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Sample records for coruh mouth eastern

  1. An assessment of water quality in the Coruh Basin (Turkey) using multivariate statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Ayla

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of 24 water parameters, measured semi-annually between 2011 and 2013 in Coruh Basin (Turkey), based on the quality of the water. The study utilised analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) methods. The water-quality data was obtained from a total of four sites by the 26th Regional Directorate of the State Hydraulic Works (DSI). ANOVA was carried out to identify the differences between the parameters at the different measuring sites. The variables were classified using factor analysis, and at the end of the ANOVA test, it was established that there was a statistically significant difference between the downstream and upstream waste waters released by the Black Sea copper companies and between the Murgul and Borcka Dams, in terms of water quality, while no statistically significant difference was observed between the Murgul and Borcka Dams. It was determined through factor analysis that five factors explained 81.3% of the total variance. It was concluded that domestic, industrial and agricultural activities, in combination with physicochemical properties, were factors affecting the quality of the water in the Coruh Basin. PMID:26514804

  2. Genetic variation among quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) genotypes sampled from the Coruh valley in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Orhan, E; Nardemir, G; Agar, G; Ercisli, S

    2014-01-01

    Turkey has very rich quince genetic resources, and the country currently dominates world quince production. In particular, the northeastern part of the country has notable Cydonia oblonga Mill. germplasm. Authenticating the identity of germplasm resources of C. oblonga Mill. would be of great value for breeding practices. In the present study, genetic variations of 14 C. oblonga Mill. genotypes sampled from the Coruh valley of Turkey were investigated. Ten random primers generated 53 DNA markers. The highest polymorphism ratio was observed in the OPA07 primer (86%), while the lowest was observed in OPA03 (29%). The percentage of polymorphic bands was 51%, which demonstrated the efficiency of the primers used. The similarity matrix revealed that the similarity among genotypes ranged between 0.42 and 0.96. The identified random amplified polymorphic DNA markers enabled clear discrimination among all genotypes considered. PMID:24535871

  3. The geochemistry characteristic and dating of cold seepage carbonates of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, eastern of South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yunxin; Fu, Shaoying

    2015-04-01

    Cold seepage carbonates are usually formed by the interaction of methane oxidizing archaea, sulfate reducing bacteria and cold seepage which contain abundant venting hydrocarbon gases. The presence of cold seepage carbonates on the seabed is one of the evidences that the area exist venting hydrocarbon gases, which are usually result by the dissociation of gas hydrate. The cold seepage property and fluid flow rate can influence the oxidation-deoxidation environment of the bottom water and sediment. Many previous studies focused on the mineral composition, microstructure, elemental composition, isotope composition of the cold seepage carbonates and isotopic dating for the cold seepage carbonates. The isotopic dating for the cold seepage carbonates can provide the information of the gas hydrate formation and dissociation in some area of the South China Sea. High precision TIMS-U dating and 14C dating are used as routine method for the dating of the Quaternary carbonates and fossils. The cold seepage carbonates in the study include the samples collected by ROV on the seabed and the drilling for gas hydrate in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, eastern of the South China Sea. The authigenic carbonate occurred in different depth in the A, B and C drilling site. They may be represent different events of gas hydrate formation and dissociation in the Quaternary. The dating study for all the cold seepage carbonates can provide the relative accurate eras of the gas hydrate dissociation events in certain area of the South China Sea.

  4. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  5. Mouth Growths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dry Mouth Mouth Growths Mouth Sores and Inflammation Toothache Malocclusion Teeth Grinding Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Growths can ... Dry Mouth Mouth Growths Mouth Sores and Inflammation Toothache Malocclusion Teeth Grinding Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis NOTE: This ...

  6. A geochemical investigation of crude oils from Eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiamo, Fu; Cunmin, Pei; Guoying, Sheng; Dehan, Liu; Sizhong, Chen

    A thorough petroleum exploration of the Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB), South China Sea, began in 1983. At present, several oilfields have been found in the PRMB, mainly distributed in Dongsha Massif, Huizhou and Xijiang Depressions as well as Huilu Lowhigh, and one of them has been developed recently. The crude oils found in the basin can be classified into two types. One is normal waxy type, and the other is cyclic type, which may be caused by minor biodegration and is restricted to the Liuhua District of Dongsha Massif. However, on the basis of geochemical characteristics, all the crude oils are thermally mature, indicating that they are derived from source rocks which have entered the main oil generation period but their maturity is not high enough to reach the overmature stage. Moreover, in the biomarker distribution, the oils also share many similarities. Almost all the oils contain abundant C 30 4-methylsteranes with 24-ethyl side chain, ubiquitous oleanane and lower concentration of gammacerane, and possess high ratios of Ni/V, pristane to phytane and C 30 hopane over total C 29 steranes as well as high paraffin wax and low sulphur content, indicating that they originated from terrestrial organic matter deposited in lacustrine and marsh coal-forming environments. However, some characteristics resemble Brazilian offshore oils of salinewater lacustrine environment. The oils found in the PRMB can also be classified into three main genetic types based on the relative values of pristane over phytane ratio, C 29 sterane preference and the composition of the carbon isotope. Type I oils occurred in the Huizhou and the Xijiang Depressions and their adjacent Dongsha Massif. It has higher ratios of pristane to phytane (1.80-5.54 and 3.21 on the average scale) and heavier carbon isotopic composition, indicating that their source rocks contain much more abundant terrestrial higher plant input. Type II, encountered in Huilu Lowhigh and its bounding area of Dongsha Massif

  7. Mouth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your mouth is one of the most important parts of your body. Any problem that affects your mouth can make it hard to eat, drink or even smile. Some common mouth problems include Cold sores - painful sores on the ...

  8. Mouth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... to eat, drink or even smile. Some common mouth problems include Cold sores - painful sores on the lips and around the mouth, caused by a virus Canker sores - painful sores in the mouth, caused by bacteria ...

  9. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  10. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... or under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  11. Mouth Rinses

    MedlinePlus

    ... and bad breath. Anti-cavity mouth rinse uses fluoride to protect against tooth decay. Mouth rinses are ... anti-plaque/anti-gingivitis rinses or anti-cavity fluoride rinses, for example. Dentists will prescribe special rinses ...

  12. Mouth sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... begin as blisters and then crust over. The herpes virus can live in your body for years. It only appears as a mouth sore when something triggers it, such as: Another ... medicines, penicillamine, sulfa drugs, and phenytoin.

  13. Mouth ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... by many disorders. These include: Canker sores Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer Oral lichen planus Oral thrush A skin sore caused by histoplasmosis may also appear as a mouth ulcer.

  14. Mouth sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... minerals in the diet, including vitamin B12 or folate Less commonly, mouth sores can be a sign ... sores often, talk to your provider about taking folate and vitamin B12 to prevent outbreaks. To prevent ...

  15. Trench mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... the mouth Gums appear reddened and swollen Grayish film on the gums Painful gums Profuse gum bleeding ... teeth Inflamed gums There may be a gray film caused by broken down (decomposed) gum tissue. In ...

  16. Trench mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... gingivitis ). The term "trench mouth" comes from World War I, when the disorder was common among soldiers. ... preferably after each meal and at bedtime. Salt water rinses (1/2 teaspoon of salt in 1 ...

  17. Dry Mouth or Xerostomia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Xerostomia Request Permissions Print to PDF Dry Mouth or Xerostomia Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... a dry mouth. Signs and symptoms of dry mouth The signs and symptoms of dry mouth include ...

  18. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic ... mouth trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking a burning feeling in the mouth a dry feeling in the throat cracked lips ...

  19. Mouth Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... it. Or get soft foam mouth swabs to clean your teeth. (You can buy these at a drugstore.) Rinse toothbrush well in hot water after use and store in a cool, dry place. Use a non-abrasive toothpaste that contains fluoride. Note that whitening toothpastes may contain hydrogen peroxide, ...

  20. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Chemotherapy - dry mouth; Radiation therapy - dry mouth; Transplant - dry mouth; Transplantation - dry mouth ... Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you may have include: Mouth sores Thick ...

  1. Reservoir-flooded river mouth areas as sediment traps revealing erosion from peat mining areas - Jukajoki case study in eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Meriläinen, Henna-Kaisa; Haraguchi, Akira; Simola, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Many types of soil-disturbing land use have caused excess sedimentation in Finnish lakes. Identification and quantification of catchment sources of sediment material is crucial in cases where demands for remediation measures are considered. We studied recent (50 yr) sediments of four small rivers, all draining to a reservoir impounded in 1971. Catchments of two of the rivers had had peat mining activities from early 1980s until recently, exposing large areas of peat surfaces to erosion. The water level of the reservoir had risen to the river mouth areas of all rivers, while in each case, the river mouth areas still form riverine narrows separable from the main reservoir, hence collecting sedimentation from their own catchments. The original soils under the reservoir water level could readily be observed in core samples, providing a dated horizon under recent sediments. In addition, we used 137Cs-stratigraphies for dating of samples from original river bed locations. As expected, recent sediments of rivers with peat mining influence differed from others e.g. by high organic content and C:N ratios. Stable isotopes 13C and 15N both correlated with C:N (r = 0.799 and r = -0.717, respectively) and they also differentiated the peat-mining influenced samples from other river sediments. Principal components of the physical-chemical variables revealed clearer distinction than any variables separately. Light-microscopy revealed abundance of leafs of Sphagnum mosses in peat-mining influenced river sediments that were nearly absent from other rivers. Spores of Sphagnum were, however, abundant in all river sediments indicating their predominantly airborne origin. We find that combination of several physical-chemical characters rather than any single variable and microscopy of plant remains can result in reliable recognition of peatland-origin of sediment material when non-impacted sites are available for comparison. Dating of disturbed recent sediments is challenging. River-mouth

  2. Chemotherapy and Your Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > Chemotherapy and Your Mouth Chemotherapy and Your Mouth Main Content Are You Being Treated With Chemotherapy ... Back to Top How Does Chemotherapy Affect the Mouth? Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat ...

  3. Ecological response of benthic foraminifera to the acid drainage from mine areas. An example from the Gromolo torrent mouth (Eastern Ligurian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, Luisa; Capello, Marco; Carbone, Cristina; Magno, Maria Celia; Consani, Sirio; Cutroneo, Laura; Ferraro, Luciana; Pierfranceschi, Giancarlo; Romano, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages react in short time to natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and, for this, they are considered as reliable indicators of environmental quality. An interesting application of these indicators is the study of their response to environmental changes in coastal marine areas, affected by dismissed mines and dump areas. The Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine was intensively exploited in 19th and 20th centuries, and the activity ended in 1962. The sulphide mineral assemblages consist of pyrite and chalcopyrite, with minor sphalerite and pyrrhotite, in a gangue of quartz and chlorite. The sulphide ore occurs within the Jurassic ophiolites of the Northern Apennines which were subjected to metamorphic and tectonic processes during the subsequent Apennine orogenesis. Waters circulating in the Libiola mine area, and discharging in the adjacent streams and creeks, are strongly polluted due to the diffuse occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage processes. The Gromolo torrent collects these acidic waters enriched of heavy metals which flow into Ligurian Sea. The study area is characterised by a shelf with a gentle slope, mainly constituted by sediment supplied by Entella torrent. The general circulation has trend from East to West and the coastal drift is generally eastwards. A total of 15 marine sediment samples (upper 2 cm) were collected by means of Van Veen grab in the coastal zone close to the Gromolo mouth and analyzed for living (rose Bengal stained) and dead benthic foraminifera, together with grain size, metals and trace elements, and metal fractioning. Quantitative foraminiferal parameters, like as abundance, species diversity, heterogeneity and assemblage composition, were determined and evaluated for environmental purpose. Additionally, possible increase above the natural background level of deformed specimens was considered as indicative of metal contamination. The grain-size analyses highlighted mainly sandy sediments, characterized by

  4. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  5. Mouth Problems and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... orientation. This information is for people who have mouth (oral) problems related to HIV infection. It explains ... look like. It also describes where in the mouth they occur and how they are treated. They ...

  6. Mouth and Throat

    MedlinePlus

    ... lips) or the oropharynx (the part of the throat at the back of the mouth). PDF Learning ... booklet covers: The anatomy of the mouth and throat Treatments for oral cancer, including taking part in ...

  7. Improving mouth guards.

    PubMed

    Park, J B; Shaull, K L; Overton, B; Donly, K J

    1994-10-01

    Mouth guards and materials were tested to provide information for a more protective yet more comfortable product. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer materials varying in thickness and stiffness were tested for their mechanical, thermal, and water-absorption properties. Thickness was measured before and after fabrication of the mouth guard. During fabrication, thicknesses decreased from 25% to 50% for the custom-fabricated mouth guards and 70% to 99% for the mouth-formed (boil-and-bite), off-the-shelf, over-the-counter mouth guards. The thicker the material is, the greater the resulting energy absorption is. It is therefore essential that the thickness in the occlusal portion of the mouth guard remain optimal after fabrication. A mouth guard with a stiffer insert, which softens at a higher temperature in the occlusal portion, is proposed as a more protective mouth guard. PMID:7990042

  8. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause dry mouth. Symptoms you may have include: Mouth sores Thick and stringy saliva Cuts or cracks in ... air dry between brushings. If toothpaste makes your mouth sore, brush with a solution of 1 teaspoon of ...

  9. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... iron) Infection in the mouth, such as a yeast infection Acid reflux Back to Top Treatment Your ... the underlying medical condition, such as diabetes or yeast infection, is treated. If a drug is causing ...

  10. 2. Detail gate spanning mouth of dry dock between Piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Detail gate spanning mouth of dry dock between Piers 10 and 11, view is to southwest, with Pier 10 in distance left. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 7. View from gate spanning mouth of Dry Dock 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View from gate spanning mouth of Dry Dock 5, showing (1-r) north wall of Pier 10 and south wall of Pier 11. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most ...

  13. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children under age 10 are most ...

  14. Examination of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    In an examination of the mouth, a definite order should be followed, finishing with the presenting lesion. This article lists the most frequent local or systemic origins of oral lesions, and makes a plea for better recording of oral abnormalities. PMID:21308080

  15. Maturation of the MOUTh Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski-Jaudon, Rita A.; Kolanowski, Ann M.; Winstead, Vicki; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Azuero, Andres

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to describe a personalized practice originally conceived as a way to prevent and minimize care-resistant behavior to provide mouth care to older adult with dementia. The original intervention, Managing Oral Hygiene Using Threat Reduction Strategies (MOUTh), matured during the clinical trial study into a relationship-centered intervention with emphasis on developing strategies that support residents behavioral health and staff involved in care. Relationships that were initially pragmatic (i.e., focused on the task of completing mouth care) developed into more personal and responsive relationships that involved deeper engagement between mouth care providers and nursing home (NH) residents. Mouth care was accomplished and completed in a manner enjoyable to NH residents and mouth care providers. The MOUTh intervention may also concurrently affirm the dignity and personhood of the care recipient because of its emphasis on connecting with older adults. PMID:26934969

  16. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E; Krupaa, R Jayasri; Kasthuri, M

    2015-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707

  17. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klasser, Gary D; Grushka, Miriam; Su, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an enigmatic, misunderstood, and under-recognized painful condition. Symptoms associated with BMS can be varied, thereby providing a challenge for practitioners and having a negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for patients. Management also remains a challenge for practitioners because it is currently only targeted for symptom relief without a definitive cure. There is an urgent need for further investigations to determine the efficacy of different therapies because this is the only way viable therapeutic options can be established for patients with this chronic and painful syndrome. PMID:27475513

  18. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment. PMID:23429751

  19. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can sometimes occur in adults. Symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease include fever, mouth sores, and a skin rash. More About Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Describes causes of the disease, its symptoms, ...

  20. Mouth and neck radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... air dry between brushings. If toothpaste makes your mouth sore, brush with a solution of 1 teaspoon of ... or chew sugar-free gum to keep your mouth moist. If you use dentures, ... if you get sores on your gums. Ask your doctor or dentist ...

  1. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamala, K A; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, S G; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284

  2. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kamala, KA; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, SG; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284

  3. [Materials for mouth protectors].

    PubMed

    Kloeg, E F; Collys, K

    2003-01-01

    Taking into account the number of teeth which are yearly irreversible traumatised during sport activities, the general use of mouthguards would contribute positively to the prevention of dental injuries. Custom-made mouthguards are more comfortable to wear and offer better retention and protection than stock and mouth-formed mouthguards. Different kinds of materials are available on the market for the construction of mouthguards. A polyethylene-polyvinylacetate copolymer (EVA) is the most suitable material. EVA allows the inclusion of hard or soft layers within the mouthguard. The thickness of a mouthguard is important for the reduction of applied forces to teeth: energy absorption capacity increases with material thickness. Increased thickness however, is associated with a reduction of comfort. Therefore, it is important that dentists take the patients' wishes and demands on both comfort and protection into consideration. A description of the clinical and technical method for the construction of a custom made mouthguard is given. PMID:12894661

  4. Rupture of the stomach following mouth-to-mouth respiration

    PubMed Central

    Solowiejczyk, M.; Wapnick, S.; Koren, E.; Mandelbaum, J.

    1974-01-01

    Successful repair and survival after rupture of the stomach in a patient who received mouth-to-mouth respiration is presented. We were able to find only one report in the literature where rupture of the stomach occurred following this manoeuvre—the patient did not survive. The possible aetiological factors and measures designed to avoid this complication are discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4469046

  5. Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth Clinicians: Please make as many copies of this ... Philadelphia, for authoring “Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth.” Ask your family doctor to discontinue or provide ...

  6. Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... saliva, cavities may occur. back to top Dry Mouth Treatments Your doctor or dentist may recommend oral ...

  7. Mind Your Mouth: Preventing Gum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Mind Your Mouth Preventing Gum Disease If you have it, you’ ... dental care. The problem begins with bacteria. Our mouths are packed with these tiny microbes. They combine ...

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. In this chapter we discuss vario...

  9. Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  10. Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth Main Content Key Points​ ... Your Dentist Before Transplant Before an organ or stem cell transplant, have a dental checkup. Your mouth should ...

  11. FREQUENCY OF MOUTHING BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to be exposed after a pesticide application due to potential hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children <60 months of...

  12. FREQUENCY OF MOUTHING BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may be more likely than adults to be exposed to pesticides following a residential application as a result of hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children less ...

  13. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, P U; Hof, A L; Stegenga, B; de Bont, L G

    1999-02-01

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women and 32 men (mean age 27.2 years, s.d. 7.5 years, range 13-56 years) were recruited from the patients of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of University Hospital, Groningen. Mouth opening, mobility of TMJs and mandibular length were measured. The mobility of TMJs was measured as the angular displacement of the mandible relative to the cranium, the angle of mouth opening (AMO). Mouth opening (MO) correlated significantly with mandibular length (ML) (r = 0.36) and AMO (r = 0.66). The regression equation MO = C1 x ML x AMO + C2, in which C = 0.53 and C2 = 25.2 mm, correlated well (r = 0.79) with mouth opening. It is concluded that mouth opening reflects both mobility of the TMJs and mandibular length. PMID:10080308

  14. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Mouth Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental and Craniofacial Research American Diabetes Association JDRF Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your mouth healthy Page Content On ...

