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Differential responses of cortisol and corticosterone to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys talarum).  


We aimed to evaluate the responses of cortisol, corticosterone, and blood glucose to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in males and females of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum and addressed interannual variations in the plasma levels of both hormones. The most important results indicate that: (1) cortisol positively responds to the ACTH signal but corticosterone does not, even though corticosterone levels were higher than cortisol concentrations, (2) plasma corticosterone concentrations in free-living animals were 20 times higher compared to values reported for the same population during previous annual periods and, as cortisol levels were similar, this resulted in much lower cortisol/corticosterone ratios, (3) cortisol and corticosterone differentiated in their relative proportions in plasma in free-living males and females. These results indicate that cortisol and corticosterone are differentially regulated in our study species and emphasize that a remarkable temporal variation in the relative proportions of these hormones may occur in natural populations. Therefore, the conclusions regarding the presence of cortisol and corticosterone in plasma of wild animals may differ substantially depending on the moment when the study is conducted. Recent data indicate that cortisol and corticosterone are not interchangeable hormones in species of free-living vertebrates. We suggest that, in addition to the classical roles of glucocorticoids (GCs), it is crucial that other physiological functions be kept in mind when interpreting GC data from wild species. PMID:22514052

Vera, Federico; Zenuto, Roxana Rita; Antenucci, Carlos Daniel



Effects of Exhaustion and Calcium Supplementation on Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was performed to investigate the effects of strenuous exercise and calcium supplementation on cortisol and\\u000a adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in athletes at rest and exhaustion. Thirty male athletes, ages 17–21 years, were enrolled\\u000a in the 4-week study. They were divided into three groups as follows: group 1 (n?=?10): training without supplementation; group 2 (n?=?10): training and calcium supplemented, and

Vedat Cinar; Oktay Cakmakci; Rasim Mogulkoc; Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci



Ramipril in angina pectoris: short-term effects on glucose, insulin, C-peptide, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril on plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in patients with coronary artery disease. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with ramipril 5 mg once daily, ramipril 5 mg once daily in combination with 20 mg of the oral nitrate isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), ISDN alone 20

Bernhard R. Winkelmann; Thomas Haak; Matti Verho; Daniel M. Kirsten; Karen Nelson; Kai Ihnken; Claudius Malerczyk; Gerd Oremek; Klaus-Henning Usadel



Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels in Athletes and Sedentary Subjects at Rest and Exhaustion: Effects of Magnesium Supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a 1-month exercise program and magnesium supplementation on the adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels\\u000a were studied in young tae-kwon-do and sedentary subjects both at rest and exhaustion. The hormone levels were compared before\\u000a and after supplementation with 10 mg of magnesium (as magnesium sulfate) per kilogram of body weight. Both exercise and magnesium\\u000a supplements caused significant increases of

Vedat Cinar; Rasim Mogulkoc; Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci; Yahya Polat



Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels in athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and exhaustion: effects of magnesium supplementation.  


The effects of a 1-month exercise program and magnesium supplementation on the adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels were studied in young tae-kwon-do and sedentary subjects both at rest and exhaustion. The hormone levels were compared before and after supplementation with 10 mg of magnesium (as magnesium sulfate) per kilogram of body weight. Both exercise and magnesium supplements caused significant increases of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (p < 0.05). The cortisol levels were increased in training subjects receiving supplements (p < 0.05) but not so in subjects that either trained or received magnesium supplements in an independent manner. The cortisol levels measured in resting individuals were higher in the supplemented and non-supplemented athletes than those in sedentary subjects (p < 0.05). The results of this study show that exercise and/or magnesium supplementation causes a rise of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, whereas cortisol is increased only as a result of combined exhaustion and magnesium supplements. PMID:17999037

Cinar, Vedat; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Polat, Yahya



Effects of androgen on plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol during transportation in goats.  


Previously, we demonstrated that plasma cortisol (Cor) levels were increased by road transportation in castrated male goats, but the extent of the increase was significantly reduced by 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implantation. This study aims to clarify whether the reduction of Cor secretion by androgen during transportation results from reduced plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Castrated goats were implanted separately with cholesterol (Cho), testosterone (T) or DHT, followed by transportation. Plasma Cor levels increased during transportation regardless of hormone treatment, but the levels in T and DHT treated animals were lower than those in animals treated with Cho. Plasma ACTH levels also increased during transportation, and those in T treated animals were significantly lower than in those treated with Cho. However, plasma ACTH levels in DHT treated animals varied among the animals and did not differ from those in Cho treated animals. Significant and highly positive correlations between the logarithm of plasma ACTH levels and plasma Cor levels were found in every treatment group. The areas under the regression curves between plasma ACTH levels and plasma Cor levels associated with T and DHT treatments were significantly lower than those with Cho treatment. In conclusion, T was shown to reduce ACTH secretion in response to transportation in castrated goats. However, this suppression of the increase in Cor secretion during transportation by androgen is suggested to be mainly a result of suppression of the responsiveness of the adrenal cortex to ACTH. PMID:16327221

Aoyama, Masato; Maejima, Yuko; Keyaki, Satoko; Muroi, Misako; Tohei, Atsushi; Sugita, Shoei



Responses induced by arginine-vasopressin injection in the plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, growth hormone and metabolites around weaning time in goats.  


In order to assess the biological significance of weaning and water deprivation on the control of plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and metabolites in response to stimulation with arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), we carried out three experiments in which male goats before and after weaning were intravenously injected with AVP or CRH alone, or in combination with each other. In experiment 1, 17-week-old (post-weaning) goats were intravenously injected with AVP or CRH alone at the doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 nmol/kg body weight (BW). The AVP injection significantly and dose dependently increased plasma levels of ACTH, cortisol, GH and metabolites, whereas the injection with CRH did not cause significant increases in the levels of these parameters. In experiment 2, 4-week-old (pre-weaning) and 13-week-old (post-weaning) goats were injected with either AVP or CRH alone, followed by a combined injection of both secretagogues at a dose of 0.3 nmol/kg BW. Although the basal levels of the hormones and metabolites, with the exception of glucose, were greater in the 4-week-old goats, the hormone responses induced by stimulation with AVP were weaker than those induced in 13-week-old goats. Additionally, there were no responses in any hormone patterns to CRH stimulation in 4-week-old goats. In experiment 3, 13-week-old goats were injected with CRH alone followed by injection with AVP for two consecutive days of water deprivation. The animals were subjected to withdrawal of up to 20% of the total blood volume and water deprivation for up to 28 h. However, no significant differences in plasma ACTH, cortisol or GH levels were observed between days 1 and 2. Based on these results, we concluded that: (1) AVP is a more potent stimulant than CRH in terms of its ability to induce increases in plasma levels of ACTH, cortisol and GH; (2) the role of AVP as a secretagogue of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal hormones is strengthened, whereas the ineffective role of CRH remains unaltered, by weaning; (3) acute stress such as massive withdrawal of blood volume and subjection to water deprivation may not be sufficient burdens to alter stress-related hormone levels in young goats. PMID:16293772

Katoh, K; Yoshida, M; Kobayashi, Y; Onodera, M; Kogusa, K; Obara, Y



21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.  

...2014-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025...862.1025 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (a) Identification. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system is a...



Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency development during chemotherapy for gastric cancer: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency is an endocrinological disorder characterized by loss of adrenocorticotropic hormone and resultant adrenal insufficiency. Affected patients often present with fatigue, anorexia, and hyponatremia. Although the number of reported cases has been recently increasing, isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency combined with malignant neoplasia is very rare. Here we describe a patient with gastric cancer who developed unexpected isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency during chemotherapy. Case presentation A 72-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because of febrile neutropenia due to chemotherapy for gastric cancer recurrence. Although the neutropenia and fever immediately improved, he became unable to take any oral medications and was bedridden 1 week after admission. His serum sodium level abruptly decreased to 122mEq/L on the fifth day of hospitalization. We performed endocrinological studies to investigate the cause of his hyponatremia and plasma hyposmolality. His plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels were very low. However, his serum levels of all other anterior pituitary hormones were slightly elevated. We then performed a corticotropin-releasing hormone test, which showed that neither his plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone nor cortisol level responded to corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation. We definitively diagnosed isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency based on these findings. Hydrocortisone replacement therapy was begun at 20mg/day, resulting in a marked improvement in his anorexia and general fatigue within a few days. His serum sodium level was also normalized immediately after the administration of hydrocortisone. He was discharged from our hospital on the 50th day of hospitalization. Conclusions The present case is the second report of a patient with concurrent isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency and gastric cancer and the first report of a patient diagnosed with isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency during the course of chemotherapy for a solid malignant neoplasm. Although the symptoms and signs described in the present report are common observations during chemotherapy, it is important to consider not only the adverse effects of antineoplastic agents, but also isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency as a differential diagnosis. Hydrocortisone replacement therapy for isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency effectively avoids the unnecessary cessation of chemotherapy. PMID:24597969



21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR




21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR




21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




Plasma Levels of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol in People Living in an Environment Below Sea Level (Jordan Valley) during Fasting in the Month of Ramadan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the effects of Ramdan fasting on plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol in athletic students living in the Jordan Valley (JV) and compare them to those living at above sea level in Ramtha City (RC). Methods: Sample collection and measurements were done in November 1998 from non-fasting and in December 1998 from fasting people. Results: ACTH levels

Fayig El-Migdadi; Zeyad El-Akawi; Rola Abudheese; Nabil Bashir



Radioactive probes for adrenocorticotropic hormone receptors  

SciTech Connect

Our attempts to develop adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogues that can be employed for ACTH receptor identification and isolation began with the synthesis of ACTH fragments containing N epsilon-(dethiobiotinyl)lysine (dethiobiocytin) amide in position 25 to be used for affinity chromatographic purification of hormone-receptor complexes on Sepharose-immobilized avidin resins. Because labeling ACTH or ACTH fragments by conventional iodination techniques destroys biological activity due to oxidation of Met4 and incorporation of iodine into Tyr2, we have prepared (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24, (Phe2,Nle4,biocytin25)ACTH1-25 amide, and (Phe2,Nle4,dethiobiocytin25)ACTH1-25 amide by conventional synthetic techniques. The HPLC profiles and amino acid analyses of the final products indicate that the materials are of a high degree of purity. The amount of tertiary butylation of the Trp residue in the peptides was assessed by NMR and was found to be less than 0.5%. All three peptides are equipotent with the standard ACTH1-24 as concerns their ability to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP formation in bovine adrenal cortical cells. Iodination of (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24, with iodogen as the oxidizing agent, has been accomplished without any detectable loss of biological activity. The mono- and diiodo derivatives of (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24 have been prepared, separated by HPLC, and assayed for biological activity. Both peptides have the full capacity to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP production in bovine adrenal cortical cells.

Hofmann, K.; Romovacek, H.; Stehle, C.J.; Finn, F.M.; Bothner-By, A.A.; Mishra, P.K.



Follicular persistence induced by adrenocorticotropic hormone administration in goats.  


The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration on the induction of persistent cystic follicle in the goat in order to establish a method to experimentally induce cystic follicle. Four cross-bred goats were intramuscularly administered ACTH at 0.78 and 6.25 µg/10 kg twice a day from Days 15 to 21 (Day 0 was defined as the day of last estrus). Follicular status in the ovary was monitored by ultrasound examination. The plasma concentrations of estradiol, progesterone and cortisol were measured. Treatment with ACTH at the 0.78 and 6.25 µg/10 kg levels caused persistent follicles (> 10 days delay from the expected ovulation date) in 50% of the goats in both treatment groups. In those animals, ovulation occurred 17 and 27 days and 11 and 12 days after the expected days in the 0.78 and 6.25 µg/10 kg groups, respectively. The maximum follicle diameters were 10 and 9 mm in the 0.78 and 6.25 µg/10 kg ACTH groups, respectively. In the control group, the estradiol concentration increased on Day 18 and remained at a high level for a few days. However, such an increase was not seen in both ACTH groups. The estradiol concentration increased gradually from Days 21 to 27 in the 6.25 µg/10 kg ACTH group. These results suggest the possibility that ACTH induces persistent follicles in goats, which may be related to the delay of the onset of estradiol secretion followed by its maintenance at a high concentration. PMID:21123962

Sato, Mai; Sugino, Toshihisa; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Isobe, Naoki



Simultaneous ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome and adrenal metastasis of a medullary thyroid carcinoma causing paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) constitute about 5 to 7 % of thyroid neoplasms. They originate from parafollicular C-cells which can secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and/or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in abnormally high concentrations, potentially causing paraneoplastic Cushing's Syndrome (CS). We report on a 42-year-old male patient with a ten year history of metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma suffering from paraneoplastic Cushing's Syndrome caused by ectopic hypersecretion of ACTH and a simultaneous Cortisol producing adrenal metastasis. PMID:17605812

Sand, Michael; Uecker, Samuel; Bechara, Falk G; Gelos, Marcos; Sand, Daniel; Wiese, Till H; Mann, Benno



Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests in healthy foals from birth to 12 weeks of age  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate total baseline plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations, and ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations in foals from birth to 12 wk of age. Plasma (baseline) cortisol and ACTH concentrations were measured in 13 healthy foals at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Each foal received cosyntropin (0.1 ?g/kg) intravenously. Plasma cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline), and 30, and 60 min after cosyntropin administration at birth and at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Compared with baseline, cortisol concentration increased significantly 30 min after administration of cosyntropin on all days. Cortisol concentration was highest at birth, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, compared with all other days. With the exception of birth measurements, cortisol concentration was significantly higher on day 84, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, when compared with all other days. Baseline plasma ACTH was lowest at birth when compared with concentrations on days 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 42, 56, and 84. Administration of 0.1 ?g/kg of cosyntropin, IV, reliably induces cortisol secretion in healthy foals. Differences in the magnitude of response to cosyntropin are observed depending on the age of the foal. These data should serve as a reference for the ACTH stimulation test in foals and should be useful in subsequent studies to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy and critically ill foals. PMID:19337398

Wong, David M.; Vo, Dai Tan; Alcott, Cody J.; Stewart, Allison J.; Peterson, Anna D.; Sponseller, Brett A.; Hsu, Walter H.



Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency associated with common variable immunodeficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 14-year-old girl has been suffering from an isolated adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) deficiency with secondary glucocorticoid deficiency and common variable immunodeficiency since the age of 6.6 years. Human corticotropin releasing hormone administration did not increase ACTH and cortisol levels, strongly suggesting a pituitary deficiency. Despite the profound humoral defect, severe infections have never developed and the antibody response to herpes

P. A. Tovo; R. Lala; S. martino; G. Pastorelli; C. De Sanctis



Enhanced Suppression of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Responses to Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function and Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Tests after Stressful Life Events in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It is commonly believed that there exists a relationship between the outcome of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test, the combined dexamethasone\\/corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX\\/CRH) test and stressful life events (SLEs) in major depressive disorder. Objective: SLEs influence the TRH and DEX\\/CRH tests in major depressive disorder when administered at the time of admission and improvement. Methods: The TRH and DEX\\/CRH tests

Takatoshi Hikichi; Jotaro Akiyoshi; Shugo Ichioka; Yoshihiro Tanaka; Jusen Tsuru; Shinjirou Goto; Hirotaka Matsushita; Hiroaki Hanada; Koichi Isogawa; Haruo Nagayama



Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma with Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is caused most frequently by a bronchial carcinoid tumor or by small cell lung cancer. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare etiology of ectopic ACTH syndrome. We describe a case of Cushing syndrome due to ectopic ACTH production from MTC in a 48-year-old male. He was diagnosed with MTC 14 years ago and underwent total thyroidectomy, cervical lymph node dissection and a series of metastasectomies. MTC was confirmed by the pathological examination of the thyroid and metastatic mediastinal lymph node tissues. Two years after his last surgery, he developed Cushingoid features, such as moon face and central obesity, accompanied by uncontrolled hypertension and new-onset diabetes. The laboratory results were compatible with ectopic ACTH syndrome. A bilateral adrenalectomy improved the clinical and laboratory findings that were associated with Cushing syndrome. This is the first confirmed case of ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by MTC in Korea. PMID:24741461

Choi, Hong Seok; Kim, Min Joo; Moon, Chae Ho; Yoon, Jong Ho; Ku, Ha Ra; Kang, Geon Wook; Na, Im Il; Lee, Seung-Sook; Lee, Byung-Chul; Park, Young Joo; Kim, Hong Il



Atypical or typical adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pulmonary carcinoids and the usefulness of 11C-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pulmonary carcinoids associated with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion have a good prognosis if histological examination shows typical pulmonary carcinoid and low proliferation, whereas a poor outcome is linked to atypical pulmonary carcinoid and high proliferation. Here we describe the diagnostic challenges to find the tumor in Cushing’s syndrome secondary to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in two cases with an atypical and a typical pulmonary carcinoid, respectively. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian woman presented with aggressive clinical features related to Cushing’s syndrome, having very high levels of urinary cortisol and circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no pituitary tumor, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling revealed no central peripheral ratio of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Computed tomography and 111Indium-pentetreoide somatostatin receptor scintigraphy could not visualize any ectopic tumor. The patient was referred for an 11C-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography, and a small 8mm nodule in her left lung was found. The tumor was removed via a lateral thoracic incision and wedge excision. The histological examination showed an atypical carcinoid with Ki-67 index of 9 to 10%, and an additional lobectomy was performed. The second patient, a 22-year-old Caucasian man, also presented with aggressive Cushing’s syndrome, with very high urinary cortisol levels and increased circulating cortisol as well as adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the pituitary showed no tumor, whereas a 12×9×14mm tumor was detected in the right lung on the primary computed tomography scan and no further investigation was performed. The tumor was removed via a lateral thoracic incision and wedge excision. A typical carcinoid with Ki-67 index of 1 to 2% was found and no further surgery was performed. After surgical removal, the biochemical disturbances resolved and significant clinical improvement were achieved in both patients after 24 months of follow up. Conclusions Diagnostic evaluation time is limited due to the aggressive course in ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing’s syndrome. We suggest that 11C-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography could be considered early as a secondary diagnostic tool when primary computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging scans fail to show any tumor. PMID:23509950



Functional adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor in cultured human vascular endothelial cells : possible role in control of blood pressure.  


Hypertension is a prominent feature of patients with Cushing's disease and ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome, who have elevated ACTH levels. Chronic administration of ACTH (1-24) also raises blood pressure in humans. This effect has been postulated to be due to ACTH-induced increases in cortisol secretion in the adrenal gland. It is well known that cortisol increases vascular tone by potentiating the vasoconstrictor action of a number of pressor hormones. In the present study, we show direct evidence that human aortic endothelial cells possess the ACTH receptor. 11beta-Dehydrogenation, converting cortisol to its inactive metabolite, cortisone, mediated by vascular 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 is essential for the control of vascular tone, and the reduced activity may be relevant to the pathogenesis of hypertension. We found that ACTH (1-24) dose-dependently decreased the gene expression and enzyme activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in these cells, and the decrease was partially abolished by a selective ACTH receptor antagonist. This may indicate that ACTH potentiates the action of cortisol through its direct effect on the vasculature. Therefore, the present study provides important information for understanding the mechanism of ACTH-induced hypertension. PMID:11082157

Hatakeyama, H; Inaba, S; Taniguchi, N; Miyamori, I



Linkage of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency to the corticotropin releasing hormone locus using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms  

SciTech Connect

Genetic screening techniques using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms were applied to investigate the molecular nature of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. We hypothesize that this rare cause of hypocortisolism shared by a brother and sister with two unaffected sibs and unaffected parents is inherited as an autosomal recessive single gene mutation. Genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis controlling cortisol sufficiency were investigated for a causal role in this disorder. Southern blotting showed no detectable mutations of the gene encoding pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the ACTH precursor. Other candidate genes subsequently considered were those encoding neuroendocrine convertase-1, and neuroendocrine convertase-2 (NEC-1, NEC-2), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Tests for linkage were performed using polymorphic di- and tetranucleotide simple sequence repeat markers flanking the reported map locations for POMC, NEC-1, NEC-2, and CRH. The chromosomal haplotypes determined by the markers flanking the loci for POMC, NEC-1, and NEC-2 were not compatible with linkage. However, 22 individual markers defining the chromosomal haplotypes flanking CRH were compatible with linkage of the disorder to the immediate area of this gene of chromosome 8. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the ACTH deficiency in this family is due to an abnormality of CRH gene structure or expression. These results illustrate the useful application of high density genetic maps constructed with simple sequence repeat markers for inclusion/exclusion studies of candidate genes in even very small nuclear families segregating for unusual phenotypes. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Kyllo, J.H.; Collins, M.M.; Vetter, K.L. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); and others



Internal jugular vein: Peripheral vein adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio in patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome: Ratio calculated from one adrenocorticotropic hormone sample each from right and left internal jugular vein during corticotrophin releasing hormone stimulation test  

PubMed Central

Background: Demonstration of central: Peripheral adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gradient is important for diagnosis of Cushing's disease. Aim: The aim was to assess the utility of internal jugular vein (IJV): Peripheral vein ACTH ratio for diagnosis of Cushing's disease. Materials and Methods: Patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS) patients were the subjects for this study. One blood sample each was collected from right and left IJV following intravenous hCRH at 3 and 5 min, respectively. A simultaneous peripheral vein sample was also collected with each IJV sample for calculation of IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio. IJV sample collection was done under ultrasound guidance. ACTH was assayed using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Results: Thirty-two patients participated in this study. The IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio ranged from 1.07 to 6.99 (n = 32). It was more than 1.6 in 23 patients. Cushing's disease could be confirmed in 20 of the 23 cases with IJV: Peripheral vein ratio more than 1.6. Four patients with Cushing's disease and 2 patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome had IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio less than 1.6. Six cases with unknown ACTH source were excluded for calculation of sensitivity and specificity of the test. Conclusion: IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio calculated from a single sample from each IJV obtained after hCRH had 83% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosis of CD. PMID:23776865

Chittawar, Sachin; Bhattacharya, Saptarshi; Sahoo, Jai Prakash; Prakash, Siva; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Arora, Arundeep; Gupta, Nandita; Tandon, Nikhil; Goswami, Ravinder; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Karak, Ashish Kumar; Bal, Chandra Sekhar; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Kumar, Guresh; Ammini, Ariachery C.



Drop Metastasis of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Producing Pituitary Carcinoma to the Cauda Equina  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of pituitary carcinoma cannot be made easily histologically, and most cases of pituitary carcinoma are diagnosed only after the clinical detection of metastasis. Distant metastasis of pituitary tumor occurs in 0.1% to 0.2% of cases and has been reported in the liver, bone and central nervous system, with only one case of metastasis to the cauda equine reported. This study describes a rare case of the drop metastasis of adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pituitary adenocarcinoma to the cauda equina, causing cauda equina syndrome. PMID:25346823

Takeuchi, Kenichi; Hagiwara, Yoko; Wada, Keiji; Shiba, Masahiro; Kato, Yoshiharu



Positive gallium scan in the syndrome of opsoclonus-myoclonus treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone  

SciTech Connect

The syndrome of opsoclonus and myoclonus may be the first presenting symptom of neuroblastoma. The disorder is often controlled by treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). A child with this disorder and treated with ACTH gel had abnormal uptake of /sup 67/Ga in both adrenal glands during studies to attempt to detect an occult neuroblastoma. Repeat /sup 67/Ga scans proved to be normal once the ACTH was discontinued and the patient was treated with prednisone. It is concluded that ACTH stimulation of normal adrenal tissue was responsible for these abnormal findings.

Gumbinas, M.; Gratz, E.S.; Johnston, G.S.; Schwartz, A.D.



Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency due to probable lymphocytic hypophysitis in a woman  

PubMed Central

We report a 22-year-old woman who presented with asthenia, weight loss and hypotension in which extensive pituitary and adrenal investigations were diagnostic of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (IAD) of pituitary origin. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamus and pituitary showed a normal-sized pituitary, with no mass lesion. The diagnosis of IAD probably secondary to lymphocytic hypophysitis (LYH) was made. IAD is able to be the way of presentation of LYH, although the disease could or could not turn into a panhypopituitarism. Prompt recognition of this potentially fatal condition is important because of the availability of effective treatment. Indeed, regular endocrine and imaging follow up is important for patients with IAD and normal initial pituitary imaging results to detect early new-onset pituitary hormones deficiencies or imaging abnormalities. PMID:24251125

Kacem, Faten Hadj; Charfi, Nadia; Mnif, Mouna Feki; Kamoun, Mahdi; Akid, Faouzi; Mnif, Fatma; Naceur, Basma Ben; Rekik, Nabila; Mnif, Zainab; Abid, Mohamed



Modulation of the Oxidative Burst in Trout Myeloid Cells by Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Catecholamines: Mechanisms of Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative burst of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) phagocytes was previously found to be differentially modulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the catecholamine receptor agonists phenylephrine and isoproterenol. From data obtained using both luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LECL) and ferricytochrome C (cyt C) reduction to measure oxidative burst kinetics, we postulated that the observed modula- tion was mediated by affects on enzymes

Christopher J. Bayne; Sharon Levy


Pituitary-adrenocortical and lymphocyte responses to bromocriptine-induced hypoprolactinemia, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and restraint in swine.  


A study was conducted with castrated male pigs (barrows) to evaluate effects of bromocriptine-induced hypoprolactinemia (6 days) on basal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-altered (single injection) pituitary-adrenocortical function, on lymphocyte proliferative responses, and on interleukin 2 production. In addition, the study was designed to measure the short time course of pituitary-adrenocortical and lymphocyte responses to ACTH and to a 30-min restraint stressor. Blood samples were taken via indwelling jugular catheters at -0.5, +0.5, +2, and +5 hr (with reference to time of acute treatment exposure) on Day 6 of the study. Lymphocyte responses were measured only at the 2-hr interval. Exposure (6 days) to bromocriptine (CB154) was associated with 53% reductions (P less than 0.05) in plasma prolactin (1.37 +/- 0.13 vs 0.60 +/- 0.04 vs 0.68 +/- 0.08 ng/ml) when averaged across all time intervals in control, CB154-treated, and CB154 + ACTH-treated pigs, respectively. The reductions in plasma prolactin were associated with a reduction (P less than 0.05) in basal plasma cortisol at only one time interval (+0.5 hr) when CB154-treated pigs were compared with controls (17.7 +/- 4.2 vs 26.9 +/- 3.2 ng/ml). CB154 had no effect on plasma ACTH or growth hormone concentrations for the time periods at which they were measured. CB154 treatment produced numerical, but not statistically significant, 38% reductions in interleukin 2 production (6.31 +/- 1.8 vs 3.91 +/- 1.47 units/ml). Lymphocyte proliferative responses to the mitogen concanavalin A and interleukin 2 production decreased 65 and 75% (P less than 0.05), respectively, 2 hr subsequent to ACTH administration when compared with control animals. Hence, under the conditions of this study, only a modest association between lowered plasma prolactin concentrations and basal cortisol concentrations was evident. The data suggest the absence of dopamine regulation of basal plasma ACTH in pigs and provide evidence for a rapidly occurring inhibitory effect of ACTH administration on specific lymphocyte activities. PMID:2169055

Klemcke, H G; Blecha, F; Nienaber, J A



Space weightlessness and hormonal changes in human subjects and experimental animals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from spaceflight and bed rest studies are briefly described and the difficulties in interpreting these results are discussed. Growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, insulin, aldosterone, and other hormones are addressed.

Grindeland, R. E.



Serum corticosterone response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation in Florida sandhill cranes.  


Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement in an enclosure for 7 days, 6 hr a day. On day 8, cranes were catheterized and then confined in an enclosure. Venous blood (2 ml) was collected through the catheter and an attached IV line immediately before (-60 min) and 60 min after (0 min) confinement. Using a randomization table and a restricted cross-over experimental design, cranes were injected intravenously with either saline (control) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; cosyntropin, Cortrosyn; 0.25 mg). At 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection, blood samples were collected and assayed for corticosterone. The cranes receiving ACTH increased their serum corticosterone concentrations as much as fivefold above baseline concentrations. Serum corticosterone concentrations remained significantly elevated for approximately 60 min after ACTH stimulation. Physical restraint and catheterization caused an increase in serum corticosterone almost comparable to that induced by ACTH stimulation. In cranes injected with saline, serum corticosterone decreased within 1 hr after physical restraint and catheterization, and remained at lower levels throughout the remaining 5 hr of confinement. PMID:9813840

Ludders, J W; Langenberg, J A; Czekala, N M; Erb, H N; McCormick, H



Short-term effects of cortisol implantation on blood biochemistry and thyroid hormones in previtellogenic great sturgeon Huso huso.  


This study examined the effects of implanted cortisol on various aspects of intermediary metabolism of great sturgeon, Huso huso. Prior to experimentation all fish were examined using an endoscope to observe the stage of ovarian development. Subsequently, the 3-year-old female fish in the previtellogenic stage (mean body weight of 6759±53.2g) were intraperitoneally implanted with cocoa butter pellets containing cortisol to mimic the effects of chronic stress. The implant doses were 0 (C0; as control), 5 (C5) and 50 (C50) mg cortisol/kg body weight. Blood samples were taken every seven days during the four weeks of the experiment and analyzed for cortisol, glucose, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), total protein, total lipid, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cholesterol and triglyceride content. Growth was reduced in all experimental groups and was not affected by cortisol treatment. Surprisingly, serum cortisol levels were higher in the C5 group than in the C50 throughout the experiment. A significant increase in glucose levels was observed in the cortisol-implanted fish from day 14 onwards. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant increase in serum T3 and T4 levels. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose also showed increases in serum ACTH, total lipid and cholesterol levels throughout a 28-day experimental period. The present study reveals that the negative effects of endoscopic surgery remain for at least four weeks and that a sustained-release implant of cortisol to mimic the effects of chronic stress affects metabolic responses. Since the adverse effects of endoscopic surgery on sturgeon welfare can be amplified by cortisol, special attention should be paid to the potential effects of chronic stress on sturgeon in culture. PMID:25289995

Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Van Der Kraak, Glen



Direct activating effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on brown adipose tissue are attenuated by corticosterone.  


Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and brown-like cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) can dissipate energy through thermogenesis, a process mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). We investigated whether stress hormones ACTH and corticosterone contribute to BAT activation and browning of WAT. ACTH and corticosterone were studied in male mice exposed to 4 or 23°C for 24 h. Direct effects were studied in T37i mouse brown adipocytes and primary cultured murine BAT and inguinal WAT (iWAT) cells. In vivo effects were studied using (18)F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Cold exposure doubled serum ACTH concentrations (P=0.03) and fecal corticosterone excretion (P=0.008). In T37i cells, ACTH dose-dependently increased Ucp1 mRNA (EC50=1.8 nM) but also induced Ucp1 protein content 88% (P=0.02), glycerol release 32% (P=0.03) and uncoupled respiration 40% (P=0.003). In cultured BAT and iWAT, ACTH elevated Ucp1 mRNA by 3-fold (P=0.03) and 3.7-fold (P=0.01), respectively. In T37i cells, corticosterone prevented induction of Ucp1 mRNA and Ucp1 protein by both ACTH and norepinephrine in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent fashion. ACTH and GR antagonist RU486 independently doubled BAT (18)F-deoxyglucose uptake (P=0.0003 and P=0.004, respectively) in vivo. Our results show that ACTH activates BAT and browning of WAT while corticosterone counteracts this.-Van den Beukel, J. C., Grefhorst, A., Quarta, C., Steenbergen, J., Mastroberardino, P. G., Lombès, M., Delhanty, P. J., Mazza, R., Pagotto, U., van der Lely, A. J., Themmen, A. P. N. Direct activating effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on brown adipose tissue are attenuated by corticosterone. PMID:25085924

van den Beukel, Johanna C; Grefhorst, Aldo; Quarta, Carmelo; Steenbergen, Jacobie; Mastroberardino, Pier G; Lombès, Marc; Delhanty, Patric J; Mazza, Roberta; Pagotto, Uberto; van der Lely, Aart Jan; Themmen, Axel P N




Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol for the adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) stimulation test in American black ducks (Anas rubripes) was established with synthetic ACTH, cosyntropin (Cortrosyn#{174});ACTH stimulation testing was conducted on 31 adult ducks (14 males, 17 females) in September 1993. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were measured on heparinized blood samples collected 30 mm, and 1, 2, and 4 hr post-injection. In comparison with saline controls,

Lucy H. Spelman; W. James Fleming; Gary S. Davis; Michael K. Stoskopf



Effects of short-term management stress and ACTH injections on plasma cortisol levels in cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

General management practices including capture, handling and transportation in fish hatcheries can induce a stress response indicated by a plasma cortisol increase in many species. However, this phenomenon is not well established in cultured white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). We determined resting levels of cortisol and the cortisol responses to two management stressors and to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH1–24) injections in

J. M Belanger; J. H Son; K. D Laugero; G. P Moberg; S. I Doroshov; S. E Lankford; J. J Cech



Peripheral blood corticotropin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cytokine (Interleukin Beta, Interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels after high- and low-dose total-body irradiation in humans  

SciTech Connect

Total-body irradiation (TBI) induces an increase in levels of granulocytes and cortisol in blood. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we studied 26 patients who had TBI prior to bone marrow transplantation. Our findings suggest that only a high dose of TBI (10 Gy) was capable of activating the hypothalamopituitary area since corticotropin-releasing factor and blood adrenocorticotropic hormone levels increased at the end of the TBI. There was a concomitant increase in the levels of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor in blood, suggesting that these cytokines might activate the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis. Interleukin 1 was not detected. Since vascular injury is a common after radiation treatment, it is possible that interleukin 6 was secreted by endothelial cells. The exact mechanisms of the production of cyctokines induced by ionizing radiation remain to be determined. 25 refs., 1 fig.

Girinsky, T.A.; Pallardy, M.; Comoy, E.; Benassi, T.; Roger, R.; Ganem, G.; Socie, G. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Cossett, J.M.; Magdelenat, H. [Institut Curie, Paris (France)



Effect of exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone administration on plasma corticosterone concentrations in American black ducks (Anas rubripes).  


A protocol for the adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) stimulation test in American black ducks (Anas rubripes) was established with synthetic ACTH, cosyntropin (Cortrosyn); ACTH stimulation testing was conducted on 31 adult ducks (14 males, 17 females) in September 1993. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were measured on heparinized blood samples collected 30 min, and 1, 2, and 4 hr post-injection. In comparison with saline controls, cosyntropin (0.25 mg/duck) produced a two- to three-fold increase in corticosterone 30 min after administration. Maximal concentrations ranged from 132 to 312 ng/ml and occurred between 1 and 2 hr post-injection. Corticosterone concentrations declined to basal, pre-injection values after 4 hr. Endogenous ACTH release in response to handling stress was evident in control ducks after saline injection but did not interfere with interpretation of the stimulation test. Recommendations for the ACTH stimulation test in black ducks include a 30 min acclimatization period for recently captured or relocated ducks and determination of plasma corticosterone concentration 1 to 2 hr following intramuscular injection with 0.25 mg cosyntropin. PMID:8583629

Spelman, L H; Fleming, W J; Davis, G S; Stoskopf, M K



Diazepam-Binding Inhibitor (DBI)Processing Products, Acting at the Mitochondrial DBI Receptor, Mediate Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Induced Steroidogenesis in Rat Adrenal Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) is a 9-kDa polypeptide that colocalizes in glial, adrenocortical, and Leydig cells with the mitochondrial DBI receptor (MDR). By binding with high affinity to the MDR, DBI and one of its processing products-DBI-(17-50)-regulate pregnenolone synthesis and have been suggested to participate in the immediate activation of adrenal steroidogenesis by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In adrenals of hypophysectomized rats

Sebastiano Cavallaro; Alexander Korneyev; Alessandro Guidotti; Erminio Costa



Levels of central oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability.  


Sociability is the prerequisite to social living. Oxytocin and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis mediate various social behaviors across different social contexts in different rodents. We hypothesized that they also mediate levels of non-reproductive social behavior. Here we explored naturally occurring variation in sociability through a social preference test and compared central oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptors, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability. We found that low-social voles showed higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in open field tests, and had more serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone than high-social voles. High-social individuals had more glucocorticoid receptor positive neurons in the hippocampus and more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than low-social individuals. Within the same level of sociability, females had more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than males. These results indicate that naturally occurring social preferences are associated with higher levels of central oxytocin and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor and lower levels of anxiety and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. PMID:25141210

Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Tai, Fadao; Wu, Ruiyong; Hao, Ping; Fang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shuwei



Stress-induced heat shock protein 70 expression in adrenal cortex: an adrenocorticotropic hormone-sensitive, age-dependent response.  

PubMed Central

The induction of heat shock proteins (HSP) by cellular stress and the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by physiologic stress are biological responses that aid in the maintenance of cellular and organismal homeostasis, respectively. In this report, restraint stress, known to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is shown to induce expression of HSP70 mRNA selectively in the adrenal cortex of the rat. Restraint-induced HSP70 expression in the adrenals is rapid and is preceded by the activation of a protein factor capable of binding to the heat shock transcriptional control element. The ability of restraint to induce HSP70 expression in the adrenal is virtually eliminated in hypophysectomized rats but can be restored by the exogenous administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone. The magnitude of this induction declines as a function of increasing age, which may contribute to a reduced stress tolerance by aged animals. These results support a role for HSP70 in the physiologic stress response mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Images PMID:1658790

Blake, M J; Udelsman, R; Feulner, G J; Norton, D D; Holbrook, N J



Effects of bupropion and pramipexole on cell proliferation in the hippocampus of adrenocorticotropic hormone-treated rats.  


The dopamine reuptake inhibitor bupropion and dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist pramipexole have been clinically proven to improve both depression and treatment-resistant depression. We examined its influence on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats and further analyzed the possible role of the dopamine nerve system in this effect. Bupropion and pramipexole significantly decreased the duration of immobility in normal and ACTH-treated rats. We previously demonstrated that the chronic administration of ACTH caused a significant decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis. In this study, we used the mitotic marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine to investigate the effects of bupropion and pramipexole on cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus following chronic treatment with ACTH. The ACTH treatment for 14?d decreased adult hippocampal cell proliferation. The chronic administration of bupropion for 14?d blocked the loss of cell proliferation resulting from the chronic treatment with ACTH, whereas pramipexole did not. The administration of bupropion may have treatment-resistant antidepressive properties, which may be partly attributed to the normalization of hippocampal cell proliferation. PMID:24492730

Onoue, Yuka; Kuwatsuka, Keiko; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Sendo, Toshiaki



Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cAMP inhibit noninactivating K+ current in adrenocortical cells by an A-kinase-independent mechanism requiring ATP hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express a noninactivating K+ current (IAC) that is inhibited by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) at picomolar concentrations. Inhibition of IAC may be a critical step in depolarization-dependent Ca2+ entry leading to cortisol secretion. In whole-cell patch clamp recordings from AZF cells, we have characterized properties of IAC and the signalling pathway by which ACTH inhibits this current. IAC was identified as a voltage-gated, outwardly rectifying, K(+)-selective current whose inhibition by ACTH required activation of a pertussis toxin-insensitive GTP binding protein. IAC was selectively inhibited by the cAMP analogue 8-(4- chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-pcpt-cAMP) with an IC50 of 160 microM. The adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (2.5 microM) also reduced IAC by 92 +/- 4.7%. Inhibition of IAC by ACTH, 8-pcpt-cAMP and forskolin was not prevented by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitors H-89 (5 microM), cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor peptide (PKI[5-24]) (2 microM), (Rp)-cAMPS (500 microM), or by the nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine (100 nM) applied externally or intracellularly through the patch pipette. At the same concentrations, these kinase inhibitors abolished 8-pcpt-cAMP-stimulated A-kinase activity in AZF cell extracts. In intact AZF cells, 8-pcpt-cAMP activated A-kinase with an EC50 of 77 nM, a concentration 2,000-fold lower than that inhibiting IAC half maximally. The active catalytic subunit of A-kinase applied intracellularly through the recording pipette failed to alter functional expression of IAC. The inhibition of IAC by ACTH and 8-pcpt- cAMP was eliminated by substituting the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue AMP-PNP for ATP in the pipette solution. Penfluridol, an antagonist of T-type Ca2+ channels inhibited 8-pcpt-cAMP-induced cortisol secretion with an IC50 of 0.33 microM, a concentration that effectively blocks Ca2+ channel in these cells. These results demonstrate that IAC is a K(+)-selective current whose gating is controlled by an unusual combination of metabolic factors and membrane voltage. IAC may be the first example of an ionic current that is inhibited by cAMP through an A-kinase-independent mechanism. The A-kinase-independent inhibition of IAC by ACTH and cAMP through a mechanism requiring ATP hydrolysis appears to be a unique form of channel modulation. These findings suggest a model for cortisol secretion wherein cAMP combines with two separate effectors to activate parallel steroidogenic signalling pathways. These include the traditional A-kinase-dependent signalling cascade and a novel pathway wherein cAMP binding to IAC K+ channels leads to membrane depolarization and Ca2+ entry. The simultaneous activation of A-kinase- and Ca(2+)-dependent pathways produces the full steroidogenic response. PMID:8894975



No acute suppression of cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone in man by cortisol administration.  


Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is regarded as index of brain endocrine and behavioral functioning. We investigated the acute effects of intravenous cortisol (100mg) vs. placebo on serial CSF CRH in ten healthy men. CSF CRH concentrations were not significantly suppressed by cortisol within 3h. The origin and regulation of CSF CRH need further research. PMID:23896353

Kellner, Michael; Salzwedel, Cornelie; Wortmann, Viola; Urbanowicz, Tatiana; Boelmans, Kai; Yassouridis, Alexander; Stalla, Günter K; Wiedemann, Klaus



In vitro detection of adrenocorticotropic hormone levels by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy immunoassay for mathematical modeling of glucocorticoid-mediated feedback mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Performing quantitative, highly sensitive measurements at a single molecule level is often necessary to address specific issues related to complex molecular and biochemical systems. For that purpose, we present a technique exploiting both the flexibility of immunoassays as well as the low operating costs and high throughput rates of the fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) method. That way we have established a quantitative measurement technique providing accurate and flexibly time resolved data of single molecules. Nanomolar changes in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels have been detected in a short time-frame that are caused by fast feedback actions in AtT-20 anterior pituitary glands in vitro. Especially with respect to clinical diagnostic or mathematical modeling this improved FCS setup may be of high relevance in order to accurately quantify the amounts of peptide hormones—such as ACTH—as well as signaling molecules, transcription factors, etc., being involved in intra- and extracellular reaction networks. PMID:23102048



Detection of paranasal ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma by Ga-68-DOTANOC positron-emission tomography-computed tomography.  


Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumors account for approximately 10% of Cushing's syndrome (CS). We present an extremely rare case of a patient with CS caused by an ectopic ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (EAPA) of the ethmoid sinus. The tumor was identified by positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) using the somatostatin receptor analogue Ga-68-DOTANOC. Transnasal endoscopic resection was performed and the patient showed significant clinical improvement with normalization of the endocrine pituitary axis. Immunostaining showed a somatostatin receptor 2 and 5-positive ACTH-producing adenoma. In patients with ectopic ACTH secretion, Ga-68-DOTANOC-PET/CT may play an important role in the localization of EAPA. Transnasal endoscopic resection is the therapy of choice. PMID:23299948

Veit, Johannes A; Boehm, Bernhard; Luster, Markus; Scheuerle, Angelika; Rotter, Nicole; Rettinger, Gerhard; Scheithauer, Marc



Acute effects of nicotine on serum glucose insulin growth hormone and cortisol in healthy smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking impairs glucose tolerance and alters serum levels of hormones involved in glucose metabolism, but the role of nicotine in such hormonal alterations is not well understood. In order to isolate the effects of transdermal nicotine on serum glucose, insulin, growth hormone, and cortisol in smokers, we conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study involving 34 healthy volunteer smokers

Thomas M Morgan; Linda Crawford; Adam Stoller; David Toth; Kiang-Teck J Yeo; John A Baron



Hormonal contraceptive use diminishes salivary cortisol response to psychosocial stress and naltrexone in healthy women  

PubMed Central

The use of hormonal contraception (HC) may affect salivary cortisol levels at rest and in response to a pharmacological or stress challenge. Therefore, the current study used a secondary data analysis to investigate the effect of HC on salivary cortisol levels in response to the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a psychosocial stressor, and also across the diurnal curve. Two hundred and nine women (n = 72 using hormonal contraception; HC+) completed a two-session stress response study that consisted of a stress day, in which they were exposed to public speaking and mental arithmetic, and a rest day, in which unstimulated cortisol levels were measured to assess the diurnal rhythm. A subset of seventy women (n = 24 HC+) also completed a second study in which they were administered oral naltrexone (50 mg) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind fashion. Women who were HC+ had a significantly reduced salivary cortisol response to both the psychosocial stressor (p < 0.001) and naltrexone (p < 0.05) compared to HC? women. Additionally, HC+ women had a significantly altered morning diurnal cortisol rhythm (p < 0.01), with a delayed peak and higher overall levels. The results of the current study confirm that HC attenuates salivary cortisol response to a psychosocial stressor and mu-opioid receptor antagonism, and also alters the morning diurnal cortisol curve. PMID:23672966

Roche, Daniel J.O.; King, Andrea C.; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Lovallo, William R.



A non-invasive technique for analyzing fecal cortisol metabolites in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus).  


To develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring steroid stress hormones in the feces of free-living animals, extensive knowledge of their metabolism and excretion is essential. Here, we conducted four studies to validate the use of an enzyme immunoassay for monitoring fecal cortisol metabolites in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). First, we injected 11 hares with radioactive cortisol and collected all voided urine and feces for 4 days. Radioactive metabolites were recovered predominantly in the urine (59%), with only 8% recovered in the feces. Peak radioactivity was detected an average of 3.5 and 5.7 h after injection in the urine and feces, respectively. Second, we investigated diurnal rhythms in fecal cortisol metabolites by measuring recovered radioactivity 2 days after the radioactive cortisol injection. The total amount of radioactivity recovered showed a strong diurnal rhythm, but the amount of radioactivity excreted per gram of feces did not, remaining constant. Third, we injected hares with dexamethasone to suppress fecal cortisol metabolites and 2 days later with adrenocorticotropic hormone to increase fecal cortisol metabolites. Dexamethasone decreased fecal cortisol metabolites concentrations by 61% and adrenocorticotropic hormone increased them by 1,000%, 8-12 h after injection. Fourth, we exposed hares to a simulated predator (dog). This increased the fecal cortisol metabolites concentrations by 175% compared with baseline concentrations 8-12 h after exposure. Thus, this enzyme immunoassay provides a robust foundation for non-invasive field studies of stress in hares. PMID:18998149

Sheriff, Michael J; Bosson, Curtis O; Krebs, Charles J; Boonstra, Rudy



Enhanced hypoosmoregulatory response to growth hormone after cortisol treatment in immature rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri.  


The growth-independent effect of ovine growth hormone (oGH) and oGH + cortisol treatment on seawater (SW) adaptation in immature rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri was investigated. Fish were injected every second day with saline, 2.0 ?g oGH/g or 2.0 ?g oGH + 8.0 ?g cortisol/g for a maximum of 8 injections in freshwater (FW). Subgroups were transferred to 28‰ SW after 4 or 8 injections, and changes in plasma Na(+) and Cl(-), muscle water content and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were measured. In both of the hormone-treated groups retained in FW, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and interlamellar chloride cell density increased. The effects were most pronounced in the oGH + cortisol group after 2 weeks of treatment. After transfer to SW most of the control fish died due to the osmotic stress, whereas in the hormone-treated groups, mortality was low and there was a positive correlation between pretransfer gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and the ability to maintain ionic-osmotic homeostasis after SW transfer. After two weeks of oGH + cortisol treatment, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was maximal. In contrast, after SW transfer, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity increased further in the oGH-treated group. This group regulated ionic-osmotic parameters less effectively than the oGH + cortisol-treated group. The data indicate that GH and cortisol are important hormones in the regulation of hypoosmoregulatory mechanisms in S. gairdneri. PMID:24220916

Madsen, S S




Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of suckling on secretion of luteinizing hormone, cortisol and transcortin were investigated in anovulatory postpartum cows. On d 35 postpartum, calves were separated from 12 cows to prevent suckling and eight calves continued to suckle their dams ad libitum. Between 35 and 41 d postpartum, samples of jugular blood were collected every 15 min for two periods of

G. L. Faltys; E. M. Convey; R. E. Short; C. A. Keech; R. L. Fogwell


Interrelationships Among Changes in Leptin, Insulin, Cortisol and Growth Hormone and Weight Status in Youth  

PubMed Central

Objective: While acute alterations in leptin, insulin, cortisol and growth hormone (GH) levels have been reported in children following weight change interventions, little is known about natural hormonal changes as children grow and how these changes are affected by unprovoked weight status changes. The purpose of this investigation was to compare changes in leptin, insulin, cortisol and GH levels in youth who maintained their weight status vs. those who moved from normal weight to overweight or vice versa. Methods: Data were collected from 120 youth at baseline (9.8±1.0 years) and two years later. Participants were selected from a larger cohort to represent all scenarios of weight status: normal weight [>5th and <85th body mass index (BMI) percentile] at both time points (NN), overweight (?85th BMI percentile) at both time points (OO), normal weight status who changed to overweight (NO) and overweight status which changed to normal weight (ON). Hormonal concentrations were measured from fasting venous blood. Results: In youth who changed their weight status, there were significant associations (p<0.05) between changes in BMI percentile and changes in leptin, insulin and cortisol (partial R2= 0.35, 0.13 and 0.11, respectively), after accounting for race, sex and changes in pubertal status and aerobic power. Our key findings were that youth who became overweight (NO) showed greater changes for leptin (+205% vs. -21%) and cortisol (-33% vs. +13%), p<0.05 than those who reverted from overweight to normal weight (ON). Conclusion: Natural changes in weight status in youth show a relationship with changes in leptin, insulin and cortisol levels and the hormonal changes appear to be more sensitive to increases, rather than reductions, in weight status. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21448330

McMurray, Robert G; Hackney, Anthony C; Harrell, Joanne S



Fuel oil-induced adrenal hypertrophy in ranch mink (Mustela vison): effects of sex, fuel oil weathering, and response to adrenocorticotropic hormone.  


Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources can be a cause of stress for free-ranging wildlife. The response of wildlife to chemical contaminants requires that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis be precisely regulated to allow for proper glucocorticoid-mediated adaptive responses. Chronic oral exposure to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil causes the development of adrenal hypertrophy in male ranch mink (Mustela vison) without increasing serum or fecal glucocorticoid concentrations. This hypertrophy is an adaptive response to fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To determine if the same phenomenon occurs in female mink or male mink exposed to artificially weathered fuel oil, female mink were fed 0 ppm (mineral oil) or 420 ppm fuel oil and male mink were exposed to 0 ppm, 420 ppm fuel oil, or 480 ppm artificially weathered fuel oil in the diet for 60-62 days. At the end of the exposure, serum glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed along with body and organ weight measurements. Fecal glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed at time points throughout the exposure. Male mink fed fuel oil or weathered fuel oil and female mink fed fuel oil had adrenal enlargement without any significant increases in the serum or fecal concentration of glucocorticoids, which is consistent with fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To address the physiological consequences of adrenal insufficiency, fuel oil-exposed male mink were administered an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Fuel oil-exposed animals had a smaller incremental increase in serum glucocorticoid concentration after ACTH challenge compared to control animals. Our findings provide further evidence that the HPA axis of fuel oil-exposed animals is compromised and, therefore, not able to respond appropriately to the diverse stressors found in the environment. PMID:20090023

Mohr, F C; Lasley, B; Bursian, S



Proteomic analysis of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment of an infantile spasm model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and prenatal stress.  


Infantile spasms is an age-specific epileptic syndrome associated with poor developmental outcomes and poor response to nearly all traditional antiepileptic drugs except adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We investigated the protective mechanism of ACTH against brain damage. An infantile spasm rat model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in neonate rats was used. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into the stress-exposed and the non-stress exposed groups, and their offspring were randomly divided into ACTH-treated spasm model, untreated spasm model, and control groups. A proteomics-based approach was used to detect the proteome differences between ACTH-treated and untreated groups. Gel image analysis was followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric protein identification and bioinformatics analysis. Prenatal stress exposure resulted in more severe seizures, and ACTH treatment reduced and delayed the onset of seizures. The most significantly up-regulated proteins included isoform 1 of tubulin ?-5 chain, cofilin-1 (CFL1), synaptosomal-associated protein 25, malate dehydrogenase, N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, annexin A3 (ANXA3), and rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA). In contrast, tubulin ?-1A chain was down-regulated. Three of the identified proteins, ARHGDIA, ANXA3, and CFL1, were validated using western blot analysis. ARHGDIA expression was assayed in the brain samples of five infantile spasm patients. These proteins are involved in the cytoskeleton, synapses, energy metabolism, vascular regulation, signal transduction, and acetylation. The mechanism underlying the effects of ACTH involves the molecular events affected by these proteins, and protein acetylation is the mechanism of action of the drug treatment. PMID:23028951

Wang, Jing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Wen-Jing; Shang, Ai-Jia; Zou, Li-Ping



Plasma cortisol and thyroid hormone concentrations in pre-weaning Australian fur seal pups.  


The hormonal factors that influence development from birth to weaning in otariid seals is still largely unknown. In the present study, a suite of thyroid hormones and cortisol were measured in Australian fur seal pups in order to determine baseline concentrations as well as to describe their endocrinology over this critical developmental period. A cross-section of newborn pups from a breeding colony located on Kanowna Island, Australia were sampled at six different times over the course of the 10 month lactation period. Sample times were designed to correspond to periods of heightened physiological change during pre-weaning development: post-natal, pre-molt, the initiation of molt, mid-molt, period of peak milk intake and weaning. Results indicate that the greatest hormonal changes were associated with the post-natal stage and molt, with molt showing the greatest changes, as has been reported for several species of pinnipeds. Two forms of thyroid hormones analyzed (Total T(4), and Free T(3)), increased with the initiation of the molt, and Free T(3) exhibited a second increase that was associated with the period of peak milk intake. The T(3):T(4) ratio was significantly lower during the initiation of molt than either pre- or mid-molt. The study was able to describe physiological change during the first year of life in Australian fur seals as well as document basal concentrations of thyroid hormones and cortisol in pups of this species. PMID:21439286

Atkinson, S; Arnould, J P Y; Mashburn, K L



Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears  

PubMed Central

The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, ?-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p?-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. PMID:22575327

T?, Bechsh?ft; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Muir, DCG; Letcher, RJ; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS; Jenssen, BM; Villanger, GD



ACTH-stimulated cortisol release from head kidney of rainbow trout is modulated by glucose concentration.  


To assess the hypothesis that cortisol release in rainbow trout is modulated by glucose levels, we first evaluated cortisol release [basal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-regulated] by head kidney tissue superfused with medium reflecting hypoglycaemic, normoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic conditions. Next, cortisol release from head kidney fragments in static incubations was assessed in parallel with changes in parameters related to cortisol synthesis (mRNA abundance of StAR, P450scc, 3?HSD and 11?H) and the GK-mediated glucosensing mechanism (levels of glycogen and glucose, activities of GK, GSase and PK, and mRNA levels of GK, GLUT-2, Kir6.x-like and SUR-like). We then evaluated the effects of two inhibitors of glucose transport, cytochalasin B and phlorizin, on cortisol production and glucosensing mechanisms. The ACTH-induced release of cortisol proved to be modulated by glucose concentration such that increased release occurs under high glucose levels, and decreased ACTH-stimulated cortisol release occurs when glucose transport is inhibited by cytochalasin B. The release of cortisol can be associated with increased synthesis as enhanced mRNA abundance of genes related to cortisol synthesis was also noted in high glucose medium. Specific GK immunoreactivity in the cortisol-producing cells (not in chromaffin cells) further substantiates GK-mediated glucosensing in cortisol production. In contrast, no changes compatible with those of glucose levels and cortisol release/synthesis in the presence of ACTH were noted for any other putative glucosensor mechanisms based on LXR, SGLT-1 or Gnat3. These combined results are the first evidence for a mechanism in fish linking the synthesis and release of a non-pancreatic hormone like cortisol with circulating glucose levels. The relationship was evident for the regulated (ACTH-dependent) pathway and this suggests that under acute stress conditions glucose is important for the regulation of cortisol synthesis and release. PMID:23077165

Conde-Sieira, Marta; Alvarez, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Flik, Gert; Soengas, José L



Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17?; 20?-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru



A rare case of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome caused by a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas detected by 68Ga-DOTANOC and 18F-FDG PET/CT.  


We report a rare case of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome caused by a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas detected by PET/CT using different tracers. A 43-year-old female patient with Cushing syndrome (CS) by suspected ectopic ACTH secretion underwent a 68Ga-DOTANOC and a 18F-FDG PET/CT. Both these functional imaging techniques revealed increased tracer uptake in a pancreatic mass and multiple liver metastases. Histology showed the presence of a mildly differentiated pancreatic NET. 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT may be a useful functional imaging method, complementary to 18F-FDG PET/CT, in detecting ACTH-secreting pancreatic NETs. PMID:23486330

Treglia, Giorgio; Salomone, Enrica; Petrone, Gianluigi; Giaccari, Andrea; Rindi, Guido; Rufini, Vittoria



Inter-relationships between pituitary-adrenal hormones and catecholamines during a 6-day Nordic ski race  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The aim of the study was to investigate the inter-relationships between pituitary-adrenal hormones and catecholamines during a prolonged competition over 6 days. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol (C), -endorphin (EP), free and sulphated adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA) were measured in 11 volunteer male subjects during a national Nordic-ski race (323 km). Blood samples were obtained before the competition in

Nicole Fellmann; Mario Bedu; Gil Boudet; Martine Mage; Marcel Sagnol; Jean-Marc Pequignot; Bruno Claustrat; Jocelyne Brun; Liliane Peyrin; Jean Coudert



Salivary testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone: two-week stability, interhormone correlations, and effects of time of day, menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptive use on steroid hormone levels.  


With salivary assessment of steroid hormones increasing, more work is needed to address fundamental properties of steroid hormone levels in humans. Using a test-retest design and radioimmunoassay assessment of salivary steroids, we tested the reliability of testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone levels across two weeks, as well as the effects of oral contraceptives, menstrual cycle phase, and time of day on steroid hormone levels. Testosterone and cortisol were found to be highly reliable in both sexes. Progesterone was found to be reliable after collapsing across sex. Oral contraceptive use was associated with lower levels of testosterone, but did not affect cortisol. Contrary to expectations, oral contraceptives also did not affect progesterone. Menstrual cycle was found to affect levels of progesterone, but not testosterone or cortisol. Time of day had an effect on cortisol, on progesterone only at one testing time, and no effect on testosterone. We explored the interhormone correlations among testosterone, progesterone, and cortisol. All three hormones were positively correlated with one another in men. In women, progesterone was positively correlated with testosterone and cortisol, but testosterone and cortisol were uncorrelated. PMID:19833145

Liening, Scott H; Stanton, Steven J; Saini, Ekjyot K; Schultheiss, Oliver C



Women's intercollegiate athletic competition: cortisol, testosterone, and the dual-hormone hypothesis as it relates to status among teammates.  


Recent research suggests that testosterone and cortisol jointly regulate dominance motivation and, perhaps, the status relationships that are affected by it. For this article, the results of six different studies of women's intercollegiate athletic competition were combined to give a sample size of almost ninety women for whom we had before- and after-competition values for salivary cortisol and testosterone for at least one and sometimes two competitions. For many of these women, we had surveys that allowed us to assess their status with teammates. In no matter what sport (soccer, softball, volleyball, and tennis) levels of salivary cortisol and testosterone increased when women participated in athletic competition. Salivary levels of C and T appear to rise in parallel during competition and increases in levels of one hormone are significantly related to increases in the other. Salivary levels of these hormones typically decreased for teammates who did not play but watched the competition from the sidelines. For women who played in two competitions, individual differences in the positive effect of competition on cortisol and testosterone were conserved from one competition to the next, affirming the personal consistency of endocrine responses to competition. Status with teammates was positively related to before-competition levels of testosterone, but only for women with relatively low before-competition levels of cortisol. This result provides novel support for the "dual-hormone hypothesis" as it relates to predicting social status in women's athletic teams - natural social groups of individuals who know each other and whose social hierarchy has evolved over the course of practice and play for at least one and, in some cases, several years of intercollegiate athletic competition. PMID:23523743

Edwards, David A; Casto, Kathleen V



Circulating ?-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of stallions before and after short road transport: stress effect of different distances  

PubMed Central

Background Since transport evokes physiological adjustments that include endocrine responses, the objective of this study was to examine the responses of circulating ?-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels to transport stress in stallions. Methods Forty-two healthy Thoroughbred and crossbred stallions were studied before and after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein: first in a single box immediately before loading (pre-samples), then immediately after transport and unloading on arrival at the breeding stations (post-samples). Results An increase in circulating ?-endorphin levels after transport of 100 km (P < 0.01), compared to basal values was observed. Circulating ACTH levels showed significant increases after transport of 100 km (P < 0.001) and 200 km (P < 0.001). Circulating cortisol levels showed significant increases after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km (P < 0.001). An effect of transport on ?-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol variations was therefore evident for the different distances studied. No significant differences (P > 0.05) between horses of different ages and different breeds were observed for ?-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels. Conclusion The results obtained for short term transportation of stallions showed a very strong reaction of the adrenocortical system. The lack of response of ?-endorphin after transport of 200–300 km and of ACTH after transport of 300 km seems to suggest a soothing effect of negative feedback of ACTH and cortisol levels. PMID:18315878

Fazio, Esterina; Medica, Pietro; Aronica, Vincenzo; Grasso, Loredana; Ferlazzo, Adriana



Growth hormone differentially regulates muscle myostatin1 and -2 and increases circulating cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  


Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates muscle growth in vertebrates. Salmonids produce two myostatin transcripts from separate genes. Surprisingly, quantitative analyses indicate different regulatory mechanisms for the two myostatin genes in rainbow trout. MSTN1 mRNA levels were elevated 26% following recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) treatment, while MSTN2 mRNA levels were reduced 74% compared to controls. MSTN precursor protein (42kDa) levels were elevated in rbGH treated fish compared to controls. In addition, circulating cortisol levels were elevated 71% following rbGH treatment compared to controls. In treated and control fish, cortisol levels were elevated 245% at day 0 compared to subsequent days. Treated fish exhibited cortisol levels 207% higher than controls at 0.5 day, and remained at least 50% higher for 7 days following treatment. This pattern of change was positively correlated to MSTN1 mRNA levels. This is the first time a direct relationship has been reported between GH, cortisol, and myostatin. In addition, following rbGH administration, myosin protein concentrations in skeletal muscle samples increased, suggesting that GH regulates expression of the most abundant muscle protein. These results indicate the two myostatin genes are differentially regulated and may possess different functions in rainbow trout muscle, and suggests a possible interaction between GH, cortisol, and muscle growth. PMID:15242749

Biga, Peggy R; Cain, Kenneth D; Hardy, Ronald W; Schelling, Gerald T; Overturf, Kenneth; Roberts, Steven B; Goetz, Frederick W; Ott, Troy L



Characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone in primiparous, postpartum, anovular, suckled, beef cows exposed acutely to bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The physiological mechanism by which bulls stimulate resumption of ovarian cycling activity in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows after calving may involve the concurrent activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian (HPO) axis and hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, the objectives of this experiment were to determine if characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH) in postpartum, anovular, beef cows are

Shaun A Tauck; Jesse R Olsen; Jarrod RC Wilkinson; Riley J Wedlake; Kathleen C Davis; James G Berardinelli



Noninvasive monitoring of fecal cortisol metabolites in the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus): validation and comparison of two enzyme immunoassays.  


Monitoring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in wild animals, using enzyme immunoassays, enables the study of endocrinological patterns relevant to ecology and evolution. While some researchers use antibodies against the parent hormone (which is typically absent from fecal samples), others advocate the use of antibodies designed to detect glucocorticoid metabolites. We validated two assays to monitor fecal cortisol metabolites in the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus). We compared an antibody produced against cortisol and one produced against 5?-pregnane-3?, 11?, 21-triol-20-one using a radiometabolism study and an injection with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Most cortisol metabolites were excreted in the urine (?83%). Peak excretion in the feces occurred 8 h after injection. Both assays detected an increase in fecal cortisol metabolite levels after injection of ACTH. Males, but not females, exhibited a circadian variation in metabolite levels. The sexes did not exhibit any difference over the time course and route of excretion or the relative increase in fecal cortisol metabolite levels after ACTH injection. The cortisol assay displayed higher reactivity to ACTH injection relative to baseline than did the metabolite assay. While both antibodies gave comparable results, the cortisol antibody was more sensitive to changes in plasma cortisol levels in eastern chipmunks. PMID:22418710

Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Pelletier, Fanie; Palme, Rupert; Garant, Dany; Réale, Denis; Boonstra, Rudy



Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and cortisol concentrations are associated with overreaching during strenuous military training.  


The purpose was (a) to study the effect of an 8-week Finnish military basic training period (BT) on physical fitness, body composition, mood state, and serum biochemical parameters among new conscripts; (b) to determine the incidence of overreaching (OR); and (c) to evaluate whether initial levels or training responses differ between OR and noOR subjects. Fifty-seven males (19.7 ± 0.3 years) were evaluated before and during BT. Overreaching subjects had to fulfill 3 of 5 criteria: decreased aerobic physical fitness (VO2max), increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in 45-minute submaximal test at 70% of VO2max or sick absence from these tests, increased somatic or emotional symptoms of OR, and high incidence of sick absence from daily service. VO2max improved during the first 4 weeks of BT. During the second half of BT, a stagnation of increase in VO2max was observed, basal serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) increased, and insulin-like growth factor-1 and cortisol decreased. Furthermore, submaximal exercise-induced increases in cortisol, maximum heart rate, and postexercise increase in blood lactate were blunted. Of 57 subjects, 33% were classified as OR. They had higher basal SHBG before and after 4 and 7 weeks of training and higher basal serum cortisol at the end of BT than noOR subjects. In addition, in contrast to noOR, OR subjects exhibited no increase in basal testosterone/cortisol ratio but a decrease in maximal La/RPE ratio during BT. As one-third of the conscripts were overreached, training after BT should involve recovery training to prevent overtraining syndrome from developing. The results confirm that serum SHBG, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol and maximal La/RPE ratios could be useful tools to indicate whether training is too strenuous. PMID:20543745

Tanskanen, Minna M; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Uusitalo, Arja L; Huovinen, Jukka; Nissilä, Juuso; Kinnunen, Hannu; Atalay, Mustafa; Häkkinen, Keijo



Serum concentrations of cortisol induced by exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are not predictive of residual feed intake (RFI) in Brahman cattle.  

E-print Network

to biweekly weights (Dittmar, 2007) 7 In a two part experiment, with a feedlot phase and an animal house phase, steers divergently selected for RFI were tested for differences in metabolites. High RFI (inefficient) steers did not differ ( P>0...-143 Dittmar, R. O. I. 2007. Determining biological sources of variation in residual feed itake in brahman heifers during confinement feeding and on pasture., Texas A&M University, College Station. 23 Fisher, L. A., J. Rivier, C. Rivier, J. Spiess, W...

Agado, Bryan Joseph



Maternal adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and thyroid hormone responses to chronic binge alcohol exposure throughout gestation: ovine model  

E-print Network

, adrenocorticotropin), thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. Releasing or inhibiting factors from the hypothalamus control the release of the tropic hormones from..., which is formed from T4. Synthesis and release of the thyroid hormones are under the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus controls the release of thyrotropin stimulating hormone (TSH...

Tress, Ursula



Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).  


Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling. PMID:24080086

Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L



A placebo-controlled study of sertraline’s effect on cortisol response to the dexamethasone\\/corticotropin-releasing hormone test in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The dexamethasone\\/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex\\/CRH) test is a neuroendocrine probe involving serial blood sampling\\u000a of cortisol during a standardized pharmacological challenge without inducing psychological distress in humans. Some past studies\\u000a in depressed patients have shown a “normalization” or decrease in cortisol response to the Dex\\/CRH test following successful\\u000a treatment with an antidepressant. Studies in nondepressed healthy adult samples have also shown

Linda L. Carpenter; Audrey R. Tyrka; Janet K. Lee; Aaron P. Tracy; Charles W. Wilkinson; Lawrence H. Price


Validation of a radioimmunoassay for measuring fecal cortisol metabolites in the hystricomorph rodent, Octodon degus.  


Determination of fecal steroid metabolites is a noninvasive technique that characterizes the physiological state of organisms without the physiological and psychological stress of handling. Although this technique has many applications in the study of wildlife and/or captive animals without the necessity of capturing individuals, it requires a species-specific validation before use. A complete validation includes an analytical and a physiological one. In the latter changes in fecal hormone metabolites are induced by previous manipulations of the respective plasma hormones. Here we validated a method for measuring fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) in the hystricomorph rodent Octodon degus. We extracted feces with 80% ethanol and quantified steroids using a commercial available cortisol radioimmunoassay. We first compared baseline levels of blood cortisol and FCM, and then performed a challenge test with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) to demonstrate that FCM accurately reflect adrenocortical activity. We found a significantly positive relationship between concentrations of blood cortisol and its fecal metabolites. During the ACTH challenge test, blood cortisol levels peaked 30 min after injection, and FCM mirrored this peak with a delay of about 6 hr. Our successfully validated noninvasive method provides new opportunities for studies assessing the influence of social and ecological factors on degus under natural conditions. PMID:19484708

Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Sandra; Hayes, Loren D; Ebensperger, Luis A



Inhibitory effects of ?-endorphin on cortisol release from goldfish (Carassius auratus) head kidney: an in vitro study.  


?-Endorphin (?-END) is an endogenous opioid peptide derived from the common precursor proopiomelanocortin, together with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Although the roles of ACTH and MSH in fish are well known, the roles of circulating ?-END have not been elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the biological roles of ?-END in the goldfish. First, we cloned the cDNAs of the delta opioid receptor (DOR), kappa opioid receptor (KOR), and mu opioid receptor (MOR) from the brain of the goldfish. Second, we analyzed the tissues that expressed these genes by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Among the several tissues that contained the opioid gene transcripts, the mRNAs of DOR, KOR, and MOR were detected in interrenal cells of the head kidney, which produce cortisol. On the basis of these results, the effects of ?-END on cortisol release were examined in vitro. ?-END alone suppressed the basal release of cortisol in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, ?-END inhibited the cortisol-releasing activity of ACTH1-24. Therefore, it is probable that the role of ?-END in the interrenal cells is the suppression of cortisol release. Interestingly, the suppression of cortisol release was not observed with N-acetyl-?-END, indicating that acetylation decreases the activity of ?-END in interrenal cells. PMID:24837496

Kobayashi, Yuki; Mizusawa, Kanta; Arai, Yuta; Chiba, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Akiyoshi



Cortisol and growth hormone responses to exercise at different times of day.  


Exercise of appropriate intensity is a potent stimulus for GH and cortisol secretion. Circadian and diurnal rhythms may modulate the GH and cortisol responses to exercise, but nutrition, sleep, prior exercise patterns, and body composition are potentially confounding factors. To determine the influence of the time of day on the GH and cortisol response to acute exercise, we studied 10 moderately trained young men (24.1 +/- 1.1 yr old; maximal oxygen consumption, 47.9 +/- 1.4 mL/kg.min; percent body fat, 13.2 +/- 0.6%). After a supervised night of sleep and a standard meal 12 h before exercise, subjects exercised at a constant velocity (to elicit an initial blood lactate concentration of approximately 2.5 mmol/L) on a treadmill for 30 min on 3 separate occasions, starting at 0700, 1900, and 2400 h. Blood samples were obtained at 5-min intervals for 1 h before and 5 h after the start of exercise; subjects were not allowed to sleep during this period. Subjects were also studied on 3 control days under identical conditions without exercise. There were no significant differences with time of day in the mean blood lactate and submaximal oxygen consumption values during exercise. The differences over time in serum GH and cortisol concentrations between the exercise day and the control day were determined with 95% confidence limits for each time of day. Exercise stimulated a significant increase in serum GH concentrations over control day values for approximately 105--145 min (P < 0.05) with no significant difference in the magnitude of this response by time of day. The increase in serum GH concentrations with exercise was followed by a transient suppression of GH release (for approximately 55--90 min; P < 0.05) after exercise at 0700 and 1900 h, but not at 2400 h. Although the duration of the increase in serum cortisol concentrations after exercise was similar (approximately 150--155 min; P < 0.05) at 0700, 1900, and 2400 h, the magnitude of this increase over control day levels was greatest at 2400 h. This difference was significant for approximately 130 min and approximately 40 min compared to exercise at 1900 and 0700 h, respectively (P < 0.05). The cortisol response to exercise at 0700 h was significantly greater than that at 1900 h for about 55 min (P < 0.05). A rebound suppression of cortisol release for about 50 min (P < 0.05) was observed after exercise at 2400 h, but not 0700 or 1900 h. Both baseline (before exercise) and peak cortisol concentrations were significantly higher at 0700 h than at 1900 or 2400 h (P < 0.01). We conclude that time of day does not alter the GH response to exercise; however, the exercise-induced cortisol response is modulated by time of day. PMID:11397904

Kanaley, J A; Weltman, J Y; Pieper, K S; Weltman, A; Hartman, M L



Circadian studies of plasma cortisol, thyroid hormone, protein, glucose and ion concentration, liver glycogen concentration and liver and spleen weight in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson.  


1. Although there are many reports in the literature of circadian rhythms in plasma hormone and metabolite levels, the data are highly variable between research groups. The present study attempts to re-examine whether circadian rhythm in plasma cortisol, thyroid hormone, ions, glucose and protein levels and liver glycogen levels are evident in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, and determine whether there is a significant correlation between any of the measured variables. 2. Significant fluctuations throughout the day were found in all measured variables; although these fluctuations appear to be a normal component in the homeostatic function of rainbow trout, their timing was neither consistent nor predictable. 3. "Circadian-like" patterns were observed in levels of plasma cortisol, glucose, Mg2+ and K+ concentrations and liver glycogen concentration. 4. Seasonal variations in these circadian-like rhythms were found in liver glycogen and plasma cortisol, Mg2+ and K+ concentrations. 5. Plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations were affected by time of feeding. 6. There were significant correlations between plasma thyroid hormone and plasma protein levels, but no other significant correlation between any of the measured variables was found. PMID:2896578

Laidley, C W; Leatherland, J F



Diminished Cortisol Levels in Subordinate Female Marmosets Are Associated with Altered Central Drive  

E-print Network

disorder patients and adult survivors of child abuse. Key Words: Metyrapone, adrenocorticotropic hormone prevalence, however, few animal models are available for investigation of its underlying neuroen- docrine

Saltzman, Wendy


Plasma Ghrelin in Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating Disorder: Relations with Eating Patterns and Circulating Concentrations of Cortisol and Thyroid Hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate the relations between plasma ghrelin concentrations, eating patterns, and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. The patterns of disordered eating behavior were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). In women with eating disorders, but not in

Alfonso Troisi; Giorgio Di Lorenzo; Ilaria Lega; Manfredi Tesauro; Aldo Bertoli; Roberto Leo; Micaela Iantorno; Chiara Pecchioli; Stefano Rizza; Mario Turriziani; Renato Lauro; Alberto Siracusano



Serotonin directly stimulates cortisol secretion from the interrenals in goldfish.  


While serotonin (5-HT) can stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal stress axis in fish, the specific site(s) of 5-HT action are poorly understood. In this study, goldfish (Carassius auratus) were injected intraperitoneally with either saline or the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT at a dose of 100 or 400 ?g/kg body weight and sampled 1.5 and 8 h post-injection. Relative to unhandled controls, the saline and 100 ?g/kg 8-OH-DPAT treatments elicited similar transient 5- to 7-fold increases in plasma cortisol and the 400 ?g/kg 8-OH-DPAT dosage resulted in a sustained 16-fold increase in cortisol levels. Although the 5-HT1A receptor is expressed in the brain preoptic area (POA), the pituitary and the head kidney, neither the saline nor the 8-OH-DPAT treatments affected the mRNA abundance of POA corticotropin-releasing factor and pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin or plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. To assess the direct actions of 5-HT on cortisol secretion relative to those of ACTH, head kidney tissue were superfused with 10(-7)M 5-HT, ACTH or a combined 5-HT/ACTH treatment. Overall, the ACTH and 5-HT/ACTH treatments resulted in higher peak cortisol and total cortisol release than in the 5-HT treatment but the response time to peak cortisol release was shorter in the combined treatment than in either the 5-HT or ACTH alone treatments. Both 8-OH-DPAT and cisapride, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, also stimulated cortisol release in vitro and their actions were reversed by selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists, respectively. Finally, double-labeling with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase and anti-5-HT revealed that the chromaffin cells of the head kidney contain 5-HT. Thus, in goldfish, 5-HT can directly stimulate cortisol secretion from the interrenals via multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes and the chromaffin cells may be involved in the paracrine regulation of cortisol secretion via 5-HT. PMID:24013027

Lim, Jan E; Porteus, Cosima S; Bernier, Nicholas J



Hormonal regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats: the testosterone to cortisol ratio.  


This study determined the influence that the catabolic hormone, corticosterone (C), and the anabolic hormone, testosterone (T), had in regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy using the rat hind limb ablation model. Specifically, the ratio of T:C (TCR) was manipulated via hormone implants and injections and concentrations measured to evaluate the relative contribution of each hormone to skeletal muscle protein balance. Skeletal muscle growth was measured 16 days after gastrocnemius muscle ablation. Elevations in plasma concentrations of C (via daily C injections, 50 mg kg*kg(-1) body mass) resulted in TCR of 0.007 that was less than the control group TCR of 0.249. In this C-injected group, whole body and skeletal muscle atrophy was elicited-this being greater in the fast-twitch plantaris muscle than in the slow-twitch soleus muscle. The overloaded leg resisted the C-induced atrophy. Castration of animals (TCR 0.024) resulted in less whole body and skeletal muscle growth. However, elevations in plasma concentrations of T (two groups, with TCR of 1.35 and 1.64) did not result in significantly greater muscle growth. Furthermore, T was also ineffective in antagonizing the C-induced atrophy in a group that received both T implants and C injections. This group had a TCR of 0.175 that was similar to the control group ratio of 0.249 that received no manipulations. We concluded that glucocorticoids were able to induce pronounced atrophy, but at the same time overloaded muscles were able to over-ride the glucocorticoid signal. Plasma concentrations of C were a better predictor of muscle growth/atrophy than T and/or the TCR. In addition, it is suggested that the volume of contractile activity of the muscle is perhaps an important determinant of C-induced atrophy, because less atrophy occurs in the more active slow twitch muscles. PMID:8861671

Crowley, M A; Matt, K S



KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K63.a,b: Non-peptide hormones in serum: cortisol and progesterone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate many life functions. Deviations from normal hormone levels can have serious health consequences. Accurate measurement of hormone levels in serum can be beneficial in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating a number of diseases. Two steroid hormones, cortisol and progesterone, were selected by the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) to evaluate its member Institutes' measurement capabilities for this important class of measurand. Serum concentrations of cortisol range from 30 ng/mL to 230 ng/mL. Serum concentrations of progesterone in adult females range from 0.15 ng/mL to 25 ng/mL but can rise to approx230 ng/mL during pregnancy. The ability to measure cortisol is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones at concentration levels similar to cortisol. The ability to measure progesterone is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones with similar functional groups and concentration levels, such as testosterone. Pilot studies CCQM-P77.a and CCQM-P77.b on the determination of cortisol and progesterone in human serum were completed in 2006. There was good agreement among the results reported by participants who used isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (ID/MS) with either gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC). In 2007 the OAWG decided to proceed with key comparison (KC) CCQM-K63.a, cortisol in human serum, and CCQM-K63.b, progesterone in human serum. Thus, following established OAWG procedure, only results from participants that (1) used an ID/MS-based method, (2) participated in the relevant pilot study, and (3) used a metrologically traceable primary standard were to be eligible for use in calculating the key comparison reference value (KCRV) for each measurand. Six laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.a and eight laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.b. The same pooled frozen female serum material was used in both of the KCs. The mean value for the six ID/MS-based cortisol results is 100.4 ng/g with a relative standard deviation (%RSD) of 1.1%. The mean value for the seven ID/MS-based progesterone originally reported results is 2.83 with a %RSD of 1.8%. While a number of the reported results were not eligible to be used in establishing the KCRVs, the KCRVs as estimated from just the eligible results agree very well with these means. The excellent among-participant agreement indicates that ID/MS-based measurement procedures can provide precise and true results for steroid hormones at levels greater than about 1 ng/g. The progesterone result reported by a laboratory using a non-isotopically labelled internal standard was about 11% larger than the KCRV. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

S-C Tai, Susan; Duewer, David L.



Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men's  

E-print Network

Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men's hormonal responses these differences. Replicating past research, the present study found that men's salivary testosterone and cortisol receptor gene, and lower baseline cortisol concentrations, each predicted larger testosterone responses

Cosmides, Leda


Brief report Relationship between salivary cortisol and progesterone levels in humans  

E-print Network

; Sex differences; Hormones; Hormonal contraceptives; Oral contraceptives; Progesterone; Cortisol; Bi positively correlated with salivary cortisol in men and women taking hormonal contraceptives function with hormonal contraceptives, but not in cycling women. These effects replicated across four

Schultheiss, Oliver C.


Effects of sex and early maternal abuse on adrenocorticotropin hormone and cortisol responses to the corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge during the first 3 years of life in group-living rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in 21 group-living rhesus monkeys infants that were physicallyabusedbytheirmothersinthefirstfewmonthsoflifeandin21nonabusedcontrols.Cortisolandadrenocorticotropinhormone(ACTH)responsesto a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge were assessed at 6-month intervals during the subjects' first 3 years of life. Abused infants exhibited greater cortisol responses to CRH than controls across the 3 years. Abused infants also exhibited blunted ACTH secretion

Mar M. Sanchez; Kai Mccormack; Alison P. Grand; Richelle Fulks; Anne Graff; Dario Maestripieri



Effects of growth hormone deficiency and rhGH replacement therapy on the 6ß-hydroxycortisol\\/free cortisol ratio, a marker of CYP3A activity, in growth hormone-deficient children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the effect of both growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and rhGH replacement therapy on CYP3A activity as well as the potential influence of gender. Methods The sample consisted of 35 GHD children (16 males and 19 females), aged 2.9–13.1 years, and a control group of 35 healthy children matched for age and sex. The urinary ratio 6?-hydroxycortisol\\/free cortisol was

Blanca Sinués; Esteban Mayayo; Ana Fanlo; María L. Bernal; Pilar Bocos; Elena Bello; Jose I. Labarta; Angel Ferrández-Longás



Effects of Music Listening on Cortisol Levels and Propofol Consumption during Spinal Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Background: This study explores effects of instrumental music on the hormonal system (as indicated by serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone), the immune system (as indicated by immunoglobulin A) and sedative drug requirements during surgery (elective total hip joint replacement under spinal anesthesia with light sedation). This is the first study investigating this issue with a double-blind design using instrumental music. Methodology/Principal Findings: Patients (n?=?40) were randomly assigned either to a music group (listening to instrumental music), or to a control group (listening to a non-musical placebo stimulus). Both groups listened to the auditory stimulus about 2?h before, and during the entire intra-operative period (during the intra-operative light sedation, subjects were able to respond lethargically to verbal commands). Results indicate that, during surgery, patients of the music group had a lower propofol consumption, and lower cortisol levels, compared to the control group. Conclusion/Significance: Our data show that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels (reflecting stress-reducing effects) and reduces sedative requirements to reach light sedation. PMID:21716581

Koelsch, Stefan; Fuermetz, Julian; Sack, Ulrich; Bauer, Katrin; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Wiegel, Martin; Kaisers, Udo X.; Heinke, Wolfgang



The effect of acute and repeated electroconvulsive treatment on plasma beta-endorphin, growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol secretion in depressed patients.  


The effects of single and repeated electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) on beta-endorphin (beta-EP), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (Prl) plasma levels were investigated in nine depressed patients. Blood samples were monitored a day before ECT, the day of the first and sixth ECT (0, 30, 60 and 90 min after seizures), the day afterwards and 4 weeks after termination of the ECT course. A significant elevation of beta-EP levels was achieved immediately with and 24 h after the first and the sixth ECT. A transient increase in basal beta-EP was observed 1 day following the sixth ECT in comparison with pre-treatment level. Peak and 30 min levels of cortisol were increased compared with baseline by the first ECT. The former (peak) but not the latter (30 min) were increased also at the sixth treatment. GH levels were decreased the day after the first ECT in comparison with the pre-treatment levels and immediately following each ECT in comparison with baseline. A trend toward elevation of Prl was observed immediately after the first and sixth ECT, although the rise did not reach significant levels. ECT administration stimulated beta-EP and cortisol secretion and suppressed human GH release, possibly by activation of endorphinergic and/or serotonergic systems. These mechanisms might be involved in the beneficial effect of ECT in depression. PMID:2957720

Weizman, A; Gil-Ad, I; Grupper, D; Tyano, S; Laron, Z



Suppression of cortisol responses to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and the occurrence of side effects attributable to glucocorticoid excess, in cats during therapy with megestrol acetate and prednisolone.  

PubMed Central

The major purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of prednisolone and megestrol acetate in cats on the adrenal cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone during drug administration at dose rates employed for management of some inflammatory feline dermatoses. Prednisolone (at least 2 mg/kg/day) and megestrol acetate (5 mg/cat/day) were each administered orally to seven cats from days 1 to 16. Three additional cats received no therapy. Basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, food and water intake, hematology, blood biochemistry, urinalyses, and hepatic and cutaneous histology were studied in all cats before, during, and two weeks following the end of treatment. Cats given prednisolone or megestrol acetate had significant suppression of stimulated cortisol levels on day 8. This change was more marked on day 15, when the suppression in cats given megestrol acetate was also significantly more severe than in those receiving prednisolone. Recovery of adrenal reserve was considered present on day 30 in six of seven cats given prednisolone, but in only three of seven receiving megestrol acetate. Eosinopenia, glycosuria and hepatocyte swelling from glycogen deposition were occasionally recorded in treated cats of both groups, providing additional circumstantial evidence for glucocorticoid activity of megestrol acetate in cats. It is advised that abrupt withdrawal of prednisolone or megestrol acetate therapy be avoided in this species to reduce the chance of precipitating clinical signs of hypoadrenocorticism, even after treatment for as little as one week. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3032391

Middleton, D J; Watson, A D; Howe, C J; Caterson, I D



Suckling and salsolinol attenuate responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress: focus on catecholamines, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, cortisol and prolactin secretion in lactating sheep.  


In mammals, the responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stress is reduced during lactation and this mainly results from suckling by the offspring. The suckling stimulus causes a release of the hypothalamic 1-metyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (salsolinol) (a derivative of dopamine), one of the prolactin-releasing factors. To investigate the involvement of salsolinol in the mechanism suppressing stress-induced HPA axis activity, we conducted a series of experiments on lactating sheep, in which they were treated with two kinds of isolation stress (isolation from the flock with lamb present or absent), combined with suckling and/or i.c.v infusion of salsolinol and 1-methyl-3,4-dihydro-isoqinoline (1-MeDIQ; an antagonistic analogue of salsolinol). Additionally, a push-pull perfusion of the infundibular nucleus/median eminence (IN/ME) and blood sample collection with 10-min intervals were performed during the experiments. Concentrations of perfusate corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and catecholamines (noradrenaline, dopamine and salsolinol), as well as concentrations of plasma adenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and prolactin, were assayed. A significant increase in perfusate noradrenaline, plasma ACTH and cortisol occurred in response to both kinds of isolation stress. Suckling and salsolinol reduced the stress-induced increase in plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations. Salsolinol also significantly reduced the stress-induced noradrenaline and dopamine release within the IN/ME. Treatment with 1-MeDIQ under the stress conditions significantly diminished the salsolinol concentration and increased CRH and cortisol concentrations. Stress and salsolinol did not increase the plasma prolactin concentration, in contrast to the suckling stimulus. In conclusion, salsolinol released in nursing sheep may have a suppressing effect on stress-induced HPA axis activity and peripheral prolactin does not appear to participate in its action. PMID:25205344

Hasiec, M; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D; Misztal, T



Psychosocial stress inhibits amplitude of gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulses independent of cortisol action on the type II glucocorticoid receptor.  


