artifact of reduced metabolic clearance of these hormones. Transition of the pups from nursing to fasting states is characterized by a striking lack of change in cortisol, thyroid hormones, and leptin suggesting that any metabolic alterations associated with this transition may occur independent of these hormones.

  10. Cortisol Secretion and Functional Disabilities in Old Age: Importance of Using Adaptive Control Strategies

    E-print Network

    Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal

    Cortisol Secretion and Functional Disabilities in Old Age: Importance of Using Adaptive Control cortisol secretion and increases in older adults' functional disabilities. Methods: Functional disabilities activities of daily living. The main predictors included baseline levels of diurnal cortisol secretion

  11. The Effect of a Primary Sexual Reward Manipulation on Cortisol Responses to Psychosocial Stress in Men

    E-print Network

    Creswell, J. David

    The Effect of a Primary Sexual Reward Manipulation on Cortisol Responses to Psychosocial Stress cortisol responses in humans undergoing social stressors. Method: This study experimentally investigated whether viewing appetitive rewarding pictures reduces cortisol responses to an acute stress challenge

  12. Use of Salivary Cortisol Measurements in Young Infants: A Note of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnano, Catherine L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Findings indicate that high cortisol levels and interfering substances in formula and breast milk could contaminate salivary cortisol measurements in young infants. To insure accurate results, appropriate controls should be taken for salivary cortisol measurements of young infants. (RH)

  13. The Awakening Cortisol Response: Methodological Issues and Significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Clow; L. Thorn; P. Evans; F. Hucklebridge

    2004-01-01

    The awakening cortisol response (ACR) is a discrete and distinctive part of the cortisol circadian cycle. In healthy adults salivary free cortisol concentrations increase by between 50 and 160% in the first 30 min immediately post-awakening (approximate average increase of 9 nmol\\/l, range 4 - 15 nmol\\/l, estimated to be equivalent to about three secretory episodes). However there are no

  14. Effects of naltrexone on cortisol levels in heavy drinkers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lara A. Ray; James MacKillop; Lorenzo Leggio; Marilee Morgan; Kent E. Hutchison

    2009-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to: (a) examine the neuroendocrine effects of naltrexone vs. placebo by comparing serum cortisol levels; and (b) test the biobehavioral correlates of naltrexone-induced changes in cortisol. Non-treatment seeking heavy drinkers (n=37) completed two intravenous alcohol administrations, one after naltrexone (50 mg) and one after placebo. Cortisol levels were measured at baseline and after alcohol

  15. Effects of naltrexone on cortisol levels in heavy drinkers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lara A. Ray; James MacKillop; Lorenzo Leggio; Marilee Morgan; Kent E. Hutchison

    2008-01-01

    article i nfo The primary objectives of this study were to: (a) examine the neuroendocrine effects of naltrexone vs. placebo bycomparing serum cortisol levels; and (b) test the biobehavioral correlates of naltrexone-induced changes in cortisol. Non-treatment seeking heavy drinkers (n=37) completed two intravenous alcohol administrations, one after naltrexone (50 mg) and one after placebo. Cortisol levels were measured at baseline

  16. The effects of an anticipated challenge on diurnal cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Wetherell, Mark A; Lovell, Brian; Smith, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    In healthy, non-challenged individuals, the secretion of cortisol typically follows a diurnal profile characterized by a peak in the period following waking (cortisol awakening response) and a gradual decline throughout the day. In addition, cortisol secretion is increased in response to acutely stressful stimuli, particularly stressors involving social evaluation. The current study is the first to assess the impact of an anticipated acute laboratory stressor upon the typical diurnal pattern of HPA activation and relationship to acute cortisol secretion. A sample of 23 healthy young adults provided salivary cortisol samples at four time points (immediately upon awakening, 30-min post-awakening, 1200?h and before bed) on 2 consecutive days. On the second day, participants attended the laboratory and undertook an anticipated acute socially evaluative stressor immediately following provision of their 1200?h saliva sample. Heart rate, blood pressure and mood were recorded immediately before and after the stressor and at 10 and 20?min post-stressor along with additional salivary cortisol samples. Typical patterns of cortisol secretion were observed on both days and exposure to the laboratory stressor was associated with the expected increases in cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure and negative mood. However, significant differences in diurnal cortisol secretion were observed between the two days with greater secretion, in particular, during the period following awakening, evident on the day of the anticipated laboratory stressor. Furthermore, secretion of cortisol during the period following awakening was positively related to secretion during the acute reactivity periods. This is the first study to integrate a laboratory stressor into a typical day and assess its impact on indices of diurnal cortisol secretion in an ambulatory setting. The current findings support the notion that the cortisol awakening response is associated with anticipation of the upcoming day and the subsequent demands required of the individual. PMID:25472822

  17. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass. PMID:12530732

  18. The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system in patients with depression compared to controls – a sleep endocrine study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Murck; Katja Held; Marc Ziegenbein; Heike Künzel; Kathrin Koch; Axel Steiger

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypercortisolism as a sign of hypothamamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis overactivity and sleep EEG changes are frequently observed in depression. Closely related to the HPA axis is the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) as 1. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a common stimulus for cortisol and aldosterone, 2. cortisol release is suppressed by mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) agonists 3. angiotensin II (ATII) releases CRH and

  19. Effects of EDTA and Sodium Citrate on hormone measurements by fluorometric (FIA) and immunofluorometric (IFMA) methods

    PubMed Central

    Kohek, Maria Beatriz F; Leme, Cassia Regina M; Nakamura, Izabel T; de Oliveira, Suzimara A; Lando, Valeria; Mendonca, Berenice B

    2002-01-01

    Background Measurements of hormonal concentrations by immunoassays using fluorescent tracer substance (Eu3+) are susceptible to the action of chemical agents that may cause alterations in its original structure. Our goal was to verify the effect of two types of anticoagulants in the hormone assays performed by fluorometric (FIA) or immunofluorometric (IFMA) methods. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 30 outpatients and were drawn in EDTA, sodium citrate, and serum separation Vacutainer®Blood Collection Tubes. Samples were analyzed in automatized equipment AutoDelfia™ (Perkin Elmer Brazil, Wallac, Finland) for the following hormones: Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle stimulating homone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), insulin, C peptide, total T3, total T4, free T4, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol. Statistical analysis was carried out by Kruskal-Wallis method and Dunn's test. Results No significant differences were seen between samples for LH, FSH, PRL and free T4. Results from GH, TSH, insulin, C peptide, SHBG, total T3, total T4, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone were significant different between serum and EDTA-treated samples groups. Differences were also identified between serum and sodium citrate-treated samples in the analysis for TSH, insulin, total T3, estradiol, testosterone and progesterone. Conclusions We conclude that the hormonal analysis carried through by FIA or IFMA are susceptible to the effects of anticoagulants in the biological material collected that vary depending on the type of assay. PMID:12033989

  20. Relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs over a 24 h period

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    1 Relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs over a 24 h period R. J. Adcock*, H. G. Kattesh*, M. P. Roberts*, A. M. Saxton University, Lubbock, TX 79403 Summary The relationship between plasma free cortisol and the free cortisol

  1. [Sex hormones].

    PubMed

    van der Kuy, A; van den Bemd, A A; Beysens, A J

    1977-03-15

    An overview of the sex hormones is presented. Testosterone is a natural androgen produced in the testes, adrenal glands, and ovaries. It has anabolic as well as androgenic effects. Testosterone is used to treat inoperable breast cancer and osteoporosis, and to stimulate erythropoesis. Androgens are absolutely counterindicated in cases of prostate cancer. Estrone, estradiol, and estriol are natural estrogens produced in the ovaries, placenta, testes, and adrenal glands. These hormones also influence the production of gonadotropins by the pituitary gland. Estrogens are used to treat menopausal disorders, ovarial insufficiency, estrogen-independent breast cancer, prostate cancer, and in some cases pregnancy disorders. Estrogens and progestagens are 2 components used in oral contraceptives. Progesterone, a natural progestagen, is produced by the corpus luteum. It promotes the proliferation phase of the endometrium, fertilization, and nidation, and it works to maintain pregnancy. Progesterone is used to treat spontaneous abortion, corpus luteum insufficiency, and endometrial cancer. PMID:242426

  2. Born to yawn? Cortisol linked to yawning: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2011-11-01

    Yawning has become an interesting and curious scientific conundrum. Links between several neurological disorders can be found through the commonality of yawning episodes and contagious yawning. However, the reasons why we yawn are uncertain. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. We do not know whether cortisol levels fluctuate during yawning. Potentially, yawning and cortisol levels may provide a valuable diagnostic tool and warning of untoward underlying neurological problems. A new hypothesis is proposed that links cortisol levels with yawning episodes. PMID:21864988

  3. Cortisol levels decrease after acute tobacco abstinence in regular smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jordan A.; Pickworth, Wallace B.; Waters, Andrew J.; al’Absi, Mustafa; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute tobacco abstinence on cortisol levels in regular smokers, and whether abstinence-induced changes in cortisol levels are correlated with various signs and symptoms of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome. Methods Smokers (N = 77, ?15 cigarettes/day) attended two counterbalanced sessions (avg = 1 h), one following 12–20 h of abstinence and the other following ad lib smoking. At both sessions, salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points. Additionally, a battery of self-report questionnaires, physiological assessments, and cognitive performance tasks were administered to measure signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal. Results Salivary cortisol levels were significantly lower during the abstinent session versus the non-abstinent session. No significant associations were found between abstinence-induced changes in cortisol and other tobacco withdrawal measures, although there was suggestive evidence that abstinence-induced changes in cortisol levels and hunger were inversely associated to a modest degree. Conclusion Acute tobacco abstinence was associated with decreased cortisol levels. Cortisol dampening during acute tobacco abstinence may reflect nicotine-mediated modulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity, which may be relevant to the maintenance of tobacco dependence. Tobacco-withdrawal cortisol changes do not appear to be a cause or consequence of many manifestations of acute tobacco withdrawal with the possible exception of hunger. PMID:24399662

  4. A piezoelectric immunosensor for the detection of cortisol.

    PubMed

    Attili, B S; Suleiman, A A

    1995-01-01

    A piezoelectric crystal immunosensor has been developed for the detection and determination of cortisol. Cortisol antibody was layered onto the gold electrodes of a 10 MHz piezoelectric crystal which was pre-coated with either protein A or gluteraldehyde. Crystals pre-coated with protein A showed the best results with respect to stability and sensitivity. The sensor was successfully used for the determination of cortisol in standard solutions from 36-3628 micrograms/L (part per billion). The advantages of the proposed sensor include simplicity, short analysis time, cost effectiveness and selectivity. The results demonstrate the feasibility of cortisol assay in clinical testing and in drug monitoring. PMID:11541301

  5. Hypothesis of the neuroendocrine cortisol pathway gene role in the comorbidity of depression, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gragnoli, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Depression, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are often comorbid. Depression per se increases the risk for T2D by 60%. This risk is not accounted for by the use of antidepressant therapy. Stress causes hyperactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, by triggering the hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to release the adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), which causes the adrenal secretion of cortisol. Depression is associated with an increased level of cortisol, and CRH and ACTH at inappropriately “normal” levels, that is too high compared to their expected lower levels due to cortisol negative feedback. T2D and MetS are also associated with hypercortisolism. High levels of cortisol can impair mood as well as cause hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and other traits typical of T2D and MetS. We hypothesize that HPA axis hyperactivation may be due to variants in the genes of the CRH receptors (CRHR1, CRHR2), corticotropin receptors (or melanocortin receptors, MC1R-MC5R), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), and of the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), and that these variants may be partially responsible for the clinical association of depression, T2D and MetS. In this review, we will focus on the correlation of stress, HPA axis hyperactivation, and the possible genetic role of the CRHR1, CRHR2, MCR1–5, NR3C1, and NR3C2 receptors and FKBP5 in the susceptibility to the comorbidity of depression, T2D, and MetS. New studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized role of these genes in the clinical association of depression, T2D, and MetS. PMID:24817815

  6. Hypothesis of the neuroendocrine cortisol pathway gene role in the comorbidity of depression, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gragnoli, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Depression, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are often comorbid. Depression per se increases the risk for T2D by 60%. This risk is not accounted for by the use of antidepressant therapy. Stress causes hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, by triggering the hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to release the adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), which causes the adrenal secretion of cortisol. Depression is associated with an increased level of cortisol, and CRH and ACTH at inappropriately "normal" levels, that is too high compared to their expected lower levels due to cortisol negative feedback. T2D and MetS are also associated with hypercortisolism. High levels of cortisol can impair mood as well as cause hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and other traits typical of T2D and MetS. We hypothesize that HPA axis hyperactivation may be due to variants in the genes of the CRH receptors (CRHR1, CRHR2), corticotropin receptors (or melanocortin receptors, MC1R-MC5R), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), and of the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), and that these variants may be partially responsible for the clinical association of depression, T2D and MetS. In this review, we will focus on the correlation of stress, HPA axis hyperactivation, and the possible genetic role of the CRHR1, CRHR2, MCR1-5, NR3C1, and NR3C2 receptors and FKBP5 in the susceptibility to the comorbidity of depression, T2D, and MetS. New studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized role of these genes in the clinical association of depression, T2D, and MetS. PMID:24817815

  7. Relationship between midweek training measures of testosterone and cortisol concentrations and game outcome in professional rugby union matches.

    PubMed

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Cook, Christian J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response of salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations across selected midweek skill-based training sessions and their association with subsequent match outcome 3 days later. Twenty-two rugby union players were assessed for salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations before and after a midweek training session over 6 consecutive weeks. The relative percentage change (response) in the testosterone and cortisol concentration and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio was also determined. Game-day analysis consisted of prematch testosterone concentrations and match outcome. Data were pooled across the winning (n = 3) and losing (n = 3) outcomes. The midweek pretraining T/C ratio was significantly lower (p < 0.01) before a win than a loss and the increase in the pre- to post-T/C ratio before a win was significant (p < 0.001). The increase in the pre- to post-testosterone concentration before a win was also shown to be significant (p < 0.01). However, the relative changes in testosterone before games that were won were not statistically different to that of games lost (p > 0.01). Significant relationships were also demonstrated between game-day pre-testosterone concentrations and the midweek cortisol response (r = -0.90, p = 0.01) and midweek T/C ratio response (r = 0.90, p = 0.01). In conclusion, a midweek measurement of the T/C ratio against a skill-based training session seems to show some potential as an early indicator of subsequent successfully executed performances in competitive rugby union. If this work is subsequently validated, further monitoring of midweek hormone concentrations in response to a mixed psychological-physical training session may assist with assessing competitive readiness leading up to competition. PMID:24936894

  8. Digital fluorescence analysis of trafficking of single endosomes containing low-density lipoprotein in adrenocortical cells: Facilitation of centripetal motion by adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Kimoto; Makoto Yamada; Tomomitsu Ichikawa; Daisaku Honma; Richard J. Cherry; Ian E. G. Morrison; Suguru Kawato

    2009-01-01

    Imaging of trafficking of endosomes containing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is useful to analyze cholesterol transport in adrenocortical cells. At 60min after the application of fluorescently labeled LDL to adrenocortical cells, individual endosomes containing LDL were demonstrated to undergo frequent switching between forward and reverse movement and immobility. The population of moving endosomes (?0.065?m\\/s) was approximately 75% in control cells. The

  9. Reference levels for 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-desoxycortisol, cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and androstenedione in infants from birth to six months of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús M. Garagorri; Gerardo Rodríguez; Ángel J. Lario-Elboj; José L. Olivares; Ángel Lario-Muñoz; Isabel Orden

    2008-01-01

    Reference plasma adrenal steroid levels during early infancy are frequently used to verify hormone measurements when any adrenal\\u000a abnormality is suspected. We aim to obtain longitudinal reference plasma levels for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), 11-desoxycortisol\\u000a (11DOC), cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone, and androstenedione in healthy infants from birth\\u000a to 6 months of age. In 138 term infants, 80 males and 58 females,

  10. Cognitive-behavioral stress management reduces distress and 24-hour urinary free cortisol output among symptomatic HIV-infected gay men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Antoni; Stacy Cruess; Dean G. Cruess; Mahendra Kumar; Susan Lutgendorf; Gail Ironson; Elizabeth Dettmer; Jessie Williams; Nancy Klimas; Mary Ann Fletcher; Neil Schneiderman

    2000-01-01

    Background  Stress management interventions can reduce symptoms of distress as well as modulate certain immune system components in persons\\u000a infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These effects may occur in parallel with reductions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal\\u000a (HPA) axis hormones such as cortisol, which has been related in other work to a down-regulation of immune system components\\u000a relevant to HIV infection. The present

  11. Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S

    2013-11-01

    Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and Black individuals (mean age 65 ± 9.8 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Outcome measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 min post-awakening), early decline (30 min to 2h post-awakening), late decline (2h post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding AUCs. Total cortisol AUC was a summary measure of cumulative cortisol exposure. Higher CAR was associated with significantly lower wake-up cortisol (?=-0.56; 95% CI: -0.59 to -0.53) and a higher early decline AUC (?=0.38; 95% CI: 0.34-0.42) but was not associated with total cortisol AUC (?=0.04; 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.09), or other diurnal cortisol curve components following multivariable adjustment. Total cortisol AUC was significantly and positively associated with wake-up cortisol (?=0.36; 95% CI: 0.32-0.40), bedtime cortisol (?=0.61; 95% CI: 0.58-0.64), and other AUC measures, following multivariable adjustment. Associations were similar by sex, race/ethnicity, and age categories. We conclude that bedtime cortisol showed the strongest correlation with total cortisol AUC, suggesting it may be a marker of daily cortisol exposure. PMID:23890985

  12. The effects of carbon dioxide inhalation of plasma MHPG, plasma hormones respiratory rate, and behavior in the Rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Krystal, J.H.; Woods, S.W.; Levesque, M.; Heninger, C.; Heninger, G.R. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The effects of inhalation of air and 3 concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) on plasma levels of the norepinephrine metabolite, MHPG, plasma hormones, and behavioral activation were assessed in eight chair-adapted Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In comparison to air, inhalation of 5%, 7.5% and 10% CO{sub 2} for 180 minutes produced significant dose-dependent increases in respiratory rate, plasma MHPG, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin. CO{sub 2} at the 7.5% concentration produced peak changes in behavior at 15, growth hormone at 30, and cortisol and MHPG at 180 minutes without producing changes in prolactin. The lack of previously reported CO{sub 2} induced changes in MHPG, growth hormone and prolactin in humans exposed to 7.5% CO{sub 2} for only 15 minutes, may therefore relate to the relatively short duration of CO{sub 2} exposure.