  15. Hookworm - mouth of the organism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This photograph shows the front section of the hookworm, and the mouth parts which it uses to ... blood for nourishment, are visible. Three species of hookworm cause infection in the United States, including this ...

  16. Partnership for Healthy Mouths Healthy Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Dentist Campaign Overview Press Releases About the Partnership Our Supporters Contact Us Partner Profile Page Learn ... others in the general population. OUR SOLUTION The Partnership for Healthy Mouths, Healthy Lives (PHMHL) is helping ...

  17. Hand-foot-mouth disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a viral infection caused by Coxsackievirus that usually begins in the throat. Symptoms include; fever, sore throat, ulcers in the throat, headache, and a rash with blisters on the palms of the ...

  18. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  19. Maximum Mouth Opening in Saudi Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H; Asiry, Moshabab A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the maximum mouth opening (MMO) in a representative sample of the Saudi adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 1825 Saudi adolescents (1007 males and 818 females) aged 12-16 years were randomly selected. The subjects were asked to open their mouth maximally till no further opening was possible and then the distance from the incisal edge of the maxillary incisors to incisal edge of the mandibular incisors was recorded. All data were analyzed using SPSS program and simple descriptive statistics of MMO with regard to gender and age groups were reported. The Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to examine differences in mouth opening relative to gender and age groups. Results: The mean maximal mouth opening for males was 43.5 ± 4.23 mm (range 29-59 mm). The mean maximal mouth opening for females was 35.5 ± 4.4 mm (range 20-45 mm). There was a significant difference between the mouth opening of males and females in all the age group (P = 0.000). The mouth opening, regardless of gender, increases significantly with age from the age of 12 years to the age of 14 years (P = 0.000), then remained unchanged till the age of 16 years. Conclusion: The mouth opening of males is significantly higher than that of females in all the age group. There was a significant increase in MMO with age up to the age of 14 years regardless of gender. PMID:25628483

  20. Dynamics of Mouth Opening in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jason A; Hyland, Callen; Steele, Robert E; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Hydra, a simple freshwater animal famous for its regenerative capabilities, must tear a hole through its epithelial tissue each time it opens its mouth. The feeding response of Hydra has been well-characterized physiologically and is regarded as a classical model system for environmental chemical biology. However, due to a lack of in vivo labeling and imaging tools, the biomechanics of mouth opening have remained completely unexplored. We take advantage of the availability of transgenic Hydra lines to perform the first dynamical analysis, to our knowledge, of Hydra mouth opening and test existing hypotheses regarding the underlying cellular mechanisms. Through cell position and shape tracking, we show that mouth opening is accompanied by changes in cell shape, but not cellular rearrangements as previously suggested. Treatment with a muscle relaxant impairs mouth opening, supporting the hypothesis that mouth opening is an active process driven by radial contractile processes (myonemes) in the ectoderm. Furthermore, we find that all events exhibit the same relative rate of opening. Because one individual can open consecutively to different amounts, this suggests that the degree of mouth opening is controlled through neuronal signaling. Finally, from the opening dynamics and independent measurements of the elastic properties of the tissues, we estimate the forces exerted by the myonemes to be on the order of a few nanoNewtons. Our study provides the first dynamical framework, to our knowledge, for understanding the remarkable plasticity of the Hydra mouth and illustrates that Hydra is a powerful system for quantitative biomechanical studies of cell and tissue behaviors in vivo. PMID:26958895

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of dry mouth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Medha; Tonk, Rajinder Singh

    2011-01-01

    For effective management of dry mouth, early diagnosis and aggressive, symptom-based treatment are necessary to help alleviate much of the discomfort and to retard progression of the disorder. Many effective strategies are available to help patients manage their symptoms. Routine follow-up care with physicians and dentists is essential. With early intervention and proper individualized care, people with dry mouth should be able to lead full and comfortable lives. PMID:22313928

  2. Portable measurement of maximum mouth pressures.

    PubMed

    Hamnegård, C H; Wragg, S; Kyroussis, D; Aquilina, R; Moxham, J; Green, M

    1994-02-01

    We have compared a small portable mouth pressure meter (MPM) to our laboratory standard (LS) pressure recording equipment in order to evaluate this new device. The mouth pressure meter measures and displays as a digital read-out peak pressure for inspiratory and expiratory efforts. It samples the signal at 16 Hz, and an integral microprocessor is programmed to determine and display the maximum pressure averaged over one second both during inspiratory and expiratory manoeuvres (PImax and PEmax, respectively). A fine bore catheter connecting the mouthpiece of the mouth pressure meter to a Validyne pressure transducer enabled simultaneous measurement of pressure, which was analysed by LabVIEW, running on a Macintosh Quadra 700 computer. We studied 13 normal subjects and 11 patients with respiratory disease. Each subject performed inspiratory and five expiratory efforts. The values displayed from the mouth pressure meter were manually recorded. The mouth pressure meter reliably and accurately measured peak pressure and maximal pressure both for inspiratory and expiratory efforts in normals and patients. The mean +/- SD difference when compared with the Validyne method was 0.19 +/- 0.12 and -0.04 +/- 0.12 kPa, for PImax and PEmax, respectively. This portable device should be useful to measure mouth pressures, not only in the routine lung function laboratory but also at the bedside and in the clinic. PMID:8162993

  3. Adaptive deformable model for mouth boundary detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhosseini, Ali R.; Yan, Hong; Lam, Kin-Man

    1998-03-01

    A new generalized algorithm is proposed to automatically extract a mouth boundary model form human face images. Such an algorithm can contribute to human face recognition and lip-reading-assisted speech recognition systems, in particular, and multimodal human computer interaction system, in general. The new model is an iterative algorithm based on a hierarchical model adaptation scheme using deformable templates, as a generalization of some of the previous works. The role of prior knowledge is essential for perceptual organization in the algorithm. The prior knowledge about the mouth shape is used to define and initialize a primary deformable mode. Each primary boundary curve of a mouth is formed on three control points, including two mouth corners, whose locations are optimized using a primary energy functional. This energy functional essentially captures the knowledge of the mouth shape to perceptually organize image information. The primary model is finely tuned in the second stage of optimization algorithm using a generalized secondary energy functional. Basically each boundary curve is finely tuned using more control points. The primary model is replaced by an adapted model if there is an increase in the secondary energy functional. The results indicate that the new model adaptation technique satisfactorily generalizes the mouth boundary model extraction in an automated fashion.

  4. The mouth and dis/ability.

    PubMed

    Liddiard, K; Goodley, D

    2016-06-01

    Our aims in this paper are threefold. First, to understand how the mouth reveals the kinds of human beings that are de/valued in specific national locations and in global discourses with special attention on disability. Second, to subject the mouth to analysis from critical disability studies, specifically, an approach we describe as dis/ability studies. Third, to ask how the mouth might work as a site of resistance for disabled people. The paper begins by providing an introduction to critical disability studies, a perspective that foregrounds disability as the primary focus for thinking through the ways in which the body and society are shaped together. We move in this literature review towards a dis/ability studies approach that recognises the simultaneous processes of disablism (the exclusion of people with impairments) and ableism (the system by which standards of human autonomy and capability are made as key indicators of human worth). We then analyse the mouth in relation to pathologisation, human enhancement and resistance. We conclude with some final thoughts on the offerings of a dis/ability studies approach to those of interested with the intersections of the mouth and society. PMID:27352472

  5. Burning mouth syndrome: an enigmatic disorder.

    PubMed

    Javali, M A

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa, often unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, preferably on the tongue or in other areas of mouth. This disorder is one of the most common, encountered in the clinical practice. This condition is probably of multifactorial origin; however the exact underlying etiology remains uncertain. This article discusses several aspects of BMS, updates current knowledge about the etiopathogenesis and describes the clinical features as well as the diagnosis and management of BMS patients. PMID:24096230

  6. Keep Your Mouth Healthy: Oral Care for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Keep Your Mouth Healthy Oral Care for Older Adults Oral health ... decay. You can take steps to keep your mouth healthy throughout your lifetime. And if you’re ...

  7. Keep Kids' Mouths Healthy: Brush 2min2X

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids’ Teeth Teeth Helpful Resources Links Keep Kids’ Mouths Healthy Roll over or click the time line below for healthy mouth information. Email Link Kids' Care Timeline Brush 2min2x - ...

  8. Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth KEY POINTS n Have a dental checkup before your transplant procedure. n See your ... problems . SEE YOUR DENTIST Before an organ or stem cell transplant, have a dental checkup. Your mouth BEFORE ...

  9. E-Cigs May Damage Cells in Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159657.html E-Cigs May Damage Cells in Mouth Findings suggest a possible increase in the risk ... The oral cavity is the portion of the mouth behind the teeth and gums. The researchers believe ...

  10. CANAL EXITING FLUME AND BEGINNING EARTHLINED MAIN SECTION AT MOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CANAL EXITING FLUME AND BEGINNING EARTH-LINED MAIN SECTION AT MOUTH OF PLATTE RIVER CANYON. VIEW TO WEST - High Line Canal, Mouth of South Platte River to confluence with Second Creek, Denver, Denver County, CO

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. Although vaccines, available since the early 1900s, have been instrumental in eradicating FMD from parts of the world, the disease still affects millions of animals around the globe and remains the...

  12. Mouth cancer in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Giagkou, E; Christodoulou, D K; Katsanos, K H

    2016-05-01

    Mouth cancer is a major health problem. Multiple risk factors for developing mouth cancer have been studied and include history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, age over 40, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, human papilloma virus infection (HPV), nutritional deficiencies, chronic irritation, and existence or oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia and lichen planus. An important risk factor for mouth cancer is chronic immunosuppression and has been extensively reported after solid organ transplantation as well as HIV-infected patients. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet considered as a risk factor for oral cancer development. However, a significant number of patients with IBD are receiving immunosuppressants and biological therapies which could represent potential oral oncogenic factors either by direct oncogenic effect or by continuous immunosuppression favoring carcinogenesis, especially in patients with HPV(+) IBD. Education on modifiable risk behaviors in patients with IBD is the cornerstone of prevention of mouth cancer. Oral screening should be performed for all patients with IBD, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or a biologic. PMID:26671147

  13. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  14. Developmental plasticity, straight from the worm's mouth.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Jacobs, David

    2013-11-01

    Developmental plasticity in response to environmental conditions (polyphenism) plays an important role in evolutionary theory. Analyzing the nematode taxon Pristionchus, Ragsdale et al. demonstrate that a single gene underlies the nematode's ability to develop distinct mouth forms in response to environmental changes. PMID:24209614

  15. Alongshore sediment bypassing as a control on river mouth morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Nardin, William; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    River mouths, shoreline locations where fluvial and coastal sediments are partitioned via erosion, trapping, and redistribution, are responsible for the ultimate sedimentary architecture of deltas and, because of their dynamic nature, also pose great management and engineering challenges. To investigate the interaction between fluvial and littoral processes at wave-dominated river mouths, we modeled their morphologic evolution using the coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Model experiments replicate alongshore migration of river mouths, river mouth spit development, and eventual spit breaching, suggesting that these are emergent phenomena that can develop even under constant fluvial and wave conditions. Furthermore, we find that sediment bypassing of a river mouth develops though feedbacks between waves and river mouth morphology, resulting in either continuous bypassing pathways or episodic bar bypassing pathways. Model results demonstrate that waves refracting into the river mouth bar create a zone of low alongshore sediment transport updrift of the river mouth, which reduces sediment bypassing. Sediment bypassing, in turn, controls the river mouth migration rate and the size of the river mouth spit. As a result, an intermediate amount of river discharge maximizes river mouth migration. The fraction of alongshore sediment bypassing can be predicted from the balance between the jet and the wave momentum flux. Quantitative comparisons show a match between our modeled predictions of river mouth bypassing and migration rates observed in natural settings.

  16. Infanticide in Eastern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Marcikić, Mladen; Dumencić, Boris; Matuzalem, Elizabeta; Marjanović, Ksenija; Pozgain, Ivan; Ugljarević, Mladen

    2006-06-01

    For the layperson no crime is more difficult to comprehend than the killing of a child by his or her own parents. This is a retrospective study of neonaticide and infanticide in Eastern Croatia from 1980 to 2004. Judicial records of infanticide cases stored in Regional and County Courts were analyzed for the circumstances surrounding the offense. Twenty-four babies were discovered in various places during investigating period of time. The victims were almost equally divided between boys (12) and girls (11). The gender of one baby was unknown. The mean weight of babies was 2.7 SD = 0.66 kg. The perpetrators preferred rubbish-heaps (33.4%), burying in soil (16.7%), various premises in or around the house (16.7%) and garbage cans (12.5%) as places for hiding the dead babies. The most dominant cause of death in sixteen cases of live birth was asphyxia (37%) with equal distribution of smothering, stuffing the mouth with rags and strangulation. Other frequent causes of death were placing the child in a plastic bag and abandonment (25%), brain injury (25%) and wounding using a sharp weapon (12.5%). The cause of death for six babies remained unknown due to advanced decomposition. Two babies were stillborn. The age of accused mothers varied from 16 to 33, mean 24 SD=5.2 years. Most of them were unmarried (60%) and had limited formal education. They usually kept the pregnancy a secret (73%) and gave birth (93%) without public welfare assistance. The mother lived in the terror of shame and with the guilt that accompany conception without marriage. Fear seemed to be a pronounced motivating factor for committing infanticide. The data on court proceedings were available in fifteen cases. The mothers were officially indicted in all cases for infanticide under the Croatian Criminal Code. The perpetrator remained unidentified in nine suspicious crimes. The court convicted ten mothers of the crime of infanticide. Often juries were unwilling to punish the mother, citing the mother

  17. Hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls on mouth bar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Christopher R.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kolker, Alexander S.

    2013-04-01

    While river deltas are one of the major repositories for sediments and carbon on Earth, there exists a paucity of field data on the formation of distributary mouth bars—one of their key features. Here we present results from an experiment that tested a model of mouth bar development using hydroacoustic, optical, sedimentary, and geochemical tools on a mouth bar in a crevasse splay near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Our results validate an existing model for mouth bar development, which we extend to explain mouth bar stratigraphy. We propose that changes across a hydrological cycle are important for mouth bar development, resulting in a stratigraphy that has alternating fine and coarse grain sediments. Results also indicate that sand is carried up to 6 km from the main stem of the Mississippi River, despite repeated channel bifurcations, which has important implications for our interpretation of the rock record, understanding of coastal sedimentary systems, and the restoration of large deltas.

  18. Social media: the word of mouth revolution.

    PubMed

    Garven, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    Many dental practices today find themselves uncertain about the new social media universe, and in particular with how to relate to younger patients. The power of social networking is its immediate access to the word of mouth exchange of information, and the word of mouth avenue itself is recognized as the single most effective form of advertising. To tap into that phenomenon, begin by investing a small amount of time and effort to understand the basics of social networking. Sign up for Facebook and Twitter. First-hand experience interacting in a social network is the vital first step. The bottom line is simply this: To begin to understand this new arena of communication, you first have to join the conversation. PMID:21287815

  19. Hand, foot and mouth disease in Nagpur.

    PubMed

    Saoji, Vikrant A

    2008-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral infection of children caused by Coxsackie virus-A16, a type of enterovirus closely related with the virus that causes herpangina. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. Hand, foot and mouth disease is sporadically reported from India as a mild illness. This report describes four cases of HFMD from Nagpur, Central India, seen between September 2005 and April 2006. All patients presented with a mild febrile prodrome followed by the appearance of aphthous-like oral ulcers and vesicular lesions on the hands and feet. All cases were clinically diagnosed. Coxsackie virus A16 was isolated from the serum of one of the patients. All the patients were in the age group of 3-5 years from different schools. It was a mild illness and all the four patients recovered without any complication. There were no secondary cases in the families. PMID:18388372

  20. Pain Part 8: Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beneng, Kiran; Renton, Tara

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a rare but impactful condition affecting mainly post-menopausal women resulting in constant pain and significant difficulty with eating, drinking and daily function. The aetiology of BMS remains an enigma. Recent evidence suggests it likely to be neuropathic in origin, the cause of which remains unknown. There is no cure for this condition and the unfortunate patients remain managed on a variety of neuropathic pain medication, salivary substitutes and other non-medical interventions that help the patient 'get through the day'. Some simple strategies can assist both clinician and patient to manage this debilitating condition. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The dental team will recognize patients presenting with burning mouth syndrome. They are difficult patients to manage and are often referred to secondary care and, ultimately, depend on their general medical practitioners for pain management. PMID:27439272

  1. Dry Mouth - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) ... anticancéreux - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (हिन्दी) Dry Mouth with Cancer Treatment हि ...

  2. Eastern American Indian Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert K.

    Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…

  3. 2500 years of changing shoreline accretion rates at the mouths of the Mekong River delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besset, Manon; Tamura, Toru; Anthony, Edward; Brunier, Guillaume; Saito, Yoshiki; Dussouillez, Philippe; Lap Nguyen, Van; Ta, Oahn

    2016-04-01

    The Mekong River delta prograded rapidly in a relatively sheltered bight in the South China Sea under the influence of high fluvial sediment supply 5300 to 3500 years ago, developing from an estuary into a delta. This >200 km seaward growth resulted in increasing exposure of the delta to ocean waves that led to a more wave-influenced mode of progradation characterized by the construction of numerous sets of beach ridges in the eastern sector of the delta, which shows a system of multiple distributary mouths. The growth pattern of this river-mouth sector over the last 2500 years has been determined from OSL dating of these beach-ridge deposits, while the most up-to-date trends (1950-2014) have been highlighted from the analysis of maps and satellite images. The OSL ages show that the area of the delta in the mouths sector remained nearly constant till about 500 yr BP, following which significant accretion occurred, possibly in response to changes in catchment land-use and monsoon rainfall and attendant river water and sediment discharge. A fine-tuned analysis of changes since 1950 shows dominant but fluctuating accretion, with two periods of erosion. The first (1965-1973) occurred in the course of the second Indochina war, and the second more recently from 2003 to 2011, followed by mild recovery between 2011 and 2014. These fluctuations most likely reflect changes in sediment supply caused by the vicissitudes of war and its effect on vegetation cover, as well as variations in monsoon rainfall and discharge, and, for the most recent period, massive sand mining in the river and deltaic channels. Accretion of the mouths sector has gone apace, over the same recent multi-decadal period, with large-scale erosion of the muddy shores of the delta in the western South China Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, thus suggesting that the mouths sector may be increasingly sequestering sediment to the detriment of the rest of the delta shoreline. The accretion in the mouths sector is

  4. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Bachiega, Joanna Carolina; Guedes, Carolina Cardoso; Laranja, Lorena Tristão; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with the mouth-breathing pattern than girls. A total of 23.6% of the participants had no mouth odor, 12.7% had mild odor, 12.7% had moderate odor and 50.9% had strong odor. There was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of halitosis was high among the children evaluated, and there was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. PMID:21808855

  5. [Burning mouth syndrome - a joint biopsychosocial approach].