Our laboratory has developed a paradigm of psychosocial stress (sequential layering of isolation, blindfold, and predator cues) that robustly elevates cortisol secretion and decreases LH pulse amplitude in ovariectomized ewes. This decrease in LH pulse amplitude is due, at least in part, to a reduction in pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, caused by cortisol acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The first experiment of the current study aimed to determine whether this layered psychosocial stress also inhibits pulsatile GnRH release into pituitary portal blood. The stress paradigm significantly reduced GnRH pulse amplitude compared with nonstressed ovariectomized ewes. The second experiment tested if this stress-induced decrease in GnRH pulse amplitude is mediated by cortisol action on the type II GR. Ovariectomized ewes were allocated to three groups: nonstress control, stress, and stress plus the type II GR antagonist RU486. The layered psychosocial stress paradigm decreased GnRH and LH pulse amplitude compared with nonstress controls. Importantly, the stress also lowered GnRH pulse amplitude to a comparable extent in ewes in which cortisol action via the type II GR was antagonized. Therefore, we conclude that psychosocial stress reduces the amplitude of GnRH pulses independent of cortisol action on the type II GR. The present findings, combined with our recent observations, suggest that the mechanisms by which psychosocial stress inhibits reproductive neuroendocrine activity at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels are fundamentally different. PMID:18832098

Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Tilbrook, Alan J; Karsch, Fred J



Stimulation of cortisol release by the N terminus of teleost parathyroid hormone-related protein in interrenal cells in vitro.  


The mode of action of PTHrP in the regulation of sea bream (Sparus auratus) interrenal cortisol production was studied in vitro using a dynamic superfusion system. Piscine (1-34)PTHrP (10(-6)-10(-11) M) stimulated cortisol production in a dose-dependent manner. The ED50 of (1-34)PTHrP was 2.8 times higher than that of (1-39)ACTH, and maximum increase in cortisol production in response to 10(-8) M of (1-34)PTHrP was approximately 7-fold lower than for 10(-8) M of (1-39)ACTH. In contrast to (1-34)PTHrP, piscine (10-20)PTHrP, (79-93)PTHrP, and (100-125)PTHrP (10(-9)-10(-7) M) did not stimulate cortisol production. The effect of piscine (1-34)PTHrP on cortisol production was abolished by N-terminal peptides in which the first amino acid (Ser) was absent and by simultaneous addition of inhibitors of the adenylyl cyclase-protein kinase A and phospholipase C-protein kinase C intracellular pathways but not by each separately. The PTHrP-induced signal transduction was further investigated by measurements of cAMP production and [H3]myo-inositol incorporation in an interrenal cell suspension. Piscine (1-34)PTHrP increased cAMP and total inositol phosphate accumulation, which is indicative that the mechanism of action of PTHrP in interrenal tissue involves the activation of both the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP and phospholipase C-inositol phosphate signaling pathways. These results, together with the expression of mRNA for PTHrP and for PTH receptor (PTHR) type 1 and PTHR type 3 receptors in sea bream interrenal tissue, suggest a specific paracrine or autocrine steroidogenic action of PTHrP mediated by the PTHRs. PMID:15459121

Rotllant, J; Guerreiro, P M; Anjos, L; Redruello, B; Canario, A V M; Power, D M



Effects of steriod hormones on human fibroblasts in vitro. II. Antagonism by androgens of cortisol-induced inhibition.  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of dermal activity by cortisol in culture was partially reversed by two naturally occurring androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. ACTH and the androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate showed not such antagonistic effect. These results suggest that increased production of adrenal androgens during ACTH therapy may account for the relative absnece of 'skin-thinning' and 'steroid-bruising' which are common side-effects of corticosteroid therapy. PMID:182091

Harvey, W; Grahame, R; Panayi, G S



Human hair follicles display a functional equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and synthesize cortisol.  


The skin and its major appendages are prominent target organs and potent sources of key players along the classical hypothalamic-pituitary axis, such as corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), and even express key steroidogenic enzymes. Therefore, it may have established local stress response systems that resemble the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, functional evidence that this is indeed the case in normal human skin in situ has still been missing. We show that microdissected, organ-cultured human scalp hair follicles respond to CRH stimulation by up-regulating proopiomelanocortin (POMC) transcription and immunoreactivity (IR) for ACTH and alpha-MSH, which must have been processed from POMC. CRH, alpha-MSH, and ACTH also modulate expression of their cognate receptors (CRH-R1, MC1-R, MC2-R). In addition, the strongest stimulus for adrenal cortisol production, ACTH, also up-regulates cortisol-IR in the hair follicles. Isolated human hair follicles secrete substantial levels of cortisol into the culture medium, and this activity is further up-regulated by CRH. CRH also modulates important functional hair growth parameters in vitro (hair shaft elongation, catagen induction, hair keratinocyte proliferation, melanin production). Finally, human hair follicles display HPA axis-like regulatory feedback systems, since the glucocorticoid receptor agonist hydrocortisone down-regulates follicular CRH expression. Thus, even in the absence of endocrine, neural, or vascular systemic connections, normal human scalp hair follicles directly respond to CRH stimulation in a strikingly similar manner to what is seen in the classical HPA axis, including synthesis and secretion of cortisol and activation of prototypic neuroendocrine feedback loops. PMID:15946990

Ito, Natsuho; Ito, Taisuke; Kromminga, Arno; Bettermann, Albrecht; Takigawa, Masahiro; Kees, Frieder; Straub, Rainer H; Paus, Ralf



Differential age-related changes of hypothalamus - pituitary - adrenal axis hormones in healthy women and men - role of interleukin 6.  


Aging is accompanied by marked changes of steroid hormone levels which vary among women and men. The age-related increase of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)- 6 may modulate the endocrine system. We aimed to investigate the role of IL-6 for the gender-specific changes of acrophase steroid hormone secretion in healthy subjects during aging. Out of 120 healthy subjects, 60 men and 48 women (non luteal phase) were recruited (age: 18 to 75 years). Age was positively correlated with IL-6 (female and male: p<0.001) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in women only (p<0.001). Age was negatively correlated with progesterone (female and male: p<0.001), cortisol (only female: p=0.003), androstenedione (female and male: p<0.001), but not 17OH progesterone. After correction for IL-6, the age-related decrease of steroid hormones was blunted in both gender groups except for androstenedione (female and male: p<0.005). Furthermore, the ratio of serum cortisol to plasma ACTH decreased with age only in women but not in men (female: p< 0.001). Correction for IL-6 did not markedly change the negative interrelationship between age and the mentioned ratio in these women. However, a linear regression analysis revealed that the increase of ACTH in relation to cortisol depends on serum free testosterone in men (p=0.042) and on serum free 17 beta-estradiol (p<0.001) together with serum IL-6 in women (p=0.021). In conclusion, IL-6 plays an important role for acrophase pituitary and peripheral hormone secretion in women only. The gender-specific changes of cortisol in relation to ACTH depend on the age-related decrease of the respective sex hormone in both gender groups and the increase of IL-6 in women. This study underlines the hormone-like role of IL-6 in the aging process of the endocrine system in women. PMID:11341305

Zietz, B; Hrach, S; Schölmerich, J; Straub, R H



Psychological reactivity to laboratory stress is associated with hormonal responses in postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The present study examined associations between psychological reactivity and hormonal responses to a standardized laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) in postmenopausal women. METHODS Forty postmenopausal women ages 50–74 completed anxiety and mood assessments prior to and following the TSST. Blood samples were drawn across multiple time points for assessment of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and DHEA. RESULTS As expected, significant increases in anxiety and negative affect and decreases in positive affect were observed from pre- to post-TSST; however, the magnitude of change in anxiety and mood varied considerably across individuals. Analyses indicated that greater increases in anxiety and negative affect from pre- to post-TSST were associated with higher levels of cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA, controlling for race, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Changes in positive affect were not associated with cortisol, ACTH, or DHEA. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that enhanced reactivity to stress is associated with higher hormone levels among postmenopausal women, which could have potential implications for health. PMID:24595153

Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Manzur, Angelica M.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Spiegel, David; Dorgan, Joanne F.



Ecological correlates of cortisol levels in two bat species with contrasting feeding habits.  


The immediate release of adrenal glucocorticoids can be crucial for an animal's survival when facing a stressor, but constantly elevated or exceptionally high glucocorticoid levels are usually detrimental for health. Although baseline and maximal secretion of glucocorticoids are regulated within narrow ranges within species, plasma glucocorticoid levels vary largely across vertebrates. We asked what ecological factors affect baseline plasma cortisol levels (CortI) and maximum levels (CortMax) following a physiological challenge through administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Specifically, we studied whether seasonal fluctuations in food abundance correlate with the capacity of cortisol increases in two phyllostomid bat species with contrasting feeding habits: the sanguinivorous vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the frugivorous short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). Both species coexist in habitats with various levels of seasonality (dry and rainforest). On a seasonal basis, resource abundance is more stable for vampire than for fruit bats, but previous studies suggested that daily foraging success may vary more for vampire than for fruit bats. CortI and CortMax varied seasonally in C. perspicillata from dry and rainforests, with the exception of CortMax in rainforest bats. Although we expected food availability to be stable year-round for vampire bats, we found CortI and CortMax of vampires to be higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Also, we found CortMax to be higher in vampires from the rainforest than in those from the dry forest. CortMax of vampires were among the highest measured for a free-ranging mammal; a pattern that could be related to the species' vulnerability to starvation. We conclude that food availability modulates cortisol levels in free-ranging species that face seasonally fluctuating resources; in species, however, that benefit from food which is constantly abundant, other factors than food may become more important in modulating cortisol levels. PMID:22429728

Lewanzik, Daniel; Kelm, Detlev H; Greiner, Sabine; Dehnhard, Martin; Voigt, Christian C



Hormonal and Behavioral Responses to Stress in Lactating and Non-lactating Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)  

PubMed Central

In several mammalian species, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and behavioral responses to stressors are down-regulated in lactating females, possibly preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have been found to inhibit maternal behavior in lactating common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), raising the question of whether lactating female marmosets also have blunted endogenous responses to stress. Therefore, we compared HPA and behavioral responses to standardized stressors in reproductively experienced female common marmosets that were undergoing ovulatory cycles and that either were (N=7) or were not lactating (N=8). Each marmoset underwent (1) a restraint stressor during the early follicular phase of the ovarian cycle (approximately 5 weeks postpartum for lactating females) and (2) exposure to a simulated hawk predator during the early to mid-luteal phase (approximately 7 weeks postpartum for lactating females). Lactating females were tested in the presence of one of their infants. Blood samples were collected before, during, and immediately after each test for determination of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations. Both stressors caused significant elevations in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and significant decreases in cortisol:ACTH ratios; however, lactating and non-lactating females showed no significant differences in their endocrine or behavioral responses to either stressor, or in baseline ACTH or cortisol levels. These findings suggest that in contrast to several other mammalian species, lactating female marmosets maintain full behavioral and HPA responsiveness to stress, at least in the presence of their infants. PMID:21600906

Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.



Growth hormone differentially regulates muscle myostatin1 and -2 and increases circulating cortisol in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates muscle growth in vertebrates. Salmonids produce two myostatin transcripts from separate genes. Surprisingly, quantitative analyses indicate different regulatory mechanisms for the two myostatin genes in rainbow trout. MSTN1 mRNA levels were elevated 26% following recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) treatment, while MSTN2 mRNA levels were reduced 74% compared to controls. MSTN precursor protein (42kDa) levels were

Peggy R Biga; Kenneth D Cain; Ronald W Hardy; Gerald T Schelling; Kenneth Overturf; Steven B Roberts; Frederick W Goetz; Troy L Ott



Growth hormone diVerentially regulates muscle myostatin1 and -2 and increases circulating cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates muscle growth in vertebrates. Salmonids produce two myostatin transcripts from sepa- rate genes. Surprisingly, quantitative analyses indicate diVerent regulatory mechanisms for the two myostatin genes in rainbow trout. MSTN1 mRNA levels were elevated 26% following recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) treatment, while MSTN2 mRNA levels were reduced 74% compared to controls. MSTN precursor protein (42 kDa)

Peggy R. Biga; Kenneth D. Cain; Ronald W. Hardy; Gerald T. Schelling; Kenneth Overturf; Steven B. Roberts; Frederick W. Goetz; Troy L. Otta


Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing  

E-print Network

The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the ...

Dahleh, Munther A.


Determination of steroid hormones in a human-serum reference material by isotope dilution--mass spectrometry: A candidate definitive method for cortisol  

SciTech Connect

We report a method, based on isotope dilution--mass spectrometry, for determining cortisol in a pooled specimen of human serum. Isotopically labeled cortisol is added to 5.0 mL of serum so that the molar concentrations of labeled cortisol and unlabeled cortisol are approximately equal. The specimen and two calibration standards are extracted with dichloromethane, and the extracted cortisol is converted to the methoxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivative. Samples and standards are analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry by monitoring the peak areas for m/z 605 and 608. The cortisol concentration is calculated by linear interpolation between the two bracketing standards. Variances of data collected during six weeks showed that the overall coefficient of variation (CV) was 0.69% (n . 32); the within-vial CV, 0.63%; the among-vial CV, 0.22%; and the among-day CV, 0.15% (means . 3.973 nmol/vial). Method specificity was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic as well as C/sub 8/ mini-column cleanup of samples before derivation, by alternative ion monitoring at m/z 636 and 639, and by negative-ion chemical ionization at m/z 459 and 462. Derivatives of all observed degradation products of cortisol under basic, neutral, and acidic conditions did not interfere.

Patterson, D.G.; Patterson, M.B.; Culbreth, P.H.; Fast, D.M.; Holler, J.S.; Sampson, E.J.; Bayse, D.D.



Fecal cortisol metabolite levels in free-ranging North American red squirrels: Assay validation and the effects of reproductive condition.  


Patterns in stress hormone (glucocorticoid: GC) levels and their relationship to reproductive condition in natural populations are rarely investigated. In this study, we (1) validate an enzyme-immunoassay to measure fecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) levels in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and (2) examine relationships between FCM levels and reproductive condition in a free-ranging red squirrel population. Injected radiolabeled cortisol was entirely metabolized and excreted in both the urine (mean+/-SE; 70.3+/-0.02%) and feces (29.7+/-0.02%), with a lag time to peak excretion in the feces of 10.9+/-2.3h. Our antibody reacted with several cortisol metabolites, and an adrenocorticotropic injection significantly increased FCM levels above baseline levels at 8h post-injection. Relative to baseline levels, manipulation by handling also tended to increase FCM levels at 8h post-manipulation, but this difference was not significant. FCM levels did not differ significantly between samples frozen immediately and 5h after collection. Reproductive condition significantly affected FCM levels in free-ranging females (pregnant>lactating>post-lactating>non-breeding) but not males (scrotal testes vs. abdominal testes). Among females with known parturition dates, FCM levels increased during gestation, peaked at parturition, and declined during lactation. The difference between pregnant and lactating females was therefore dependent upon when the fecal samples were obtained during these periods, suggesting caution in categorizing reproductive stages. This study demonstrates the utility of fecal hormone metabolite assays to document patterns of glucocorticoid levels in free-ranging animals. PMID:20346362

Dantzer, Ben; McAdam, Andrew G; Palme, Rupert; Fletcher, Quinn E; Boutin, Stan; Humphries, Murray M; Boonstra, Rudy



Measuring Endocrine (Cortisol) Responses of Zebrafish Peter R. Canavello, Jonathan M. Cachat, Esther C. Beeson,  

E-print Network

Chapter 11 Measuring Endocrine (Cortisol) Responses of Zebrafish to Stress Peter R. Canavello and rats use corticosterone as their main stress hormone, both humans and zebrafish utilize cortisol. This protocol explains the whole-body cortisol extraction procedure and the use of the human salivary cortisol

Kalueff, Allan V.


Salivary testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone: Two-week stability, interhormone correlations, and effects of time of day, menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptive use  

E-print Network

Salivary testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone: Two-week stability, interhormone correlations Accepted 2 October 2009 Keywords: Testosterone Cortisol Progesterone Steroid hormones Stability Test, we tested the reliability of testosterone, cortisol, and progesterone levels across two weeks

Schultheiss, Oliver C.




Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...


Stressful politics: Voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States Presidential  

E-print Network

Stressful politics: Voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States--774 KEYWORDS Salivary cortisol; Stress; Hypothalamic-- pituitary--adrenal (HPA) axis; Hormones; Election mammals lose dominance contests they have acute increases in the stress hormone cortisol. However, human


Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol  

PubMed Central

Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97)?=?.20, p?=?.65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97)?=?.00, p?=?.99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, ??=?.27, p?=?.04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, ??=?.27, p?=?.06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, ??=?.72, p?=?.01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.



Circadian rhythms of glucocorticoid hormone actions in target tissues: potential clinical implications.  


Organisms face unforeseen short- and long-term changes in the environment (stressors). To defend against these changes, organisms have developed a stress system that includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which employs glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) for signal transduction. In addition, organisms live under the strong influence of day-night cycles and, hence, have also developed a highly conserved circadian clock system for adjusting their activities to recurring environmental changes. This regulatory system creates and maintains internal circadian rhythmicity by employing a self-oscillating molecular pacemaker composed of the Clock-Bmal1 heterodimer and other transcription factors. The circadian clock consists of a central master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain hypothalamus and peripheral slave clocks in virtually all organs and tissues. The HPA axis and the circadian clock system communicate with each other at multiple levels. The central clock controls the HPA axis, creating the diurnal oscillation of circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, and the HPA axis adjusts the circadian rhythmicity of the peripheral clocks in response to various stressors through the GR. Further, Clock-Bmal1 regulates the response to glucocorticoids in peripheral tissues through acetylation of the GR, possibly antagonizing the biologic actions of diurnally fluctuating circulating cortisol. Importantly, dysregulation in the clock system and the HPA axis may cause similar pathologic manifestations--including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease--by uncoupling circulating cortisol concentrations from tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. PMID:23033538

Kino, Tomoshige



Ecological salivary cortisol analysis (Part 2): Relative impact of trauma history, posttraumatic stress, comorbidity, chronic stress, and known confounds on hormone levels  

PubMed Central

Background Although bio-psycho-social health research is an ideal, samples adequate for complex modeling require biomarker specimens from hundreds of participants. Ecological sampling departs from laboratory study norms, with implications for analysis. Objective This paper compares salivary cortisol levels and effect sizes of ‘focal’ psychiatric factors, such as trauma history, posttraumatic stress diagnosis, comorbidity, and chronic stress, and ‘nuisance’ factors, including endocrine disorders, medications, physiological factors, such as gestational age, and smoking, to inform ecological study designs. Study Design This is a descriptive analysis of ecologically collected cortisol specimens, assayed in an on-going perinatal psychobiological study, addressing methodological considerations. Results Focal and nuisance factors are often interdependent with similar effect sizes. Careful specimen deletion decisions and model specification are needed to achieve the hoped-for external validity while maintaining internal validity. Conclusions Results of multivariate models support the validity and usefulness of an ecological approach to incorporating biomarkers in health research. PMID:21665772

King, Anthony; Leichtman, Jennifer; Abelson, James; Liberzon, Israel; Seng, Julia S.



Electrochemical sensing of cortisol: a recent update.  


Psychological stress caused by everyday lifestyle contributes to health disparities experienced by individuals. It affects many biomarkers, but cortisol - "a steroid hormone" - is known as a potential biomarker for psychological stress detection. Abnormal levels of cortisol are indicative of conditions such as Cushing's syndrome Addison's disease, adrenal insufficiencies and more recently post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Chromatographic techniques, which are traditionally used to detect cortisol, are a complex system requiring multistep extraction/purification. This limits its application for point-of-care (POC) detection of cortisol. However, electrochemical immunosensing of cortisol is a recent advancement towards POC application. This review highlights simple, low-cost, and label-free electrochemical immunosensing platforms which have been developed recently for sensitive and selective detection of cortisol in bio-fluids. Electrochemical detection is utilized for the detection of cortisol using Anti-Cortisol antibodies (Anti-Cab) covalently immobilized on nanostructures, such as self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and polymer composite, for POC integration of sensors. The observed information can be used as a prototype to understand behavioral changes in humans such as farmers and firefighters. Keeping the future directions and challenges in mind, the focus of the BioMEMS and Microsystems Research Group at Florida International University is on development of POC devices for immunosensing, integration of these devices with microfluidics, cross validation with existing technologies, and analysis of real sample. PMID:24723204

Singh, Aparajita; Kaushik, Ajeet; Kumar, Rajesh; Nair, Madhavan; Bhansali, Shekhar



Testosterone, cortisol, and psychopathic traits in men and women.  


Cortisol and testosterone are theorized to independently and jointly influence antisocial behaviors. The current research examined the independent and interactive effects of baseline testosterone and cortisol on individual differences in psychopathic traits in a relatively large non-clinical sample (N=237). Participants completed the Self-Report Psychopathy - Short Form (SRP; Paulhus, Neumann, & Hare, in press) and provided saliva samples. Analyses indicated that testosterone and cortisol were positively correlated with psychopathic traits in men, but beyond these effects, cortisol moderated the relationship between testosterone and psychopathy in men. The relationship between testosterone and psychopathy within men was positive when cortisol levels were high, but negative when cortisol levels were low. These results have implications for work surrounding the dual hormone hypothesis and suggest that nonclinical variability in psychopathy can be predicted by baseline testosterone and cortisol. PMID:24631306

Welker, Keith M; Lozoya, Elianna; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Neumann, Craig S; Carré, Justin M



Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.



BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY -ORIGINAL ARTICLE Association of salivary-assessed oxytocin and cortisol levels  

E-print Network

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY - ORIGINAL ARTICLE Association of salivary-assessed oxytocin and cortisol in the promotion of attachment behaviour. The hormones cortisol and oxytocin, respec- tively, may be involved in these proposed REM sleep functions. However, there are conflicting reports on whe- ther levels of cortisol differ

Weidemann, Christoph


Effects of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in postweaned northern elephant seal pups  

E-print Network

Effects of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in postweaned northern elephant seal pups of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in postweaned northern elephant seal pups. Am J Physiol Reg of their postweaning fast to examine the changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones (TH), which

Ortiz, Rudy M.


Cortisol regulates eel (Anguilla anguilla) aquaporin 3 (AQP3) mRNA expression levels in gill  

E-print Network

Cortisol regulates eel (Anguilla anguilla) aquaporin 3 (AQP3) mRNA expression levels in gill C hormone, cortisol has previously been shown to regulate the expression of aquaporins (particularly AQP1 extends knowledge of the regulation of aquaporin expres- sion by cortisol in the eel and shows

Cutler, Chris


Stress hormone responses during 24-hour hypoxemia in preterm goat fetus.  


Fetal endocrinological responses to chronic hypoxemia are useful in elucidating the process of growth restriction at earlier stages of fetal development. The purpose of this study was to observe endocrinological responses to prolonged (24-h) non-acidemic hypoxemia in preterm goat fetuses. Fetal hormonal changes were examined in chronically instrumented goat fetuses at gestational day 96-102 (0.7 gestation) during continuous nitrogen infusion into the maternal trachea to create prolonged fetal hypoxemia. Plasma levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), epinephrine, norepinephrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol were measured, along with fetal heart rate (FHR) and fetal blood pressure (FBP). Fetal arterial pO(2) declined significantly from 25.0 +/- 1.0 mmHg at baseline to 15.3 +/- 1.0 mmHg after 2 h of hypoxemia, then remained at this level. FHR increased significantly throughout the experiment, but FBP remained unchanged. AVP and ACTH levels rose significantly after 2 h of hypoxemia, and declined to the control values after 12 h. There was no significant increase in the epinephrine level during 24-hr hypoxemia. In contrast, norepinephrine significantly increased after 2 h of hypoxemia and remained at the elevated levels throughout the remainder of the experiment. Thus, preterm fetuses could respond to acute hypoxic stress by increasing the plasma levels of AVP, norepinephrine and ACTH. However, despite the rapid increase in ACTH, the level of cortisol in the fetal plasma was significantly elevated only after 18 h of hypoxemia. The chemoreceptors of preterm fetuses, which regulate the release of cortisol or epinephrine, may be less sensitive to hypoxic insults. PMID:18577848

Fujimori, Keiya; Takanashi, Astuhiro; Endo, Chikara; Sato, Akira



Variation in the ovine cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge is predominantly determined by signalling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis  

SciTech Connect

Bi-directional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is designed, in part, to maintain or restore homeostasis during physiological stress. Exposure to endotoxin during Gram-negative bacterial infection for example, elicits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). The secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids subsequently down regulates the host inflammatory response, minimizing potential tissue damage. Sequence and epigenetic variants in genes involved in regulating the neuroendocrine and immune systems are likely to contribute to individual differences in the HPAA response, and this may influence the host anti-inflammatory response to toxin exposure and susceptibility to inflammatory disease. In this study, high (HCR) and low (LCR) cortisol responders were selected from a normal population of 110 female sheep challenged iv with Escherichia coli endotoxin (400 ng/kg) to identify potential determinants that contribute to variation in the cortisol response phenotype. This phenotype was stable over several years in the HCR and LCR animals, and did not appear to be attributed to differences in expression of hepatic immune-related genes or systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Mechanistic studies using corticotrophin-releasing factor (0.5 {mu}g/kg body weight), arginine vasopressin (0.5 {mu}g/kg), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (0.5 {mu}g/kg) administered iv demonstrated that variation in this phenotype is largely determined by signalling within the HPAA. Future studies will use this ovine HCR/LCR model to investigate potential genetic and epigenetic variants that may contribute to variation in cortisol responsiveness to bacterial endotoxin.

You Qiumei [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Karrow, Niel A. [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail:; Cao Honghe [Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Rodriguez, Alexander [Department of Clinical Studies, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Mallard, Bonnie A. [Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Boermans, Herman J. [Department of Biomedical Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)



RESEARCH ARTICLE Supraphysiological Cortisol  

E-print Network

implants to experimentally raise circulating cortisol in a group of fish for 10 days. We also maintained the secondary stressor. In order to compare short- and long-term effects of cortisol treatment, we initiated

Cooke, Steven J.


Obesity and cortisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortisol in obesity is a much-studied problem. Previous information indicates that cortisol secretion is elevated but that circulatory concentrations are normal or low, suggesting that peripheral disappearance rate is elevated. These studies have usually not taken into account the difference between central and peripheral types of obesity. Recent studies using saliva cortisol have indicated that the problem is complex with

Per Björntorp; Roland Rosmond



The role of cortisol in first episode of psychosis: a systematic review.  


The stress diathesis hypothesis is currently one of the prevailing models of etiology of psychotic disorders. Cortisol is the most researched stress hormone; yet its role in first episode psychosis (FEP) was only recently investigated. The aim of the present study is to systematically review the evidence on the potential role of cortisol in FEP. Higher cortisol levels in blood samples have been consistently replicated, whereas saliva studies measuring baseline cortisol levels have exhibited divergent results. Moreover, longitudinal studies have revealed a cortisol upregulation in FEP with a subsequent decrease induced by antipsychotic treatment. The evidence suggests a role for cortisol in psychosis, although the association of cortisol with psychopathological symptoms is currently non-specific. Future research should focus on more pure diagnostic entities, clearly defined stages of the disorder and refined methods of hormonal measurement. PMID:25200986

Karanikas, Evangelos; Antoniadis, Diomidis; Garyfallos, George D



Role of ?-aminobutyric acid signalling in the attenuation of counter-regulatory hormonal responses after antecedent hypoglycaemia in healthy men.  


The attenuated counter-regulatory response to hypoglycaemia after antecedent hypoglycaemic episodes has been observed in animals to be associated with an increase in ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signalling. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the pharmacological suppression of GABAergic activity during a repeated hypoglycaemic episode enhances counter-regulatory responses. Fourteen healthy men participated in two experimental sessions each comprising three insulin-induced hypoglycaemic episodes. Before the third hypoglycaemic episode, participants received the GABA-antagonistic drug modafinil (200 mg orally) and placebo, respectively. In the placebo condition, the secretion of norepinephrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol and growth hormone, and the perception of neuroglycopenic symptoms were attenuated during the third as compared with the first hypoglycaemic episode (each p < 0.05). Modafinil reversed this effect for the noradrenergic response (p < 0.05), while not significantly altering the attenuation of other hormonal responses and symptom perception (p > 0.3). Our findings indicate that increased GABAergic transmission could contribute to aspects of the attenuated counter-regulatory response after recurrent hypoglycaemia in humans. PMID:25059854

Klement, J; Mergelkuhl, B; Born, J; Lehnert, H; Hallschmid, M



Increases in Aldosterone Precede Those of Cortisol during Graded Exercise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aldosterone and cortisol are the two major hormones secreted by the human adrenal cortex. Exercise is one of the stresses known to increase the levels of both of these hormones, although the intensity of exercise needed to elicit secretion is different fo...

M. J. Buono, J. E. Yeager



Physiological and behavioural effects of an intracerebroventricular injection of corticotropin releasing hormone in goats.  


This study investigated the effects of an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) on physiological and behavioural responses in goats. In Experiment 1, saline (control) or saline plus 25 microg of ovine CRH was injected into the third ventricle of castrated male goats. CRH increased plasma cortisol (Cor) levels markedly within 15 min, but had little effect on plasma glucose (Glu). Compared with saline injected goats, CRH decreased the total duration of lying behaviour but increased its frequency, and suppressed rumination and self-grooming. In Experiment 2, the effects of an intravenous (IV) injection of human adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (1-24) (0.1mg) were examined and an IV injection of saline was used as control. ACTH increased plasma Cor levels markedly, but did not change any behaviour compared with controls. It was concluded that CRH mediated the response of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and behaviour following stress in goats, although the CRH-induced behavioural changes were independent of the HPA axis and seemed to be the result of direct action within the central nervous system. PMID:17572122

Aoyama, Masato; Negishi, Akihito; Abe, Akiko; Yokoyama, Rie; Ichimaru, Toru; Sugita, Shoei



Lower Baseline Plasma Cortisol and Prolactin together with Increased Body Temperature and Higher mCPP-Induced Cortisol Responses in Men with Pedophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is some evidence that hormonal and serotonergic alterations may play a role in the pathophysiology of paraphilias. The aims of the present study were to examine: 1) baseline plasma cortisol, plasma prolactin, and body temperature; and 2) cortisol, prolactin, body temperature, as well as behavioral responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and placebo in pedophiles and normal men. Pedophiles showed significantly

Michael Maes; Dirk van West; Nathalie De Vos; Herman Westenberg; Fran Van Hunsel; Dirk Hendriks; Paul Cosyns; Simon Scharpé



Cortisol rapidly disrupts prepulse inhibition in healthy men.  


Stress is known to affect sensorimotor gating (measured with prepulse inhibition of startle, or PPI), possibly improving perception of threat signals at the expense of other input during states of arousal. Stress also induces a variety of autonomic nervous system and endocrine responses, such as an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The latter will result in the release of the stress hormone cortisol which is known to exert rapid and sustained action on several CNS processes. Since previous studies have not clarified whether and which stress response components may mediate effects on sensorimotor gating, this study asked whether a link may exist between cortisol and sensorimotor gating. We tested whether cortisol may affect PPI by assessing PPI before, during, and after non-stressful, covert 1mg IV cortisol infusions in 27 healthy men in a single-blind and placebo-controlled within-subject design. Cortisol induced a rapid reduction of PPI, with its maximum at 20 min after administration, and PPI returned to baseline after another 20 min. Startle magnitude in the absence of a prepulse was not affected. This rapid effect of the IV cortisol infusions is probably mediated by a non-genomic mechanism. We conclude that stress effects on sensorimotor gating may be mediated by glucocorticoids. The disruption of sensorimotor gating by the stress hormone cortisol may serve the processing of intense and potentially dangerous startling stimuli. PMID:20685043

Richter, Steffen; Schulz, André; Zech, Carina M; Oitzl, Melly S; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut



Diurnal Cortisol Dysregulation, Functional Disability, and Depression in Women With Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Multiple alterations in circadian rhythms have been observed in cancer patients, including the diurnal rhythm of the adrenal hormone cortisol. Diurnal cortisol alterations have been associated with cancer-related physiological processes as well as psychological stress. Here we investigate alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythm in ovarian cancer patients, and potential links with depression, life stress, and functional disability. METHODS Women (n = 177) with suspected ovarian cancer completed questionnaires and collected salivary cortisol 3× daily for 3 consecutive days before surgery. One hundred women were subsequently diagnosed with ovarian cancer and 77 with benign disease. In addition, healthy women (n = 33) not scheduled for surgery collected salivary cortisol at the same time points. RESULTS Ovarian cancer patients demonstrated significantly elevated nocturnal cortisol (P = .022) and diminished cortisol variability (P = .023) compared with women with benign disease and with healthy women (all P values <.0001). Among ovarian cancer patients, higher levels of nocturnal cortisol and less cortisol variability were significantly associated with greater functional disability, fatigue, and vegetative depression, but not with stress, distress, or depressed affect. There were no significant associations between functional or psychological variables and diurnal cortisol in women with benign disease. CONCLUSIONS Nocturnal cortisol and cortisol variability show significant dysregulation in ovarian cancer patients, and this dysregulation was associated with greater functional disability, fatigue, and vegetative depression. These findings suggest potential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal involvement in functional disability in ovarian cancer, and may have implications for disease progression. PMID:20564155

Weinrib, Aliza Z.; Sephton, Sandra E.; DeGeest, Koen; Penedo, Frank; Bender, David; Zimmerman, Bridget; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Sood, Anil K.; Lubaroff, David M.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.



Perturbations of plasma cortisol and DHEA-S following discontinuation of cocaine use in cocaine addicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in plasma levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) following cocaine discontinuation were assessed in hospitalized chronic cocaine users. Measurements were performed after 6, 9, 18 and 21 days of abstinence. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed significant time effects for cortisol (P<0.02) and DHEA-S (P<0.001). Changes in the two hormones did not follow the same course. Levels of cortisol were

Laure Buydens-Branchey; Marc Branchey; Jeffrey Hudson; Maria Dorota Majewska



Cortisol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Neurohormonal Aspects of Bioenergetic Stress in Ecstasy Users  

PubMed Central

Aims 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can affect both neurotransmitter and neurohormonal activity. This review will debate the role of the metabolic activation hormone cortisol for the psychobiological effects of ecstasy/MDMA. Methods The empirical literature on cortisol release following acute MDMA administration and cortisol functioning in drug-free recreational ecstasy/MDMA users will be reviewed. This will be followed by an overview of cortisol as a bioenergetic stress neurohormone, and a debate on how it could be modulating the acute and chronic psychobiological effects of MDMA. Results Cortisol release is increased by stimulatory factors, including physical activity, thermal stress and stimulant drugs. In laboratory studies MDMA leads to an acute cortisol increase of around 150% in sedentary humans. In MDMA-using dance clubbers, the cortisol levels are increased by around 800%, possibly due to the combined factors of stimulant drug, physical exertion and psychosocial stimulation. Regular ecstasy/MDMA users also demonstrate changes in baseline cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, with compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Nonpharmacological research has shown how cortisol is important for psychological aspects such as memory, cognition, sleep, impulsivity, depression and neuronal damage. These same functions are often impaired in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users, and cortisol may be an important modulatory co-factor. Conclusions The energizing hormone cortisol is involved in the psychobiology of MDMA, probably via its effects on energy metabolism. Acute cortisol release may potentiate the stimulating effects of MDMA in dance clubbers. Chronically, cortisol may contribute to the variance in functional and structural consequences of repeated ecstasy usage. PMID:19893332

Parrott, A.C.



Examining the relations among cortisol response, family risk factors, parenting, and child adjustment.  

E-print Network

??Cortisol, a hormone released by the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (L-HPA) axis follows a typical circadian rhythm, and under stressful and challenging situations may show hyper- or hypo-responsiveness.… (more)

Trancik, Anika



Seasonal Carryover Effects following the Administration of Cortisol to a Wild Teleost Fish  

E-print Network

whether a short-term elevation of plasma cortisol would result in seasonal carryover effects in wild largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Using exogenous hormone implants, we raised circulating cor- tisol

Cooke, Steven J.


Androgen suppresses corticotropin-induced increase in plasma cortisol level but enhances the increase in plasma aldosterone level in goats.  


Previously we reported that androgen treatment reduced the extent of the increase in plasma cortisol (Cor) levels induced by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration in goats. In this study, we investigated the effect of androgen on the plasma levels of androstenedione and aldosterone. Four castrated male goats, which were treated with either 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or cholesterol (cho), were injected intravenously with 0.005, 0.02 or 0.1 mg of ACTH(1-24). Plasma Cor levels were increased significantly by all doses of ACTH injection, and these extents were lower in DHT-treated goats. Plasma androstenedione levels were also increased by ACTH injection, but DHT treatment seemed to little affect. Plasma aldosterone levels were also increased by ACTH injection, and there were no differences between cho- and DHT treated goats at 15 and 30 min after the ACTH injection. However, when goats were given the lower doses of ACTH (0.02 and 0.005 mg), plasma aldosterone levels were restored rapidly only in cho-treated goats, whereas those in DHT-treated goats were maintained throughout the 60 min experimental period. Consequently, plasma aldosterone levels in DHT-treated goats were higher than those in cho-treated goats at 45 and 60 min. One possible mechanism of the effect of DHT on the ACTH-induced increase in aldosterone synthesis may be the reduction of the activity of P450-17alpha, that is the enzyme to convert pregnenolone to 17alpha-OH-pregnenolone, and this mechanism may also be responsible to the suppressive effect of DHT on the ACTH-induced Cor synthesis. PMID:19346694

Aoyama, Masato; Maejima, Yuko; Suzuki, Toshio; Iigo, Masayuki; Sugita, Shoei



Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis  

SciTech Connect

A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG.

Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.



Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study  

PubMed Central

This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene’s Score (GMS) and Kupperman’s Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT). PMID:23675006

Meissner, H. O.; Mscisz, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Barchia, I.



Suppression of Cortisol Levels in Subordinate Female Marmosets: Reproductive  

E-print Network

differences in reproductive hormones, probably es- tradiol. To test this possibility, we characterized the effects of the ovarian cycle and ovariectomy on plasma cortisol concentrations. Beginning in the early animals frequently evincing higher adrenal weights, basal glucocorticoid levels, or adrenal responses

Saltzman, Wendy


Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi



Shiftwork duration and the awakening cortisol response among police officers.  


Police officers are required to work irregular hours, which induces stress, fatigue, and sleep disruption, and they have higher rates of chronic disease and mortality. Cortisol is a well-known "stress hormone" produced via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. An abnormal secretion pattern has been associated with immune system dysregulation and may serve as an early indicator of disease risk. This study examined the effects of long- and short-term shiftwork on the cortisol awakening response among officers (n = 68) in the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) pilot study (2001-2003). The time each officer spent on day (start time: 04:00-11:59 h), afternoon (12:00-19:59 h), or night (20:00-03:59 h) shifts was summarized from 1994 to examination date to characterize long-term (mean: 14 ± 9 yrs) and short-term (3, 5, 7, or 14 days prior to participation) shiftwork exposures. The cortisol awakening response was characterized by summarizing the area under the curve (AUC) for samples collected on first awakening, and at 15-, 30-, and 45-min intervals after waking. Data were collected on a scheduled training or off day. The cortisol AUC with respect to ground (AUC(G)) summarized total cortisol output after waking, and the cortisol AUC with respect to increase (AUC(I)) characterized the waking cortisol response. Officers also completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Waking cortisol AUC values were lower among officers working short-term night or afternoon shifts than day shifts, with maximal differences occurring after 5 days of shiftwork. The duration of long-term shiftwork was not associated with the cortisol awakening response, although values were attenuated among officers with more career shift changes. PMID:21721860

Wirth, Michael; Burch, James; Violanti, John; Burchfiel, Cecil; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael; Zhang, Hongmei; Miller, Diane B; Hébert, James R; Vena, John E



Shiftwork Duration and the Awakening Cortisol Response Among Police Officers  

PubMed Central

Police officers are required to work irregular hours, which induces stress, fatigue, and sleep disruption, and they have higher rates of chronic disease and mortality. Cortisol is a well-known “stress hormone” produced via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. An abnormal secretion pattern has been associated with immune system dysregulation and may serve as an early indicator of disease risk. This study examined the effects of long- and short-term shiftwork on the cortisol awakening response among officers (n = 68) in the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) pilot study (2001–2003). The time each officer spent on day (start time: 04:00–11:59 h), afternoon (12:00–19:59 h), or night (20:00–03:59 h) shifts was summarized from 1994 to examination date to characterize long-term (mean: 14 ± 9 yrs) and short-term (3, 5, 7, or 14 days prior to participation) shiftwork exposures. The cortisol awakening response was characterized by summarizing the area under the curve (AUC) for samples collected on first awakening, and at 15-, 30-, and 45-min intervals after waking. Data were collected on a scheduled training or off day. The cortisol AUC with respect to ground (AUCG) summarized total cortisol output after waking, and the cortisol AUC with respect to increase (AUCI) characterized the waking cortisol response. Officers also completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Waking cortisol AUC values were lower among officers working short-term night or afternoon shifts than day shifts, with maximal differences occurring after 5 days of shiftwork. The duration of long-term shiftwork was not associated with the cortisol awakening response, although values were attenuated among officers with more career shift changes. PMID:21721860

Wirth, Michael; Burch, James; Violanti, John; Burchfiel, Cecil; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael; Zhang, Hongmei; Miller, Diane B.; Hebert, James R.; Vena, John E.



Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China.  


Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ?PCBs and ?PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09ngg(-1) lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43ngg(-1) lipid, respectively, p<0.01 for each), and the mean level of ?PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27pgg(-1) lipid, p>0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ?PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ?PCBs (r=0.60, p<0.05) and ?PCDD/Fs (r=0.61, p<0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ?PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r=0.61, p<0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e-waste might contribute to abnormal changes in hormone levels. PMID:25173862

Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng



Modulation of the ®sh immune system by hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune ±neuroendocrine interactions in ®sh, as in mammals, have become a focus of considerable interest, with the modulation of immune responses by hormones receiving particular attention. Cortisol, growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), reproductive hormones, melanin - concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) -derived peptides have all been shown to inuence immune functions in a number of ®sh species. This review

James Harris; David J. Bird



Schultheiss Chewing gum and salivary hormones 1 Running head: CHEWING GUM AND SALIVARY HORMONES  

E-print Network

Schultheiss Chewing gum and salivary hormones 1 Running head: CHEWING GUM AND SALIVARY HORMONES Effects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone concentrations Chewing gum and salivary hormones 2 Abstract Sugarless chewing gum is a frequently used stimulant

Schultheiss, Oliver C.


Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Suppresses Gonadotropin-Stimulated Estradiol Release from Zebrafish Ovarian Follicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not Available Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints

Derek Alsop; Jennifer S. Ings; Mathilakath M. Vijayan; Ryan L. Earley



Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress.  


Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no "best practice" in how to investigate the anticipatory cortisol stress response has emerged. The goal of the current research was to develop a protocol that would allow for a sensitive and easy-to-implement laboratory-based investigation into anticipatory cortisol stress levels. We initially tested 26 healthy men in either an anticipation- or stress-only condition of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to map the distinct timelines of anticipatory and reactive cortisol release profiles (study 1). Subsequently, we administered the TSST to 50 healthy men such that the cortisol responses to anticipatory and reactive stress components could be dissociated (study 2). In both studies we sampled saliva cortisol at high frequency (at baseline, during 10min of anticipation and during and after 10min of acute stress) and the current mood state pre- and post-stress. We found anticipatory responder rates of 20% and 40%, with peak anticipatory cortisol levels between 14 and 20min after onset of anticipation. Visible changes in reactive cortisol levels occurred only after the termination of the acute stressor. We conclude that the best practice to detect a maximum number of anticipatory responders in the TSST would be to extend the anticipation phase to 15min. In doing so, the anticipatory cortisol peak could be captured at a time-point of the actual stressor that is uninfluenced by reactive cortisol levels. Overall, we could reveal several features of anticipatory responders. Most importantly, there was a positive correlation between anticipatory and reactive stress responses. There was no association between anticipatory cortisol and alpha-amylase as well as subjective-psychological stress responses. Future studies will have to determine whether the anticipatory responders differ with respect to various stress-sensitive parameters like sex, personality, psychological wellbeing or chronic stress. PMID:23246327

Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I; Duchesne, Annie; Vogel, Susanne; Corbo, Vincent; Pruessner, Jens C



Testosterone, cortisol and anxiety in elite field hockey players.  


The aim of the present study was to assess the change in the levels of testosterone and cortisol after victory and defeat in male field hockey players during an important tournament. In the beginning of the game series, the players were ranked very closely to achieve (for the first time) the championship rising to The Honor Division-A, the highest status national category. The first game resulted in a 7-4 victory, the second game resulted in a 6-1 victory, and the third game resulted in a 1-2 defeat. As expected, there were changes in testosterone levels after the competition, dropping in the game which ended in defeat, and rising slightly in the two games which ended in victory; there were also changes in cortisol levels, rising in the game which ended in defeat, and showing no variations in the games which ended in victory; correlational analyses congruently showed that defeat led to rises in cortisol whereas victory led to rises in testosterone; anticipatory somatic anxiety was related to cortisol levels prior to games, and physical exertion during competition was related to the change in testosterone levels (suggesting an inhibitory effect) but not to the change in cortisol levels. Hence, this pattern of hormonal responses to a real-life dominance challenge complied with Mazur's (1985) [16] biosocial model of status and dominance motivation, by showing that testosterone and cortisol are linked to victory and defeat in a theoretically predictable fashion. PMID:23743274

Aguilar, Raúl; Jiménez, Manuel; Alvero-Cruz, José R



A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.



Affiliative and disciplinary behavior of human handlers during play with their dog affects cortisol concentrations in opposite directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that cortisol concentrations change characteristically in the course of agonistic interactions; our aim was to find out how a playful situation may affect concentrations of this hormone in the saliva. We studied dogs' behavior and the changes of cortisol concentrations in a play situation, where the dogs played with their handler for 3 min with a tug

Zsuzsánna Horváth; Antal Dóka; Ádám Miklósi



Whetzel, C. A., Ritter, F. E., & Klein, L. C. (2006 March). DHEA-S and cortisol responses to stress and caffeine in healthy young men: Is DHEA-S a reliable marker for stress?  

E-print Network

Whetzel, C. A., Ritter, F. E., & Klein, L. C. (2006 March). DHEA-S and cortisol responses to stress.] Please do not cite without permission (full paper in preparation). DHEA-S AND CORTISOL RESPONSES many characteristics with the more common stress hormone, cortisol, yet the effects of stress on DHEA

Ritter, Frank


Chromosome 10: gene which creates cortisol, Matt RidleySite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Matt Ridley DNAi Location:Genome>tour>genome spots>Stress genes Location: chromosome 10 gene name: CYP17 The gene CYP17, located on chromosome 10, is responsible for making an enzyme that converts cholesterol into several different hormones. One of these hormones, cortisol, turns genes on or off to regulate our physical responses to stressful situations.



Characterization and Social Correlates of Fecal Testosterone and Cortisol Excretion in Wild Male Saguinus mystax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive success in male primates can be influenced by testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). We examined them in wild Saguinus mystax via fecal hormone analysis. Firstly, we wanted to characterize male hormonal status over the course of the year. Further we tested the influence of the reproductive status of the breeding female, social instability, and intergroup encounter rates on T

Maren Huck; Petra Löttker; Eckhard W. Heymann; Michael Heistermann



Prenatal Cortisol Exposure Predicts Infant Cortisol Response to Acute Stress  

PubMed Central

Summary Experimental animal findings suggest that early stress and glucocorticoid exposure may program the function of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the offspring. The extension of these findings to human development is not yet clear. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on 125 mothers and their normally developing children. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infant behavior and cortisol response to a separation-reunion stress was assessed at 17 months. Amniotic fluid cortisol predicted infant cortisol response to separation-reunion stress: infants who were exposed to higher levels of cortisol in utero showed higher pre-stress cortisol values and blunted response to stress exposure. The association was independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors and child-parent attachment. The findings provide some of the strongest data in humans that HPA axis functioning in the child may be predicted from prenatal cortisol exposure. PMID:22315044

O'Connor, Thomas G; Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette



Recent advances in cortisol sensing technologies for point-of-care application.  


Everyday lifestyle related issues are the main cause of psychological stress, which contributes to health disparities experienced by individuals. Prolonged exposure to stress leads to the activation of signaling pathways from the brain that leads to release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Various biomarkers have been affected by psychological stress, but cortisol "a steroid hormone" is known as a potential biomarker for its estimation. Cortisol can also be used as a target analyte marker to determine the effect of exposure such as organophosphates on central nervous system, which alters the endocrine system, leading to imbalance in cortisol secretion. Cortisol secretion of individuals depends on day-night cycle and field environment hence its detection at point-of-care (POC) is deemed essential to provide personalized healthcare. Chromatographic techniques have been traditionally used to detect cortisol. The issues relating to assay formation, system complexity, and multistep extraction/purification limits its application in the field. In order to overcome these issues and to make portable and effective miniaturized platform, various immunoassays sensing strategies are being explored. However, electrochemical immunosensing of cortisol is considered as a recent advancement towards POC application. Highly sensitive, label-free and selective cortisol immunosensor based on microelectrodes are being integrated with the microfluidic system for automated diurnal cortisol monitoring useful for personalized healthcare. Although the reported sensing devices for cortisol detection may have a great scope to improve portability, electronic designing, performance of the integrated sensor, data safety and lifetime for point-of-care applications, This review is an attempt to describe the various cortisol sensing platforms and their potential to be integrated into a wearable system for online and continuous monitoring of cortisol rhythm at POC as a function of one's environment. PMID:24212052

Kaushik, Ajeet; Vasudev, Abhay; Arya, Sunil K; Pasha, Syed Khalid; Bhansali, Shekhar



Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population.  


Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18-82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by 'showing off' was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters. PMID:24335989

Trumble, Benjamin C; Smith, Eric A; O'Connor, Kathleen A; Kaplan, Hillard S; Gurven, Michael D



Personality × hormone interactions in adolescent externalizing psychopathology.  


The "dual-hormone" hypothesis predicts that testosterone and cortisol will jointly regulate aggressive and socially dominant behavior in children and adults (e.g., Mehta & Josephs, 2010). The present study extends research on the dual-hormone hypothesis by testing the interaction between testosterone, cortisol, and personality disorder (PD) traits in predicting externalizing problems in a community sample of adolescent males and females. Participants were 106 youth from the community, ranging in age from 13-18 (Mage = 16.01 years, SDage = 1.29), and their parents. Parents and youth provided ratings on an omnibus measure of personality pathology and externalizing problems. Youth provided saliva samples via passive drool from which testosterone and cortisol levels were obtained. Robust moderation of the joint effects of testosterone and cortisol on parent-reported externalizing problems was found for both higher-order PD traits associated with externalizing psychopathology (Disagreeableness and Emotional Instability). Higher testosterone was associated with externalizing outcomes, but only when cortisol was low, and only among youth with high levels of Disagreeableness and Emotional Instability. These findings provide the first evidence for the dual-hormone hypothesis in a mixed-sex sample of community adolescents, but importantly offer novel evidence for the importance of personality traits. Examination of the joint regulation of externalizing problems by testosterone and cortisol in the context of adolescent personality may help to clarify inconsistent main effects of testosterone and cortisol on clinical externalizing phenotypes. PMID:24932763

Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Harden, K Paige; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Josephs, Robert A



Stress and reward: long term cortisol exposure predicts the strength of sexual preference.  


Healthy individuals tend to consume available rewards like food and sex. This tendency is attenuated or amplified in most stress-related psychiatric conditions, so we asked if it depends on endogenous levels of the 'canonical stress hormone' cortisol. We unobtrusively quantified how hard healthy heterosexual men would work to consume erotic images of women versus men and also measured their exposure to endogenous cortisol in the prior two months. We used linear models to predict the strength of sexual preference from cortisol level, after accounting for other potential explanations. Heterosexual preference declines with self-reported anhedonia but increases with long term exposure to endogenous cortisol. These results suggest that cortisol may affect reward-related behavior in healthy adults. PMID:24732415

Chumbley, J R; Hulme, O; Köchli, H; Russell, E; Van Uum, S; A Pizzagalli, D; Fehr, E



Impact of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique on Adrenaline and Cortisol Levels in Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

The objective was to find out the effect of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique (IAM) on the stress hormones: adrenaline and cortisol. One hundred and fifty healthy subjects were randomized into three groups. Blood was collected at 0 hour, 48 hours, 2 months, and 8 months after the first visit. Adrenaline was analyzed by ELISA and cortisol by Chemiluminescent method. In the IAM, PMR and control groups 44, 44, and 36 came, respectively, for the baseline visit. Within group, cortisol and adrenaline levels reduced in the IAM 48 hours onwards and the fall sustained until 8 months (P < .05). ANCOVA (Repeated measures) on adrenaline taking the four levels of observation showed a highly significant (P = .001) drop in the IAM group. The mean cortisol values between groups were not statistically significant (P = .138). IAM Technique was effective in reducing adrenaline and cortisol levels within group comparisons. PMID:21318156

Vandana, Balakrishnan; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Saraswathy, Lakshmiy Ammal; Sundaram, Karimassery Ramaiyer; Kumar, Harish



Cortisol is transported by the multidrug resistance gene product P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed Central

The physiology of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is still poorly understood. We now show evidence that cell lines with a high expression of Pgp display a reduced accumulation of cortisol and an ATP-dependent outward transport of the hormone. Cortisol efflux from Pgp negative cells does not have such an active component. Further we show that the steroid hormones cortisol, testosterone, and progesterone cause an immediate, dose-dependent increase of daunorubicin accumulation in Pgp overexpressing cells. These effects are particularly apparent for the more lipophilic steroids. These results demonstrate that Pgp may function as a transporter for cortisol and suggest a physiological role of the protein in steroid handling by organs such as the adrenal. PMID:8094292

van Kalken, C. K.; Broxterman, H. J.; Pinedo, H. M.; Feller, N.; Dekker, H.; Lankelma, J.; Giaccone, G.



A non-invasive technique for analyzing fecal cortisol metabolites in snowshoe hares ( Lepus americanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring steroid stress hormones in the feces of free-living animals, extensive knowledge\\u000a of their metabolism and excretion is essential. Here, we conducted four studies to validate the use of an enzyme immunoassay\\u000a for monitoring fecal cortisol metabolites in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). First, we injected 11 hares with radioactive cortisol and collected all voided urine

Michael J. Sheriff; Curtis O. Bosson; Charles J. Krebs; Rudy Boonstra



Nocturnal cortisol and melatonin secretion in primary insomnia.  


The present study investigated evening and nocturnal serum cortisol and melatonin concentrations in patients with primary insomnia to test if this clinical condition is accompanied by an increase of cortisol secretion and a simultaneous decrease of nocturnal melatonin production. Ten drug-free patients (4 males, 6 females) with primary insomnia (mean age+/-S.D.: 39.2+/-9.1 years) and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects spent three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with polysomnography. Measurement of cortisol and melatonin (from 19:00 h to 09:00 h) was performed prior to and during the last laboratory night. Contrary to expectation, cortisol secretion did not differ between healthy controls and insomniac patients. On the other hand, nocturnal melatonin production was significantly diminished in insomniac patients. Polysomnographically determined sleep patterns, in contrast to subjective ratings of sleep, demonstrated only minor alterations of sleep in the insomniac group. The lack of increased cortisol secretion in the patients with primary insomnia indicates that results from studies on the biological consequences of experimental sleep loss in healthy subjects cannot be applied to primary insomnia in general, especially if there are only minor objective sleep alterations. In spite of the negligible objective sleep disturbances in the present sample, nocturnal melatonin production was reduced, which tentatively suggests a role for this hormone in primary insomniacs. The pathophysiological significance of this finding is, however, still a matter of debate. PMID:12467942

Riemann, Dieter; Klein, Torsten; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Feige, Bernd; Horny, Andrea; Hummel, Ruth; Weske, Gesa; Al-Shajlawi, Anam; Voderholzer, Ulrich



Elevated cortisol modulates Hsp70 and Hsp90 gene expression and protein in sea bass head kidney and isolated leukocytes.  


In fish, interactions between Hsps and cortisol are involved in stress modulated physiological processes including innate immune responses. Cortisol exerts a role in the regulation of Hsps synthesis. Fish head kidney is a lymphomieloid and endocrine organ releasing cortisol, and it is the central organ for immune-endocrine interactions. In sea bass, cortisol intraperitoneal injection and in vitro treatment of head kidney cells show that inducible Hsp70 and Hsp90 are modulated by this hormone. However, an inverse relationship between mRNA expression (real-time PCR) and Hsp70 and Hsp90 protein levels (densitometric band analysis) was found. Time-course assays indicate a cortisol-mediated regulation. Furthermore, Hsp70 gene modulation appears to be more susceptible to the cortisol action and the mRNA was transcribed within 3h post-injection. The restoration of the homeostatic conditions was observed at a week p.i., when plasma cortisol baseline was reached. Although fish manipulation and injection exerted stressing effects as indicated by serological parameters, differences between cortisol treated specimens compared to untreated or sham fish are statistically significant. Similar results were found by examining in vitro total cells and isolated leukocytes from head kidney cultured for 3h with increasing cortisol concentration. Finally, MTT test and DNA fragmentation experiments showed that the apoptotic effect expected in cortisol-treated cells could be counteracted by high Hsp70 intracellular levels. PMID:22154571

Celi, Monica; Vazzana, Mirella; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Parrinello, Nicolò



Social regulation of the cortisol levels in early human development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Other papers in this special edition provide evidence to implicate activity of the limbic hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (L–HPA) system in the etiology of drug and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, studies in rodents and primates suggest that responsivity and regulation of this system later in life may be shaped by social experiences during early development. Cortisol is the major hormonal product of the L–HPA

Megan R. Gunnar; Bonny Donzella



Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (I) Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic Study on Maca using Clinical Laboratory Model on Ovariectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

Ovariectomized rats were used in a model laboratory study to examine biochemical and pharmacodynamic effects of pre-gelatinized organic preparation of Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (Maca-GO). Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic effects of Maca-GO (250 mg Maca-GO per kg body weight (bw) administered by intubation twice daily) were assessed in a 28 day model laboratory study on ovariectomized (by laparoscopy) Wistar rats with pharmacodynamic tests performed at the conclusion of the trial followed by blood collection for morphology and biochemical tests. Toxicity of Maca-GO used in the study was determined in bioassay on mice and rats. Anti-depressive function (Porsolt’s test) and anxiolytic sedative and cognitive effects (using elevated-plus maze, locomotor activity and passive avoidance tests) were assessed against control (laparotomized female rats with intact ovaries). In addition to blood morphology, the following blood serum constituents were analyzed: Estrogen (E2), Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, and T4), Iron (Fe) and lipid profile (Triglycerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). Analytically-determined non-toxic status of Maca-GO was confirmed in bioassays when applied to mice and rats at levels of 0.5 and up to 15mg/kg bw which shows it safe use in humans with the LD50>15 mg/kg bw. Maca-GO showed a distinctive, (P<0.05) antidepressant-like and sedative effect in ovariectomized rats only, while there was no anxiolytic activity nor disturbance of cognitive function observed in both, test and control animals. Observed in this study balancing effect of Maca-GO on sex hormone levels show its potential as a safe preparation for use in correcting physiological symptoms characteristic in postmenopausal stage with an indication of potentially even more value for its use in pre-menopausal women. PMID:23674989

Meissner, H. O.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Mscisz, A.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Kapczynski, W.; Barchia, I.



Proliferative response of lymphocyte to pokeweed mitogen depends on the concentration of endogenous cortisol in the early post-traumatic period in patients with penetrating eye injury.  


The intensity of lymphocyte proliferation in response to pokeweed mitogen depends on cortisol level in the peripheral blood in the early post-traumatic period of penetrating eye injury. Lymphocyte proliferation in 72- and 96-h cultures from patients with high levels of endogenous hormone was suppressed. In 120-h cultures, the intensity of proliferation remains unchanged. Lymphocyte blast transformation was increased in 120-h cultures from patients with normal cortisol concentration and remained unchanged in case of low cortisol level. PMID:23113269

Chereshnev, V A; Shilov, Ju I; Gavrilova, T V; Usov, V V; Chereshneva, M V



Ecological momentary assessment of maternal cortisol profiles over a multiple-day period predict the length of human gestation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Biobehavioral models of prenatal stress highlight the importance of the stress-related hormone cortisol. However, the association between maternal cortisol levels and length of human gestation require further investigation because most previous studies have relied on one-time cortisol measures assessed at varying gestational ages. This study assessed whether ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of cortisol sampling improves the ability to predict the length of human gestation. In addition, associations between EMA based measures of psychological state (negative affect) with cortisol levels during pregnancy were assessed. METHODS Over a 4-day period, 25 healthy pregnant women (mean gestational age at assessment 23.4 ± 9.1 weeks) collected 7 salivary samples per day for assessment of cortisol and provided a rating of negative affect every waking hour using an electronic diary. RESULTS Higher salivary cortisol concentrations at awakening and throughout the day (p=.001) as well as a flatter cortisol response to awakening (p=.005) were associated with shorter length of gestation. Women delivering at 36 weeks gestations had 13% higher salivary cortisol levels at awakening than women delivering at 41 weeks gestation. The EMA-based measure of negative affect was associated with higher cortisol throughout the day (p=.006), but not to gestational length (p=.641). The one-time measure of cortisol was not associated with length of gestation, and traditional retrospective recall measures of negative affect were not associated with cortisol. CONCLUSION Our findings support the ecological validity of repeated ambulatory assessments of cortisol in pregnancy and their ability to improve the prediction of adverse birth outcomes. PMID:21700714

Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Andersen, Judith; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Wadhwa, Pathik D.




E-print Network

45. CORTISOL LEVELS ARE CORRELATED WITH HIPPOCAMPAL N-ACETYLASPARTATE T.C. Neylan (1), N. Schuff (2 by sampling morning salivary cortisol pre and post low dose dexamethasone (0.5mg). PTSD symptoms were assessed-dex cortisol levels (N 22, r .53, p 0.013) and post dex cortisol (N 22, r .65, p .002). A hierarchical linear


Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.



Diurnal cortisol rhythms among Latino immigrants in Oregon, USA  

PubMed Central

One of the most commonly used stress biomarkers is cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone released by the adrenal glands that is central to the physiological stress response. Free cortisol can be measured in saliva and has been the biomarker of choice in stress studies measuring the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Chronic psychosocial stress can lead to dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and results in an abnormal diurnal cortisol profile. Little is known about objectively measured stress and health in Latino populations in the United States, yet this is likely an important factor in understanding health disparities that exist between Latinos and whites. The present study was designed to measure cortisol profiles among Latino immigrant farmworkers in Oregon (USA), and to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of stress in this population. Our results indicate that there were no sex differences in average cortisol AUCg (area under the curve with respect to the ground) over two days (AvgAUCg; males?=?1.38, females?=?1.60; P?=?0.415). AUCg1 (Day 1 AUCg) and AvgAUCg were significantly negatively associated with age in men (P<0.05). AUCg1 was negatively associated with weight (P<0.05), waist circumference (P<0.01) and waist-to-stature ratio (P<0.05) in women, which is opposite of the expected relationship between cortisol and waist-to-stature ratio, possibly indicating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. Among men, more time in the United States and immigration to the United States at older ages predicted greater AvgAUCg. Among women, higher lifestyle incongruity was significantly related to greater AvgAUCg. Although preliminary, these results suggest that chronic psychosocial stress plays an important role in health risk in this population. PMID:22738123



Original article Effects of blood sampling procedures, grouping and adrenal  

E-print Network

) and creatine kinase (CK) activities. Cortisol, proteins and CK levels were negatively cor- related with social hierarchy after regrouping. Cortisol was also correlated with total activity levels. Adrenal stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration caused a sharp increase in plasma cortisol levels. However, plasma

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


The role of cytokines and cortisol in the non-thyroidal illness syndrome following acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A number of different hormone changes have been described during the acute myocardial infarction (AMI), including those of the non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). Design and methods: We assessed the alterations of serum thyroid hormones, cytokines and cortisol levels in 30 patients with a first episode of AMI 4, 24, 48 h and 10 days (240 h) after the onset

Helen Karga; Panayotis Papaioannou; Kyriaki Venetsanou; Fotini Papandroulaki; Lazaros Karaloizos; Garyphallia Papaioannou; Peter Papapetrou



Effects of various hormones and adrenalectomy on the levels of amylase in rat pancreas and parotid gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Dexamethasone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroxine increased the amylase activities in both the pancreas and the parotid gland of infant rats. After adrenalectomy, the amylase activities of the pancreas and parotid gland were about half the control levels, suggesting that both glucocorticoid and thyroxine are involved in maintaining the amylase activities in these organs.

T. Takeuchi; M. Ogawa; T. Sugimura



Effects of Cortisol Administered through Slow-Release Implants on Innate Immune Responses in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

PubMed Central

Cortisol is a key hormone in the fish stress response with a well-known ability to regulate several physiological functions, including energy metabolism and the immune system. However, data concerning cortisol effects on fish innate immune system using a more controlled increase in cortisol levels isolated from any other stress related signaling is scarce. The present study describes the effect of doses of cortisol corresponding to acute and chronic levels on the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We also evaluated the effects of these cortisol levels (from intraperitoneally implanted hydrocortisone) on the mRNA levels quantified by RT-qPCR of selected key immune-related genes in the liver, head kidney, and spleen. For that purpose, 60 specimens of rainbow trout were divided in to two groups: a control group injected with a coconut oil implant and another group injected with the same implant and cortisol (50??g cortisol/g body weight). Our results demonstrate the role of cortisol as a modulator of the innate immune response without the direct contribution of other stress axes. Our results also show a relationship between the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma and mRNA levels in liver, supporting the important role of this organ in producing these immune system proteins after a rise of cortisol in the fish plasma. PMID:24073392

Cortés, R.; Teles, M.; Trídico, R.; Acerete, L.; Tort, L.



Modulation of the fish immune system by hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune–neuroendocrine interactions in fish, as in mammals, have become a focus of considerable interest, with the modulation of immune responses by hormones receiving particular attention. Cortisol, growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), reproductive hormones, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides have all been shown to influence immune functions in a number of fish species. This review summarises the known effects

James Harris; David J. Bird



Leptin Levels Are Dependent on Sleep Duration: Relationships with Sympathovagal Balance, Carbohydrate Regulation, Cortisol, and Thyrotropin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep plays an important role in energy homeostasis. The present study tests the hypothesis that circulating levels of leptin, a hormone that signals energy balance to the brain, are influenced by sleep duration. We also analyzed associations betweenleptinandsympathovagalbalance,cortisol,TSH,glu- cose, and insulin under different bedtime conditions. Twenty- four-hour hormonal and glucose profiles were sampled at fre- quent intervals, and sympathovagal balance




EPA Science Inventory

Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...


Classroom Emotional Support Predicts Differences in Preschool Children's Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence suggests children enrolled in full-time child care often display afternoon elevations of the hormone cortisol, which is an indicator of stress. Recent advances in immunoassays allow for measurement of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic sympathetic nervous system from saliva, and measurement…

Hatfield, Bridget E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; O'Brien, Marion



Gender-specific alterations of cerebral metabolites with aging and cortisol treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess availability of the adrenocortical glucocorticoid hormone cortisol has been correlated with structural brain changes and a decline of cognitive functions during aging. Pertinent studies need to consider gender as a potential confound because of sexual dimorphism in the regulation of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis activity. In vivo localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of male and female tree shrews revealed similar concentrations

Thomas Michaelis; Gabriel de Biurrun; Takashi Watanabe; Jens Frahm; Frauke Ohl; Eberhard Fuchs



Modulation of attentional inhibition by norepinephrine and cortisol after psychological stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the most salient physiological responses to stress are increased norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT) activities. However, it is unclear how these neurochemical events affect cognition, especially attention. We examined the effects of mild psychological stress on selective attention, as assessed by the negative priming (NP) paradigm. Salivary measures of the stress hormone CORT and ?-amylase (a correlate of

Patrick D Skosnik; Robert T Chatterton; Tara Swisher; Sohee Park



Sexy thoughts: Effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of

Katherine L. Goldey; Sari M. van Anders



Association of DHEA, DHEAS, and cortisol with childhood trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder.  


There has been a great deal of interest in the role of the neuroendocrine hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the expression of stress-related psychopathology such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This investigation examined the association of PTSD and childhood maltreatment with three key HPA axis hormones: cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Regression analyses were undertaken on a sample of 43 participants with and 57 participants without PTSD. Results demonstrated that after controlling for age, sex, and PTSD status, exposure to childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with cortisol secretion [F(4,95)=11.68, ?R(2)=0.11, P=0.0009] and cortisol/DHEA ratio [F(4,95)=6.20, ?R(2)=0.05, P=0.01]. PTSD status was not associated with any of these neuroendocrine variables. Findings are discussed in the context of the complexity of the relationship of these neuroendocrine variables with trauma exposure and trauma-related psychopathology. It is suggested that DHEA(S) or cortisol/DHEA(S) ratios may not be biomarkers of specific forms of psychopathology per se, but that, instead, the severity and developmental timing of trauma may set the HPA axis in ways that are reflected in interactions among these neuroendocrine hormones. In adulthood, these HPA axis hormones may continue to be dynamically affected by personal and environmental resources. PMID:23907073

Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Michelle F; Calhoun, Patrick S; Beckham, Jean C



Maternal cortisol disproportionately impacts fetal growth in male offspring: Evidence from the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Objectives Lower birth weight (BW) re-occurs across generations, but the intermediate mechanisms remain poorly understood. One potential pathway involves cortisol, which may be elevated in women born small and in turn could lead to fetal growth restriction in offspring. To test this possibility, we evaluated whether BW predicts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in the non-pregnant state in a cohort of young Filipino women, and whether differences in HPA function predict offspring BW. Methods Multiple regression relating maternal BW, adult salivary cortisol profiles and recalled offspring BW (N = 488) among participants of the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Results Maternal BW related inversely to evening cortisol in adulthood (p < 0.04). Maternal BW and evening cortisol were both stronger predictors of male than of female BW (maternal BW: p < 0.0001 for males; p = 0.07 for females; bedtime cortisol: p = 0.003 for males; p = 0.3 for females). Waking and thirty minute post-waking cortisol did not predict offspring BW. Controlling for evening cortisol did not diminish the relationship between maternal and offspring BW in males or females. Conclusions Being born small predicted higher evening cortisol in adulthood among these young mothers. Lower maternal BW and elevated evening cortisol independently predicted giving birth to lower BW offspring, with effects greatest and only significant among males. We speculate that sex differences in sensitivity to maternal stress hormones could help explain the stronger relationships between BW and CVD risk factors reported among the males in this and other populations. PMID:22121049

Thayer, Zaneta M.; Feranil, Alan B.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.



Injection of an alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone expression plasmid is effective in suppressing experimental autoimmune uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe neuropeptide, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH), is an endogenous antagonist of inflammation. Injections of ?-MSH peptide into inflamed tissues have been found to be very effective in suppressing autoimmune and endotoxin mediated diseases. We evaluated the potential to suppress ocular autoimmune disease (uveitis) by augmenting the expression of ?-MSH through subconjunctival injections of naked adrenocorticotropic hormone amino acids 1–17 (ACTH1–17)

D. J. Lee; D. J. Biros; A. W. Taylor



Cortisol Levels and Longitudinal Cortisol Change as Predictors of Anxiety in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous research has suggested cortisol-emotion relationships, little is known regarding the effect of anxiety type on cortisol levels or relationships between anxiety and longitudinal cortisol change in adolescents. The authors examine the differential relationship of cortisol levels with generalized and social anxiety and relationships…

Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.



Need for achievement and cortisol 1 Running head: NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT AND CORTISOL  

E-print Network

Need for achievement and cortisol 1 Running head: NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT AND CORTISOL Implicit need for achievement predicts attenuated cortisol responses to difficult tasks Oliver C. Schultheiss Friedrich, Germany, email: #12;Need for achievement and cortisol 2

Schultheiss, Oliver C.


Sex differences in salivary cortisol in response to acute stressors among healthy participants, in recreational or pathological gamblers, and in those with posttraumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor-vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. PMID:19538960

Paris, Jason J.; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A.; Forsyth, John P.; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A.



Inverted-U shape relationship between cortisol and learning in ground squirrels  

PubMed Central

Adrenal hormones regulate glucose levels, responses to unpredictable stressors and modulate cognition. Glucocorticoids can have an inverted-U shape relationship with cognition, as very low or high levels impair, whereas moderate elevations facilitate, acquisition and retention of memories. To date these relationships have been tested with humans and rodents in laboratory settings rather than with wild animals in biologically relevant contexts. This study examined whether the elevated cortisol observed in juvenile Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) at natal emergence might promote both acquisition of adaptive responses to this species' two alarm calls warning of predators and memory of the spatial configuration of mothers' territories. Both experimentally increased and decreased basal cortisol levels interfere with acquisition and retention of an association between a warning call and the appropriate response compared with naturally occurring moderately elevated cortisol. Further, decreased cortisol impairs learning of a novel, complex spatial maze. Thus in the field the brief elevation of cortisol at emergence might facilitate acquisition of spatial memory of a three-dimensional environment and responses to alarm calls during a sensitive period of learning. This novel demonstration of the inverted-U shape function in a wild animal suggests that natural selection has favored a hormonal profile facilitating rapid acquisition of important survival behaviors. PMID:18164635

Mateo, Jill M.



Behaviour problems and cortisol levels in very-low-birth-weight children.  


Abstract Background. There are still diverging results concerning the behaviour of children with very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) and they have been questioned to display different levels of stress hormone than normal-birth-weight (NBW) children. Aims. This study examined behaviour and the stress hormone cortisol in children with VLBW at the ages of 7 and 9 years compared with children with NBW. Results. Fifty-one VLBW and 50 NBW children were studied with the Child Behavior Checklist. Cortisol rhythm was measured through saliva samples three times a day for 2 days. VLBW children displayed more behavioural problems than NBW children, specifically social and attention problems, although still within normal ranges. They showed lower cortisol levels both at 7 and 9 years of age. No strong association between behaviour and cortisol levels was shown. Conclusion. VLBW children display more behaviour problems compared with NBW children but both groups score are within the normal range. Down-regulation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in terms of lower cortisol levels is also noted. PMID:24802123

Wadsby, Marie; Nelson, Nina; Ingemansson, Fredrik; Samuelsson, Stefan; Leijon, Ingemar



Salivary cortisol in ambulatory assessment--some dos, some don'ts, and some open questions.  


The impact of stress on health and disease is an important research topic in psychosomatic medicine. Because research on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation under controlled laboratory studies lacks ecological validity, it needs to be complemented by a research program that includes momentary ambulatory assessment. The measurement of salivary cortisol offers the possibility to trace the free steroid hormone concentrations in ambulant settings. Therefore, in this article, we first discuss the role of salivary cortisol in ambulatory monitoring. We start with a brief description of HPA axis regulation, and we then consider cortisol assessments in other organic materials, followed by a presentation of common salivary markers of HPA axis regulation suitable for ambulatory assessment. We further provide an overview on assessment designs and sources of variability within and between subjects (intervening variables), acknowledge the issue of (non)compliance, and address statistical aspects. We further give an overview of associations with psychosocial and health-related variables relevant for ambulatory assessment. Finally, we deal with preanalytical aspects of laboratory salivary cortisol analysis. The relative simplicity of salivary cortisol assessment protocols may lead to an overoptimistic view of the robustness of this method. We thus discuss several important issues related to the collection and storage of saliva samples and present empirical data on the stability of salivary cortisol measurements over time. PMID:22582339

Kudielka, Brigitte M; Gierens, Andrea; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Wüst, Stefan; Schlotz, Wolff



Effect of Various Physical Stress Models on Serum Cortisol Level in Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Stress indicates the response or reaction of an organism to the environmental circumstances and their outcomes. Acute stress is well known to trigger several hormonal alterations in animals. An increase in glucocorticoid concentration can represent intensity of discomfort or distress experienced by an animal. The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of various physical stress models on serum cortisol level in Wistar male rats. Methodology: In this study six Wistar male rats weighing 150-200 gm were randomly selected. Animals were exposed to ‘forced swim test’ and ‘restraint test’. Their serum cortisol level was measured by ELISA test using alpha prime ELISA system before and after the tests respectively. Results: Results were analyzed by students paired t-test. Serum cortisol level was significantly higher after forced swim test as well as after restraint test. When both the physical activities were compared, serum cortisol level was increased more after restraint stress than after forced swim test however, the difference was not significant statistically. Interpretation and Conclusion: The rise in serum cortisol level was observed in both the physical activity models . Rise in serum cortisol level was significantly higher after restraint test than exposing them to forced swim test. This indicates that restraining the rats produced more stress than making them forcefully swim. PMID:24783129

Jameel, Mohammed Khaleel; Joshi, Anuradha Rajiv; Dawane, Jayashree; Padwal, Meghana; Joshi, AR; Pandit, V A; Melinkeri, RR



Loneliness and Cortisol: Momentary, Day-to-day, and Trait Associations  

PubMed Central

Summary In attempts to understand the social determinants of health, strong associations have been found between measures of loneliness, physiological stress processes, and physical and mental health outcomes. Feelings of loneliness are hypothesized to have implications for physiological stress processes, including activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In a community sample of young adults, multilevel modeling was used to examine whether trait and state feelings of loneliness were related to changes in levels of the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol, and whether the associations between loneliness and cortisol were mediated or moderated by the presence of concurrent depression or high levels of chronic life stress. Results indicated that trait loneliness was associated with a flattening of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. In addition, both daily and momentary state variations in loneliness were related to cortisol. Prior-day feelings of loneliness were associated with an increased cortisol awakening response the next morning and momentary experiences of loneliness during the day were associated with momentary increases in cortisol among youth who also had high chronic interpersonal stress. Results were significant after covarying current depression, both chronic and momentary reports of stress, and medical and lifestyle covariates. This study expanded on prior work by investigating and revealing three different time-courses of association between loneliness and HPA axis activity in young adults: trait, daily and momentary. PMID:19744794

Adam, Emma K.



An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.  


An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0-579 pmol/L for melatonin, 0-90 nmol/L for cortisol, and 0-622 pmol/L for testosterone. The recovery of spiked material for melatonin ranged from 91-110%, from 83-100% for cortisol and from 80-94% for testosterone. The content of natural hormone in saliva was estimated to be between 0.278 and 6.90 pmol/L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva. PMID:24724579

Jensen, Marie A; Mortier, Leen; Koh, Eitetsu; Keevil, Brian; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hansen, Åse M



Hormonal parameters in androgenetic hair loss in the male.  


Alopecia in the male is considered as a genetically determined disorder. Increased local androgen metabolism and androgen receptor binding in the balding areas confirm the importance of the target organ hair follicle as regulative of androgen influences. In our study the hormonal parameters of 65 male patients with male pattern hair loss with a mean age of 24.31 years were compared with those of 58 age-matched controls. Determinations of the androgens, sex-hormone-binding globulin, the hypophyseal hormones luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin, 17 beta-estradiol and cortisol were performed by standard radioimmunoassay. Significant differences in serum levels of androstenedione, cortisol, 17 beta-estradiol and luteinizing hormone were noted between hair loss patients and control subjects. Suprarenal stimulation as well as hypophyseal feedback mechanisms therefore seem to be involved in male pattern alopecia. PMID:1832108

Schmidt, J B; Lindmaier, A; Spona, J




E-print Network

to the effect of both synthetic (Dexamethasone) and naturally occurring (cortisol) glucocorticosteroid hormones. The glucocorticosteroid receptor antagonist RU486 decreases the unfavorable effects of hypercortisolemia. This study was designed to see if RU486...

Gutierrez, Kaitlin A.



Hormone and Enzyme Determination as Influenced by Corticoids and Tocolytics in the Final Stage of Pregnancy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to prevent membrane syndrome, the synthetic corticoids betamethasone, dexamethasone and 16-methylene prednisolone combined with tokolytic substances. The hormones ACTH, cortisol, oestriol, and the enzyme renine have been investigated by RIA in or...

G. Kaminsky, I. B. Kayser



A Comprehensive Long-Term Retrospective Analysis of Silent Corticotrophic Adenomas versus Hormone-Negative Adenomas.  


BACKGROUND:: Silent corticotrophic adenomas (SCAs) stain adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)+ without causing Cushing's disease. SCAs are reportedly more aggressive, but information comes from small series. OBJECTIVE:: To determine whether SCAs behave more aggressively than Hormone-Negative Adenomas (HNAs), and characterize SCA ACTH production alterations. METHODS:: SCAs (n=75) and HNAs (n=1726) diagnosed at our institution from 1990-2011 were retrospectively reviewed. RT-PCR was used to compare expression of ACTH-producing factors. RESULTS:: SCA patients exhibited comparable gender and age as HNA patients (P=0.7-0.9). SCAs exhibited comparable size as HNAs (2.2 vs. 2.0 cm, P=0.2), with cavernous sinus invasion in 30% of SCAs versus 18% of HNAs (P=0.03). SCA patients had higher mean preoperative serum ACTH (46 versus 19 ng/L; P=0.005; normal=5-27 ng/L), but comparable serum cortisol (13 versus 12 ?g/dL; normal=4-22 ?g/dL; P<0.05) as HNA patients. SCAs were gross totally resected 59% of the time, versus 53% for HNAs (P=0.8). Kaplan-Meier 3-year progression/recurrence rates were 34% for strongly ACTH-positive Type I SCAs, 10% for weakly ACTH-positive Type II SCAs, and 6% for HNAs (P<0.0001 SCA vs. HNA; P<0.0001 Type I vs HNA; and P=0.08 Type II vs HNA). Expression of ACTH precursor pro-opiomelanocortin was 900-fold elevated in SCAs and 1300-fold elevated in Cushing's disease-causing adenomas (CDCAs) versus HNAs (P<0.001). Transcription of PC1/3, which cleaves pro-opiomelanocortin into ACTH, was 30-fold higher in CDCAs than SCAs (P=0.02). CONCLUSION:: In the largest series to date, SCAs exhibited comparable size, but increased cavernous sinus invasion and progression/recurrence versus HNAs. SCAs exhibit deficient pro-opiomelanocortin to ACTH conversion. Close follow-up is warranted for SCAs. PMID:23467251

Jahangiri, Arman; Wagner, Jeffrey R; Pekmezci, Melike; Hiniker, Anne; Chang, Edward F; Kunwar, Sandeep; Blevins, Lewis; Aghi, Manish K



Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers  

PubMed Central

Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude



Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers.  


Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude



Physical exercise stimulates marked concomitant release of ?-endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in peripheral blood in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary ACTH and ?-endorphin have been evaluated by means of a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay in athletes reaching a status of physical stress. A concomitant marked increase of these 2 peptides has been recorded. The implications of this finding lead to the conclusion that stress stimulates the synthesis of the common precursor (31 K) in the pituitary.

F. Fraioli; C. Moretti; D. Paolucci; E. Alicicco; F. Crescenzi; G. Fortunio



Treatment of moderately to severely active systemic lupus erythematosus with adrenocorticotropic hormone: a single-site, open-label trial  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative therapeutic options are needed for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) not adequately controlled with or intolerant to traditional treatments. This study evaluated the efficacy of Acthar® Gel (ACTH(1-39)) for reducing active SLE severity among patients receiving underlying conventional maintenance therapies. Methods Ten females (mean age?=?49 yrs, disease duration?=?7 yrs, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2000 [SLEDAI-2?K]?=?10) currently on maintenance self-administered ACTH(1–39) gel 1?mL (80?U/mL) for 7–15 days and were assessed weekly for 28 days. Outcome measures included Physician and Patient Global Assessments, SLEDAI-2?K, Lupus Quality of Life scale, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue) scale, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. Student’s t-test compared data obtained at days 7, 14, and 28 with those from baseline. Results The primary endpoint of SLEDAI-2?K improvement was reached at all observation times (p?

Montroy, T



Racial and Ethnic Differences in Diurnal Cortisol Rhythms in Preadolescents: The Role of Parental Psychosocial Risk and Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Racial/ethnic minorities experience persistent health disparities due in part to their exposure to chronic SES and psychosocial risk. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its hormonal end product, cortisol, are believed to mediate the associations between chronic stress and poor health. In this study, racial/ethnic differences in diurnal salivary cortisol rhythms in 179 preadolescent youths and the contributing roles of SES risk, psychosocial risk, perceived discrimination, harsh parenting, and parental monitoring were examined. The analyses revealed racial/ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms, with African Americans having significantly flatter morning-to-evening cortisol slopes than Caucasians and with Latinos having significantly lower evening cortisol levels than Caucasians. Greater psychosocial risk and less parental monitoring were associated with flatter cortisol slopes. Racial/ethnic differences on the cortisol measures persisted when controlling for SES, psychosocial risk, and parenting quality. The need to assess chronic risk across the lifespan and disentangle possible genetic from environmental contributors is discussed. PMID:22414445

Martin, Christina Gamache; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.



Seasonal Changes in CRF-I and Urotensin I Transcript Levels in Masu Salmon: Correlation with Cortisol Secretion During Spawning  

PubMed Central

Pacific salmon employ a semelparous reproductive strategy where sexual maturation is followed by rapid senescence and death. Cortisol overproduction has been implicated as the central physiologic event responsible for the post-spawning demise of these fish. Cortisol homeostasis is regulated through the action of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. These include corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin-I (UI). In the present study, masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) were assayed for changes in the levels CRF-I and UI mRNA transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results were compared to plasma cortisol levels in juvenile, adult, and spawning masu salmon to identify specific regulatory factors that appear to be functionally associated with changes in cortisol levels. Intramuscular implantation of GnRH analog (GnRHa) capsules was also used to determine whether GnRH influences stress hormone levels. In both male and female masu salmon, spawning fish experienced a 5–7 fold increase in plasma cortisol levels relative to juvenile non-spawning salmon. Changes in CRF-I mRNA levels were characterized by 1–2 distinctive short-term surges in adult masu salmon. Conversely, seasonal changes in UI mRNA levels displayed broad and sustained increases during the pre-spawning and spawning periods. The increases in UI mRNA levels were positively correlated (R2 = 0.21 male and 0.26 female, p<0.0001) with levels of plasma cortisol in the pre-spawning and spawning periods. Despite the importance of GnRH in sexual maturation and reproduction, the administration of GnRHa to test animals failed to produce broad changes in CRF-I, UI or plasma cortisol levels. These findings suggest a more direct role for UI than for CRF-I in the regulation of cortisol levels in spawning Pacific salmon. PMID:17499738

Westring, Christian G.; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Ueda, Hiroshi; Urano, Akihisa; Dores, Robert M.; Sher, Anna A.; Danielson, Phillip B.



Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences  

E-print Network

. Finally, we did not observe any significant difference between treat- ment schedules in men’s testosterone levels or women’s es- tradiol levels (Methods). Chronic Exposure to Raised Cortisol Is Not Associated with Changes in Autonomic Nervous System... ’s testosterone levels also did not differ (t = 1.09 P = 0.296, n = 13). Recruitment and Monetary Payments. Participants were recruited from the general population by means of advertisements. Randomization into treatment schedules (discussed above) was performed...