  13. Temporal changes in plasma thyroid hormone, growth hormone and free fatty acid concentrations, and hepatic 5?-monodeiodinase activity, lipid and protein content during chronic fasting and re-feeding in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Farbridge; J. F. Leatherland

    1992-01-01

    Temporal changes in growth, plasma thyroid hormone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, hepatic T3 content and hepatic 5'-monodeiodinase activity were measured in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to a sustained fast for up to eight weeks, and during a four-week re-feeding period. The purpose of the study was to examine aspects of the endocrine control

  14. Cortisol and Politics: Variance in Voting Behavior is Predicted by Baseline Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Kevin B.; Alford, John R.; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K.; Hibbing, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  15. Mixture effects of imidazole fungicides on cortisol and aldosterone secretion in human adrenocortical H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Asa; Cedergreen, Nina; Oskarsson, Agneta; Ullerås, Erik

    2010-09-10

    Exposure to chemicals commonly occurs in the form of mixtures. Methods and models are required to analyze and predict the effect of mixtures in order to improve risk assessment. The steroidogenesis and hormone production of the adrenal gland is a sensitive target for endocrine-disrupting chemicals including imidazoles. Here, we exposed human adrenocortical H295R cells to the individual imidazole fungicides prochloraz, ketoconazole, imazalil and their mixtures and analyzed the effects on secretion of cortisol and aldosterone and the effects on steroidogenic gene expression. The individual imidazole fungicides prochloraz, ketoconazole and imazalil and their mixtures inhibited cortisol secretion in a similar monotonic dose-response pattern with an EC(50) value of approximately 0.1 microM. Aldosterone secretion, in contrast, displayed a biphasic dose-response, with low-dose stimulation of up to maximum twofold and high-dose inhibition. Biphasic dose-responses were found following prochloraz and ketoconazole exposure and their mixtures, but not following imazalil exposure. The inhibition of cortisol secretion was equally well predicted with the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) models, while the biphasic aldosterone response was partially predicted by a modified CA model and not predicted well by a modified IA model. Changes in expression levels of steroidogenic genes could not conclusively explain the different effects on the two hormone endpoints or the different specificities of the imidazoles. We conclude that single imidazoles and mixtures have specific effects on adrenal hormone secretion. These effects can only partly be predicted using current models and need to be further analyzed in terms of in vivo relevance and human risk assessment. PMID:20542075

  16. Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…

  17. Suppressing the Morning Rise in Cortisol Impairs Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning…

  18. Reactivity and Regulation in Cortisol and Behavioral Responses to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Douglas; Lewis, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Examined relations between reactivity (peak response) and regulation (response dampening) in 6-month-olds' cortisol and behavioral responses to inoculation. Found that reactivity and regulation were unrelated for both cortisol and behavior, suggesting both measures are needed to characterize more accurately infant response to stress. Found…

  19. Born to yawn? Cortisol linked to yawning: A new hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon B. N. Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Yawning has become an interesting and curious scientific conundrum. Links between several neurological disorders can be found through the commonality of yawning episodes and contagious yawning. However, the reasons why we yawn are uncertain. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. We do not know whether cortisol

  20. The Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) in 2-to

    E-print Network

    The Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) in 2- to 4-Year-Old Children: Effects of Acute Nighttime Sleep Restriction, Wake Time, and Daytime Napping ABSTRACT: The cortisol awakening response (CAR suggest the CAR is smaller in children than adults, well- controlled research in early childhood is scarce

  1. Salivary testosterone and cortisol among late adolescent male offenders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Dabbs; Gregory J. Jurkovic; Robert L. Frady

    1991-01-01

    The relationship of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to personality, criminal violence, prison behavior, and parole board decisions was examined among 113 late-adolescent male offenders. Offenders high in testosterone committed more violent crimes, were judged more harshly by the parole board, and violated prison rules more often than those low in testosterone. No main effects for cortisol emerged. However, as

  2. Salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to puberty and gender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Netherton; Ian Goodyer; Alison Tamplin; Joe Herbert

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates basal levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and their relation to gender and pubertal development, in healthy children and adolescents. Salivary cortisol and DHEA levels were examined in 129 normally developing subjects aged eight to 16 years. Subjects provided morning (0800 h) and evening (2000 h) saliva samples over four consecutive days. Pubertal stage was assessed using

  3. Salivary cortisol sampling compliance: comparison of patients and healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan E. Broderick; Daniel Arnold; Brigitte M. Kudielka; Clemens Kirschbaum

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Problems of compliance with in vivo data collection and treatment protocols have been identified. This study investigated compliance with salivary cortisol sampling in a 7-day protocol. Impact of non-compliance on cortisol data was evaluated. Methods: Female fibromyalgia patients were matched with healthy female volunteers and randomized to Aware or Unaware conditions regarding objective monitoring of their sampling compliance. The

  4. Cortisol Release in Infants in Response to Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Thomas, David

    1990-01-01

    Data provide strong evidence that studies of stress and cortisol release in infants must take into account basal level, circadian rhythm, and behavioral effects and employ appropriate statistical procedures. Participants were infants of two, four, and six months of age from whom salivary cortisol was obtained before and 15 minutes after an…

  5. Sleep disturbances are correlated with decreased morning awakening salivary cortisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jutta Backhaus; Klaus Junghanns; Fritz Hohagen

    2004-01-01

    Morning and evening salivary cortisol levels were correlated with sleep parameters in 14 patients with primary insomnia and 15 healthy controls. Salivary cortisol was sampled immediately after awakening (T1), 15 min later (T2), and immediately before going to bed (T3) for 1 week at home. In parallel with this, subjects estimated parameters of sleep in a daily sleep log. Patients

  6. Cortisol and behavioral responses of working dogs to environmental challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Haverbeke; C. Diederich; E. Depiereux; J. M. Giffroy

    2008-01-01

    This paper's primary objective is to analyse the physiological (cortisol) and behavioral responses of military working dogs (MWD). Dogs (N=27) were submitted twice to environmental challenges (challenge 1 and 2, 20 days in-between) composed of social (training), visual (mobile toy car) and auditory (air blast) stimuli. Cortisol levels decreased back to the baseline after the second challenge. The behavioral observations showed

  7. Assessing Salivary Cortisol in Studies of Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Eve B.; Granger, Douglas A.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Laird, Brandi

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated the susceptibility of radioimmunoassays (RIA) for saliva cortisol to interference effects caused by oral stimulants (drink mix crystals) used to facilitate saliva collection in studies with children. Found that oral stimulants artificially inflated estimated cortisol concentrations, with the magnitude of the interference-effect…

  8. Changes in Serum Cortisol with Age in Critically Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Beale; Jay Zhu; Howard Belzberg

    2002-01-01

    Background: Mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) rises with age, a high basal serum cortisol and a small response to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation. Even slight impairment of the adrenal response during severe illness can be lethal. Objectives: To determine if age is associated with changes in basal or stimulated serum cortisol in critically ill patients. Methods: We studied 2

  9. Measuring Salivary Cortisol in the Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian A. Kalman, Ruth E. Grahn (Conneticut College; )

    2004-05-07

    This article descibes an ethical experimental module of human biological parameters. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit measures human salivary cortisol levels, which can rise due to circadian and environmental changes. This easy to use sampling kit is described as an ideal procedure for students in behavioral neurobiology or physiological psychology laboratory class to examine cortisol levels.

  10. Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxin and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via ..beta..-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents.

  11. Interaction between cadmium exposure and infection with the intestinal parasite Moniliformis moniliformis (Acanthocephala) on the stress hormone levels in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sures; G. Scheef; B. Klar; W. Kloas; H. Taraschewski

    2002-01-01

    The impact of an infection with the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis and a simultaneous Cd-exposure on the stress hormone levels of rats was studied. Immediately after the application of cadmium to some rats, cortisol levels in all groups of rats, as quantified by radioimmunoassay (RIA), significantly increased. However, infections with M. moniliformis as well as the uptake of Cd reduced significantly the

  12. Response to the high-dose corticotrophin stimulation test depends on plasma adrenocotropin hormone levels in septic shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Antonio Llompart-Pou; Joan Maria Raurich; Ignacio Ayestarán; Ana G. Fernández-de-Castillo; Jon Pérez-Bárcena; Jordi Ibáñez

    PurposeThe use of the high-dose corticotrophin stimulation test (HDCST) as a guide to use low-dose steroid therapy in septic shock is controversial. The adrenocotropin hormone (ACTH) constitutes the immediate stimuli to produce cortisol. We evaluated the correlation of the response to the HDCST with plasma ACTH levels in patients with septic shock.

  13. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

    PubMed Central

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3?m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1?kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7?d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (?5~6?MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-?, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-? and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05).

  14. The hormonal costs of subtle forms of infant maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Martorell, Gabriela A; Barraza, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    We show here that subtle forms of maltreatment during infancy (below 1 year of age) have potential consequences for the functioning of the child's adrenocortical response system. Infants who received frequent corporal punishment (e.g., spanking) showed high hormonal reactivity to stress (a repeated separation from mother, combined with the presence of a stranger). In addition, infants who experienced frequent emotional withdrawal by their mothers (either as a result of maternal depression, or mother's strategic use of withdrawal as a control tactic) showed elevated baseline levels of cortisol. It was suggested that there are hormonal "costs" when mothers show response patterns (intentionally or unintentionally) that limit their utility as a means of buffering the child against stress. The hormonal responses shown by infants may alter the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in ways that, if continued, may foster risk for immune disorders, sensitization to later stress, cognitive deficits, and social-emotional problems. PMID:12614655

  15. Hair cortisol detection in dairy cattle by using EIA: protocol validation and correlation with faecal cortisol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Tallo-Parra, O; Manteca, X; Sabes-Alsina, M; Carbajal, A; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-06-01

    Hair may be a useful matrix to detect cumulative cortisol concentrations in studies of animal welfare and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for cortisol detection in hair from dairy cattle by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Seventeen adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the milking period. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 25-day-old hair samples taken from the frontal region of the head, analysing black and white coloured hair separately. Concentrations of cortisol metabolites were determined in faeces collected twice a week during the same period of time. There was a high correlation between cortisol values in faeces and cortisol in white colour hair samples but such correlation was not significant with the black colour hair samples. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The linearity showed R 2=0.98 and mean percentage error of -10.8±1.55%. The extraction efficiency was 89.0±23.52% and the parallelism test showed similar slopes. Cortisol detection in hair by using EIA seems to be a valid method to represent long-term circulating cortisol levels in dairy cattle. PMID:25997530

  16. Salivary ?-amylase and cortisol after exercise in menopause: influence of long-term HRT.

    PubMed

    Patacchioli, F R; Ghiciuc, C M; Bernardi, M; Dima-Cozma, L C; Fattorini, L; Squeo, M R; Galoppi, P; Brunelli, R; Ferrante, F; Pasquali, V; Perrone, G

    2015-08-01

    Objectives This observational prospective study analyzed the effect of an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on the secretion of salivary biomarkers of the adrenergic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity by measuring salivary ?-amylase and cortisol diurnal trajectories in the setting of long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Methods Fifteen healthy sedentary postmenopausal women who were current HRT users and 15 women who had never used HRT were consecutively recruited. ?-Amylase and cortisol were measured in salivary samples collected on the CPET day and on a rest day. Cardiovascular and respiratory fitness parameters were recorded during the CPET challenge. Results The participants had very homogeneous somatic characteristics, and they were all in generally good health. The postmenopausal never-HRT users presented an abnormal diurnal pattern of ?-amylase at baseline and a flattened response to CPET. In contrast, women on HRT had a physiological ?-amylase diurnal pattern and increased salivary ?-amylase production during the CPET-induced challenge. The CPET challenge physiologically activated the HPA axis activity, as shown by the increase in the concentration of salivary cortisol during the effort test. HPA axis activity was not affected by long-term HRT. Postmenopausal women using HRT exhibited a cardiorespiratory functional capacity that was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of non-users. Conclusions Our findings show that healthy postmenopausal women present an asymmetry between adrenergic nervous system and HPA axis activities under both basal and stress conditions. HRT was able to modify the abnormal adrenergic nervous system activity, most likely by reducing the sympathetic hyperactivity that characterizes menopause. PMID:25602168

  17. Human cytomegalovirus productively infects adrenocortical cells and induces an early cortisol response.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Marta; Matkovic, Urska; Cusinato, Riccardo; Toppo, Stefano; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2009-12-01

    Following our recent findings on the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the normal human adrenal cortex and in adrenocortical tumors, especially in cortisol-secreting tumors, aim of the present study was to investigate the direct effects of HCMV infection on human adrenocortical cells. To this aim, both clinical isolates and laboratory strains of HCMV were used to assess the early effects of infection on human adrenocortical cell morphology, proliferation, gene expression, and steroidogenic function. Both clinical and laboratory HCMV strains could infect and replicate in primary human adrenocortical cell cultures and in adrenocortical carcinoma cell lines, leading to cytopathic changes. Most importantly, in the first hours post-infection (p.i.), adrenocortical cells showed a significant increase of cortisol and estrogen production, paralleled by up-regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and expression of steroidogenic enzymes involved in the last steps of adrenal steroidogenesis. This effect was probably due to HCMV immediate-early gene expression, since it was most evident in the early phases p.i. and UV-inactivated viral particles did not affect hormone production. Moreover, the effect on steroidogenesis was HCMV specific, since it was not observed after infection with herpes simplex virus. These data suggest that human adrenocortical cells are permissive to HCMV infection and acutely respond to infection with increased cortisol production. An acute glucocorticoid response is typically triggered by infections and is considered to be critical to host defense against pathogens, although, in the case of HCMV infection, it might also enhance viral replication and reactivation from latency. PMID:19688782

  18. Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. PMID:21185838

  19. Hormones as “difference makers” in cognitive and socioemotional aging processes

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Kamin, Hayley; Diaz, Vanessa; Cohen, Ronald A.; MacDonald, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems—cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin—as “difference makers” in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: (1) examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; (2) exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and (3) considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions. PMID:25657633

  20. The Social Endocrinology of Dominance: Basal Testosterone Predicts Cortisol Changes and Behavior Following Victory and Defeat

    E-print Network

    Josephs, Robert

    The Social Endocrinology of Dominance: Basal Testosterone Predicts Cortisol Changes and Behavior competition rose in cortisol, whereas high testosterone men who won dropped in cortisol. Low testos- terone men's cortisol changes did not depend on whether they had won or lost. Study 2 replicated this pattern

  1. Acute Cortisol Elevations Cause Heightened Arousal Ratings of Objectively Nonarousing Stimuli

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Acute Cortisol Elevations Cause Heightened Arousal Ratings of Objectively Nonarousing Stimuli the effects of cortisol on affective experience, the authors orally administered a placebo, 20 mg cortisol, or 40 mg cortisol to 85 men. Participants' affective responses to negative and neutral stimuli were

  2. Cortisol Variation in Humans Affects Memory for Emotionally Laden and Neutral Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather C. Abercrombie; Ned H. Kalin; Marchell E. Thurow; Melissa A. Rosenkranz; Richard J. Davidson

    2003-01-01

    In a test of the effects of cortisol on emotional memory, 90 men were orally administered placebo or 20 or 40 mg cortisol and presented with emotionally arousing and neutral stimuli. On memory tests administered within 1 hr of stimulus presentation, cortisol elevations caused a reduction in the number of errors committed on free-recall tasks. Two evenings later, when cortisol

  3. Late-Night Salivary Cortisol as a Screening Test for Cushing's Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HERSHEL RAFF; JONATHAN L. RAFF; JAMES W. FINDLING

    The clinical features of Cushing's syndrome (such as obesity, hy- pertension, and diabetes) are commonly encountered in clinical prac- tice. Patients with Cushing's syndrome have been identified by an abnormal low-dose dexamethasone suppression test, elevated urine free cortisol (UFC), an absence of diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol, or an elevated late-night plasma cortisol. Because the concentration of cortisol in the

  4. Clinical significance of cortisone and cortisone\\/cortisol ratio in evaluating children with adrenal diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Nomura; Michiko Fujitaka; Kazuhiko Jinno; Nobuo Sakura; Kazuhiro Ueda

    1996-01-01

    Cortisone is derived from the peripheral metabolism of cortisol and lacks biological activity. The rapid interconversion between cortisol and cortisone has been well established. The altered equilibrium between these steroids may regulate glucocorticoid activity in various tissues. We evaluated the serum levels of cortisol and cortisone, and the cortisone\\/cortisol ratio in ten children with adrenal diseases using reversed-phase high performance

  5. In utero cortisol and testosterone exposure and fear reactivity in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Kristin; Glover, Vivette; Sarkar, Pampa; Abbott, Dave; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2010-01-01

    Fetal programming is emerging as a major conceptual model for understanding developmental origins of health and disease, including behavioral outcomes. As part of a larger study of prenatal stress and child development, we examined the association between prenatal hormone exposure and fear reactivity, a temperament dimension that is a predictor of long-term behavioral adjustment. Amniotic fluid was collected from a sample of women undergoing clinically indicated amniocentesis for later analysis of cortisol and testosterone. Children with normal birth outcomes were recalled for follow-up assessment at 17 months, at which time we administered an observational assessment of temperament (lab-TAB; n=108). Information on pregnancy and obstetric outcome was included as covariates. Results indicated that there was a significant association between prenatal testosterone and observed fear reactivity in boys (r(53)=0.34, p=0.01); no significant effect was found in girls (r(54)=-.07, ns); the effect remained when obstetric, psychosocial, and parental anxiety were controlled for. There was not a significant association between fetal cortisol exposure and fear reactivity. The prediction from in utero testosterone exposure to fear reactivity in boys extends prior research on prenatal testosterone, and may represent an association with a general predisposition to greater arousal and reactivity. PMID:20060000

  6. Job satisfaction and cortisol awakening response in teachers scoring high and low on burnout.

    PubMed

    Moya-Albiol, Luis; Serrano, Miguel Angel; Salvador, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is an important psychosocial risk in the job context, especially in professions with a strong social interaction, as in the case of teaching. High levels of burnout have been related to negative psychological indicators and hormonal alterations. This study compares job satisfaction and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in teachers scoring high (HB) and low (LB) on burnout. HB teachers showed lower job satisfaction and no significant differences in the CAR when compared with the LB group. The results of the study suggest a general dissatisfaction with work along with a different functioning of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in HB teachers. Although non significantly, they showed a lower magnitude of the CAR than LB teachers. When considering the whole sample, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization correlated negatively and personal accomplishment positively with each subscale of the job satisfaction questionnaire whereas cortisol levels or CAR did not correlate significantly with both burnout subscales and job satisfaction. These results should be taken into account when working to prevent burnout in teachers, as the modified parameters could be considered indicators of the onset or development of the syndrome. PMID:20977013