    PubMed

    Arpone, Francesca; Combremont, Florian; Weber, Kerstin; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2016-02-10

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a medical condition that is often refractory to conventional diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Patients suffering from BMS can benefit from a biopsychosocial approach in a joint, medical-psychological consultation model. Such a consultation exists at Geneva University Hospitals, involving the collaboration of the maxillo-facial and oral surgery division and the division of liaison psychiatry and crisis intervention, in order to take into account the multiple factors involved in BMS onset and persistence. This article will describe BMS clinical presentation, and present an integrate approach to treat these patients. PMID:27039444

  6. Novel sensors for the Artificial Mouth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djeghlaf, Lyes; Mielle, Patrick; Maratray, Jacques; Launay, Jérôme; Temple-Boyer, Pierre; Salles, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Similarly to human chewing, tasty compounds are released in saliva during the food piece mastication in the `Artificial Mouth', and so, are available continuously. Glutamate is present in numerous food, as taste enhancer, has a nice and sought "umami" taste, specific receptors and different inter individual sensitivities, and is a fair marker of the release of tasty compounds. The three sensors (for pH, salt, or glutamate concentration) have the same size, so they are easily interchangeable. Up to now, only one kind of parameter may be analysed at a time by the different sensors. Nevertheless, combined electrodes may be developed in the future.

  7. Anthropogenic Impacts on Coastal Processes at Guadiaro River Mouth (Cádiz, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, J. Javier

    2014-05-01

    The mouth of Guadiaro river (Cadiz, south of Spain) opens to the Alboran basin of the Mediterranean Sea, between the Spanish and North African coasts, next to the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Spanish coastal orientation is NNE-SSW, so that the stretch is mainly affected by eastern ("Levantes") wind and wave action. The river sources are in Grazalema Sierra (Cádiz), western Penibetic ridge, and although the Spanish Mediterranean facade is climatically dry and supports a very irregular rainfall regime, rains in that "Sierra" are among the highest and homogeneous in Spain throughout the year, much more than in the rest of the ridge. Maybe that is why the Guadiaro estuary has remained functional until preset years while all other river mouths estuaries were filled to become deltas along the eighteenth century (Diez, 1996). As most of Spanish rivers, the Guadiaro had suffered a major regulatory process and an upstream transfer has been recently implemented from its basin to the Atlantic through Guadalete river basin, therefore the mouth flow is becoming reduced, especially in its peaks. The closure of its mouth, favoured by the reduced flow of the river in a low tide basin sea, has been studied several times in the last decades (Muñoz et al, 2010), mainly because the spit closing it grows in the NNE direction when alongshore transport occurs mainly, and almost permanently, in the opposite direction. This paper is mainly based on most of those documents, whose researches have used numerical models such as SMC and MIKE 21, obtaining relevant results on the refraction but not diffraction. Two successive main structural actions that can have modified coastal processes were introduced in the environment of the mouth: a couple of jetties (1973), one of which was soon removed (1975), and the marina and harbour of Sotogrande (whose breakwater was built in 1986 and extended 1n 1994)). The influence of these elements is not well reflected in the numerical models. In this

  8. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Francisco J; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; López-Jornet, Pía

    2015-05-16

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is mainly found in middle aged or elderly women and is characterized by intense burning or itching sensation of the tongue or other regions of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by xerostomia and dysgeusia. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during the evening and at night. Although BMS classically has been attributed to a range of factors, in recent years evidence has been obtained relating it peripheral (sensory C and/or trigeminal nerve fibers) or central neuropathic disturbances (involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system). The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Patient management is based on the avoidance of causes of oral irritation and the provision of psychological support. Drug treatment for burning sensation in primary BMS of peripheral origin can consist of topical clonazepam, while central type BMS appears to improve with the use of antidepressants such as duloxetine, antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin, or amisulpride. PMID:25952601

  9. Pathways of clay mineral transport in the coastal zone of the Brazilian continental shelf from Ceará to the mouth of the Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais, J. O.; Tintelnot, M.; Irion, G.; Souza Pinheiro, L.

    2006-03-01

    The transport pathways of fine sediments (fraction <2 μm) along the Brazilian continental shelf from Ceará to the Amazon River mouth were studied by means of clay mineral analyses. On the continental shelf southeast of the Amazon mouth, fluctuations in clay mineral compositions reflect simple mixing between the suspended load of the North Brazil Current and sediment from several smaller rivers. Previously, clay mineral variations west of the Amazon mouth have been explained by variable settling velocities of different grain-size classes within the <2 μm fraction or by selective coagulation of individual clay mineral groups. By contrast, our experiments with river bank samples show that selective coagulation does not occur in Amazon River sediments. A more appropriate explanation for observed variations in clay mineral composition off the Amazon mouth seems to be, similarly to that for the shelf between Ceará and the Amazon mouth, a mixing of Amazon sediments with suspended material of the North Brazil Current. This interpretation is supported by data on clay mineral composition east and south of the Amazon mouth, showing more affinity to sediments of the North Brazil Current than to the suspended load of the Amazon River. Additionally, relatively low sedimentation rates and low concentrations of fine-grained sediments on the shelf suggest that high riverine input by the Amazon River does not overprint the sediments of the North Brazil Current in this region. The strong North Brazil Current shunts the Amazon suspended load in a north-westerly direction along the north-eastern coast of South America. Hence, stronger sedimentation of Amazon sediments would occur only west of the river mouth.

  10. A Flipped Spoon and Chin Prompt to Increase Mouth Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Jack; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Groff, Rebecca A.; Kozisek, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    We treated the liquid refusal of a 15-month-old girl using 2 antecedent manipulations: flipped spoon and chin prompt. Use of the chin prompt in the absence of the flipped spoon failed to produce increases in mouth clean (a product measure of swallowing). By contrast, modest increases in mouth clean resulted from the implementation of the flipped…

  11. Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... a saliva substitute to help moisten your mouth. Clean your mouth, tongue, and gums. Brush your teeth, gums, and tongue with an extra-soft toothbrush after every meal and at bedtime. If it hurts, soften the bristles in warm water. Use a fluoride toothpaste. Use the special fluoride gel that your ...

  12. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or smell ● ● Dry mouth (little or no saliva) ● ● Pain when you eat hot or cold foods Take these steps: Clean your mouth with care. ● ● Brush your teeth and tongue after each meal and before you go to bed. ...

  13. 4. LIGHTHOUSE SITE OFFSHORE AT MOUTH OF FEDERAL CHANNEL, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LIGHTHOUSE SITE OFFSHORE AT MOUTH OF FEDERAL CHANNEL, AND WEST END OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM THE WATER TOWARD THE BUILDINGS OF THE FORMER ALAMEDA NAVAL AIR STATION, ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. Hand, foot, and mouth disease on the soles (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is cause by a coxsackie virus. It produces mouth ulcers and small blisters (vesicles) on the hands and feet. The vesicles often have a reddish border with a white or lighter colored area in the center.

  15. Evaluation of Respiratory Muscle Strength in Mouth Breathers: Clinical Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Andrade da Cunha, Renata; Andrade da Cunha, Daniele; Assis, Roberta Borba; Bezerra, Luciana Ângelo; Justino da Silva, Hilton

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The child who chronically breathes through the mouth may develop a weakness of the respiratory muscles. Researchers and clinical are seeking for methods of instrumental evaluation to gather complementary data to clinical evaluations. With this in mind, it is important to evaluate breathing muscles in the child with Mouth Breathing. Objective To develop a review to investigate studies that used evaluation methods of respiratory muscle strength in mouth breathers. Data Synthesis  The authors were unanimous in relation to manovacuometry method as a way to evaluate respiratory pressures in Mouth Breathing children. Two of them performed with an analog manovacuometer and the other one, digital. The studies were not evaluated with regard to the method efficacy neither the used instruments. Conclusion There are few studies evaluating respiratory muscle strength in Mouth Breathing people through manovacuometry and the low methodological rigor of the analyzed studies hindered a reliable result to support or refuse the use of this technique. PMID:25992108

  16. Development and quality evaluation of aonla mouth freshner.

    PubMed

    Barwal, Vishal Singh; Garg, Vivek; Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-12-01

    Nutritive and palatable mouth freshners were prepared from dehydrated aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) pulp of 'Desi' and 'Banarsi' cultivars by mixing carboxy methyl cellulose, gums, arecanut, cardamom, sugar and milk powder at different proportions as a substitute for pan masala, tobacco and gutka. Mouth fresheners developed were packed in high density polyethylene pouches (HDPE, 100 gauge), stored at ambient conditions (8-20 °C, 60%RH) and analysed for physico-chemical and sensory quality attributes at different storage intervals. During storage for 6 months, ascorbic acid and overall acceptability of mouth freshener decreased (p ≤ 0.05) and moisture content increased. The equivalent relative humidity of mouth freshener was 49% and 53% in 'Desi' and 'Banarsi' cultivars, respectively. Despite the changes observed in various physico- chemical and sensory attributes, the overall sensory quality attributes of mouth freshners remained acceptable. PMID:23572710

  17. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. PMID:20206101

  18. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  19. Computed tomographic evaluation of mouth breathers among paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Farid, MM; Metwalli, N

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Mouth breathing causes many serious problems in the paediatric population. It has been maintained that enlarged adenoids are principally responsible for mouth breathing. This study was designed to evaluate whether other mechanical obstacles might predispose the child to mouth breathing. Methods 67 children with ages ranging from 10 to 15 years were studied and grouped into mouth-breathers and nose-breathers. The children first underwent axial CT scans of the brain for which they were originally referred. In addition, they were subjected to a limited coronal CT examination of the paranasal sinuses. Congenital anatomical variations as well as inflammatory changes were assessed. Results 87% of mouth-breathing children had hypertrophied adenoids, 77% had maxillary sinusitis, 74% had pneumatized middle concha, 55% had a deviated nasal septum, 55% had hypertrophied inferior conchae, 45% had ethmoidal sinusitis and 23% showed frontal sinusitis. Such changes were significantly less prevalent in nose-breathers. 12.9% of mouth-breathing children did not have adenoids. Of these children, only 3.3% had one or more congenital or inflammatory change whereas the other 9.6% showed a completely normal CT scan signifying the incidence of habitual non-obstructive mouth breathing. Conclusions It is clear that adenoids have a dominant role in causing mouth breathing. Yet, we recommend that paediatricians should assess other mechanical obstacles if mouth breathing was not corrected after adenoidectomy. Further research should be performed to test the validity of correction of such factors in improving the quality of life of mouth-breathing children. PMID:20089737

  20. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies. PMID:27217177

  1. An overview of burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Carmen; Di Stasio, Dario; Petruzzi, Massimo; Lauritano, Dorina; Gentile, Enrica; Guida, Agostino; Maio, Claudio; Tammaro, Mariasofia; Serpico, Rosario; Lucchese, Alberta

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterised by the presence of a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinically apparent mucosal sign. It occurs more commonly in older women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palates. Besides the burning sensation, patients with BMS may complain of unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The exact pathophysiology of primary BMS remains unknown. A major challenge for the clinician is the treatment of BMS: identifying possible causative factors is the first step, but BMS is often idiopathic. Drug therapy, in addition to behavioural therapy and psychotherapy, may help to eliminate the symptoms. Considering the growing incidence of BMS in older people, further research is required to determine the true efficacy of current management strategies for patients with this disorder. PMID:26709657

  2. Maximum opening of the mouth by mouth prop during dental procedures increases the risk of upper airway constriction

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yamazaki, Shinya; Suzuki, Yosuke

    2010-01-01

    From a retrospective evaluation of data on accidents and deaths during dental procedures, it has been shown that several patients who refused dental treatment died of asphyxia during dental procedures. We speculated that forcible maximum opening of the mouth by using a mouth prop triggers this asphyxia by affecting the upper airway. Therefore, we assessed the morphological changes of the upper airway following maximal opening of the mouth. In 13 healthy adult volunteers, the sagittal diameter of the upper airway on lateral cephalogram was measured between the two conditions; closed mouth and maximally open mouth. The dyspnea in each state was evaluated by a visual analog scale. In one subject, a computed tomograph (CT) was taken to assess the three-dimensional changes in the upper airway. A significant difference was detected in the mean sagittal diameter of the upper airway following use of the prop (closed mouth: 18.5 ± 3.8 mm, maximally open mouth: 10.4 ± 3.0 mm). All subjects indicated upper airway constriction and significant dyspnea when their mouth was maximally open. Although a CT scan indicated upper airway constriction when the mouth was maximally open, muscular compensation was admitted. Our results further indicate that the maximal opening of the mouth narrows the upper airway diameter and leads to dyspnea. The use of a prop for the patient who has communication problems or poor neuromuscular function can lead to asphyxia. When the prop is used for patient refusal in dentistry, the respiratory condition should be monitored strictly, and it should be kept in mind that the “sniffing position” is effective for avoiding upper airway constriction. Practitioners should therefore consider applying not only systematic desensitization, but also general anesthesia to the patient who refuses treatment, because the safety of general anesthesia has advanced, and general anesthesia may be safer than the use of a prop and restraints. PMID:20526442

  3. On the Conventionalization of Mouth Actions in Australian Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Trevor; van Roekel, Jane; Schembri, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the conventionalization of mouth actions in Australian Sign Language. Signed languages were once thought of as simply manual languages because the hands produce the signs which individually and in groups are the symbolic units most easily equated with the words, phrases and clauses of spoken languages. However, it has long been acknowledged that non-manual activity, such as movements of the body, head and the face play a very important role. In this context, mouth actions that occur while communicating in signed languages have posed a number of questions for linguists: are the silent mouthings of spoken language words simply borrowings from the respective majority community spoken language(s)? Are those mouth actions that are not silent mouthings of spoken words conventionalized linguistic units proper to each signed language, culturally linked semi-conventional gestural units shared by signers with members of the majority speaking community, or even gestures and expressions common to all humans? We use a corpus-based approach to gather evidence of the extent of the use of mouth actions in naturalistic Australian Sign Language-making comparisons with other signed languages where data is available--and the form/meaning pairings that these mouth actions instantiate. PMID:27089804

  4. Mouth breathing in allergic children: its relationship to dentofacial development.

    PubMed

    Bresolin, D; Shapiro, P A; Shapiro, G G; Chapko, M K; Dassel, S

    1983-04-01

    While there are many claims that abnormal breathing patterns alter facial growth, there are limited controlled data to confirm this. We evaluated forty-five North American Caucasians of both sexes, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years. Thirty chronically allergic mouth-breathing subjects were selected from a pediatric allergy practice, and fifteen nonallergic nose breathers were selected from a general pediatric practice. Each subject underwent an intraoral clinical examination and a cephalometric radiograph analysis. Various skeletal and dental relationships were evaluated for statistical differences related to mode of breathing and age. The upper anterior facial height and the total anterior facial height were significantly larger in the mouth breathers. Angular relationships of the sella-nasion, palatal, and occlusal planes to the mandibular plane were greater in the mouth breathers, and their gonial angles were larger. The mouth breathers' maxillae and mandibles were more retrognathic. Palatal height was higher, and overjet was greater in the mouth breathers. Maxillary intermolar width was narrower in the mouth breathers and was associated with a higher prevalence of posterior cross-bite. Over all, mouth breathers had longer faces with narrower maxillae and retrognathic jaws. This supports previous claims that nasal airway obstruction is associated with aberrant facial growth. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of early intervention in preventing these growth alterations. PMID:6573147

  5. Hand, foot and mouth disease - a short case report

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Rajesh-Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, that was once considered a disease of cattle, has been emerging as a common human childhood disease in the last few years. It is a viral disease characterized by a brief febrile illness and typical vesicular rashes. In rare cases, patients may also develop neurological complications. This report describes a case of hand, foot and mouth disease, presented with typical clinical features in the South Indian region. Key words:Hand, foot and mouth disease, viral lesions, blisters. PMID:26155357

  6. Burning mouth syndrome: a discussion of a complex pathology.

    PubMed

    Zur, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a complex pathology for which there is very little information about the etiology and pathogenesis. This lack of knowledge leaves patients with suboptimal treatments. This article discusses the existing scientific evidence about this disease. Since topical oral use of clonazepam have been shown to be effective and safe to treat some patients suffering with burning mouth syndrome, formulations including clonazepam are included with this article. Compounding topical preparations of clonazepam offers opportunities for compounding pharmacists to be more involved in improving the quality of life of burning mouth syndrome patients. PMID:23050296

  7. Ice dynamics at the mouth of ice stream B, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, R. A.; Stephenson, S. N.; Macayeal, D. R.; Shabtaie, S.

    1987-01-01

    Data collected in the region of the mouth of ice stream B, West Antarctica, during three field seasons are presented. The physical characteristics of the mouth of ice stream B are described, and the dynamics in the vicinity of the DNB network are discussed. The dynamics of ice stream B from DNB to the grounding line is briefly considered, and a force analysis of the grounding line region is made. The results demonstrate that the dynamic situation of the region at the mouth of ice stream B is distinctly different from either the greater portion of the ice stream upstream or the Ross ice shelf downstream.

  8. Antimuscarinics in Older People: Dry Mouth and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Bostock, Clare; McDonald, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Many common prescription and over-the-counter medications have antimuscarinic effects. Antimuscarinics are a well recognized cause of dry mouth, with potential to cause other physical and cognitive adverse effects. A comprehensive medication review in a patient presenting with dry mouth can lead to overall health improvements. Scoring systems can be helpful in identifying antimuscarinic drugs and their adverse effects. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Antimuscarinic drug use is prevalent and a common cause of dry mouth. Older people are particularly susceptible to antimuscarinic adverse effects. PMID:27188134

  9. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  10. Relation between mouth and haematogenous infection in total joint replacements.

    PubMed Central

    Bartzokas, C. A.; Johnson, R.; Jane, M.; Martin, M. V.; Pearce, P. K.; Saw, Y.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the source of infections associated with orthopaedic prostheses. DESIGN--Analysis of four infections of prosthetic joints with case records; minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations and sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the cell wall polypeptides of the Streptococcus sanguis isolates from the mouth and infected prostheses; examination of the patients' mouths for periodontal disease and caries. SUBJECTS--Four adults (three men) aged 58-83. RESULTS--For each patient the strain of S sanguis isolated from the mouth was indistinguishable from that isolated from the prosthesis. All patients had severe periodontal disease and caries. CONCLUSIONS--The mouth was probably the source of bacterial infection in the prosthetic joints of these patients; the route of infection was possibly haematogenous. Incipient oral infection should be treated before joint replacement, and oral health should be maintained indefinitely. PMID:8086903

  11. Detecting internet search activity for mouth cancer in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Murray, G; O'Rourke, C; Hogan, J; Fenton, J E

    2016-02-01

    Mouth Cancer Awareness Day in Ireland was launched in September 2010 by survivors of the disease to promote public awareness of suspicious signs of oral cancer and to provide free dental examinations. To find out whether its introduction had increased public interest in the disease, we used Google Trends to find out how often users in Ireland had searched for "oral cancer" and "mouth cancer" across all Google domains between January 2005 and December 2013. The number of internet searches for these cancers has increased significantly (p <0.001) and has peaked each September since the awareness day was launched in 2010. More people searched for "mouth cancer" than for "oral cancer". These findings may have valuable clinical implications, as an increase in public awareness of mouth cancer could result in earlier presentation and better prognosis. PMID:26774361

  12. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Veena, KM; Jagadishchandra, H; Bhat, Sham S; Shetty, Shishir Ram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hand, foot and mouth disease usually affect infants and children. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. It is moderately contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics, usually during the summer and autumn months. The incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease has recently been on the rise in India due to the probable mass immunization programs. This report describes a case of hand foot and mouth disease from Mangalore, South India. How to cite this article: Rao PK, Veena KM, Jagadishchandra H, Bhat SS, Shetty SR. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):220-222. PMID:25206173

  13. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER MOUTH OF FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER MOUTH OF FISH LADDER AT ROCK OUTCROPPING, SHOWING NATURAL CARVED ROCK POOLS, UPPER PORTION OF FISH LADDER VISIBLE IN DISTANCE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST (UPSTREAM) - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

  14. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  15. 2. Photocopy of 1827 map of mouth of Cuyahoga River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of 1827 map of mouth of Cuyahoga River from Corps of Engineers files, Buffalo District. This is the earliest map of the Cleveland Harbor in the Corps' files. - Cleveland Breakwater at Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. Correct Diagnosis Provides Relief for Those with Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... in preventing tooth decay by rinsing away food particles, neutralizing harmful acids, digesting food, and ... than 400 prescriptions and over the counter drugs are known to cause dry mouth," says ...