Kandasamy, N.; Hardy, B.; Page, L.; Schaffner, M.; Graggaber, J.; Powlson, A. S.; Fletcher, P. C.; Gurnell, M.; Coates, J.



The assessment of cortisol using salivary ultrafiltrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortisol can be used to indicate stress level as well as to monitor certain disease states. Although cortisol can be sampled\\u000a from blood and urine, saliva sampling has decided advantages. Unfortunately, whole saliva contains a number of substances\\u000a that can metabolize or bind with cortisol, potentially confounding analysis and quantitation. We introduce a semipermeable\\u000a pouch that accumulates a contaminant-free salivary

Mark A. Lumley; Willfried Schramm; Cynthia S. Pomerleau; Ovide F. Pomerleau; Richard H. Smith



Hypoestrogenism does not mediate social suppression of cortisol in subordinate  

E-print Network

Hypoestrogenism does not mediate social suppression of cortisol in subordinate female marmosets Marmoset; Reproductive suppression; Subordination; Ovariectomy; Adrenal cortex; Cortisol Summary as chronic reductions in circulating basal cortisol concentrations. Because estrogen elevates hypothalamic

Saltzman, Wendy


The relation between early life adversity, cortisol awakening response and diurnal salivary cortisol  

E-print Network

The relation between early life adversity, cortisol awakening response and diurnal salivary cortisol levels in postpartum women Andrea Gonzalez a,d,*, Jennifer M. Jenkins b , Meir Steiner c Psychoneuroendocrinology (2009) 34, 76--86 KEYWORDS Diurnal cortisol; Awakening response; Early adversity; Postpartum

Sokolowski, Marla


Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies.  


Two patients with incidentally discovered adrenocortical adenomas underwent a series of pharmacological and physiological tests after pretreatment with dexamethasone. Illicit plasma cortisol responses to the serotonin (5-HT)4 receptor agonist cisapride were observed in the two patients. Significant increases in plasma cortisol levels were also noticed after glucagon and combined TRH/GnRH/GHRH stimulation tests in patient 1 and after administration of the lysine vasopressin precursor terlipressin in patient 2. After adrenalectomy, in vitro studies were conducted to investigate the cortisol responses of cultured tumor cells to serotonergic ligands and peptide hormones. In the two cases, 5-HT stimulated cortisol secretion from tumor cells with increased efficacy and/or potency to activate steroidogenesis by comparison with normal adrenocortical cells. The corticotropic effect of 5-HT was inhibited by the specific 5-HT4 receptor antagonist GR 113808 and more potently by methiothepin, a nonspecific serotonergic antagonist having no affinity for the 5-HT4 receptor. These results show that the hypersensitivity of the tumors to 5-HT was related to tissue expression of an ectopic serotonergic receptor in addition to the eutopic 5-HT4 receptor. In the two adenoma tissues, immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of 5-HT-like immunoreactivity within clusters of steroidogenic cells, suggesting that 5-HT acted through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism to stimulate steroidogenesis. Glucagon and GnRH but not TRH, GHRH, and human chorionic gonadotropin stimulated cortisol secretion from tumor 1 cells. In conclusion, this study provides the first observation of adrenocortical cortisol-producing adenomas hypersensitive in vivo and in vitro to serotonergic agonists. Our results also show that cortisol-producing adenomas can express simultaneously several illegitimate receptors. PMID:15705918

Contesse, Vincent; Reznik, Yves; Louiset, Estelle; Duparc, Céline; Cartier, Dorthe; Sicard, Flavie; Laquerriere, Annie; Parmentier, Francoise; Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Vaudry, Hubert; Lefebvre, Hervé



Exogenous cortisol shifts a motivated bias from fear to anger in spatial working memory for facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies assessing processing of facial expressions have established that cortisol levels, emotional traits, and affective disorders predict selective responding to these motivationally relevant stimuli in expression specific manners. For instance, increased attentional processing of fearful faces (attentional bias for fearful faces) is associated with fear and anxiety and diminishes after administration of the anxiolytic hormone testosterone. Conversely, attentional bias for

Peter Putman; Erno J. Hermans; Jack van Honk



Examining Infants' Cortisol Responses to Laboratory Tasks among Children Varying in Attachment Disorganization: Stress Reactivity or Return to Baseline?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the…

Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary



Lower Serum Androstenedione Levels in Pre-Rheumatoid Arthritis versus Normal Control Women: Correlations with Lower Serum Cortisol Levels  

PubMed Central

Serum adrenal androgens (AAs), including androstenedione (?4A) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), have been reported to be lower in female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with early disease. Few data are available on hormonal status of women before the onset of clinical rheumatoid arthritis (pre-RA). A broad baseline panel of serum adrenal and sex steroids was compared in 36 female pre-RA to 144 matched cohort control (CN) subjects to determine differences in their mean values and in patterns of hormonal correlations. Study subjects having lower versus higher baseline serum cortisol levels than the total group's mean value were also analyzed separately to investigate differences in their hormonal levels and correlational patterns. In total subjects, mean (±SE) ?4A level (nmol/L) was lower (P = 0.018) in 28 pre-RA cases (6.4 ± 0.40) versus 108 CN (7.8 ± 0.28). The significant (P = 0.013) difference was restricted to 9 pre-RA versus 53?CN subjects having lower cortisol levels (5.6 ± 0.73 versus 8.0 ± 0.42?nmol/L, resp.). In total subjects, no significant difference was found between study subjects in their bivariate correlations of the hormonal panel variables, unlike results found in the subgroups stratified by lower versus higher cortisol levels. A subgroup of pre-RA females may have relative adrenal cortical insufficiency, as reflected by lower ?4A, especially observed among those subjects with lower cortisol levels. PMID:23762532

Masi, Alfonse T.; Elmore, Kevin B.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Chatterton, Robert T.; Goertzen, Ned J.; Aldag, Jean C.



Associations Among Physiological and Subjective Sexual Response, Sexual Desire, and Salivary Steroid Hormones in Healthy Premenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Few studies have examined how sexual arousal influences healthy premenopausal women's hormones, limiting our understanding of basic physiology and our ability to transfer knowledge from clinical and nonhuman populations. Aim. To examine how sexual arousal and steroid hormones (testosterone (T), cortisol (C), estradiol (E)) were linked, to see whether hormone levels influenced and\\/or changed in response to sexual arousal

Sari M. van Anders; Lori Brotto; Janine Farrell; Morag Yule



Hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in lactating and non-lactating female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)  

E-print Network

Hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in lactating and non-lactating female common marmosets hormone Cortisol Lactation Maternal care Parental care Stress In several mammalian species, hypothalamic preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have

Saltzman, Wendy


Saliva Cortisol and Exposure to Aircraft Noise in Six European Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies show an association between exposure to aircraft or road traffic noise and cardiovascular effects, which may be mediated by a noise-induced release of stress hormones. Objective Our objective was to assess saliva cortisol concentration in relation to exposure to aircraft noise. Method A multicenter cross-sectional study, HYENA (Hypertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports), comprising 4,861 persons was carried out in six European countries. In a subgroup of 439 study participants, selected to enhance the contrast in exposure to aircraft noise, saliva cortisol was assessed three times (morning, lunch, and evening) during 1 day. Results We observed an elevation of 6.07 nmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.32–9.81 nmol/L] in morning saliva cortisol level in women exposed to aircraft noise at an average 24-hr sound level (LAeq,24h) > 60 dB, compared with women exposed to LAeq,24h ? 50 dB, corresponding to an increase of 34%. Employment status appeared to modify the response. We found no association between noise exposure and saliva cortisol levels in men. Conclusions Our results suggest that exposure to aircraft noise increases morning saliva cortisol levels in women, which could be of relevance for noise-related cardiovascular effects. PMID:20049122

Selander, Jenny; Bluhm, Gosta; Theorell, Tores; Pershagen, Goran; Babisch, Wolfgang; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Houthuijs, Danny; Breugelmans, Oscar; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Antoniotti, Maria Chiara; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Davou, Elli; Dudley, Marie-Louise; Jarup, Lars



Salivary and plasma cortisol and testosterone responses to interval and tempo runs and a bodyweight-only circuit session in endurance-trained men.  


The aim of this study was to examine the acute response to plasma and salivary cortisol and testosterone to three training protocols. Ten trained endurance athletes participated in three experimental trials, such as interval training (INT), tempo run (TEMP) and bodyweight-only circuit training (CIR), on separate days. Blood and saliva samples were collected pre- and 0, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. Peak post-exercise salivary cortisol was higher than pre-exercise in all trials (P < 0.01). After INT, salivary cortisol remained elevated above pre-exercise than 60 min post-exercise. Salivary testosterone also increased post-exercise in all trials (P < 0.05). Plasma and salivary cortisol were correlated between individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.88) and within individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.87) (P < 0.01). Plasma and salivary testosterone was also correlated between (r = 0.57, 0.43-0.69) and within individuals (r = 0.60, 0.45-0.72), (P < 0.01). Peak cortisol and testosterone levels occurred simultaneously in plasma and saliva, but timing of post-exercise hormone peaks differed between trials and individuals. Further investigation is required to identify the mechanisms eliciting an increase in hormones in response to CIR. Furthermore, saliva is a valid alternative sampling technique for measurement of cortisol, although the complex, individual and situation dependent nature of the hormone response to acute exercise should be considered. PMID:24279436

Tanner, Amy Vivien; Nielsen, Birthe Vejby; Allgrove, Judith



Prolactin and growth hormone in fish osmoregulation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prolactin is an important regulator of multiple biological functions in vertebrates, and has been viewed as essential to ion uptake as well as reduction in ion and water permeability of osmoregulatory surfaces in freshwater and euryhaline fish. Prolactin-releasing peptide seems to stimulate prolactin expression in the pituitary and peripheral organs during freshwater adaptation. Growth hormone, a member of the same family of hormones as prolactin, promotes acclimation to seawater in several teleost fish, at least in part through the action of insulin-like growth factor I. In branchial epithelia, development and differentiation of the seawater-type chloride cell (and their underlying biochemistry) is regulated by GH, IGF-I, and cortisol, whereas the freshwater-type chloride cell is regulated by prolactin and cortisol. In the epithelia of gastrointestinal tract, prolactin induces cell proliferation during freshwater adaptation, whereas cortisol stimulates both cell proliferation and apoptosis. We propose that control of salinity acclimation in teleosts by prolactin and growth hormone primarily involves regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation (the latter including upregulation of specific ion transporters), and that there is an important interaction of these hormones with corticosteroids. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sakamoto, T.; McCormick, S.D.



Neonatal Cortisol Response to Circumcision with Anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven male newborns were circumcised with a local dorsal penile nerve block, and 13 controls were circumcised without anesthetic. Matched pairs of pre- and postcircumcision cortisol levels in the two groups were compared. The adrenal cortisol response to surgery was not significantly reduced by the administration of lidocaine. Blood sampling and anesthetic injection of venipuncture alone did not evoke the

Paul S. Williamson; Nolan Donovan Evans



Glucocorticoid stimulates expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in human placenta  

SciTech Connect

Primary cultures of purified human cytotrophoblasts have been used to examine the expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene in placenta. The authors report here that glucocorticoids stimulate placental CRH synthesis and secretion in primary cultures of human placenta. This stimulation is in contrast to the glucocorticoid suppression of CRH expression in hypothalamus. The positive regulation of CRH by glucocorticoids suggests that the rise in CRH preceding parturition could result from the previously described rise in fetal glucocorticoids. Furthermore, this increase in placental CRH could stimulate, via adrenocorticotropic hormone, a further rise in fetal glucocorticoids, completing a positive feedback loop that would be terminated by delivery.

Robinson, B.G.; Emanuel, R.L.; Frim, D.M.; Majzoub, J.A. (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))



Surface Properties of an Amphiphilic Peptide Hormone and of Its Analog: Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Sauvagine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone)-releasing factor [CRF; for the sequence, see Vale, W., Spiess, J., Rivier, C. & Rivier, J. (1981) Science 213, 1394-1397] in aqueous solution exists predominantly as a random coil. At concentrations greater than 1 mu M, the peptide shows a tendency to self-aggregate with a concurrent slight increase in the apparent alpha -helical content as measured by

S. H. Lau; J. Rivier; W. Vale; E. T. Kaiser; F. J. Kezdy



Intraindividual stability of hair cortisol concentrations.  


The analysis of cortisol in human hair constitutes a promising method for the retrospective assessment of cumulative cortisol secretion over extended periods of time. An implicit assumption underlying the use of this method is that in the absence of major life changes hair cortisol concentrations show a high level of intraindividual stability, i.e. single hair cortisol assessments exhibit considerable trait-specificity and are only to a smaller extent influenced by state-dependent factors. Here, we present data from two independent studies examining patterns of intraindividual stability in hair cortisol levels. In study I, 45 participants were examined at two sampling points carried out one year apart from each other. In study II, 64 individuals provided data at three sampling points which occurred at two-month intervals. In both studies, at each time point hair was sampled and relevant psychosocial and hair-related variables were assessed. Results of both studies consistently revealed strong test-retest associations for repeated hair cortisol measurements ('r's between 0.68 and 0.79, 'p's <0.0001). Findings of structural equation modelling applied to data of study II showed that single hair cortisol assessments comprise a strong trait component, explaining between 59 and 82% of variance, and are only to a lesser extent influenced by state-related factors. Only inconsistent evidence for covariation of changes in hair cortisol concentrations and simultaneous changes in perceived stress or other relevant variables was seen across the two studies. The current findings suggest a considerable degree of intraindividual stability in hair cortisol levels which highlights the utility of this method for obtaining trait estimates of long-term cortisol secretion in psychoneuroendocrinological research. PMID:21917384

Stalder, Tobias; Steudte, Susann; Miller, Robert; Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens



An update: salivary hormones and physical exercise.  


Saliva contains cells and compounds, of local and non-local oral origin, namely inorganic, organic non-protein, protein/polypeptide, and lipid molecules. Moreover, some hormones, commonly assayed in plasma, such as steroids, are detectable in oral fluid and peptide/protein, and non-steroid hormones have been investigated. The sports practice environment and athletes' availability, together with hormone molecule characteristics in saliva and physical exercise behavior effects, confirm this body fluid as an alternative to serum. This review focuses on the relation between salivary steroids and psycho-physiological stress and underlines how the measurement of salivary cortisol provides an approach of self-report psychological indicator and anxiety change in relation to exercise performance. The correlation between salivary and plasma steroid hormone (cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) levels, observed during exercise, has been considered, underlining how the type, duration, and intensity of the exercise influence the salivary steroid concentrations in the same way as serum-level variations. Training conditions have been considered in relation to the salivary hormonal response. This review focuses on studies related to salivary hormone measurements, mainly steroids, in physical exercise. Saliva use in physical disciplines, as a real alternative to serum, could be a future perspective. PMID:21129038

Gatti, R; De Palo, E F



Cortisol metabolism in hepatocytes of rainbow trout treated with 3,3{prime},4,4{prime} tetrachlorobiphenyl  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of hepatocytes for cortisol uptake and metabolism in 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) treated trout. Two groups of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were either given an intraperitoneal implant of peanut oil alone or peanut oil containing TCBP (10{sup {minus}1} body weight) and sampled six weeks later. The toxicant exposed fish had significantly lower condition factor and plasma glucose concentration, whereas plasma cortisol, protein and hepatocyte protein concentration and liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were significantly higher in the TCBP compared to the sham group. There was no significant difference in plasma lactate and amino acid concentration, hepatocyte glycogen content or liver cytosolic cortisol binding affinity or capacity between the two groups. The uptake of [{sup 3}H] cortisol was significantly higher in the hepatocytes of TCBP treated fish compared to the sham fish. Also, there was enhanced catabolism of [{sup 3}H] cortisol by hepatocytes of TCBP treated fish; the major metabolite appeared to be tetrahydrocortisone. The results indicate that the potential for cortisol clearance is enhanced in hepatocytes of TCBP treated trout. The data also tend to suggest in vivo regulatory mechanisms that might possibly prevent the increased clearance of the hormone from circulation in toxicant exposed fish.

Vijayan, M.M. [EVS Environment Consultants, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Fiest, G. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife; Otto, D.; Moon, T.W. [Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. Biology



Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli.  


Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PET studies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between stress and dopaminergic actions. In the present study we therefore investigated whether cortisol mediated the effect of stress on DA-related responses to -subliminal-presentation of reward cues using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which is known to reliably enhance cortisol levels. Young healthy males (n = 37) were randomly assigned to the TSST or control condition. After stress induction, brain activation was assessed using fMRI during a backward-masking paradigm in which potentially rewarding (sexual), emotionally negative and neutral stimuli were presented subliminally, masked by pictures of inanimate objects. A region of interest analysis showed that stress decreased activation in the NAcc in response to masked sexual cues (voxel-corrected, p<05). Furthermore, with mediation analysis it was found that high cortisol levels were related to stronger NAcc activation, showing that cortisol acted as a suppressor variable in the negative relation between stress and NAcc activation. The present findings indicate that cortisol is crucially involved in the relation between stress and the responsiveness of the reward system. Although generally stress decreases activation in the NAcc in response to rewarding stimuli, high stress-induced cortisol levels suppress this relation, and are associated with stronger NAcc activation. Individuals with a high cortisol response to stress might on one hand be protected against reductions in reward sensitivity, which has been linked to anhedonia and depression, but they may ultimately be more vulnerable to increased reward sensitivity, and addictions. Future studies investigating effects of stress on reward sensitivity should take into account the severity of the stressor and the individual cortisol response to stress. PMID:24275010

Oei, Nicole Y L; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen



Lack of hormonal stimulation prevents the landlocked Biwa salmon (Oncorhynchus masou subspecies) from adapting to seawater.  


Landlocking of salmon relaxes selective pressures on hypoosmoregulatory ability (seawater adaptability) and may lead to the abandonment of its physiological system. However, little is known about the mechanism and consequence of the process. Biwa salmon is a strain/subspecies of Oncorhynchus masou that has been landlocked in Lake Biwa for an exceptionally long period (about 500,000 years) and has low ability to adapt to seawater. We compared activity of gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) of Biwa salmon with those of anadromous strains of the same species (masu and amago salmon) during downstream migration periods and after exogenous hormone treatment. Gill NKA activity in anadromous strains increased during their migration periods, while that in Biwa salmon remained low. However, treatments of Biwa salmon with growth hormone (GH) and cortisol increased gill NKA activity. Cortisol treatment also improved the whole body seawater adaptability of Biwa salmon. Receptors for GH and cortisol responded to hormonal treatments, whereas their mRNA levels during downstream migration period were essentially unchanged in Biwa salmon. Circulating levels of cortisol in masu salmon showed a peak during downstream migration period, while no such increase was seen in Biwa salmon. The present results indicate that Biwa salmon can improve its seawater adaptability by exogenous hormonal treatment, and hormone receptors are capable of responding to the signals. However, secretion of the endogenous hormone (cortisol) was not activated during the downstream migration period, which explains, at least in part, their low ability to adapt to seawater. PMID:24944245

Nakajima, Takuro; Shimura, Haruka; Yamazaki, Miyuki; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Ura, Kazuhiro; Hara, Akihiko; Shimizu, Munetaka



Non-breeding feather concentrations of testosterone, corticosterone and cortisol are associated with subsequent survival in wild house sparrows  

PubMed Central

Potential mechanistic mediators of Darwinian fitness, such as stress hormones or sex hormones, have been the focus of many studies. An inverse relationship between fitness and stress or sex hormone concentrations has been widely assumed, although empirical evidence is scarce. Feathers gradually accumulate hormones during their growth and provide a novel way to measure hormone concentrations integrated over time. Using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, we measured testosterone, corticosterone and cortisol in the feathers of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in a wild population which is the subject of a long-term study. Although corticosterone is considered the dominant avian glucocorticoid, we unambiguously identified cortisol in feathers. In addition, we found that feathers grown during the post-nuptial moult in autumn contained testosterone, corticosterone and cortisol levels that were significantly higher in birds that subsequently died over the following winter than in birds that survived. Thus, feather steroids are candidate prospective biomarkers to predict the future survival of individuals in the wild. PMID:22090380

Koren, Lee; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry; Soma, Kiran K.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Geffen, Eli



Hormone profile in lepromatous leprosy. A preliminary study.  


In a preliminary study, 11 male patients with lepromatous leprosy were evaluated with regard to endocrinopathy and hormonal status. Basal circulating hormone levels were estimated with a view to correlating the biochemical findings and clinical features. Thyroid hormones T3 and T4, Free Thyroxine Index (FTI), TSH, and cortisol were within normal limits, indicating that further study of these hormones would not be worthwhile. The finding of elevated levels of prolactin as well as the gonadotrophins LH and FSH, however, promises to yield more valuable information if studied in greater detail in a larger group of patients. PMID:6788722

Rolston, R; Mathews, M; Taylor, P M; Koshy, T S



Original article Response of milk yield, plasma cortisol,  

E-print Network

Original article Response of milk yield, plasma cortisol, amino acids, urea and glucose to a single yield, plasma cortisol, free amino acids, urea and glucose in lactating cows. The animals were treated cortisol occurred within 10 min of administration of 6 IU ACTH. The maximum increase in plasma cortisol

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Therapeutic Effects of Pre-Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon) used as a Non-Hormonal Alternative to HRT in Perimenopausal Women - Clinical Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Roots of cruciferous plant Lepidium peruvianum Chacon cultivated in high plateaus of Andes and known under its common name Maca, have been traditionally-used as an energizing vegetable with therapeutic properties for both men and women. Maca has been recognized by natives of Peru as herbal remedy helping to treat conditions affecting menopausal women. Objective: The effects of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO) on quantitative physiological responses and alleviation of symptoms contributing to menopausal discomfort in perimenopausal women was examined. Methods: In this, four months, double blind, crossover, randomized pilot trial, monthly measurements of the following blood serum constituents were taken: Estrogen (E2), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, T4), minerals (Ca, K, Fe) and lipid profile (Triglicerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). In monthly interviews conducted by gynecologist, body weight and blood pressure were registered and Menopausal Index according to Kupperman’s was determined. Toxicity of Maca -GO determined on rats showed its safe use at the level of 7.5mg/kg body weight. A group of 20 women (aged 41-50 years), who fulfilled criteria of being in perimenopausal stage (E2 above 40pg/ml and FSH below 30IU/ml), were randomly allocated to two even groups, one receiving for two months Maca-GO and the other Placebo capsules followed by a crossover with treatment change for another two months period. All participants signed informed consent to participate. Two 500mg hard capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo were self-administered by participants twice daily with meals (total 2g/day). Results: Two months administration of Maca-GO significantly alleviated symptoms of discomfort observed in majority of women involved in the study (74%-87%) as assessed by Kupperman’s Menopausal index. This was associated with significant increase in E2 and FSH, Progesterone and ACTH levels, and reduction in blood pressure, body weight, Triglycerides and Cholesterol levels. There was a distinctive placebo effect observed at the beginning of the study. Conclusions: The results showed that in addition to reduction in body weight, blood pressure and increasing serum HDL and Iron, pre-gelatinized Maca-GO may be a valuable non-hormonal plant preparation for balancing levels of hormones (FSH, E2, PG and ACTH) and alleviating negative physiological and psychological symptoms (frequency of hot flushes, incidence in night sweating, interrupted sleep pattern, nervousness, depression and heart palpitations) experienced by women in perimenopausal stage. It appears that Maca-GO may act as a toner of hormonal processes, leading to alleviation of discomfort felt by perimenopausal women, hence, its potential use as non-hormonal alternative to HRT program. PMID:23674976

Meissner, H. O.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mscisz, A.; Kedzia, B.



The endotoxin-induced increase of cytokines is followed by an increase of cortisol relative to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in healthy male subjects.  


Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) inhibit T-helper lymphocyte type 2 immune reactions and exert anti-inflammatory effects in some chronic inflammatory diseases. Both DHEA and, in particular, DHEAS levels are dramatically decreased in chronic inflammatory diseases whereas cortisol levels remain stable or are elevated. However, the time course of cortisol relative to DHEA production is not known. We tested whether administration of endotoxin to healthy male subjects can induce an early predominance of cortisol relative to DHEA and DHEAS. It is demonstrated that endotoxin induces a dose-dependent increase of cortisol in relation to DHEA (no effect at 0.2 ng endotoxin/kg body weight (b.w.), clear effect at 0.4 and 0.8 ng/kg b.w., p<0.05) and DHEAS (tested at 0.4 ng/kg b.w., P=0.014). The increase of cortisol relative to DHEA appears 4 h after endotoxin injection and 2 h after a strong increase of interleukin (IL)-6 relative to tumour necrosis factor (TNF). In addition, an increase of cortisol relative to 17OH-progesterone was observed. The ratio of serum IL-6/TNF was positively correlated with the ratio of serum cortisol/DHEA (R(Rank)=0.472, P=0.041) and serum cortisol/17OH-progesterone (R(Rank)=0.514, P=0.048). In conclusion, dissociation of cortisol relative to DHEA, DHEAS or 17OH-progesterone appears very early during a systemic inflammatory response which is associated with an increase of IL-6 relative to TNF. As in chronic inflammatory diseases, during an acute inflammatory response with endotoxin, these physiological hormone changes are probably necessary to achieve adequate cortisol levels at the expense of adrenal androgens. PMID:12429044

Straub, R H; Schuld, A; Mullington, J; Haack, M; Schölmerich, J; Pollmächer, T



Hormonal responses to three training protocols in rowing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the acute responses of serum growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol to three training protocols in rowing. Six young rowers, members of the national team, carried out three frequently used protocols in rowing, i.e., an endurance, a moderate interval, and a resistance protocol, on separate days in a counterbalanced design. Blood samples were

Nikos Kokalas; Giorgos Tsalis; Nikos Tsigilis; Vassilis Mougios



Ghrelin and GHRP-6-induced ACTH and cortisol release in thyrotoxicosis.  


Thyrotoxicosis might alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We evaluated the effects of ghrelin and GHRP-6 on the HPA axis in 20 hyperthyroid patients and in 9 controls. Mean basal cortisol (microg/dl) and ACTH (pg/ml) levels were higher in hyperthyroidism (cortisol: 10.7 +/- 0.7; ACTH: 21.5 +/- 2.9) compared to controls (cortisol: 8.1 +/- 0.7; ACTH: 13.5 +/- 1.8). In thyrotoxicosis Delta AUC cortisol values (microg/dl.90 min) after ghrelin (484 +/- 80) and GHRP-6 (115 +/- 63) were similar to controls (ghrelin: 524 +/- 107; GHRP-6: 192 +/- 73). A significant increase in Delta AUC ACTH (pg/ml x 90 min) after ghrelin was observed in thyrotoxicosis (4,189 +/- 1,202) compared to controls (1,499 +/- 338). Delta AUC ACTH values after GHRP-6 were also higher, although not significantly (patients: 927 +/- 330; controls: 539 +/- 237). In summary, our results suggest that ghrelin-mediated pathways of ACTH release might be activated by thyroid hormone excess, but adrenocortical reserve is maintained. PMID:19396632

Nascif, Sergio Oliva; Molica, Patrícia; Correa-Silva, Silvia Regina; Silva, Marcos Roberto; Lengyel, Ana-Maria Judith



Impulsivity, risk taking, and cortisol reactivity as a function of psychosocial stress and personality in adolescents.  


Although adolescence is characterized by hormonal changes and increased disinhibited behaviors, explanations for these developmental changes that include personality and environmental factors have not been fully elucidated. We examined the interactions between psychosocial stress and the traits of negative emotionality and constraint on impulsive and risk-taking behaviors as well as salivary cortisol reactivity in 88 adolescents. In terms of behavioral outcomes, analyses revealed that negative emotionality and constraint were protective of impulsivity and risk taking, respectively, for adolescents in the no-stress condition; personality did not relate to either behavior in the stress condition. Low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition engaged in less risk taking than low-constraint adolescents in the no-stress condition, whereas there was no effect of stress group for high-constraint adolescents. In terms of cortisol reactivity, analyses revealed that low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition exhibited greater cortisol reactivity compared to high-constraint adolescents, which suggests that low-constraint adolescents mobilize greater resources (e.g., increased cognitive control, heightened attention to threat) in stressful situations relative to nonstressful ones. These results demonstrate that two facets of disinhibition and cortisol reactivity are differentially affected by psychosocial stress and personality (and their interactions) in adolescents. PMID:24713465

Finy, M Sima; Bresin, Konrad; Korol, Donna L; Verona, Edelyn



Short communication: hair cortisol concentrations in Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity of Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers by analysis of the cortisol concentrations in hair samples. Cortisol, the primary hormone of the HPA axis, is the biological endpoint for the investigation of the HPA response. The study was conducted on 290 prepubertal heifers; 142 heifers were pure Holstein-Friesian and 148 were crossbreed F1 heifers obtained from the 3-way rotational system with Swedish Red and Montbéliarde breeds. Extraction was performed on the hair using methanol, and cortisol concentrations were determined by a radioimmunoassay method. Cortisol concentrations measured in regrown hair of crossbreed F1 heifers were significantly lower than those in hair of Holstein-Friesian heifers. This result helps us to better understand the differences in HPA activity and allostatic load between Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers and allows us to better assess the adaptability of these animals to the environment and the importance of crossbreed traits for profitability in dairy farming. PMID:23522680

Peric, T; Comin, A; Corazzin, M; Montillo, M; Cappa, A; Campanile, G; Prandi, A



The cortisol awakening response--applications and implications for sleep medicine.  


The stress hormone cortisol is the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) refers to the rapid rise in cortisol levels observed immediately following awakening. During the CAR period, cortisol levels typically increase by 38%-75%, peaking approximately 30 min after awakening. Evidence suggests the function of the CAR may be related to arousal, energy boost and/or anticipation, although its precise function is still unknown. The CAR has been investigated in a range of clinical populations including the assessment of daytime dysfunction in insomnia; however little research, if any, has specifically examined its relation to sleep architecture, or night-time difficulties associated with insomnia. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the CAR, a description of the factors which can affect it, and to outline the CAR in relation to the '3P' model of insomnia. This review concludes with a description of a standard protocol for measurement of the CAR, which can be adapted and applied within sleep medicine. PMID:23835138

Elder, Greg J; Wetherell, Mark A; Barclay, Nicola L; Ellis, Jason G



CRHR1 genotype and history of maltreatment predict cortisol reactivity to stress in adolescents.  


This study examined the contributions of a polymorphism of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type I (CRHR1) gene (rs110402) and a history of child maltreatment--alone and in interaction--to patterns of cortisol reactivity in adolescents. Adolescents between the age of 13 and 17 years with (n=61) and without (n=97) a history of child maltreatment were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was assessed at baseline, and 15 and 30 min after the start of the speech portion of the TSST. Saliva samples for genotyping rs110402 also were collected. Adolescents with one or more G alleles of rs110402, relative to A allele homozygotes, and those exposed to maltreatment, relative to non-exposed adolescents, exhibited blunted cortisol reactivity to the TSST (although these associations approached, but did not reach, the level of statistical significance when accounting for underlying population structure in our racially and ethnically diverse sample). There was also a trend for a stronger child maltreatment association with cortisol hypo-reactivity among G allele carriers, but this association was not statistically significant. Findings suggest that CRHR1 variation may moderate the downstream effects of child maltreatment on HPA axis function, and implications for understanding mechanisms of risk associated with early adversity are discussed. PMID:24703172

Sumner, Jennifer A; McLaughlin, Katie A; Walsh, Kate; Sheridan, Margaret A; Koenen, Karestan C



Pregnancy anxiety and prenatal cortisol trajectories.  


Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 and 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

Kane, Heidi S; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A



Adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone rhythms in male golden hamsters on long and short days  

SciTech Connect

Plasma concentrations of adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormones were measured at 4-h intervals around the clock in male hamsters on long (14:10-h light-dark cycle) and short (10:14-h light-dark cycle) days. Plasma corticosterone, cortisol, thyroxine (T{sub 4}), triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and testosterone rhythms were present on long days. The only one of these hormones to have a significant rhythm on short days was cortisol, but even its amplitude was suppressed compared with the cortisol rhythm on long days. Short days also lowered mean plasma levels of cortisol, T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, and testosterone. Finally, short days raised the ratio of corticosterone to cortisol and lowered the ratio of T{sub 4} to T{sub 3}. Both ratios had significant rhythms on long days but not on short days. Because of the many interactions among adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone axes, it is unclear whether the primary effect of short days is on one of these endocrine systems or on another factor that has separate effects on each of the hormone rhythms that was measured. Nonetheless, it is clear that a major effect of short day lengths in hamsters is to suppress hormone rhythms. Explanations of photoperiodic effects that depend on endocrine mediation should take this into account.

Ottenweller, J.E.; Tapp, W.N.; Pitman, D.L.; Natelson, B.H. (Veterans Administration Center, East Orange, NJ (USA) New Jersey Medical School, Newark (USA))



Synchrony of diurnal cortisol pattern in couples.  


Cortisol is a biomarker of stress reactivity, and its diurnal pattern is an indicator of general neuroendocrine health. Despite theories conceptualizing marital dyads as dynamic systems wherein spouses are interdependent in their physiology and stress coping, little is known about the daily processes in which spouses possibly influence each other in biological stress. Nineteen heterosexual couples provided saliva samples containing cortisol 4 times a day for 4 consecutive days. We used multilevel modeling to examine whether one's cortisol awaking response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) predict those of the spouse's on the same day and/or on the next day. We found that spouses synchronize their DCS, such that on days when one experiences faster or slower decline in diurnal cortisol than usual, the spouse also experiences faster or slower decline than usual. For CAR, positive synchrony was only observed in couples reporting high levels of marital strain and disagreement. Cross-lagged regression analysis reveals stability in diurnal cortisol pattern. A steeper cortisol slope on a particular day predicts a steeper slope on the next day within an individual, but no significant cross-lagged relation was found between spouses. Couples reporting more spousal support tend to have stronger stability in CAR. These findings provide evidence that spouses are interdependent in their diurnal cortisol patterns on a day-to-day basis, and that these daily dynamics are associated with marital relationship quality. The study contributes to our understanding of marital processes and biobehavioral health. It also contributes methodologically to the advancement of longitudinal dyadic analysis. PMID:23978320

Liu, Siwei; Rovine, Michael J; Klein, Laura Cousino; Almeida, David M



Synchrony of Diurnal Cortisol Pattern in Couples  

PubMed Central

Cortisol is a biomarker of stress reactivity and its diurnal pattern is an indicator of general neuroendocrine health. Despite theories conceptualizing marital dyads as dynamic systems wherein spouses are interdependent in their physiology and stress coping, little is known about the daily processes in which spouses possibly influence each other in biological stress. Nineteen heterosexual couples provided saliva samples containing cortisol 4 times a day for 4 consecutive days. We used multilevel modeling to examine whether one’s cortisol awaking response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) predict those of the spouse’s on the same day and/or on the next day. We found that spouses synchronize their DCS, such that on days when one experiences faster or slower decline in diurnal cortisol than usual, the spouse also experiences faster or slower decline than usual. For CAR, positive synchrony was only observed in couples reporting high levels of marital strain and disagreement. Cross-lagged regression analysis reveals stability in diurnal cortisol pattern. A steeper cortisol slope on a particular day predicts a steeper slope on the next day within an individual, but no significant cross-lagged relation was found between spouses. Couples reporting more spousal support tend to have stronger stability in CAR. These findings provide evidence that spouses are interdependent in their diurnal cortisol patterns on a day-to-day basis, and that these daily dynamics are associated with marital relationship quality. The study contributes to our understanding of marital processes and biobehavioral health. It also contributes methodologically to the advancement of longitudinal dyadic analysis. PMID:23978320

Liu, Siwei; Rovine, Michael J.; Klein, Laura Cousino; Almeida, David M.



Acute net stressor increases whole-body cortisol levels without altering whole-brain monoamines in zebrafish.  


Recent studies have started to examine the neurochemical and hormonal basis of behavior in zebrafish by examining biological correlates postmortem. However, it is unknown whether stress involved with experimental handling prior to euthanizing animals will have an impact on subsequent biological measures. In the current study, we expose zebrafish to a short net handling stressor (30 s) and examine the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites) and whole-body cortisol at different intervals poststressor (0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 min). We report a time-dependent increase in the levels of cortisol, but no alterations in the levels of dopamine, DOPAC (dopamine's metabolite), serotonin, or 5HIAA (serotonin's metabolite) poststressor. The results demonstrate cortisol levels are more responsive to this type of stimulus compared with neurochemical measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24911317

Tran, Steven; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert



Absence of detectable melatonin and preservation of cortisol and thyrotropin rhythms in tetraplegia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The human circadian timing system regulates the temporal organization of several endocrine functions, including the production of melatonin (via a neural pathway that includes the spinal cord), TSH, and cortisol. In traumatic spinal cord injury, afferent and efferent circuits that influence the basal production of these hormones may be disrupted. We studied five subjects with chronic spinal cord injury (three tetraplegic and two paraplegic, all neurologically complete injuries) under stringent conditions in which the underlying circadian rhythmicity of these hormones could be examined. Melatonin production was absent in the three tetraplegic subjects with injury to their lower cervical spinal cord and was of normal amplitude and timing in the two paraplegic subjects with injury to their upper thoracic spinal cord. The amplitude and the timing of TSH and cortisol rhythms were robust in the paraplegics and in the tetraplegics. Our results indicate that neurologically complete cervical spinal injury results in the complete loss of pineal melatonin production and that neither the loss of melatonin nor the loss of spinal afferent information disrupts the rhythmicity of cortisol or TSH secretion.

Zeitzer, J. M.; Ayas, N. T.; Shea, S. A.; Brown, R.; Czeisler, C. A.



Reduced nocturnal ACTH-driven cortisol secretion during critical illness  

PubMed Central

Recently, during critical illness, cortisol metabolism was found to be reduced. We hypothesize that such reduced cortisol breakdown may suppress pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion via feedback inhibition. To test this hypothesis, nocturnal ACTH and cortisol secretory profiles were constructed by deconvolution analysis from plasma concentration time series in 40 matched critically ill patients and eight healthy controls, excluding diseases or drugs that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Blood was sampled every 10 min between 2100 and 0600 to quantify plasma concentrations of ACTH and (free) cortisol. Approximate entropy, an estimation of process irregularity, cross-approximate entropy, a measure of ACTH-cortisol asynchrony, and ACTH-cortisol dose-response relationships were calculated. Total and free plasma cortisol concentrations were higher at all times in patients than in controls (all P < 0.04). Pulsatile cortisol secretion was 54% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.005), explained by reduced cortisol burst mass (P = 0.03), whereas cortisol pulse frequency (P = 0.35) and nonpulsatile cortisol secretion (P = 0.80) were unaltered. Pulsatile ACTH secretion was 31% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.03), again explained by a lower ACTH burst mass (P = 0.02), whereas ACTH pulse frequency (P = 0.50) and nonpulsatile ACTH secretion (P = 0.80) were unchanged. ACTH-cortisol dose response estimates were similar in patients and controls. ACTH and cortisol approximate entropy were higher in patients (P ? 0.03), as was ACTH-cortisol cross-approximate entropy (P ? 0.001). We conclude that hypercortisolism during critical illness coincided with suppressed pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion and a normal ACTH-cortisol dose response. Increased irregularity and asynchrony of the ACTH and cortisol time series supported non-ACTH-dependent mechanisms driving hypercortisolism during critical illness. PMID:24569590

Boonen, Eva; Meersseman, Philippe; Vervenne, Hilke; Meyfroidt, Geert; Guiza, Fabian; Wouters, Pieter J.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.



Developmental exposure to corticosterone: behavioral changes and differential effects on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Cytokines are found in both the peripheral and central nervous system. There has been increasing interest in their potential\\u000a role in some of the behavioral features of depressive disorders. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a proinflammatory cytokine,\\u000a produces stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion in response to emotional and inflammatory stress and\\u000a recently has been linked to depressive-type behavior. Both the

Robert N. Pechnick; Anastasia Kariagina; Evelyn Hartvig; Catherine J. Bresee; Russell E. Poland; Vera M. Chesnokova



Diurnal Salivary Cortisol is Associated With Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65±9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 minutes post-awakening), early decline (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (p<0.05), AUC during awakening rise and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (p<0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, beta blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates. PMID:23404865

Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Seeman, Teresa; DeSantis, Amy S.; Roux, Ana Diez; Shrager, Sandi; Golden, Sherita Hill



Cortisol-Induced Masculinization: Does Thermal Stress Affect Gonadal Fate in Pejerrey, a Teleost Fish with Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gonadal fate in many reptiles, fish, and amphibians is modulated by the temperature experienced during a critical period early in life (temperature-dependent sex determination; TSD). Several molecular processes involved in TSD have been described but how the animals ''sense'' environmental temperature remains unknown. We examined whether the stress-related hormone cortisol mediates between temperature and sex differentiation of pejerrey, a

Ricardo S. Hattori; Juan I. Fernandino; Ai Kishii; Hiroyuki Kimura; Tomomi Kinno; Miho Oura; Gustavo M. Somoza; Masashi Yokota; Carlos A. Strüssmann; Seiichi Watanabe



Sustained Striatal Activity Predicts Eudaimonic Well-Being and Cortisol Output  

PubMed Central

Eudaimonic well-being—a sense of purpose, meaning, and engagement with life—is protective against psychopathology and predicts physical health, including lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol. Although it has been suggested that the ability to engage the neural circuitry of reward may promote well-being and mediate the relationship between well-being and health, this hypothesis has remained untested. To test this hypothesis, we had participants view positive, neutral, and negative images while fMRI data were collected. Individuals with sustained activity in the striatum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to positive stimuli over the course of the scan session reported greater well-being and had lower cortisol output. This suggests that sustained engagement of reward circuitry in response to positive events underlies well-being and adaptive regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:24058063

Heller, Aaron S; van Reekum, Carien M; Schaefer, Stacey M; Lapate, Regina C; Radler, Barry T; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J



The Effort-reward Imbalance work-stress model and daytime salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) among Japanese women  

PubMed Central

We examined the influence of work-related effort–reward imbalance and overcommitment to work (OC), as derived from Siegrist's Effort–Reward Imbalance (ERI) model, on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We hypothesized that, among healthy workers, both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion would be increased by effort–reward imbalance and OC and, as a result, cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) would not differ by effort–reward imbalance or OC. The subjects were 115 healthy female nursery school teachers. Salivary cortisol, DHEA, and C/D ratio were used as indexes of HPA activity. Mixed-model analyses of variance revealed that neither the interaction between the ERI model indicators (i.e., effort, reward, effort-to-reward ratio, and OC) and the series of measurement times (9:00, 12:00, and 15:00) nor the main effect of the ERI model indicators was significant for daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that none of the ERI model indicators was significantly associated with area under the curve of daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. We found that effort, reward, effort–reward imbalance, and OC had little influence on daytime variation patterns, levels, or amounts of salivary HPA-axis-related hormones. Thus, our hypotheses were not supported. PMID:25228138

Ota, Atsuhiko; Mase, Junji; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Rajatanun, Thitipat; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ono, Yuichiro



Cognitive response to estradiol in postmenopausal women is modified by high cortisol  

PubMed Central

Estradiol has potent favorable effects on brain function and behavior in animals while in human trials, the results are inconsistent. A number of potential mediating variables influencing response to estradiol have been proposed to account for this variability, one of which includes stress. We conducted a placebo-controlled study to examine joint and independent effects of estradiol and elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol on cognition and biomarkers of aging and neurodegenerative disease. Thirty-nine healthy postmenopausal women (56-84 yrs) received 0.10 mg/d of transdermal 17?-estradiol (E2) or placebo for eight weeks. During the last four days of the trial, subjects also received 90 mg/d (30 mg TID) of oral hydrocortisone (CORT) to induce stress-level elevations in cortisol, or a matched placebo. The four groups thus included Placebo (placebo patch/placebo pill), CORT-alone (placebo patch/hydrocortisone), E2-alone (estradiol patch/placebo pill), and E2+CORT (estradiol patch/hydrocortisone). Eight weeks of E2 increased plasma estradiol by 167%, and four days of CORT increased plasma cortisol by 119%. Overall, E2 had favorable effects on verbal memory (p=0.03), working memory (p=0.02), and selective attention (p=0.04), and the magnitude of these effects was attenuated for E2+CORT. E2-alone and E2+CORT had opposing effects on plasma levels of the amyloid-? (A?) biomarker (A?40/42 ratio, p<0.05), with the more favorable response observed for E2-alone. CORT-induced increases in insulin-like growth factor-1 were blunted by E2 co-administration. Our findings indicate that cognitive and physiological responses to estradiol are adversely affected by elevated stress hormone levels of cortisol in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:21855173

Baker, Laura D; Asthana, Sanjay; Cholerton, Brenna A; Wilkinson, Charles W; Plymate, Stephen R; Green, Pattie S; Merriam, George R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Cherrier, Monique M; Kletke, Monica L; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne



Characterization of Feed Efficiency Traits and Relationships with Temperament, Serum Hormones and Serum Metabolites in Growing Brangus Heifers  

E-print Network

; creatinine; blood urea nitrogen, BUN; ?-hydroxybutyrate, BHB) and hormones (cortisol; insulin-like growth hormone I, IGF-I). Across all heifers, RFI was positively correlated with DMI (0.70) and feed:gain (0.59). Heifers with low RFI (< 0.5 SD from mean RFI 0...