  7. Interplay between plasma oxidative status, cortisol and coping styles in wild alpine marmots, Marmota marmota.

    PubMed

    Costantini, David; Ferrari, Caterina; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Cavallone, Elena; Carere, Claudio; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Réale, Denis

    2012-01-15

    Variation in how individuals cope behaviourally and physiologically with stressors is widespread and can have a significant impact on life-history traits and fitness. Individual coping styles are characterised by differential behavioural and adrenocortical reactivity to various challenges. As stress hormones can affect the production of reactive chemical species and the antioxidant status, individuals with different coping styles may differ also in oxidative status. Field studies on wild mammalian populations are few in number and none so far has simultaneously tested the relationship between coping style, adrenocortical reactivity and oxidative status in the same individuals. We measured individual variation in coping styles along a proactive-reactive continuum together with variation in baseline and stress-induced plasma oxidative damage, plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and cortisol in wild alpine marmots, Marmota marmota. Confirmatory path analysis revealed that different coping styles are accompanied by different baseline and stress-induced plasma oxidative statuses. Our findings also highlight the potential role of cortisol as a mediator of such differences. PMID:22189781

  8. Plasma cortisol levels and illness appraisal in deficit syndrome schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    White, Ross G; Lysaker, Paul; Gumley, Andrew I; McLeod, Hamish; McCleery, Muriel; O'Neill, Donnacha; MacBeth, Angus; Giurgi-Oncu, Catalina; Mulholland, Ciaran C

    2014-12-30

    Research investigating the association between negative symptoms and plasma cortisol levels in individuals with schizophrenia has produced inconsistent findings. This study investigated whether deficit syndrome schizophrenia (characterized by high levels of primary negative symptoms) is associated with comparatively high morning plasma cortisol levels, more negative appraisals about illness and higher levels of depression. Participants were 85 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 85 individuals with no history of contact with psychiatric services matched for age and gender. All participants provided fasting 9.00a.m. plasma cortisol samples. There were no significant differences between the schizophrenia and control participants in plasma cortisol levels. The Proximal Deficit Syndrome method was used to identify individuals with deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Contrary to what had been hypothesized, participants with deficit syndrome schizophrenia had significantly lower plasma cortisol levels than both non-deficit syndrome participants and control participants. Participants with the deficit syndrome reported significantly less negative appraisals about illness (assessed by PBIQ) and lower levels of depression (assessed by BDI-II). Differences in cortisol levels continued to trend toward significance when levels of depression were controlled for. The patterns of illness-related appraisals and plasma cortisol levels raise the possibility that the deficit syndrome could be a form of adaptation syndrome. PMID:25262562

  9. Social isolation and diurnal cortisol patterns in an ageing cohort?

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Mai; Gardner, Mike; Kumari, Meena; Kuh, Diana; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Social isolation may operate as a psychosocial stressor which disrupts functioning of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis. Methods Using data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, we tested whether living alone, not being married and social network size were associated with diurnal cortisol patterns at 60–64 years. We hypothesised that recent onset compared with long-term isolation would be more strongly associated with cortisol awakening response, cortisol decline over the day and evening cortisol. Models were adjusted for sex, smoking, body mass index, alcohol intake, psychological distress and financial difficulties. Results Those widowed within the last three years had a 36% (95%CI 6%, 73%) higher night time cortisol than those who were currently married. Those newly living alone also had a higher night time cortisol and flatter diurnal slope than those living with others. Conclusion Independently of multiple behavioural and psychosocial correlates, recent onset of social isolation is related to diurnal cortisol patterns that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. PMID:23920224

  10. Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Theoretically, the physiological response to stress should inhibit the sexual response. This has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models, and correlationally in studies of human reproduction. It is reasonable to expect, then, that the stress response would be blunted during sexual arousal, and several researchers have found a pattern of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim In the present study, we explored individual differences in women’s cortisol response to sexual arousal in a laboratory setting. We also examined how cortisol response in the laboratory related to a validated measure of sexual arousal functioning in real life. Main Outcome Measures Cortisol levels were measured in saliva via enzyme immunoassay. Subjective arousal was measured by a self-report questionnaire, and genital arousal was measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Methods Subjective and physiological responses to an erotic film were assessed in 30 women. Saliva samples were taken at baseline and following the film. Results The majority of women (N = 20) showed a decrease in cortisol; nine women showed an increase in response to an erotic film. The women who showed an increase in cortisol had lower scores on the Arousal, Desire, and Satisfaction domains of the Female Sexual Function Index. Genital arousal in the laboratory was not related to cortisol change. Conclusions Women who show an increase in cortisol in response to sexual stimuli in the laboratory have lower levels of functioning in certain areas of their sexual life compared with women who show a decrease in cortisol. Stress related to sexual performance may interfere with sexual arousal. PMID:18624961

  11. Interventions to Improve Cortisol Regulation in Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Shonkoff, Jack P.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with physiologic dysregulation across multiple biological systems; however, relatively little is known about whether these changes are reversible with intervention. The objective of this review was to examine evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy cortisol regulation in children. We selected articles from English-language publications in PubMed and EBSCO databases through 2012. Two independent reviewers assessed articles against eligibility criteria. Eligible studies were randomized controlled or quasi-experimental studies designed to improve relationships, environments, or psychosocial functioning in children and examined cortisol as an outcome. We identified 19 articles. There was substantial heterogeneity across studies with regard to age, selection criteria, intervention design, cortisol assessment, and follow-up duration. Eighteen of the 19 articles reported at least 1 difference in baseline cortisol, diurnal cortisol, or cortisol responsivity between intervention and control participants. Importantly, however, there was remarkable inconsistency with regard to how the interventions influenced cortisol. Therefore, studies that included a low-risk comparison group (n = 8) provided critical insight, and each found some evidence that postintervention cortisol levels in the intervention group approximated the low-risk comparison group and differed from children receiving usual care. In conclusion, existing studies show that cortisol activity can be altered by psychosocial interventions. These findings are promising, not only because they indicate physiologic plasticity that can be leveraged by interventions but also because they suggest it may be possible to repair regulatory systems after childhood adversity, which could inform strategies for reducing health disparities and promoting lasting improvements in health. PMID:24420810

  12. Variations in serum magnesium and hormonal levels during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel Angel; Iñigo, Carmen; Calvo, Maria Luisa; Escanero, Jesús Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between plasma magnesium levels and hormonal variations during an incremental exercise test until exhaustion in 27, well-trained, male endurance athletes. After a warm-up of 10 min at 2 W/kg, the test began at an initial workload of 2.5 W/kg and continued with increments of 0.5 W/kg every 10 min until exhaustion. Plasma magnesium, catecholamine, insulin, glucagon, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, aldosterone and cortisol levels were determined at rest, at the end of each stage and three, five and seven minutes post-exercise. With the incremental exercise test, no variations in plasma magnesium levels were found, while plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, PTH, glucagon and cortisol levels increased significantly. Over the course of the exercise, plasma levels of insulin decreased significantly, but those of calcitonin remained steady. During the recovery period, catecholamines and insulin returned to basal levels. These findings indicate that the magnesium status of euhydrated endurance athletes during incremental exercise testing may be the result of the interrelation between several hormonal variations. PMID:25644859

  13. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2013-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method. PMID:23239176

  14. Sepsis-related stress response: known knowns, known unknowns, and unknown unknowns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinmin Peng; Bin Du

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response in sepsis remains to be elucidated. Apart from corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol, many other neuroendocrine factors participate in the regulation of HPA stress response. The HPA response to acute and chronic illness exerts a biphasic profile. Tissue corticosteroid resistance may also play an important role. All of these add to the complexity

  15. Short-term incubation of equine laminar veins with cortisol and insulin alters contractility in vitro: possible implications for the pathogenesis of equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Keen, J A; McGorum, B C; Hillier, C; Nally, J E

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of cortisol and insulin, hormones that affect both glycaemic status and vascular function, on the in vitro contractility of isolated healthy equine small laminar veins. Small veins (150-500 ?m) draining the digital laminae from healthy horses or ponies were investigated by wire myography. Concentration response curves were constructed for noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the presence of either cortisol (10(-6 ) m) or insulin (1000 ?IU/mL). Cortisol significantly increased the maximum contractility of laminar veins to the vasoconstrictors NA and 5-HT but decreased the maximal contraction to ET-1. Insulin decreased the contractility of vessels to PE and ET-1. It is possible that short-term cortisol excess could enhance venoconstrictor responses to 5-HT and NA in laminar veins in vivo, thereby predisposing to laminitis. Additionally, a reduction in the ability of insulin to counteract alpha-adrenoreceptor and ET-1-mediated contraction, likely to occur in subjects with insulin resistance, may further exacerbate venoconstriction in animals prone to laminitis. These mechanisms may also predispose horses with disorders such as equine Cushing's disease and equine metabolic syndrome to laminitis. PMID:22943152

  16. Reference levels for 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-desoxycortisol, cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and androstenedione in infants from birth to six months of age.

    PubMed

    Garagorri, Jesús M; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Lario-Elboj, Angel J; Olivares, José L; Lario-Muñoz, Angel; Orden, Isabel

    2008-06-01

    Reference plasma adrenal steroid levels during early infancy are frequently used to verify hormone measurements when any adrenal abnormality is suspected. We aim to obtain longitudinal reference plasma levels for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), 11-desoxycortisol (11DOC), cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone, and androstenedione in healthy infants from birth to 6 months of age. In 138 term infants, 80 males and 58 females, plasma steroid levels were measured using specific RIA procedures at birth and on the 3rd, 15th, 30th, 60th, 90th, 120th, 150th, and 180th days of life. Smoothed percentiles for each variable were calculated according to the LMS method (LMS program version 1.16, Institute of Child Health, London). Except for cortisol, plasma levels of adrenal steroids decreased progressively from birth to 6 months of age. Plasma concentrations of 17OHP, 11DOC, and cortisol did not show gender differences, but testosterone and androstenedione were significantly higher in boys, and DHEAS levels were higher in girls. Longitudinal reference plasma levels for 17OHP, 11DOC, cortisol, DHEAS, testosterone, and androstenedione have been described in an adequate sample of healthy infants from birth to 6 months of age. These standards, displayed as smoothed percentiles, may be used as reference values in the management of congenital endocrine (adrenal or gonadal) abnormalities that appear in the first weeks of life. PMID:17694323

  17. Hexarelin decreases slow-wave sleep and stimulates the secretion of GH, ACTH, cortisol and prolactin during sleep in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Frieboes, Ralf-Michael; Antonijevic, Irina A; Held, Katja; Murck, Harald; Pollmächer, Thomas; Uhr, Manfred; Steiger, Axel

    2004-08-01

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue (GHS) receptor and some GHSs exert different effects on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and sleep-related hormone secretion in humans. Similar to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) ghrelin promotes slow-wave sleep in humans, whereas GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) enhances stage 2 nonrapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS). As GHRP-6, hexarelin is a synthetic GHS. Hexarelin is superior to GHRH and GHRP-6 in stimulating GH release. The influence of hexarelin on sleep-endocrine activity and the immune system is unknown. We investigated simultaneously the sleep EEG and nocturnal profiles of GH, ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and soluble TNF-alpha receptors in seven young normal volunteers after repetitive administration of 4 x 50 microg hexarelin or placebo at 22.00, 23.00, 24.00 and 01.00 h. Following hexarelin, stage 4 sleep during the first half of the night, and EEG delta power during the total night decreased significantly. Significant increases of the concentrations of GH and prolactin during the total night, and of ACTH and of cortisol during the first half of the night were found. Leptin levels, TNF-alpha and soluble TNF receptors remained unchanged. We hypothesize that sleep is impaired after hexarelin since the GHRH/corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) ratio is changed in favour of CRH. There are no hints for an interaction of hexarelin and the immune system. PMID:15177700

  18. Stress hormones, sleep deprivation and cognition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Colizzi, Elena; Fisichella, Alberto; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceresini, Graziano; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ruffini, Livia; Lauretani, Fulvio; Parrino, Liborio; Ceda, Gian Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Cognition can be deteriorated in older persons because of several potential mechanisms including the hormonal changes occurring with age. Stress events cause modification in hormonal balance with acute and chronic changes such as increase in cortisol and thyroid hormones, and simultaneous alterations in dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone and insulin like growth factor-1 levels. The ability to cope with stress and regain previous healthy status, also called resiliency, is particularly impaired in older persons Thus, stressful conditions and hormonal dysregulation might concur to the onset of cognitive impairment in this population. In this review we address the relationship between stress hormones and cognitive function in older persons focusing on the role of one of the main stress factors, such as sleep deprivation (SD). We extracted and cross-checked data from 2000 to 2013 March and selected 112 full-text articles assessed for eligibility. In particular we considered 68 studies regarding the contribution of hormonal pathway to cognition in older adults, and 44 regarding hormones and SD both in rats and humans. We investigated how the activation of a stress-pattern response, like the one evoked from SD, can influence cognitive development and worsen cognitive status in the elderly. We will show the limited number of studies targeting the effects of SD and the consequent changes in stress hormones on cognitive function in this age group. We conclude that the current literature is not strong enough to give definitive answers on the role of stress hormonal pathway to the development of cognitive impairment in older individuals. PMID:23849175

  19. Evaluation of the saliva cortisol levels in patients under prosthetic treatment due to functional disorders of the masticatory organ.

    PubMed

    Pihut, M; Dziurkowska, E; Wisniewska, G; Szewczyk, M; Bieganska, J

    2015-02-01

    One of the main etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction is stress and psychoemotional disorders. During stressful situations, there is an increase in the level of cortisol, the so-called stress hormone. Literature data indicate the existence of a correlation between blood cortisol levels and its amount in the saliva. This spurred an inspiration to undertake open, non-randomised studies, the objective of which was to conduct a comparative assessment of the saliva cortisol levels in patients with functional disorders of the masticatory system and in healthy volunteers, as well as to compare the results of cortisol levels with the results of survey-based tests with the use of Endler and Parker's CISS survey. Cortisol level was assessed due to its association with stress present in the body as one of the primary etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction, and hence the association of elevated cortisol levels assessed in the morning with the occurrence of dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system. The subject of the study is a group of 30 patients, of both sexes, aged between 20 and 46, who reported to the Dental Prosthetic Out-Patient Clinic of the Institute of Dentistry, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, for prosthetic treatment due to the painful form of functional masticatory organ disorders. The control group consisted of 30 subjects, aged between 19 and 41, in whom dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system were excluded. Collection of saliva for testing was performed at a fixed hour (9 am) into plastic test tubes with a stopper. Immediately after collection, the saliva was frozen at the temperature of -18 °C. The assessment of the cortisol levels was conducted by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection at the Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Laboratory Medicine of the Gdansk Medical University. Moreover, a 20-minute psychological test was conducted with the use of the CISS (coping inventory for stressful situations) survey in order to assess the patients in terms of their abilities to cope with stressful situations. The results obtained were submitted to a statistical analysis based on the conventional calculation procedures. The test group revealed significantly higher cortisol levels compared with the results obtained by the control group. The findings of the CISS survey confirmed the predominance of the emotion-focused strategy of coping with stressful situations in the test group. The results support the view that the psychoemotional factor is, to a considerable extent, conducive to the development of functional disorders. The elevated cortisol levels in patients with psychological disorders concur with the findings by other authors. The results obtained confirm that psychoemotional disorders may be one of the etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunctions. The CISS survey, which was not used in similar studies before, makes it possible to obtain information on the subject's method of coping with stress, thus allowing for the initiation of a relevant psychological therapy aiding the prosthetic treatment. PMID:25716974

  20. Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standard clinical chemistry analyzers, thus allowing even small clinical laboratories to do analysis on-site. One limitation of steroid hormone immunoassays is interference caused by compounds with structural similarity to the target steroid of the assay. Interfering molecules include structurally related endogenous compounds and their metabolites as well as drugs such as anabolic steroids and synthetic glucocorticoids. Methods Cross-reactivity of a structurally diverse set of compounds were determined for the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assays for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. These data were compared and contrasted to package insert data and published cross-reactivity studies for other marketed steroid hormone immunoassays. Cross-reactivity was computationally predicted using the technique of two-dimensional molecular similarity. Results The Roche Elecsys Cortisol and Testosterone II assays showed a wider range of cross-reactivity than the DHEA sulfate, Estradiol II, and Progesterone II assays. 6-Methylprednisolone and prednisolone showed high cross-reactivity for the cortisol assay, with high likelihood of clinically significant effect for patients administered these drugs. In addition, 21-deoxycortisol likely produces clinically relevant cross-reactivity for cortisol in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may produce clinically relevant cross-reactivity in 11?-hydroxylase deficiency or following metyrapone challenge. Several anabolic steroids may produce clinically significant false positives on the testosterone assay, although interpretation is limited by sparse pharmacokinetic data for some of these drugs. Norethindrone therapy may impact immunoassay measurement of testosterone in women. Using two-dimensional similarity calculations, all compounds with high cross-reactivity also showed a high degree of similarity to the target molecule of the immunoassay. Conclusions Compounds producing cross-reactivity in steroid hormone immunoassays generally have a high degree of structural similarity to the target hormone. Clinically significant interactions can occur with structurally similar drugs (e.g., prednisolone and cortisol immunoassays; methyltestosterone and testosterone immunoassays) or with endogenous compounds such as 21-deoxycortisol that can accumulate to very high concentrations in certain disease conditions. Simple similarity calculations can help triage compounds for future testing of assay cross-reactivity. PMID:25071417

  1. The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function. PMID:21195074

  2. Anticipation of a psychosocial stressor differentially influences ghrelin, cortisol and food intake among emotional and non-emotional eaters.