  17. Smoking Triggers Big Changes in Mouth Bacteria, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158024.html Smoking Triggers Big Changes in Mouth Bacteria, Study Finds ... 29, 2016 TUESDAY, March 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking can dramatically change the balance of bacterial species ...

  18. 21. DETAILED FRONTAL VIEW WEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING MOUTHS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAILED FRONTAL VIEW WEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING MOUTHS WITH ROLLERS FOR MOVING TRAYS IN AND OUT OF THE OVENS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  19. The Asian free-reed mouth organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottingham, James P.

    2002-11-01

    Mouth-blown instruments employing a free reed coupled to a pipe resonator have long been known and used throughout East and Southeast Asia. Details of the origin and development of these instruments are not known, but are closely connected with the history and prehistory of a multitude of ethnic groups. These instruments exemplify a pipe-resonator coupling significantly different from the standard wind instruments of European origin. The free reed used is approximately symmetric, often operating on both directions of air flow. In some cases the reed is at or near one end of a closed pipe, but in other examples the reed is mounted in the side of a resonator open at both ends. The instruments can be either multiple pipe instruments with one pipe per note, or a pipe with a single reed and tone holes. A number of experimental studies have been conducted on examples of Asian free-reed instruments, primarily the khaen, bawu, and sheng. These include studies of reed vibration, measurements of sound spectra, and impedance measurements of the pipes. Comparisons have been made between experimental results and theoretical work on the coupling of reed vibration with the pipe resonator.

  20. Development and evolution of the vertebrate primary mouth.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Vladimír; Horácek, Ivan; Cerny, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate oral region represents a key interface between outer and inner environments, and its structural and functional design is among the limiting factors for survival of its owners. Both formation of the respective oral opening (primary mouth) and establishment of the food-processing apparatus (secondary mouth) require interplay between several embryonic tissues and complex embryonic rearrangements. Although many aspects of the secondary mouth formation, including development of the jaws, teeth or taste buds, are known in considerable detail, general knowledge about primary mouth formation is regrettably low. In this paper, primary mouth formation is reviewed from a comparative point of view in order to reveal its underestimated morphogenetic diversity among, and also within, particular vertebrate clades. In general, three main developmental modes were identified. The most common is characterized by primary mouth formation via a deeply invaginated ectodermal stomodeum and subsequent rupture of the bilaminar oral membrane. However, in salamander, lungfish and also in some frog species, the mouth develops alternatively via stomodeal collar formation contributed both by the ecto- and endoderm. In ray-finned fishes, on the other hand, the mouth forms via an ectoderm wedge and later horizontal detachment of the initially compressed oral epithelia with probably a mixed germ-layer derivation. A very intriguing situation can be seen in agnathan fishes: whereas lampreys develop their primary mouth in a manner similar to the most common gnathostome pattern, hagfishes seem to undergo a unique oropharyngeal morphogenesis when compared with other vertebrates. In discussing the early formative embryonic correlates of primary mouth formation likely to be responsible for evolutionary-developmental modifications of this area, we stress an essential role of four factors: first, positioning and amount of yolk tissue; closely related to, second, endoderm formation during

  1. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  2. 33. NEARLY VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. NEARLY VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL, LOOKING TO THE NORTHWEST. NEITHER ALAMEDA NAVAL AIR STATION NOR OAKLAND NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER HAVE BEEN BUILT. No date, probably mid-1930's. U.S. Navy photograph. Original print on file at the National Archives, San Bruno, California. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. 30. VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL, SCALE 1:14,400. TO THE SOUTH OF THE CHANNEL ARE THE RUNWAYS OF THE FORMER ALAMEDA NAVAL AIR STATION; TO THE NORTH ARE THE BERTHS AND BUILDINGS OF THE FORMER NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER, OAKLAND. Date and time of photography '12-9-98 10:51." - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. [Burning mouth syndrome: pathogenic and therapeutic concepts].

    PubMed

    Ferensztajn, Ewa; Łojko, Dorota; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition characterized by pain, burning sensations and dryness within an oral mucosa, without any clinical changes of the latter. It occurs approximately seven times more frequently in women, mostly in perimenopausal age. The psychiatric aspect of BMS is significant: the most frequent co-morbidities are depression and anxiety disorders, and a number of psychotropic drugs play an essential role in its treatment. In the present review, the most important pathogenic and treatment concepts of BMS have been discussed. The BMS may be similar to neuropathic pain and has some related pathogenic elements with fibromyalgia and the restless leg syndrome. In primary BMS, the features of presynaptic dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons and deficiency of endogenous dopamine levels have been demonstrated. Other neurotransmitters such as serotonin, noradrenaline, histamine as well as hormonal and inflammatory factors may also play a role in the pathogenesis of BMS. In the pharmacological treatment of BMS a variety of drugs have been used including benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, antidepressants and atypical antipsychotic drugs. In the final part of the paper, the possibility of using atypical antipsychotic drug, olanzapine, in the treatment of BMS has been discussed. In the context of the recent studies on this topic, a case of female patient with the BMS lasting more than ten years has been mentioned, in whom the treatment with olanzapine brought about a rapid and significant reduction of symptoms. The probable mechanism of the therapeutic effect of olanzapine in BMS can include its effect on dopaminergic receptors and probably also on histaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic ones. PMID:25007531

  5. Mouth of the Ob River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite shows the cause and effect of the large-scale seasonal flooding experienced on rivers throughout Siberia each year. Because many Siberian rivers flow from south to north, they flood regularly in the spring as meltwater from southern latitudes backs up against the still-frozen northern reaches of the rivers.These images show the Ob' River on the western edge of the Central Siberian Plateau. The images from June 20, 2002, show the mouth of the Ob' River (large river at left) where it empties into Kara Sea. In the false-color image, Vegetation appears in bright green, water appears dark blue or black, and ice appears bright blue. The ice is still choking the river's outlet to the sea.The effect of this ice block on the more southern stretches of the river can be seen in the images captured on June 17. In the false-color image, water is black, vegetation is in shades of gold and green, and clouds are pale orange. In the northernmost portion of the Ob' visible in this image (the Ob' runs southeast to northwest in the image), what is normally a fine mesh of braided streams and branches of the river channel has become almost a lake in places. The flood waters have engorged the river to 52 kilometers (32 miles) wide in places. Rivers can back up for hundreds of miles, and cause devastating flooding for towns and villages along the banks. Often, explosives are dropped into ice jams in an effort to free the river and give the flood waters a chance to escape. The spring and summer floods of 2002 have proven to be quite severe and perhaps as many as 100,000 people have been affected across the country. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  7. Betaine-containing toothpaste relieves subjective symptoms of dry mouth.

    PubMed

    Söderling, E; Le Bell, A; Kirstilä, V; Tenovuo, J

    1998-04-01

    Subjects with dry mouth often experience irritation of the oral mucosa when using sodium lauryl sulfate containing products for oral hygiene. Betaine, or trimethylglycine, reduces skin-irritating effects of ingredients of cosmetics such as sodium lauryl sulfate. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a betaine-containing toothpaste with a regular toothpaste on the oral microbial flora, the condition of the oral mucosa, and subjective symptoms of dry mouth in subjects with chronic dry mouth symptoms. Thirteen subjects with chronic dry mouth symptoms and with a paraffin-stimulated salivary flow rate < or = 1 mL/min participated in the double-blind crossover study. Ten subjects had a very low salivary flow rate (< or = 0.6 mL/min). The subjects used both experimental toothpastes (with or without 4% betaine) twice a day for 2 weeks. Oral examinations and microbiologic sample collections were made at the base lines preceding the two experimental periods and at the end. Standardized questions on subjective symptoms of dry mouth were used when the subjects were interviewed at the end of the two experimental periods. No study-induced significant changes were observed in the microbiologic variables (plaque index, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, Candida species) or in the appearance of the oral mucosa. The use of the betaine-containing toothpaste was, however, associated with a significant relief of several subjective symptoms of dry mouth. Betaine appears thus to be a promising ingredient of toothpastes in general and especially of toothpastes designed for patients with dry mouth. PMID:9669455

  8. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  9. Mouthing activity data for children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Ming-Chien; Özkaynak, Halûk; Beamer, Paloma; Dang, Winston; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Young children’s mouthing activities thought to be among the most important exposure pathways. Unfortunately, mouthing activity studies have only been conducted in a few countries. In the current study, we used videotaping and computer-based translating method to obtain mouthing activity data for 66 children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies were 8.91 and 11.39 contacts h−1, respectively. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth hourly contact durations were 0.34 and 0.46 min h−1, respectively. The indoor object-to-mouth activities were significantly and negatively correlated with age. Children aged 12 to <24 months in the current study had lower indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies than children of same age group in the United States. We also found that indoor mouthing duration with pacifier was significantly and negatively correlated with indoor mouthing duration with other non-dietary objects. The results of the current study indicate that the mouthing behaviors might be different between different countries or populations with different ethnic or lifestyle characteristics. We conclude that using hand-to-mouth frequency values from the current literature may not be most reliable for estimating non-dietary exposures of young children living in Taiwan or even in other similar Asian countries. PMID:25027450

  10. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language*

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Current conceptions of human language include a gestural component in the communicative event. However, determining how the linguistic and gestural signals are distinguished, how each is structured, and how they interact still poses a challenge for the construction of a comprehensive model of language. This study attempts to advance our understanding of these issues with evidence from sign language. The study adopts McNeill’s criteria for distinguishing gestures from the linguistically organized signal, and provides a brief description of the linguistic organization of sign languages. Focusing on the subcategory of iconic gestures, the paper shows that signers create iconic gestures with the mouth, an articulator that acts symbiotically with the hands to complement the linguistic description of objects and events. A new distinction between the mimetic replica and the iconic symbol accounts for the nature and distribution of iconic mouth gestures and distinguishes them from mimetic uses of the mouth. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth is a salient feature of human language, regardless of whether the primary linguistic modality is oral or manual. Speakers gesture with their hands, and signers gesture with their mouths. PMID:20445832

  11. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  12. Modelling long term morphological changes with XBeach: case study of Kizilirmak River mouth, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykal, Cüneyt; Ergin, Aysen; Güler, Işıkhan; Özyurt Tarakcıoğlu, Gülizar; Söğüt, Erdinç; Gökhan Güler, Hasan; Güney Doğan, Gözde

    2015-04-01

    The Bafra alluvial plain, where the Kızılırmak River discharges into the Black Sea, is one of the most critical examples of severe coastal erosion problems in Turkey. The amount of sediment carried by the Kızılırmak River has decreased from approximately 23 million ton per year to 0.46 million tons/year starting from 1960s as a result of construction of flow regulatory structures in the following years. This drastic decrease in the amount of sediment carried by the river resulted in a severe shoreline retreat up to 1 km in the cross-shore direction since 1988 according to the Regional Directorate of State Hydraulic Works and local residents (Kökpınar et al., 2007). The first remedial measure against this severe coastal erosion problem at the river mouth was constructed in 2000 by State Hydraulic Works (DSİ). It was composed of two Y-type and one I-type groins constructed at the eastern shoreline of the river mouth. After construction of the first remedial system, the shoreline retreat slowed down between the groins and trapping of sediment initiated. Today, the gaps between the groins are almost completely filled with sediment. In this study, the shoreline changes between the groins of the first remedial system for the years 1999, 2003 and 2007 are studied using the open source numerical model called XBeach (Roelvink et al.2010) focusing on the hydrodynamics and tombolo formation around the groins. The numerical model has been developed mainly to model short term morphological changes such as nearshore responses under storm and hurricane conditions. Herein, the preparation of the wave data input to minimize the computational demand of the model and the effect of the sequence of the input wave directions are discussed in detail in this study. Finally, the shoreline changes obtained from numerical model simulations are compared with the field data. Keywords: Numerical modeling of shoreline changes, tombolo formation

  13. Mouth Cancer for Clinicians. Part 11: Cancer Treatment (Radiotherapy).

    PubMed

    Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Scully, Crispian

    2016-06-01

    A MEDLINE search early in 2015 revealed more than 250,000 papers on head and neck cancer; over 100,000 on oral cancer; and over 60,000 on mouth cancer. Not all publications contain robust evidence. We endeavour to encapsulate the most important of the latest information and advances now employed in practice, in a form comprehensible to healthcare workers, patients and their carers. This series offers the primary care dental team in particular, an overview of the aetiopathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and multidisciplinary care of mouth cancer, the functional and psychosocial implications, and minimization of the impact on the quality of life of patient and family. Clinical Relevance: This article offers the dental team an overview of the use of radiotherapy, and its effects on the mouth and other tissues. PMID:27529915

  14. [Electrostimulation for the treatment of a dry mouth feeling].

    PubMed

    Janssen, M J E J; Bots, C P; Brand, H S

    2015-10-01

    A 67-year-old woman suffered from a burning mouth feeling for 1.5 years and was referred by her dentist to a saliva clinic. At the clinic persistent xerostomia was diagnosed, and Sjögren's syndrome was suspected. After 1 year, a new measurement of the saliva secretion was carried out, which revealed a further decline in saliva secretion rate. The patient was consequently treated with an intra-oral electrostimulating device in order to stimulate the saliva secretion rate and reduce the feeling of a dry mouth. After 2 weeks, the patient experienced a considerable improvement of the subjective oral dryness. PMID:26465014

  15. Hand to Mouth: Automatic Imitation across Effector Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Jane; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The effector dependence of automatic imitation was investigated using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) procedure during which participants were required to make an open or closed response with their hand or their mouth. The correct response for each trial was indicated by a pair of letters in Experiments 1 and 2 and by a colored square in…

  16. The pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greatest segment of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies that are specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental invest...

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease: global status and Indian perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and transboundary viral disease of domesticated and wild cloven-hoofed animals. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic loss to the livestock farming and industry has increased the concern worldwide. The di...

  18. Novel antiviral therapeutics to control foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccines require approximately 7 days to induce protection, thus prior to this time vaccinated animals are still susceptible to the disease. Our group has previously shown that swine inoculated with 1x10...

  19. 1. Aerial view, looking east towards Rose Island and mouth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking east towards Rose Island and mouth of Narraganset Bay. Fort Adams is in background. The "dumplings" are to the right. Fort Wolcott was to the left. These four sites worked together to guard the entrance to Narraganset Bay and Newport Harbor. - Fort Hamilton, Rose Island, Newport, Newport County, RI

  20. Mouth of the Amazon River as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A near-nadir view of the mouth of the Amazon River, that shows all signs of being a relatively healthy system, breathing and exhaling. The well-developed cumulus field over the forested areas on both the north and south sides of the river (the view is slightly to the west) shows that good evapotranspiration is underway.

  1. Study of Airflow Out of the Mouth During Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catford, J.C.; And Others

    Airflow outside the mouth is diagnostic of articulatory activities in the vocal tract, both total volume-velocity and the distribution of particle velocities over the flow-front being useful for this purpose. A system for recording and displaying both these types of information is described. This consists of a matrix of l6 hot-wire anemometer flow…

  2. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys.

    PubMed

    Ionas, Alin C; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Gómez, Ana Ballesteros; Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; van de Bor, Margot; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) × min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener-dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust. PMID:26655676

  3. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Preliminarily Diagnosed as Hypochondriasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Michael Jay; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A case in which a dental student with hand, foot, and mouth disease was told he had "medical student disease" (MSD), or hypochondriasis, is related; literature pertaining to the occurrence and treatment of MSD is reviewed, and the importance of care in approaches to both students and patients are discussed. (MSE)

  4. Novel approaches to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for better Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines is not new, a report from the Research Commission on FMD, authored by F. Loeffler and P. Frosch in 1897, highlighted the need for developing a vaccine against FMD and qualified this as a devastating disease causing “severe economic damage to ...

  5. An overview of burning mouth syndrome for the dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A K; Prime, S S; Cohen, S N

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an idiopathic burning pain affecting the oral mucosa, with no clinically apparent changes. It can present to a variety of health professionals including dermatologists. This article summarizes the important aspects of the condition, including theories of pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. PMID:26871710

  6. Mosaic Structure Of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the results of a simple pairwise scanning analysis designed to identify inter-serotype recombination events applied to genome data from 144 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) representing all seven serotypes. We identify large numbers of candidate recombinant fragments from a...

  7. Mosaic Structure of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the results of a simple pairwise scanning analysis designed to identify inter-serotype recombination events applied to genome data from 144 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) representing all seven serotypes. We identify large numbers of candidate recombinant fragments from al...

  8. Advance directives, dementia, and withholding food and water by mouth.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Paul T; Chandler-Cramer, M Colette

    2014-01-01

    People with dementia who are no longer competent have limited control over how their lives end. But an advance directive to withhold food and water by mouth could be used to ensure that one does not live for years in severe dementia. Such directives are arguably already legal. PMID:24821250

  9. 4. General view of mouth of headworks and walkway to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of mouth of headworks and walkway to headgate house, looking west. Tramway car, used for repairing dam, is to the right. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  10. The early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is of critical importance to ongoing and future efforts to decrease the impact of FMD in endemic regions and prevent incursions to disease-free territories. The importance of the early phase of virus-host interaction lies in two ke...