Gomez, Robynne 1977-



Changes in Neuroendocrine and Metabolic Hormones Induced by Atypical Antipsychotics in Normal-Weight Patients with Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Atypical antipsychotics (SGA) have the propensity to induce weight gain. Objective: The aim was to evaluateearly changes in hormones involved in neuroendocrine regulations (serum cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin) and positive energy balance (serum insulin, leptin and ghrelin) during SGA treatment in normal-weight patients with schizophrenia with the purpose of exploring the possibility to combat weight gain early through

Vera Popovic; Mirjana Doknic; Nadja Maric; Sandra Pekic; Aleksandar Damjanovic; Dragana Miljic; Srdjan Popovic; Natasa Miljic; Marina Djurovic; Miroslava Jasovic-Gasic; Carlos Dieguez; Felipe F. Casanueva



Hormonal regulation of leucine catabolism in mammary epithelial cells.  


Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are actively taken up and catabolized by the mammary gland during lactation for syntheses of glutamate, glutamine and aspartate. Available evidence shows that the onset of lactation is associated with increases in circulating levels of cortisol, prolactin and glucagon, but decreases in insulin and growth hormone. This study determined the effects of physiological concentrations of these hormones on the catabolism of leucine (a representative BCAA) in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Cells were incubated at 37 °C for 2 h in Krebs buffer containing 3 mM D-glucose, 0.5 mM L-leucine, L-[1-14C]leucine or L-[U-14C]leucine, and 0-50 ?U/mL insulin, 0-20 ng/mL growth hormone 0-200 ng/mL prolactin, 0-150 nM cortisol or 0-300 pg/mL glucagon. Increasing extracellular concentrations of insulin did not affect leucine transamination or oxidative decarboxylation, but decreased the rate of oxidation of leucine carbons 2-6. Elevated levels of growth hormone dose dependently inhibited leucine catabolism, ?-ketoisocaproate (KIC) production and the syntheses of glutamate plus glutamine. In contrast, cortisol and glucagon increased leucine transamination, leucine oxidative decarboxylation, KIC production, the oxidation of leucine 2-6 carbons and the syntheses of glutamate plus glutamine. Prolactin did not affect leucine catabolism in the cells. The changes in leucine degradation were consistent with alterations in abundances of BCAA transaminase and phosphorylated levels of branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase. Reductions in insulin and growth hormone but increases in cortisol and glucagon with lactation act in concert to stimulate BCAA catabolism for glutamate and glutamine syntheses. These coordinated changes in hormones may facilitate milk production in lactating mammals. PMID:22707151

Lei, Jian; Feng, Dingyuan; Zhang, Yongliang; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Li, Xilong; Yao, Kang; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wu, Guoyao



Transgenerational transmission of cortisol and PTSD risk.  


Parental posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to be a relevant risk factor for the development of PTSD, as evidenced by a greater prevalence of PTSD, but not trauma exposure, in adult offspring of Holocaust survivors with PTSD, compared to children of Holocaust-exposed parents without PTSD. This paper summarizes recent neuroendocrine studies in offspring of parents with PTSD. Offspring of trauma survivors with PTSD show significantly lower 24-h mean urinary cortisol excretion and salivary cortisol levels as well as enhanced plasma cortisol suppression in response to low dose dexamethasone administration than offspring of survivors without PTSD. In all cases, neuroendocrine measures were negatively correlated with severity of parental PTSD symptoms, even after controlling for PTSD and even other symptoms in offspring. Though the majority of our work has focused on adult offspring of Holocaust survivors, recent observations in infants born to mothers who were pregnant on 9/11 demonstrate that low cortisol in relation to parental PTSD appears to be present early in the course of development and may be influenced by in utero factors such as glucocorticoid programming. Since low cortisol levels are particularly associated with the presence of maternal PTSD the findings suggest the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:18037011

Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M



Hormone Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hormone transport in plants is a fundamental process governing all aspects of plant development. Identification and functional\\u000a analysis of plasma membrane proteins, which regulate the import and export of plant hormones, is a requirement if we are to\\u000a develop a systems biology level understanding of these processes. For several plant hormones, the characterization of the\\u000a transporters has produced remarkable steps

Ian D. Kerr; David J. Carrier; Jamie Twycross


Effects of smoking on ACTH and cortisol secretion  

SciTech Connect

The relationships among changes in plasma nicotine, ACTH, and cortisol secretion after smoking were investigated. Ten male subjects smoked cigarettes containing 2.87 mg nicotine and 0.48 mg nicotine. No rises in cortisol or ACTH were detected after smoking 0.48 mg nicotine cigarettes. Cortisol rises were significant in 11 of 15 instances after smoking 2.87 mg nicotine cigarattes, but ACTH rose significantly in only 5 of the 11 instances where cortisol increased. Each ACTH rise occurred in a subject who reported nausea and was observed to be pale, sweaty, and tachycardic. Peak plasma nicotine concentrations were not significantly different in sessions when cortisol rose with or without ACTH increases, but cortisol increases were significantly greater in nauseated than in non-nauseated smokers. This data suggest that smoking-induced nausea stimulates cortisol release by stimulating ACTH secretion and that cortisol secretion in non-nauseated smokers may occur through a non-ACTH mechanism.

Seyler, L.E. Jr.; Fertig, J.; Pomerleau, O.; Hunt, D.; Parker, K.



Can incidence of depression in women be linked to estrogen dependent secretion of various hormone binding proteins?  


This paper describes a possible framework of hormones and their binding proteins (BPs) that might be responsible for the increased incidence of depression in women, including postnatal depression. It is based on three reported facts: Increased cortisol exposure reduces growth hormone (GH) secretion. Cortisol and GH show opposite effects on mood. Liver secretion of various hormone binding proteins is increased under estrogen exposure. If we accept that pure cortisol exposure leads to depressive mood, while simultaneous brain exposure to cortisol and an anabolic (growth hormone or somatomammotropin) is less mood affecting, the occurrence of depression an be more likely in persons: with altered sleep patterns and thus reduced GH secretion, in individuals with increased chronic cortisol exposure (any individual under repeated or sustained stress, older individuals with stressful memories, etc.). The proposed mechanism can be enhanced in women of reproductive age through increased transcortin and GH BP pools due to estrogen action on liver. A particularly vulnerable phase seems to be the early postnatal period, when sudden discontinuation of somatomammotropin anabolic actions might lead to postnatal depression that takes weeks or months to resolve, until the GH/cortisol circadian rhythm normalization. PMID:18996648

Dodig-Curkovic, Katarina; Kurbel, Sven; Matic, Vesna Cacinovic



Relationship between oxidative stress and circulating testosterone and cortisol in pre-spawning female brown trout.  


Reproduction in vertebrates is an energy-demanding process that is mediated by endogenous hormones and potentially results in oxidative stress. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between oxidative stress parameters (antioxidant capacity and levels of reactive oxygen metabolites) and circulating testosterone and cortisol in a common and widespread teleost fish, the brown trout (Salmo trutta, L.). Results show that trout with higher testosterone levels prior to spawning have higher levels of oxidative damage at the time that they spawn (although by the time of spawning testosterone levels had dropped, leading to a negative relationship between testosterone and oxidative damage at that time). Cortisol levels were not directly related to oxidative damage or antioxidant capacity, but concentrations of this hormone were positively related to levels of fungal infection, which was itself associated both with lower antioxidant capacity and lower levels of oxidative damage. These results highlight the complexity of interactions between different components of the endocrine system and metabolism and suggest that caution be used in interpreting relationships between a single hormone and indicators of oxidative balance or other fitness proxies. PMID:22841606

Hoogenboom, Mia O; Metcalfe, Neil B; Groothuis, Ton G G; de Vries, Bonnie; Costantini, David



Effects of prolonged fasting on plasma cortisol and TH in postweaned northern elephant seal pups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups rely on the oxidation of fat stores as their primary source of energy during their 8- to 12-wk postweaning fast; however, potential endocrine mechanisms involved with this increased fat metabolism have yet to be examined. Therefore, 15 pups were serially blood sampled in the field during the first 7 wk of their postweaning fast to examine the changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones (TH), which are involved in fat metabolism in other mammals. Cortisol increased, indicating that it contributed to an increase in lipolysis. Increased total triiodothyronine (tT(3)) and thyroxine (tT(4)) may not reflect increased thyroid gland activity, but rather alterations in hormone metabolism. tT(3)-to-tT(4) ratio decreased, suggesting a decrease in thyroxine (T(4)) deiodination, whereas the negative correlation between total proteins and free T(4) suggests that the increase in free hormone is attributed to a decrease in binding globulins. Changes in TH are most similar to those observed during hibernation than starvation in mammals, suggesting that the metabolic adaptations to natural fasting are more similar to hibernation despite the fact these animals remain active throughout the fasting period.

Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, C. L.



Cortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortisol is the principal corticosteriod in teleost fishes and its plasma concentrations rise dramatically during stress. The relationship between this cortisol increase and its metabolic consequences are subject to extensive debate. Much of this debate arises from the different responses of the many species used, the diversity of approaches to manipulate cortisol levels, and the sampling techniques and duration. Given

Thomas P. Mommsen; Mathilakath M. Vijayan; Thomas W. Moon



Circadian Regulation of Cortisol After Hippocampal Damage in Humans  

E-print Network

Circadian Regulation of Cortisol After Hippocampal Damage in Humans Tony W. Buchanan, Simone Kern was designed to examine the effects of HC damage on basal cortisol secretion in humans. Methods: Salivary cortisol was measured in 22 patients with HC damage (12 with bilateral damage and 10 with unilateral damage

Buchanan, Tony W.


Cortisol responses to physical and pharmacological stimuli in heifers  

E-print Network

Cortisol responses to physical and pharmacological stimuli in heifers Isabelle VEISSIER P. LE of this study was to assess bovine plasma cortisol response to blood sampling, to 5-min isolation in a novel no significant effect on cortisol level. This level increased by about 20 ng/ml 10 min after the heifers were

Boyer, Edmond


Original article Influences of type of anaesthesia on cortisol,  

E-print Network

Original article Influences of type of anaesthesia on cortisol, ?-endorphin and heart rate ketamine) on plasma levels of cortisol and (3-endorphin on the heart rate. The animals were housed recovery, hourly blood samples were taken over a 27 hour period, and cortisol and beta-endor- phin

Boyer, Edmond


Early morning salivary cortisol is not associated with extraversion  

E-print Network

Early morning salivary cortisol is not associated with extraversion Marcus R. Munafo` a,*, Laura salivary cortisol levels and neuroticism has recently been reported, but it is unclear whether early morning salivary cortisol levels in individuals selected for high and low extraversion. Thirty


The Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) in 2-to  

E-print Network

The Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) in 2- to 4-Year-Old Children: Effects of Acute Nighttime Sleep Restriction, Wake Time, and Daytime Napping ABSTRACT: The cortisol awakening response (CAR four salivary cortisol samples (0, 15, 30, 45 min post-wake) follow- ing five polysomnographic sleep


DPC Coat-A-Count Cortisol modified protocol for saliva  

E-print Network

DPC Coat-A-Count Cortisol modified protocol for saliva From: Wirth, M. M., Welsh, K., & Schultheiss, O. C. (in preparation). Implicit power motivation predicts cortisol increases after social defeat. 1 to overestimate true levels by about 15%) 6. Add 1.0 ml 125 I cortisol tracer to each tube. Centrifuge all tubes

Michigan, University of


RESEARCH ARTICLE Social and Reproductive Factors Affecting Cortisol  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Social and Reproductive Factors Affecting Cortisol Levels in Wild Female Golden cortisol has been associated with different levels of ``stress'' as well as different reproductive conditions in many primates. In callitrichids, cortisol has more often been reflective of female reproduc

French, Jeffrey A.


Understanding and Assessing Cortisol Levels in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trauma is associated with alterations in cortisol activity and reactivity that may vary in relationship to development, time, predisposition, personality, the nature of a traumatic event, and other circumstances. This article reviews existing research findings related to cortisol in laboratory, general stress, and traumatic conditions. We discuss variables that may influence cortisol activity and reactivity in an effort to discover

Kathleen Nader; Carl F. Weems



Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol

Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.



Some aspects of the behavior of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels.  


We studied the behavior of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in 24 patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria of the Evandro Chagas Institute, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The patients were evaluated before treatment (Day 0), 24h after the beginning of medication (Day 1) and on Day 8 of follow-up (Day 7). Steroid levels were correlated with parasitemia, temperature and time of the disease. The levels of these hormones were found to be significantly higher on Day 0 than on Day 7, showing no correlation with parasitemia or temperature, but temperature had a positive effect on the correlation between cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone. Cortisol was not correlated with the time of disease, but a significant negative correlation was observed between DHEA and time of disease on Day 7, suggesting a decline in the adrenal reserve of this steroid. In conclusion, an increase in cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone is observed in patients with falciparum malaria, with these levels declining with decreasing parasitemia. The finding that temperature interfered with the correlation between cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone suggests a common mechanism for the activation of these hormones in malaria. PMID:16846568

Libonati, Rosana Maria Feio; de Mendonça, Berenice Bilharinho; Maués, José Antônio; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; de Souza, José Maria



Catecholamines, growth hormone, cortisol, insulin, and sex hormones in anaerobic and aerobic exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Seventeen male physical education students performed three types of treadmill exercise: (1) progressive exercise to exhaustion, (2) prolonged exercise of 50 min duration at the anaerobic threshold of 4 mmol·1–1 blood lactate (AE), (3) a single bout of short-term high-intensity exercise at 156% of maximal exercise capacity in the progressive test, leading to exhaustion within 1.5 min (ANE).Immediately before and

W. Kindermann; A. Schnabel; W. M. Schmitt; G. Biro; J. Cassens; F. Weber



Steroid hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steroid hormones that play major roles in the neuroimmune regulatory network include glucocorticoids, aldosterone, estrogens, androgens and vitamin D. These hormones have cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors, which are transcription factors that directly regulate gene expression. Glucocorticoids are produced in the adrenal gland as well as the thymus and are fundamental to immune function. Physiological levels are required for the

Istvan Berczi; Eva Nagy; Edward Baral; Andor Szentivanyi



Now you see it, now you don't: Testing environments modulate the association between hippocampal volume and cortisol levels in young and older adults.  


The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis production of the stress hormone cortisol interacts with the hippocampal formation and impacts memory function. A growing interest is to determine whether hippocampal volume (HV) predicts basal and/or reactive cortisol levels in young and older adults. Recent evidence shows that contextual features in testing environments might be stressful and inadvertently induce a stress response in young and/or older populations. This latter result suggests that variations in testing environments might influence associations between HV and cortisol levels in young and older adults. To this end, we investigated 28 healthy young adults (ages 18-35) and 32 healthy older adults (ages 60-75) in two different environments constructed to be more or less stressful for each age group (Favoring-Young versus Favoring-Old conditions). Cortisol levels were repeatedly assessed in each environment, and young and older participants underwent an anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scan for subsequent assessment of HV. Results in both age groups showed that HV was significantly associated with cortisol levels only in the unfavorable stressful testing conditions specific for each age group. This association was absent when testing environments were designed to decrease stress for each age group. These findings are fundamental in showing that unless the nature of the testing environment is taken into consideration, detected associations between HV and cortisol levels in both young and older populations might be confounded by environmental stress. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25112535

Sindi, Shireen; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lord, Catherine; Pruessner, Jens; Lupien, Sonia J



Noninvasive Measurement of Steroid Hormones in Zebrafish Holding-Water  

PubMed Central

Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently emerged as a new animal model in neuroendocrinology and behavior (e.g., stress physiology and ecotoxicology studies). In these areas, the concentrations of steroid hormones in the blood are often used to study the endocrinological status of individuals. However, due to the small body size of zebrafish, blood sampling is difficult to perform and the amount of plasma obtained per sample for assaying hormones is very small (ca. 1–5??L), and therefore most studies have been using whole-body hormone concentrations, which implies sacrificing the individuals and hampers sequential sampling of the same individual. Here a noninvasive method to assay steroid hormones from zebrafish holding-water, based on the fact that steroids are released into the fish holding-water through the gills by passive diffusion, is validated. Cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (KT) were measured in water samples and compared to plasma levels in the same individuals. Cortisol released to holding-water correlates positively with plasma concentrations, but there was a lack of correlation between KT water and circulating levels. However, KT levels showed a highly significant sex difference that can be used to noninvasively sex individuals. An ACTH challenge test demonstrated that an induced increase in circulating cortisol concentration can be reliably detected in holding-water levels, hence attesting the responsiveness of holding-water levels to fluctuations in circulating levels. PMID:23445429

Félix, Ana S.; Faustino, Ana I.; Cabral, Eduarda M.



Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause  


... Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause Share: Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol ... take HT for symptom relief.) What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...


[Influence of pulsating magnetic field used in magnet therapy and magnet stimulation on cortisol secretion in human].  


The aim of our study was to test the influence of magnetic fields during magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation over a longer period of time (like in physiotherapy) on cortisol secretion in humans. The study population was divided into two groups: magnetotherapy group (16 men) and magnetostimulation group (10 men). Magnetotherapy in the form of magnetic field induction (2.9 microT; frequency--40 Hz; square wave; bipolar; Magnetronic MF--10 apparatus) was applied for 20 min to the lumbar area in patients with chronic low back pain. Magnetostimulation (Viofor JPS system; M2P2 program; induction--25-80 microT; frequency--200 Hz, complex saw-like shape with a plateau halfway the height of the wave; bipolar) was applied every day for 12 min in patients with the same health problem. In both groups, the procedures were repeated 15 times (about 10:00 a.m.) with weekend breaks. Serum samples were collected at 6:00, 12:00, 16:00 and 24:00 and estimated by the micromethod of chemiluminescence (DPC Poland; Cat. No. LKC01). The circadian profile of cortisol was determined prior to the application, a day and a month after application. The data were analyzed statistically, using paired and unpaired Student's test. Magnetotherapy affects the cortisol secretion in the circadian profile by decreasing its level at 16:00 a day after 15 applications, whereas magnetostimulation by increasing its level at 12:00 a month after 15 applications, which may suggest its long-term effect on hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The comparison of the results indicated that a day after magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation, the circadian curves of cortisol secretion differed significantly by about 100%. All hormone oscillations did not exceed the physiological norms of the circadian cortisol level, not reaching the level so high as in an intense stress. This suggests rather their controlling effect on the cortisol level than their significant stressogenic nature. PMID:12731402

Wolda?ska-Oko?ska, Maria; Czernicki, Jan



Changes in plasma hormones profile and liver function in cows naturally exposed to lead and cadmium around different industrial areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to assess the endocrine status and liver function in adult cows reared in polluted environment around different industrial units in India.The effect on endocrine system was examined by determination of plasma level of thyroid hormones, thyroxin (T4) (n=269) and triidothyronin (T3) (n=269), stress hormone cortisol (n=266), and reproductive hormones such as estradiol (n=84) and

D. Swarup; Ram Naresh; V. P. Varshney; M. Balagangatharathilagar; P. Kumar; D. Nandi; R. C. Patra



Diurnal cortisol amplitude and fronto-limbic activity in response to stressful stimuli  

PubMed Central

Summary The development and exacerbation of many psychiatric and neurologic conditions are associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis as measured by aberrant levels of cortisol secretion. Here we report on the relationship between the amplitude of diurnal cortisol secretion, measured across 3 typical days in 18 healthy individuals, and blood oxygen level dependant (BOLD) response in limbic fear/stress circuits, elicited by in-scanner presentation of emotionally negative stimuli, specifically, images of the World Trade Center (WTC) attack. Results indicate that subjects who secrete a greater amplitude of cortisol diurnally demonstrate less brain activation in limbic regions, including the amygdala and hippocampus/parahippocampus, and hypothalamus during exposure to traumatic WTC-related images. Such initial findings can begin to link our understanding, in humans, of the relationship between the diurnal amplitude of a hormone integral to the stress response, and those neuroanatomical regions that are implicated as both modulating and being modulated by that response. PMID:19135805

Cunningham-Bussel, Amy C.; Root, James C.; Butler, Tracy; Tuescher, Oliver; Pan, Hong; Epstein, Jane; Weisholtz, Daniel S.; Pavony, Michelle; Silverman, Michael E.; Goldstein, Martin S.; Altemus, Margaret; Cloitre, Marylene; LeDoux, Joseph; McEwen, Bruce; Stern, Emily; Silbersweig, David



The influence of a motivational climate intervention on participants' salivary cortisol and psychological responses.  


Research in achievement goal perspective theory suggests that the creation of a caring/task-involving (C/TI) climate results in more advantageous psychological and behavioral responses relative to an ego-involving (EI) climate; however, research has not yet examined the physiological consequences associated with psychological stress in relation to climate. Given the possible health and fitness implications of certain physiological stress responses, it is critical to understand this association. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether an EI climate procures increases in the stress-responsive hormone cortisol, as well as negative psychological changes, following the learning of a new skill, compared with a C/TI climate. Participants (n = 107) were randomized to a C/TI or an EI climate in which they learned how to juggle for 30 min over the course of 2 hr. Seven salivary cortisol samples were collected during this period. Results indicated that EI participants experienced greater cortisol responses after the juggling session and significantly greater anxiety, stress, shame, and self-consciousness relative to C/TI participants. In contrast, the C/TI participants reported greater enjoyment, effort, self-confidence, and interest and excitement regarding future juggling than the EI participants. These findings indicate that motivational climates may have a significant impact on both the physiological and psychological responses of participants. PMID:23404882

Hogue, Candace M; Fry, Mary D; Fry, Andrew C; Pressman, Sarah D



Short-Wavelength Light Enhances Cortisol Awakening Response in Sleep-Restricted Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Levels of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland, follow a daily, 24-hour rhythm with concentrations reaching a minimum in the evening and a peak near rising time. In addition, cortisol levels exhibit a sharp peak in concentration within the first hour after waking; this is known as the cortisol awakening response (CAR). The present study is a secondary analysis of a larger study investigating the impact of short-wavelength (?max ? 470?nm) light on CAR in adolescents who were sleep restricted. The study ran over the course of three overnight sessions, at least one week apart. The experimental sessions differed in terms of the light exposure scenarios experienced during the evening prior to sleeping in the laboratory and during the morning after waking from a 4.5-hour sleep opportunity. Eighteen adolescents aged 12–17 years were exposed to dim light or to 40 lux (0.401?W/m2) of 470-nm peaking light for 80 minutes after awakening. Saliva samples were collected every 20 minutes to assess CAR. Exposure to short-wavelength light in the morning significantly enhanced CAR compared to dim light. Morning exposure to short-wavelength light may be a simple, yet practical way to better prepare adolescents for an active day. PMID:22899916

Figueiro, Mariana G.; Rea, Mark S.



Primary cortisol resistance presenting as isosexual precocity.  


Primary cortisol resistance (PCR) is a rare cause of hypercortisolism and usually does not produce clinical manifestations. This report describes primary cortisol resistance in a boy with isosexual precocity. A 6 7/12-yr-old boy had Tanner stage 3 pubic hair, accelerated linear growth, and advanced bone age (10 yr), but normal (for age) tests. There were no features of glucocorticoid excess. Serum androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations were 4.7 +/- 0.3 nmol/L (mean +/- SEM of four measurements; normal less than 1.2) and 13.5 nmol/L (single measurement; normal, 1.0-2.2), respectively. The serum testosterone concentration was 0.9 nmol/L (normal, less than 0.7), and FSH and LH were normal. Serum cortisol concentrations were 1590 +/- 110 nmol/L (normal, 190-630) and 580 +/- 60 nmol/L (normal, 50-410) at 0800 and 2000 h, respectively. Serum cortisol responded normally to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens were resistant to suppression by dexamethasone. The Kd of [3H]dexamethasone binding to the glucocorticoid receptors of mononuclear leukocytes was increased (6.4 +/- 0.8 nM; mean +/- SEM of four determinations; normal, 1.4-3.4; P less than 0.001), but the binding capacity was normal. This patient with isosexual precocity has PCR, as indicated by functionally abnormal glucocorticoid receptors and hypercortisolism without other clinical or biochemical manifestations of Cushing's syndrome. Excessive adrenal stimulation by ACTH caused increased secretion of both cortisol and adrenal androgens, and the latter caused the clinical manifestations. PCR should be considered in other male children with isosexual precocity or female children with heterosexual precocity. PMID:2105334

Malchoff, C D; Javier, E C; Malchoff, D M; Martin, T; Rogol, A; Brandon, D; Loriaux, D L; Reardon, G E



Personality, adrenal steroid hormones, and resilience in maltreated children: A multi-level perspective  

PubMed Central

In this multi-level investigation, resilience in adaptive functioning among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 677) was examined in relation to the regulation of two stress-responsive adrenal steroid hormones, cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA), as well as the personality constructs of ego resiliency and ego control. Maltreatment status was not related to differences in average levels of morning or afternoon cortisol or DHEA. However, lower morning cortisol was related to higher resilient functioning, but only in nonmaltreated children. In contrast, among physically abused children, high morning cortisol was related to higher resilient functioning. Morning and afternoon DHEA was negatively related to resilient functioning. Although diurnal change in cortisol was not related to resilience, for DHEA, maltreated children with high resilience showed an atypical rise in DHEA from morning to afternoon. Morning and afternoon cortisol/DHEA ratios were positively related to resilient functioning, but did not interact with maltreatment status. Ego resiliency and ego control strongly differentiated maltreated and nonmaltreated children, and the personality variables were substantially predictive of resilience. When considered together, demonstrated effects of personality, cortisol, and DHEA maintained independent contributions in predicting resilience among high-risk youth. PMID:17705903

Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.



Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout.  


Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000nM) for 4h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol production in trout. PMID:21396343

Sandhu, Navdeep; Vijayan, Mathilakath M



Comparison of hormone and electrolyte circadian rhythms in male and female humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circadian rhythm characteristics in healthy male and female humans were studied at 4-hour intervals for urine volume, cortisol, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), Na, K, Na/K ratios in the urine, as well as plasma cortisol. While plasma and urinary cortisol rhythms were very similar in both sexes, the described rhythms in urine volume, electrolyte, and 5-HIAA excretion differ for the two sexes. The results suggest that sex differences exist in the circadian patterns of important hormone and metabolic functions and that the internal synchrony of circadian rhythms differs for the two sexes. The results seem to indicate that the rhythmical secretion of cortisol does not account for the pattern of Na and K excretion.

Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. E.; Reilly, T.



Effect of synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor. Dose response of plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol.  

PubMed Central

Synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was administered to normal male volunteer subjects as an intravenous bolus or 30-s infusion. Doses of CRF ranging from 0.001 to 30 micrograms/kg body wt were administered, and plasma immunoreactive (IR)-ACTH and IR-cortisol concentrations were measured. The threshold dose appeared to be 0.01-0.03 micrograms/kg, the half-maximal dose 0.3-1 micrograms/kg, and the maximally effective dose 3-10 micrograms/kg. Basal concentrations of IR-ACTH and IR-cortisol were 14 +/- 7.6 pg/ml (mean +/- SD) and 5.6 +/- 2.2 micrograms/dl, respectively. IR-ACTH rose as early as 2 min after CRF injection, reached peak levels in 10-15 min, and declined slowly thereafter. IR-cortisol rose at 10 min or later and reached peak levels in 30-60 min. At a dose of 30 micrograms/kg, neither IR-ACTH nor IR-cortisol fell from peak levels of 82 +/- 21 pg/ml (mean +/- SE) and 23 +/- 1.4 micrograms/dl, respectively, during the 2-h course of the experiment, indicating that CRF has a sustained effect on ACTH release and/or a prolonged circulating plasma half-life. There was little or no increase in the levels of other anterior pituitary hormones. At doses of 1 microgram/kg and higher, facial flushing, tachycardia, and, in some subjects, a 15-29-mmHg decline in systemic arterial blood pressure were observed, even though blood volume was replaced and the subjects remained supine. These data indicate that synthetic ovine CRF is a very potent and specific ACTH secretagogue in man. Administered with caution until its vasomotor effects are more fully defined, CRF promises to be a safe and very useful investigative, diagnostic, and, possibly, therapeutic agent in man. Images PMID:6298280

Orth, D N; Jackson, R V; DeCherney, G S; DeBold, C R; Alexander, A N; Island, D P; Rivier, J; Rivier, C; Spiess, J; Vale, W



Retrospective evaluation of sex hormones and steroid hormone intermediates in dogs with alopecia.  


The purpose of this study was to determine if there are specific steroid hormone aberrations associated with suspect endocrine alopecias in dogs in whom hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been excluded. Steroid hormone panels submitted to the UTCVM endocrinology laboratory over a 7.5-year period (783 samples) from dogs with alopecia were reviewed. During this period, 276 dogs met the criteria for inclusion and were comprised of 54 different breeds. Approximately 73% of dogs had at least one baseline or post-ACTH stimulation steroid hormone intermediate greater than the normal range. The most frequent hormone elevation noted was for progesterone (57.6% of samples). When compared with normal dogs, oestradiol was significantly greater in Keeshond dogs and progesterone was significantly greater in Pomeranian and Siberian Husky dogs. Not all individual dogs had hormone abnormalities. Chow Chow, Samoyed and Malamute dogs had the greatest percentage of normal steroid hormone intermediates of the dogs in this study. Baseline cortisol concentrations were significantly correlated with progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione. Results of this study suggest that the pathomechanism of the alopecia, at least for some breeds, may not relate to steroid hormone intermediates and emphasizes the need for breed specific normals. PMID:12662266

Frank, Linda A; Hnilica, Keith A; Rohrbach, Barton W; Oliver, Jack W



Higher n-3 fatty acids are associated with more intense fenfluramine induced ACTH and cortisol responses among cocaine abusing men  

PubMed Central

Preclinical studies have shown that diets supplemented with or deficient in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could influence serotonergic neurotransmission but information about their effects on the serotonergic function of humans is scant. Therefore simultaneous assessments of n-3 PUFAs and of the ACTH and cortisol responses to challenges with the serotonin (5-HT) probe, d,l-fenfluramine (FEN) were performed in 25 cocaine abusing men and 12 control subjects. Cocaine abusers were tested 18 days after their admission to a closed ward. ACTH and cortisol were measured in plasma samples collected on 2 testing days separated by 48 hours following the random administration of 60 mg of FEN or placebo. Fatty acids were measured in the first test day samples. Patients’ FEN-induced ACTH rises were significantly and positively correlated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Patients’ cortisol rises were positively and significantly correlated with EPA but not with DHA. There were no significant correlations between hormonal responses and pre-hospitalization cocaine use parameters. Control subjects’ responses to FEN were not correlated with any PUFA. In conclusion, higher EPA and DHA levels were associated with a more intense FEN-induced ACTH response and higher EPA levels with a more intense cortisol response in cocaine abusing men withdrawn from cocaine but not in control subjects. These findings support and expand existing evidence that EPA and DHA could influence 5-HT function in some human subgroups. PMID:21658782

Buydens-Branchey, Laure; Branchey, Marc; Hibbeln, Joseph R.



Cortisol and corticosterone exhibit different seasonal variation and responses to acute stress and captivity in tuco-tucos (Ctenomys talarum).  


In this work we aimed to evaluate variations in plasma glucocorticoids (GCs, cortisol and corticosterone) levels throughout an annual cycle in free-living male tuco-tucos (Ctenomys talarum) and compare their responses to acute and chronic stressors (trapping, manipulation, immobilization, confinement in a novel environment, transference to captivity). In addition, we used leukocyte profiles to allow discrimination between basal and stress-induced seasonal changes in GC concentrations. Our results showed that cortisol and corticosterone are differently affected by environmental stimuli in C. talarum. Both hormones showed different patterns of variation in the field and responses to captivity. Moreover, only cortisol was responsive to acute stressors. Leukocyte profiles indicated that animals were unstressed in the field and therefore, that we were able to measure basal, stress-independent, fluctuations in GC levels. GC concentrations were low in comparison to values frequently reported for other mammals. Our results suggest differentiated physiological roles for cortisol and corticosterone in our study species and further emphasize the complexity of GC physiology in wild mammals. PMID:21095193

Vera, Federico; Antenucci, C Daniel; Zenuto, Roxana R



Stability of the diurnal cortisol profile in children and adolescents.  


The diurnal cortisol profile has been implicated in multiple physical and mental health conditions in children and adolescents; however, current knowledge regarding the stability of the diurnal cortisol profile is largely based on adults. Developmental changes throughout childhood and adolescence warrant examination of the stability of the diurnal cortisol profile during this stage in the lifecourse. The aim of the present study was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the diurnal cortisol profile in children and adolescents. Participants (N=233; M=12.40, SD=1.83; 44.2% girls) in the Healthy Heart Project collected saliva samples, completed demographic questionnaires, and recorded bed and waking time. Intra-class correlations were calculated to evaluate the stability of aggregate and single sample measures of the diurnal cortisol profile. Total cortisol concentration (AUC(TG), AUC(AG)) and maximum sample were the most stable cortisol measures (ICC(avg)=0.54). Dynamic measures (AUC(I), slope; ICC(avg)=0.22) and other single sample measures (awake, lunch, dinner, bedtime, morning random, day random; ICC(avg)=0.28) were less stable. Of the developmentally relevant covariates tested, sleep duration, adrenarche, and time of awakening were most associated with cortisol values. Altogether, the diurnal cortisol profile yielded moderate to high stability in children and adolescents. These findings can inform methodological decisions regarding cortisol sampling protocols for children and adolescents. PMID:22658393

Rotenberg, Sivan; McGrath, Jennifer J; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Helene; Tu, Mai Thanh



Cortisol awakening response and subsequent depression: prospective longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Some studies have found an association between elevated cortisol and subsequent depression, but findings are inconsistent. The cortisol awakening response may be a more stable measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and potentially of stress reactivity. Aims To investigate whether salivary cortisol, particularly the cortisol awakening response, is associated with subsequent depression in a large population cohort. Method Young people (aged 15 years, n = 841) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected salivary cortisol at four time points for 3 school days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for developing depression meeting ICD-10 criteria at 18 years. Results We found no evidence for an association between salivary cortisol and subsequent depression. Odds ratios for the cortisol awakening response were 1.24 per standard deviation (95% CI 0.93-1.66, P = 0.14) before and 1.12 (95% CI 0.73-1.72, P = 0.61) after adjustment for confounding factors. There was no evidence that the other cortisol measures, including cortisol at each time point, diurnal drop and area under the curve, were associated with subsequent depression. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated salivary cortisol increases the short-term risk of subsequent depressive illness. The results suggest that if an association does exist, it is small and unlikely to be of clinical significance. PMID:24311550

Carnegie, Rebecca; Araya, Ricardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G.; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Glyn



Measuring endocrine (cortisol) responses of zebrafish to stress Peter R. Canavello1  

E-print Network

Measuring endocrine (cortisol) responses of zebrafish to stress Peter R. Canavello1 , Jonathan M humans and zebrafish utilize cortisol. This protocol explains the whole-body cortisol extraction procedure and the use of the human salivary cortisol ELISA kit to measure the amount of cortisol in each

Kalueff, Allan V.


Cortisol and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Basal cortisol and cortisol stress responsivity are valuable biological characteristics of children with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). In this study, the predictive value of cortisol to outcome of intervention was investigated. Method: Basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels under stress were studied in 22 children with DBD…

van de Wiel, Nicolle M.H.; van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Matthys, Walter; Snoek, Heddeke; van Engeland, Herman




E-print Network

HEALTH MATTERS Hormonal IUD What is the hormonal IUD? The hormonal IUD is one of two types. The hormonal IUD contains a hormone called progestin. It is easily and quickly inserted into your uterus by a health care provider to prevent pregnancy. How effective is the hormonal IUD? The hormonal IUD

Yener, Aylin


Effects of GH, prolactin and cortisol on hepatic heat shock protein 70 expression in a marine teleost Sparus sarba.  


Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression was assessed in hepatic tissue of a marine teleost Sparus sarba after exogenous hormone administration. Using a PCR-amplified, homologous HSP70 cDNA clone, as a probe in Northern analysis, we detected a 2.3 kb transcript which was elevated after exposure to a temperature 7 degrees C above the ambient. For our studies on hormonal effects on HSP70 expression, groups of fish were administered recombinant bream GH (rbGH), ovine prolactin (oPRL) or cortisol daily over a 7-day period. Quantification of hepatic HSP70 transcript revealed that the administration of GH and PRL significantly reduced HSP70 mRNA abundance by 42% and 54% from saline-injected fish respectively. Also hepatic HSP70 levels were reduced by 76% and 64% as determined by immunoblotting after rbGH and oPRL treatment respectively. The administration of exogenous cortisol did not alter hepatic HSP70 mRNA or protein levels in S. sarba. The results obtained in this study are the first evidence for hormonal modulation of heat shock protein expression in fish. The significance of these results is discussed within the context of current knowledge on the roles of these hormones in teleostean stress response. PMID:10333544

Deane, E E; Kelly, S P; Lo, C K; Woo, N Y



Serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and steroid-binding globulins in preterm neonates: effect of gestational age and dexamethasone therapy.  


Our aim was to assess adrenocortical function in very low birth weight infants, specifically to evaluate the impact of gestational age and dexamethasone (DEX) therapy on serum concentrations of total and free cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and steroid-binding globulins. Twelve moderately preterm or full-term neonates of 38 +/- 4 (mean +/- SD) wk of gestation and 36 ill preterm neonates of 26 +/- 2 (mean +/- SD) wk of gestation were studied. Twenty-three of the 36 ill preterm neonates participated in a randomized neonatal DEX trial for the treatment of early chronic lung disease and received a 1-wk treatment of DEX or placebo. Serum concentrations of cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and DHEAS were measured, and an ACTH test was performed. Gestational age correlated with the umbilical cord concentrations of total cortisol (r = 0.702, p < 0.01), free cortisol (r = 0.489, p < 0.05), DHEAS (r = 0.608, p < 0.01), and SHBG (r = 0.831, p < 0.01), but not significantly with the concentration of CBG (r = 0.428, p = 0.076). One-week DEX therapy decreased the serum concentrations of CBG (DEX 295 nmol/L, placebo 504 nmol/L; p < 0.01), DHEAS (DEX 6.5 mumol/L, placebo 11.8 mumol/L; p < 0.05), and the basal (DEX 81 nmol/L, placebo 176 nmol/L; p < 0.01) and ACTH-stimulated cortisol levels (DEX 458 nmol/L, placebo 817 nmol/L; p < 0.05). One week after discontinuation of DEX or placebo, basal cortisol concentrations did not differ significantly, but ACTH-stimulated cortisol levels were lower in the DEX-treated than in the placebo-treated infants. DEX therapy decreased the serum CBG and DHEAS concentrations and caused a transient suppression in the adrenocortical function. Despite severe illness, the very preterm neonates had relatively low basal cortisol concentrations, suggesting their reduced ability to respond adequately to stress during intensive care. PMID:8827784

Kari, M A; Raivio, K O; Stenman, U H; Voutilainen, R



Hormonal Sensitivity of Preterm versus Full-Term Infants to the Effects of Maternal Depression  

PubMed Central

Comparisons were made of differences in the hormonal sensitivity of preterm versus full-term infants to maternal depression, as reflected in children's cortisol levels. In Study 1 (N = 25), a comparison was made between preterm versus healthy full-term children. In Study 2 (N = 80), a comparison was made between preterm infants and full-term infants with mild or moderate medical problems. Preterm infants were found be highly reactive to maternal depression (as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory). That is, they demonstrated higher cortisol levels when paired with depressed mothers and lower cortisol levels when paired with non-depressed mothers. No equivalent effects were found for children who were full-term, even when they had experienced other medical problems at birth. It was concluded that premature infants are exceptionally sensitive to the “emotional climate” in their home environment. As a result, they may manifest very different hormonal outcomes -- with implications for their later development. PMID:17645947

Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Beaulieu, David; Schwartz, Alex



Hormonal response to Taekwondo fighting simulation in elite adolescent athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise training efficiency depends on the training load, as well as on the athlete’s ability to tolerate it. The aim of\\u000a the present study was to evaluate the effect of fighting simulation (3 fights, 6 min each, 30 min rest between fights) on\\u000a anabolic (IGF-I, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone) and catabolic hormones (cortisol) in elite, male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) adolescent

R. Pilz-Burstein; Y. Ashkenazi; Y. Yaakobovitz; Y. Cohen; L. Zigel; D. Nemet; N. Shamash; A. Eliakim



Within-adolescent coupled changes in cortisol with DHEA and testosterone in response to three stressors during adolescence.  


It is hypothesized that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes function together to maintain adaptive functioning during stressful situations differently in adolescence than the characteristic inverse relations found in adulthood. We examined within-person correlated changes (coupling) in cortisol, DHEA and testosterone in response to parent-adolescent conflict discussion, social performance, and venipuncture paradigms. Data are derived from two samples of boys and girls from the Northeastern US (213 adolescents aged 11-16, M=13.7, SD=1.5 years; 108 adolescents aged 9-14, M=11.99, SD=1.55) using different biological sampling vehicles (saliva and blood). Results consistently show that across samples, vehicles, and contexts, cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone are positively coupled in response to environmental stimuli. Findings underscore the importance of considering the effects of multiple hormones together in order to further our understanding of the biological underpinnings of behavior, especially during adolescence, as adolescence is a developmental transition period that may be qualitatively different from adulthood in terms of hormone functioning. PMID:24495606

Marceau, Kristine; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Dorn, Lorah D; Susman, Elizabeth J



Hormonal and psychological adaptation in elite male rowers during prolonged training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined possible hormonal and psychological changes in elite male rowers during a 24-week preparatory period. Eleven elite male rowers were tested on seven occasions over the 6-month training season. Fasting testosterone, growth hormone, cortisol, and creatine kinase activity, together with perceived recovery-stress state were evaluated after a day of rest. Maximal oxygen consumption ([Vdot]O2max) was determined

P. Purge; J. Jürimäe; T. Jürimäe



Excretion of infused 14C-steroid hormones via faeces and urine in domestic livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this comparative study was to gain more information about the excretion of steroid hormones in farm animals. This should help to establish or improve non-invasive steroid monitoring procedures, especially in zoo and wildlife animals. Over a period of 4 h the 14C-steroid hormones (3.7 MBq) progesterone (three females), testosterone (three males), cortisol and oestrone (two males, two

R. Palme; P. Fischer; H. Schildorfer; M. N. Ismail



Salivary Cortisol in Psychobiological Research: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of cortisol in saliva provides the basic scientist as well as the clinician with a reliable tool for investigations of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Since saliva samples can be obtained stress-free and independent from medically trained personnel this method may be well suited for use in psychobiological studies. This overview intends to give a comprehensive introduction to the method

Clemens Kirschbaum; Dirk H. Hellhammer



Influence of sampling on steroid hormone patterns of beef from bulls and steers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different muscles (Longissimus dorsi, Semitendinosus, Extensor carpi ulnaris) of bulls and steers, which represent different parts of the carcass and which have differing properties (function, proportions of fat and connective tissue), were analysed with GC-MS for their contents of testosterone, cortisol, cortisone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, epitestosterone and androsterone. No difference in the hormone patterns could be

S Fritsche; F. J Schwarz; M Kirchgeßner; C Augustini; H Steinhart



Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles.  


Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0-12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

Trumble, Stephen J; Robinson, Eleanor M; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W; Usenko, Sascha



Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles  

PubMed Central

Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0–12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M.; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W.; Usenko, Sascha



The Awakening Cortisol Response: Methodological Issues and Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The awakening cortisol response (ACR) is a discrete and distinctive part of the cortisol circadian cycle. In healthy adults salivary free cortisol concentrations increase by between 50 and 160% in the first 30 min immediately post-awakening (approximate average increase of 9 nmol\\/l, range 4 - 15 nmol\\/l, estimated to be equivalent to about three secretory episodes). However there are no

A. Clow; L. Thorn; P. Evans; F. Hucklebridge



Cortisol Secretion and Functional Disabilities in Old Age: Importance of Using Adaptive Control Strategies  

E-print Network

Cortisol Secretion and Functional Disabilities in Old Age: Importance of Using Adaptive Control cortisol secretion and increases in older adults' functional disabilities. Methods: Functional disabilities activities of daily living. The main predictors included baseline levels of diurnal cortisol secretion

Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal


The Effect of a Primary Sexual Reward Manipulation on Cortisol Responses to Psychosocial Stress in Men  

E-print Network

The Effect of a Primary Sexual Reward Manipulation on Cortisol Responses to Psychosocial Stress cortisol responses in humans undergoing social stressors. Method: This study experimentally investigated whether viewing appetitive rewarding pictures reduces cortisol responses to an acute stress challenge

Creswell, J. David


Use of Salivary Cortisol Measurements in Young Infants: A Note of Caution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings indicate that high cortisol levels and interfering substances in formula and breast milk could contaminate salivary cortisol measurements in young infants. To insure accurate results, appropriate controls should be taken for salivary cortisol measurements of young infants. (RH)

Magnano, Catherine L.; And Others



Relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs over a 24 h period  

E-print Network

1 Relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs over a 24 h period R. J. Adcock*, H. G. Kattesh*, M. P. Roberts*, A. M. Saxton University, Lubbock, TX 79403 Summary The relationship between plasma free cortisol and the free cortisol

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.


Cortisol Response to Social Stress in Parentally Bereaved Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Parental bereavement is associated with increased risk for psychiatric illness and functional impairment in youth. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning may be one pathway through which bereaved children experience increased risk for poor outcomes. However, few studies have prospectively examined the association between parental bereavement and cortisol response while accounting for psychiatric disorders in both youth and their caregivers. Methods One-hundred and eighty-one bereaved and nonbereaved offspring and their caregivers were assessed at multiple time points over a 5-year period after parental death. Offspring participated in an adaptation of the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST), and salivary cortisol samples were collected before and after exposure to social stressors. Mixed models for repeated measures were used to analyze the effects of bereavement status, psychiatric disorder in both offspring and caregiver, and demographic indices on trajectories of cortisol response. Results After controlling for demographic variables and offspring depression, bereaved offspring demonstrated significantly different trajectories of cortisol response compared with nonbereaved offspring, characterized by higher total cortisol output and an absence of cortisol reactivity to acute social stress. Within the bereaved group, offspring of parents who died by sudden natural death demonstrated significant cortisol reactivity to social stress compared with offspring whose parents died by suicide, who demonstrated more blunted trajectory of cortisol response. Conclusions Parentally bereaved youth demonstrate higher cortisol output than nonbereaved youth but are less able to mount an acute response in the face of social stressors. PMID:23021533

Dietz, Laura J.; Stoyak, Samuel; Melhem, Nadine; Porta, Giovanna; Matthews, Karen A.; Payne, Monica Walker; Brent, David A.



Cortisol levels decrease after acute tobacco abstinence in regular smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute tobacco abstinence on cortisol levels in regular smokers, and whether abstinence-induced changes in cortisol levels are correlated with various signs and symptoms of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome. Methods Smokers (N = 77, ?15 cigarettes/day) attended two counterbalanced sessions (avg = 1 h), one following 12–20 h of abstinence and the other following ad lib smoking. At both sessions, salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points. Additionally, a battery of self-report questionnaires, physiological assessments, and cognitive performance tasks were administered to measure signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal. Results Salivary cortisol levels were significantly lower during the abstinent session versus the non-abstinent session. No significant associations were found between abstinence-induced changes in cortisol and other tobacco withdrawal measures, although there was suggestive evidence that abstinence-induced changes in cortisol levels and hunger were inversely associated to a modest degree. Conclusion Acute tobacco abstinence was associated with decreased cortisol levels. Cortisol dampening during acute tobacco abstinence may reflect nicotine-mediated modulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity, which may be relevant to the maintenance of tobacco dependence. Tobacco-withdrawal cortisol changes do not appear to be a cause or consequence of many manifestations of acute tobacco withdrawal with the possible exception of hunger. PMID:24399662

Wong, Jordan A.; Pickworth, Wallace B.; Waters, Andrew J.; al'Absi, Mustafa; Leventhal, Adam M.



Effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on salivary cortisol: overall cortisol levels, diurnal rhythm, and acute stress reactivity.  


This study examined the effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on the magnitude of salivary cortisol excretion, on the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, and on cortisol reactivity to acute naturalistic stressors using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). Employed (N = 60) and unemployed (N = 60) subjects were studied for 2 days. Subjects were beeped 6 times per day by a preprogrammed wristwatch to assess acute stressors; 25 minutes after each ESM-beep, subjects were beeped a second time for saliva samples. The groups did not differ in their overall cortisol excretion or in cortisol reactivity to acute daily stressors. Compared to employed subjects, unemployed subjects had a diurnal pattern of cortisol excretion with relatively higher morning and lower evening levels. Subjects' daily activities and their locations were associated with diurnal rhythm differences. PMID:8552737

Ockenfels, M C; Porter, L; Smyth, J; Kirschbaum, C; Hellhammer, D H; Stone, A A



The mRNA expression of cortisol axis related genes differs in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) categorized as high or low responders.  


Cortisol is a major stress hormone in fish and is known, under normal or stressful conditions, to affect several physiological processes including growth and immunity. Thus, efforts have been made for several cultured finfish species, including the Atlantic cod, to determine whether fish with a high or low cortisol response to stress can be identified and selected. However, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms that determine these two phenotypes. Thus, we measured total and free plasma cortisol levels in high and low responding cod when subjected to a 30 s handling stress, and the mRNA expression of four key genes in the glucocorticoid (i.e. cortisol) stress axis both pre- and post-stress. The cortisol data is consistent with our previous findings for cod, with high responding (HR) fish having ?3-fold higher total and free plasma cortisol levels when compared to low responding (LR) fish. Three of the transcripts studied encode key proteins involved in steroidogenesis (StAR, P450scc and 3?HSD), and the constitutive mRNA expression of all three genes was significantly higher (?2-fold) in the head kidney of HR fish when compared to LR cod. The other gene of interest was the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We partly cloned and characterized a cDNA from Atlantic cod likely to be this fish's ortholog of the teleost GR1, and showed that while there was no difference in hepatic constitutive GR mRNA expression between groups, HR fish had liver GR mRNA levels that were significantly (1.8-fold) higher at 3 h post-stress as compared to LR fish. Our results suggest that the different magnitude of cortisol response between LR and HR fish is at least partially determined by the capacity of the interrenal tissue to produce steroids. PMID:22146795

Hori, Tiago S; Rise, Matthew L; Johnson, Stewart C; Afonso, Luis O B; Gamperl, A Kurt



A Novel Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Cortisol using a Long-Chain Biotinylated Cortisol3CMO Derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using streptavidin-biotin system as a bridge between antibodies bound antigen and reporter molecule (horseradish peroxidase enzyme) has been described. The cortisol antiserum was generated against cortisol-3-O-carboxylmethyl oxime-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-BSA). We have prepared biotin-labelled cortisol as a primary probe and utilized streptavidin-labelled horseradish peroxidase (SA-HRP) as secondary probe to monitor the antigen-antibody interaction. To the

Seema Nara; Vinay Tripathi; Shail K. Chaube; Kiran Rangari; Harpal Singh; Kiran P. Kariya; Tulsidas G. Shrivastav



The effects of oral sumatriptan, a 5-HT1 receptor agonist, on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations in man.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of oral sumatriptan (50, 100 and 200 mg), a 5-HT1 receptor agonist, and placebo, on circulating adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations were determined over 24 h after dosing, in 26 healthy male subjects. ACTH was measured by immunoradiometric assay and cortisol by radioimmunoassay. 2. After sumatriptan all subjects displayed a normal diurnal rhythm for circulating ACTH and cortisol compared with placebo. 3. There was a reduction in the trough circulating ACTH concentration over 0-4 h which was 18% with 100 mg (P = 0.002), and 25% with 200 mg (P < 0.001). The 5 h, post-prandial, peak ACTH concentration was reduced by 21% with 100 mg (P = 0.018) and by 20% with 200 mg (P = 0.024). The weighted mean ACTH over 24 h was reduced by 8% with 100 mg (P = 0.029) and by 8% with 200 mg (P = 0.018). The nadir concentration of ACTH over the 24 h and the ACTH concentration 24 h after sumatriptan were not, however, significantly reduced. All results are compared with placebo. 4. There was a reduction in the trough circulating cortisol concentration over 0-4 h which was 15% with 50 mg (P = 0.015), 14% with 100 mg (P = 0.022) and 24% with 200 mg (P < 0.001). The 5 h, post-prandial, peak cortisol concentration was reduced by 16% with 100 mg (P = 0.012) and by 15% with 200 mg (P = 0.017).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7640145

Entwisle, S J; Fowler, P A; Thomas, M; Eckland, D J; Lettis, S; York, M; Freedman, P S



Children’s Cortisol in Preschool and Aggression One Year Later in Kindergarten.  

E-print Network

??Previous research has examined associations between aggression and cortisol throughout the lifespan, with most studies concluding that individuals with lower basal cortisol exhibit more aggressive… (more)

Reinecke, Diana Michelle



Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.  


Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and Black individuals (mean age 65 ± 9.8 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Outcome measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 min post-awakening), early decline (30 min to 2h post-awakening), late decline (2h post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding AUCs. Total cortisol AUC was a summary measure of cumulative cortisol exposure. Higher CAR was associated with significantly lower wake-up cortisol (?=-0.56; 95% CI: -0.59 to -0.53) and a higher early decline AUC (?=0.38; 95% CI: 0.34-0.42) but was not associated with total cortisol AUC (?=0.04; 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.09), or other diurnal cortisol curve components following multivariable adjustment. Total cortisol AUC was significantly and positively associated with wake-up cortisol (?=0.36; 95% CI: 0.32-0.40), bedtime cortisol (?=0.61; 95% CI: 0.58-0.64), and other AUC measures, following multivariable adjustment. Associations were similar by sex, race/ethnicity, and age categories. We conclude that bedtime cortisol showed the strongest correlation with total cortisol AUC, suggesting it may be a marker of daily cortisol exposure. PMID:23890985

Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S



Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and Black individuals (mean age 65 ± 9.8 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Outcome measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 min post-awakening), early decline (30 min to 2 h post-awakening), late decline (2 h post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding AUCs. Total cortisol AUC was a summary measure of cumulative cortisol exposure. Higher CAR was associated with significantly lower wake-up cortisol (? = ?0.56; 95% CI: ?0.59 to ?0.53) and a higher early decline AUC (? = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.34–0.42) but was not associated with total cortisol AUC (? = 0.04; 95% CI: ?0.01 to 0.09), or other diurnal cortisol curve components following multivariable adjustment. Total cortisol AUC was significantly and positively associated with wake-up cortisol (? = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.32–0.40), bedtime cortisol (? = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.58–0.64), and other AUC measures, following multivariable adjustment. Associations were similar by sex, race/ethnicity, and age categories. We conclude that bedtime cortisol showed the strongest correlation with total cortisol AUC, suggesting it may be a marker of daily cortisol exposure. PMID:23890985

Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S.



Glucoregulatory hormones in hepatic cirrhosis.  


In the present study hormonal responses to 75 gm oral glucose were studied in 34 biopsy proven cases of hepatic cirrhosis and 15 normal subjects. Though fasting blood glucose was similar in both controls and cirrhotics the latter showed higher glucose values throughout the study. The peak of glucose level in cirrhotics was delayed to 60 minutes. Two of 34 (5.8%) cirrhotics showed marginal fasting hyperglycaemia and 44% had (impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in blood glucose levels in patients with and without varices. The fasting serum insulin was significantly raised in cirrhotics (24.9 +/- 2.2 vs 8.4 +/- 1.2 mu/ml, p > 0.05). Hyperinsulinaemia was significantly marked in cirrhotics with abnormal Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as compared to those who had normal OGTT. The mean fasting serum insulin concentration in patients with and without varices was similar showing thereby that portasystemic shunt in cirrhotics is not the cause for peripheral hyper-insulinaemia. Basal cortisol was similar in cirrhotics and controls though expected fall in cirrhotics like control was absent. Twelve percent cirrhotics had basal human growth hormone (hGH) more than 10 ng/ml. Forty four percent showed paradoxical rise of hGH. hGH has significantly high (p < 0.01) in cirrhotics with abnormal OGTT as compared to those with normal OGTT. PMID:1484025

Saini, J S; Pruthi, H S; Naqvi, S; Karnani, I; Shetty, K J



Expression of pro-opiomelanocortin gene and quantification of adrenocorticotropic hormone-like immunoreactivity in human normal peripheral mononuclear cells and lymphoid and myeloid malignancies.  

PubMed Central

Using Northern blotting with a human genomic DNA probe for the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene, we have shown specific mRNA in normal human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC); the presence of specific mRNA was also observed in a T lymphocyte cell line derived from a patient with lymphoma. We then demonstrated that PBMC translate the message into protein. Thus, using a radioimmunoassay with an antibody for ACTH, a median of 29 pg of ACTH-like immunoreactivity (ACTH-LIR) was found in 10(7) PBMC. ACTH-LIR was also detected in seven different cell lines derived from patients with lymphoid and myeloid malignancies, two of them JM and U937 showing the highest values 135 and 108 pg/10(7) cells, respectively. The chromatographic characterization of this ACTH-LIR showed, at least, three molecular forms of immunoreactive ACTH with molecular weights of the order of 31,000 POMC, 22,000 ACTH, and 4,500 ACTH, in addition to high-molecular-weight material (greater than 43,000). We conclude that PBMC produce ACTH-LIR which may act as a paracrine immunomodulator in a similar way to lymphokines and/or may signal the adrenal gland to secrete glucocorticoids. Images PMID:2536407

Buzzetti, R; McLoughlin, L; Lavender, P M; Clark, A J; Rees, L H



Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.  


Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R



Flattened cortisol rhythms in metastatic breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allostatic load, the physiological accumulation of the effects of chronic stressors, has been associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Flattened diurnal cortisol rhythmicity is one of the prototypes of allostatic load, and has been shown to predict shorter survival among women with metastatic breast cancer. The current study compared diurnal cortisol slope in 17 breast cancer patients and 31 controls,

Heather C. Abercrombie; Janine Giese-Davis; Sandra Sephton; Elissa S. Epel; Julie M. Turner-Cobb; David Spiegel



Assessment of the follicular cortisol:cortisone ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

aspirated immediately before administration of HCG. In this study, 12 follicles contained oocytes which resulted in clinical pregnancy after IVF. Cortisone concentrations were significantly higher in FF compared with that of matched serum samples, while the opposite was observed for cortisol, resulting in cortisol:cortisone ratios being significantly lower in FF compared with serum. FF from group 4 showed significantly higher

C. Yding Andersen; G. Morineau; M. Fukuda; L. G. Westergaard; H. J. Ingerslev; J. Fiet; A. G. Byskov



Measuring Salivary Cortisol in the Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article descibes an ethical experimental module of human biological parameters. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit measures human salivary cortisol levels, which can rise due to circadian and environmental changes. This easy to use sampling kit is described as an ideal procedure for students in behavioral neurobiology or physiological psychology laboratory class to examine cortisol levels.

Brian A. Kalman, Ruth E. Grahn (Conneticut College;)



Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…

Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.



Reactivity and Regulation in Cortisol and Behavioral Responses to Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relations between reactivity (peak response) and regulation (response dampening) in 6-month-olds' cortisol and behavioral responses to inoculation. Found that reactivity and regulation were unrelated for both cortisol and behavior, suggesting both measures are needed to characterize more accurately infant response to stress. Found…

Ramsay, Douglas; Lewis, Michael



Suppressing the Morning Rise in Cortisol Impairs Free Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning…

Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan



Cortisol Release in Infants in Response to Inoculation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data provide strong evidence that studies of stress and cortisol release in infants must take into account basal level, circadian rhythm, and behavioral effects and employ appropriate statistical procedures. Participants were infants of two, four, and six months of age from whom salivary cortisol was obtained before and 15 minutes after an…

Lewis, Michael; Thomas, David




Microsoft Academic Search

Human research has shown the administration of cortisol into the circulation at rest will result in reduced blood testosterone levels. Many researchers have used these results to imply that physical exercise induced cortisol increases would perhaps result in subsequent reductions in circulating testosterone levels. Our purpose was to examine this concept and determine what, if any, relationship exists between circulating

Kaye K. Brownlee; Alex W. Moore; Anthony C. Hackney


Cortisol and behavioral responses of working dogs to environmental challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper's primary objective is to analyse the physiological (cortisol) and behavioral responses of military working dogs (MWD). Dogs (N=27) were submitted twice to environmental challenges (challenge 1 and 2, 20 days in-between) composed of social (training), visual (mobile toy car) and auditory (air blast) stimuli. Cortisol levels decreased back to the baseline after the second challenge. The behavioral observations showed

A. Haverbeke; C. Diederich; E. Depiereux; J. M. Giffroy



Salivary testosterone and cortisol among late adolescent male offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to personality, criminal violence, prison behavior, and parole board decisions was examined among 113 late-adolescent male offenders. Offenders high in testosterone committed more violent crimes, were judged more harshly by the parole board, and violated prison rules more often than those low in testosterone. No main effects for cortisol emerged. However, as

James M. Dabbs; Gregory J. Jurkovic; Robert L. Frady



Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome caused by an FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Background A 40-year-old woman presented with galactorrhea and oligomenorrhea. She had a history of multiple ovarian cysts and pelvic pain. Investigations Laboratory evaluation included measurements of the levels of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free endogenous T4, the glycoprotein hormone ? subunit, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I. Radiological studies included MRI of the pituitary. Diagnosis Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome caused by a pituitary adenoma, secreting follicle-stimulating hormone. Management The patient underwent trans-sphenoidal resection of the adenoma, with subsequent normalization of hormonal values and symptoms. PMID:18268519

Cooper, Odelia; Geller, Jordan L; Melmed, Shlomo



The effects of carbon dioxide inhalation of plasma MHPG, plasma hormones respiratory rate, and behavior in the Rhesus monkey  

SciTech Connect

The effects of inhalation of air and 3 concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) on plasma levels of the norepinephrine metabolite, MHPG, plasma hormones, and behavioral activation were assessed in eight chair-adapted Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In comparison to air, inhalation of 5%, 7.5% and 10% CO{sub 2} for 180 minutes produced significant dose-dependent increases in respiratory rate, plasma MHPG, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin. CO{sub 2} at the 7.5% concentration produced peak changes in behavior at 15, growth hormone at 30, and cortisol and MHPG at 180 minutes without producing changes in prolactin. The lack of previously reported CO{sub 2} induced changes in MHPG, growth hormone and prolactin in humans exposed to 7.5% CO{sub 2} for only 15 minutes, may therefore relate to the relatively short duration of CO{sub 2} exposure.

Krystal, J.H.; Woods, S.W.; Levesque, M.; Heninger, C.; Heninger, G.R. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA))



Motivation, stress, and cortisol responses in skydiving.  


This study examined metamotivational dominance, metamotivational states, and cortisol responses in skydiving participants. Data were obtained from 23 experienced skydivers 15 min. prior to and following a skydive. Respondents were mainly paratelic-conformist dominant and most occupied the conformist and arousal-seeking states prior to skydiving, assessed respectively, with Apter, et al.'s Motivational Style Profile and Cook, et al.'s measure of metamotivational states. Paratelic-conformist dominance indicates a predisposition towards conformity and a desire to be spontaneous, and the conformist and arousal seeking states reported prior to completing the skydive represent a desire to conform to expected norms but also to seek arousal. There was no significant change in scores for metamotivational state or stress following skydiving. Contrary to expectations, cortisol level prior to skydiving was negatively associated with external stress. These results support the paratelic, but not the negativistic, dominance found in previous samples of risk sport participants (no skydivers). The conformist dominance and pre-dive conformist metamotivational state scores of this sample may be fundamental for adhering to safety regulations imposed on skydivers. To obtain better understanding of this phenomenon, researchers should attempt to measure these variables during, rather than prior to and after, participation in risk sports. PMID:14738370

Thatcher, Joanne; Reeves, Sue; Dorling, Debbie; Palmer, Anna



Cortisol metabolic predictors of response to psychotherapy for symptoms of PTSD in survivors of the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001  

PubMed Central

Background A proportion of subjects with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are unresponsive to specialized psychotherapy, but a biological basis for this has not been described. To observe whether differences in cortisol or its metabolites predict or correlate with response to therapy for PTSD symptoms, cortisol and its metabolites were measured from urine samples at pre-treatment, at the conclusion of psychotherapy, and at 3-month follow-up. Methods 28 survivors of the World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001 seeking psychological treatment for PTSD symptoms received four sessions of either exposure therapy or supportive counseling, followed by up to 10 sessions of prolonged exposure in a specialized PTSD treatment program at a private hospital serving the New York City metropolitan area. 24-hr mean integrated cortisol excretion was assessed by radioimmunoassay (RIA); urinary free cortisol and metabolites cortisone, 5?–tetrahydrocortisol (5?-THF), 5?–tetrahydrocortisol, and tetrahydrocortisone were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS); and indices of enzyme activities for 5?–and 5?–reductase and for the 11?–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were derived from the metabolite and glucocorticoid measures. Results 5?-reductase activity was significantly lower at pre-treatment among non-responders, whereas there were no significant pre-treatment differences between responders and non-responders in any other hormone or metabolite level. In repeated-measures analyses across the three time points, 5?-reductase activity, as well as 5?-THF and total glucocorticoids, significantly differed between responders and non-responders. For urinary cortisol measured by RIA, there was a significant group × time interaction indicating that, although not different at pre-treatment, urinary cortisol levels declined over time in the non-responder group, such that by follow-up, lowered cortisol significantly distinguished non-responders from responders. Indices of 5?-reductase activity, including 5?-THF and total glucocorticoids, were significantly negatively correlated with avoidance symptom severity at pre-treatment. At follow-up, indices of 5?-reductase activity were significantly negatively correlated with severity of all three PTSD symptom clusters and with total PTSD severity scores. Conclusion Lower 5?–reductase activity is associated with avoidance severity and predicts non-responsiveness to psychological treatment for PTSD symptomatology. Relatively diminished 5?–reductase activity may mark a state of primary vulnerability, perhaps via attenuated peripheral catabolism of cortisol resulting in the suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness. Lower cortisol levels appear later in the progression to chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD. PMID:19411143

Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M.; Sarapas, Casey; Makotkine, Iouri; Andrew, Ruth; Seckl, Jonathan R.



Salivary steroid hormone response to whole-body cryotherapy in elite rugby players.  


Saliva represents a low stress, not-invasively collected matrix that allows steroid hormone monitoring in athletes by reflecting type, intensity and duration of exercise. Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of short whole-body exposures to extremely cold air (-110° to -140°C) which, despite being initially used to treat inflammatory diseases, is currently acquiring increasing popularity in sports medicine. Cryostimulation practice is now widely accepted as an effective treatment to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this work was to study the changes of steroid hormones in saliva of rugby players after both 2 and 14 consecutive WBC sessions, in order to investigate the effects of the treatment on their salivary steroid hormonal profile. Twenty-five professional rugby players, belonging to the Italian National Team, underwent a 7-day cryotherapy protocol consisting of 2 daily sessions. Saliva samples were taken in the morning prior to the start of the WBC, in the evening after the end of the second WBC, and in the morning of the day after the last WBC session. The samples were analyzed for cortisol, DHEA, testosterone and estradiol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cortisol and DHEA showed a reduction already after the 2 WBC sessions of the first day; after 14 consecutive WBC sessions cortisol, DHEA, and estradiol levels decreased, while testosterone increased as did the testosterone to cortisol ratio. These results were confirmed by the fact that the majority of subjects showed variations exceeding the critical difference (CD). In conclusion, we found that WBC acutely affects the salivary steroid hormone profile, and the results are evident already after only one twice-daily session. Most significantly, after one-week of consecutive twice-daily WBC sessions, all the hormones were modified. This is the first experimental report that links changes in the hormonal asset to WBC. PMID:25001661

Grasso, D; Lanteri, P; Di Bernardo, C; Mauri, C; Porcelli, S; Colombini, A; Zani, V; Bonomi, F G; Melegati, G; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G



Surgical stress hormones response is reduced after awake videothoracoscopy.  


This study was undertaken to assess stress hormones response after awake videoassisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Plasma levels of adrenal-corticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucose were assessed at baseline, 3 h postoperatively (T1), and on postoperative mornings 2 (T2) and 3 (T3) in 21 patients undergoing awake VATS with epidural anesthesia for non-malignant conditions (n=11) or equivalent procedures performed with general anesthesia. Epinephrine level peaked in both groups at T1, although significant change from baseline values occurred in the control group only [median-Delta: 6 ng/l (IQR: 4-6), P=0.005]. Cortisol level was lower in the study group at T1 (15.5 microg/dl vs. 23.0 microg/dl, P=0.001) and T2 (15.2 microg/dl vs. 19.2 microg/dl, P=0.002). In the control group, peak cortisol level proved not to be related to changes in ACTH (R=0.23, P=0.46). At T2, glucose (137 mg/dl vs. 98 mg/dl, P=0.01) and C-reactive protein (P=0.04) were higher in the control group. No other clinically relevant between-groups differences were found in aspecific acute-response factors. Overall, these preliminary findings suggest attenuated stress response after awake VATS in comparison with equivalent procedure performed under general anesthesia and one-lung ventilation. PMID:20179134

Tacconi, Federico; Pompeo, Eugenio; Sellitri, Francesco; Mineo, Tommaso C



Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels during an assessment procedure correlate differently with risk-taking measures in male and female police recruits  

PubMed Central

Recent laboratory studies have shown that men display more risk-taking behavior in decision-making tasks following stress, whilst women are more risk-aversive or become more task-focused. In addition, these studies have shown that sex differences are related to levels of the stress hormone cortisol (indicative of activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis): the higher the levels of cortisol the more risk-taking behavior is shown by men, whereas women generally display more risk-aversive or task-focused behavior following higher levels of cortisol. Here, we assessed whether such relationships hold outside the laboratory, correlating levels of cortisol obtained during a job-related assessment procedure with decision-making parameters in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) in male and female police recruits. The CGT allows for discriminating different aspects of reward-based decision-making. In addition, we correlated levels of alpha-amylase [indicative of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary-axis (SAM)] and decision-making parameters. In line with earlier studies men and women only differed in risk-adjustment in the CGT. Salivary cortisol levels correlated positively and strongly with risk-taking measures in men, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation in women. In contrast, and less strongly so, salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with risk-taking in women, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation with risk-taking in men. Collectively, these data support and extend data of earlier studies indicating that risky decision-making in men and women is differently affected by stress hormones. The data are briefly discussed in relation to the effects of stress on gambling. PMID:24474909

van den Bos, Ruud; Taris, Ruben; Scheppink, Bianca; de Haan, Lydia; Verster, Joris C.



Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels during an assessment procedure correlate differently with risk-taking measures in male and female police recruits.  


Recent laboratory studies have shown that men display more risk-taking behavior in decision-making tasks following stress, whilst women are more risk-aversive or become more task-focused. In addition, these studies have shown that sex differences are related to levels of the stress hormone cortisol (indicative of activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis): the higher the levels of cortisol the more risk-taking behavior is shown by men, whereas women generally display more risk-aversive or task-focused behavior following higher levels of cortisol. Here, we assessed whether such relationships hold outside the laboratory, correlating levels of cortisol obtained during a job-related assessment procedure with decision-making parameters in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) in male and female police recruits. The CGT allows for discriminating different aspects of reward-based decision-making. In addition, we correlated levels of alpha-amylase [indicative of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary-axis (SAM)] and decision-making parameters. In line with earlier studies men and women only differed in risk-adjustment in the CGT. Salivary cortisol levels correlated positively and strongly with risk-taking measures in men, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation in women. In contrast, and less strongly so, salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with risk-taking in women, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation with risk-taking in men. Collectively, these data support and extend data of earlier studies indicating that risky decision-making in men and women is differently affected by stress hormones. The data are briefly discussed in relation to the effects of stress on gambling. PMID:24474909

van den Bos, Ruud; Taris, Ruben; Scheppink, Bianca; de Haan, Lydia; Verster, Joris C



Cortisol Variation in Humans Affects Memory for Emotionally Laden and Neutral Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a test of the effects of cortisol on emotional memory, 90 men were orally administered placebo or 20 or 40 mg cortisol and presented with emotionally arousing and neutral stimuli. On memory tests administered within 1 hr of stimulus presentation, cortisol elevations caused a reduction in the number of errors committed on free-recall tasks. Two evenings later, when cortisol

Heather C. Abercrombie; Ned H. Kalin; Marchell E. Thurow; Melissa A. Rosenkranz; Richard J. Davidson



Sex differences in the association between cortisol concentrations and laboratory pain responses in healthy children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Research in adult populations has highlighted sex differences in cortisol concentrations and laboratory pain responses, with men exhibiting higher cortisol concentrations and reduced pain responses compared with women. Yet, less is known about the relationship of cortisol concentrations to pain in children.Objective: This study examined associations between sex, cortisol, and pain responses to laboratory pain tasks in children.Methods: Salivary

Laura B. Allen; Qian Lu; Jennie C. I. Tsao; Carol M. Worthman; Lonnie K. Zeltzer



ORIGINAL RESEARCH--ANATOMY/PHYSIOLOGY Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL RESEARCH--ANATOMY/PHYSIOLOGY Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim. In the present study, we explored individual differences in women's cortisol response to sexual arousal in a laboratory setting. We also examined how cortisol

Meston, Cindy


Acute Cortisol Elevations Cause Heightened Arousal Ratings of Objectively Nonarousing Stimuli  

E-print Network

Acute Cortisol Elevations Cause Heightened Arousal Ratings of Objectively Nonarousing Stimuli the effects of cortisol on affective experience, the authors orally administered a placebo, 20 mg cortisol, or 40 mg cortisol to 85 men. Participants' affective responses to negative and neutral stimuli were

Wisconsin at Madison, University of


Hormonal modulation of branchial Na +-K +ATPase subunit mRNA in a marine teleost Sparus sarba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hormone treatment on the abundance of Na+-K+-ATPase ?- and ?-subunit mRNA in Sparus sarba branchial tissue was investigated. Groups of seawater (33‰) and hypo-osmotic (6‰) acclimated fish were injected daily, with either saline, cortisol, recombinant bream growth hormone (rbGH) or ovine prolactin (oPRL). Total RNA from branchial tissue was analyzed by Northern blotting using PCR amplified Na+-K+-ATPase

Eddie E. Deane; Scott P. Kelly; Norman Y. S. Woo



Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).  


Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na(2)SO(3)) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC(50)>2000mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC(50)=8.7mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC(50)=90.4mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. PMID:21466817

Miller, L L; Hontela, A



Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.  


Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. PMID:21185838

Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M



Circadian variation of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, cortisol and fluid balance in the goat.  


Circadian variation of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), cortisol and fluid balance was studied in ten adult female goats. The concentrations of plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH), electrolytes, creatinine and total protein, as well as plasma and urine osmolalities and renal electrolyte excretion and clearances (Cosm, CH2O, Ccrea), were used to evaluate fluid balance. At 3-h intervals, urine was collected from five goats and venous blood samples from all ten goats. Urethral catheterization had no effect on the results. Besides the lower plasma creatinine level in the dark than in daylight, no other changes were observed in relation to luminousness. Plasma concentrations of ANP, ADH, total protein and K, urine flow rate and osmolality, urine concentrations of Na, K and creatinine, renal Na and K excretion, Cosm, CH2O and Ccrea, and haematocrit showed no circadian variation. Circadian variation was observed in plasma osmolality (P < 0.05) and the concentrations of Na (P < 0.05) and creatinine (P < 0.05), with achrophases around 16:00 hours and nadirs between 01:00 and 07:00 hours. Changes in osmolality and Na followed the feeding schedule. There was a small elevation in plasma cortisol levels in six goats after midnight, which may be the consequence of circadian rhythm. In conclusion, the results suggest that in plasma ANP no circadian rhythm exists. PMID:11350257

Kokkonen, U M; Riskilä, P; Roihankorpi, M T; Soveri, T



Cortisol, cytokines, and hippocampal volume interactions in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Separate bodies of literature report that elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol negatively affect hippocampal structure and cognitive functioning, particularly in older adults. Although interactions between cytokines and cortisol occur through a variety of known mechanisms, few studies consider how their interactions affect brain structure. In this preliminary study, we assess the impact of interactions between circulating levels of IL-1Beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and waking cortisol on hippocampal volume. Twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults underwent blood draws for quantification of circulating cytokines and saliva collections to quantify the cortisol awakening response. Hippocampal volume measurements were made using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Elevated levels of waking cortisol in conjunction with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. In addition, independent of cortisol, higher levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were also associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. These data provide preliminary evidence that higher cortisol, in conjunction with higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are associated with smaller hippocampal volume in older adults. We suggest that the dynamic balance between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and inflammation processes may explain hippocampal volume reductions in older adults better than either set of measures do in isolation. PMID:25071562

Sudheimer, Keith D.; O'Hara, Ruth; Spiegel, David; Powers, Bevin; Kraemer, Helena C.; Neri, Eric; Weiner, Michael; Hardan, Antonio; Hallmayer, Joachim; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.



Sources of sampling variation in saliva cortisol in dogs.  


The main advantage of collecting saliva cortisol as opposed to plasma cortisol is that it is non-invasive and therefore it is now widely used in stress measurement studies on farm animals and dogs. Although a plasma cortisol response to handling associated with blood collection generally occurs at 3 min from the commencement of handling, there is no information in the literature on the time course of the response of salivary cortisol concentration to handling. The aims of these experiments were to (1). determine if there is a response to up to 4 min handling that affects cortisol concentration in saliva and (2). determine the main causes of variation in saliva cortisol in dogs over time. In experiment 1, saliva was collected from six Kelpies at 0 min then 2, 3 or 4 min after the commencement of restraint. There was no handling effect found in up to 4 min sampling time. In experiment 2, saliva was collected from six Labrador Retrievers five times in 2 h (14:00-16:00), three days a week for four weeks. Some of the sources of variation in saliva cortisol over time included between dog variation that varied over a period of days and variation between occasions that affected the group of dogs as a whole. PMID:12893165

Kobelt, A J; Hemsworth, P H; Barnett, J L; Butler, K L



Hormonal modulation of branchial Na+-K+-ATPase subunit mRNA in a marine teleost Sparus sarba.  


The effect of hormone treatment on the abundance of Na+-K+-ATPase alpha- and beta-subunit mRNA in Sparus sarba branchial tissue was investigated. Groups of seawater (33/1000) and hypo-osmotic (6/1000) acclimated fish were injected daily, with either saline, cortisol, recombinant bream growth hormone (rbGH) or ovine prolactin (oPRL). Total RNA from branchial tissue was analyzed by Northern blotting using PCR amplified Na+-K+-ATPase alpha- and beta-subunit cDNA clones. Na+-K+-ATPase alpha- and beta- subunit transcripts of 3.3kb and 2.4kb respectively, were detected and their abundance, after hormone treatment was assessed using RNA dot blots. The abundance of subunit mRNAs increased 1.4-1.9 fold, relative to controls, after cortisol treatment. The alpha:beta mRNA ratio also increased in cortisol treated seawater acclimated fish. Growth hormone treatment did not cause any significant changes in Na+-K+-ATPase subunit mRNA, whereas prolactin significantly reduced alpha-subunit mRNA levels by approximately 0.5 fold in both seawater and hypo-osmotic conditions. The data from this study add further support to the generally accepted roles that cortisol and prolactin have in the modulation of Na+-K+-ATPase activity. It can be concluded from this study that S. sarba branchial Na+-K+-ATPase subunit expression is multihormonally regulated. PMID:10350356

Deane, E E; Kelly, S P; Woo, N Y



[Increased hair growth during prolonged tocolytic therapy with fenoterol. Measurements of testosterone, androstandiol, cortisol and ACTH (author's transl)].  


28 patients out of 30 treated with a longtime i.v. infusion of Fenoterol showed an intensive hair growth all-over the skin not especially showing the Linea alba and the beard. To investigate the normal hair growth during pregnancy we examined 384 volontiers just before delivery. 2,8% showed an android hair growth and 3,6% a more intensive hair growth all over the skin. To investigate the role of hormones in the excessive hair growth following i.v. tocolysis with Fenoterol, we measured Testosterone, 5 a-androstan-3 beta-17 beta-diol, Cortisol and ACTH. In contrast to the reports in literature we found a decrease in Testosterone during the treatment with Fenoterol. After an initial fall Androstandiol showed a slight rise in the 3rd week of therapy. ACTH and Cortisol remained unchanged. Contrary to the literature we did not see any augmentation of plasma Cortisol. We conclude, that androgen metabolites are not the reason for the intensive hair growth. The hair growth may be due to a more intensive metabolism within the hair follicle. PMID:6254828

Spätling, L; Schneider, H; Stähler, E; Daume, E; Sturm, G



Development and evaluation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of salivary melatonin, cortisol and testosterone.  


Circadian disruption can have several possible health consequences, but is not well studied. In order to measure circadian disruption, in relation to shift or night work, we developed a simple and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in human saliva. We used liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) recorded in positive ion mode. Saliva samples were collected by spitting directly into tubes and 250 ?L were used for analysis. The limits of detection were 4.1 pmol/L, 0.27 nmol/L and 10.8 pmol/L for melatonin, cortisol, and testosterone, respectively. The developed method was sensitive enough to measure circadian rhythms of all 3 hormones in a pilot study among four healthy volunteers. It can therefor be used to study the impact of night work and working in artificial light on the workers circadian rhythms. To our knowledge this is the first LC-ESI-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of salivary melatonin, cortisol and testosterone. PMID:21803007

Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Hansen, Ase Marie; Abrahamsson, Peter; Nørgaard, Asger W



Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Introduction Theoretically, the physiological response to stress should inhibit the sexual response. This has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models, and correlationally in studies of human reproduction. It is reasonable to expect, then, that the stress response would be blunted during sexual arousal, and several researchers have found a pattern of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim In the present study, we explored individual differences in women’s cortisol response to sexual arousal in a laboratory setting. We also examined how cortisol response in the laboratory related to a validated measure of sexual arousal functioning in real life. Main Outcome Measures Cortisol levels were measured in saliva via enzyme immunoassay. Subjective arousal was measured by a self-report questionnaire, and genital arousal was measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Methods Subjective and physiological responses to an erotic film were assessed in 30 women. Saliva samples were taken at baseline and following the film. Results The majority of women (N = 20) showed a decrease in cortisol; nine women showed an increase in response to an erotic film. The women who showed an increase in cortisol had lower scores on the Arousal, Desire, and Satisfaction domains of the Female Sexual Function Index. Genital arousal in the laboratory was not related to cortisol change. Conclusions Women who show an increase in cortisol in response to sexual stimuli in the laboratory have lower levels of functioning in certain areas of their sexual life compared with women who show a decrease in cortisol. Stress related to sexual performance may interfere with sexual arousal. PMID:18624961

Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.



Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation  

PubMed Central

Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay between these factors is still unclear. This study aims to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD = 1.36; 125 maltreated children and 111 nonmaltreated children, 128 boys and 108 girls) who attended a week-long summer camp for two consecutive years. Saliva was collected during five days at 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m.. Means of morning and afternoon cortisol, and cortisol change (difference between morning and afternoon levels, controlled for morning levels) were grouped into low, medium, and high cortisol groups. Prosocial, disruptive/aggressive, and withdrawn behaviors were assessed using information from peers and counselors. Maltreated children showed less prosocial, and more disruptive/aggressive and withdrawn behavior. Results of Structural Equation Modeling analyses indicated that there were indirect effects of maltreatment on year 2 morning cortisol via prosocial disruptive/aggressive behavior: Lower levels of prosocial behavior and higher levels of disruptive/aggressive behavior were related to lower morning cortisol levels one year later. Withdrawn behavior was related to higher afternoon cortisol values one year later. Results of this study suggest that maltreated children are more likely to experience difficulties in social functioning, which in turn is related to cortisol regulation one year later. This altered HPA-axis functioning may put children at risk for later psychopathology. PMID:21823793

Alink, Lenneke R.A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.



Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch  

SciTech Connect

Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxin and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via ..beta..-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents.

Sheridan, M.A.



Hormone Replacement Therapy  


... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...


The hormonal costs of subtle forms of infant maltreatment.  


We show here that subtle forms of maltreatment during infancy (below 1 year of age) have potential consequences for the functioning of the child's adrenocortical response system. Infants who received frequent corporal punishment (e.g., spanking) showed high hormonal reactivity to stress (a repeated separation from mother, combined with the presence of a stranger). In addition, infants who experienced frequent emotional withdrawal by their mothers (either as a result of maternal depression, or mother's strategic use of withdrawal as a control tactic) showed elevated baseline levels of cortisol. It was suggested that there are hormonal "costs" when mothers show response patterns (intentionally or unintentionally) that limit their utility as a means of buffering the child against stress. The hormonal responses shown by infants may alter the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in ways that, if continued, may foster risk for immune disorders, sensitization to later stress, cognitive deficits, and social-emotional problems. PMID:12614655

Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Martorell, Gabriela A; Barraza, Veronica



Sleep-related hormone secretion in depressed patients.  


Among human subjects, sleep is a time of considerable neuro-endocrine activity and the nocturnal secretion of growth hormone is intimately related to the sleep-wake cycle. In contrast, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of entrained individuals shows a circadian pattern of activity with secretion increasing in the latter part of sleep. A variety of neuroendocrine disturbances have been described in depressed patients who also manifest consistent disturbances in their sleep-wake cycle. The sleep-wake cycle is capable of masking these rhythms and thereby modifying patterns of hormone secretion. The sleep disturbance in depressed patients appears to have little effect on the phase of either cortisol or growth hormone secretion but does reduce their amplitudes. PMID:4091022

Jarrett, D B; Coble, P; Kupfer, D J; Greenhouse, J B



Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed, and children's saliva was sampled before, during, and after standardized procedures designed to elicit emotional arousal. Results revealed cocaine-exposed infants had a high amplitude trajectory of cortisol reactivity compared to non-cocaine-exposed infants. Infant gender and caregiving instability moderated this association. The findings support a dual hazard vulnerability model and have implications for evolutionary-developmental theories of individual differences in biological sensitivity to context. PMID:19467009

Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.



Relationship between midweek training measures of testosterone and cortisol concentrations and game outcome in professional rugby union matches.  