    PubMed

    Raspopow, Kate; Abizaid, Alfonso; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2014-03-01

    Negative emotions trigger eating in some individuals (emotional eaters) possibly by influencing stress hormones that contribute to eating regulation (e.g., cortisol), or eating-related peptides (e.g., ghrelin) signaling food initiation. The present study assessed whether stressor-elicited cortisol and ghrelin changes would differ between emotional and non-emotional eaters, and whether eating would influence these neuroendocrine responses. Undergraduate women (N=103) who completed measures of emotional eating, were assigned to anticipate either a stressful (public speaking) or non-stressful event. During this period, participants were or were not offered food. Blood samples were taken continuously over a 40-min period to assess changes of cortisol and ghrelin levels, and mood was assessed after the anticipation period. Baseline ghrelin levels were lower in emotional than non-emotional eaters, and this relation was mediated by percent body fat. Ghrelin levels were elevated among women anticipating a stressor, compared to those in the control condition. Additionally, the normal decline of ghrelin following food consumption was not apparent among emotional eaters. Although food intake was not tied to hormone responses, reported hunger was associated with greater food intake for women in the stressor condition. It was suggested that emotional eating coupled with subjective feelings of hunger, might contribute to eating in response to an acute stressor. Additionally, feedback mechanisms controlling the normalization of ghrelin levels might be disturbed in emotional eaters. The similarity of the ghrelin profile of emotional eaters to that of binge eaters and obese individuals, raises the possibility that disturbed ghrelin response might be a risk factor for such conditions. PMID:24295926

  3. The Postprandial Rise in Plasma Cortisol in Men Is Mediated by Macronutrient-Specific Stimulation of Adrenal and Extra-Adrenal Cortisol Production

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Jennifer L.; Andrew, Ruth; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Walker, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Context Circadian variation is a fundamental characteristic of plasma glucocorticoids, with a postprandial rise in cortisol an important feature. The diurnal rhythm is presumed to reflect alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity; however, cortisol is produced not only by the adrenal glands but also by regeneration from cortisone by the enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, mainly in liver and adipose tissue. Objective We tested the contribution of peripheral cortisol regeneration to macronutrient-induced circadian variation of plasma cortisol in humans. Design This was a randomized, single-blinded, crossover study. Setting The study was conducted at a hospital research facility. Participants Eight normal-weight healthy men participated in the study. Interventions Subjects were given isocaloric energy isodense flavor-matched liquid meals composed of carbohydrate, protein, fat, or low-calorie placebo during infusion of the stable isotope tracer 9,11,12,12-[2H]4-cortisol. Outcome Measures and Results Plasma cortisol increased similarly after all macronutrient meals (by ~90 nmol/L) compared with placebo. Carbohydrate stimulated adrenal secretion and extra-adrenal regeneration of cortisol to a similar degree. Protein and fat meals stimulated adrenal cortisol secretion to a greater degree than extra-adrenal cortisol regeneration. The increase in cortisol production by 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 was in proportion to the increase in insulin. The postprandial cortisol rise was not accounted for by decreased cortisol clearance. Conclusions Food-induced circadian variation in plasma cortisol is mediated by adrenal secretion and extra-adrenal regeneration of cortisol. Given that the latter has the more potent effect on tissue cortisol concentrations and that effects on adrenal and extra-adrenal cortisol production are macronutrient specific, this novel mechanism may contribute to the physiological interplay between insulin and glucocorticoids and the contrasting effects of certain diets on postprandial metabolism. PMID:24092834

  4. Salivary Cortisol and Cold Pain Sensitivity in Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Kathryn M; Strachan, Eric; Dansie, Elizabeth; Crofford, Leslie J; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Poeschla, Brian; Succop, Annemarie; Noonan, Carolyn; Afari, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of knowledge about the link between cortisol and pain sensitivity. Purpose We examined the association of salivary cortisol with indices of cold pain sensitivity in 198 female twins and explored the role of familial confounding. Methods Three-day saliva samples were collected for cortisol levels and a cold pressor test was used to collect pain ratings and time to threshold and tolerance. Linear regression modeling with generalized estimating equations examined the overall and within-pair associations. Results Lower diurnal variation of cortisol was associated with higher pain ratings at threshold (p = 0.02) and tolerance (p < 0.01). The relationship of diurnal variation with pain ratings at threshold and tolerance was minimally influenced by familial factors (i.e., genetics and common environment). Conclusions Understanding the genetic and non-genetic mechanisms underlying the link between HPA axis dysregulation and pain sensitivity may help to prevent chronic pain development and maintenance. PMID:23955075

  5. Intimate partner violence and diurnal cortisol patterns in couples.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun K; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M; Shortt, Joann Wu; Squires, Erica C; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization was associated with diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol in a community sample of 122 couples in their 30s from predominantly lower socioeconomic status backgrounds. Findings indicate that women with higher levels of victimization exhibited flatter patterns of diurnal cortisol characterized by both higher midday levels and more attenuated decreases in cortisol levels across the day, compared to women with lower levels of victimization. However, men's victimization was not associated with their diurnal cortisol levels. This study advances our understanding of the association between physical IPV victimization and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in women, which is likely to have further implications for their subsequent mental and physical health. PMID:25286224

  6. Cortisol Response Following Exposure Treatment for PTSD in Rape Victims.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Astin, Millie C; Kelley, Mary

    2010-06-01

    This study examined changes in salivary cortisol levels pre-to-post-treatment in adult female rape victims diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) randomly assigned to be treated with either Prolonged Exposure Therapy or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, session 3, and session 9. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol levels was observed in individuals classified as treatment responders in both treatment conditions. Findings suggest that successful exposure-based treatments for PTSD which result in trauma-related and depressive symptom reduction may impact the action of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as measured by changes in level of salivary cortisol from pre-to-post-treatment. PMID:20526437

  7. Depressive rumination alters cortisol decline in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-07-01

    Depressive rumination - a central characteristic of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) - is a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy that prolongs sad mood and depressive episodes. Considerable research demonstrates the emotional and behavioral consequences of depressive rumination, yet few studies investigate its effect on neuroendocrine functioning. The current study examined the effect of an emotion regulation manipulation on the trajectory of cortisol concentrations among individuals with MDD and healthy controls (CTL). Sadness was induced via forced failure. Participants then were randomly assigned to a depressive rumination or distraction emotion regulation induction. MDDs in the rumination condition exhibited less cortisol decline compared to MDDs in the distraction condition and compared to CTLs in either condition. Findings suggest that depressive rumination alters the trajectory of cortisol secretion in MDD and may prolong cortisol production. Results thereby provide important insights into the interaction of biological and psychological factors through which distress contributes to MDD. PMID:24835412

  8. Catecholamine and cortisol levels in Oxford college rowers.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, R; Ungpakorn, G; Harrison, G A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary catecholamines and cortisol levels in two teams of Oxford college eight oarsmen were compared on three different day types: training days, racing days, and non-rowing days. Adrenaline and cortisol were raised on racing and training days compared to non-racing days. Noradrenaline was raised on training days, reflecting longer periods of physical exercise during training. There was evidence of a progressive lowering of adrenaline output over consecutive race days and that the outcome of the races had an effect on both adrenaline and cortisol. In addition to this there seemed to be differences in cortisol levels between the two teams of rowers on both racing days and non-rowing days. PMID:8800851

  9. The effect of pretreatment of saliva on steroid hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Meulenberg, E P; Hofman, J A

    1990-12-01

    We investigated the effect of the pretreatment (sonification or centrifugation) of saliva samples on the concentration of several steroid hormones as measured with highly specific RIA after extraction and chromatography. It appeared that sonification of saliva resulted in significantly higher values for progesterone, cortisone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and oestradiol (10-49% increase), compared with the levels recorded after centrifugation. No differences were demonstrated for the concentrations of cortisol and androstenedione, except that a sex-dependent difference effect was observed in the values for androstenedione: concentrations measured in sonificated male saliva were lower than those measured in supernatant saliva. PMID:2081963

  10. Hormonal changes during 17 days of head-down bed-rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Arnaud, Sara B.; Monk, Timothy H.; Claustrat, Bruno; Gharib, Claude; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette

    2003-01-01

    We investigated in six men the impact of 17 days of head-down bed rest (HDBR) on the daily rhythms of the hormones involved in hydroelectrolytic regulation. This HDBR study was designed to mimic a real space flight. Urine samples were collected at each voiding before, during and after HDBR. Urinary excretion of Growth Hormone (GH), Cortisol, 6 Sulfatoxymelatonin, Normetadrenaline (NMN) and Metadrenaline (NM) was determined. A decrease in urinary cortisol excretion during the night of HDBR was noted. For GH, a rhythm was found before and during HDBR. The rhythm of melatonin, evaluated with the urine excretion of 6 Sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S), the main hepatic metabolite, persisted throughout the experiment without any modification to the level of phase. A decrease during the night was noted for normetadrenaline urinary derivates, but only during the HDBR.

  11. Effect of training on blood volume and plasma hormone concentrations in the elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. F.; Convertino, V. A.; Wood, C. E.; Graves, J. E.; Lowenthal, D. T.; Pollock, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 6 months of endurance training on resting plasma (PV) and blood volume (BV), and resting hormone and electrolyte concentrations in the elderly. Thirty-eight elderly men and women (ages 60-82 yr) were assigned to endurance exercise training (N = 29) or to control (N = 9) groups. Resting plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, vasopressin, aldosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, sodium, potassium, and protein were measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of 26 wk of training. PV measurement was performed using the Evan's blue dye technique. Endurance training consisted of uphill treadmill walking or stairclimbing exercise 3 times.wk-1, 30-45 min.d-1, at 75-84% of maximal heart rate reserve. The exercise group increased VO2max by 11.2% (P < or = 0.05) and increased resting PV and BV by 11.2% and 12.7% (P < or = 0.05), respectively. Hormone and electrolyte levels in the exercise group remained unchanged; all variables were unchanged in the control group. These results are similar to findings in younger individuals. Because plasma hormone concentrations were maintained despite a chronically elevated BV, endurance training in healthy, elderly subjects may be associated with a resetting of volume receptors.

  12. Temporal relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs in response to

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Temporal relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs in response to adrenal stimulation or suppression R. J. Adcock*, H. G. Kattesh was to document changes in plasma concentrations of total cortisol, porcine corticosteroid-binding globulin (p

  13. Point-of-use measurement of salivary cortisol levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yamaguchi; S. Yoshikawa; Y. Tahara; D. Niwa; Y. Imai; V. Shetty

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to develop a novel methodology to analyze cortisol levels in saliva as an index of neuroendocrine response. In order to realize a portable, rapid and hand held biosensor of cortisol, we proposed an immuno-chromatographic test-strip based biosensor consisting of a disposable test-strip and a monitor. A fabricated disposable type test-strip has a size of 5 ?? 1.5

  14. Elevation of the cortisol\\/dehydroepiandrosterone ratio in schizophrenia patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ritsner; Rachel Maayan; Anatoly Gibel; Rael D Strous; Ilan Modai; Abraham Weizman

    2004-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative DHEA-S are neurosteroids, produced in the brain, and neuroactive steroids, produced in the adrenals and affecting the brain. We compared the ratios of serum cortisol\\/DHEA or DHEA-S in schizophrenia patients with normal subjects, and determined the correlation of these ratios with psychopathology and distress. Early morning plasma concentrations of DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol were

  15. Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    Mossink, Joram C L; Verkuil, Bart; Burger, Andreas M; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Brosschot, Jos F

    2015-01-01

    One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-h ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit, and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 min thereafter (cortisol awakening response). Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems. PMID:25713550

  16. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-06-01

    Worse cognitive performance in older people has been associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation (in particular, higher cortisol levels). Analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a novel method to measure long-term cortisol exposure, and its relationship with cognition in healthy older people has not yet been studied. We investigated whether HCC (measured in hair scalp) and diurnal salivary cortisol levels (awakening, 30min after awakening, and evening, across two days) were related to cognitive performance (assessed with the Trail-making Test A and B, Digit Span Forward and Backward, word list-RAVLT and Stories subtest of the Rivermead) in 57 healthy older people (mean age=64.75 years, SD=4.17). Results showed that lower HCC were consistently related to worse working memory, learning, short-term verbal memory (RAVLT first trial and immediate recall) and long-term verbal memory. In contrast, higher mean levels and higher diurnal area under the curve of diurnal salivary cortisol were related to worse attention and short-term verbal memory (immediate story recall), respectively. Interestingly, a higher ratio of mean levels of diurnal salivary cortisol over HCC were related to worse performance on working memory and short-term verbal memory, suggesting that those individuals with lower long-term cortisol exposure might be more vulnerable to the negative effect of HPA-axis dysregulation on these cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that both low long-term cortisol exposure and a possible dysregulation of the diurnal rhythm of the HPA-axis may account, at least in part, for the inter-individual variability in cognitive performance in healthy older people. PMID:24767624

  17. Concerns Regarding Hair Cortisol as a Biomarker of Chronic Stress in Exercise and Sport Science

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Pühse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.

    2012-01-01

    Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes’ elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels. Key points Hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive and painless means to capture long-term cortisol secretion. Individuals expected to have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to trauma) have increased hair cortisol. Preliminary evidence shows that exercisers have higher hair cortisol levels as well. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol secretion mediates stress-related effects on health and performance. There is a great dearth of knowledge about the relationship between sport, exercise and hair cortisol. PMID:24150065

  18. Adult attachment style and cortisol responses across the day in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Tara; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The association between cortisol and adult attachment style, an important indicator of social relationships, has been relatively unexplored. Previous research has examined adult attachment and acute cortisol responses to stress in the laboratory, but less is known about cortisol levels in everyday life. The present study examined adult romantic attachment style and cortisol responses across the day. Salivary cortisol was collected at six time points during the course of the day in 1,807 healthy men and women from a subsample of the Whitehall II cohort. Significant associations were found between attachment on cortisol across the day and slope of cortisol decline. The lowest cortisol output was associated with fearful attachment, with preoccupied attachment having the highest levels and a flatter cortisol profile. The results tentatively support the proposition that attachment style may contribute to HPA dysregulation. PMID:23808770

  19. Sleep and cortisol interact to support memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Bennion, Kelly A; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Payne, Jessica D

    2015-03-01

    Separate lines of research have demonstrated that rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can the occurrence of sleep soon after encoding. For the first time, we demonstrate that pre-learning cortisol interacts with sleep to benefit memory consolidation, particularly for negative arousing items. Resting cortisol levels during encoding were positively correlated with subsequent memory, but only following a period of sleep. There was no such relation following a period of wakefulness. Using eye tracking, we further reveal that for negative stimuli, this facilitative effect may arise because cortisol strengthens the relationship between looking time at encoding and subsequent memory. We suggest that elevated cortisol may "tag" attended information as important to remember at the time of encoding, thus enabling sleep-based processes to optimally consolidate salient information in a selective manner. Neuroimaging data suggest that this optimized consolidation leads to a refinement of the neural processes recruited for successful retrieval of negative stimuli, with the retrieval of items attended in the presence of elevated cortisol and consolidated over a night of sleep associated with activity in the amygdala and vmPFC. PMID:24072888

  20. Distinct hormonal regulation of Na(+),K(+)-atpase genes in the gill of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Madsen, Steffen S

    2009-11-01

    It has recently become evident that maintenance of ionic homoeostasis in euryhaline salmonids involves a reciprocal shift in expression of two isoforms of the gill Na(+),K(+)-atpase alpha-subunit when the surrounding salinity changes. The present study investigated the regulation of this shift between the alpha1a (freshwater (FW) isoform) and the alpha1b (seawater (SW) isoform) by cortisol, Gh, prolactin (Prl) and Igf 1. Injection with cortisol into FW salmon increased alpha1a expression, while Gh had no effect. Conversely, both cortisol and Gh stimulated alpha1b expression, and a significant synergy was observed. igf1 expression was increased by Gh in both gill and liver, and inhibited by cortisol in the liver. Gill igf1 and gh receptor expression increased in response to cortisol. Injection with Prl into SW salmon compromised their hypo-osmoregulatory performance, selectively reduced the expression of the alpha1b isoform and decreased enzymatic Na(+),K(+)-atpase activity in the gill. Cortisol and Prl reduced gill and liver igf1 expression, and both hormones stimulated gill igf1 receptor expression. In a short-term experiment with incubation of FW gill cell suspensions, cortisol stimulated alpha1a and alpha1b expression, while Igf1 stimulated only alpha1b. The data elaborate our understanding of Prl and Gh as being antagonists in the control of gill ion regulation, and support a dual role for Gh involving endocrine and paracrine Igf1 action. Gh and Prl may be the decisive stimuli that direct cortisol-aided mitochondrion-rich cell development into either secretory or absorptive types. PMID:19696099

  1. Relationship of Plasma Growth Hormone to Slow-Wave Sleep in African Sleeping Sickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manny W. Radomski; Alain Buguet; Félix Doua; Pascal Bogui; Philippe Tapie

    1996-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is a unique disease model of disrupted circadian rhythms in the sleep-wake cycle and cortisol and prolactin secretion. This study examined the temporal relationship between growth hormone (GH) secretion and the sleep-wake cycle in 8 infected African patients and 6 healthy indigenous African subjects. Twenty-four-hour sleep patterns were recorded by polysomnography and hourly blood samples

  2. Effect of three day bed-rest on circulatory and hormonal responses to active orthostatic test in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubala, P.; Smorawinski, J.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Circulatory and hormonal parameters were measured in endurance-trained athletes and control subjects during orthostatic tolerance tests conducted prior to and after three days of bed rest. Heart rate and blood pressure changes due to bed rest appeared to be the same in both groups. Hormonal changes, however, were different between the two groups, with the athletes having decreased sympathoadrenal activity and increased plasma renin activity. Untrained subjects had changes in cortisol secretion only.

  3. Physiological and analytical validations of fecal steroid hormone measures in black howler monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Negrín, Ariadna; Flores-Escobar, Elizabeth; Chavira, Roberto; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Dias, Pedro Américo D

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of hormones in fecal samples allows for the noninvasive assessment of the endocrine status of free-ranging primates. However, procedures and techniques for hormone analysis in feces must be validated, both analytically and physiologically. Few studies have addressed the endocrinology of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Due to its conservation status, direct handling of individuals from this species and invasive sample collection are highly regulated, and therefore traditional methods for the validation of hormone assays, such as pharmacological challenges, are not allowed. As a consequence, sometimes studies of the fecal hormones of free-ranging black howler monkeys do not report physiological validations and therefore the biological reliability of such measurements cannot be assessed. In order to stimulate future research with this species, the present study aimed at providing methodological bases for fecal endocrine monitoring. Specifically, we compared the validity of two immunoassays (radioimmunoassays, RIA; solid-phase chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, SPCEI) performed with commercial kits to measure cortisol, testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone; and demonstrate how the physiological functions of these steroid hormones can be determined through non-pharmacological validations. We found no differences between the analytical validity of RIA and SPCEI assays to measure cortisol and testosterone, whereas for estradiol and progesterone RIA showed better results. Concerning the physiological validation of our assays, we demonstrated that: (1) comparisons between pre- and post-stress situations may be used to assess cortisol response, (2) comparisons between females and males may be used to assess variation in testosterone levels, and (3) comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant females may be used to determine variation in estradiol and progesterone activity. The analytical and physiological validations that we performed demonstrate that there are currently commercial kits that allow for correct endocrine monitoring of this species, and that there are non-pharmacological alternatives to assess the biological validity of hormone measurements. PMID:24939341

  4. TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS 2 AND 4, AND ACUTE PHASE CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION IN DEXAMETHASONE AND GROWTH HORMONE TREATED DAIRY CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle that are exposed to growth hormone stimulants and to stressors that cause cortisol release may have altered immune responses, reducing resistance to disease. Toll-like receptors and acute phase cytokines direct the early response to pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine ch...