  11. Historic view entitled "FORT PULASKI (/) MOUTH OF SAVANNAH RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic view entitled "FORT PULASKI (/) MOUTH OF SAVANNAH RIVER AND TYBEE ISLAND, GA.," of 48th NY infantry on the south wall looking to the southeast corner (note: cockspur beacon in near background and Tybee Island in far background) - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  12. 19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON THE BEACH. VALVE AT RIGHT (WITH WRENCH NEARBY) OPENS TO FLUSH VALLEY SYSTEM OUT. VALVE AT LEFT CLOSES TO KEEP WATER FROM ENTERING SYSTEM ALONG THE PALI DURING REPAIRS. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  13. Effects of Meteorological Parameters and PM10 on the Incidence of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Children in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruixue; Bian, Guolin; He, Tianfeng; Chen, Lv; Xu, Guozhang

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a globally-prevalent infectious disease. However, few data are available on prevention measures for HFMD. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impacts of temperature, humidity, and air pollution, particularly levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 10 micrometers (PM10), on the incidence of HFMD in a city in Eastern China. Daily morbidity, meteorological, and air pollution data for Ningbo City were collected for the period from January 2012 to December 2014. A total of 86,695 HFMD cases were enrolled in this study. We used a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution to analyze the nonlinear lag effects of daily mean temperature, daily humidity, and found significant relationships with the incidence of HFMD; in contrast, PM10 level showed no relationship to the incidence of HFMD. Our findings will facilitate the development of effective preventive measures and early forecasting of HFMD outbreaks. PMID:27171104

  14. Effects of Meteorological Parameters and PM10 on the Incidence of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Children in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruixue; Bian, Guolin; He, Tianfeng; Chen, Lv; Xu, Guozhang

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a globally-prevalent infectious disease. However, few data are available on prevention measures for HFMD. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impacts of temperature, humidity, and air pollution, particularly levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 10 micrometers (PM10), on the incidence of HFMD in a city in Eastern China. Daily morbidity, meteorological, and air pollution data for Ningbo City were collected for the period from January 2012 to December 2014. A total of 86,695 HFMD cases were enrolled in this study. We used a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution to analyze the nonlinear lag effects of daily mean temperature, daily humidity, and found significant relationships with the incidence of HFMD; in contrast, PM10 level showed no relationship to the incidence of HFMD. Our findings will facilitate the development of effective preventive measures and early forecasting of HFMD outbreaks. PMID:27171104

  15. 33 CFR 207.270 - Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. 207.270 Section 207.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. (a) The floating of “sack”, rafts, or of... River, Miss., between Batesville, Panola County, Miss., and the mouth....

  16. 33 CFR 207.270 - Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. 207.270 Section 207.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. (a) The floating of “sack”, rafts, or of... River, Miss., between Batesville, Panola County, Miss., and the mouth....

  17. 33 CFR 207.270 - Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. 207.270 Section 207.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. (a) The floating of “sack”, rafts, or of... River, Miss., between Batesville, Panola County, Miss., and the mouth....

  18. 33 CFR 207.270 - Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. 207.270 Section 207.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. (a) The floating of “sack”, rafts, or of... River, Miss., between Batesville, Panola County, Miss., and the mouth....

  19. 33 CFR 207.270 - Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. 207.270 Section 207.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. (a) The floating of “sack”, rafts, or of... River, Miss., between Batesville, Panola County, Miss., and the mouth....

  20. The Effects of Hunger on Hand-Mouth Coordination in Newborn Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Adina R.; Butterworth, George

    1995-01-01

    Examined the effects of hunger on the hand-mouth (HM) behavior of a group of newborn infants. Found that significantly more mouth opening before contacts to the mouth than those to the face occurred before but not after feeding, suggesting some link between HM behavior and hunger state. (MDM)

  1. Tectonic Subsidence Analysis of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Huang, S. S. X. E. C.; Zhuang, W.; LIU, Z.; Duan, W.; Hu, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB hereafter) in the northern margin of the South China Sea has attracted great attention not only because of its special tectonic location but also for its abundant hydrocarbon resources. Tectonic evolution controls the petroleum geological condition of hydrocarbon-bearing basins. Efforts have been made to understand the tectonic evolution of this basin. However, many issues about the tectonic features and the evolution process of this basin, such as the age of the breakup unconformities and the anomalously accelerated subsidence during the post-rifting stage, remain controversial. Here we employ tectonic subsidence analysis of sedimentary basins, a technique of removing isostatic loading and compaction effects by back-stripping, to investigate the tectonic controls on the basin formation of the PRMB. We performed the analysis on 4 drill wells and 43 synthetic wells constructed based on recently acquired seismic profiles. The result shows that tectonic subsidence in the eastern sags of the PRMB began to decrease at ~30Ma while in the western sags the onset was ~23.8Ma. This suggests that the break-up time i.e. the end of rifting in the PRMB is earlier in the eastern sags than in the western sags. Abnormally accelerated tectonic subsidence occurred between 17.5-16.4Ma during the post-rifting stage, at an average subsidence rate as high as 301.9m/Ma. This phenomenon discriminates the PRMB from the category of classical Atlantic passive continental marginal basins, of which the tectonic subsidence during the post-rifting stage decays exponentially. The main objective of this paper is to provide insights into the geological and geodynamic evolution of the PRMB. The result bears significance to hydrocarbon exploration in this region.

  2. In vitro effect of chlorhexidine mouth rinses on polyspecies biofilms.

    PubMed

    Guggenheim, Bernhard; Meier, Andräé

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Zurich polyspecies biofilm model to compare the antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine mouth rinses available on the Swiss market. As positive and negative controls, aqueous 0.15% CHX solution and water were used, respectively. In addition, Listerine® without CHX was tested. Biofilms in batch culture were grown in 24- well polystyrene tissue culture plates on hydroxyapatite discs in 70% mixed (1:1 diluted) unstimulated saliva and 30% complex culture medium. During the 64.5-hour culturing period, the biofilms were exposed to the test solutions for 1 minute twice a day on two subsequent days. Thereafter, the biofilms were dip-washed 3 times in physiological NaCl. Following the last exposure, the incubation of biofilms was continued for another 16 h. They were then harvested at 64.5 h. The dispersed biofilms were plated on 2 agar media. After incubation, colonies (CFU) were counted. All solutions containing CHX as well as Listerine ® significantly reduced the number of microorganisms in biofilms. According to their efficacy, the mouth rinses were classified into 2 groups. The two Curasept ADS solutions, Parodentosan, and the Listerine® mouth rinse reduced the number of total CFU by 3 log10 steps. This seems sufficient for a long-lasting prophylactic application. The two PlakOut® mouth rinses and the CHX control fell into the other group, where the number of CFU was reduced by 7 log10 steps. These mouth rinses are predestined for short-term therapeutic use. However, reversible side effects must be taken into account. It has thus far not been possible to formulate CHX products with effective ADS (Anti Discoloration System) additives without reducing antimicrobial activity. PMID:21656386

  3. Classification of mouth movements using 7 T fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleichner, M. G.; Jansma, J. M.; Salari, E.; Freudenburg, Z. V.; Raemaekers, M.; Ramsey, N. F.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. A brain-computer interface (BCI) is an interface that uses signals from the brain to control a computer. BCIs will likely become important tools for severely paralyzed patients to restore interaction with the environment. The sensorimotor cortex is a promising target brain region for a BCI due to the detailed topography and minimal functional interference with other important brain processes. Previous studies have shown that attempted movements in paralyzed people generate neural activity that strongly resembles actual movements. Hence decodability for BCI applications can be studied in able-bodied volunteers with actual movements. Approach. In this study we tested whether mouth movements provide adequate signals in the sensorimotor cortex for a BCI. The study was executed using fMRI at 7 T to ensure relevance for BCI with cortical electrodes, as 7 T measurements have been shown to correlate well with electrocortical measurements. Twelve healthy volunteers executed four mouth movements (lip protrusion, tongue movement, teeth clenching, and the production of a larynx activating sound) while in the scanner. Subjects performed a training and a test run. Single trials were classified based on the Pearson correlation values between the activation patterns per trial type in the training run and single trials in the test run in a ‘winner-takes-all’ design. Main results. Single trial mouth movements could be classified with 90% accuracy. The classification was based on an area with a volume of about 0.5 cc, located on the sensorimotor cortex. If voxels were limited to the surface, which is accessible for electrode grids, classification accuracy was still very high (82%). Voxels located on the precentral cortex performed better (87%) than the postcentral cortex (72%). Significance. The high reliability of decoding mouth movements suggests that attempted mouth movements are a promising candidate for BCI in paralyzed people.

  4. Sill effects on physical dynamics in eastern Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Michael M.; Jia, Yan; McManus, Pearse M.; Kunz, Christopher J.

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates how Mattituck Sill influences circulation patterns and physical dynamics in eastern Long Island Sound, a major estuary on the U.S. east coast. Observations show there is pronounced across-estuary transport in the area and suggest there may be subtidal anticyclonic flow around the sill. Model runs, with and without sill bathymetry, exhibit this across-estuary transport and anticyclonic circulation. Comparison between these runs indicates that the sill intensifies the anticyclonic circulation. This study finds the sill does not exert internal hydraulic control during neap, mean, or spring tidal conditions. Nevertheless, along-estuary exchange is reduced over the sill and across-estuary fluxes are increased. The Connecticut River plume enters close to the estuary mouth. The sill deflects more of the plume waters towards the mouth, causing less freshwater to take the long looping route through the estuary. The subtidal circulation balance around the sill indicates a barotropic balance between the tidal advection of tidal vorticity and friction. The subtidal vorticity balance indicates the net effect of tidal advection of relative vorticity is balanced with frictional curl associated with lateral speed gradients and vorticity dissipation. Previously developed scalings based on the circulation balance (Nature 290:549-555, 1981), frictional vorticity generation mechanisms (Deep-Sea Res 28:195-212, 1981), and tidal diffusion of potential vorticity (J Phys Oceanogr 29:821-827, 1999) are applicable to Mattituck Sill and predict circulation with a similar magnitudes to model results.

  5. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse, sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, and mouth moisturizer on oral health.

    PubMed

    Shibly, O; Ciancio, S G; Kazmierczak, M; Cohen, R E; Mather, M L; Ho, A; Bessinger, M

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this 60-day single-blind, parallel trial, using 150 subjects, was to evaluate the effect of a 20% sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide solution and a mouth moisturizer on oral tissues and microflora. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups. The treatments were: 1) Sage dentifrice (sodium bicarbonate). Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 2) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 3) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, 4) Crest dentifrice, Toothette (without baking soda), saturated with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, and 5) Crest dentifrice, Toothette saturated with 1.5% flavored H2O2 and no mouth moisturizer. From a subgroup of 35 patients (seven from each group) buccal smears for exfoliative cytology were taken as were supragingival microbiological samples from the mesial aspect of first molars (pooled). Buccal smears were evaluated for signs of histopathological changes. Microbiological samples from supra- and subgingival plaque for P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans. A viscosus, F. nucleatum, F. sanguis and C. albicans were evaluated. Clinical parameters measured were a stain index (SI), the modified gingival index (MGI), and a plaque index (PI). There were no adverse changes in the oral microflora and no anaplastic or other pathological changes in any subjects. Clinical parameters showed a statistically significant reduction in the MGI ranging from 26.7-29.9% with no significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). The PI showed small reductions in all groups except group 2, but the differences were not statistically significant from each other or baseline (p > 0.05). The SI revealed slight increases in all groups and no differences

  6. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  7. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  8. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals

    PubMed Central

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge. PMID:26870689

  9. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

    PubMed

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge. PMID:26870689

  10. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure in Japanese elite male athletes.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Chino, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) is a common measurement of inspiratory muscle strength, which is often used in a variety of exercises to evaluate the effects of inspiratory muscle training. An understanding of elite athletes' MIP characteristics is needed to guide sport-specific inspiratory muscle training programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate and better understand the MIP characteristics of elite athletes from a variety of sports. A total of 301 Japanese elite male athletes participated in this study. MIP was assessed using a portable autospirometer with a handheld mouth pressure meter. Athletes with higher body mass tended to have stronger MIP values, in absolute terms. In relative terms, however, athletes who regularly experienced exercise-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue tended to have stronger MIP values. Our findings suggest that athletes could benefit from prescribed, sport-specific, inspiratory muscle training or warm-ups. PMID:27181330

  11. Mouth Cancer for Clinicians Part 3: Risk Factors (Traditional: Tobacco).

    PubMed

    Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Scully, Crispian

    2015-06-01

    A MEDLINE search early in 2015 revealed more than 250,000 papers on head and neck cancer; over 100,000 on oral cancer; and over 60,000 on mouth cancer. Not all publications contain robust evidence. We endeavour to encapsulate the most important of the latest information and advances now employed in practice, in a form comprehensible to healthcare workers, patients and their carers. This series offers the primary care dental team, in particular, an overview of the aetiopathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and multidisciplinary care of mouth cancer, the functional and psychosocial implications, and minimization of the impact on the quality of life of patient and family. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This article offers the dental team an overview of the main cancer risk factors, tobacco and alcohol, betel and other chewing habits, and environmental factors. PMID:26964449

  12. Restricted mouth opening and trismus in oral oncology.

    PubMed

    Satheeshkumar, P S; Mohan, Minu P; Jacob, Jayan

    2014-06-01

    Restricted mouth opening (RMO) and trismus are terms commonly used in oral oncology in instances where there is difficulty in mouth opening. The term trismus in oral oncology is mainly used to indicate the radiation-induced fibrosis of the muscles of mastication. The treatment given for RMO as reported in the literature is given for muscular dysfunction trismus, whereas RMO in oral oncology can occur owing to various reasons other than muscular dysfunction. RMO occurs in various conditions of the oral cavity; in posterior pharyngeal infection, where it is termed reflectory trismus; in oral submucous fibrosis; in oral mucosal disorders; in the use of certain drugs; and in minor dental procedures of the posterior oral cavity. The usage of the term trismus in all RMO cases would complicate the treatment; thus, the word should not be used in all RMO cases. PMID:24842447

  13. Burning mouth syndrome: A diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Panat, Sunil R.

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) has been considered an enigmatic condition because the intensity of pain rarely corresponds to the clinical signs of the disease. Various local, systemic and psychological factors are associated with BMS, but its etiology is not fully understood. Also there is no consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. A substantial volume of research has been focused on BMS during the last two decades. Progress has been made but the condition remains a fascinating, yet poorly understood area, in the field of oral medicine. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in this disorder with the discovery that the pain of BMS may be neuropathic in origin and originate both centrally and peripherally. The aim of this paper is to explore the condition of BMS with the specific outcome of increasing awareness of the condition. Key words:Burning mouth syndrome, stomatodynia, oral dysesthesia, pain management. PMID:24558551

  14. [An electro-stimulating oral splint for dry mouth treatment].

    PubMed

    Fedele, S; Wolff, A; Strietzel, F P; Granizo López, R M; Porter, S; Konttinen, Y T

    2008-11-01

    Dentists encounter regularly patients with xerostomia, which is the accepted term for dry mouth complaint. Left untreated, xerostomia can lead to psychosocial distress and to impaired quality of life. Oral complications of the most frequent cause of xerostomia, salivary gland hypofunction, include dental caries and candidiasis. In addition, quality of life is significantly hampered. The etiology of xerostomia is multiple, but the most common conditions are Sjögren's syndrome, radiotherapy to the head and neck and use of medications. Current therapies offered by dentists rely on saliva substitutes and stimulants such as chewing gum, and are somewhat limited by their short-term efficacy. Oral mucosal electro-stimulation increases salivary secretion and relieves symptoms of dry mouth in patients with xerostomia. Therefore, intra-oral electronic devices have been developed aimed at stimulating salivary gland function. They offer promise as an optional safe and non-chemical treatment of xerostomia. PMID:19263865

  15. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  16. DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, AND ORE BIN CHUTE, LOOKING EAST NORTHEAST. CRUSHED ORE FROM THE SECONDARY ORE BIN WAS INTRODUCED INTO THE FEED TROUGH VIA A CHUTE. AS THE BALL MILL TURNED, THE ROUND SCOOP ALSO TURNED IN THE TROUGH TO CHANNEL ORE INTO THE BALL MILL. SEE CA-292-14 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, AND ORE BIN CHUTE, LOOKING EAST NORTHEAST. CRUSHED ORE FROM THE SECONDARY ORE BIN WAS INTRODUCED INTO THE FEED TROUGH VIA A CHUTE. AS THE BALL MILL TURNED, THE ROUND SCOOP ALSO TURNED IN THE TROUGH TO CHANNEL ORE INTO THE BALL MILL. SEE CA-292-20 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. Mexican blind cavefish use mouth suction to detect obstacles.

    PubMed

    Holzman, Roi; Perkol-Finkel, Shimrit; Zilman, Gregory

    2014-06-01

    Fish commonly use their lateral line system to detect moving bodies such as prey and predators. A remarkable case is the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax fasciatus, which evolved the ability to detect non-moving obstacles. The swimming body of A. fasciatus generates fluid disturbances, the alteration of which by an obstacle can be sensed by the fish's lateral line system. It is generally accepted that these alterations can provide information on the distance to the obstacle. We observed that A. fasciatus swimming in an unfamiliar environment open and close their mouths at high frequency (0.7-4.5 Hz) in order to generate suction flows. We hypothesized that repeated mouth suction generates a hydrodynamic velocity field, which is altered by an obstacle, inducing pressure gradients in the neuromasts of the lateral line and corresponding strong lateral line stimuli. We observed that the frequency and rate of mouth-opening events varied with the fish's distance to obstacles, a hallmark of pulse-based navigation mechanisms such as echolocation. We formulated a mathematical model of this hitherto unrecognized mechanism of obstacle detection and parameterized it experimentally. This model suggests that suction flows induce lateral line stimuli that are weakly dependent on the fish's speed, and may be an order of magnitude stronger than the correspondent stimuli induced by the fish's gliding body. We illustrate that A. fasciatus can navigate non-visually using a combination of two deeply ancestral and highly conserved mechanisms of ray-finned fishes: the mechanism of sensing water motion by the lateral line system and the mechanism of generating water motion by mouth suction. PMID:24675558

  19. Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Counters Fatigue Related Strength Reduction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Matt; Stellingwerff, Trent; Klimstra, Marc

    2015-06-01

    The purpose was to determine the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and neuromuscular output in a fatigued state. It was hypothesized that CHO mouth rinse would potentiate torque output in a fatigued state. In a double-blind, cross-over design, 12 competitive male athletes (9 rowers, 1 cyclist, 1 runner and 1 volleyball player) initially performed 3 × 5 s MVC isometric knee extensions followed by a 50% MVC contraction until volitional exhaustion, with quadriceps muscle activity measured via electromyography (EMG). Immediately after, either an 8% CHO maltodextrin (WASH), or noncaloric artificial sweetener (PLA) was mouth rinsed for 10sec, before 3 × 5 s final MVCs. Fatigue caused a significant decline in post fatigue MVC trial 1 for 3 s average torque (p = .03) and peak torque (p = .02) for PLA. This fatigue related decline in torque was not noticed for WASH, with a 2.5% and 3.5% less attenuation in peak and average torque, respectively in post fatigue MVC1 compared with PLA. The effect size for MVC trial 1 between WASH/PLA was seen to be small positive (ES = 0.22; 55% likelihood of positive). Overall for EMG RMS, there were no significant differences between PLA and WASH among all muscles. EMG median frequency showed comparable results between conditions with significant reductions due to fatigue. Taken together, this evidence suggests that the attenuation of torque post fatigue was less for CHO mouth rinse than a placebo. Even though the gains were marginal, these discoveries may play an important role in sport performance, as small performance effects can have significant outcomes in real-world competitions. PMID:25203506

  20. Epidemiological and etiological aspects of burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Coculescu, E C; Tovaru, S; Coculescu, B I

    2014-09-15

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in clinically healthy oral mucosa. Incidence BMS diagnosed in the Department of Oral Medicine - Oral Pathology Dental Faculty of Medicine, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest is 16,23%. The etiology of BMS remains far less known. This article makes an overview of the latest theories about possible etiopathogenic factors involved in the occurrence of BMS. PMID:25408745