Gaviglio, CM and Cook, CJ. Relationship between midweek training measures of testosterone and cortisol concentrations and game outcome in professional rugby union matches. J Strength Cond Res 28(12): 3447-3452, 2014-The aim of this study was to assess the response of salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations across selected midweek skill-based training sessions and their association with subsequent match outcome 3 days later. Twenty-two rugby union players were assessed for salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations before and after a midweek training session over 6 consecutive weeks. The relative percentage change (response) in the testosterone and cortisol concentration and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio was also determined. Game-day analysis consisted of prematch testosterone concentrations and match outcome. Data were pooled across the winning (n = 3) and losing (n = 3) outcomes. The midweek pretraining T/C ratio was significantly lower (p < 0.01) before a win than a loss and the increase in the pre- to post-T/C ratio before a win was significant (p < 0.001). The increase in the pre- to post-testosterone concentration before a win was also shown to be significant (p < 0.01). However, the relative changes in testosterone before games that were won were not statistically different to that of games lost (p > 0.01). Significant relationships were also demonstrated between game-day pre-testosterone concentrations and the midweek cortisol response (r = -0.90, p = 0.01) and midweek T/C ratio response (r = 0.90, p = 0.01). In conclusion, a midweek measurement of the T/C ratio against a skill-based training session seems to show some potential as an early indicator of subsequent successfully executed performances in competitive rugby union. If this work is subsequently validated, further monitoring of midweek hormone concentrations in response to a mixed psychological-physical training session may assist with assessing competitive readiness leading up to competition. PMID:24936894

Gaviglio, Christopher M; Cook, Christian J



Selected hormonal and immunological responses to strenuous live-fire firefighting drills.  


This study investigated the effects of strenuous live-fire firefighting drills and a 90 min recovery period on selected hormonal, immunological and psychological variables. Apparently healthy, male, professional firefighters (n = 11) performed three trials of standardized firefighting tasks in a live-fire training structure. There was significant leukocytosis immediately post firefighting activity that persisted following recovery, although there was a variable response among the leukocyte subsets. Most notable was the decrease in number and percentage of lymphocytes following 90 min of recovery. Plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol were significantly elevated post firefighting activity and cortisol remained elevated following 90 min of recovery. Elevated cortisol immediately following activity was related to reduced feelings of energy. These data demonstrate the magnitude of the physiological and psychological disruption following strenuous firefighting activity and suggest that immune function may be altered following such activity. This is a finding that may have practical consequences for this group of first responders. PMID:15764306

Smith, D L; Petruzzello, S J; Chludzinski, M A; Reed, J J; Woods, J A



Hormonal responses to psychological stress in men preparing for skydiving.  


The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between the hormonal and psychological responses of young men about to engage in a potentially life-threatening event. Subjects were recruited to take their first skydiving jump. The scores on questionnaires designed to assess anxiety were not significantly increased at 0800 h on the morning before the jump by comparison with scores obtained from the same subjects 3-5 days previously. However, a psychological instrument for rating of events indicated significantly increased intensity, and sympathetic nervous system activity, as measured by the salivary amylase response, was increased over self-control values. Salivary cortisol and testosterone levels were significantly lower on the morning of the jump than self-control values and values in control subjects determined at the same time of day. However, plasma LH was not suppressed. The anxiety and stress measures as well as the rating of events rose to high levels just before the jump. With the exception of testosterone, which remained low, serum cortisol, PRL, and GH all increased greatly subsequent to the rise in psychological measures, reached peak values before or shortly after landing, and declined significantly within the next hour. Anxiety and subjective stress scores declined to those of the self-control values within 15 min after landing, but the rating of events scale remained significantly elevated. In summary, reported anxiety associated with a purely psychological stressor was suppressed until within a few hours preceding the event, but was preceded by an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity and suppression of plasma cortisol and salivary testosterone levels. The event itself was associated with a reversal of the cortisol decline; other stress-associated hormones increased, but salivary testosterone remained low. PMID:9253325

Chatterton, R T; Vogelsong, K M; Lu, Y C; Hudgens, G A



Short-term incubation of equine laminar veins with cortisol and insulin alters contractility in vitro: possible implications for the pathogenesis of equine laminitis.  


This study investigated the effects of cortisol and insulin, hormones that affect both glycaemic status and vascular function, on the in vitro contractility of isolated healthy equine small laminar veins. Small veins (150-500 ?m) draining the digital laminae from healthy horses or ponies were investigated by wire myography. Concentration response curves were constructed for noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the presence of either cortisol (10(-6 ) m) or insulin (1000 ?IU/mL). Cortisol significantly increased the maximum contractility of laminar veins to the vasoconstrictors NA and 5-HT but decreased the maximal contraction to ET-1. Insulin decreased the contractility of vessels to PE and ET-1. It is possible that short-term cortisol excess could enhance venoconstrictor responses to 5-HT and NA in laminar veins in vivo, thereby predisposing to laminitis. Additionally, a reduction in the ability of insulin to counteract alpha-adrenoreceptor and ET-1-mediated contraction, likely to occur in subjects with insulin resistance, may further exacerbate venoconstriction in animals prone to laminitis. These mechanisms may also predispose horses with disorders such as equine Cushing's disease and equine metabolic syndrome to laminitis. PMID:22943152

Keen, J A; McGorum, B C; Hillier, C; Nally, J E



Cortisol Response Following Exposure Treatment for PTSD in Rape Victims.  


This study examined changes in salivary cortisol levels pre-to-post-treatment in adult female rape victims diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) randomly assigned to be treated with either Prolonged Exposure Therapy or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, session 3, and session 9. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol levels was observed in individuals classified as treatment responders in both treatment conditions. Findings suggest that successful exposure-based treatments for PTSD which result in trauma-related and depressive symptom reduction may impact the action of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as measured by changes in level of salivary cortisol from pre-to-post-treatment. PMID:20526437

Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Astin, Millie C; Kelley, Mary



Salivary cortisol in top-level professional soccer players.  


We have tested the hypothesis that salivary cortisol increases after a competitive training match in top-level male professional soccer players divided in team A (n = 11) versus team B (n = 11). Saliva samples collected before and after the match were analyzed. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results from a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures showed no significant changes in salivary cortisol between either teams or time points (P > 0.05). Further investigation regarding competitive matches in a competition environment is warranted. In summary, the influence of intensive competitive training match alone appears to be minimal on salivary cortisol changes in top-level soccer adapted to this type of stress. From a practical application, the variability of the responses among the players leads us to suggest that there is a need to individually analyse the results with team sports. PMID:19159948

Moreira, Alexandre; Arsati, Franco; de Oliveira Lima Arsati, Ynara Bosco; da Silva, Danilo Augusto; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti



Three tests of cortisol secretion in adult endogenous depressives.  


Seventy-nine drug-free adult patients fitting RDC criteria for major depressive disorder endogenous subtype (EMDD), and 64 normal adult volunteers, were studied at pretreatment with at least one of three tests of cortisol secretion. The tests were: 1) Mean half-hourly cortisol concentrations from 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. (1-4 PM CORT); 2) plasma cortisol response to 0.15 mg/kg of dextroamphetamine hydrochloride (DACT) in the afternoon; 3) dexamethasone suppression test (DST) using 1 or 2 mg. Thirty-six depressive and 27 volunteers underwent all three tests. Analysis of the data was performed for each test singly, for all pairs of tests and for all three tests in same subjects. Results show that the single most sensitive cortisol test for depressions is the DACT (72%), with a specificity of 88%. These tests may measure different underlying pathophysiologies associated with depression. PMID:3969837

Sachar, E J; Puig-Antich, J; Ryan, N D; Asnis, G M; Rabinovich, H; Davies, M; Halpern, F S



Salivary cortisol in top-level professional soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have tested the hypothesis that salivary cortisol increases after a competitive training match in top-level male professional\\u000a soccer players divided in team A (n = 11) versus team B (n = 11). Saliva samples collected before and after the match were analyzed. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured\\u000a by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results from a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures showed no significant

Alexandre Moreira; Franco Arsati; Ynara Bosco de Oliveira Lima Arsati; Danilo Augusto da Silva; Vera Cavalcanti de Araújo



Cortisol Differentially Affects Memory in Young and Elderly Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine young and 11 elderly men participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study (0.5 mg\\/kg cortisol or intravenous placebo). Participants learned a word list before cortisol administration, and delayed recall was then tested. A 2nd word list was learned and recalled after drug administration. In addition, the Paragraph Recall Test and tests measuring working memory (Digit Span), attention (timed cancellation),

O. T. Wolf; Antonio Convit; P. F. McHugh; E. Kandil; E. L. Thorn; S. De Santi; B. S. McEwen; M. J. de Leon



Interleukin-6, Cortisol, and Depressive Symptoms in Ovarian Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose Inflammatory processes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both depression and cancer. Links between depressive symptoms, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cortisol dysregulation have been demonstrated in cancer patients, but vegetative versus affective components of depression have been minimally examined. The objective of the current study was to examine associations between IL-6, diurnal cortisol rhythms, and facets of depression in epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Patients and Methods Patients awaiting surgery for a pelvic mass suspected for ovarian cancer completed questionnaires, collected salivary samples for 3 days presurgery, and gave a presurgical blood sample. Ascites was obtained during surgery. IL-6 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cortisol by a chemiluminescence immunoassay. The final sample included 112 invasive ovarian cancer patients (86 advanced stage, 26 early stage) and 25 patients with tumors of low malignant potential (LMP). Results Advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients demonstrated elevations in vegetative and affective depressive symptoms, plasma IL-6, and the cortisol area under the curve (AUC) compared with patients with LMP tumors (all P < .05). Among invasive ovarian cancer patients, greater vegetative depression was related to elevated IL-6 in plasma (P = .008) and ascites (P = .024), but affective depression was unrelated to IL-6. Elevations in total depression (P = .026) and vegetative depression (P = .005) were also related to higher evening cortisol levels. Plasma IL-6 was related to greater afternoon and evening cortisol and cortisol AUC (all P values < .005). Conclusion These results demonstrate significant relationships between IL-6, cortisol, and vegetative depression, and may have implications for treatment of depression in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:18779606

Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Weinrib, Aliza Z.; Penedo, Frank; Russell, Daniel; DeGeest, Koen; Costanzo, Erin S.; Henderson, Patrick J.; Sephton, Sandra E.; Rohleder, Nicolas; Lucci, Joseph A.; Cole, Steven; Sood, Anil K.; Lubaroff, David M.



Plasma Cortisol Levels of Dogs at a County Animal Shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hennessy, M. B., H. N. Davis, M. T. Williams, C. Mellott and C. W. Douglas. Plasma cortisol levels of dogs in a county animal shelter. Physiol Behav 62(3) 485–490, 1997.—Plasma cortisol levels were examined to assess the stress of dogs in a county animal shelter. Groups of dogs confined in the shelter for their 1st, 2nd, or 3rd day had

Michael B Hennessy; Harry N Davis; Michael T Williams; Carolyn Mellott; Chet W Douglas



Temporal relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs in response to  

E-print Network

Temporal relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs in response to adrenal stimulation or suppression R. J. Adcock*, H. G. Kattesh was to document changes in plasma concentrations of total cortisol, porcine corticosteroid-binding globulin (p

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.


Depression, Cortisol Reactivity and Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Purpose Depression in childhood is associated with higher body mass index (BMI), a relative measure of overweight, and overweight is associated with cortisol reactivity, indexed by heightened secretion of cortisol in response to a stressor. The current study uses a mediation model to examine the associations between symptoms of depression, cortisol reactivity and BMI in a cross-sectional study. Methods Children (N=111) 8 to 13 years old and a parent completed structured interviews. The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess symptoms of depression, and cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children was measured. Physical examinations were used to determine BMI (kg/m2) and pubertal stage. Results Depression was positively associated with BMI in both sexes. Age and pubertal stage were not significantly associated with BMI, nor was physical activity and BMI in a model including depression. In girls, but not in boys, the association between depression and BMI was mediated by cortisol reactivity. Conclusions The current findings attest to the significance of psychological states as potential components in models of childhood obesity, and provide conceptual and empirical support for the inclusion of cortisol reactivity in these models. PMID:19766938

Dockray, Samantha; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Dorn, Lorah D.



MDMA, cortisol, and heightened stress in recreational ecstasy users.  


Stress develops when an organism requires additional metabolic resources to cope with demanding situations. This review will debate how recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can increase some aspects of acute and chronic stress in humans. Laboratory studies on the acute effects of MDMA on cortisol release and neurohormone levels in drug-free regular ecstasy/MDMA users have been reviewed, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic changes in anxiety, stress, and cognitive coping is debated. In the laboratory, acute ecstasy/MDMA use can increase cortisol levels by 100-200%, whereas ecstasy/MDMA-using dance clubbers experience an 800% increase in cortisol levels, because of the combined effects of the stimulant drug and dancing. Three-month hair samples of abstinent users revealed cortisol levels 400% higher than those in controls. Chronic users show heightened cortisol release in stressful environments and deficits in complex neurocognitive tasks. Event-related evoked response potential studies show altered patterns of brain activation, suggestive of increased mental effort, during basic information processing. Chronic mood deficits include more daily stress and higher depression in susceptible individuals. We conclude that ecstasy/MDMA increases cortisol levels acutely and subchronically and that changes in the HPA axis may explain why recreational ecstasy/MDMA users show various aspects of neuropsychobiological stress. PMID:25014666

Parrott, Andrew C; Montgomery, Cathy; Wetherell, Mark A; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew B



Habituation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis hormones to repeated homotypic stress and subsequent heterotypic stressor exposure in male and female rats.  


Understanding potential sex differences in repeated stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis habituation could provide insight into the sex-biased prevalence of certain affective disorders such as anxiety and depression. Therefore in these studies, male and female rats were exposed to 30?min of either audiogenic or restraint stress daily for 10 days in order to determine whether sex regulates the extent to which HPA axis hormone release is attenuated upon repeated homotypic stressor presentation. In response to the initial exposure, both stressors robustly increased plasma concentrations of both adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in both sexes. Acutely, females displayed higher ACTH and CORT concentrations following restraint stress, whereas males exhibited higher hormone concentrations following loud noise stress. HPA axis hormone responses to both stressors decreased incrementally over successive days of exposure to each respective stressor. Despite the differential effect of sex on acute hormone responses, the extent to which HPA axis hormone response was attenuated did not differ between male and female animals following either stressor. Furthermore, ACTH and CORT responses to a novel environment were not affected by prior exposure to stress of either modality in either male or female rats. These experiments demonstrate that despite the acute stress response, male and female rats exhibit similar habituation of HPA axis hormones upon repeated homotypic stressor presentations, and that exposure to repeated stress does not produce exaggerated HPA axis hormone responses to a novel environment in either female or male rats. PMID:24635729

Babb, Jessica A; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge



The Association between Prenatal Exposure to Cigarettes and Cortisol Reactivity in 7-Month-Old Infants  

PubMed Central

We examined the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes and adrenocortical responses to stress in 7-month old infants. Cortisol levels were assessed twice prior to and twice following affect-eliciting procedures in 111 (59 exposed and 52 nonexposed) infants. Cortisol reactivity was defined as the difference between the peak poststressor cortical level and the pretask cortisol level. Higher values indicated higher cortisol reactivity. Exposed infants had higher peak cortisol reactivity than non exposed infants. There were no differences in pretask cortisol levels. Maternal hostility mediated the association between cigarette exposure and peak cortisol reactivity. Furthermore, infant gender moderated this association such that exposed boys had significantly higher peak cortisol reactivity than nonexposed infants or exposed girls. These findings provide additional evidence that prenatal cigarette exposure is associated with dysregulation during infancy and that early adverse, non-social experiences may have relatively long-lasting effects on cortisol reactivity in infants. PMID:18690653

Schuetze, Pamela; Lopez, Francisco; Granger, Douglas A.; Eiden, Rina D.



Concerns Regarding Hair Cortisol as a Biomarker of Chronic Stress in Exercise and Sport Science  

PubMed Central

Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes’ elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels. Key points Hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive and painless means to capture long-term cortisol secretion. Individuals expected to have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to trauma) have increased hair cortisol. Preliminary evidence shows that exercisers have higher hair cortisol levels as well. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol secretion mediates stress-related effects on health and performance. There is a great dearth of knowledge about the relationship between sport, exercise and hair cortisol. PMID:24150065

Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Puhse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjorg H.



Investigation on possible transformations of cortisol, cortisone and cortisol glucuronide in bovine faecal matter using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


Given the close resemblance of the ring A structure of prednisolone and prednisone on the one hand, and of androstadienedione on the other, the transformation of cortisol and cortisone into prednisolone and prednisone in cattle faeces was evaluated. A simple method that does not involve extraction but only the 1:100 dilution of cattle faeces, spiking with 400ng/mL cortisol, cortisone or cortisol glucuronide and incubation of the suspension, was used. The analyses were performed by HPLC-MS(3) to detect the supposed Delta(1) dehydrogenation of the glucocorticoids. The decision limits (CCalpha) and detection capabilities (CCbeta) were 2.0 and 3.0ng/mL for cortisol, cortisone and prednisolone, 3.0 and 4.0ng/mL for cortisol glucuronide and 7.0 and 10.0ng/mL for prednisone, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation (CV%), were 5.6-6.2 and 5.2-6.6 for cortisol glucuronide, cortisol, cortisone and prednisolone, and 16.0 and 16.2 for prednisone, respectively. The recoveries were in the range 110-143% for all analytes. Regression coefficients (R2) were in the range 0.996-0.999 for all analytes. The results show the hydrolysis of the conjugated form and the dehydrogenation in ring A in diluted faeces. It is therefore predicted that urine contaminated with faeces may be positive for prednisone and prednisolone in the same way as they are positive for boldenone, i.e. as a result of microbiological dehydrogenase activity on cortisol and cortisone. PMID:20116390

Arioli, Francesco; Fidani, Marco; Casati, Alessio; Fracchiolla, Maria L; Pompa, Giuseppe



Early hormonal changes affect the catabolic response to trauma.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine how temporary insulin suppression might alter the catabolic effects of cortisol, glucagon, and epinephrine. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The metabolic responses to injury include hypermetabolism, accelerated net skeletal muscle protein breakdown, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. These alterations are associated with increased stress hormone concentrations. Insulin elaboration is usually suppressed immediately after an injury but is abundant later during convalescence. An infusion of hydrocortisone, glucagon, and epinephrine increases both stress hormone concentrations and insulin levels. It induces many of the metabolic alterations seen in critically ill patients, but it does not affect net muscle breakdown. METHODS: Seven healthy adults received a stress hormone infusion for 3 days in two separate studies. During one study they, also received an infusion of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide (0.005 micrograms/kg/min), to suppress insulin elaboration for the first 24 hours. During the other study (control), insulin was permitted to rise unchecked. RESULTS: Stress hormone concentrations, hypermetabolism (+/- 20% above basal), and leukocytosis were similar during both study periods. When insulin elaboration was temporarily suppressed, whole-body nitrogen loss was increased during the first 48 hours, and the efflux of amino acids from the forearm after 72 hours of infusion was 60% greater than the control level. CONCLUSIONS: Temporary insulin suppression during physiologic increases in stress hormone concentrations amplified whole-body nitrogen loss and led to the development of accelerated net skeletal muscle protein breakdown. Early hormonal changes after an injury may affect the development of later catabolic responses. PMID:8215639

Bessey, P Q; Lowe, K A



[Hormonal dysnatremia].  


Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. PMID:24356291

Karaca, P; Desailloud, R



A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for cortisol using a long-chain biotinylated cortisol-3-CMO derivative.  


An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using streptavidin-biotin system as a bridge between antibodies bound antigen and reporter molecule (horseradish peroxidase enzyme) has been described. The cortisol antiserum was generated against cortisol-3-O-carboxylmethyl oxime-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-BSA). We have prepared biotin-labelled cortisol as a primary probe and utilized streptavidin-labelled horseradish peroxidase (SA-HRP) as secondary probe to monitor the antigen-antibody interaction. To the cortisol antibody coated micro wells, 25 microL of standard or samples, along with 100 microL of biotinylated cortisol, were kept for 1 h at room temperature. Thereafter, wells were washed and 100 microL of SA-HRP was added to all wells and kept again for 20 min at room temperature. Bound enzyme activity was measured using tetramethyl benzidine/hydrogen peroxidase (TMB/H2O2) as substrate. The incorporation of streptavidin-biotin system as a bridge between antibody bound antigen and reporter molecule (horseradish peroxidase enzyme) increased sensitivity and specificity of the cortisol assay. The use of low molecular weight primary label (F-3-CMO-biotin) might have facilitated the easy and selective access of the analyte present in serum to compete with the antigen-binding pocket of antibody, thereby detecting as low as 3.42 ng/mL of analyte specifically. PMID:18821412

Nara, Seema; Tripathi, Vinay; Chaube, Shail K; Rangari, Kiran; Singh, Harpal; Kariya, Kiran P; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G



Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction  

PubMed Central

Background Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standard clinical chemistry analyzers, thus allowing even small clinical laboratories to do analysis on-site. One limitation of steroid hormone immunoassays is interference caused by compounds with structural similarity to the target steroid of the assay. Interfering molecules include structurally related endogenous compounds and their metabolites as well as drugs such as anabolic steroids and synthetic glucocorticoids. Methods Cross-reactivity of a structurally diverse set of compounds were determined for the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assays for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. These data were compared and contrasted to package insert data and published cross-reactivity studies for other marketed steroid hormone immunoassays. Cross-reactivity was computationally predicted using the technique of two-dimensional molecular similarity. Results The Roche Elecsys Cortisol and Testosterone II assays showed a wider range of cross-reactivity than the DHEA sulfate, Estradiol II, and Progesterone II assays. 6-Methylprednisolone and prednisolone showed high cross-reactivity for the cortisol assay, with high likelihood of clinically significant effect for patients administered these drugs. In addition, 21-deoxycortisol likely produces clinically relevant cross-reactivity for cortisol in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may produce clinically relevant cross-reactivity in 11?-hydroxylase deficiency or following metyrapone challenge. Several anabolic steroids may produce clinically significant false positives on the testosterone assay, although interpretation is limited by sparse pharmacokinetic data for some of these drugs. Norethindrone therapy may impact immunoassay measurement of testosterone in women. Using two-dimensional similarity calculations, all compounds with high cross-reactivity also showed a high degree of similarity to the target molecule of the immunoassay. Conclusions Compounds producing cross-reactivity in steroid hormone immunoassays generally have a high degree of structural similarity to the target hormone. Clinically significant interactions can occur with structurally similar drugs (e.g., prednisolone and cortisol immunoassays; methyltestosterone and testosterone immunoassays) or with endogenous compounds such as 21-deoxycortisol that can accumulate to very high concentrations in certain disease conditions. Simple similarity calculations can help triage compounds for future testing of assay cross-reactivity. PMID:25071417



Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS  

E-print Network

Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS Hormone assays Oliver: Schultheiss, O. C., Schiepe, A., & Rawolle, M. (2012). Hormone assays. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long Association. #12;Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 2 Hormone assays Hormones can be assayed from

Schultheiss, Oliver C.


Effect of training on blood volume and plasma hormone concentrations in the elderly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 6 months of endurance training on resting plasma (PV) and blood volume (BV), and resting hormone and electrolyte concentrations in the elderly. Thirty-eight elderly men and women (ages 60-82 yr) were assigned to endurance exercise training (N = 29) or to control (N = 9) groups. Resting plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, vasopressin, aldosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, sodium, potassium, and protein were measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of 26 wk of training. PV measurement was performed using the Evan's blue dye technique. Endurance training consisted of uphill treadmill walking or stairclimbing exercise 3 times.wk-1, 30-45 min.d-1, at 75-84% of maximal heart rate reserve. The exercise group increased VO2max by 11.2% (P < or = 0.05) and increased resting PV and BV by 11.2% and 12.7% (P < or = 0.05), respectively. Hormone and electrolyte levels in the exercise group remained unchanged; all variables were unchanged in the control group. These results are similar to findings in younger individuals. Because plasma hormone concentrations were maintained despite a chronically elevated BV, endurance training in healthy, elderly subjects may be associated with a resetting of volume receptors.

Carroll, J. F.; Convertino, V. A.; Wood, C. E.; Graves, J. E.; Lowenthal, D. T.; Pollock, M. L.



Hormonal changes during 17 days of head-down bed-rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated in six men the impact of 17 days of head-down bed rest (HDBR) on the daily rhythms of the hormones involved in hydroelectrolytic regulation. This HDBR study was designed to mimic a real space flight. Urine samples were collected at each voiding before, during and after HDBR. Urinary excretion of Growth Hormone (GH), Cortisol, 6 Sulfatoxymelatonin, Normetadrenaline (NMN) and Metadrenaline (NM) was determined. A decrease in urinary cortisol excretion during the night of HDBR was noted. For GH, a rhythm was found before and during HDBR. The rhythm of melatonin, evaluated with the urine excretion of 6 Sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S), the main hepatic metabolite, persisted throughout the experiment without any modification to the level of phase. A decrease during the night was noted for normetadrenaline urinary derivates, but only during the HDBR.

Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Arnaud, Sara B.; Monk, Timothy H.; Claustrat, Bruno; Gharib, Claude; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette



Hormonal changes during 17 days of head-down bed-rest.  


We investigated in six men the impact of 17 days of head-down bed rest (HDBR) on the daily rhythms of the hormones involved in hydroelectrolytic regulation. This HDBR study was designed to mimic a real space flight. Urine samples were collected at each voiding before, during and after HDBR. Urinary excretion of Growth Hormone (GH), Cortisol, 6 Sulfatoxymelatonin, Normetadrenaline (NMN) and Metadrenaline (NM) was determined. A decrease in urinary cortisol excretion during the night of HDBR was noted. For GH, a rhythm was found before and during HDBR. The rhythm of melatonin, evaluated with the urine excretion of 6 Sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S), the main hepatic metabolite, persisted throughout the experiment without any modification to the level of phase. A decrease during the night was noted for normetadrenaline urinary derivates, but only during the HDBR. PMID:12495779

Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Arnaud, Sara B; Monk, Timothy H; Claustrat, Bruno; Gharib, Claude; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette



The Effect of the Lunar Cycle on Fecal Cortisol Metabolite Levels and Foraging Ecology of Nocturnally and Diurnally Active Spiny Mice  

PubMed Central

We studied stress hormones and foraging of nocturnal Acomys cahirinus and diurnal A. russatus in field populations as well as in two field enclosures populated by both species and two field enclosures with individuals of A. russatus alone. When alone, A. russatus individuals become also nocturnally active. We asked whether nocturnally active A. russatus will respond to moon phase and whether this response will be obtained also in diurnally active individuals. We studied giving-up densities (GUDs) in artificial foraging patches and fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Both species exhibited elevated fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraged to higher GUDs in full moon nights; thus A. russatus retains physiological response and behavioral patterns that correlate with full moon conditions, as can be expected in nocturnal rodents, in spite of its diurnal activity. The endocrinological and behavioral response of this diurnal species to moon phase reflects its evolutionary heritage. PMID:21829733

Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga



Concerns regarding hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress in exercise and sport science.  


Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes' elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels. PMID:24150065

Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Pühse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H



Glucocorticoids modulate human gonadotrophin releasing hormone upstream promoter activity in transfected human placental cells (JEG-3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) upstream promoter\\/luciferase reporter gene construct (H2 construct) was generated by inserting a 1.7 kb XbaI\\/AflII fragment containing the human GnRH upstream promoter region only into a promoter-less luciferase reporter vector. When JEG-3 cells were transiently transfected with this construct and treated with cortisol or its synthetic analogue dexamethasone, a stimulatory effect on the upstream

Z. G. Chen; C. S. Chou; M. I. Hsu; K. W. Dong



Effect of 5-azacytidine and cortisol on the P1798 cortisol-sensitive and non-resistant lymphosarcoma  

SciTech Connect

The P1798 lymphosarcoma is a tumor with both cortisol-sensitive (CS) and cortisol-resistant (CR) lines. Although differences between the CS and CR cells have been reported, none can fully explain the detailed mechanism of glucocorticoid resistance in CR tumors. Recently, it was shown that 5-azacytidine treatment could generate CS cells from CR SAK lymphoma cells in vitro. The present study examined the effect of combination treatment with 5-azacytidine and cortisol on the growth of the P1798 lymphosarcoma. 5-Azacytidine rendered the P1798 CR tumors partially cortisol-sensitive, and enhanced the cortisol-induced regression of the P1798 CS tumors. Survival of mice bearing both CS and CR P1798 tumors was increased by combination treatment. Similar whole cell and nuclear binding of /sup 3/H-TA were observed in both 5-azacytidine-treated and control P1798 tumors. However, CR nuclei retained 64% of the whole cell binding of /sup 3/H-TA compared to 25-29% nuclear retention in CS tumors. DNA methylation in tumors from 5-azacytidine-treated mice decreased to 53% (CS) and 42% (CR) of control. Since 5-azacytidine did not result in any change in thymidine labeling index or cell cycle distribution in P1798 tumors, it would appear to be cytostatic rather than cytotoxic to P1798 tumors. Three cell lines have been isolated from the P1798 lymphosarcoma: two are cortisol-sensitive both in vivo and in vitro, while the other is cortisol-resistant. Results from this study suggest that glucocorticoid resistance is a reversible process, and that the effect of 5-azacytidine on the P1798 CR tumor is at the gene expression level.

Chi, C.



Physiological and analytical validations of fecal steroid hormone measures in black howler monkeys.  


The measurement of hormones in fecal samples allows for the noninvasive assessment of the endocrine status of free-ranging primates. However, procedures and techniques for hormone analysis in feces must be validated, both analytically and physiologically. Few studies have addressed the endocrinology of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Due to its conservation status, direct handling of individuals from this species and invasive sample collection are highly regulated, and therefore traditional methods for the validation of hormone assays, such as pharmacological challenges, are not allowed. As a consequence, sometimes studies of the fecal hormones of free-ranging black howler monkeys do not report physiological validations and therefore the biological reliability of such measurements cannot be assessed. In order to stimulate future research with this species, the present study aimed at providing methodological bases for fecal endocrine monitoring. Specifically, we compared the validity of two immunoassays (radioimmunoassays, RIA; solid-phase chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, SPCEI) performed with commercial kits to measure cortisol, testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone; and demonstrate how the physiological functions of these steroid hormones can be determined through non-pharmacological validations. We found no differences between the analytical validity of RIA and SPCEI assays to measure cortisol and testosterone, whereas for estradiol and progesterone RIA showed better results. Concerning the physiological validation of our assays, we demonstrated that: (1) comparisons between pre- and post-stress situations may be used to assess cortisol response, (2) comparisons between females and males may be used to assess variation in testosterone levels, and (3) comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant females may be used to determine variation in estradiol and progesterone activity. The analytical and physiological validations that we performed demonstrate that there are currently commercial kits that allow for correct endocrine monitoring of this species, and that there are non-pharmacological alternatives to assess the biological validity of hormone measurements. PMID:24939341

Rangel-Negrín, Ariadna; Flores-Escobar, Elizabeth; Chavira, Roberto; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Dias, Pedro Américo D




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Long Ashton Research Station -- part of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (UK) -- will close in March 2003, but its online resource Plant-Hormones will continue to provide general information and references on gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, and other hormone groups. Additionally, this Web site provides a link to a listserver for plant hormone scientists, a discussion forum "intended to promote communication between professionals in the plant hormone field." Plant-Hormones also lists job vacancies, meetings announcements, and Web links for botany and molecular biology resources, while offering an online directory of plant hormone researchers searchable by country.



Hormonal changes and couple bonding in consensual sadomasochistic activity.  


In two studies, 58 sadomasochistic (SM) practitioners provided physiological measures of salivary cortisol and testosterone (hormones associated with stress and dominance, respectively) and psychological measures of relationship closeness before and after participating in SM activities. Observed activities included bondage, sensory deprivation, a variety of painful and pleasurable stimulation, verbal and non-verbal communication, and expressions of caring and affection. During the scenes, cortisol rose significantly for participants who were bound, receiving stimulation, and following orders, but not for participants who were providing stimulation, orders, or structure. Female participants who were bound, receiving stimulation, and following orders also showed increases in testosterone during the scenes. Thereafter, participants who reported that their SM activities went well showed reductions in physiological stress (cortisol) and increases in relationship closeness. Among participants who reported that their SM activities went poorly, some showed decreases in relationship closeness whereas others showed increases. The increases in relationship closeness combined with the displays of caring and affection observed as part of the SM activities offer support for the modern view that SM, when performed consensually, has the potential to increase intimacy between participants. PMID:18563549

Sagarin, Brad J; Cutler, Bert; Cutler, Nadine; Lawler-Sagarin, Kimberly A; Matuszewich, Leslie



Stressors and mood measured on a momentary basis are associated with salivary cortisol secretion.  


Effects of past, current, and anticipated naturalistic daily stressors and of affect on salivary cortisol levels were examined. Participants (120) reported on stressors and affect 6 x /day in response to a preprogrammed wristwatch. Twenty min after each assessment they took a sample of saliva for cortisol analysis. Both the experience of a current stressor and anticipating a stressor were associated with increased salivary cortisol levels. Average increases in cortisol were relatively low, but inter-individual variability in this response existed. Stressors also were associated with lower positive affect and higher negative affect. Negative affect was associated with higher cortisol levels and positive affect was associated with lower cortisol levels. Daily stressors were not significant predictors of cortisol secretion when affect was controlled. Momentary assessment of daily stressors and of salivary cortisol proved to be a useful tool for examining psychoendocrinological processes in the natural environment. PMID:9695136

Smyth, J; Ockenfels, M C; Porter, L; Kirschbaum, C; Hellhammer, D H; Stone, A A



Regulatory effect of Epithalon on production of melatonin and cortisol in old monkeys.  


The effect of Epithalon on melatonin and cortisol secretion in female rhesus monkeys of various ages was evaluated by enzyme immunoassay. Epithalon stimulated evening melatonin production and normalized circadian rhythms of cortisol production in old monkeys. PMID:11550036

Goncharova, N D; Khavinson, B K; Lapin, B A



Understanding the Ecological Consequences of Stress in Wild Fish Using Exogenous Cortisol Implants  

E-print Network

Understanding the Ecological Consequences of Stress in Wild Fish Using Exogenous Cortisol Implants) were exposed to chronic cortisol elevations and exposed to stressors in the short- and long- term. Fish

Cooke, Steven J.


Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)  

SciTech Connect

Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC{sub 50} > 2000 mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC{sub 50} = 8.7 mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC{sub 50} = 90.4 mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. - Research Highlights: > We investigated species-specific sensitivity to Se in trout adrenocortical cells. > Selenite, not Se-Met, disrupts cortisol secretion in trout adrenocortical cells. > Rainbow trout cells are more sensitive than brook trout cells to selenite toxicity. > Superoxide dismutase may protect adrenocortical cells from selenite toxicity.

Miller, L.L., E-mail:; Hontela, A.



Enkephalins and hormonal-metabolic reactions in experimental stress depending on its severity  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this investigation was to study the action of enkephalins on changes in hormonal-metabolic constants in stress of varied severity. Catecholamine excretion with the urine was determined fluorometrically, serum cortisol and insulin concentrations were measured radioimmunologically and glucose was determined by the standard orthotoluidine method. The results of the investigation indicate that enkephalins have a modulating effect on various hormonal mechanisms of adaptation stress. The results confirm that the physiological action of the peptide regulator depends on the functional state of the biological systems and it may differ sharply, even to the extent of diametrically opposite effects.

Lishmanov, Y.B.; Alekminskaya, L.A.; Lasukova, T.V.



Radioimmunoassay and chemical ionization/mass spectrometry compared for plasma cortisol determination  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for determination of cortisol in plasma and urine, based on chemical ionization/mass spectrometry with deuterium-labeled cortisol as the internal standard. The within-run precision (CV) was 2.5-5.7%, the between-run precision 4.6%. Results by this method were compared with those by a radioimmunological method (RIANEN Cortisol, New England Nuclear) for 395 plasma samples. The latter method gave significantly higher (approx. 25%) cortisol values.

Lindberg, C. (AB Draco, Lund, Sweden); Johnson, S.; Hedner, P.; Gustafsson, A.



Influence of short-term dietary weight loss on cortisol secretion and metabolism in obese men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Obesity is associated with increased inactivation of cortisol by hepatic A-ring 5a- and 5b-reductases, impaired hepatic regeneration of cortisol from cortisone by 11b-hydroxysteroid dehy- drogenase type 1 (11HSD1), but increased subcutaneous adipose 11HSD1 activity enhancing local cortisol levels in fat. Cause and effect between obesity and abnormal cortisol metabolism is untested. Design: Acute weight loss was induced by very

Alexandra M Johnstone; Peter Faber; Ruth Andrew; Eileen R Gibney; Marinos Elia; Gerald Lobley; R James Stubbs; Brian R Walker



Relative adrenal failure in intensive care: an identifiable problem requiring treatment?  


Adequate adrenocortical function is essential to survive critical illness. Most critically ill patients display an elevated plasma cortisol level, reflecting activation of the pituitary-adrenal axis, which is considered to be a homeostatic adaptation. In the setting of critical illness, the failure of an appropriate neuroendocrine response can lead to the picture of vasopressor-dependent refractory hypotension. This state of relative or functional adrenal insufficiency is characterized by an inadequate production of cortisol in relation to an increased demand during periods of severe stress, particularly prolonged critical illness such as multi-organ failure. This clinical entity, however, lacks clear-cut diagnostic criteria. What are the appropriate cortisol concentrations in the critically ill? Should base-line and adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated cortisol concentrations be assessed? The classical adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test is often used, but there are problems with interpreting its results. Other diagnostic tools, such as the low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone test and relative eosinophilia, are promising but also lack proper criteria. A prompt response to hydrocortisone treatment is a major clue to the diagnosis. Recent studies with stress doses of hydrocortisone in sepsis and septic shock have shown a marked haemodynamic improvement, but whether patients with relative adrenal dysfunction benefit most from this treatment and whether there is definitely an effect on outcome is still undecided. PMID:11800521

Beishuizen, A; Thijs, L G



Spontaneous involution of a Rathke's cleft cyst in a patient with normal cortisol secretion  

PubMed Central

Background: Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) is a lesion derived from maldeveloped remnants of a dorsal invagination of the stomodeal ectoderm (Rathke's pouch). Although commonly found on autopsy, these lesions rarely become symptomatic during an individual's lifetime. When symptoms occur, they most often include headaches, visual disturbances, and/or varying degrees of hypopituitarism. The natural history remains unclear. The current standard of care includes surgical drainage and biopsy of the cyst wall or surgical resection of symptomatic lesions; however, debate exists regarding the management of asymptomatic lesions. Rare reports of spontaneously resolving RCC can be found in the literature. Case Description: We describe the management of a case of RCC in an 8½-year-old girl who presented with a history of growth deceleration since 4 years of age and near-growth arrest since 7 years of age. Her parents also described a tendency towards polydipsia since she was 2 years of age. Endocrine evaluation revealed growth hormone deficiency, central hypothyroidism, and diabetes insipidus, but normal cortisol secretion. The patient experienced no symptoms characteristic of intracranial or sellar mass. Neurologic examination was normal; formal ophthalmologic examination revealed no deficits. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was consistent with RCC. The patient was treated medically for her hormone deficiencies. Over the next year, her sellar mass spontaneously involuted. Twenty-seven months after her initial presentation to our clinic, imaging revealed no sellar mass; the patient remained on hormone replacement therapy. Conclusion: Although the natural history of RCC requires further study, observation with serial MRI may be an acceptable management strategy in the absence of debilitating symptoms. PMID:22574251

Munich, Stephan A.; Leonardo, Jody




PubMed Central

Stress in close relationships can have significant negative consequences for mental health, physical health, and long-term relationship functioning. Dysregulated physiological responses to stress are potential pathways through which relationship stress may lead to these kinds of outcomes, and the ways in which individuals attempt to cope with relationship stress are likely to impact their physiological responses. However, our understanding of the specific coping strategies that predict physiological reactivity and recovery in these contexts is rather limited. This study explored relations between young adult college students’ self-reported methods of coping with stress in their romantic relationships and their physiological reactivity to and recovery from negotiating conflict with their romantic partners. Partners’ coping styles were also examined as predictors of physiological stress responses. One hundred and ninety opposite-sex couples (N = 380; modal length of relationship = 1-2 years) participated in an experimental conflict discussion task. Physiological stress reactivity to the task was assessed using salivary cortisol, a primary hormonal product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Growth modeling of the cortisol levels before, during, and after the conflict task indicated that men who typically coped with relationship stress by seeking social support showed greater physiological reactivity to the conflict task. Partners’ need for social support predicted stronger stress responses for both men and women, as well. While seeking social support is generally thought to be an adaptive coping strategy for couples, the results suggest that within the context of conflict negotiation in which receiving and providing support may be more difficult, seeking support from a partner is associated with greater phyisological stress. PMID:22563141




Increase in Urinary Cortisol Excretion and Memory Declines: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortisol production is increased during stress, and the actions of cortisol on receptors in the brain and other body organs are involved in allostasis, the process of adaptation to stress, as well as in allostatic load, the wear and tear associated with excessive exposure to cortisol. Using data from a community-based longitudinal study of older men and women, aged 70




Post-traumatic stress symptoms and cortisol patterns among police officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the present study is to examine associations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and salivary cortisol parameters. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – PTSD symptoms and cortisol responses were measured in a random sample of 100 police officers. The impact of event scale (IES) categorized into subclinical, mild, moderate and severe levels was employed to measure PTSD symptoms. Cortisol

John M. Violanti; Michael Andrew; Cecil M. Burchfiel; Tara A. Hartley; Luenda E. Charles; Diane B. Miller



Measurement of tissue cortisol levels in patients with severe burns: a preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The assessment of adrenal function in critically ill patients is problematic, and there is evidence to suggest that measurement of tissue glucocorticoid activity may be more useful than estimation of plasma cortisol concentrations. Interstitial cortisol concentrations of cortisol represent the available pool of glucocorticoids able to enter the cell and bind to the glucocorticoid receptor. However the concentrations of

Jeremy Cohen; Renae Deans; Andrew Dalley; Jeff Lipman; Michael S Roberts; Bala Venkatesh



The effect of stress on salivary cortisol in panic disorder patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Various findings suggest the possibility of an abnormal cortisol response to CRH in panic disorder patients, which raises the question of whether such patients might also produce an abnormal cortisol response to stress. The purpose of the present study was to use salivary cortisol measurement in assessing differences in response to novelty\\/mild stress situations between panic disorder subjects and

Andjelka Stones; David Groome; David Perry; Frank Hucklebridge; Philip Evans



Children's elevated cortisol levels at daycare: A review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed nine studies in which children's cortisol levels at center daycare were assessed. Our first hypothesis, concerning intraindividual differences in cortisol levels across home and daycare settings, was also tested in a meta-analysis. Our main finding was that at daycare children display higher cortisol levels compared to the home setting. Diurnal patterns revealed significant increases from morning to afternoon,

Harriet J. Vermeer; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn



Inverted-U shape relationship between cortisol and learning in ground squirrels  

E-print Network

Inverted-U shape relationship between cortisol and learning in ground squirrels Jill M. Mateo the elevated cortisol observed in juvenile Belding's ground squir- rels (Spermophilus beldingi) at natal and decreased basal cortisol levels interfere with acquisition and retention of an association between a warning

Mateo, Jill M.


BRIEF REPORT Choke or Thrive? The Relation Between Salivary Cortisol and Math  

E-print Network

BRIEF REPORT Choke or Thrive? The Relation Between Salivary Cortisol and Math Performance Depends cortisol, an index of arousal, was measured. The performance of lower WM individuals did not depend on cortisol concentration or math-anxiety. For higher WM individuals high in math- anxiety, the higher

Mateo, Jill M.


Effects of Tricaine Methanesulfonate, Hypno, Metomidate, Quinaldine, and Salt on Plasma Cortisol Levels following Acute  

E-print Network

Effects of Tricaine Methanesulfonate, Hypno, Metomidate, Quinaldine, and Salt on Plasma Cortisol.--Blood plasma cortisol concentration is an indicator of stress in fish, and anesthetics may serve to ameliorate stress and reduce t