  5. Hepatic microsomal membrane lipidic composition and growth hormone effect in adult male rat: evidence for a `feminization' process of total phospholipid fatty acid pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Françoise Guéraud; Alain Paris

    1997-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) effects on fatty acid composition and on ?5-, ?6-, ?9-desaturase and palmitic acid elongation activities were studied in male rat hepatic microsomes. Sham-operated and hypophysectomized animals were injected with two different dosages of GH, mimicking either the male or female GH secretion pattern. Half the hypophysectomized animals received thyroxine and cortisol in concentrations chosen to compensate for

  6. Hormonal status and fluid electrolyte metabolism in motion sickness

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, A.I.; Nichiporuk, I.A.; Yasnetsov, V.V.; Shashkov, V.S.

    1988-04-01

    In the first experimental series, 10 healthy male test subjects with a high susceptibility to motion sickness showed a significant increase of ACTH, cortisol, STH, prolactin, ADH, aldosterone concentrations, and plasma renin activity after vestibular tests. The 10 subjects with a moderate susceptibility exhibited a still higher increase of the hormones, except plasma renin. The 8 test subjects with a low susceptibility displayed a considerable increase in ACTH, cortisol, and STH after vestibular stimulation. In the second experimental series, the increase of STH, cortisol, ADH, aldosterone and renin occurred immediately after rotation in the moderate susceptibility subjects and an hour after exposure in the high susceptibility subjects. This may be indicative of specific immediate adaptation mechanisms or excitation transfer in the CNS in high susceptibility persons. In the third experimental animal series, the permeability of the blood-brain barrier for /sup 125/I and IgG increased after rotation. Greater concentrations of potassium, chloride, and urea in CSF are suggestive of an inhibition process activation in the CNS and, probably, of an active urea transport by the vascular plexus epithelium which maintains constant osmotic pressure of cerebral extracellular fluid and prevents hyper-hydration of CNS neurons.

  7. Correlation of Surgical Pleth Index with Stress Hormones during Propofol-Remifentanil Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinzhong; Thee, Carsten; Gruenewald, Matthias; Ilies, Christoph; Höcker, Jan; Hanss, Robert; Steinfath, Markus; Bein, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    Eighty patients undergoing elective ear-nose-throat surgery were enrolled in the present study to investigate the relationship between surgical pleth index (SPI) and stress hormones (ACTH, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine) during general anaesthesia which was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil using a target-controlled infusion. The study concluded that the SPI had moderate correlation to the stress hormones during general anaesthesia, but no correlation during consciousness. Furthermore, SPI values were able to predict ACTH values with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22973178

  8. Enkephalins and hormonal-metabolic reactions in experimental stress depending on its severity

    SciTech Connect

    Lishmanov, Y.B.; Alekminskaya, L.A.; Lasukova, T.V.

    1985-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the action of enkephalins on changes in hormonal-metabolic constants in stress of varied severity. Catecholamine excretion with the urine was determined fluorometrically, serum cortisol and insulin concentrations were measured radioimmunologically and glucose was determined by the standard orthotoluidine method. The results of the investigation indicate that enkephalins have a modulating effect on various hormonal mechanisms of adaptation stress. The results confirm that the physiological action of the peptide regulator depends on the functional state of the biological systems and it may differ sharply, even to the extent of diametrically opposite effects.

  9. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePLUS

    The endocrine system is made up of organs and tissues that produce hormones. Hormones are natural chemicals produced in one ... hormones that control the other structures in the endocrine system. The amount of these regulating hormones stays about ...

  10. Physiology and possible pathology of growth hormone secretagogues.

    PubMed

    Peñalva, A; Baldelli, R; Camiña, J P; Cerro, A L; Micic, D; Tamburrano, G; Dieguez, C; Casanueva, F F

    2001-01-01

    Growth hormone segretagogues (GHS) are artificial molecules able to stimulate growth hormone (GH) secretion. They were discovered before the hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). These molecules had a structure devoid of opiate activity, and GHRP-6 is the most representative compound. These compounds identified a new physiological system involved in GH regulation, and their action is independent of GHRH or somatostatin. Recently an endogenous ligand for the GHS receptor, ghrelin, was discovered, suggesting that this may be the third factor in the control of GH secretion. This peptide was isolated from the stomach and is characterized by the presence of an acylated group representing a new type of molecular hormonal structure; it is able to stimulate GH secretion in vitro and in vivo in the rat. As observed for the majority of GHS, ghrelin's action is not fully specific for GH release; the acute administration of ghrelin stimulates the release of significant amounts of PRL, ACTH and cortisol. Moreover, the presence of ghrelin in rat and human placenta has been reported, suggesting a possible role of this peptide in the local modulation of GH release and in maternal and fetal pituitary secretion. Ghrelin stimulates gastric acid secretion, is able to induce adiposity by activating a central mechanism for increasing food intake and decreasing fat utilization, and ghrelin mRNA and peptide are expressed in normal and adenomatous human pituitary tissue. Possible therapeutic applications of ghrelin remain to be assessed. PMID:11964014

  11. Biological sex and menstrual cycle phase modulation of cortisol levels and psychiatric symptoms in a non-clinical sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Walder, Deborah J; Statucka, Marta; Daly, Maureen P; Axen, Kathleen; Haber, Margalit

    2012-05-30

    Prior research examined the complex, bidirectional interplay of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes and their roles in (clinical) cognitive/behavioral functions. Less well understood are contemporaneous relationships in non-clinical samples. This pilot study explored cortisol in relation to psychiatric symptoms/personality as a function of self-reported menstrual cycle phase and sex differences in a non-clinical, young adult sample. Consistent with literature and hypotheses, cortisol levels were lowest during early-follicular, intermediary during late-follicular, and highest during mid-luteal phases (not significant), and greater among males than early-follicular females. An acute stressor uniformly affected cortisol across phases and sex, though magnitude and time course differed. Psychiatric symptoms were greater among early-follicular/late-follicular females versus males, and early-follicular and/or late-follicular versus mid-luteal. Contrary to hypotheses, positive psychotic-like symptoms were greater among males than (mid-luteal) females. Cortisol inversely related to early-follicular symptoms, and directly related to late-follicular/mid-luteal symptoms. Results suggest menstrual cycle phase modulates non-clinical psychiatric symptomatology and HPA activity. Findings tentatively bolster a dimensional/continuum model of psychopathology with implications for understanding neurobiological underpinnings and risk/protective factors for mental/physical health conditions, particularly those marked by sex differences and neuroendocrine dysfunction (depression/schizophrenia/Alzheimer's/multiple sclerosis). We speculate a dose-response cortisol effect on symptoms, modulated by endogenous gonadal hormones via gene expression. PMID:22364929

  12. Determination of urinary cortisol, cortisone and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin using dilute and shoot ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sniecinska-Cooper, Anna Maria; Shah, Ajit Jesang; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Iles, Ray Kruse; Butler, Stephen Andrew; Bayford, Richard

    2015-01-26

    Human sleep is a natural part of every individual's life. Clear relationship between sleep and endocrine system has been already established. In particular, melatonin and cortisol are known to affect and regulate sleep/wake patterns. Here we report the development of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous measurement of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (MT6s), cortisol and cortisone in urine. A separate method was developed for measurement of creatinine in urine. These levels were used to normalise the levels of analytes. First void morning urine samples were collected from 24 healthy volunteers. Samples were diluted 1:1 in water prior to injection onto reversed-phase C18 column and analysed using UHPLC-MS/MS method. Linear calibrations were obtained for all analytes with correlation coefficient in the range 0.998-0.999. The observed concentration was found to be in the range 92-105% for cortisol, 92-107% for cortisone and between 93 and 120% for MT6s of the reference levels. The total run time of 6 min with all peaks of interest eluting within 3 min was obtained. This demonstrates the feasibility of utilising the method for large multi-scale studies, where high throughput is required for studying the circadian rhythm of melatonin and cortisol secretion. These hormones play significant role in circadian rhythm and sleep/wake cycle; therefore it is important to monitor the levels of these endocrine markers in individuals suffering from sleep disorders. It is also beneficial with clinical applications to analyse melatonin and cortisol simultaneously in order to assess their interrelationships of these substances, such as their effect on diurnal rhythm and sleep. PMID:25531866

  13. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  14. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between nonpregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentrations were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva. PMID:25700267

  15. Bone and thyroid hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Tremollieres; J. M. Pouilles; J. P. Louvet; C. Ribot

    1989-01-01

    Bone tissue metabolism in influenced by thyroid hormones. Excess endogenous (hyperthyroidism), and exogenous (thyrotoxicosis) thyroid hormones are well known causes of bone loss (1,2), great enough to be responsible for fractures. Lately, a few studies using noninvasive methods for bone mass measurements, have reported the possibility of bone loss in subjects receiving thyroid hormone replacement therapy. These results are of

  16. Acutely elevated vasopressin increases circulating concentrations of cortisol and aldosterone in fasting northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo; Talamantes, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The physiological actions of vasopressin (VP) in marine mammals are not well defined. To help elucidate its hormonal and renal effects in this group of mammals, northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups (N=7; 99+/-4 kg) were first infused with 0.9% saline (control; 220 ml), followed 24 h later with VP (as a 20 ng kg(-1) bolus, then 2 ng kg(-1) min(-1) for approximately 35 min in 225+/-16 ml saline). During both control and VP periods, blood samples were collected prior to infusion, and 15, 30, 60, 120 min and 24 h after infusion to examine the hormonal responses of the pups to VP. Renal responses were quantified from 24 h urine samples obtained prior to infusion (control) and 24 h post-infusion. Compared to the control period, infusion of VP increased plasma concentrations of cortisol over a 120 min period and aldosterone over 30 min, while plasma renin activity (PRA) was decreased for a 120 min period. The plasma urea:creatinine ratio was elevated following infusion of VP. Urine output and osmotic clearance were increased by 69+/-18% (mean +/- S.E.M.) and 36+/-10%, respectively, but free water clearance and glomerular filtration rate were not significantly altered 24 h post-infusion of VP. Solute (osmolality, Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-)) excretion and fractional excretion of electrolytes were also increased when compared to control values. The increase in cortisol concentration suggests that VP may possess corticotropin releasing hormone-like activity in elephant seals. If osmotic diuresis and natriuresis are typical consequences of elevated [VP] in fasting pups, then not increasing VP normally during the fast may serve as a protective mechanism to avoid the potential loss of Na(+) induced by elevated [VP]. Therefore, under natural fasting conditions, pups may be highly sensitive to small changes in [VP], resulting in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance.

  17. Relations of plasma acth and cortisol levels with the distribution and function of peripheral blood cells in response to a behavioral challenge in breast cancer: An empirical exploration by means of statistical modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gieta van der Pompe; Michael H. Antoni; Hugo J. Duivenvoorden; Cobi J. Heijnen

    1997-01-01

    This study explores by means of statistical modeling the relations between adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) and Cortisol\\u000a levels and distribution and function of peripheral blood cells in response to an acute stressor consisting of a standardized\\u000a speech task in breast cancer patients with axillary lymphnode metastases and distant metastases. As a control group age-matched\\u000a women participated in this study. The preliminary

  18. Relative adrenal failure in intensive care: an identifiable problem requiring treatment?

    PubMed

    Beishuizen, A; Thijs, L G

    2001-12-01

    Adequate adrenocortical function is essential to survive critical illness. Most critically ill patients display an elevated plasma cortisol level, reflecting activation of the pituitary-adrenal axis, which is considered to be a homeostatic adaptation. In the setting of critical illness, the failure of an appropriate neuroendocrine response can lead to the picture of vasopressor-dependent refractory hypotension. This state of relative or functional adrenal insufficiency is characterized by an inadequate production of cortisol in relation to an increased demand during periods of severe stress, particularly prolonged critical illness such as multi-organ failure. This clinical entity, however, lacks clear-cut diagnostic criteria. What are the appropriate cortisol concentrations in the critically ill? Should base-line and adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated cortisol concentrations be assessed? The classical adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test is often used, but there are problems with interpreting its results. Other diagnostic tools, such as the low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone test and relative eosinophilia, are promising but also lack proper criteria. A prompt response to hydrocortisone treatment is a major clue to the diagnosis. Recent studies with stress doses of hydrocortisone in sepsis and septic shock have shown a marked haemodynamic improvement, but whether patients with relative adrenal dysfunction benefit most from this treatment and whether there is definitely an effect on outcome is still undecided. PMID:11800521

  19. Ageing and maintenance of the interstitial fluid traffic: possible roles of initial lymphatics and circadian hormones.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, Sven

    2005-01-01

    It is here proposed that the interstitial fluid traffic depends on the widespread system of initial lymphatics without valves. The filtered fluid forced by the interstitial hydrostatic pressure enters initial lymphatics through loose junctions in segments that are near arterial ends of blood capillaries. Loose junctions might also allow fluid to leave initial lymphatics in segments that are near the venous ends of blood capillaries. Thus, initial lymphatics help daily transfer of 24 L of interstitial fluid from points of filtration to the points of resorption. Muscle contractions compress initial lymphatics and force the intraluminal content to enter collecting lymphatics. Contractions are needed to re-establish initial lymphatics as interstitial fluid shortcuts. Even small differences in interstitial flow can become important and lead to uneven flow distribution that might damage tissue and accelerate ageing. The proposed model of interstitial traffic maintenance requires three separate effects: (a) Thyroid hormones and control of tissue metabolism. It directly affects the cell shape and size, synthesis or degradation of interstitial material. Thyroid hormones control metabolic rates and prevent accumulation of interstitial material, as can be seen in severe hypothyroidism. (b) Somatotropin anabolic effects. Somatotropin increases number and volumes of cells, synthesis of interstitial material. These actions increase interstitial flow resistance. (c) Cortisol catabolic action. A cortisol induced tissue catabolism reduces the interstitial flow resistance toward normal. The presented idea is that known rhythms of GH and cortisol (GH during night sleep and cortisol in the morning) separate anabolic and catabolic actions in time, or otherwise they would diminish each other. The model predicts that the maintenance would be best during growth, when GH surges are higher. GH and cortisol are secreted together in cases of trauma, stress or starvation. Since this would probably block the proposed mechanism, a possible speculation is that frequent repetitions of stressful conditions accelerate ageing. The same prediction can be made for the long term glucocorticoid administration. PMID:15607572

  20. Effect of 5-azacytidine and cortisol on the P1798 cortisol-sensitive and non-resistant lymphosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, C.

    1986-01-01

    The P1798 lymphosarcoma is a tumor with both cortisol-sensitive (CS) and cortisol-resistant (CR) lines. Although differences between the CS and CR cells have been reported, none can fully explain the detailed mechanism of glucocorticoid resistance in CR tumors. Recently, it was shown that 5-azacytidine treatment could generate CS cells from CR SAK lymphoma cells in vitro. The present study examined the effect of combination treatment with 5-azacytidine and cortisol on the growth of the P1798 lymphosarcoma. 5-Azacytidine rendered the P1798 CR tumors partially cortisol-sensitive, and enhanced the cortisol-induced regression of the P1798 CS tumors. Survival of mice bearing both CS and CR P1798 tumors was increased by combination treatment. Similar whole cell and nuclear binding of /sup 3/H-TA were observed in both 5-azacytidine-treated and control P1798 tumors. However, CR nuclei retained 64% of the whole cell binding of /sup 3/H-TA compared to 25-29% nuclear retention in CS tumors. DNA methylation in tumors from 5-azacytidine-treated mice decreased to 53% (CS) and 42% (CR) of control. Since 5-azacytidine did not result in any change in thymidine labeling index or cell cycle distribution in P1798 tumors, it would appear to be cytostatic rather than cytotoxic to P1798 tumors. Three cell lines have been isolated from the P1798 lymphosarcoma: two are cortisol-sensitive both in vivo and in vitro, while the other is cortisol-resistant. Results from this study suggest that glucocorticoid resistance is a reversible process, and that the effect of 5-azacytidine on the P1798 CR tumor is at the gene expression level.

  1. Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.L., E-mail: lana.miller@uleth.ca; Hontela, A.

    2011-06-01

    Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC{sub 50} > 2000 mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC{sub 50} = 8.7 mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC{sub 50} = 90.4 mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. - Research Highlights: > We investigated species-specific sensitivity to Se in trout adrenocortical cells. > Selenite, not Se-Met, disrupts cortisol secretion in trout adrenocortical cells. > Rainbow trout cells are more sensitive than brook trout cells to selenite toxicity. > Superoxide dismutase may protect adrenocortical cells from selenite toxicity.

  2. Was sind hormone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlson, P.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the meaning of the term hormone has changed during the last decades. Morphological studies of secreting cells lead Feyrter to the concept of paracrine action of some hormones. While endocrine regulators are blood-borne, paracrine messengers reach their target cells through the diffusion in the intracellular space. Though it is rather difficult to draw a line between true hormones and hormone-like substances, valid definitions for endocrine and paracrine regulatory systems can be given. The term ‘hormonal control’ should be restricted to endocrine systems. For effectors acting by paracrine mechanisms, the term paramone is proposed in this article.

  3. Regulation of intra-adipose cortisol concentrations in vivo in humans 

    E-print Network

    Hughes, Katherine Ann

    2011-07-05

    Intra-adipose cortisol is derived from the systemic circulation via the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis (HPAA) and generated locally through conversion of inactive cortisone to cortisol by the intra-cellular enzyme ...