  1. Burning mouth syndrome: a review on diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Coculescu, E C; Radu, A; Coculescu, B I

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in the clinically healthy oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose BMS because there is a discrepancy between the severity, extensive objective pain felt by the patient and the absence of any clinical changes of the oral mucosa. This review presents some aspects of BMS, including its clinical diagnosis, classification, differential diagnosis, general treatment, evolution and prognosis. PMID:25713611

  2. Epidemiological and etiological aspects of burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Coculescu, EC; Ţovaru, Ş; Coculescu, BI

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in clinically healthy oral mucosa. Incidence BMS diagnosed in the Department of Oral Medicine - Oral Pathology Dental Faculty of Medicine, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest is 16,23%. The etiology of BMS remains far less known. This article makes an overview of the latest theories about possible etiopathogenic factors involved in the occurrence of BMS. PMID:25408745

  3. Burning mouth syndrome: a review on diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Coculescu, EC; Radu, A; Coculescu, BI

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in the clinically healthy oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose BMS because there is a discrepancy between the severity, extensive objective pain felt by the patient and the absence of any clinical changes of the oral mucosa. This review presents some aspects of BMS, including its clinical diagnosis, classification, differential diagnosis, general treatment, evolution and prognosis. PMID:25713611

  4. Segmenting Full-Mouth Reconstruction to Enable Financial Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Lawrence D

    2016-06-01

    Restorative full-mouth reconstruction dental treatment may be cost prohibitive for many patients. This case report, which involves a male patient who presented with severe attrition, discusses a method for delivering treatment while dispersing its cost over several years. In addition, the article demonstrates how a stable occlusion can be obtained inexpensively. The end result of the segmented treatment remained optimal and esthetic. PMID:27517476

  5. Modeling the intrinsic dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Mushayabasa, Steady; Posny, Drew; Wang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the transmission and spread of foot-and-mouth disease. Our models incorporate relevant biological and ecological factors, vaccination effects, and seasonal impacts during the complex interaction among susceptible, vaccinated, exposed, infected, carrier, and recovered animals. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction numbers. In addition, numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the analytical findings. PMID:27105988

  6. Multiple bony overgrowths in the mouth - report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Sathya; Muthusamy, Senthilkumar; Muthu, Kavitha; Sidhu, Preena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tori and exostoses are benign bony protuberances that arise from bone surfaces in the oral cavity. The etiology of these growths has been implicated as multifactorial, but no consensus has been reached so far. These painless overgrowths seldom present as a complaint in the dental office unless functional or esthetic complications set in, and there is a fear for cancer. Here we discuss two rare cases where bony overgrowths present in the mouth were extensive and multiple. PMID:26811708

  7. Full mouth rehabilitation in a medically compromised patient with fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya; Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun

    2014-07-01

    Severely worn out dentition needs to be given definite attention as it not only affects aesthetics but can also cause psychological distress to the affected individual. It can cause chewing difficulty, temporomandibular joint problems, headaches, pain and facial collapse. Before any attempt to restore severely worn dentition, aetiology of excessive tooth wear should be established. Severe wear can result from chemical cause, mechanical cause or a combination of various causes. Dental fluorosis can also result in severe wear of teeth. Teeth sometimes become extremely porous and friable with a mottled appearance ranging from yellow to brown-black. There occurs loss of tooth substance and anatomic dental deformities resulting in un-aesthetic dentition requiring full mouth rehabilitation. Here a similar case of full mouth rehabilitation of severely worn dentition due to dental fluorosis in a 27-year-old patient is presented. This case report conjointly presents the uncommon association of diabetes insipidus with dental fluorosis. Diabetes insipidus through its characteristic symptom of polydipsia can result in intake of more than permitted dose of fluoride thus causing dental fluorosis. In literature only few cases have been reported of dental fluorosis in association of diabetes insipidus. Full mouth rehabilitation of the patient was successfully accomplished through well-planned systematic approach to simultaneously fulfill aesthetic, occlusal and functional parameters. PMID:25177654

  8. From Human to Artificial Mouth, From Basics to Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielle, Patrick; Tarrega, Amparo; Gorria, Patrick; Liodenot, Jean Jacques; Liaboeuf, Joël; Andrejewski, Jean-Luc; Salles, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Sensory perception of the flavor release during the eating of a food piece is highly dependent upon mouth parameters. Major limitations have been reported during in-vivo flavor release studies, such as marked intra- and inter-individual variability. To overcome these limitations, a chewing simulator has been developed to mimic the human mastication of food samples. The device faithfully reproduces most of the functions of the human mouth. The active cell comprises several mobile parts that can accurately reproduce shear and compression strengths and tongue functions in real-time, according to data previously collected in-vivo. The mechanical functionalities of the system were validated using peanuts, with a fair agreement with the human data. Flavor release can be monitored on-line using either API-MS or chemical sensors, or off-line using HPLC for non-volatile compounds. Couplings with API-MS detectors have shown differences in the kinetics of flavour release, as a function of the cheeses composition. Data were also collected for the analysis of taste compounds released during the human chewing but are not available yet for the Artificial Mouth.

  9. Guidelines proposal for clinical recognition of mouth breathing children

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Maria Christina Thomé; Casagrande, Camila Ferreira; Teixeira, Lícia Pacheco; Finck, Nathalia Silveira; de Araújo, Maria Teresa Martins

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mouth breathing (MB) is an etiological factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during childhood. The habit of breathing through the mouth may be perpetuated even after airway clearance. Both habit and obstruction may cause facial muscle imbalance and craniofacial changes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to propose and test guidelines for clinical recognition of MB and some predisposing factors for SDB in children. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 orthodontists regarding their procedures for clinical evaluation of MB and their knowledge about SDB during childhood. Thereafter, based on their answers, guidelines were developed and tested in 687 children aged between 6 and 12 years old and attending elementary schools. RESULTS: There was no standardization for clinical recognition of MB among orthodontists. The most common procedures performed were inefficient to recognize differences between MB by habit or obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines proposed herein facilitate clinical recognition of MB, help clinicians to differentiate between habit and obstruction, suggest the most appropriate treatment for each case, and avoid maintenance of mouth breathing patterns during adulthood. PMID:26352843

  10. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Gloster, J; Jones, A; Redington, A; Burgin, L; Sorensen, J H; Turner, R; Dillon, M; Hullinger, P; Simpson, M; Astrup, P; Garner, G; Stewart, P; D'Amours, R; Sellers, R; Paton, D

    2008-09-04

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly infectious vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus. It spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route - with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics. Over the years a number of workers have developed or adapted atmospheric dispersion models to assess the risk of foot-and-mouth disease virus spread through the air. Six of these models were compared at a workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office during 2008. A number of key issues emerged from the workshop and subsequent modelling work: (1) in general all of the models predicted similar directions for 'at risk' livestock with much of the remaining differences strongly related to differences in the meteorological data used; (2) determination of an accurate sequence of events is highly important, especially if the meteorological conditions vary substantially during the virus emission period; and (3) differences in assumptions made about virus release, environmental fate, and subsequent infection can substantially modify the size and location of the downwind risk area. Close relationships have now been established between participants, which in the event of an outbreak of disease could be readily activated to supply advice or modelling support.

  11. [Glossodynia or burning mouth syndrome: equivalence or difference].

    PubMed

    Redinova, T L; Redinov, I S; Val'kov, V A; Zlobina, O A; Kozhevnikov, S V

    2014-01-01

    The term "Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS)" is being used much more often than "Glossodynia", complicating diagnostic and treatment tactic choice. The aim of the study was to determine the difference between "Glossodynia" and "BMS" considering absence or presence of intraoral metal prosthetic devices and burning sensation in the mouth. To establish the frequency of glossodynia and BMS 2355 patient records were analyzed admitting consultation for oral diseases for the last 10 years. Clinically we examined 408 patients aged 40 to 70. The research results showed that 17% of patients complained of "burning mouth": 10.2% of them had these symptoms due to oral mucosa diseases; 58.0% had glossodynia, 27.4% had discomfort because of intolerance to metal prosthodontic materials and 4.4% had combined pathology. Glossodynia and intolerance to metal prosthodontic materials had much in common in terms of clinical features, but the last one may be specified by changes in saliva composition. BMS thus proved to be the common definition corresponding to various diseases of oral mucosa and intolerance to intraoral metal appliances, while glossoldynia is a distinct neurogenic disease which is difficult to treat and requires comprehensive approach involving neurologist and physician. PMID:25377573

  12. Orofacial injuries and mouth guard use in elite commando fighters.

    PubMed

    Zadik, Yehuda; Levin, Liran

    2008-12-01

    The incidence, etiology, and consequences of orofacial injuries during service were evaluated among active duty elite commando fighters in the Israel Defense Forces. Male fighters (N = 280) were interviewed. Orofacial injuries were reported by 76 (27.1%) participants, with tooth injuries as the most common: 40 (52.6%) suffered from dental fracture and 6 (7.9%) from subluxation/luxation. Overall incidence was 85.5 cases per 1,000 fighter-years. Most injuries occurred in an isolated training or operational field. Overall, 162 participants (57.9%) received a boil-and-bite mouth guard during recruitment, but only 49 (30.2%) used it regularly during training and sport activities. The prevalence of injuries among fighters who reported regular mouth guard use was smaller than among fighters who reported of no regular use (20.4% vs. 28.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). Commando fighters are highly predisposed to dental trauma, resulting in the interference of their continuous daily activity. Military health care professionals and commanders should promote mouth protection devices for high-risk populations. PMID:19149336

  13. From Human to Artificial Mouth, From Basics to Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mielle, Patrick; Tarrega, Amparo; Salles, Christian; Gorria, Patrick; Liodenot, Jean Jacques; Liaboeuf, Joeel; Andrejewski, Jean-Luc

    2009-05-23

    Sensory perception of the flavor release during the eating of a food piece is highly dependent upon mouth parameters. Major limitations have been reported during in-vivo flavor release studies, such as marked intra- and inter-individual variability. To overcome these limitations, a chewing simulator has been developed to mimic the human mastication of food samples. The device faithfully reproduces most of the functions of the human mouth. The active cell comprises several mobile parts that can accurately reproduce shear and compression strengths and tongue functions in real-time, according to data previously collected in-vivo. The mechanical functionalities of the system were validated using peanuts, with a fair agreement with the human data. Flavor release can be monitored on-line using either API-MS or chemical sensors, or off-line using HPLC for non-volatile compounds. Couplings with API-MS detectors have shown differences in the kinetics of flavour release, as a function of the cheeses composition. Data were also collected for the analysis of taste compounds released during the human chewing but are not available yet for the Artificial Mouth.

  14. Update on hand-foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Ventarola, Daniel; Bordone, Lindsey; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a viral exanthem caused, primarily by Coxsackie A16 and enterovirus 71 with typical clinical features of fever, painful papules and blisters over the extremities and genitalia and an enanthem involving ulceration of the mouth, palate, and pharynx. Other enteroviruses have recently been noted to cause severe neurologic illness and paralysis (enterovirus 68) with variable cutaneous features. A recent outbreak of Coxsackie A6 infection has been seen worldwide with cases reported in the United States, Japan, Southeast Asia, and Europe. These cases have caused extensive cutaneous disease variants, some of which are not previously recognized in Coxsackie infection, namely vesicobullous and erosive eruptions, extensive cutaneous involvement, periorificial lesions, localization in areas of atopic dermatitis or in children with atopic dermatitis (the so-called eczema coxsackium), Gianotti-Crosti-like lesions, petechial/purpuric eruptions, delayed onychomadesis, and palmoplantar desquamation. Finally, adult cases appear to occur with this form of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, likely due to fecal-oral transmission in a household setting. PMID:25889136

  15. Eastern Gas Shales Project

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP), the DOE study to obtain reliable estimates of economically recoverable gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin, has determined that between 20 and 50 TCF of gas can be recovered from the region. The EGSP final report states that the expected (mean) total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 TCF, with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well spacing. If shooting technology is used and 160-acre well spacing maintained a 95% probability exists that the total recoverable gas from Appalachian basin Devonian shale is between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF.

  16. Somali Current rings in the eastern Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratantoni, David M.; Bower, Amy S.; Johns, William E.; Peters, Hartmut

    2006-09-01

    New satellite-based observations reveal that westward translating anticyclonic rings are generated as a portion of the Somali Current accelerates northward through the Socotra Passage near the mouth of the Gulf of Aden. Rings thus formed exhibit azimuthal geostrophic velocities exceeding 50 cm/s, are comparable in overall diameter to the width of the Gulf of Aden (250 km), and translate westward into the gulf at 5-8 cm/s. Ring generation is most notable in satellite ocean color imagery in November immediately following the transition between southwest (boreal summer) and northeast (winter) monsoon regimes. The observed rings contain anomalous fluid within their core which reflects their origin in the equator-crossing Somali Current system. Estimates of Socotra Passage flow variability derived from satellite altimetry provide evidence for a similar ring generation process in May following the winter-to-summer monsoon transition. Cyclonic recirculation eddies are observed to spin up on the eastern flank of newly formed rings with the resulting vortex pair translating westward together. Recent shipboard and Lagrangian observations indicate that vortices of both sign have substantial vertical extent and may dominate the lateral circulation at all depths in the eastern Gulf of Aden.

  17. Dry Mouth and Dietary Quality Among Older Adults in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Kohrman, Teresa; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To quantify: (1) prevalence of dry mouth; (2) association of dry mouth with beverage intake and dietary quality; and (3) association of dry mouth with self-reported dietary accommodations to oral health deficits. Design Cross-sectional study; data from self-reports. Participants A multi-stage cluster sampling design was used to recruit 622 participants aged 60+ from rural North Carolina counties with substantial African American and American Indian populations. Measurements Data included the 11-item Xerostomia Inventory (XI); higher scores connote greater impact from dry mouth; a food frequency questionnaire (converted into Health Eating Index-2005 scores); and survey items on foods modified before consumption or avoided due to oral health problems. Results Dry mouth was associated with being female, lower education, and income below the poverty level. Although overall beverage consumption did not vary with dry mouth, consumption of certain sugar-sweetened beverages was positively associated with dry mouth. Overall dietary quality did not differ with dry mouth, but more severe dry mouth was associated with lower intake of whole grains and higher intakes of total fruits. Dry mouth was strongly associated with self-reported modification and avoidance of foods. Those in the highest tertile of dry mouth were more likely to modify several foods compared to the lowest tertile, and were more likely to avoid three or more foods. Conclusion Older adults appear to modify foods or selectively avoid foods in response to perceived dry mouth. Despite these behaviors, dry mouth does not result in reduced dietary quality. PMID:21391935

  18. Developing a New Appliance to Dissipate Mechanical Load on Teeth and Improve Limitation of Vertical Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Satomi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takehito; Iino, Mituyoshi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The principle of leverage to superpose the convex surfaces of two shells was applied to develop a device for treating limitation of mouth opening and called it the "shell-shaped mouth opener" and analyzed pressure on the teeth with the TheraBite® appliance and the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance. Material and Methods To compare the TheraBite® appliance and the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance, pressure on the teeth in the dentition model with both devices was analyzed using the Inastomer® flexible conductive sensor. Results The load was better dispersed to each tooth in the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance in the all quadrants compared to the TheraBite® appliance. Conclusions The present study revealed that the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance which was originally invented in our lab, dissipated the mechanical load on teeth more evenly than the TheraBite® appliance. PMID:24422037

  19. Eastern Han's Cunning Depiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, B. C.

    1998-09-01

    It is still only speculation, but an earlier visit to a Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) tomb has started the idea, and a recently found study of another Han tomb has convinced me it is worth pursuing. What it is is that the ancient Chinese Sky Animal which represents North was not the turtle or tortoise until about the time of Han. My own visit was to an Eastern (later period) Han tomb which had been moved to a museum near the ancient capital of Luoyang. The ceiling of the inner chamber was rounded, made of brick. Drawings of a tiger and a red bird were clear to the west and south. A rounded object was at the north. Outside the tomb was a sign which said it was 'cun,' which means village. Chinese characters often have homonyms, but 'cun' has few. I have also visited the neolithic village of Banpo, near the Yellow River in the north. It has noticeably large and deep trenches to keep out wild animals, and one separates the residential area from the business area. This village is dated earlier than 4000 BC. The trenches definitely remind me of later depictions of the turtle with a snake wound about it. The recent findings of a tomb at Puyang with shapes of tiger and dragon have dated it to 3000 BC. Nothing was placed at the south side. Something was at the north, but one might argue about that. Finally, I found this article in Chinese Studies in Archaeology (1979), translated by S. Cahill of UC, Berkeley, called "Analysis of the Western Han Murals in the Luouyang Tomb of Bo Qianqiu" by Sun Zuoyun. Although Western Han is earlier than Eastern, the pictures in the tomb were well preserved. There were tiger, dragon, vermilion bird, and other animals, but no tortoise. Instead, there was a sun with a bird inside, and the moon with a frog. Several hundred miles north of the Yellow River, there is the Amur River. The natives there had robes decorated with snakes, lizards, and frogs, and other animals, but no turtle. Later reasons for having the turtle or tortoise is a separate

  20. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  1. Combined glucose ingestion and mouth rinsing improves sprint cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Chong, Edwin; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202 W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p < .05). Mean power output during the sprint was significantly higher in the glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p < .05) and also tended to be higher than the water trial (p = .075). Glucose and maltodextrin resulted in a similar increase in blood glucose, and the responses of blood lactate and pH to sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24668608

  2. Effect of xylitol, sodium fluoride and triclosan containing mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Priya; Nandan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Prevention of dental caries is one of the main strategies in contemporary pediatric dental practice. Mouth rinses are widely used as an adjunct to maintain oral hygiene. It is important for these products to be effective and safe for regular use in children. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of a newly introduced xylitol, sodium fluoride and triclosan containing mouth rinse in reducing levels of plaque Streptococcus mutans and to compare it with that of a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Materials and Methods: Thirty children were randomly divided into two groups of 15 children each. Group I (study group) was given a mouth rinse containing xylitol (5%), sodium fluoride (0.05%) and triclosan (0.03%) and Group II (control group) was given a chlorhexidine (0.12%) mouth rinse. Both mouth rinses were alcohol free. Mouth rinsing was carried out twice daily, half an hour after breakfast and half an hour following dinner, for a period of 21 days under the supervision of the investigator. Results: In both groups, there was a significant reduction in the mean S. mutans count at the end of 21 days (P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between the two mouth rinses. Conclusion: The use of a low fluoride–xylitol based mouth rinse appears to be a suitable choice for regular use in children. PMID:22346154

  3. [Deviation index of eye and mouth on peripheral facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Liao, Pin-Dong; Luo, Min; Zhu, Bin-Ye

    2011-09-01

    Differences of some points, levels and angles of the healthy and affected sides of patients with peripheral facial paralysis were picked out according to photographs. Through analysis of the index between the healthy and affected side of the patients and the difference between healthy people and patients, it is approved that those special points, levels and angles, which are called as deviation index of eye and mouth, can evaluate peripheral facial paralysis objectively and judge the degree of deviation. Therefore, it provides references for the diagnosis of facial paralysis and its degree judgement. PMID:21972641

  4. Mouths of the Amazon River, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In this view of the Amazon River Mouth (0.0, 51.0W), a large sediment plume can be seen expanding outward into the Atlantic Ocean. The sediment plume can be seen hugging the coast north of the delta as a result of the northwest flowing coastal Guyana Current. In recent years, the flow of the Amazon has become heavily laden with sediment as soil runoff from the denuded landscape of the interior enters the Amazon River (and other rivers) drainage system.