  4. Trait and state perseverative cognition and the cortisol awakening response.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Peggy M; Dickerson, Sally S; Yim, Ilona S

    2011-05-01

    Perseverative cognition (i.e., rumination, worry) may amplify or maintain cortisol stress responses. The present study examined the effects of trait and state perseverative cognition (PC) on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). We hypothesized that trait PC and state (prior day's) PC would be associated with greater CARs. Undergraduates scoring high (N=77) and low (N=42) on trait PC were included. Participants reported worries about upcoming events and ruminations on past events that occurred throughout the day as a measure of state PC. The next morning, saliva samples were collected 0, 30, 45, and 60min after awakening to assess the CAR. Area under the curve (AUC) and 30-min increase (30-min Inc) were calculated to capture the salivary cortisol total output and increase relative to baseline in the hour after awakening. There was no effect of trait PC on the CAR. In contrast, reports of worrying and/or ruminating the night before predicted greater increases in cortisol concentration and total cortisol output compared to those who neither ruminated nor worried the night before. These effects were not accounted for by depressed mood, anxiety, sleep, or recent stressors. Findings suggest differential effects of trait and state PC on the CAR and highlight the importance of using proximal measures in examining individual differences in the CAR. PMID:21050668

  5. Mirtazapine acutely inhibits salivary cortisol concentrations in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Laakmann, Gregor; Hennig, Jürgen; Baghai, Thomas; Schüle, Cornelius

    2004-12-01

    Mirtazapine has been shown to acutely inhibit cortisol secretion in healthy subjects. In the current study, the impact of mirtazapine treatment on salivary cortisol secretion was investigated in 12 patients with major depression (DSM-IV criteria). Patients were treated with mirtazapine for 3 weeks, receiving 15 mg of mirtazapine on day 0, 30 mg on day 1, and 45 mg per day from day 2 to the end of the study (day 21). Response to mirtazapine treatment was defined by a reduction of at least 50% in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression after 3 weeks of therapy. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before treatment (day -1), at the beginning of treatment (day 0), after 1 week (day 7), and after 3 weeks (day 21) of treatment with mirtazapine. Saliva samples were collected hourly from 8 am to 8 pm. A significant reduction in cortisol concentrations was already noted after 1 day of mirtazapine treatment which was comparable in responders and in nonresponders. Mirtazapine therefore appears to be an effective in decreasing hypercortisolism in depression. However, the importance of the acute inhibitory effects of mirtazapine on cortisol secretion for its antidepressant efficacy has to be further clarified. PMID:15677428

  6. Motivation, stress, anxiety, and cortisol responses in elite paragliders.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Alix, Deborah; Rouveix, Matthieu; Le Scanff, Christine

    2007-06-01

    In this study metamotivational dominance (measured with the Telic Dominance Scale), precompetition anxiety (evaluated with the CSAI-2), perceived stress (measured with the Perceived Stress Scale), and cortisol responses by 10 paragliding competitors prior to and following a paragliding competition were examined. Saliva was collected for each subject for cortisol analysis on eight occasions: during a resting day (baseline values) and prior to and after competition. Analysis indicated subjects were all paratelic-dominant (characterized by a desire for high arousal, a focus on the present). Scores were high on the Perceived Stress Scale and cognitive nxiety (a telic emotion). Cortisol values showed a significant increase early on the day of the competition and remained elevated all the day, with highest concentrations at the start. Participants' cognitive anxiety and cortisol responses were significantly correlated .79 just before the jump and the direction of the cognitive anxiety was rated as facilitative of performance. These results may suggest that the more frequently the subject is playful in life, the more cortisol they produce when aroused in a less frequent telic state. PMID:17879661

  7. Towards Engineering Hormone-Binding Globulins as Drug Delivery Agents

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wee Lee; Zhou, Aiwu; Read, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of many diseases such as cancer requires the use of drugs that can cause severe side effects. Off-target toxicity can often be reduced simply by directing the drugs specifically to sites of diseases. Amidst increasingly sophisticated methods of targeted drug delivery, we observed that Nature has already evolved elegant means of sending biological molecules to where they are needed. One such example is corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the major carrier of the anti-inflammatory hormone, cortisol. Targeted release of cortisol is triggered by cleavage of CBG's reactive centre loop by elastase, a protease released by neutrophils in inflamed tissues. This work aimed to establish the feasibility of exploiting this mechanism to carry therapeutic agents to defined locations. The reactive centre loop of CBG was altered with site-directed mutagenesis to favour cleavage by other proteases, to alter the sites at which it would release its cargo. Mutagenesis succeeded in making CBG a substrate for either prostate specific antigen (PSA), a prostate-specific serine protease, or thrombin, a key protease in the blood coagulation cascade. PSA is conspicuously overproduced in prostatic hyperplasia and is, therefore, a good way of targeting hyperplastic prostate tissues. Thrombin is released during clotting and consequently is ideal for conferring specificity to thrombotic sites. Using fluorescence-based titration assays, we also showed that CBG can be engineered to bind a new compound, thyroxine-6-carboxyfluorescein, instead of its physiological ligand, cortisol, thereby demonstrating that it is possible to tailor the hormone binding site to deliver a therapeutic drug. In addition, we proved that the efficiency with which CBG releases bound ligand can be increased by introducing some well-placed mutations. This proof-of-concept study has raised the prospect of a novel means of targeted drug delivery, using the serpin conformational change to combat the problem of off-target effects in the treatment of diseases. PMID:25426859

  8. Towards engineering hormone-binding globulins as drug delivery agents.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wee Lee; Zhou, Aiwu; Read, Randy J

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of many diseases such as cancer requires the use of drugs that can cause severe side effects. Off-target toxicity can often be reduced simply by directing the drugs specifically to sites of diseases. Amidst increasingly sophisticated methods of targeted drug delivery, we observed that Nature has already evolved elegant means of sending biological molecules to where they are needed. One such example is corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the major carrier of the anti-inflammatory hormone, cortisol. Targeted release of cortisol is triggered by cleavage of CBG's reactive centre loop by elastase, a protease released by neutrophils in inflamed tissues. This work aimed to establish the feasibility of exploiting this mechanism to carry therapeutic agents to defined locations. The reactive centre loop of CBG was altered with site-directed mutagenesis to favour cleavage by other proteases, to alter the sites at which it would release its cargo. Mutagenesis succeeded in making CBG a substrate for either prostate specific antigen (PSA), a prostate-specific serine protease, or thrombin, a key protease in the blood coagulation cascade. PSA is conspicuously overproduced in prostatic hyperplasia and is, therefore, a good way of targeting hyperplastic prostate tissues. Thrombin is released during clotting and consequently is ideal for conferring specificity to thrombotic sites. Using fluorescence-based titration assays, we also showed that CBG can be engineered to bind a new compound, thyroxine-6-carboxyfluorescein, instead of its physiological ligand, cortisol, thereby demonstrating that it is possible to tailor the hormone binding site to deliver a therapeutic drug. In addition, we proved that the efficiency with which CBG releases bound ligand can be increased by introducing some well-placed mutations. This proof-of-concept study has raised the prospect of a novel means of targeted drug delivery, using the serpin conformational change to combat the problem of off-target effects in the treatment of diseases. PMID:25426859

  9. Spontaneous involution of a Rathke's cleft cyst in a patient with normal cortisol secretion

    PubMed Central

    Munich, Stephan A.; Leonardo, Jody

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) is a lesion derived from maldeveloped remnants of a dorsal invagination of the stomodeal ectoderm (Rathke's pouch). Although commonly found on autopsy, these lesions rarely become symptomatic during an individual's lifetime. When symptoms occur, they most often include headaches, visual disturbances, and/or varying degrees of hypopituitarism. The natural history remains unclear. The current standard of care includes surgical drainage and biopsy of the cyst wall or surgical resection of symptomatic lesions; however, debate exists regarding the management of asymptomatic lesions. Rare reports of spontaneously resolving RCC can be found in the literature. Case Description: We describe the management of a case of RCC in an 8½-year-old girl who presented with a history of growth deceleration since 4 years of age and near-growth arrest since 7 years of age. Her parents also described a tendency towards polydipsia since she was 2 years of age. Endocrine evaluation revealed growth hormone deficiency, central hypothyroidism, and diabetes insipidus, but normal cortisol secretion. The patient experienced no symptoms characteristic of intracranial or sellar mass. Neurologic examination was normal; formal ophthalmologic examination revealed no deficits. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was consistent with RCC. The patient was treated medically for her hormone deficiencies. Over the next year, her sellar mass spontaneously involuted. Twenty-seven months after her initial presentation to our clinic, imaging revealed no sellar mass; the patient remained on hormone replacement therapy. Conclusion: Although the natural history of RCC requires further study, observation with serial MRI may be an acceptable management strategy in the absence of debilitating symptoms. PMID:22574251

  10. Radioimmunoassay and chemical ionization/mass spectrometry compared for plasma cortisol determination

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, C. (AB Draco, Lund, Sweden); Johnson, S.; Hedner, P.; Gustafsson, A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for determination of cortisol in plasma and urine, based on chemical ionization/mass spectrometry with deuterium-labeled cortisol as the internal standard. The within-run precision (CV) was 2.5-5.7%, the between-run precision 4.6%. Results by this method were compared with those by a radioimmunological method (RIANEN Cortisol, New England Nuclear) for 395 plasma samples. The latter method gave significantly higher (approx. 25%) cortisol values.

  11. Light at night alters daily patterns of cortisol and clock proteins in female Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, T A; Galan, A; Vaughn, C A; Weil, Z M; Nelson, R J

    2013-06-01

    Humans and other organisms have adapted to a 24-h solar cycle in response to life on Earth. The rotation of the planet on its axis and its revolution around the sun cause predictable daily and seasonal patterns in day length. To successfully anticipate and adapt to these patterns in the environment, a variety of biological processes oscillate with a daily rhythm of approximately 24 h in length. These rhythms arise from hierarchally-coupled cellular clocks generated by positive and negative transcription factors of core circadian clock gene expression. From these endogenous cellular clocks, overt rhythms in activity and patterns in hormone secretion and other homeostatic processes emerge. These circadian rhythms in physiology and behaviour can be organised by a variety of cues, although they are most potently entrained by light. In recent history, there has been a major change from naturally-occurring light cycles set by the sun, to artificial and sometimes erratic light cycles determined by the use of electric lighting. Virtually every individual living in an industrialised country experiences light at night (LAN) but, despite its prevalence, the biological effects of such unnatural lighting have not been fully considered. Using female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), we investigated the effects of chronic nightly exposure to dim light on daily rhythms in locomotor activity, serum cortisol concentrations and brain expression of circadian clock proteins (i.e. PER1, PER2, BMAL1). Although locomotor activity remained entrained to the light cycle, the diurnal fluctuation of cortisol concentrations was blunted and the expression patterns of clock proteins in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hippocampus were altered. These results demonstrate that chronic exposure to dim LAN can dramatically affect fundamental cellular function and emergent physiology. PMID:23489976

  12. Mapping the human corticotropin releasing hormone binding protein gene (CRHBP) to the long arm of chromosome 5 (5q11.2-q13.3)

    SciTech Connect

    Vamvakopoulos, N.C. [Univ. of Thessaly School of Medicine, Larisa (Greece)] [Univ. of Thessaly School of Medicine, Larisa (Greece); Sioutopoulou, T.O. [Univ. of Athens Medical School (Greece)] [Univ. of Athens Medical School (Greece); Durkin, S.A. [American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD (United States)] [American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Unexpected stimulation or stress activates the heat shock protein (hsp) system at the cellular level and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the level of the whole organism. At the molecular level, these two systems communicate through the functional interaction between hsp90 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) system regulates the mammalian stress response by coordinating the activity of the HPA axis. It consists of the 41-amino-acid-long principal hypothalamic secretagogue for pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), CRH, its receptor (CRHR), and its binding protein (CRHBP). Because of its central role in the coordination of stress response and whole body homeostasis, the CRH system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroendocrine and psychiatric disease. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Growth hormone-releasing hormone resistance in pseudohypoparathyroidism type ia: new evidence for imprinting of the Gs alpha gene.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Maghnie, Mohamad; Weber, Giovanna; De Menis, Ernesto; Brunelli, Valeria; Cappa, Marco; Loli, Paola; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna

    2003-09-01

    Heterozygous inactivating mutations in the Gs alpha gene cause Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. Consistent with the observation that only maternally inherited mutations lead to resistance to hormone action [pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia)], recent studies provided evidence for a predominant maternal origin of Gs alpha transcripts in endocrine organs, such as thyroid, gonad, and pituitary. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of pituitary resistance to hypothalamic hormones acting via Gs alpha-coupled receptors in patients with PHP Ia. Six of nine patients showed an impaired GH responsiveness to GHRH plus arginine, consistent with a complete GH deficiency (GH peak from 2.6-8.6 microg/liter, normal > 16.5), and partial (GH peak 13.9 and 13.6 microg/liter) and normal responses were found in two and one patient, respectively. Accordingly, IGF-I levels were below and in the low-normal range in seven and two patients. All patients had a normal cortisol response to 1 microg ACTH test, suggesting a normal corticotroph function that was confirmed by a normal ACTH and cortisol response to CRH test in three patients. In conclusion, we report that in addition to PTH and TSH resistance, patients with PHP Ia display variable degrees of GHRH resistance, consistent with Gs alpha imprinting in human pituitary. PMID:12970263

  14. SERUM CORTISOL CONCENTRATIONS IN GILTS AND SOWS HOUSED IN TETHER STALLS, GESTATION STALLS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    SERUM CORTISOL CONCENTRATIONS IN GILTS AND SOWS HOUSED IN TETHER STALLS, GESTATION STALLS VARIATIONS DE LA CONCENTRATION EN CORTISOL SÉRIQUE CHEZ LA TRUIE SUIVANT LES CONDITIONS DE LOGEMENT. &horbar'eexpérience les jeunes truies sont à l'attache ou en cage individuelle, le cortisol sérique est dosé et les

  15. Stress and Parental Care in a Wild Teleost Fish: Insights from Exogenous Supraphysiological Cortisol Implants

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    Cortisol Implants * Corresponding author; e-mail: coconno4@connect.carleton.ca. Physiological some of the consequences of stress during this challenging pe- riod, we injected fish with cortisol suspended in coconut oil to experimentally raise circulating cortisol in parental males for the first week

  16. EFFECT OF DIETARY CORTISOL ADMINISTRATION ON GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS, AND REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF CHANNEL CATFISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of cortisol administration on reproductive performance was investigated in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus broodfish. Cortisol was added to a commercial catfish feed by dissolving in ethanol and spraying the feed to yield a dietary concentration of 150 mg/kg feed. The cortisol diet ...

  17. The consequences of short-term cortisol elevation on individual physiology and growth rate in wild

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    The consequences of short-term cortisol elevation on individual physiology and growth rate in wild stress in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Cortisol implants [50 mg·(kg body mass)­1] were used 2007. Through mark-and- recapture, we compared survival, growth, and plasma biochemistry of cortisol

  18. The costs of dominance: testosterone, cortisol and intestinal parasites in wild male chimpanzees

    E-print Network

    Muehlenbein, Michael

    The costs of dominance: testosterone, cortisol and intestinal parasites in wild male chimpanzees://www.bpsmedicine.com/content/4/1/21 (9 December 2010) #12;RESEARCH Open Access The costs of dominance: testosterone, cortisol increased metabolic rates and immunosuppression. Cortisol also limits immune and reproductive functions

  19. A phenomenological model for circadian and sleep allostatic modulation of plasma cortisol concentration

    E-print Network

    A phenomenological model for circadian and sleep allostatic modulation of plasma cortisol cortisol concentration. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 303: E1190­E1201, 2012. First published September 25 in the regulation of plasma cortisol concentration by the hypothalamo- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Numerous

  20. Individual Variability and Fitness Consequences of Stress-induced Cortisol in Wild Fish

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    Individual Variability and Fitness Consequences of Stress-induced Cortisol in Wild Fish By Katrina fitness measures. I explored these issues in wild fish by measuring cortisol, the primary GC in fish-induced cortisol is repeatable overall and intra-individual variation is influenced by individual size

  1. Right Frontal Brain Activity, Cortisol, and Withdrawal Behavior in 6-Month-Old Infants

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Right Frontal Brain Activity, Cortisol, and Withdrawal Behavior in 6-Month-Old Infants Kristin A examined anterior asymmetric brain electrical activity and cortisol in infants, children, and adults, the direct association between asymmetry and cortisol has not systematically been reported. In nonhuman

  2. Natural variation in gestational cortisol is associated with patterns of growth in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix geoffroyi)

    E-print Network

    French, Jeffrey A.

    Natural variation in gestational cortisol is associated with patterns of growth in marmoset monkeys Developmental trajectories Multi-level modeling a b s t r a c t High levels of prenatal cortisol have been previously reported to retard fetal growth. Although cortisol plays a pivotal role in prenatal maturation

  3. Validation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measurement of faecal cortisol in fish

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    Validation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measurement of faecal cortisol in fish Samuel J) for cortisol was appropriate for monitoring adrenocortical activity in faecal casts of ¢shes. Perfor- mance of the cortisol ELISAwas validated by compar- ison to high-performance liquid chromatography, which

  4. Acute Stressors and Cortisol Responses: A Theoretical Integration and Synthesis of Laboratory Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally S. Dickerson; Margaret E. Kemeny

    2004-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviews 208 laboratory studies of acute psychological stressors and tests a theoretical model delineating conditions capable of eliciting cortisol responses. Psychological stressors increased cortisol levels; however, effects varied widely across tasks. Consistent with the theoretical model, motivated performance tasks elicited cortisol responses if they were uncontrollable or characterized by social-evaluative threat (task performance could be negatively judged by

  5. Inverted-U shape relationship between cortisol and learning in ground squirrels

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Jill M.

    Inverted-U shape relationship between cortisol and learning in ground squirrels Jill M. Mateo the elevated cortisol observed in juvenile Belding's ground squir- rels (Spermophilus beldingi) at natal and decreased basal cortisol levels interfere with acquisition and retention of an association between a warning

  6. Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia J. Lupien; Susan de Santi; Antonio Convit; Chaim Tarshish; Mira Thakur; Bruce S. McEwen; Richard L. Hauger; Michael J. Meaney

    1998-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels produce hippocampal dysfunction and correlate with individual deficits in spatial learning in aged rats. Previously we related persistent cortisol increases to memory impairments in elderly humans studied over five years. Here we demonstrate that aged humans with significant prolonged cortisol elevations showed reduced hippocampal volume and deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory tasks compared to normal-cortisol controls. Moreover, the

  7. The modulatory effect in vitro of oestradiol-17?, testosterone or cortisol on the output

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The modulatory effect in vitro of oestradiol-17?, testosterone or cortisol on the output of 17. The effect of oestradiol-170, testosterone or cortisol in the incubation medium (1 wg/m11 upon s doses of s-GtH (3.91-500 ng/ml). Testosterone and cortisol stimulated significantly 17CB',20¡3-0H

  8. Cortisol Variation in Humans Affects Memory for Emotionally Laden and Neutral Information

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Cortisol Variation in Humans Affects Memory for Emotionally Laden and Neutral Information Heather C of Wisconsin--Madison In a test of the effects of cortisol on emotional memory, 90 men were orally administered placebo or 20 or 40 mg cortisol and presented with emotionally arousing and neutral stimuli. On memory

  9. Entrainment of peripheral clock genes by cortisol.1 Panteleimon D. Mavroudis,a

    E-print Network

    Androulakis, Ioannis (Yannis)

    1 Entrainment of peripheral clock genes by cortisol.1 Authors:2 Panteleimon D. Mavroudis,a Jeremy D clock genes by cortisol15 16 * Corresponding author:17 Ioannis P. Androulakis18 Biomedical Engineering of peripheral clock genes by cortisol as a33 representative entrainer of peripheral cells. This model

  10. Effects of insulin, cortisol and prolactin on lipid, protein and casein syntheses in goat mammary tissue

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of insulin, cortisol and prolactin on lipid, protein and casein syntheses in goat mammary of insulin, prolactin and cortisol on protein, lipid and casein syntheses were examined in goat mammary or not with cortisol. Casein synthesis was stimulated only when prolactin was present in the culture medium. Prolactin

  11. Cortisol's effects on hippocampal activation in depressed patients are related to alterations in memory formation

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Cortisol's effects on hippocampal activation in depressed patients are related to alterations Keywords: Hippocampus Cortisol Memory Depression fMRI Emotion a b s t r a c t Many investigators have hypothesized that brain response to cortisol is altered in depression. However, neural activation in response

  12. Teaching In The Laboratory A laboratory exercise to illustrate increased salivary cortisol in response to

    E-print Network

    Vleck, Carol

    Teaching In The Laboratory A laboratory exercise to illustrate increased salivary cortisol. A laboratory exercise to illustrate increased salivary cortisol in response to three stressful conditions using to illustrate the response of salivary cortisol concentrations to three stressful conditions. Twelve under

  13. Liaison spcifique du cortisol aux protines plasmatiques chez le Cobaye, de la naissance au sevrage

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Liaison spécifique du cortisol aux protéines plasmatiques chez le Cobaye, de la naissance au Aubière, France. Summary. Specific binding of cortisol to plasma protein in the guinea-pig from birth : - the concentration of plasma cortisol by competitive binding to protein ; - the association constant, Ka, and total

  14. Neural activity and diurnal variation of cortisol: Evidence from brain electrical tomography analysis and

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Neural activity and diurnal variation of cortisol: Evidence from brain electrical tomography electroencephalographic and cortisol were obtained from healthy and anhedonic groups. Low-resolution electromagnetic found a relationship between current density in beta and gamma bands and steeper cortisol slope

  15. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  16. Effects of Tricaine Methanesulfonate, Hypno, Metomidate, Quinaldine, and Salt on Plasma Cortisol Levels following Acute

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Effects of Tricaine Methanesulfonate, Hypno, Metomidate, Quinaldine, and Salt on Plasma Cortisol.--Blood plasma cortisol concentration is an indicator of stress in fish, and anesthetics may serve to ameliorate stress and reduce the cortisol response. Previous studies have concentrated on cold- and warmwater

  17. Original article Urinary cortisol as an additional tool to assess the

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Urinary cortisol as an additional tool to assess the welfare of pregnant sows kept ­ The use of urinary cortisol (UC) as an additional tool to evaluate sows welfare was as- sessed in two experiments. In a preliminary methodological experiment, the kinetics of cortisol ex- cretion in urine

  18. Inverted-U Function Between Salivary Cortisol and Retrieval of Verbal Memory After Hydrocortisone Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor Domes; Julia Rothfischer; Ursula Reichwald; Martin Hautzinger

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of a single oral dose of hydrocortisone (cortisol) on retrieval of verbal and nonverbal declarative memory. Fifty-nine healthy participants were randomly assigned to either receive 25 mg cortisol or a placebo 45 min before retrieval in a standardized memory test procedure. There was no global effect of cortisol on either verbal or nonverbal memory.

  19. An investigation into the relationship between salivary cortisol, stress, anxiety and depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kav Vedhara; Jeremy Miles; Paul Bennett; Sue Plummer; Deborah Tallon; Emily Brooks; Lone Gale; Katherine Munnoch; Christa Schreiber-Kounine; Clare Fowler; Stafford Lightman; Alistair Sammon; Zenon Rayter; John Farndon

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between indices of self-reported emotional distress and absolute versus change in cortisol levels. Fifty-four women attending a diagnostic breast clinic completed scales measuring stress, anxiety and depression and provided five saliva samples over the course of a single day for the measurement of cortisol. No significant relationships were evident between absolute cortisol levels and the

  20. Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine PBMCs by endogenous cortisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar, Neuroimmunomod 2009;16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expres...

  1. A phenomenological model for circadian and sleep allostatic modulation of plasma cortisol concentration.

    PubMed

    Thorsley, David; Leproult, Rachel; Spiegel, Karine; Reifman, Jaques

    2012-11-15

    Both circadian rhythmicity and sleep play significant roles in the regulation of plasma cortisol concentration by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Numerous studies have found links between sleep and changes in cortisol concentration, but the implications of these results have remained largely qualitative. In this article, we present a quantitative phenomenological model to describe the effects of different sleep durations on cortisol concentration. We constructed the proposed model by incorporating the circadian and sleep allostatic effects on cortisol concentration, the pulsatile nature of cortisol secretion, and cortisol's negative autoregulation of its own production and validated its performance on three study groups that experienced four distinct sleep durations. The model captured many disparate effects of sleep on cortisol dynamics, such as the inhibition of cortisol secretion after the wake-to-sleep transition and the rapid rise of cortisol concentration before morning awakening. Notably, the model reconciled the seemingly contradictory findings between studies that report an increase in cortisol concentration following total sleep deprivation and studies that report no change in concentration. This work provides a biomathematical approach to combine the results on the effects of sleep on cortisol concentration into a unified framework and predict the impact of varying sleep durations on the cortisol profile. PMID:23011061

  2. Psychological, cardiovascular, and metabolic correlates of individual differences in cortisol stress recovery in young men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark P. Roy; Clemens Kirschbaum; Andrew Steptoe

    2001-01-01

    The relationship of free salivary cortisol stress recovery and basal cortisol with psychological, cardiovascular and metabolic factors was investigated in 82 healthy young men. Blood pressure, heart rate, cortisol and mood were assessed during a single laboratory session involving mental arithmetic and speech tasks, and lipid profiles were analysed from a fasting blood sample. Participants were divided into high (n=31)

  3. Dissociation between Plasma Adrenocorticotropin and Serum Cortisol Level during the Early Postoperative Period after Gastrectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Cho; S. Y. Kim; B. Y. Cho; H.K. Lee; H. K. Yang; K. U. Lee

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrated the dissociation between plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and serum cortisol levels during the early recovery period after radical gastrectomy in 9 of 31 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Patients with the dissociation between plasma ACTH and serum cortisol levels (DAC) showed a sustained elevation of serum cortisol level on the first or second postoperative day, while the plasma ACTH level

  4. Measurement of tissue cortisol levels in patients with severe burns: a preliminary investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Cohen; Renae Deans; Andrew Dalley; Jeff Lipman; Michael S Roberts; Bala Venkatesh

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The assessment of adrenal function in critically ill patients is problematic, and there is evidence to suggest that measurement of tissue glucocorticoid activity may be more useful than estimation of plasma cortisol concentrations. Interstitial cortisol concentrations of cortisol represent the available pool of glucocorticoids able to enter the cell and bind to the glucocorticoid receptor. However the concentrations of

  5. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Feist, Grant W.; Varga, Zoltán M.; Westerfield, Monte; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. PMID:25587201

  6. Cortisol Reactivity is Positively Related to Executive Function in Preschool Children Attending Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas; Razza, Rachel Peters

    2005-01-01

    This study examined relations among cortisol reactivity and measures of cognitive function and social behavior in 4- to 5-year-old children (N=169) attending Head Start. Saliva samples for the assay of cortisol were collected at the beginning, middle, and end of an approximately 45-min testing session. Moderate increase in cortisol followed by…

  7. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  8. Cortisol and behavioral responses of working dogs to environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Haverbeke, A; Diederich, C; Depiereux, E; Giffroy, J M

    2008-01-28

    This paper's primary objective is to analyse the physiological (cortisol) and behavioral responses of military working dogs (MWD). Dogs (N=27) were submitted twice to environmental challenges (challenge 1 and 2, 20 days in-between) composed of social (training), visual (mobile toy car) and auditory (air blast) stimuli. Cortisol levels decreased back to the baseline after the second challenge. The behavioral observations showed that these MWD were more active, and presented less stereotypic behaviors (pacing, manipulation of the environment) during both visual challenges, whereas half low posture was observed during the first but not during the second visual challenge. The present study shows that this group of MWD still has an adaptation capacity to an environmental challenge (return to baseline of the cortisol levels, a higher posture during the second than at the first challenge). These results are encouraging and indicate that the dogs might have a diminished welfare (i.e. stereotypic behaviors), but are not chronically stressed. PMID:17868751

  9. Cortisol Release in Response to UVB Exposure in Xiphophorus Fish

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Adam J.; Boswell, Mikki; Downs, Kevin P.; Pasquali, Amanda; Walter, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Xiphophorus fishes are comprised of 26 known species. Interspecies hybridization between select species has been utilized to produce experimental models to study melanoma development. Xiphophorus melanoma induction protocols utilize ultraviolet light (UVB) to induce DNA damage and associated downstream tumorigenesis. However, the impact of induced stress caused by the UVB treatment of the experimental animals undergoing tumor induction protocols has not been assessed. Stress is an adaptive physiological response to excessive or unpredictable environmental stimuli. The stress response in fishes may be measured by assay of cortisol released into the water. Here, we present results from investigations of stress response during experimental treatment and UVB exposure in X. maculatus Jp 163 B, X. couchianus, and F1 interspecies hybrids produced from the mating X. maculatus Jp 163 B x X. couchianus. Overall, cortisol release rates for males and females after UVB exposure showed no statistical differences. At lower UVB doses (8 and 16 kJ/m2), X. couchianus exhibited 2 fold higher levels of DNA damage then either X. maculatus or the F1 hybrid. However, based on cortisol release rates, none of the fish types tested induced a primary stress response at the UVB lower doses (8 and 16 kJ/m2). In contrast, at a very high UVB dose (32 kJ/m2) both X. maculatus and the F1 hybrid showed a 5 fold increase in cortisol release rate. To determine the effect of pigmentation on UVB induced stress, wild type and albino X. hellerii were exposed to UVB (32 kJ/m2). Albino X. hellerii exhibited 3.7 fold increase in cortisol release while wild type X. hellerii did not exhibit a significant cortisol response to UVB. Overall, the data suggest the rather low UVB doses often employed in tumour induction protocols do not induce a primary stress response in Xiphophorus fishes. PMID:24625568

  10. Noise induced nocturnal cortisol secretion and tolerable overhead flights.

    PubMed

    Spreng, M

    2004-01-01

    Mainly dependent on level and dynamic increase sound produces over-shooting excitations which activate subcortical processing centers (e.g. the amygdala, functioning as fear conditioning center) besides cortical areas (e. g. arousing annoyance, awakenings) as well. In addition there exist very close central nervous connections between subcortical parts of the auditory system (e.g. amygdala) showing typical plasticity effects (sensitization) and the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. Using that causal chain noise induce cortisol excretion even below the awakening threshold. Thus repeated noise events (e.g. overflights during night time) may lead to accumulation of the cortisol level in blood. This can happen because its time-constant of exponential decrease is about 50 to 10 times larger than that one for adrenaline and noradrenaline. This fact and the unusual large permeability of cortisol through the cell membranes opens a wide field of connections between stress-dependent cortisol production and the disturbance of a large number of other endocrine processes, especially as a result of long-term stress activation by environmental influences such as environmental noise. Based upon a physiological model calculating the cortisol accumulation starting at a nightly threshold of physiological over-proportional reactions around Lmax = 53 dB(A) the number of tolerable noise events (over-flights in a nightly time range) can be estimated for given indoor peak sound pressure levels, keeping the cortisol increase within the normal range. Examples of results for 8 hours in the night are for instance number and level combinations (NAL-values) of 13 events with 53 dB(A) indoor peak level or 6 events with 70 dB(A) indoor peak level respectively. PMID:15070527

  11. Intimate partner violence exposure, salivary cortisol, and childhood asthma

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara B; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Neuroendocrine alterations may help explain health differences between intimate partner violence (IPV) exposed children and non-exposed children. We sought to determine the feasibility of having families, recruited at a child asthma visit, collect at home and return via mail child salivary samples, and whether socio-demographic variables were associated with sample return. For those returning samples, we examined whether past-year IPV exposure was associated with total cortisol output (AUC) and the magnitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and whether these cortisol values were associated with asthma control. Methods Fifty five families with an asthmatic child of any age were recruited from 2 pediatric asthma clinics. At the time of the visit, parents completed a survey packet which included a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale to assess IPV. Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-minutes after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within two weeks, most commonly before we made a reminder call. Parental male sex was associated (p = .06) with increased rate of return at the trend level. In multivariable models, a one-unit increase in IPV was significantly associated with a .93 SD increase in root-transformed total cortisol output (AUC) (un-standardized beta = 2.5; SE .59; p = 0.001). The odds of uncontrolled asthma were marginally higher for every nmol/l increase in CAR (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.0, 1.1; p = .06). Conclusions This study provides support for the feasibility of obtaining a moderate return of salivary specimens from a convenience sample. Findings that IPV was associated with elevated total cortisol output and uncontrolled asthma was marginally associated with cortisol awakening response suggest that future studies should investigate whether cortisol mediates the IPV-child asthma relationship. PMID:22858093

  12. Cognitive functioning and cortisol profiles in first episode major depression.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Pia Berner; Murison, Robert; Lund, Anders; Hammar, Åsa

    2015-08-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is often associated with high levels of stress and disturbances in the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) system, yielding high levels of cortisol, in addition to cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies have shown a relationship between cortisol profile and cognitive functioning in recurrent MDD in general. More specifically, the association between hypercortisolism and cognitive functioning, such as memory and Executive Functioning (EF), and also more recently cortisol suppression has been explored. However, no studies have investigated these relationships in patients diagnosed with first episode MDD. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between cortisol levels before and after the Dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and cognitive function in first episode MDD patients. Twenty-one patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for a first episode of MDD diagnosis were included in the study. The control group was matched for age, gender and education level. Cortisol was measured in saliva collected with Salivette sampling devices. Saliva samples were collected 4 times during a 24 hours period over two consecutive days: at awakening, after 45 minutes, after 7 hours and at 11 pm. Dexamethasone (1.0 mg) was given orally on Day 1 at 11 pm. The neuropsychological test battery consisted of standardized tests measuring executive functioning (EF) and memory functioning. Cortisol levels did not differ significantly between patients and controls on Day 1, except for the last sample before Dexamethasone administration, where the control group showed higher levels. Both groups showed suppression after Dexamethasone. On Day 2 there was a significant difference between groups at the third sample, showing a significantly lower level in the control group, suggesting that the controls have a more effective suppression profile than the patients. There were no significant correlations between cortisol levels before or after Dexamethasone and cognitive measures. The results indicate impairment on HPA-axis functioning in first episode MDD patients, with less suppression functioning compared to healthy controls, but no relationship between cortisol profile and cognitive functioning in EF or Memory. PMID:26032571

  13. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-KV Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jack Monroe, Jr.

    There is ongoing controversy about the possibility of adverse biological effects from environmental exposures to electric and magnetic fields. These fields are produced by all electrical equipment and appliances including electrical transmission lines. The objective of this environmental science study was to investigate the possible effects of a high voltage transmission line on domestic sheep (Ovis aries L.), a species that can often be found near such lines. The study was primarily designed to determine whether a specific effect of electric and magnetic fields found in laboratory animals also occurs in livestock under natural environmental conditions. The effect is the ability of fields, at levels found in the environment, to significantly depress the normally high nocturnal concentrations of the pineal hormone-melatonin. Ten female Suffolk lambs were penned for 10 months directly beneath a 500-kV transmission line near Estacada, Oregon. Ten other lambs of the same type were penned in a control area away from the transmission line where electric and magnetic fields were at ambient levels. Serum melatonin was analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) from 6618 blood samples collected at 0.5 to 3-hour intervals over eight 48-hour periods. Serum progesterone was analyzed by RIA from blood samples collected twice weekly. Serum cortisol was also assayed by RIA from the blood samples collected during the 48-hour samples. Results showed that lambs in both the control and line groups had the typical pattern of melatonin secretion consisting of low daytime and high nighttime serum concentrations. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in melatonin levels, or in the phase or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation. Age at puberty and number of reproductive cycles also did not differ between groups. Serum cortisol showed a circadian rhythm with highest concentrations during the day. There were, however, no differences in cortisol concentrations between groups. Statistical analyses on other biological parameters revealed no differences between groups for body weight gain, wool growth, or behavior.

  14. Changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine and cortisol plasma levels in menopausal women after inhalation of clary sage oil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Bok; Cho, Eun; Kang, Young-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antidepressant-like effects of clary sage oil on human beings by comparing the neurotransmitter level change in plasma. The voluntary participants were 22 menopausal women in 50's. Subjects were classified into normal and depression tendency groups using each of Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory-I (KBDI-I), KBDI-II, and Korean version of Self-rating Depression Scale. Then, the changes in neurotransmitter concentrations were compared between two groups. After inhalation of clary sage oil, cortisol levels were significantly decreased while 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration was significantly increased. Thyroid stimulating hormone was also reduced in all groups but not statistically significantly. The different change rate of 5-HT concentration between normal and depression tendency groups was variable according to the depression measurement inventory. When using KBDI-I and KBDI-II, 5-HT increased by 341% and 828% for the normal group and 484% and 257% for the depression tendency group, respectively. The change rate of cortisol was greater in depression tendency groups compared with normal groups, and this difference was statistically significant when using KBDI-II (31% vs. 16% reduction) and Self-rating Depression Scale inventory (36% vs. 8.3% reduction). Among three inventories, only KBDI-II differentiated normal and depression tendency groups with significantly different cortisol level. Finally, clary sage oil has antidepressant-like effect, and KBDI-II inventory may be the most sensitive and valid tool in screening for depression status or severity. PMID:24802524

  15. High and Low Protein? Carbohydrate Dietary Ratios during Gestation Alter Maternal-Fetal Cortisol Regulation in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kanitz, Ellen; Otten, Winfried; Tuchscherer, Margret; Gräbner, Maria; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Metges, Cornelia C.