  5. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Floor of the Mouth - A Rarity.

    PubMed

    Maloth, Aruna Kumari; Nandan, S R K; Kulkarni, Pavan G; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keerthi

    2015-12-01

    Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma (MEC) is one of the most commonly occurring malignant salivary gland neoplasm, and contributes 2.8%-15% of all salivary gland tumours. More than half of these cases involve the major salivary glands, primarily the parotid glands and minor salivary glands. Sublingual salivary glands neoplasms are very rare and constitute 0.5% and 1% of all epithelial salivary tumours and approximately 1.5% of the major salivary glands carcinomas. Here we describe a case report of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the floor of the mouth in a 70-year-old female patient that was mimicking like a ranula clinically. PMID:26813873

  6. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Floor of the Mouth – A Rarity

    PubMed Central

    Nandan, S.R.K.; Kulkarni, Pavan G; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keerthi

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma (MEC) is one of the most commonly occurring malignant salivary gland neoplasm, and contributes 2.8%–15% of all salivary gland tumours. More than half of these cases involve the major salivary glands, primarily the parotid glands and minor salivary glands. Sublingual salivary glands neoplasms are very rare and constitute 0.5% and 1% of all epithelial salivary tumours and approximately 1.5% of the major salivary glands carcinomas. Here we describe a case report of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the floor of the mouth in a 70-year-old female patient that was mimicking like a ranula clinically. PMID:26813873

  7. Study on the epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayelet, G; Gelaye, E; Negussie, H; Asmare, K

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to describe the status of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Ethiopia, through analysis of FMD outbreak reports and the detection of antibodies, to address the possibility of establishing a disease-free zone. Serum samples collected from cattle between 2003 and 2006 for the serosurveillance of rinderpest were used for this study. The records of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development from 2002 to 2006 indicate that FMD outbreaks occurred each year in Ethiopia during this period, with the highest number in 2004, when 134 outbreaks took place. The highest rates were from the North Shoa zones of both the Oromia and Amhara regions. The serum samples were tested using the 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, to identify antibodies against FMD. From a total of 4,465 sera, 10.5% (n = 467) tested positive. The highest seroprevalence was detected in samples from the Eastern zone of Rgray with 41.5%; followed by the Guji zone of Oromia and Yeka district of the city of Addis Ababa, with 32.7% and 30%, respectively. Antibodies specific to FMD virus were not detected in Gambella or Benishangul. The effects of cattle, sheep and goat density, both separately and together, were analysed with a spatial regression model, but did not have a significant effect on seroprevalence. This indicates that other factors, such as farming systems and livestock movement, play a significant role in the occurrence of FMD. Based on these study findings, it might be appropriate to establish disease-free zones in Gambella and Benishangul. PMID:23520733

  8. The marine dynamics and changing trend off the modern Yellow River mouth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Li, Guangxue; Xu, Jishang; Qiao, Lulu; Dada, Olusegun A.; Zhou, Chunyan

    2015-06-01

    Topography around the Yellow River mouth has changed greatly in recent years, but studies on the current state of marine dynamics off the Yellow River mouth are relatively scarce. This paper uses a two-dimension numerical model (MIKE 21) to reveal the tidal and wave dynamics in 2012, and conducts comparative analysis of the changes from 1996 to 2012. The results show that M2 amphidromic point moved southeastward by 11 km. It further reveals that the tides around the Yellow River mouth are relatively stable due to the small variations in the tidal constituents. Over the study period, there is no noticeable change in the distribution of tidal types and tidal range, and the mean tidal range off the river mouth during the period studied is 0.5-1.1 m. However, the tidal currents changed greatly due to large change in topography. It is observed that the area with strong tidal currents shifted from the old river mouth (1976-1996) to the modern river mouth (1996-present). While the tidal current speeds decreased continually off the old river mouth, they increased off the modern river mouth. The Maximum Tidal Current Speed (MTCS) reached 1.4 m s-1, and the maximum current speed of 50-year return period reached 2.8 m s-1. Waves also changed greatly due to change in topography. The significant wave height ( H 1/3) of 50-year return period changed proportionately with the water depth, and the ratio of H1/3 to depth being 0.4-0.6. ( H 1/3) of the 50-year return period in erosion zone increased continually with increasing water depth, and the rate of change varied between 0.06 and 0.07 m yr-1. Based on the results of this study, we infer that in the future, the modern river mouth will protrude gradually northward, while the erosion zone, comprising the old river mouth and area between the modern river mouth and the old river mouth (Intermediate region) will continue to erode. As the modern river mouth protrudes towards the sea, there will be a gradual increase in the current

  9. Viral lesions of the mouth in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Lautenschlager, S

    1997-01-01

    Viral lesions of the mouth in patients with HIV infection are common and these diseases any be a marker for HIV and disease progression. We review the spectrum of oral viral manifestations and discuss treatment modalities. The most common Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced disorder in HIV-infected patients is oral hairy leukoplakia. EBV-related oral B-cell and T-cell lymphoma in AIDS patients has been described repeatedly. Herpes virus type 1 and rarely type 2 may lead to painful and resistant oral ulcers, and systemic treatment with acyclovir, valaciclovir or famciclovir is indicated. In acyclovir-resistant cases foscarnet is the treatment of choice. In recent years it has been documented that Kaposi's sarcoma, which often affects oral mucosa, is probably induced by herpesvirus type 8. Cytomegalovirus was found in 53% of cases with herpesviridae-induced mucosal ulcers as the only ulcerogenic viral agent in AIDS patients. In severe cytomegalovirus infection treatment with ganciclovir is helpful. Viral warts induced by different HPV may occur in the mouth. Several physical treatment modalities are possible in the oral mucosa. In AIDS patients mollusca contagiosa may occur as large and atypical lesions in the face and lips and rarely in the oral cavity. Cryotherapy is a bloodless treatment in such patients. PMID:9031782

  10. Atypical streptococcal infection of gingiva associated with chronic mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Haytac, M Cenk; Oz, I Attila

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcal infections of oral tissues are mainly seen in young children who experience a variety of upper respiratory tract infections. The disease is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and ulcers on the gingiva, lips, and tonsils. This case report presents an atypical streptococcal infection of the gingiva in an 18-year-old man. The patient was referred to the periodontology department complaining of a 2-month history of gingival enlargement. He had persistent fever (39.5 degrees C) and general malaise for 2 weeks. Intraoral examination revealed extremely inflamed and enlarged gingiva with spontaneous bleeding and suppuration. Based on the otolaryngologic consultation and the hematologic, immunologic, and microbiologic tests, the final diagnosis was an atypical streptococcal gingivitis with chronic adenoid-related mouth breathing and oral hygiene neglect as contributing factors. Treatment consisted of a broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen, supragingival and subgingival debridement, adenoidectomy, and scaling and root planing. A good response to nonsurgical therapy was achieved despite poor patient compliance, and no recurrence of gingival enlargement was observed after 1 year. Streptococcal gingivitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of suppurative gingival enlargements. Furthermore, chronic mouth breathing may initiate and/or contribute to this disease. PMID:18197316

  11. [Prognosis and treatment of dry mouth. Systematic review].

    PubMed

    López-López, José; Jané Salas, Enric; Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    There are no clearly established protocols for the treatment of dry mouth. The aim of this paper is a systematic review of the literature of the past 10 years using the words « dry mouth », « prognosis », « treatment » and « dentistry ». The initial search found 1,450 entries and within the restriction « clinical trials OR randomized controlled trial OR systemic reviews » it has been reduced to 522, which 145 were meta-analysis and systematic reviews. Papers not relevant to the issue were removed reducing the entries to 53. Twenty-four were dismissed (8 irrelevant, 7 reviews without adequate information and 9 personal opinions). Of the 29 items tested, 15 were controlled trials, 2 uncontrolled trials, 4 observational studies, 2 systematic reviews and 5 non systematic reviews. The most studied patients were Sjögren's syndrome and the irradiated patients. Treatments are focused on the etiology, prevention, symptomatic, local salivary stimulation and systemic treatments. It can be concluded that treatment must be individualized, salivary substitutes and mechanical stimulation techniques can be applied. PMID:23726507

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. It can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. In addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. The disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a picornavirus. Seven different serotypes (and numerous variants) of FMDV have been identified. Some serotypes have a restricted geographical distribution, e.g. Asia-1, whereas others, notably serotype O, occur in many different regions. There is no cross-protection between serotypes and sometimes protection conferred by vaccines even of the same serotype can be limited. Thus it is important to characterize the viruses that are circulating if vaccination is being used for disease control. This review describes current methods for the detection and characterization of FMDVs. Sequence information is increasingly being used for identifying the source of outbreaks. In addition such information can be used to understand antigenic change within virus strains. The challenges and opportunities for improving the control of the disease within endemic settings, with a focus on Eurasia, are discussed, including the role of the FAO/EuFMD/OIE Progressive Control Pathway. Better control of the disease in endemic areas reduces the risk of incursions into disease-free regions. PMID:24308718

  13. Salt Fluxes in a Complex River Mouth System of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Nuno; Lencart e Silva, João D.; Dias, João Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal) are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey), currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%). An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months. PMID:23071793

  14. Formulation development and evaluation of mouth dissolving film of domperidone.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pratikkumar; Patel, Harsha; Patel, Vishnu; Panchal, Rushi

    2012-03-01

    The present investigation was undertaken with the objective of formulating mouth dissolving film(s) of the antiemetic drug Domperidone to enhance the convenience and compliance by the elderly and pediatric patients. Domperidone is a drug of choice in case of nausea and vomiting produced by chemotherapy, migraine headaches, food poisoning and viral infections. It causes dopamine (D2 and D3) receptor blockage both at the chemoreceptor trigger zone and at the gastric level. It shows high first pass metabolism which results in poor bioavailability (10-15%). In view of high first pass metabolism and short plasma half-life it is an ideal candidate for rapid release drug delivery system. The solid dispersions of Domperidone were prepared with the use β-cyclodextrin in various ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) and solubility study was performed to determine the ratio in which solubility of Domperidone was highest (1:3). The selected solid dispersions were then utilized for the preparation of film by solvent casting method utilizing HPMC E15 as a film forming agent and PEG-400 as plasticizer. Five formulae were prepared and were evaluated for their in vitro dissolution characteristics, in vitro disintegration time, and their physico-mechanical properties. The promising film (F1) showed the greatest drug dissolution (more than 75% within 15 min), satisfactory in vitro disintegration time (45 sec) and physico-mechanical properties that are suitable for mouth dissolving films. PMID:23066181

  15. Echovirus 4 associated to hand, foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Russo, Denise Hage; Luchs, Adriana; Machado, Bráulio Caetano; Carmona, Rita de Cássia; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio

    2006-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious enteroviral infection occurring primarily in children and characterized by vesicular palmoplantar eruptions and erosive stomatitis. Echovirus 4 (EV-4) has been commonly associated with aseptic meningitis. The association of HFMD with EV-4 has not been reported previously. Two samples of a 14-month child who presented mild fever, sores in the mouth, rash with blisters on the palm of hands and soles of feet were sent to Enteric Viruses Laboratory of Adolfo Lutz Institute. Clinical samples were inoculated in three different cell lines, and those which presented cytopathic effect (CPE), were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and "one step" RT-PCR. Agarose gel electrophoresis from RT-PCR product, showed a product with 437 bp, which is characteristic of Enterovirus group. Echovirus 4 was identified by IFA. Although HFMD is a viral infection associated mainly with Enterovirus 71 (HEV-71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), our results demonstrate a diversity of serotype related to HFMD and stress the importance of epidemiological surveillance to this disease and its complications. PMID:17119674

  16. Application of sequence stratigraphy to exploration and development in eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shaokun; Huang Lifen; Xu Shice

    1996-12-31

    Some appropriate conditions for applying sequence stratigraphy in PRMB exist: (1) The PRMB is a Cenozoic extension basin with weak tectogenesis after rifting; (2) The late Tertiary successive sediments deposited over the area from coast to deep marine basin are well developed and their seismic reflection is good in quality; (3) High resolution quantitative biostratigraphy has provided more precise data of eustasy. Twenty-two third order sequences since 30Ma were identified and are correlative to global cycle chart, but TB2.1 can be further divided into two third-order sequences. The 22 sequences from a {open_quote}retrograding stacking pattern{close_quote} which resulted in no large constructive delta or delta-related rollover anticlines. However, widely deposited seal rock possibly sealed the incised-valley, basin floor fan (BPF), and transgressive sandstone to form valid stratigraphic traps. Stratigraphic traps are particularly important in future exploration because of poor anticline trap types in the basin. Some ER stratigraphic traps can be predicted after studying the distribution of systems ER tracts in each sequence as a basic exploration unit. The BPF of TB2.1 which is closed to the source kitchen area could form a large subtle trap. Using the parasequence as a basic unit in reservoir scale will provide a new method to discover new reservoirs. For example, new oil reserves within the predicted stratigraphic trap related to K22, which can be divided into several parasequences in C.A. 16/08, were obtained after drilling. Sequence stratigraphy has become a valid high resolution tool for chronostratigraphic correlation and fine-division and exploration of stratigraphic traps.

  17. Application of sequence stratigraphy to exploration and development in eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shaokun; Huang Lifen; Xu Shice

    1996-01-01

    Some appropriate conditions for applying sequence stratigraphy in PRMB exist: (1) The PRMB is a Cenozoic extension basin with weak tectogenesis after rifting; (2) The late Tertiary successive sediments deposited over the area from coast to deep marine basin are well developed and their seismic reflection is good in quality; (3) High resolution quantitative biostratigraphy has provided more precise data of eustasy. Twenty-two third order sequences since 30Ma were identified and are correlative to global cycle chart, but TB2.1 can be further divided into two third-order sequences. The 22 sequences from a [open quote]retrograding stacking pattern[close quote] which resulted in no large constructive delta or delta-related rollover anticlines. However, widely deposited seal rock possibly sealed the incised-valley, basin floor fan (BPF), and transgressive sandstone to form valid stratigraphic traps. Stratigraphic traps are particularly important in future exploration because of poor anticline trap types in the basin. Some ER stratigraphic traps can be predicted after studying the distribution of systems ER tracts in each sequence as a basic exploration unit. The BPF of TB2.1 which is closed to the source kitchen area could form a large subtle trap. Using the parasequence as a basic unit in reservoir scale will provide a new method to discover new reservoirs. For example, new oil reserves within the predicted stratigraphic trap related to K22, which can be divided into several parasequences in C.A. 16/08, were obtained after drilling. Sequence stratigraphy has become a valid high resolution tool for chronostratigraphic correlation and fine-division and exploration of stratigraphic traps.

  18. Word-of-Mouth amongst Students at a New Zealand Tertiary Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warring, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this case study was to investigate the extent of word-of-mouth influence amongst international students at a New Zealand tertiary institution and to review the literature for a valid and reliable conceptualisation and measurement of word-of-mouth. Design/methodology/approach: Literature suggests that opinion-leading and seeking…

  19. Coos, booms, and hoots: The evolution of closed-mouth vocal behavior in birds.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Eliason, Chad M; Miller, Edward H; Goller, Franz; Clarke, Julia A

    2016-08-01

    Most birds vocalize with an open beak, but vocalization with a closed beak into an inflating cavity occurs in territorial or courtship displays in disparate species throughout birds. Closed-mouth vocalizations generate resonance conditions that favor low-frequency sounds. By contrast, open-mouth vocalizations cover a wider frequency range. Here we describe closed-mouth vocalizations of birds from functional and morphological perspectives and assess the distribution of closed-mouth vocalizations in birds and related outgroups. Ancestral-state optimizations of body size and vocal behavior indicate that closed-mouth vocalizations are unlikely to be ancestral in birds and have evolved independently at least 16 times within Aves, predominantly in large-bodied lineages. Closed-mouth vocalizations are rare in the small-bodied passerines. In light of these results and body size trends in nonavian dinosaurs, we suggest that the capacity for closed-mouth vocalization was present in at least some extinct nonavian dinosaurs. As in birds, this behavior may have been limited to sexually selected vocal displays, and hence would have co-occurred with open-mouthed vocalizations. PMID:27345722

  20. Open-mouthed hybrid microcapsules with elevated enzyme loading and enhanced catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-10-25

    Open-mouthed hybrid microcapsules (HMCs) are synthesized through a hard-templating method. When utilized for enzyme immobilization and enzymatic catalysis, the open-mouthed HMCs show high enzyme loading capability, enhanced catalytic activity and desirable recycling stability, due to their fully exposed outer and inner surfaces. PMID:25189769

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease virus modulates cellular vimentin for virus survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. During infection with FMDV, several host cell membrane rearrangements occur to form sites of viral replication. The largest viral protein in the replication complex,...

  2. Dry Eyes and Mouth? You May Have Sjögren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... tears can help with dry eye. Sips of water and sugar-free candies can help with dry mouth. Because ... Choices Links Easing Sjögren’s Symptoms Take sips of water for dry mouth. Use sugar-free candies and gums. Use artificial tears for ...

  3. Custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine elicits protective immune responses in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) of which the antigenic properties can be readily manipulated is a potentially powerful approach in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in sub-Saharan Africa. FMD vaccine application is complicated by the extensive variability of the South Africa...

  4. Tapping the grapevine: a closer look at word-of-mouth as a recruitment source.

    PubMed

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip

    2009-03-01

    To advance knowledge of word-of-mouth as a company-independent recruitment source, this study draws on conceptualizations of word-of-mouth in the marketing literature. The sample consisted of 612 potential applicants targeted by the Belgian Defense. Consistent with the recipient-source framework, time spent receiving positive word-of-mouth was determined by the traits of the recipient (extraversion and conscientiousness), the characteristics of the source (perceived expertise), and their mutual relationship (tie strength). Only conscientiousness and source expertise were determinants of receiving negative word-of-mouth. In line with the accessibility-diagnosticity model, receiving positive employment information through word-of-mouth early in the recruitment process was positively associated with perceptual (organizational attractiveness) and behavioral outcomes (actual application decisions), beyond potential applicants' exposure to other recruitment sources. PMID:19271794

  5. Juvenile salmonid migratory behavior at the mouth of the Columbia River and within the plume

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 8,159 acoustic-tagged salmonid smolts were detected at the mouth of the Columbia River. Of the fish detected at the mouth, 14% of yearling Chinook salmon, 9% of steelhead, and 22% of subyearling Chinook salmon were detected on a sparse array deployed in the Columbia River plume. Chinook salmon smolts decreased travel rate as they left the river and entered the plume, while steelhead increased travel rate. Chinook salmon also spent more time in the transitional area between the river mouth and plume as compared to steelhead. In early spring, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead predominately migrated past the plume array towards the edge of the shelf and to the south. Later in the season, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tended to migrate out of the river mouth in a northerly direction. Subyearling Chinook salmon migrated predominately past the portion of the plume array to the north of the river mouth.

  6. Occupational Health in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Malan, R. M.

    1963-01-01

    Progress may be fostered as much by spreading information as by research. The aim of this review is to add to the existing knowledge of the pattern of occupational health services in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe. The work consists of two main parts. Part I is based on official information issued by government departments or typewritten reports prepared by government officials, and relates mostly to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and to Czechoslovakia. Part II is largely based on direct observation, discussion, and comparison of the occupational health services in Czechoslovakia, of which I have more extensive knowledge than of the other countries of Eastern Europe. This part embodies a number of conclusions and is followed by a list of bibliographical references. Throughout the review I have endeavoured to show how problems which exist all over the world are dealt with in Eastern Europe. PMID:13932439

  7. Groundwater exchanges near a channelized versus unmodified stream mouth discharging to a subalpine lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, J.; Naranjo, R.; Niswonger, R.; Allander, K.; Neilson, B.; Rosenberry, D.; Smith, D.; Rosecrans, C.; Stonestrom, D.

    2016-03-01

    The terminus of a stream flowing into a larger river, pond, lake, or reservoir is referred to as the stream-mouth reach or simply the stream mouth. The terminus is often characterized by rapidly changing thermal and hydraulic conditions that result in abrupt shifts in surface water/groundwater (sw/gw) exchange patterns, creating the potential for unique biogeochemical processes and ecosystems. Worldwide shoreline development is changing stream-lake interfaces through channelization of stream mouths, i.e., channel straightening and bank stabilization to prevent natural meandering at the shoreline. In the central Sierra Nevada (USA), Lake Tahoe's shoreline has an abundance of both "unmodified" (i.e., not engineered though potentially impacted by broader watershed engineering) and channelized stream mouths. Two representative stream mouths along the lake's north shore, one channelized and one unmodified, were selected to compare and contrast water and heat exchanges. Hydraulic and thermal properties were monitored during separate campaigns in September 2012 and 2013 and sw/gw exchanges were estimated within the stream mouth-shoreline continuum. Heat-flow and water-flow patterns indicated clear differences in the channelized versus the unmodified stream mouth. For the channelized stream mouth, relatively modulated, cool-temperature, low-velocity longitudinal streambed flows discharged offshore beneath warmer buoyant lakeshore water. In contrast, a seasonal barrier bar formed across the unmodified stream mouth, creating higher-velocity subsurface flow paths and higher diurnal temperature variations relative to shoreline water. As a consequence, channelization altered sw/gw exchanges potentially altering biogeochemical processing and ecological systems in and near the stream mouth.

  8. Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Laura H.; Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J.; Unicomb, Leanne; Davis, Jennifer; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We conducted a five-hour structured observation of the mouthing behaviors of 148 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3–18 months. We modeled mouthing frequencies using 2-parameter Weibull distributions to compare the modeled medians with those of U.S. children. In Bangladesh the median frequency of hand-mouthing was 37.3 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 34.4 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 29.7 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. The median frequency of object-mouthing was 23.1 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 29.6 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 15.2 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. At all ages both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher than those of U.S. children. Mouthing frequencies were not associated with child location (indoor/outdoor). Using hand- and object-mouthing exposure models from U.S. and other high-income countries might not accurately estimate children’s exposure to environmental contaminants via mouthing in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:27271651

  9. Key stream/sediment exchanges of water and heat near stream mouths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, J. E.; Naranjo, R. C.; Niswonger, R. G.; Neilson, B. T.; Allander, K.; Zamora, C.; Smith, D. W.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The section of stream discharging to a lake or other surface-water body is referred to as the stream mouth, a stream reach with rapidly changing hydrologic conditions, leading to unique aquatic and benthic ecology, as well as a visibly active fishery habitat. Of environmental significance, bridges, control structures, channelization and foot traffic are common near stream mouths, warranting comparisons of natural and channelized stream mouths. The present work completes the first investigation focusing specifically on the hydrology of surface-water/sediment exchanges at stream-mouth reaches discharging to lakes and compares these exchanges to those measured along the nearby shoreline in both a qualitative and quantitative manner. Heat and water exchanges for two common types of stream mouths (a natural stream with a summer barrier bar and a channelized stream mouth) are compared with comparable exchanges along the nearby shoreline on the north shore of Lake Tahoe located in the Central Sierra Nevada Mountain Range (CA/NV, US). The study site was selected partially due the abundance of streams discharging into the lake of both a natural and channelized nature (~30 small streams with a large number of both types of stream mouths). Heat and water exchanges were both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct for the three types of hydrologic settings, with (1) cool, low velocity, longitudinal (hyporheic) flowpaths observed below the channelized stream mouth, discharging beneath the warmer, more buoyant lakeshore water, (2) the nearby shoreline receiving relatively warm, higher velocity discharge and (3) for the natural stream mouth, there was strong diurnal temperature pattern in groundwater discharging through the seasonal barrier beach to the lake. Impacts of strong 2013 wave action on exchanges were also distinct for the three settings, with (1) channelization allowing waves to extend well upstream, (2) a lesser invasive impact in the shoreline swash zone exchanges

  10. Groundwater exchanges near a channelized versus unmodified stream mouth discharging to a subalpine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, James; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Niswonger, Richard; Allander, Kip K.; Neilson, B.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Smith, David W.; Rosecrans, C.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The terminus of a stream flowing into a larger river, pond, lake, or reservoir is referred to as the stream-mouth reach or simply the stream mouth. The terminus is often characterized by rapidly changing thermal and hydraulic conditions that result in abrupt shifts in surface water/groundwater (sw/gw) exchange patterns, creating the potential for unique biogeochemical processes and ecosystems. Worldwide shoreline development is changing stream-lake interfaces through channelization of stream mouths, i.e., channel straightening and bank stabilization to prevent natural meandering at the shoreline. In the central Sierra Nevada (USA), Lake Tahoe's shoreline has an abundance of both “unmodified” (i.e., not engineered though potentially impacted by broader watershed engineering) and channelized stream mouths. Two representative stream mouths along the lake's north shore, one channelized and one unmodified, were selected to compare and contrast water and heat exchanges. Hydraulic and thermal properties were monitored during separate campaigns in September 2012 and 2013 and sw/gw exchanges were estimated within the stream mouth-shoreline continuum. Heat-flow and water-flow patterns indicated clear differences in the channelized versus the unmodified stream mouth. For the channelized stream mouth, relatively modulated, cool-temperature, low-velocity longitudinal streambed flows discharged offshore beneath warmer buoyant lakeshore water. In contrast, a seasonal barrier bar formed across the unmodified stream mouth, creating higher-velocity subsurface flow paths and higher diurnal temperature variations relative to shoreline water. As a consequence, channelization altered sw/gw exchanges potentially altering biogeochemical processing and ecological systems in and near the stream mouth.

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: progress and problems.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Liu, Zaixin

    2016-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been a major threat to livestock across the world. The predominant method of controlling this disease in endemic regions is through regular vaccination with inactivated vaccine. However, there are many limitations. For instance, cultivation of virulent FMD virus (FMDV) in the manufacturing units poses a risk of escape from production sites. Vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral non-structural proteins (NSPs), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological differentiation infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Moreover, vaccines are unable to eliminate virus from carrier animals. To address the shortcomings of inactivated vaccines, many efforts are currently devoted to develop novel vaccines including attenuated and/or marker inactivated vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, synthetic peptide vaccines, and empty capsid vaccines. Here, we review the research progress of novel vaccines, problems that remain to be solved, and also raise some suggestions that would help in the development of FMD vaccines. PMID:26760264

  12. BigMouth: a multi-institutional dental data repository

    PubMed Central

    Walji, Muhammad F; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Stark, Paul C; White, Joel M; Kookal, Krishna K; Phan, Dat; Tran, Duong; Bernstam, Elmer V; Ramoni, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Few oral health databases are available for research and the advancement of evidence-based dentistry. In this work we developed a centralized data repository derived from electronic health records (EHRs) at four dental schools participating in the Consortium of Oral Health Research and Informatics. A multi-stakeholder committee developed a data governance framework that encouraged data sharing while allowing control of contributed data. We adopted the i2b2 data warehousing platform and mapped data from each institution to a common reference terminology. We realized that dental EHRs urgently need to adopt common terminologies. While all used the same treatment code set, only three of the four sites used a common diagnostic terminology, and there were wide discrepancies in how medical and dental histories were documented. BigMouth was successfully launched in August 2012 with data on 1.1 million patients, and made available to users at the contributing institutions. PMID:24993547

  13. Burning mouth syndrome associated with varicella zoster virus.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Gilden, Don

    2016-01-01

    We present two cases of burning mouth syndrome (BMS)-of 8-month duration in a 61-year-old woman and of 2-year duration in a 63-year-old woman-both associated with increased levels of antivaricella zoster virus (VZV) IgM antibodies in serum and with pain that improved with antiviral treatment. Combined with our previous finding of BMS due to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, we recommend evaluation of patients with BMS not only for VZV or HSV-1 DNA in the saliva, but also for serum anti-VZV and anti-HSV-1 IgM antibodies. Both infections are treatable with oral antiviral agents. PMID:27382016

  14. Low-dose aripiprazole for refractory burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Takenoshita, Miho; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of refractory burning mouth syndrome (BMS) ameliorated with low dose of aripiprazole. The patient was a 66-year-old female who had suffered from chronic burning pain in her tongue for 13 months. No abnormality associated with the burning sensation was detected in the laboratory tests and the oral findings. Considering the clinical feature and the history together, we diagnosed the burning sensation as BMS. The BMS pain was decreased by aripiprazole (powder) 1.0 mg/d, though no other antidepressants had satisfying pain relief. It could be supposed that the efficacy of aripiprazole is caused by dopamine stabilization in this case, and BMS might have a subtype that is reactive to aripiprazole. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of aripiprazole for BMS. PMID:27279742

  15. Carbohydrate mouth rinse: does it improve endurance exercise performance?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation can improve performance in endurance exercises through several mechanisms such as maintenance of glycemia and sparing endogenous glycogen as well as the possibility of a central nervous-system action. Some studies have emerged in recent years in order to test the hypothesis of ergogenic action via central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated that CHO mouth rinse can lead to improved performance of cyclists, and this may be associated with the activation of brain areas linked to motivation and reward. These findings have already been replicated in other endurance modalities, such as running. This alternative seems to be an attractive nutritional tool to improve endurance exercise performance. PMID:20799963

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease: current world situation.

    PubMed

    Kitching, R P

    1999-03-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has increased in significance as a major constraint to international trade in live animals and animal products as the World Trade Organization agreements remove other obstructions. A consequence will be reluctance to immediately declare the presence of FMD if it is thought possible to quickly eliminate its presence and so avoid trade embargoes. This will predispose to spread of disease between trading partners. In addition, as countries tend to increase the requirements for testing and certification of imported animals with the objective of reducing the risk of importing disease, the increased costs and delays that this involves will encourage the illegal trade and therefore have the converse result. PMID:10194838

  17. The subgingival periodontal microbiota of the aging mouth.

    PubMed

    Feres, Magda; Teles, Flavia; Teles, Ricardo; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Faveri, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Different mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain the increase in prevalence and severity of periodontitis in older adults, including shifts in the periodontal microbiota. However, the actual impact of aging on the composition of subgingival biofilms remains unclear. In the present article, we provide an overview of the composition of the subgingival biofilm in older adults and the potential effects of age on the oral microbiome. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (i) the oral microbiota of an aging mouth; (ii) the effects of age and time on the human oral microbiome; (iii) the potential impact of inflammaging and immunosenescence in the host-oral microbiota interactions; and (iv) the relationship of the aging oral microbiota and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, we present analyses of data compiled from large clinical studies that evaluated the subgingival microbiota of periodontally healthy subjects and patients with periodontitis from a wide age spectrum (20-83 years of age). PMID:27501490

  18. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  19. Low-dose aripiprazole for refractory burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Takenoshita, Miho; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of refractory burning mouth syndrome (BMS) ameliorated with low dose of aripiprazole. The patient was a 66-year-old female who had suffered from chronic burning pain in her tongue for 13 months. No abnormality associated with the burning sensation was detected in the laboratory tests and the oral findings. Considering the clinical feature and the history together, we diagnosed the burning sensation as BMS. The BMS pain was decreased by aripiprazole (powder) 1.0 mg/d, though no other antidepressants had satisfying pain relief. It could be supposed that the efficacy of aripiprazole is caused by dopamine stabilization in this case, and BMS might have a subtype that is reactive to aripiprazole. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of aripiprazole for BMS. PMID:27279742

  20. Floor of mouth cancer: patient selection and treatment results

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.E.; Lee, F.; Smith, P.G.; Ogura, J.H.

    1983-04-01

    Retrospective review of 126 primarily treated floor of mouth (FOM) cancers was done to study patient selection and to search for more optimum treatment strategies. Small surface lesions were treated by local excision (LE); small lesions invading FOM without lymph nodes were treated by radiation alone (RA), while larger lesions and those with palpable nodes were treated by preoperative irradiation and surgery (R + S). Ultimate control of the FOM cancer and nodes was achieved for 100% of the LE, 71% of the RA, and 75% of the R + S patients. The majority of primary tumor and nodal recurrences developed by 15 months and 35% of the failures were salvaged by additional treatment. Change in treatment strategies are suggested for surface lesions because of a poor rate of initial tumor control (43%), for patients treated by RA because of a high rate of complications (41%), and for patients without palpable lymph nodes who can be successfully treated by elective neck irradiation.

  1. 3. View of the mouth of George Washington's 'Potowmack' Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of the mouth of George Washington's 'Potowmack' Canal at the Great Falls of the Potomac River. The view is taken from a rock in the Potomac River looking up into the Canal. Trees and dense growth now fill the old aperture which once permitted barges to come down the Ohio Valley onto the broad expanse of the Potomac River. This view, taken September 1, 1943, evidences the very low water then existing on the Potomac River, as is clearly shown by the water marks on the rocks on the left hand side of the photograph. That portion where the individual is standing, up to the height of his hat, is normally underwater. Deep in the sand at this spot was found a part of one of the old hand brought lock hinges which formerly swung the first lock gates ... - Potowmack Company: Great Falls Canal, Locks No. 3, 4, 5, Great Falls, Fairfax County, VA

  2. Marine sediment contamination and dynamics at the mouth of a contaminated torrent: The case of the Gromolo Torrent (Sestri Levante, north-western Italy).

    PubMed

    Capello, M; Cutroneo, L; Consani, S; Dinelli, E; Vagge, G; Carbone, C

    2016-08-15

    In this study we have examined the currents and hydrological characteristics of the water column off the mouth of the Gromolo Torrent (north-western Italy) in relation to the grain-size, mineralogical characteristics and metal distribution in the marine sediment sampled. Our purpose was to quantify and map the contamination that was carried out to sea from the abandoned Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine that has heavily impacted the torrent. Our results show high concentrations of Cu and Zn, and relatively high concentrations of Cd and Ni inside the bay into which the Gromolo Torrent flows. However, high concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, Mn, Pb, and V found in the northern and/or eastern parts of the study area originated from other sources. The subdivision of study stations in terms of metal and mineral contents in the bottom sediments highlighted the clear influence of the currents on their dispersion and distribution in the area. PMID:27289290

  3. Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth

    SciTech Connect

    Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

    2011-04-06

    Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

  4. 33 CFR 207.260 - Yazoo Diversion Canal, Vicksburg, Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street; navigation. 207.260 Section 207.260... REGULATIONS § 207.260 Yazoo Diversion Canal, Vicksburg, Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher... canal at any stage from the mouth of the Yazoo Diversion Canal where it enters into the...

  5. Molecular epidemiology of coxsackievirus A6 associated with outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Tianjin, China, in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaojuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Baomin; Jorba, Jaume; Su, Xu; Ji, Tianjiao; Yang, Dongjing; Lv, Likun; Li, Jiameng

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, Mainland China has undergone widespread outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In order to determine the characteristics of epidemics and enteroviruses (EV) associated with HFMD in Tianjin, in northern China, epidemiological and virological data from routine surveillance were collected and analyzed. In Tianjin, a persistent epidemic of HFMD was demonstrated during 2008–2013, involving 102,705 mild, 179 severe, and 16 fatal cases. Overall, 8234 specimens were collected from 7829 HFMD patients for EV detection during 2008–2013. Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) were the dominant serotypes during 2008–2012, and they were replaced by CV-A6 as the major causative agent in 2013. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete VP1 nucleotide sequences revealed that multiple CV-A6 lineages co-circulated in Tianjin, which grouped together with strains from China and other countries and split into two distinct clusters (clusters 1 and 2). Most Tianjin strains grouped in cluster 1 and were closely related to strains from several eastern and southern provinces of China during 2012 and 2013. Estimates from Bayesian MCMC analysis suggested that multiple lineages had been transmitted silently before the outbreaks at an estimated evolutionary rate of 4.10 × 10−3 substitutions per site per year without a specific distribution of rate variances among lineages. The sudden outbreak of CV-A6 in Tianjin during 2013 is attributed to indigenous CV-A6 lineages, which were linked to the wide spread of endemic strains around eastern and southern China. PMID:25680566

  6. Eastern New Mexico University. Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannozzi, Maria

    This report describes efforts by Eastern New Mexico University (ENMU) to recast its mission more narrowly while at the same time reducing the sense of remoteness and disconnection, as well as geographic isolation, between the main campus and its branch campuses. In the early 1980s, ENMU suffered from mission drift, in part as a result of its…

  7. Fall management of eastern gamagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has suggested that eastern gamagrass (EGG) may be an effective alternative to chopped straw in the blended diets of dairy heifers and cows. Most extension materials discussing appropriate fall management of EGG recommend avoiding harvest within 6 weeks of first frost. Using this guid...

  8. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account. PMID:20390027

  9. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  10. Detection algorithm for glass bottle mouth defect by continuous wavelet transform based on machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jinfang; Zhang, Changjiang

    2014-11-01

    An efficient algorithm based on continuous wavelet transform combining with pre-knowledge, which can be used to detect the defect of glass bottle mouth, is proposed. Firstly, under the condition of ball integral light source, a perfect glass bottle mouth image is obtained by Japanese Computar camera through the interface of IEEE-1394b. A single threshold method based on gray level histogram is used to obtain the binary image of the glass bottle mouth. In order to efficiently suppress noise, moving average filter is employed to smooth the histogram of original glass bottle mouth image. And then continuous wavelet transform is done to accurately determine the segmentation threshold. Mathematical morphology operations are used to get normal binary bottle mouth mask. A glass bottle to be detected is moving to the detection zone by conveyor belt. Both bottle mouth image and binary image are obtained by above method. The binary image is multiplied with normal bottle mask and a region of interest is got. Four parameters (number of connected regions, coordinate of centroid position, diameter of inner cycle, and area of annular region) can be computed based on the region of interest. Glass bottle mouth detection rules are designed by above four parameters so as to accurately detect and identify the defect conditions of glass bottle. Finally, the glass bottles of Coca-Cola Company are used to verify the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately detect the defect conditions of the glass bottles and have 98% detecting accuracy.