    2012-01-01

    Imbalanced maternal nutrition during gestation can cause alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system in offspring. The present study investigated the effects of maternal low- and high-protein diets during gestation in pigs on the maternal-fetal HPA regulation and expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11?-HSD1 and 11?-HSD2) and c-fos mRNAs in the placenta and fetal brain. Twenty-seven German Landrace sows were fed diets with high (HP, 30%), low (LP, 6.5%) or adequate (AP, 12.1%) protein levels made isoenergetic by varying the carbohydrate levels. On gestational day 94, fetuses were recovered under general anesthesia for the collection of blood, brain and placenta samples. The LP diet in sows increased salivary cortisol levels during gestation compared to the HP and AP sows and caused an increase of placental GR and c-fos mRNA expression. However, the diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol was disturbed in both LP and HP sows. Total plasma cortisol concentrations in the umbilical cord vessels were elevated in fetuses from HP sows, whereas corticosteroid-binding globulin levels were decreased in LP fetuses. In the hypothalamus, LP fetuses displayed an enhanced mRNA expression of 11?-HSD1 and a reduced expression of c-fos. Additionally, the 11?-HSD2 mRNA expression was decreased in both LP and HP fetuses. The present results suggest that both low and high protein?carbohydrate dietary ratios during gestation may alter the expression of genes encoding key determinants of glucocorticoid hormone action in the fetus with potential long-lasting consequences for stress adaptation and health. PMID:23300759

  16. Rapid hormone immunosensor with fluid control mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yamaguchi; Y. Matsuda; S. Yoshikawa; M. Sasaki; Y. Imai; D. Niwa; V. Shetty

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to develop a novel methodology to analyze cortisol levels as an index of stress-related diseases. In order to realize a quick and easy-to-use biosensor of cortisol, we proposed a cortisol immunosensor using an electrochemical reaction (cortisol sensor). In order to realize it, a fluid control mechanism was newly designed because the sensitivity of an immunoassay is limited

  17. Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men's hormonal responses to potential mates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Roney; Zachary L. Simmons; Aaron W. Lukaszewski

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to potential mates triggers rapid elevations of testosterone and glucocorticoid concentrations in males of many non-human species, and preliminary studies support similar effects in human males. The human studies have all reported large individual differences in these responses, however, and the present study tested whether specific biological variables may help explain these differences. Replicating past research, the present study

  18. Maternal adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and thyroid hormone responses to chronic binge alcohol exposure throughout gestation: ovine model

    E-print Network

    Tress, Ursula

    2009-05-15

    . This rate is comparable or even higher than the prevalence of other developmental disabilities such as ?Down Syndrome? or ?Spina Bifida? (CDC, 2004). The consequences of FAS not only affect individuals and family members, but also the community... Alcohol Syndrome FASD Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder ARBD Alcohol-Related Birth Defects ARND Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder HPA-axis Hypothalamus-Pituitary Adrenal Axis HP-axis Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis CRF Corticotropin Releasing...

  19. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Leslie B.; Wells, Randall S.; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lamb, Stephen V.; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S.; Schwacke, Lori H.

    2015-01-01

    Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones commonly associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these reference intervals will be used to gauge an individual’s response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000–2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91–4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32–6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of Sarasota Bay bottlenose dolphin aldosterone concentrations were below the assay’s detection limit (11 pg/mL), thus hindering the ability to derive 95th percentile RIs. Serum aldosterone concentrations from animals sampled at the three additional sites were compared to the detection limit, and the proportion of animals with low aldosterone concentrations was not significantly different than an expected prevalence of 16%. Although this study relied upon long-term, free-ranging bottlenose dolphin health data from a single site, the objective RIs can be used for future evaluation of adrenal function among individuals sampled during capture-release health assessments. PMID:25993341

  20. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure. PMID:25489427

  1. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Stress-Related Behaviors and Stress Hormones in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure. PMID:25489427

  2. Cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia: relationship to psychosocial stress and cognition.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Alexis E; Zunszain, Patricia A; Dickson, Hannah; Roberts, Ruth E; Fisher, Helen L; Pariante, Carmine M; Laurens, Kristin R

    2014-08-01

    Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as indexed by elevated diurnal cortisol levels and/or a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR), has been observed among patients with first episode psychosis and associated with neurocognitive deficits in this population. However, the extent to which these features precede illness onset is unclear. The current study aimed to determine whether children who are at putatively elevated risk for psychosis because they present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), and high-risk children with a family history of illness (FHx), are characterized by abnormal cortisol levels when compared with their typically developing (TD) peers. A further aim was to investigate the extent to which cortisol levels are associated with psychosocial stress and neurocognitive function. Thirty-three ASz children, 22 FHx children, and 40 TD children were identified at age 9-12 years using a novel community-based screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. All participants were antipsychotic-naive and not currently seeking treatment for their symptoms. At age 11-14 years, participants provided salivary cortisol samples and completed psychosocial stress measures and tests of memory and executive function. Results indicated that FHx children, but not ASz children, were characterized by a blunted CAR relative to their TD peers (effect size=-0.73, p=0.01) that was not explained by psychosocial stress exposure or by distress relating to these experiences. Neither FHx nor ASz children were characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol. Among both FHx and ASz children, more pronounced HPA axis function abnormalities (i.e., higher diurnal cortisol levels and greater blunting of the CAR) were associated with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory and executive function. These findings support the notion that at least some HPA axis abnormalities described in psychosis precede illness onset, rather than being a subsequent epiphenomenon. We speculate that the blunted CAR may constitute an early (potentially genetically mediated) marker of psychosis vulnerability, whilst elevated diurnal cortisol levels may emerge only proximally to disease onset. PMID:24882153

  3. Implication of corticotropic hormone axis in eating behaviour pattern in obese and type 2 diabetic participants.

    PubMed

    Benbaibeche, Hassiba; Haffaf, El Mahdi; Kacimi, Ghouti; Oudjit, Brahim; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Koceïr, Elhadj Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    In Algeria, eating behaviour has been increasingly deviated from its traditional Mediterranean diet to modern fast food style. The present study examines the interactions between eating behaviour pattern (EBP), corticotropic hormone axis and the metabolic syndrome. Our Algerian population cohort comprised of 410 participants (130 obese, 170 type 2 diabetics and 110 healthy participants). The EBP was evaluated by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire test. The anthropometric and metabolic parameters (glucose, TAG, HDL, LDL and cholesterol) and the concentrations of hormones (insulin, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone) were determined by biometrics, spectrophotometry and RIA, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed a high correlation between the EBP and the metabolic syndrome, particularly between insulin-resistant state and hypertrophy of visceral adipose tissue. Compared with healthy participants, obese ones showed the hyperphagic type of EBP, i.e. disinhibition and hunger disorders. Conversely, the diabetics showed both the hypophagic and hyperphagic type of EBP. In diabetic and obese participants, cortisol and ACTH secretions were significantly altered, leading to metabolic disorders. The present study confirms the role of EBP in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25782454

  4. HPA-Axis Hormone Modulation of Stress Response Circuitry Activity in Women with Remitted Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Holsen, Laura M.; Lancaster, Katie; Klibanski, Anne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Cherkerzian, Sara; Buka, Stephen; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    Decades of clinical and basic research indicate significant links between altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis hormone dynamics and major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent neuroimaging studies of MDD highlight abnormalities in stress response circuitry regions which play a role in the regulation of the HPA-axes. However, there is a dearth of research examining these systems in parallel, especially as related to potential trait characteristics. The current study addresses this gap by investigating neural responses to a mild visual stress challenge with real-time assessment of adrenal hormones in women with MDD in remission and controls. 15 women with recurrent MDD in remission (rMDD) and 15 healthy control women were scanned on a 3T Siemens MR scanner while viewing neutral and negative (stress-evoking) stimuli. Blood samples were obtained before, during, and after scanning for measurement of HPA-axis hormone levels. Compared to controls, rMDD women demonstrated higher anxiety ratings, increased cortisol levels, and hyperactivation in the amygdala and hippocampus, p<0.05, FWE-corrected in response to the stress challenge. Among rMDD women, amygdala activation was negatively related to cortisol changes and positively associated with duration of remission. Findings presented here provide evidence for differential effects of altered HPA-axis hormone dynamics on hyperactivity in stress response circuitry regions elicited by a well-validated stress paradigm in women with recurrent MDD in remission. PMID:23891965

  5. Abnormal reactions to environmental stress in elderly persons with anxiety disorders: evidence from a population study of diurnal cortisol changes.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    from a population study of diurnal cortisol changes. Running title: cortisol in elderly persons;2 ABSTRACT Background: Cortisol secretion in elderly persons with anxiety disorders exposed to common stressful situations has not been evaluated. Methods: Salivary-free cortisol levels were evaluated at 8, 15

  6. The effects of stress on androgen production, spermiation response and sperm quality in high and low cortisol

    E-print Network

    Hamza, Iqbal

    and low cortisol responsive domesticated male striped bass Daniel A. Castranovaa , William King V1 , L December 2004 Abstract Domesticated male striped bass were selected as high cortisol stress responders (HCR) or low cortisol stress responders (LCR) by ranking mean 1-h post-stress plasma cortisol levels following

  7. Supplementary material for Trumble et al. "Successful hunting increases testosterone and1 cortisol in a subsistence population"2

    E-print Network

    Gurven, Michael

    Supplementary material for Trumble et al. "Successful hunting increases testosterone and1 cortisol cortisol (=0.36,10 p=0.008) and percent change in cortisol (=54.22, p=0.001) were higher for men killing for age2 , BMI and time hunting. Identical models examining16 audience effect on absolute cortisol

  8. Higher cortisol:cortisone ratios in the preovulatory follicle of completely unstimulated IVF cycles indicate oocytes with increased pregnancy potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Keay; C. R. Harlow; P. J. Wood; J. M. Jenkins; D. J. Cahill

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conception following gonadotrophin-stimulated IVF and embryo transfer has been associated with a higher intrafollicular cortisol:cortisone ratio and decreased metabolism of cortisol to cortisone. The role of glucocorticoids in human oocyte maturation is not fully understood, but active glucocorticoid (cortisol) may be important. This study relates intrafollicular cortisol and cortisone concentrations to oocyte fertilization and embryo implantation in unstimulated cycles.

  9. Relationships between Training Load, Salivary Cortisol Responses and Performance during Season Training in Middle and Long Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Mª; del Campo-Vecino, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Monitoring training from a multifactorial point of view is of great importance in elite endurance athletes. This study aims to analyze the relationships between indicators of training load, hormonal status and neuromuscular performance, and to compare these values with competition performance, in elite middle and long-distance runners. Method Fifteen elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age?=?26.3±5.1 yrs) were measured for training volume, training zone and session rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (daily), countermovement jump (CMJ) and salivary free cortisol (weekly) for 39 weeks (i.e., the whole season). Competition performance was also observed throughout the study, registering the season best and worst competitions. Results Season average salivary free cortisol concentrations correlate significantly with CMJ (r?=??0.777) and RPE (r?=?0.551). Also, weekly averages of CMJ significantly correlates with RPE (r?=??0.426), distance run (r?=??0.593, p<0.001) and training zone (r?=?0.437, p<0.05). Finally, it was found that the CMJ (+8.5%, g?=?0.65) and the RPE (?17.6%, g?=?0.94) measured the week before the best competition performance of the season were significantly different compared with the measurement conducted the week before the season’s worst competition performance. Conclusions Monitoring weekly measurements of CMJ and RPE could be recommended to control training process of such athletes in a non-invasive, field-based, systematic way. PMID:25153137

  10. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    Search SEER Training: SEER Training Modules Print Home Glossary Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer ...

  11. Does hierarchy stability influence testosterone and cortisol levels of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) adult males? A comparison between two wild groups.

    PubMed

    Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Edaes, Mariana; Palme, Rupert; Rodrigues, Agatha; Siqueira, José; Izar, Patrícia

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone and cortisol are hormones expected to play a major role in competitive behaviours (i.e. aggression), and are related to rank and hierarchical stability. Through a non-invasive technique, we analyzed faecal testosterone (FTM(1)) and cortisol (FCM(2)) metabolites of dominant and subordinate males from two wild groups of bearded capuchin monkeys. One group had a stable dominance hierarchy while the other had an unstable hierarchy, with a marked conflict period related to a male take-over. In the unstable hierarchy group (1) the dominant male had higher FTM peaks than subordinates, and (2) basal FTM levels were higher than in the stable group. These findings are in accordance with the Challenge Hypothesis and rank-based predictions, and confirm that in Sapajus libidinosus hierarchy stability, social status, aggression rates and testosterone are closely related. Dominants of both groups had higher basal and peak FCM levels, suggesting that in S. libidinosus the dominant male has a higher allostatic load than subordinates, related to his role in protection against predators, intragroup appeasement, and control of food sources. Finally, we suggest that males of S. libidinosus are resistant to testosterone suppression by cortisol, because in the unstable group in spite of an increase in FCM there was also an increase in FTM during the conflict period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. PMID:25239540

  12. High-intensity stress elicits robust cortisol increases, and impairs working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory in Special Forces candidates: A field experiment.

    PubMed

    Taverniers, John; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Smeets, Tom; von Grumbkow, Jasper

    2010-07-01

    While running a selection procedure, 27 male Belgian Special Forces candidates, with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 5.1), were randomly assigned to a no-stress control (n = 14) or a high-intensity stress group (n = 13). Participants in the latter group were exposed to an extremely strenuous mock prisoner of war (POW) exercise. Immediately after stress or control treatment, working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory performances were measured by the digit span (DS) test and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF), respectively. Concurrently, stress levels were assessed by obtaining salivary cortisol measurements and subjectively by the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). As expected, exposure to high-intensity stress led to both robust cortisol increases and significant differences in TLX scores. Stress induction also significantly impaired DS and ROCF performances. Moreover, delta cortisol increases and ROCF performance in the POW stress group showed a significant negative correlation, while DS performances followed the same tendency. Summarizing, the current findings complement and extend previous work on hormonal stress effects, and the subsequent performance deterioration on two memory tests in a unique high-intensity stress environment. PMID:20536334

  13. Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  14. Dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) modified gold microarray electrode based electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of cortisol.

    PubMed

    Arya, Sunil K; Chornokur, Ganna; Venugopal, Manju; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2010-06-15

    Gold microelectrode arrays functionalized with dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) have been used to fabricate an ultrasensitive, disposable, electrochemical cortisol immunosensor. Cortisol specific monoclonal antibody (C-Mab) was covalently immobilized on the surface of gold microelectrode array and the sensors were exposed to solutions with different cortisol concentration. After C-Mab binding, unreacted active groups of DTSP were blocked using ethanol amine (EA) and label-free electrochemical impedance (EIS) technique was used to determine cortisol concentration. EIS results confirmed that EA/C-Mab/DTSP/Au based biosensor can accurately detect cortisol in the range of 1pM-100nM. The biosensor was successfully used for the measurement of cortisol in interstitial fluid in vitro. This research establishes the feasibility of using impedance based biosensor architecture for disposable, wearable cortisol detector. PMID:20382518

  15. Serum cortisol concentration in horses with heaves treated with fluticasone proprionate over a 1 year period.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Trohadio; Leclere, Mathilde; Jean, Daniel; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of long-term administration of inhaled fluticasone proprionate on cortisol concentrations in heaves-affected horses. Eleven horses with heaves were treated with fluticasone at least once daily at dosages required to improve lung function or with antigen avoidance alone for 1 year. Morning serum cortisol was measured before and after 10, 30, 110, 190, 230, 280, and 320 days of treatment. Cortisol was also measured in the afternoon of day 330. Cortisol was significantly lower in the Fluticasone group on days 30, 110, and 190 when compared with the Antigen avoidance group. Cortisol measured on day 330 was also significantly lower in the Fluticasone group. Results indicate that inhaled fluticasone, when administered at therapeutic dosages, can significantly suppress serum cortisol concentrations for 8-24?h. The clinical significance of this finding remains to be ascertained, as no clinical signs were associated with this cortisol suppression. PMID:25577545

  16. The associations between basal salivary cortisol and illness symptomatology in chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Harding, Susan; Sorenson, Matthew; Jason, Leonard; Maher, Kevin; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Reynolds, Nadia; Brown, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Hypocortisolism has been reported in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), with the significance of this finding to disease etiology unclear. This study examined cortisol levels and their relationships with symptoms in a group of 108 individuals with CFS. CFS symptoms examined included fatigue, pain, sleep difficulties, neurocognitive functioning, and psychiatric status. Alterations in cortisol levels were examined by calculation of mean daily cortisol, while temporal variation in cortisol function was examined by means of a regression slope. Additionally, deviation from expected cortisol diurnal pattern was determined via clinical judgment. Results indicated that fatigue and pain were associated with salivary cortisol levels. In particular, variance from the expected pattern of cortisol was associated with increased levels of fatigue. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19701493

  17. Estrogenic plant consumption predicts red colobus monkey (Procolobus rufomitratus) hormonal state and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Michael D.; Chapman, Colin A.; Milton, Katharine; Gogarten, Jan F.; Wittwer, Dan J.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effects of anthropogenic endocrine disrupting compounds; however, very little is known about the effects of naturally occurring plant-produced estrogenic compounds (i.e., phytoestrogens) on vertebrates. To examine the seasonal pattern of phytoestrogen consumption and its relationship to hormone levels (407 fecal samples analyzed for estradiol and cortisol) and social behavior (aggression, mating, and grooming) in a primate, we conducted an 11-month field study of red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) in Kibale National Park, Uganda. The percent of diet from estrogenic plants averaged 10.7% (n = 45 weeks; range: 0.7 – 32.4%). Red colobus fed more heavily on estrogenic Millettia dura young leaves during weeks of higher rainfall, and the consumption of this estrogenic item was positively correlated to both their fecal estradiol and cortisol levels. Social behaviors were related to estradiol and cortisol levels, as well as the consumption of estrogenic plants and rainfall. The more the red colobus consumed estrogenic plants the higher their rates of aggression and copulation and the lower their time spent grooming. Our results suggest that the consumption of estrogenic plants has important implications for primate health and fitness through interactions with the endocrine system and changes in hormone levels and social behaviors. PMID:23010620

  18. Glucocorticoid receptors in primary cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells: characterization and modulation by prolactin and cortisol

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, W.; Shyamala, G.

    1985-06-01

    Mammary epithelial cells isolated from midpregant mice and cultured on collagen gels contain soluble glucocorticoid receptors. The kinetics of binding of dexamethasone reveal a saturable binding site (dissociation constant (K /sub d/), approximately 1 nM), and the binding site obeys a steroid specificity characteristic of a glucocorticoid receptor. As with the receptor isolated from intact glands, the receptor from the cultured cells also requires the addition of dithiothreitol for maximal binding of dexamethasone. The receptors are maintained at in vivo levels (approximately 1.3 pmol/mg DNA) for at least a period of 10 days in culture. However, the presence of both cortisol and PRL is required for the maintenance of the receptors, and the effect of both these hormones is dose dependent.

  19. Development of a specific radioimmunoassay for cortisol 17-butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.N.; Lee, Y.F.; Bu'Lock, D.E.; August, P.; Anderson, D.C.

    1983-07-01

    We describe the development and validation of an assay for cortisol 17-butyrate in blood in which there is no significant cross reaction with endogenous corticosteroids at levels encountered normally in man. Preliminary data on blood levels of the drug in absorption studies are presented.

  20. Cortisol and Memory Retrieval in Humans: Influence of Emotional Valence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. T. WOLF; S. KUHLMANN; C. BUSS; D. H. HELLHAMMER; C. KIRSCHBAUMc

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids secreted in response to stress modulate memory in animals and humans. Studies in rodents suggest that glucocorticoids enhance memory consolidation but impair delayed retrieval. Similar negative effects on memory retrieval have been reported in humans. The human studies so far have not addressed the issue of emotional valence, which conceivably could modulate the effects of cortisol on retrieval. The